WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute health effects

  1. Acute effects of winter air pollution on respiratory health

    Zee, van der S.

    1999-01-01

    In this thesis, acute respiratory health effects of exposure to winter air pollution are investigated in panels of children (7-11 yr) and adults (50-70 yr) with and without chronic respiratory symptoms, living in urban and non-urban areas in the Netherlands. The study was performed during three cons

  2. Potential mechanisms for acute health effects and lung retention of inhaled particles of different origin

    Klepczynska Nyström, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background: Environmental particle exposure is known to have negative health effects. There is limited knowledge about how size and origin of particles influence these effects. There is also little known regarding the fate of ultrafine particles (particles in nanosize;< 100 nanometers in diameter) after being inhaled. Aim: The main objective of this thesis was to study acute health effects in humans and their potential underlying mechanisms, resulting from exposure to particles of different o...

  3. Recognizing acute health effects of substitute fungicides: are first-aid reports effective?

    Teschke, K; Hertzman, C; Wiens, M; Dimich-Ward, H; Hershler, R; Ostry, A; Kelly, S J

    1992-01-01

    Recently, many British Columbia sawmills stopped using traditional chlorophenate anti-sapstain fungicides and substituted 2-(thiocyanomethylthio) benzothiazole (TCMTB) and copper-8-quinolinolate (Copper 8). We conducted a cross-sectional study with two aims: to ascertain which acute health effects, if any, were associated with the use of the substitute fungicides; and to determine the effectiveness of first-aid records as a means of detecting acute health outcomes. Workers in five coastal sawmills were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire about symptoms considered potentially related and unrelated to fungicide exposure, and about injuries commonly reported in sawmills. In addition, we collected first-aid records from the mills, and asked senior workers to estimate the duration of exposure to fungicides for each job. Symptoms found to be consistently elevated in TCMTB mills included dry skin around the eyes, blood-stained mucus from the nose, nose bleed, peeling skin, burning or itching skin, and skin redness or rash. No symptoms were consistently elevated in the Copper 8 mills. Symptoms related to TCMTB exposure were recorded only 12 times in first-aid logs during the study period (versus 335 questionnaire self-reports). This low symptom-recording frequency may be a function of established patterns of first-aid use in which illness symptoms are reported less frequently than injuries. PMID:1585948

  4. Self-Reported Acute Health Effects and Exposure to Companion Animals.

    Krueger, W S; Hilborn, E D; Dufour, A P; Sams, E A; Wade, T J

    2016-06-01

    To understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms [e.g. gastrointestinal (GI), respiratory, dermatological], it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar animals can result in a variety of health symptoms related to infection, irritation and allergy; however, few studies have examined this association in a large-scale cohort setting. Cross-sectional data collected from 50 507 participants in the United States enrolled from 2003 to 2009 were used to examine associations between animal contact and acute health symptoms during a 10-12 day period. Fixed-effects multivariable logistic regression estimated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confident intervals (CI) for associations between animal exposures and outcomes of GI illness, respiratory illness and skin/eye symptoms. Two-thirds of the study population (63.2%) reported direct contact with animals, of which 7.7% had contact with at least one unfamiliar animal. Participants exposed to unfamiliar animals had significantly higher odds of self-reporting all three acute health symptoms, when compared to non-animal-exposed participants (GI: AOR = 1.4, CI = 1.2-1.7; respiratory: AOR = 1.5, CI = 1.2-1.8; and skin/eye: AOR = 1.9, CI = 1.6-2.3), as well as when compared to participants who only had contact with familiar animals. Specific contact with dogs, cats or pet birds was also significantly associated with at least one acute health symptom; AORs ranged from 1.1 to 1.5, when compared to participants not exposed to each animal. These results indicate that contact with animals, especially unfamiliar animals, was significantly associated with GI, respiratory and skin/eye symptoms. Such associations could be attributable to zoonotic infections and allergic reactions. Etiological models for acute health symptoms should consider contact with companion animals, particularly exposure to unfamiliar animals

  5. Effects of acute and chronic hypohydration on kidney health and function.

    Feehally, John; Khosravi, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    The kidneys play a critical role in the homeostasis of body fluid tonicity and effective circulating volume. Renal homeostatic mechanisms are frequently challenged in acutely ill people. Fluid depletion causing hypovolemia may result in renal hypoperfusion that, if left untreated, may lead to acute kidney failure. Some populations, notably older people and neonates, are less tolerant of extremes in fluid loading and deprivation, similar to those with established chronic kidney disease. Risk of kidney injury during fluid depletion is increased by medications including diuretics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and renin-angiotensin system blockers. There is no consistent evidence indicating that lower-than-average fluid intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages is, however, a major concern for kidney health as a precursor of obesity and diabetes. There is no evidence that high dietary protein intake can cause chronic kidney disease, nor accelerate progression of established kidney disease. Idiosyncratic, adverse renal responses have been described with creatine supplements. There are only a few clinical conditions for which high fluid intake should be considered. These include recurrent kidney stones or urinary tract infections and, possibly, polycystic kidney disease. PMID:26290296

  6. Modeling the acute health effects of astronauts from exposure to large solar particle events.

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y; McClellan, Gene E; Cucinotta, Francis A

    2009-04-01

    Radiation exposure from Solar Particle Events (SPE) presents a significant health concern for astronauts for exploration missions outside the protection of the Earth's magnetic field, which could impair their performance and result in the possibility of failure of the mission. Assessing the potential for early radiation effects under such adverse conditions is of prime importance. Here we apply a biologically based mathematical model that describes the dose- and time-dependent early human responses that constitute the prodromal syndromes to consider acute risks from SPEs. We examine the possible early effects on crews from exposure to some historically large solar events on lunar and/or Mars missions. The doses and dose rates of specific organs were calculated using the Baryon radiation transport (BRYNTRN) code and a computerized anatomical man model, while the hazard of the early radiation effects and performance reduction were calculated using the Radiation-Induced Performance Decrement (RIPD) code. Based on model assumptions we show that exposure to these historical events would cause moderate early health effects to crew members inside a typical spacecraft or during extra-vehicular activities, if effective shielding and medical countermeasure tactics were not provided. We also calculate possible even worse cases (double intensity, multiple occurrences in a short period of time, etc.) to estimate the severity, onset and duration of various types of early illness. Uncertainties in the calculation due to limited data on relative biological effectiveness and dose-rate modifying factors for protons and secondary radiation, and the identification of sensitive sites in critical organs are discussed. PMID:19276707

  7. Using Personal Sensors to Assess the Exposome and Acute Health Effects

    Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The exposome encompasses the totality of human environmental exposures. Recent developments in sensor technology have made it possible to better measure personal exposure to environmental pollutants and other factors. We aimed to discuss and demonstrate the recent developments in personal sensors to measure multiple exposures and possible acute health responses, and discuss the main challenges ahead. Methods: We searched for a range of sensors to measure air pollution, noise, temperature, UV, physical activity, location, blood pressure, heart rate and lung function and to obtain information on green space and emotional status/mood and put it on a person. Results and Conclusions: We discussed the recent developments and main challenges for personal sensors to measure multiple exposures. We found and put together a personal sensor set that measures a comprehensive set of personal exposures continuously over 24 h to assess part of the current exposome and acute health responses. We obtained data for a whole range of exposures and some acute health responses, but many challenges remain to apply the methodology for extended time periods and larger populations including improving the ease of wear, e.g., through miniaturization and extending battery life, and the reduction of costs. However, the technology is moving fast and opportunities will come closer for further wide spread use to assess, at least part of the exposome.

  8. Modeling Acute Health Effects of Astronauts from Exposure to Large Solar Particle Events

    Hu, Shaowen; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    In space exploration outside the Earth s geomagnetic field, radiation exposure from solar particle events (SPE) presents a health concern for astronauts, that could impair their performance and result in possible failure of the mission. Acute risks are of special concern during extra-vehicular activities because of the rapid onset of SPE. However, most SPEs will not lead to acute risks but can lead to mission disruption if accurate projection methods are not available. Acute Radiation Sickness (ARS) is a group of clinical syndromes developing acutely (within several seconds to 3 days) after high dose whole-body or significant partial-body ionizing radiation exposures. The manifestation of these syndromes reflects the disturbance of physiological processes of various cellular groups damaged by radiation. Hematopoietic cells, skin, epithelium, intestine, and vascular endothelium are among the most sensitive tissues of human body to ionizing radiation. Most ARS symptoms are directly related to these tissues and other systems (nervous, endocrine, and cardiovascular, etc.) with coupled regulations. Here we report the progress in bio-mathematical models to describe the dose and time-dependent early human responses to ionizing radiation. The responses include lymphocyte depression, granulocyte modulation, fatigue and weakness syndrome, and upper gastrointestinal distress. The modest dose and dose-rates of SPEs are predicted to lead to large sparing of ARS, however detailed experimental data on a range of proton dose-rates for organ doses from 0.5 to 2 Gy is needed to validate the models. We also report on the ARRBOD code that integrates the BRYNTRN and SUMDOSE codes, which are used to estimate the SPE organ doses for astronauts under various space travel scenarios, with our models of ARS. The more recent effort is to provide easy web access to space radiation risk assessment using the ARRBOD code.

  9. Cost-effectiveness of the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition by community health workers in southern Bangladesh.

    Puett, Chloe; Sadler, Kate; Alderman, Harold; Coates, Jennifer; Fiedler, John L; Myatt, Mark

    2013-07-01

    This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of adding the community-based management of severe acute malnutrition (CMAM) to a community-based health and nutrition programme delivered by community health workers (CHWs) in southern Bangladesh. The cost-effectiveness of this model of treatment for severe acute malnutrition (SAM) was compared with the cost-effectiveness of the 'standard of care' for SAM (i.e. inpatient treatment), augmented with community surveillance by CHWs to detect cases, in a neighbouring area. An activity-based cost model was used, and a societal perspective taken, to include all costs incurred in the programme by providers and participants for the management of SAM in both areas. Cost data were coupled with programme effectiveness data. The community-based strategy cost US$26 per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted, compared with US$1344 per DALY averted for inpatient treatment. The average cost to participant households for their child to recover from SAM in community treatment was one-sixth that of inpatient treatment. These results suggest that this model of treatment for SAM is highly cost-effective and that CHWs, given adequate supervision and training, can be employed effectively to expand access to treatment for SAM in Bangladesh. PMID:22879522

  10. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

    Theodorou Anastasios A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm. After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality.

  11. Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan

    Najam-ul-Hassan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On July 27 2003, a ship carrying crude oil run aground near Karachi and after two weeks released 37,000 tons of its cargo into the sea. Oil on the coastal areas and fumes in air raised health concerns among people. We assessed the immediate health impact of oil spill from the tanker Tasman Spirit on residents of the affected coastline in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods We conducted a study consisting of an exposed group including adults living in houses on the affected shoreline and two control groups (A and B who lived at the distance of 2 km and 20 km away from the sea, respectively. We selected households through systematic sampling and interviewed an adult male and female in each household about symptoms relating to eyes, respiratory tract, skin and nervous system, smoking, allergies, beliefs about the effect on their health and anxiety about the health effects. We used logistic regression procedures to model each symptom as an outcome and the exposure status as an independent variable while adjusting for confounders. We also used linear regression procedure to assess the relationship exposure status with symptoms score; calculated by summation of all symptoms. Results Overall 400 subjects were interviewed (exposed, n = 216; group A, n = 83; and group B, n = 101. The exposed group reported a higher occurrence of one or more symptoms compared to either of the control groups (exposed, 96% vs. group A, 70%, group B 85%; P P Conclusion Results suggest that the occurrence of increased symptoms among the exposed group is more likely to be due to exposure to the crude oil spill.

  12. Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) and its harmful effects on human health

    After radiation exposure a series of many clinical syndromes appear that is called as Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS). ARS also known as radiation toxicology or radiation sickness. Both low and higher doses radiation exposure on human body cause different types of radiation syndromes. These radiations may be ionizing radiations. X-rays and gamma rays etc. some times neutrons or radionuclides may also be deposited in human body and their effective doses cause major injuries or abnormalities even sometimes death also. ARS consist of a sequence of phased symptoms. These symptoms appear after the radiation exposure for several days to several months or sometimes for a long period or years. ARS depends on the quantity of absorbed radiation dose (rad0). ARS is characterized by an initial prodromal stage of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Critical effects of ARS are Hematologic, that results infections to low white blood cells (WBC), bleeding due to low platelets and anemia due to low red blood cells (RBC), Gastrointestinal results nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and abdominal pain (exposure doses of 600-1000 rad) and Neurovascular depending on the exposure dose. Neurovascular syndrome typically occurs at exposure doses greater than 1000 rad. It presents with neurological symptoms such as dizziness, headache, or decreased level of consciousness with an absence of vomiting. The clinical course of radiation sickness following a single intensive exposure to whole body radiation is characterized by three successive phases; a prodromal phase, which develops within minutes or hours after exposure, an ensuring latent period, which is relatively asymptomatic; and the main phase of the illness. Complete Blood Count (CBC) are helpful for the diagnosis for ARS. ARS may cause skin damage or loss of epidermis. Person suffering from nausea, vomiting, diarrhea should be admitted to well equipped hospitals or clinics. High exposured persons should be analysed CBC. Their

  13. Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction and its Effect on Women's Health (Female Versus Male)

    Elnaz Asghari; Mohammad Reza Taban Sadeghi; Razieh Parizad; Nasrin Mohammasdi jhale

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) has traditionally been considered a disease affecting mostly men, yet women are increasingly at risk due to the obesity and diabetes. This study used archival data on hospital discharges from the cardiac care unit (CCU) to examine the AMI risk factors and its management among female patients' presentations at emergency rooms (ER) ended at CCU with a concurrent diagnosis of AMI and to compare the results with men of the same diagnosis. Materials...

  14. The Effectiveness of Inpatient Rehabilitation in the Acute Postoperative Phase of Care After Transtibial or Transfemoral Amputation: Study of an Integrated Health Care Delivery System

    Stineman, Margaret G.; Kwong, Pui L.; Kurichi, Jibby E.; Prvu-Bettger, Janet A.; Vogel, W Bruce; Maislin, Greg; Bates, Barbara E.; Reker, Dean M.

    2008-01-01

    Stineman MG, Kwong PL, Kurichi JE, Prvu-Bettger JA, Vogel WB, Maislin G, Bates BE, Reker DM. The effectiveness of inpatient rehabilitation in the acute postoperative phase of care after transtibial or transfemoral amputation: study of an integrated health care delivery system. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2008;89:1863-72.

  15. Acute Kidney Injury:Global Health Alert

    Philip Kam TaoLi; Emmanuel A Burdmann; Ravindra L Mehta

    2013-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly prevalent in developing and developed countries and is associated with severe morbidity and mortality.Most etiologies of AKI can be prevented by interventions at the individual,community,regional and in-hospital levels.Effective measures must include community-wide efforts to increase an awareness of the devastating effects of AKI and provide guidance on preventive strategies,as well as early recognition and management.Efforts should be focused on minimizing causes of AKI,increasing awareness of the importance of serial measurements of serum creatinine in high risk patients,and documenting urine volume in acutely ill people to achieve early diagnosis; there is as yet no definitive role for alternative biomarkers.Protocols need to be developed to systematically manage prerenal conditions and specific infections.More accurate data about the true incidence and clinical impact of AKI will help to raise the importance of the disease in the community,increase awareness of AKI by governments,the public,general and family physicians and other health care professionals to help prevent the disease.Prevention is the key to avoid the heavy burden of mortality and morbidity associated with AKI.

  16. Acute effects of particulate matter on respiratory diseases, symptoms and functions:. epidemiological results of the Austrian Project on Health Effects of Particulate Matter (AUPHEP)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Schimek, Michael G.; Horak, Friedrich; Moshammer, Hanns; Kundi, Michael; Frischer, Thomas; Gomiscek, Bostjan; Puxbaum, Hans; Hauck, Helger; Auphep-Team

    To examine hypotheses regarding health effects of particulate matter, we conducted time series studies in Austrian urban and rural areas. Of the pollutants measured, ambient PM 2.5 was most consistently associated with parameters of respiratory health. Time series studies applying semiparametric generalized additive models showed significant increases of respiratory hospital admissions (ICD 490-496) at age 65 and older. The early increase of 5.5% in Vienna at a lag of 2 days in males and of 5.6% per 10 μg/m 3 at a lag of 3 days in females was not observed in a nearby rural area. Another increase of respiratory admissions (mainly COPD) was observed after a lag of 10-11 days. A time series on a panel of 56 healthy preschool children showed a significant impact of the carbonaceous fraction of PM 2.5 on tidal breathing pattern assessed by inductive plethysmography. In repeated oscillometric measurements of respiratory resistance in 164 healthy elementary school children not only immediate responses to fine particulates were found but also latent ones, possibly indicating inflammatory changes in airways. It may be speculated that the improvements of urban air quality prevented measurable effects on respiratory mortality. More sensitive indicators, however, still show acute impairments of respiratory function and health in elderly and children which are associated with fine particulates and subfractions related to motor traffic.

  17. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  18. Effect of adding tyndallized probiotics to the World Health Organization standard therapy for acute diarrhea in children

    Kesatrianita Mawarni Fanny

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Diarrhea is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Probiotics can decrease the frequency and duration of diarrhea. There are two types of probiotics, live and tyndallized. Tyndallized probiotics have been sterilized, so they are unable to produce active metabolites, but may have an effect on human immunity. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of supplementing WHO standard therapy with tyndallized probiotics in children with acute, watery diarrhea. Methods We performed a randomized, single-blind, controlled trial in children aged 3-60 months who were diagnosed with acute, watery diarrhea at Gunungsitoli General Hospital, Nias, North Sumatera. Subjects were collected by consecutive sampling by way of parent interviews. Results One hundred subjects with acute, watery diarrhea were divided into 2 groups of 50. One group was treated with only WHO standard therapy for acute, watery diarrhea. The other group was treated by WHO standard therapy with the addition of tyndallized probiotics. There were no significant differences in basic characteristics between the two groups. Diarrheal duration for the group receiving WHO standard therapy only was 3.95 ± 1.3 days, while that of the group receiving both WHO standard therapy and tyndallized probiotics was 4.6 ± 2.3 days (P > 0.05. Diarrheal frequency on the fifth day in the WHO standard therapy group was 1.90 ± 0.99 times per day, while that of the tyndallized probiotic group was 1.56 ± 0.67 times per day (P > 0.05. Conclusion There were no significant differences between WHO standard therapy alone and WHO standard therapy with the addition of tyndallized probiotics for decreasing the duration and frequency of diarrhea in children.[Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:91-4].

  19. Effects of Exposure to Carbon Dioxide and Bioeffluents on Perceived Air Quality, Self-assessed Acute Health Symptoms and Cognitive Performance

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei;

    2016-01-01

    quality, increased the intensity of reported headache, fatigue, sleepiness and difficulty in thinking clearly, and reduced speed of addition, the response time in a redirection task and the number of correct links made in the cue-utilisation test. This suggests that moderate concentrations of bioeffluents...... ratings, physiological responses and cognitive performance were measured. No statistically significant effects on perceived air quality, acute health symptoms or cognitive performance were seen during exposures when CO2 was added. Exposures to bioeffluents with CO2 at 3,000 ppm reduced perceived air...

  20. Mental- and physical-health effects of acute exposure to media images of the September 11, 2001, attacks and the Iraq War.

    Silver, Roxane Cohen; Holman, E Alison; Andersen, Judith Pizarro; Poulin, Michael; McIntosh, Daniel N; Gil-Rivas, Virginia

    2013-09-01

    Millions of people witnessed early, repeated television coverage of the September 11 (9/11), 2001, terrorist attacks and were subsequently exposed to graphic media images of the Iraq War. In the present study, we examined psychological- and physical-health impacts of exposure to these collective traumas. A U.S. national sample (N = 2,189) completed Web-based surveys 1 to 3 weeks after 9/11; a subsample (n = 1,322) also completed surveys at the initiation of the Iraq War. These surveys measured media exposure and acute stress responses. Posttraumatic stress symptoms related to 9/11 and physician-diagnosed health ailments were assessed annually for 3 years. Early 9/11- and Iraq War-related television exposure and frequency of exposure to war images predicted increased posttraumatic stress symptoms 2 to 3 years after 9/11. Exposure to 4 or more hr daily of early 9/11-related television and cumulative acute stress predicted increased incidence of health ailments 2 to 3 years later. These findings suggest that exposure to graphic media images may result in physical and psychological effects previously assumed to require direct trauma exposure. PMID:23907546

  1. Health effects

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported

  2. Health effects

    Mahieu, L

    1998-07-01

    The main objectives of research in the field of health effects at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are: (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study; (4) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phases of its development; (5) to assess the genetic risks of material exposure to ionizing radiation; (6) to elucidate the cellular mechanisms leading to brain damage after prenatal irradiation; (7) to advise authorities and to provide the general population with adequate information concerning the health risk arising from radiation exposure. Progress and major achievements in these topical areas for 1997 are reported.

  3. The effect of acute kidney injury on long-term health-related quality of life: a prospective follow-up study

    Hofhuis, José GM; van Stel, Henk F; Schrijvers, Augustinus JP; Rommes, Johannes H; Spronk, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication in critically ill patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). We hypothesized that ICU survivors with AKI would have a worse health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcome than ICU survivors without AKI. Methods We performed a long-term prospective observational study. Patients admitted for > 48 hours in a medical-surgical ICU were included and divided in two groups: patients who fulfilled RIFLE criteria for AKI and pati...

  4. Glucose Effect in the Acute Porphyrias

    ... You are here Home Diet and Nutrition The glucose effect in acute porphyrias The disorders Acute Intermittent ... are treated initially with the administration of carbohydrate/glucose. This therapy has its basis in the ability ...

  5. Health effects

    The objectives of the research in the field of epidemiology , performed at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN are (1) to study cancer mortality and morbidity in nuclear workers in Belgium; (2) to document the feasibility of retrospective cohort studies in Belgium; (3) to participate in the IARC study. For radiobiology, the main objectives are: (1) to elucidate the mechanisms of the effects of ionizing radiation on the mammalian embryo during the early phase of its development, (2) to assess the genetic risks of maternal exposure to ionizing radiation, (3) to elucidate the mechanisms by which damage to the brain and mental retardation are caused in man after prenatal irradiation. The main achievements in these domains for 1997 are presented

  6. Effectiveness of alcohol-based hand disinfectants in a public administration: Impact on health and work performance related to acute respiratory symptoms and diarrhoea

    Hübner Nils-Olaf

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economical impact of absenteeism and reduced productivity due to acute infectious respiratory and gastrointestinal disease is normally not in the focus of surveillance systems and may therefore be underestimated. However, large community studies in Europe and USA have shown that communicable diseases have a great impact on morbidity and lead to millions of lost days at work, school and university each year. Hand disinfection is acknowledged as key element for infection control, but its effect in open, work place settings is unclear. Methods Our study involved a prospective, controlled, intervention-control group design to assess the epidemiological and economical impact of alcohol-based hand disinfectants use at work place. Volunteers in public administrations in the municipality of the city of Greifswald were randomized in two groups. Participants in the intervention group were provided with alcoholic hand disinfection, the control group was unchanged. Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms and days of work were recorded based on a monthly questionnaire over one year. On the whole, 1230 person months were evaluated. Results Hand disinfection reduced the number of episodes of illness for the majority of the registered symptoms. This effect became statistically significant for common cold (OR = 0.35 [0.17 - 0.71], p = 0.003, fever (OR = 0.38 [0.14-0.99], p = 0.035 and coughing (OR = 0.45 [0.22 - 0.91], p = 0.02. Participants in the intervention group reported less days ill for most symptoms assessed, e.g. colds (2.07 vs. 2.78%, p = 0.008, fever (0.25 vs. 0.31%, p = 0.037 and cough (1.85 vs. 2.00%, p = 0.024. For diarrhoea, the odds ratio for being absent became statistically significant too (0.11 (CI 0.01 - 0.93. Conclusion Hand disinfection can easily be introduced and maintained outside clinical settings as part of the daily hand hygiene. Therefore it appears as an interesting, cost-efficient method within the scope

  7. Acute pesticide poisoning--a global public health problem

    Konradsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Acute pesticide poisoning has become a major public health problem worldwide, following the intensification of agriculture and the promotion of agro-chemicals in low and middle income countries, with more than 300,000 deaths each year. The easy availability of highly toxic pesticides in the homes...... of farming communities has made pesticides the preferred means of suicide with an extremely high case fatality. Similarly, the extensive use of pesticides exposes the community to both long-term and acute occupational health problems. A concerted effort is urgently needed to address the situation....

  8. Health effects of nanomaterials.

    Tetley, T D

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid growth of nanotechnology and future bulk manufacture of nanomaterials comes the need to determine, understand and counteract any adverse health effects of these materials that may occur during manufacture, during use, or accidentally. Nanotechnology is expanding rapidly and will affect many aspects of everyday life; there are already hundreds of products that utilize nanoparticles. Paradoxically, the unique properties that are being exploited (e.g. high surface reactivity and ability to cross cell membranes) might have negative health impacts. The rapid progress in development and use of nanomaterials is not yet matched by toxicological investigations. Epidemiological studies implicate the ultrafine (nano-sized) fraction of particulate air pollution in the exacerbation of cardiorespiratory disease and increased morbidity. Experimental animal studies suggest that the increased concentration of nanoparticles and higher reactive surface area per unit mass, alongside unique chemistry and functionality, is important in the acute inflammatory and chronic response. Some animal models have shown that nanoparticles which are deposited in one organ (e.g. lung and gut) may access the vasculature and target other organs (e.g. brain and liver). The exact relationship between the physicochemistry of a nanoparticle, its cellular reactivity, and its biological and systemic consequences cannot be predicted. It is important to understand such relationships to enjoy the benefits of nanotechnology without being exposed to the hazards. PMID:17511644

  9. Health Technology Assessment of the Negative Pressure Wound Therapy for the treatment of acute and chronic wounds: efficacy, safety, cost effectiveness, organizational and ethical impact

    Paolo Giorgi Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: the aim of the study was to assess the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of negative Pressure wound therapy (nPT for people with chronic and acute wounds.

    Methods: the scope and the final draft of the report have been submitted to the stakeholders (producers, payers and patients. safety issues were addressed through a systematic review of the meta-literature. efficacy was addressed through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (rcTs comparing nPT and other standard therapies in patients with chronic or acute lesions. cost-consequence was analyzed through a systematic review of the existing studies.

    Results: we retrieved 19 studies, 13 of which were included in the meta-analysis. Many studies had biases that may have resulted in a better performance for nPT. nPT showed: a slightly shorter healing time (-10.4 days, p=0.001, with no heterogeneity, apart from one small study with very positive results, and 40% more patients healed (p=0.002, no heterogeneity.We identified 15 original research papers on nPT costs and cost per outcome. The costs-per-patient- treated varied from +29% to -60%, with several studies reporting savings for nPT.

    Conclusions: despite serious methodological flaws, the body of evidence available was sufficient to prove some clinical benefit of nPT in severe chronic and acute wound treatment. There is a need for independent and contextualized cost analyses....

  10. Effects of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life: A randomized controlled trial in prostate cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy

    Purpose: To study the effect of a dietary intervention on acute gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in prostate cancer patients referred to radiotherapy. Materials and methods: A total of 130 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an intervention group (IG, n = 64), instructed to reduce their intake of insoluble dietary fibres and lactose, a standard care group (SC, n = 66), instructed to continue their normal diet. Gastrointestinal side effects and other aspects of HRQOL were evaluated from baseline up to 2 months after completed radiotherapy, using the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-PR25 and the study-specific Gastrointestinal Side Effects Questionnaire (GISEQ). A scale indicating adherence to dietary instructions was developed from a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ), with lower scores representing better compliance. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were conducted. Results: There was an interaction effect between randomization and time in the FFQ Scores (p < 0.001), indicating that both groups followed their assigned dietary instructions. The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms and bloated abdomen was lower in IG compared to SC, but the between-group differences were not statistically significant. During radiotherapy, the percentage of patients with bowel symptoms, urinary symptoms, pain, fatigue and diminished physical and role functioning increased in both groups. Conclusions: The dietary intervention had no effect on gastrointestinal side effects or other aspects of HRQOL. The tendency towards lower prevalence of bowel symptoms in IG may indicate some positive effect of the dietary intervention, but methodological refinements, clearer results and longer follow-up are needed before the value of diet change can be established with certainty.

  11. Acute Health Impact of Air Pollution in China

    Feng, T.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air pollution not only has long term health impact, but can affect health through acute exposure. This paper, using air pollution index (API) as overall evaluation of air quality, blood pressure and vital capacity as health outcomes, focuses on the acute health impact of air pollution in China. Current result suggests that after controlling smoking history, occupational exposure, income and education, API is positively associated with blood pressure and negatively associated with vital capacity. The associations became stronger for people with hypertension or pulmonary functional diseases, which indicates that these people are more sensitive to air pollution. Among three pollutants which API measures, that is inhalable particles (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), PM10 is most statistically associated with blood pressure increase and vital capacity decrease. Further study will focusing on the following two questions. The first question is how various time lags affect the associations among API, blood pressure and vital capacity. The second question is how differently people in various cohorts reacts to acute exposure to air pollution. The differences in reactions of blood pressure and vital capacity between people in urban and rural areas, genders, various age cohorts, distinct income and education groups will be further studied.

  12. Protocol for an economic evaluation alongside the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial: cost-effectiveness of education and activation, a rehabilitation program, and the legislated standard of care for acute whiplash injury in Ontario

    van der Velde Gabrielle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whiplash injury affects 83% of persons in a traffic collision and leads to whiplash-associated disorders (WAD. A major challenge facing health care decision makers is identifying cost-effective interventions due to lack of economic evidence. Our objective is to compare the cost-effectiveness of: 1 physician-based education and activation, 2 a rehabilitation program developed by Aviva Canada (a group of property and casualty insurance providers, and 3 the legislated standard of care in the Canadian province of Ontario: the Pre-approved Framework Guideline for Whiplash developed by the Financial Services Commission of Ontario. Methods/Design The economic evaluation will use participant-level data from the University Health Network Whiplash Intervention Trial and will be conducted from the societal perspective over the trial's one-year follow-up. Resource use (costs will include all health care goods and services, and benefits provided during the trial's 1-year follow-up. The primary health effect will be the quality-adjusted life year. We will identify the most cost-effective intervention using the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and incremental net-benefit. Confidence ellipses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves will represent uncertainty around these statistics, respectively. A budget impact analysis will assess the total annual impact of replacing the current legislated standard of care with each of the other interventions. An expected value of perfect information will determine the maximum research expenditure Canadian society should be willing to pay for, and inform priority setting in, research of WAD management. Discussion Results will provide health care decision makers with much needed economic evidence on common interventions for acute whiplash management. Trial Registration http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00546806 [Trial registry date: October 18, 2007; Date first patient was randomized: February

  13. Ethnographic research into nursing in acute adult mental health units: a review.

    Cleary, Michelle; Hunt, Glenn E; Horsfall, Jan; Deacon, Maureen

    2011-01-01

    Acute inpatient mental health units are busy and sometimes chaotic settings, with high bed occupancy rates. These settings include acutely unwell patients, busy staff, and a milieu characterised by unpredictable interactions and events. This paper is a report of a literature review conducted to identify, analyse, and synthesize ethnographic research in adult acute inpatient mental health units. Several electronic databases were searched using relevant keywords to identify studies published from 1990-present. Additional searches were conducted using reference lists. Ethnographic studies published in English were included if they investigated acute inpatient care in adult settings. Papers were excluded if the unit under study was not exclusively for patients in the acute phase of their mental illness, or where the original study was not fully ethnographic. Ten research studies meeting our criteria were found (21 papers). Findings were grouped into the following overarching categories: (1) Micro-skills; (2) Collectivity; (3) Pragmatism; and (4) Reframing of nursing activities. The results of this ethnographic review reveal the complexity, patient-orientation, and productivity of some nursing interventions that may not have been observed or understood without the use of this research method. Additional quality research should focus on redefining clinical priorities and philosophies to ensure everyday care is aligned constructively with the expectations of stakeholders and is consistent with policy and the realities of the organisational setting. We have more to learn from each other with regard to the effective nursing care of inpatients who are acutely disturbed. PMID:21736465

  14. Health utility indexes in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    Gencer, Baris; Rodondi, Nicolas; Auer, Reto; Nanchen, David; Räber, Lorenz; Klingenberg, Roland; Pletscher, Mark; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas F; Mach, François; Perneger, Thomas V; Girardin, François R

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) have been associated with lower health utilities (HUs) compared with the general population. Given the prognostic improvements after ACS with the implementation of coronary angiography (eg, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)), contemporary HU values derived from patient-reported outcomes are needed. Methods We analysed data of 1882 patients with ACS 1 year after coronary angiography in a Swiss prospective cohort. We used the EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire (EQ-5D) and visual analogue scale (VAS) to derive HU indexes. We estimated the effects of clinical factors on HU using a linear regression model and compared the observed HU with the average values of individuals of the same sex and age in the general population. Results Mean EQ-5D HU 1-year after coronary angiography for ACS was 0.82 (±0.16) and mean VAS was 0.77 (±0.18); 40.9% of participants exhibited the highest utility values. Compared with population controls, the mean EQ-5D HU was similar (expected mean 0.82, p=0.58) in patients with ACS, but the mean VAS was slightly lower (expected mean 0.79, p<0.001). Patients with ACS who are younger than 60 years had lower HU than the general population (<0.001). In patients with ACS, significant differences were found according to the gender, education and employment status, diabetes, obesity, heart failure, recurrent ischaemic or incident bleeding event and participation in cardiac rehabilitation (p<0.01). Conclusions At 1 year, patients with ACS with coronary angiography had HU indexes similar to a control population. Subgroup analyses based on patients' characteristics and further disease-specific instruments could provide better sensitivity for detecting smaller variations in health-related quality of life. PMID:27252878

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL REACTIONS AND HEALTH BEHAVIOR FOLLOWING ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION

    Tatjana Milenković

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychological reactions, risk health behavior and cardiac parameters can influence rehospitalization after acute myocardial infarction.The aim of the paper was to determine the presence of psychological reactions and risk health behavior in patients with acute myocardial infarction on admission as well as the differences after six months.The research included thirty-trhee patients of both sexes, who were consecutively hospitalized due to acute myocardial infarction. A prospective clinical investigation involved the following: semi-structured interview, Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I for pcychiatric disorders, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI for measuring the severity of anxiety, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI for measuring the severity of depression, KON-6 sigma test for aggression, Holms-Rahe Scale (H-R for exposure to stressful events, and Health Behavior Questionnaire: alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of physical activity. Measurement of the same parameters was done on admission and after six months. The differences were assessed using the t-test and chi-square test for p<0.05.On admission, anxiety (BAI=8.15±4.37 and depression (BDI=8.67±3.94 were mild without significant difference after six months in the group of examinees. Aggression was elevated and significantly lowered after six monts (KON-6 sigma =53,26±9, 58:41,42±7.67, t=2,13 for p<0.05. Exposure to stressful events in this period decreased (H-R=113.19±67.37:91,65±63,81, t=3,14 for p<0.05; distribution of physical activity was significantly higher compared to admission values (54.83%: 84.84%. χ2=5.07 for p<0.01.In the group of examinees with acute myocardial infarction in the period of six months, anxiety and depression remained mildly icreased, while the levels of aggression and exposure to stressful events were lowered. Risk health behavior was maintained, except for the improvement in physical activity. In the integrative therapy and

  16. Acute rheumatic fever: a public health concern in resource-poor settings

    Olusegun Busari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever remains a public health concern in developing countries as well as in poorer communities and among indigenous populations in some developed nations. It poses serious economic problem at individual, communal and national levels through direct and indirect health care costs. The objective of this article is to review acute rheumatic fever in the global context with some emphasis on the continuing burden of this disease in the developing settings. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PubMed, EMBASE and AJOL were searched with focus on epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment, and control of acute rheumatic fever. The review shows that acute rheumatic fever still occurs under conditions of impoverished overcrowding and poor sanitation and where access to healthcare services is limited. Since acute rheumatic fever is a preventable disease, improved housing and sanitation, access to effective healthcare services, early diagnosis, registration of cases and follow up remain the bedrock of the control of this disease [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(2.000: 153-169

  17. Reliability and validity of functional health status and health-related quality of life questionnaires in children with recurrent acute otitis media.

    Brouwer, C.N.M.; Schilder, A.G.M.; van Stel, H.F.; Rovers, M.M.; Veenhoven, R.H.; Grobbee, D.E.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Maille, A.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the reliability and validity of generic and disease-specific questionnaires has been assessed focusing on responsiveness. This is part of a study on the effects of recurrent acute otitis media (rAOM) on functional health status (FHS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in 383 ch

  18. Oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A review

    Kadalagere Lakshmana Girish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is a malignancy of the bone marrow and blood. It is the most common childhood cancer in India. Advances in the treatment regimens have greatly increased the chances of survival. Both the disease and its treatment change the oral environment. In some cases, oral manifestations are the presenting feature of the disease and it will be the dentist′s responsibility to identify the underlying disorder and guide the diagnosis of the patient. Hence, the aim of present article is to review the literature concerning the oral health of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL.

  19. Serum acute phase proteins and swine health status

    Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lin, Jyh-Hung; Fung, Hang-Pong; Ho, Lin-Lin; Yang, Ping-Chin; Lee, Wen-Chuan; Lee, Yan-Pai; Chu, Rea-Min

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between swine health status and the concentration of the serum acute phase proteins, haptoglobin (HP), and C-reactive protein (CRP). A total of 378 clinically healthy pigs from farms A and B, plus 20 pigs culled from farm A due to poor growth, were used in this experiment. Each pig was examined and blood samples were collected during slaughter. The HP concentration was measured by using an HP-hemoglobin binding assay. The CRP conce...

  20. Protective Effect of Melatonin on Acute Pancreatitis

    Jolanta Jaworek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin, a product of the pineal gland, is released from the gut mucosa in response to food ingestion. Specific receptors for melatonin have been detected in many gastrointestinal tissues including the pancreas. Melatonin as well as its precursor, L-tryptophan, attenuates the severity of acute pancreatitis and protects the pancreatic tissue from the damage caused by acute inflammation. The beneficial effect of melatonin on acute pancreatitis, which has been reported in many experimental studies and supported by clinical observations, is related to: (1 enhancement of antioxidant defense of the pancreatic tissue, through direct scavenging of toxic radical oxygen (ROS and nitrogen (RNS species, (2 preservation of the activity of antioxidant enzymes; such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, or glutathione peroxidase (GPx, (3 the decline of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis α (TNFα production, accompanied by stimulation of an anti-inflammatory IL-10, (4 improvement of pancreatic blood flow and decrease of neutrophil infiltration, (5 reduction of apoptosis and necrosis in the inflamed pancreatic tissue, (6 increased production of chaperon protein (HSP60, and (7 promotion of regenerative process in the pancreas. Conclusion. Endogenous melatonin produced from L-tryptophan could be one of the native mechanisms protecting the pancreas from acute damage and accelerating regeneration of this gland. The beneficial effects of melatonin shown in experimental studies suggest that melatonin ought to be employed in the clinical trials as a supportive therapy in acute pancreatitis and could be used in people at high risk for acute pancreatitis to prevent the development of pancreatic inflammation.

  1. Radiation protection and health effects

    The use of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine carries with it a responsibility to both patient and personnel to maximize the diagnostic and therapeutic benefit while minimizing the potential for any adverse health effects. Shortly after the discovery of the x-ray in 1895 the potential for acute health hazards of ionizing radiation became apparent. However, the risks of ionizing radiation were poorly understood and many early users did not believe that anyone could be hurt by something that could not be detected by any of the human senses. Many experiments on the biologic effects of ionizing radiation began in the early 1900s, and the first radiation protection standards were proposed by the British Roentgen Society in 1915. We now realize that these pioneers had a very limited knowledge of the potential hazards and radiation protection principles. Today more scientific data are available on the health effects of, detection of, and protection from ionizing radiation than any other physical agent or chemical known. In addition, use of many forms of ionizing radiation is heavily regulated at both national and state levels. This paper discusses how maternal contamination with radionuclides may cause irradiation of the fetus even if the radionuclide is not transferred across the placenta. This is mostly true for radionuclides that decay yielding relatively penetrating radiations

  2. Air Pollution Mixtures: Health Effects across Life Stages

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The main objectives of the proposed Center are: 1) to investigate the acute and chronic health effects across life stages of six exposure metrics (short- and long-...

  3. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Schenberg, Eduardo Ekman; Alexandre, João Felipe Morel; Filev, Renato; Cravo, Andre Mascioli; Sato, João Ricardo; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Yonamine, Maurício; Waguespack, Marian; Lomnicka, Izabela; Barker, Steven A; da Silveira, Dartiu Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively) between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered. PMID:26421727

  4. Acute Biphasic Effects of Ayahuasca.

    Eduardo Ekman Schenberg

    Full Text Available Ritual use of ayahuasca, an amazonian Amerindian medicine turned sacrament in syncretic religions in Brazil, is rapidly growing around the world. Because of this internationalization, a comprehensive understanding of the pharmacological mechanisms of action of the brew and the neural correlates of the modified states of consciousness it induces is important. Employing a combination of electroencephalogram (EEG recordings and quantification of ayahuasca's compounds and their metabolites in the systemic circulation we found ayahuasca to induce a biphasic effect in the brain. This effect was composed of reduced power in the alpha band (8-13 Hz after 50 minutes from ingestion of the brew and increased slow- and fast-gamma power (30-50 and 50-100 Hz, respectively between 75 and 125 minutes. Alpha power reductions were mostly located at left parieto-occipital cortex, slow-gamma power increase was observed at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal and right frontal cortices while fast-gamma increases were significant at left centro-parieto-occipital, left fronto-temporal, right frontal and right parieto-occipital cortices. These effects were significantly associated with circulating levels of ayahuasca's chemical compounds, mostly N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT, harmine, harmaline and tetrahydroharmine and some of their metabolites. An interpretation based on a cognitive and emotional framework relevant to the ritual use of ayahuasca, as well as it's potential therapeutic effects is offered.

  5. The prevalence of natural health product use in patients with acute cardiovascular disease.

    Aws Alherbish

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Natural health products (NHP use may have implications with respect to adverse effects, drug interactions and adherence yet the prevalence of NHP use by patients with acute cardiovascular disease and the best method to ascertain this information is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best method to ascertain information on NHP, and the prevalence of use in a population with acute cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of consecutive patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease to the University of Alberta Hospital during January 2009. NHP use was explored using structured and open-ended questions based on Health Canada's definition of NHP. The medical record was reviewed, and documentation of NHP use by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists, compared against the gold-standard structured interview. RESULTS: 88 patients were interviewed (mean age 62 years, standard deviation [SD 14]; 80% male; 41% admitted for acute coronary syndromes. Common co-morbidities included hypertension (59%, diabetes (26% and renal impairment (19%. NHP use was common (78% of patients and 75% of NHP users reported daily use. The category of NHP most commonly used was vitamins and minerals (73% followed by herbal products (20%, traditional medicines including Chinese medicines (9%, homeopathic preparations (1% and other products including amino acids, essential fatty acids and probiotics (35%. In a multivariable model, only older age was associated with increased NHP use (OR 1.5 per age decile [95%CI 1.03 to 2.2]. When compared to the interview, the highest rate of NHP documentation was the pharmacist history (41%. NHP were documented in 22% of patients by the physician and 19% by the nurse. CONCLUSIONS: NHP use is common in patients admitted with acute cardiovascular disease. However, health professionals do not commonly identify NHP as part of the medication profile despite its potential importance

  6. Acute childhood morbidities in rural Wardha : Some epidemiological correlates and health care seeking

    Deshmukh P

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In India, common morbidities among children under 3 years of age are fever, acute respiratory infections, diarrhea. Effective early management at the home level and health care-seeking behavior in case of appearance of danger signs are key strategies to prevent the occurrence of severe and life-threatening complications. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of acute child morbidities, their determinants and health-seeking behavior of the mothers of these children. Setting and Design: The cross-sectional study was carried out in Wardha district of central India. 0 Material and Methods: We interviewed 990 mothers of children below 3 years of age using 30-cluster sampling method. Nutritional status was defined by National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS reference. Composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF was constructed. Hemoglobin concentration in each child was estimated using the ′filter paper cyanm ethemoglobin method.′ Using World Health Organization guidelines, anemia was defined as hemoglobin concentration less than 110 g/L. Post-survey focus group discussions (FGDs were undertaken to bridge gaps in information obtained from the survey. Statistical Analysis: The data was analyzed by using SPSS 12.0.1 software package. Chi-square was used to test the association, while odds ratios were calculated to measure the strength of association. Multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to derive the final model. Results: Anemia was detected in 80.3% of children, and 59.6% of children were undernourished as indicated by CIAF. The overall prevalence of acute morbidity was 59.9%. Children with mild anemia, moderate anemia and severe anemia had 1.52, 1.61 and 9.21 times higher risk of being morbid, respectively. Similarly, children with single, 2 and 3 anthropometric failures had 1.16, 1.29 and 2.27 times higher risk of being morbid, respectively. Out of 594 (60% children with at least one of the acute morbidities, 520

  7. Profile of acute poisoning in three health districts of Botswana

    Mary Kasule

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study sought to characterise acute poisoning cases seen in three health districts of Botswana.Method: A retrospective review of patients’ records was conducted and included patients treated from January 2004 to December 2005. Data on the demographic status of the patients, information about the poisonous agent(s involved, and the circumstances and outcomes of the poisoning incidents were recorded on a pre-tested data collection form.Results: A total of 590 cases of acute poisoning were included in the analysis. The most affected age category was that of children aged less than six years, who constituted 33.4% of the cases. Most incidents were recorded in the urban district of Gaborone. Seventy-eight percent (78% of the incidents were accidental, with the remainder being intentional. The poisonous agents involved were pharmaceuticals (26.6%, natural toxins (25.6%, household products (14.6%, foods (14.4%, alcohol (6.9%, traditional medicines (4.7%, unspecified agents (3.2%, and agrochemicals (2.7%. The most common route of poison exposure was by oral (82.2%, followed by dermal contact (16.5%, while the inhalation of gases occurred in 1.2% of cases. An incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths were recorded over the two-year period.Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be stated that acute poisoning involved mainly young children and resulted in an incidence rate of 4.7/1000, a case fatality rate of 3.8/100, and 1.5% of deaths over the two-year period. There were differences based on age category, gender and residence of the victims, the types of toxic agents involved, as well as the circumstances and the outcomes of the poisoning incidents. Given the fact that pharmaceuticals, natural toxins, household products and foods were the agents most commonly involved, targeted interventions should take these differences into account in addressing the problem of acute poisoning.

  8. Health effects from Chernobyl

    There are many misconceptions of the effects on health from the accident at Chernobyl. The 1996 conference in Vienna held one decade after the event, and more recent material being examined by UNSCEAR, provide a more soundly-based view. Apart from an increase in thyroid cancer in some of those people exposed as children, there is no evidence of a major public health impact to date from radiation exposures caused by the accident. There is no increase in leukemia attributable to radiation exposure, the most likely indicator, even in the group of radiation workers. Definitive studies of the health status of the various groups involved have been difficult to carry out because of the socio-economic conditions. Clearly, their continuation is going to need further international cooperation. (author)

  9. Human health effects of air pollution

    Kampa, Marilena [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: kampa@med.uoc.gr; Castanas, Elias [Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, University of Crete, School of Medicine, P.O. Box 2208, Heraklion, 71003 (Greece)], E-mail: castanas@med.uoc.gr

    2008-01-15

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O{sub 3}), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed.

  10. Human health effects of air pollution

    Hazardous chemicals escape to the environment by a number of natural and/or anthropogenic activities and may cause adverse effects on human health and the environment. Increased combustion of fossil fuels in the last century is responsible for the progressive change in the atmospheric composition. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ozone (O3), heavy metals, and respirable particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10), differ in their chemical composition, reaction properties, emission, time of disintegration and ability to diffuse in long or short distances. Air pollution has both acute and chronic effects on human health, affecting a number of different systems and organs. It ranges from minor upper respiratory irritation to chronic respiratory and heart disease, lung cancer, acute respiratory infections in children and chronic bronchitis in adults, aggravating pre-existing heart and lung disease, or asthmatic attacks. In addition, short- and long-term exposures have also been linked with premature mortality and reduced life expectancy. These effects of air pollutants on human health and their mechanism of action are briefly discussed. - The effect of air pollutants on human health and underlying mechanisms of cellular action are discussed

  11. Serum and salivary cardiac analytes in acute myocardial infarction related to oral health status

    Ebersole, Jeffrey L.; Kryscio, Richard J.; Campbell, Charles; Kinane, Denis F.; McDevitt, John T.; Christodoulides, Nicolaos; Floriano, Pierre N.; Miller, Craig S.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of an increased emphasis on the potential to utilize biomarkers in saliva for systemic diseases, the issue of existing oral disease is an important consideration that could adversely affect the interpretation of diagnostic results obtained from saliva. We addressed the question does a patient's oral inflammation status confound biomarker levels used in diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The results demonstrated that multiple serum biomarkers and a few salivary biomarkers reflected the cardiac event. Importantly, oral health of the individual had minimal impact on the validity of the serum or salivary biomarker effectiveness.

  12. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals

    Background: In order to understand the etiological burden of disease associated with acute health symptoms (e.g. gastrointestinal [GI], respiratory, dermatological), it is important to understand how common exposures influence these symptoms. Exposures to familiar and unfamiliar ...

  13. MERCURY HEALTH EFFECTS UPDATE: HEALTH ISSUE ASSESSMENT

    This report reviews and evaluates the scientific information on the potential health effects from mercury exposure, with emphasis on those effects associated with human chronic inhalation exposures. The findings are based on a review of the scientific literature since the promulg...

  14. The Impact of Oral Health on Taste Ability in Acutely Hospitalized Elderly

    Solemdal, Kirsten; Sandvik, Leiv; Willumsen, Tiril; Mowe, Morten; Hummel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent various oral health variables are associated with taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly. Background Impaired taste may contribute to weight loss in elderly. Many frail elderly have poor oral health characterized by caries, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. However, the possible influence of such factors on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly has not been investigated. Materials and Methods The study was cross-sectional. A total of 174 ...

  15. Health Effects of Air Pollution

    ... air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth.gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home The environment and your health Air Health effects of air pollution ... Health effects of air pollution Breathing air that ...

  16. COSYMA: Health effects models

    As one of the main objectives of the MARIA project (''Methods for Assessing the Radiological Impact of Accidents'') initiated by the Commission of the European Communities the program package COSYMA (''COde SYstem from MARIA'') for assessing the radiological and economic off-site consequences of accidental releases of radioactive material to the atmosphere has been jointly developed by the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK), FRG, and the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), UK. COSYMA includes models and data for assessing a broad spectrum of accident consequences, and they are implemented in independent modules. The subject of this report are those modules, which incorporate models and data for assessing individual and collective risks for deterministic and stochastic health effects. It describes the models implemented, the mathematical algorithms and the required data. Examples are given and explained for the input and output part of the modules. (orig.)

  17. Acute effects of aerobic exercise promote learning

    Renza Perini; Marta Bortoletto; Michela Capogrosso; Anna Fertonani; Carlo Miniussi

    2016-01-01

    The benefits that physical exercise confers on cardiovascular health are well known, whereas the notion that physical exercise can also improve cognitive performance has only recently begun to be explored and has thus far yielded only controversial results. In the present study, we used a sample of young male subjects to test the effects that a single bout of aerobic exercise has on learning. Two tasks were run: the first was an orientation discrimination task involving the primary visual cor...

  18. Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke

    ... Health More CDC Sites Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Secondhand ... in the 2014 Surgeon General’s Report 4 Secondhand Smoke Causes Cardiovascular Disease Exposure to secondhand smoke has ...

  19. Effects of Breaking Sitting by Standing and Acute Exercise on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Takahashi; Miyashita; Park; Sakamoto; Suzuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior, which includes sitting and TV viewing, has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breaking sedentary behavior improves metabolic health such as postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Objectives Here, we examined whether breaking sitting by standing and acute exercise reduces postprandia...

  20. The Effects of Acute Stress on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    KUBİLAY, Ayşegül

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of acute stressors (transport, handling, netting and confinement) on rainbow trout in an aquaculture system were investigated. Serum cortisol level, serum glucose and lysozyme activity were determined in rainbow trout stressed by acute stressors, and compared with those of unstressed (control) fish. Serum cortisol, glucose levels and lysozyme activity were significantly higher(P

  1. Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animals#

    Self-reported acute health symptoms and exposure to companion animalsWhitney S. Krueger1,2, Elizabeth D. Hilborn2, Timothy J. Wade21Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA2Environmental Public Health Division, Office of Research and Development, U...

  2. Causality assessment of the acute health complaints reported in association with oxygenated fuels.

    Balter, N J

    1997-12-01

    In some areas where oxygenated fuel programs have been implemented, there have been wide-spread complaints of non-specific health effects attributed to the gasoline. There are a number of hypotheses that can account for this apparent association. This paper examines the hypothesis that the use of oxy-fuel (either oxygenated gasoline or reformulated gasoline) results in exposure of the general population to one or more chemicals at concentrations that cause toxicologic injury. Although several oxygenates can be used in oxy-fuels, this analysis focuses on MTBE because it is the most widely used oxygenate and because the database of relevant toxicologic data is greatest for this oxygenate. The causal assessment is based on an evaluation of the qualitative and quantitative plausibility that oxygenated fuel-related exposures have toxicological effects, and the epidemiologic studies that directly test the hypothesis that the use of oxygenated fuels causes adverse health effects. The plausibility that chemical exposures related to oxy-fuel use cause toxicological effects is very low. This determination is based on consideration of the exposure-response and time-action profiles for relevant toxicological effects of MTBE in animals, experimental MTBE exposure studies in humans, and the possibility that the addition of MTBE to gasoline results in toxicologically significant qualitative and/or quantitative changes in gasoline-related exposures. Similarly, the epidemiologic studies of oxy-fuel exposed cohorts do not support a causal relationship between oxy-fuel use and adverse health effects. Although the data are insufficient to rule the possibility of unique sensitivity in a small segment of the population, the strength of the evidence and the availability of other more plausible explanations for the health complaints reported in association with oxy-fuels support a high degree of confidence in the conclusion that MTBE-containing oxygenated fuels are not the cause of acute

  3. Cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care for children with severe acute malnutrition in Zambia: decision tree model

    Bachmann Max O

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Children aged under five years with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in Africa and Asia have high mortality rates without effective treatment. Primary care-based treatment of SAM can have good outcomes but its cost effectiveness is largely unknown. Method This study estimated the cost effectiveness of community-based therapeutic care (CTC) for children with severe acute malnutrition in government primary health care centres in Lusaka, Zambia, compared to no care. A decision...

  4. Barriers to discharge in an acute care medical teaching unit: a qualitative analysis of health providers’ perceptions

    Okoniewska, Barbara; Santana, Maria Jose; Groshaus, Horacio; Stajkovic, Svetlana; Cowles, Jennifer; Chakrovorty, David; Ghali, William A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The complex process of discharging patients from acute care to community care requires a multifaceted interaction between all health care providers and patients. Poor communication in a patient’s discharge can result in post hospital adverse events, readmission, and mortality. Because of the gravity of these problems, discharge planning has been emphasized as a potential solution. The purpose of this paper is to identify communication barriers to effective discharge planning in an ...

  5. Assessment of health-related quality of life in patients after acute myocardial infarction

    Rančić Nataša; Petrović Branislav; Apostolović Svetlana; Mandić Milan; Antić Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Acute myocardial infarction has negative influence on patient’s quality of life. The objective of the paper was to assess the healthrelated quality of life in the patients one month and twelve months after acute myocardial infarction and to compare it with the healthy controls. Material and Methods. A prospective cohort study involved 160 patients aged from 30 to 79 and 240 healthy controls. The health-related quality of life was assessed with the Serbian version of these ...

  6. Acute and chronic job stressors among ambulance personnel: predictors of health symptoms

    van der Ploeg, E; Kleber, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To predict symptomatology (post-traumatic distress, fatigue, and burnout) due to acute and chronic work related stressors among ambulance personnel. Methods: Data were gathered from 123 ambulance workers in The Netherlands in a longitudinal design. At two measurements they completed standardised questionnaires to assess health symptoms, such as the Impact of Event Scale, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Checklist Individual Strength. Acute stressors were assessed with specif...

  7. 2013 Space Radiation Standing Review Panel Status Review for: The Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure, The Risk of Acute Radiation Syndromes Due to Solar Particle Events (SPEs), The Risk Of Degenerative Tissue Or Other Health Effects From Radiation Exposure, and The Risk of Radiation Carcinogenesis

    2014-01-01

    The Space Radiation Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) was impressed with the strong research program presented by the scientists and staff associated with NASA's Space Radiation Program Element and National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The presentations given on-site and the reports of ongoing research that were provided in advance indicated the potential Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure (CNS) and were extensively discussed by the SRP. This new data leads the SRP to recommend that a higher priority should be placed on research designed to identify and understand these risks at the mechanistic level. To support this effort the SRP feels that a shift of emphasis from Acute Radiation Syndromes (ARS) and carcinogenesis to CNS-related endpoints is justified at this point. However, these research efforts need to focus on mechanisms, should follow pace with advances in the field of CNS in general and should consider the specific comments and suggestions made by the SRP as outlined below. The SRP further recommends that the Space Radiation Program Element continue with its efforts to fill the vacant positions (Element Scientist, CNS Risk Discipline Lead) as soon as possible. The SRP also strongly recommends that NASA should continue the NASA Space Radiation Summer School. In addition to these broad recommendations, there are specific comments/recommendations noted for each risk, described in detail below.

  8. Health literacy and 30-day hospital readmission after acute myocardial infarction

    Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Fang, Gang; Annis, Izabela E; O'Conor, Rachel; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Wolf, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the validity of a predictive model of health literacy, and to examine the relationship between derived health literacy estimates and 30-day hospital readmissions for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting and participants A National Institute of Aging (NIA) study cohort of 696 adult, English-speaking primary care patients, aged 55–74 years, was used to assess the validity of derived health literacy estimates. Claims from 7733 Medicare...

  9. Organisational Issues surrounding the Merger of Two Acute Mental Health Services: An Exploratory Study

    Hayes, Claire

    2012-01-01

    Healthcare services have engaged in domestic and international mergers in recent years in order to match the macroeconomic trends operating worldwide and to cope with the current global financial crisis. ‘Vision for Change’ (Department of Health and Children 2006) highlights the importance of closing all psychiatric institutions in an effort to enhance a community-based model of care and to modernise mental health service infrastructure. Therefore, considering acute mental health services wil...

  10. Mental and social health during and after acute emergencies: emerging consensus?

    van Ommeren, Mark; Saxena, Shekhar; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2005-01-01

    Mental health care programmes during and after acute emergencies in resource-poor countries have been considered controversial. There is no agreement on the public health value of the post-traumatic stress disorder concept and no agreement on the appropriateness of vertical (separate) trauma-focused services. A range of social and mental health intervention strategies and principles seem, however, to have the broad support of expert opinion. Despite continuing debate, there is emerging agreem...

  11. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    E Nakimuli-Mpungu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E Nakimuli-Mpungu1,2,3, B Mutamba2,3, S Nshemerirwe2,3, MS Kiwuwa4, S Musisi21Mental Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala; 3Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kampala; 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala, UgandaIntroduction: Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania.Methods: We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals.Results: Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (Χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000. HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06.Conclusion: Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons.Keywords: HIV-related mania, bipolar disorder, HIV infection, Uganda, immunodeficiency virus

  12. Acute stress modulates genotype effects on amygdala processing in humans

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J. F.; Franke, Barbara; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Probing gene–environment interactions that affect neural processing is crucial for understanding individual differences in behavior and disease vulnerability. Here, we tested whether the current environmental context, which affects the acute brain state, modulates genotype effects on brain function in humans. We manipulated the context by inducing acute psychological stress, which increases noradrenergic activity, and probed its effect on tonic activity and phasic responses in the amygdala us...

  13. Health Effects of Tsunamis

    ... Emergency Wound Care Wound Management for Healthcare Pros Power Outages When the Power Goes Out Worker Safety Vaccine Storage Returning Home ... medical care for injuries. Flood waters can pose health risks such as ... are caused by the physical impact of people being washed into debris such as ...

  14. The diagnosis and management of acute childhood illness: is there a role for health visitors?

    Kendrick, D; Young, A; Futers, D

    2000-12-01

    Much of the published literature on nurse practitioners relates to nurses with backgrounds, training and nursing experience other than health visiting. Health visitors however may be ideally placed to develop their role in the identification and management of acute childhood illness, and such a development may benefit patients, the health service and health visitors themselves. This study examines the current practice and attitudes of heath visitors in identifying and managing acute childhood illness using a postal questionnaire survey in one community National Health Service (NHS) Trust. The majority of responding health visitors reported that they were already identifying and advising on a range of acute childhood illnesses. Their confidence in undertaking these activities varied by condition. They were less confident in identifying and advising on conditions requiring the use of diagnostic equipment, viral illnesses which are becoming increasingly rare, and those with potentially serious outcomes. More knowledge and more training were seen as methods for increasing confidence. Most health visitors could see advantages in taking on this role; almost two thirds felt it would become part of the role of the health visitor in the future and a high level of interest was expressed in developing such a role. PMID:11136418

  15. Methylmercury Exposure and Health Effects

    Hong, Young-Seoub; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Kyung-Eun

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury is a hazardous substance that is of interest with regard to environmental health, as inorganic mercury circulating in the general environment is dissolved into freshwater and seawater, condensed through the food chain, ingested by humans, and consequently affects human health. Recently, there has been much interest and discussion regarding the toxicity of methylmercury, the correlation with fish and shellfish intake, and methods of long-term management of the human health effect...

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR BENZENE

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  17. Acute stress and cardiovascular health: is there an ACE gene connection?

    Holman, E Alison

    2012-10-01

    Cardiovascular disorders (CVD) are associated with acute and posttraumatic stress responses, yet biological processes underlying this association are poorly understood. This study examined whether renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activity, as indicated by a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene, is associated with both CVD and acute stress related to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks. European-American respondents (N = 527) from a nationally representative longitudinal study of coping following 9/11 provided saliva for genotyping. Respondents had completed health surveys before 9/11 and annually for 3 years after, and acute stress assessments 9 to 23 days after 9/11. Respondents with rs4291 AA or TT genotypes reported high acute stress twice as often as those with the AT genotype. Individuals with the TT genotype were 43% more likely to report increased physician-diagnosed CVD over 3 years following 9/11, when the following variables were included in the model: (a) pre-9/11 CVD, mental health, and non-CVD ailments; (b) cardiac risk factors; (c) ongoing endocrine disorders; and (d) significant demographics. The ACE rs4291 TT genotype, which has been associated with HPA axis hyperactivity and higher levels of serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), predicted acute stress response and reports of physician-diagnosed CVD in a national sample following collective stress. ACE gene function may be associated with both mental and physical health disorders following collective stress. PMID:23055331

  18. The effects of acute nicotine on contextual safety discrimination

    Kutlu, Munir G.; Oliver, Chicora; Gould, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), may be related to an inability to distinguish safe versus threatening environments and to extinguish fear memories. Given the high rate of cigarette smoking in patients with PTSD, as well as the recent finding that an acute dose of nicotine impairs extinction of contextual fear memory, we conducted a series of experiments to investigate the effect of acute nicotine in an animal model of contextual safety discrimination. Followi...

  19. Curative effects of Tiron on dogs with acute uranium intoxication

    It was reported that the tiron had good therapeutic effects on small animals with acute uranium intoxication. The tiron's therapeutic effects as a first aid on large animals (38 dogs) with acute uranium poisoning are reported in this paper. Indices reflecting its effect were as follows: excretion rate of uranium from the dogs, several appropriate biochemical tests, clinical manifestations, histo-pathological changes of kidney and liver, and also the mortality of dogs. The results showed that the tiron or a combination of tiron and NaHCO3 has a good therapeutic effect as a first aid on the dogs receiving lethal dose of uranyl nitrate

  20. Health effects of natural disasters

    Obradović-Arsić Danijela; Filipović Dejan

    2013-01-01

    Natural hazards have a number of adverse effects - they affect the life and health of humans and the survival of other living beings, destroy material goods and deteriorate socio-economic conditions of life. Without neglecting the impact of natural hazards lower intensity, in this paper emphasis is placed on natural hazards with the strongest effects for human health, that is to natural disasters. It covered the impact of various natural disasters on mortal...

  1. RADIATION AND EFFECTS ON HUMAN HEALTH

    Hakan YAREN

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In modern world, living without radiation is impossible. Radiation is defined as ?energy transmitted through space as waves or particles? and also determined as ?particles or waves emitted from the nucleus of unstable radioactive atoms to become stable? Mainly two types of radiation are exist; ionising radiation and non-ionising radiation. Ionising radiation is consist of alpha, beta particules, neutrons, x rays and gamma rays. Ionising radiation which can be measured by ion chambers, geiger-Mueller detectors, Scintillation Counters, fluorescent counters etc. Has harmfull effects on human health in levels of molecular, cellular, tissue, organs and organ systems. These harmfull effects can also be named somatic and genetic. One of the most encountered problem is ?Acute Radiation Syndrom? which has three sub syndroms called haematopoetic syndrom, gastrointestinal syndrom and neurovascular syndrom. Exposure time, distance and armorisation are the key elements of protection from radiation. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(4.000: 199-208

  2. The mental health of nurses in acute teaching hospital settings: a cross-sectional survey

    Perry, Lin; Lamont, Scott; Brunero, Scott; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background Nursing is an emotionally demanding profession and deficiencies in nurses’ mental wellbeing, characterised by low vitality and common mental disorders, have been linked to low productivity, absenteeism and presenteeism. Part of a larger study of nurses’ health, the aim of this paper was to describe the mental health status and related characteristics of nurses working in two acute metropolitan teaching hospitals. Methods A cross sectional survey design was used. The Registered and ...

  3. Quality of health in survivors of childhood acute myeloid leukemia treated with chemotherapy only

    Molgaard-Hansen, Lene; Glosli, Heidi; Jahnukainen, Kirsi;

    2011-01-01

    More than 60% of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) become long-term survivors, and approximately 50% are cured with chemotherapy only. Limited data exist about their long-term morbidity and social outcomes. The aim of the study was to compare the self-reported use of health care services...

  4. Comparing the Obvious: Interactional characteristics of staff in acute mental health nursing and forensic psychiatric nursing

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik; Bradley, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    interviews. Findings show that both acute and forensic mental health nursing practice is characterized by two overriding themes; ‘trust and relationship-enabling care’ and ‘behavior and perception-corrective care.’ The comparison of the two studies shows no major differences in the characteristics of staff...

  5. Principles and practical procedures for acute psychological first aid training for personnel without mental health experience.

    Everly, George S; Flynn, Brian W

    2006-01-01

    Most authorities agree that mass disasters leave in their wake a need for some form of acute mental health services. However, a review of current literature on crisis intervention and disaster mental health reveals differing points of view on the methods that should be employed (Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002). Nevertheless, there appears to be virtual universal endorsement, by relevant authorities, of the value of acute "psychological first aid" (American Psychiatric Association, 1954; USDHHS, 2004; Raphael, 1986; NIMH, 2002; Institute of Medicine, 2003; WHO, 2003; DoD/VAPTSD, 2004; Ritchie, et al., 2004; Friedman, Hamblin, Foa, & Charney, 2004). Psychological first aid (PFA), as an acute mental health intervention, seems uniquely applicable to public health settings, the workplace, the military, mass disaster venues, and even the demands of more well circumscribed critical incidents, e.g., dealing with the psychological aftermath of accidents, robberies, suicide, homicide, or community violence. In this document, we shall introduce the notion of psychological first aid (PFA) as one aspect of a psychological continuum of care, offer a rudimentary definition of PFA, and provide the reader with a practicalframework for its implementation utilizing the individual psychological first aid (iPFA)format. The goal of this paper is to better prepare public health, public safety, and other disaster response personnel who do not possess formal clinical mental health degrees or specialized training to provide iPFA services to primary and secondary disaster victims. PMID:16703847

  6. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long......-term effects were evaluated with SF-36. SCL-90-R and SF-36 data were compared to age- and gender matched controls. RESULTS: In the SCL-90-R, clinically significant scores for anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression were found in 55%, 51%, and 44% of the mefloquine group. Substantial acute phase psychotic...

  7. Potential health effects of space radiation

    Yang, Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.

    1993-01-01

    Crewmembers on missions to the Moon or Mars will be exposed to radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, and possibly solar particle events. The potential health hazards due to these space radiations must be considered carefully to ensure the success of space exploration. Because there is no human radioepidemiological data for acute and late effects of high-LET (Linear-Energy-Transfer) radiation, the biological risks of energetic charged particles have to be estimated from experimental results on animals and cultured cells. Experimental data obtained to date indicate that charged particle radiation can be much more effective than photons in causing chromosome aberrations, cell killing, mutation, and tumor induction. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) varies with biological endpoints and depends on the LET of heavy ions. Most lesions induced by low-LET radiation can be repaired in mammalian cells. Energetic heavy ions, however, can produce large complex DNA damages, which may lead to large deletions and are irreparable. For high-LET radiation, therefore, there are less or no dose rate effects. Physical shielding may not be effective in minimizing the biological effects on energetic heavy ions, since fragments of the primary particles can be effective in causing biological effects. At present the uncertainty of biological effects of heavy particles is still very large. With further understanding of the biological effects of space radiation, the career doses can be kept at acceptable levels so that the space radiation environment need not be a barrier to the exploitation of the promise of space.

  8. Public Health Consequences on Vulnerable Populations from Acute Chemical Releases

    Perri Zeitz Ruckart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from a large, multi-state surveillance system on acute chemical releases were analyzed to describe the type of events that are potentially affecting vulnerable populations (children, elderly and hospitalized patients in order to better prevent and plan for these types of incidents in the future. During 2003–2005, there were 231 events where vulnerable populations were within ¼ mile of the event and the area of impact was greater than 200 feet from the facility/point of release. Most events occurred on a weekday during times when day care centers or schools were likely to be in session. Equipment failure and human error caused a majority of the releases. Agencies involved in preparing for and responding to chemical emergencies should work with hospitals, nursing homes, day care centers, and schools to develop policies and procedures for initiating appropriate protective measures and managing the medical needs of patients. Chemical emergency response drills should involve the entire community to protect those that may be more susceptible to harm.

  9. Ozone health effects

    Ozone is a principal component of photochemical air pollution endogenous to numerous metropolitan areas. It is primarily formed by the oxidation of NOx in the presence of sunlight and reactive organic compounds. Ozone is a highly active oxidizing agent capable of causing injury to the lung. Lung injury may take the form of irritant effects on the respiratory tract that impair pulmonary function and result in subjective symptoms of respiratory discomfort. These symptoms include, but are not limited to, cough and shortness of breath, and they can limit exercise performance. The effects of ozone observed in humans have been primarily limited to alterations in respiratory function, and a range of respiratory physiological parameters have been measured as a function of ozone exposure in adults and children. These affects have been observed under widely varying (clinical experimental and environmental settings) conditions

  10. Assessment of health-related quality of life in patients after acute myocardial infarction

    Rančić Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute myocardial infarction has negative influence on patient’s quality of life. The objective of the paper was to assess the healthrelated quality of life in the patients one month and twelve months after acute myocardial infarction and to compare it with the healthy controls. Material and Methods. A prospective cohort study involved 160 patients aged from 30 to 79 and 240 healthy controls. The health-related quality of life was assessed with the Serbian version of these questionnaires: Euro- Quol-5-Dimension and EuroQuolVAS. Angina pectoris was ranked according to the classification of Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used. Results. The healthy controls had significantly higher average scores in EuroQuolVAS compared with the patients one month after acute myocardial infarction (74.35±9.42 vs 60.50±12.03, p<0.001, as well as twelve months after acute myocardial infarction (74.35±9.42 vs 69.83±12.06, p<0.001. Significantly lower average ranges in EuroQuol-5-Dimension questionnaire and higher quality of life were found twelve months after acute myocardial infarction than one month after acute myocardial infarction (1.41±0.26 vs 1.53±0.26, p<0.001. The average ranges of angina pectoris were significantly lower in all the patients twelve months after acute myocardial infarction compared with the first month (0.78±0.51 vs 0.91±0.44, p<0.001. The multivariate regression analysis confirmed thrombolytic therapy, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and age to be important factors influencing health-related quality of life. Conclusion. The patients assessed their health condition to be significantly higher twelve months after acute myocardial infarction than one month after it. The health-related quality of life was significantly higher in patients who had undergone the percutaneous intervention than in those who had been treated with the thrombolytic therapy.

  11. Chernobyl health effects

    On 26 April 1986, a few short minutes were not enough to destroy one of the four nuclear reactors at Chernobyl and cause, over the next few weeks, the deaths of 31 people from among the staff, rescuers and firefighters who had dealt with the accident and prevented the spread of the catastrophe to the other three reactors on the site. The experts and the authorities soon recognized that the consequences of this event for the environment and for the surrounding populations would last several decades. Forecast estimates from very diverse sources of the nature and extent of these consequences came thick and fast, particularly in the years 1986 and 1987. Unfortunately, they differed so greatly in both time and space that they lacked all credibility. As the news spread through the public, it could only worsen a social climate which was already seriously upset by the effects of the catastrophe itself. 55 refs

  12. Educating Mental Health Clinicians About Sensory Modulation to Enhance Clinical Practice in a Youth Acute Inpatient Mental Health Unit: A Feasibility Study.

    Blackburn, Julie; McKenna, Brian; Jackson, Brian; Hitch, Danielle; Benitez, Jessica; McLennan, Cathy; Furness, Trentham

    2016-07-01

    There is an emergence of literature describing effective sensory modulation (SM) interventions to de-escalate violence and aggression among mental health inpatients. However, the evidence is limited to adult settings, with the effect of SM in youth acute settings unknown. Yet, before SM may be used as a de-escalation intervention in youth acute settings, multidisciplinary staff need to be educated about and supported in the clinical application of SM. In the current study, an online SM education package was developed to assist mental health staff understand SM. This was blended with action learning sets (ALS), small group experiential opportunities consisting staff and consumers to learn about SM resources, and the support of SM trained nurses. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effectiveness of this SM education intervention in (a) transferring knowledge of SM to staff, and (b) translating this knowledge into practice in a youth acute inpatient mental health unit. A mixed methods research design with an 11-item pre- and post-education questionnaire was used along with three-month follow-up focus groups. The SM education improved understanding about SM (all 11-items p ≤ 0.004, r ≥ 0.47). Three-months after SM education, four themes evident in the focus group data emerged about the practice and process of SM; (1) translating of learning into practice, (2) SM in practice, (3) perceptions of SM benefits, and (4) limitations of SM. A blended SM education process enhanced clinical practice in the unit, yet participants were mindful of limitations of SM in situations of distress or escalating agitation. PMID:27253182

  13. Barriers to discharge in an acute care medical teaching unit: a qualitative analysis of health providers’ perceptions

    Okoniewska B

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Okoniewska,1 Maria Jose Santana,1 Horacio Groshaus,2 Svetlana Stajkovic,3 Jennifer Cowles,4 David Chakrovorty,5 William A Ghali1 1Department of Community Health Sciences, W21C Research and Innovation Centre, Institute of Public Health, 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Community Based Practice, 4Foothills Medical Centre, 5Department of Quality and Healthcare Improvement, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: The complex process of discharging patients from acute care to community care requires a multifaceted interaction between all health care providers and patients. Poor communication in a patient’s discharge can result in post hospital adverse events, readmission, and mortality. Because of the gravity of these problems, discharge planning has been emphasized as a potential solution. The purpose of this paper is to identify communication barriers to effective discharge planning in an acute care unit of a tertiary care center and to suggest solutions to these barriers. Methods: Health care providers provided comments to a single open-ended question: “What are the communication barriers between the different health care providers that limit an effective discharge of patients from Unit 36?” We conducted qualitative thematic analysis by identifying themes related to communication barriers affecting a successful discharge process. Results: Three broad themes related to barriers to the discharge process were identified: communication, lack of role clarity and lack of resources. We also identified two themes for opportunities for improvement, ie, structure and function of the medical team and need for leadership. Conclusion: While it was evident that poor communication was an overarching barrier identified by health care providers, other themes emerged. In an effort to increase inter-team communication, “bullet rounds”, a condensed form of discharge rounds, were introduced to the medical

  14. Recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute inpatient mental health settings in Australia: an exploratory study.

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Dhital, Deepa; Ireland, Susan

    2014-10-01

    Recovery-oriented care acknowledges the unique journey that consumers lead with the aim of regaining control of their lives in order to live a good life. Recovery has become a dominant policy-directed model of many mental health care organizations, but in older-adult acute mental health inpatient settings, nurses do not have a clear description of how to be recovery-oriented. The aims of this study were to determine the extent to which elements of existing nursing practice resemble the domains of recovery-oriented care and provide a baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented mental health care provision. An exploratory, qualitative research design was used to meet the research aims. A purposive sample of mental health nurses (N = 12) participated in focus groups in three older-adult inpatient settings in Australia. A general inductive approach was used to analyze the qualitative data. The mental health nurses in this study readily discussed aspects of their current practice within the recovery domains. They described pragmatic ways to promote a culture of hope, collaborative partnerships, meaningful engagement, autonomy and self-determination, and community participation and citizenship. Nurses also discussed challenges and barriers to recovery-oriented care in older-adult acute mental health settings. This study identified a reasonable baseline understanding of practice in preparation for transformation to recovery-oriented older-adult mental healthcare provision. A concerted drive focused on recovery education is required to effectively embed a recovery-orientated paradigm into older-adult mental health settings. PMID:25263738

  15. Correlation of oral health of children with acute leukemia during the induction phase

    Kanchan P. Dholam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of acute leukemia′s- a common childhood malignancy, involves intensive and powerful multi-drug chemotherapeutic regime. Oral lesions are a common complication in these patients affecting oral health status. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate and assess the oral health status of newly diagnosed leukemic pediatric patients during induction phase and its correlation to outcome of induction therapy. Material Methods: Oral examinations was done in 33 children between the age group of 5-15 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and acute myloblastic leukemia (AML, who were undergoing chemotherapy. Oral Hygiene Index- Simplified, (OHI-S decayed missing filled teeth index (def/DMFT, Loe and Sillness index for gingiva, and complete blood count at first and fourth week of induction phase were recorded for each patient. The changes in the oral health status were analyzed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: During an induction phase it was observed that level of OHI-S (P = 0.002, Loe and Sillness index (P = 0.003, def/DMFT index (P = 0.076, platelet count (P = 0.00 increased significantly and no significant difference was noted in hemoglobin (P = 0.4 and total leucocytes count (P = 0.11. Conclusion: It was observed that, although oral health status had significantly worsened, the induction outcome was not affected.

  16. Statistical health-effects study

    The main purpose of this program is to analyze the mortality of Hanford workers and to determine the effects of radiation exposure in this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly in an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses, submitted papers for publication in the two areas of methodological research, and have interacted with Hanford Environmental Health Foundation staff to improve data collection procedures

  17. Health effects of natural disasters

    Obradović-Arsić Danijela

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural hazards have a number of adverse effects - they affect the life and health of humans and the survival of other living beings, destroy material goods and deteriorate socio-economic conditions of life. Without neglecting the impact of natural hazards lower intensity, in this paper emphasis is placed on natural hazards with the strongest effects for human health, that is to natural disasters. It covered the impact of various natural disasters on mortality and morbidity during and immediately after natural disasters, including earthquakes, floods and drought, which is to characterize on the Republic of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176017

  18. Mother`s health care-seeking behavior for children with acute respiratory infections in a post-earthquake setting

    Yulinar Wusanani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Delayed health care-seeking behavior is a cause of high mortality in children due to acute respiratory infections (ARIs. Factors that may affect health care-seeking behavior are socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal education, parents’ perception of illness, child’s age, number of children under five years of age in the family, and occurrence of natural disasters. The 2006 Central Java earthquake damaged homes and health care facilities, and led to increased poverty among the residents. Objective To assess the relationship between socioeconomic status and mother’s health care-seeking behavior for children under five years of age with ARIs in a post-earthquake setting. Methods This cross-sectional study used secondary data obtained from the Child Health Need Assessment (CHNA survey. Logistic regression test was used to analyze variables that may affect mother’s health care-seeking behavior for children under five years of age with ARIs. Results Of the 665 infants surveyed, 442 infants (66.5% had ARIs. Health care-seeking behavior was good (81.7% in the majority of mothers. We observed that socioeconomic status did not affect maternal health care-seeking behavior for children under five with ARIs (OR 1.33; 95%CI 0.79 to 2.24; P=0.26. Maternal age, maternal education, child’s age and gender, number of children under five in the family, parents’ perceptions of illness and severity of house damage caused by the earthquake also had no effect on maternal health care-seeking behavior for children with ARIs. Conclusion After the 2006 earthquake, we find that socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal education, child age, child gender, number of children under five in the family, parents’ perceptions of illness, and severity of house damage have no effect on mother’s health care-seeking behavior for their children with ARIs. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:144-9.].

  19. Operation Safe Haven: an evaluation of health surveillance and monitoring in an acute setting.

    Bennett, C; Mein, J; Beers, M; Harvey, B; Vemulpad, S; Chant, K; Dalton, C

    2000-02-17

    From May to June 1999, 3,920 ethnic Albanians from Kosovo arrived in Australia as part of Operation Safe Haven. These people were evacuated from refugee camps in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Initial processing in Australia occurred at East Hills Reception Centre, and accommodation for the duration of stay was provided in eight Haven Centres in five States. The arrival of a large number of refugees in a short time frame is unprecedented in Australia. A health surveillance system was developed and critical health data were collected to assess health status and needs, plan care, monitor for potential outbreaks of communicable diseases, track service use, to meet international reporting requirements and document our response to this crisis. In this article the health surveillance system is evaluated and suggestions are offered for the formulation of specific guidelines necessary for health surveillance in acute settings. PMID:10758691

  20. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    Bahareh Amin; Alireza Nakhsaz; Hossein Hosseinzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron) using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) were evaluated using forced swim test (FST). In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals), antidepressant-like effe...

  1. Moderate toxic effects following acute zonisamide overdose

    Hofer, K E; Trachsel, C; Rauber-Lüthy, C; Kupferschmidt, H; Kullak-Ublick, G A; Ceschi, A

    2011-01-01

    Zonisamide is an antiepileptic drug that acts on voltage-sensitive sodium and calcium channels, with a modulatory effect on GABA-mediated neuronal inhibition and an inhibitory effect on carbonic anhydrase. It is used mainly for the treatment of partial seizures, and is generally well tolerated at therapeutic doses. The most common reported adverse effects are somnolence, anorexia, dizziness, and headache. There are limited data on zonisamide overdose in the literature, and no case of zonisami...

  2. Cardiovascular Effects of Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

    Shankar Laudari

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.

  3. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysisclose quotes, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,close quotes was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model

  4. Chemical toxicity of uranium hexafluoride compared to acute effects of radiation

    The chemical effects from acute exposures to uranium hexafluoride are compared to the nonstochastic effects from acute radiation doses of 25 rems to the whole body and 300 rems to the thyroid. The analysis concludes that an intake of about 10 mg of uranium in soluble form is roughly comparable, in terms of early effects, to an acute whole body dose of 25 rems because both are just below the threshold for significant nonstochastic effects. Similarly, an exposure to hydrogen fluoride at a concentration of 25 mg/m3 for 30 minutes is roughly comparable because there would be no significant nonstochastic effects. For times t other than 30 minutes, the concentration C of hydrogen fluoride considered to have the same effect can be calculated using a quadratic equation: C = 25 mg/m3 (30 min/t). The purpose of these analyses is to provide information for developing design and siting guideline based on chemical toxicity for enrichment plants using uranium hexafluoride. These guidelines are to be similar, in terms of stochastic health effects, to criteria in NRC regulations of nuclear power plants, which are based on radiation doses. 26 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  5. Introduction to working group on tropospheric ozone, Health Effects Institute environmental epidemiology planning project.

    Tager, I B

    1993-01-01

    The working group on tropospheric ozone of the Health Effects Institute has evaluated the need for epidemiologic studies on the health effects of ozone (O3) exposure. This paper summarizes current data and identifies possible research questions. The extent to which ozone exposure results in chronic health effects is largely undefined and is the central issue for epidemiologic studies. Most current data focus on transient endpoints; the link between acute changes in symptoms and/or lung functi...

  6. The habitus of 'rescue' and its significance for implementation of rapid response systems in acute health care.

    Mackintosh, Nicola; Humphrey, Charlotte; Sandall, Jane

    2014-11-01

    The need to focus on patient safety and improve the quality and consistency of medical care in acute hospital settings has been highlighted in a number of UK and international reports. When patients on a hospital ward become acutely unwell there is often a window of opportunity for staff, patients and relatives to contribute to the 'rescue' process by intervening in the trajectory of clinical deterioration. This paper explores the social and institutional processes associated with the practice of rescue, and implications for the implementation and effectiveness of rapid response systems (RRSs) within acute health care. An ethnographic case study was conducted in 2009 in two UK hospitals (focussing on the medical directorates in each organisation). Data collection involved 180 h of observation, 35 staff interviews (doctors, nurses, health care assistants and managers) and documentary review. Analysis was informed by Bourdieu's logic of practice and his relational concept of the 'field' of the general medical ward. Three themes illustrated the nature of rescue work within the field and collective rules which guided associated occupational distinction practices: (1) the 'dirty work' of vital sign recording and its distinction from diagnostic (higher order) interpretive work; (2) the moral order of legitimacy claims for additional help; and (3) professional deference and the selective managerial control of rescue work. The discourse of rescue provided a means of exercising greater control over clinical uncertainty. The acquisition of 'rescue capital' enabled the social positioning of health care assistants, nurses and doctors, and shaped use of the RRS on the wards. Boundary work, professional legitimation and jurisdictional claims defined the social practice of rescue, as clinical staff had to balance safety, professional and organisational concerns within the field. This paper offers a nuanced understanding of patient safety on the front-line, challenging notions of

  7. The impact of oral health on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly.

    Kirsten Solemdal

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate to what extent various oral health variables are associated with taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly. BACKGROUND: Impaired taste may contribute to weight loss in elderly. Many frail elderly have poor oral health characterized by caries, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. However, the possible influence of such factors on taste ability in acutely hospitalized elderly has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was cross-sectional. A total of 174 (55 men acutely hospitalized elderly, coming from their own homes and with adequate cognitive function, were included. Dental status, decayed teeth, oral bacteria, oral hygiene, dry mouth and tongue changes were recorded. Growth of oral bacteria was assessed with CRT® Bacteria Kit. Taste ability was evaluated with 16 taste strips impregnated with sweet, sour, salty and bitter taste solutions in 4 concentrations each. Correct identification was given score 1, and maximum total taste score was 16. RESULTS: Mean age was 84 yrs. (range 70-103 yrs.. Total taste score was significantly and markedly reduced in patients with decayed teeth, poor oral hygiene, high growth of oral bacteria and dry mouth. Sweet and salty taste were particularly impaired in patients with dry mouth. Sour taste was impaired in patients with high growth of oral bacteria. CONCLUSION: This study shows that taste ability was reduced in acutely hospitalized elderly with caries activity, high growth of oral bacteria, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Our findings indicate that good oral health is important for adequate gustatory function. Maintaining proper oral hygiene in hospitalized elderly should therefore get high priority among hospital staff.

  8. Acute effects of aflatoxins on guinea pig isolated ileum.

    Luzi, A; Cometa, M F; Palmery, M

    2002-10-01

    Previous studies on the aflatoxins have focused mainly on their chronic toxic effects. In this study we investigated the acute gastrointestinal effects of four common aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum. AFB(1) (EC(50) 4.6+/-0.4 microM) and AFB(2) (EC(50)17+/-4.4 microM) contracted isolated guinea pig ileum in a dose-dependent manner, whereas AFG(1) and AFG(2) evoked no contractions. Atropine (5.9 nM 11.8 and 23.6 nM) antagonized AFB(1)-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with the nicotinic ganglionic blocker, hexamethonium (up to 55 microM), left AFB(1)-induced contractions unchanged. In contrast, tetrodotoxin (0.3 microM), blocked AFB(1) contractile activity. The two inhibitors of ACh release, morphine (0.3 microM) and clonidine (0.4 microM), antagonized EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractions, and apamin, a drug that increases neuronal excitability, facilitated the EC(50) AFB(1)-induced contractile effect. The choline uptake blocker, hemicholinium (17.4 microM) markedly reduced AFB(1)-induced contractions. These results suggest that aflatoxins induce their contractile effect indirectly through the cholinergic system by stimulating acetylcholine release from the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve endings. The acute actions of aflatoxins on isolated guinea pig ileum could explain their acute gastrointestinal effects in humans and animals. PMID:12206819

  9. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    Aida Zarfeshany; Sedigheh Asgary; Shaghayegh Haghjoo Javanmard

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than th...

  10. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  11. Effects of melatonin in experimental stroke models in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages

    Hsiao-Wen Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsiao-Wen Lin, E-Jian LeeNeurophysiology Laboratory, Neurosurgical Service, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center and Medical School, Tainan, TaiwanAbstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine, a naturally occurring indole produced mainly by the pineal gland, is a well known antioxidant. Stroke (cerebral ischemia is the second leading cause of death worldwide. To date, however, effective and safe treatment for stroke remains unavailable. Melatonin is both lipid- and water-soluble and readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Increasing evidence has shown that, in animal stroke models, administering melatonin significantly reduces infarct volume, edema, and oxidative damage and improves electrophysiological and behavioral performance. Here, we reviewed studies that assess effects of melatonin on cerebral ischemia in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages. In addition to its potent antioxidant properties, melatonin exerts antiapoptotic, antiexcitotoxic, anti-inflammatory effects and promotes mitochondrial functions in animals with cerebral ischemia. Given that melatonin shows almost no toxicity to humans and possesses multifaceted protective capacity against cerebral ischemia, it is valuable to consider using melatonin in clinical trials on patients suffering from stroke.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, melatonin, stroke, neuroprotection

  12. The uses and adverse effects of beryllium on health

    Cooper, Ross G.; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2009-01-01

    the current review for selecting articles were adopted from proposed criteria in The International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Articles were classified based on acute and chronic exposure and toxicity of beryllium. Results: The proportions of utilized and nonutilized...... articles were published in sources unobtainable through requests at the British Library, and some had no impact factor and were excluded. Conclusion: Beryllium has some useful but undoubtedly harmful effects on health and well-being. Measures needed to be taken to prevent hazardous exposure to this element...

  13. Statistical health-effects study

    A principal objective of this program is to determine if there are demonstrable effects of radiation exposure to the Hanford worker by analyzing mortality records of this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly i an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses and initiated new areas of analysis. Complete documentation was provided for our computer program for the mortality study, and a user's manual is under development. A case-control study of birth defects was started in FY 1982

  14. Effects of Ozonated Olive Oil on Acute Radiation Proctitis in Rats

    Gültekin, Fatma Ayça; BAKKAL, Bekir Hakan; Sümer, Demet; Köktürk, Füruzan; Bektaş, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Background: Acute radiation proctitis is a common complication of pelvic radiation and management of acute radiation proctitis is under evaluation. The beneficial effects of ozonated olive oil (OzOO) have already been shown in the treatment of chronic wounds. Thus, this study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic effects of topical OzOO on acute radiation proctitis. Study Design: An...

  15. Assessment of the Acute and Chronic Health Hazards of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids.

    Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Bielicki, Jeffrey M; Suchomel, Ashley E; Sweet, Jessica T; Vold, Elizabeth M; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about how hydraulic fracturing affects public health because this activity involves handling large volumes of fluids that contain toxic and carcinogenic constituents, which are injected under high pressure through wells into the subsurface to release oil and gas from tight shale formations. The constituents of hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFFs) present occupational health risks because workers may be directly exposed to them, and general public health risks because of potential air and water contamination. Hazard identification, which focuses on the types of toxicity that substances may cause, is an important step in the complex health risk assessment of hydraulic fracturing. This article presents a practical and adaptable tool for the hazard identification of HFF constituents, and its use in the analysis of HFF constituents reported to be used in 2,850 wells in North Dakota between December 2009 and November 2013. Of the 569 reported constituents, 347 could be identified by a Chemical Abstract Service Registration Number (CASRN) and matching constituent name. The remainder could not be identified either because of trade secret labeling (210) or because of an invalid CASRN (12). Eleven public databases were searched for health hazard information on thirteen health hazard endpoints for 168 identifiable constituents that had at least 25 reports of use. Health hazard counts were generated for chronic and acute endpoints, including those associated with oral, inhalation, ocular, and dermal exposure. Eleven of the constituents listed in the top 30 by total health hazard count were also listed in the top 30 by reports of use. This includes naphthalene, which along with benzyl chloride, has the highest health hazard count. The top 25 constituents reportedly used in North Dakota largely overlap with those reported for Texas and Pennsylvania, despite different geologic formations, target resources (oil vs. gas), and disclosure requirements

  16. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  17. Acute psychological effects of one high intensity exercise

    Kleppe, Kim Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if there are positive acute mood effects of one high intensity exercise. Method: self-completion questionnaires were used to measure the state mood of the participants. 20 persons with a diagnosis of a psychotic disorder (group one), 22 persons with a psychiatric diagnosis of a non-psychotic disorder (group two) and 20 persons with no psychiatric disorder (group three) performed one high intensity exercise while completing the same questionnaire before and...

  18. Effect of carbon dioxide in acute mountain sickness

    Harvey, T C; Raichle, M E; Winterborn, M H;

    1988-01-01

    The effect of adding CO2 to inhaled air in six subjects with acute mountain sickness was investigated during a medical expedition to 5400 m.3% CO2 in ambient air increased ventilation and resulted in a rise in PaO2 of between 24% and 40%. There was a 9-28% increase in PaCO2 and a reduction of the...

  19. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2011-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marij...

  20. [Effectiveness of health examinations by occupational health services].

    Sauni, Riitta; Leino, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Health examinations are part of the activities of occupational health services in preventing diseases and promoting occupational health. Their aim is to protect workers from health risks on one hand but also to promote the worker's own resources and health in order to maintain their capacity for work. Initiation of preventive, corrective and rehabilitative measures and those directed toward the workplace is attempted at the earliest possible stage. When interpreting the examination data it is in fact important to recognize whether it is the effectiveness of the health examination visit or the subsequent procedures that is being evaluated. PMID:26939488

  1. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  2. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  3. Health Effects of Too Much Sun

    ... navigation (navigation may have changed) Section navigation The environment and your health: Green living Sun Health effects of too much sun How to protect yourself from the sun Water Air Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to ... The environment and your health Sun Health effects of too ...

  4. A Study of Oxidative Stress Biomarkers and Effect of Oral Antioxidant Supplementation in Severe Acute Malnutrition

    Ghone, Rahul A.; Suryakar, Adinath N.; Kulhalli, P. M.; Bhagat, Sonali S.; Padalkar, Ramchandra K.; Karnik, Aarti C.; Hundekar, Prakash S.; Sangle, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition represents one of the most severe health problems in India. Free radicals play an important role in immunological response, which induces the oxidative surplus in severe acute malnutrition. Severe dietary deficiency of nutrients leads to increased oxidative stress in cellular compartments. Aim: The goal of this study was to inspect impact of oxidative stress in the form of serum malondialdehyde as product of lipid peroxidation, vitamin E, zinc and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase in patients with severe acute malnutrition. Material and Methods: Sixty severe acute malnutrition patients were studied before and after supplementation of antioxidants for one month, and their status were compared with those of 60 age and sex matched healthy controls. The level of serum MDA was analyzed by the Kei Satoh method, serum vitamin E concentration was measured by Baker and Frank Method, serum zinc was measured by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase was measured by Kajari Das Method. Results: Significantly increased levels of serum malondialdehyde (p0.05) increase in vitamin E levels as compared to those before supplementation results. Conclusion: Harsh deficiency of various nutrients in severe acute malnutrition leads to generation of heavy oxidative stress. These effects may be minimized with supplementation of antioxidants. PMID:24298460

  5. Effects of Korean White Ginseng (Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer) on Vascular and Glycemic Health in Type 2 Diabetes: Results of a Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-controlled, Multiple-crossover, Acute Dose Escalation Trial

    Shishtar, Esra'; Jovanovski, Elena; Jenkins, Alexandra; Vuksan, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Korean red ginseng (steam treated Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer), among most prized traditional herbal remedies, has been clinically shown to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Whether this holds true for the dried non-steamed variety, known as Korean white ginseng (KWG) is unclear. This study therefore, investigated the efficacy and safety of escalating doses of KWG on vascular and glycemic parameters in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Using an acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, doubl...

  6. Potent health effects of pomegranate

    Aida Zarfeshany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions.

  7. Potent health effects of pomegranate.

    Zarfeshany, Aida; Asgary, Sedigheh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjoo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating data clearly claimed that Punica granatum L. (pomegranate) has several health benefits. Pomegranates can help prevent or treat various disease risk factors including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and inflammatory activities. It is demonstrated that certain components of pomegranate such as polyphenols have potential antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The antioxidant potential of pomegranate juice is more than that of red wine and green tea, which is induced through ellagitannins and hydrosable tannins. Pomegranate juice can reduce macrophage oxidative stress, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation. Moreover, pomegranate fruit extract prevents cell growth and induces apoptosis, which can lead to its anticarcinogenic effects. In addition, promoter inhibition of some inflammatory markers and their production are blocked via ellagitannins. In this article, we highlight different studies on the therapeutic effects of pomegranate and their suggested mechanisms of actions. PMID:24800189

  8. Effect of acute exercise on prostate cancer cell growth.

    Helene Rundqvist

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with reduced risk of several cancers, including aggressive prostate cancer. The mechanisms mediating the effects are not yet understood; among the candidates are modifications of endogenous hormone levels. Long-term exercise is known to reduce serum levels of growth stimulating hormones. In contrast, the endocrine effects of acute endurance exercise include increased levels of mitogenic factors such as GH and IGF-1. It can be speculated that the elevation of serum growth factors may be detrimental to prostate cancer progression into malignancy. The incentive of the current study is to evaluate the effect of acute exercise serum on prostate cancer cell growth. We designed an exercise intervention where 10 male individuals performed 60 minutes of bicycle exercise at increasing intensity. Serum samples were obtained before (rest serum and after completed exercise (exercise serum. The established prostate cancer cell line LNCaP was exposed to exercise or rest serum. Exercise serum from 9 out of 10 individuals had a growth inhibitory effect on LNCaP cells. Incubation with pooled exercise serum resulted in a 31% inhibition of LNCaP growth and pre-incubation before subcutaneous injection into SCID mice caused a delay in tumor formation. Serum analyses indicated two possible candidates for the effect; increased levels of IGFBP-1 and reduced levels of EGF. In conclusion, despite the fear of possible detrimental effects of acute exercise serum on tumor cell growth, we show that even the short-term effects seem to add to the overall beneficial influence of exercise on neoplasia.

  9. Effect of copaiba oil on acute pancreatitis in mice

    Daniel L. Medeiros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oil was evaluated using a cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis model in mice. Methods: Mice were pretreated with Copaiba sp oleoresin before induction of pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection (five injections at hourly intervals of cerulein solution and, 6 h later, pancreatic and lung damage were analyzed macroscopically for the severity of necrosis, and by protein plasma extravasation and plasma amylase activity (a biomarker of acute pancreatic damage; myeloperoxidase activity (MPO; a neutrophil marker and thiobarbituric reactive species (TBARS; a lipid peroxidation index were determined in the pancreas and lung. Results: A significant reduction in protein plasma extravasation of damaged pancreatic tissue was observed in mice that received copaiba oil. This effect was confirmed biochemically by reduction of protein plasma extravasation, and associated with reduced plasma amylase and MPO activity. Conclusion: These findings indicate the anti-inflammatory effect of copaiba oil on experimental acute pancreatitis induced by cerulein in mice. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(2.000: 107-114

  10. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  11. Health effects of dietary fiber

    Semih Ötles

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fi bre is a group of food components which is resistant to digestive enzymes and found mainly in cereals, fruits and vegetables. Dietary fi ber and whole grains contain a unique blend of bioactive components including resistant starches, vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants. Dietary fi ber which indigestible in human small intestinal, on the other hand digested completely or partially fermented in the large intestine, is examined in two groups: water-soluble and water insoluble organic compounds. Dietary fi ber can be separated into many different fractions. These fractions include arabinoxylan, inulin, pectin, bran, cellulose, β-glucan and resistant starch. Dietary fi bres compose the major component of products with low energy value that have had an increasing importance in recent years. Dietary fi bres also have technological and functional properties that can be used in the formulation of foods, as well as numerous benefi cial effects on human health. Dietary fi bre components organise functions of large intestine and have important physiological effects on glucose, lipid metabolism and mineral bioavailability. Today, dietary fi bers are known to be protective effect against certain gastrointestinal diseases, constipation, hemorrhoids, colon cancer, gastroesophageal refl ux disease, duodenal ulcer, diverticulitis, obesity, diabetes, stroke, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. In this review the physicochemical and biological properties of dietary fi bers and their important implications on human health will be investigated.

  12. Health effects of biomass exposure

    Biomass fuels such as coal, wood, crop residues, kerosene oil and dung-cakes meet the energy needs in the household sector in India and other developing countries. Crop residues and dung-cakes are largely used in rural areas, whereas wood forms the major source of fuel in urban as well as rural areas. Combustion of these fuels produces various kinds of poisonous gases such as CO, smoke, nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and respirable particulates. These gases are released in the domestic environment and they pollute the indoor air. The women and children are the one who suffer most from this air pollution. This results into a variety of health problems principally pertaining to respiratory system among the women and children. Studies on this aspect are reviewed. They point towards the positive relationship between biomass smoke and various health effects, particularly respiratory diseases. Need for research on the ways to prevent pollution due to biomass and resultant health hazards is emphasised. (M.G.B.). 25 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Health Effects of Operators in the Production of Wood Pellets

    Hagstroem, K.; Arvidsson, H.; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, C. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Eriksson, K. [Univ. Hospital of Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Andersson, E. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2006-07-15

    The environmental and energy policy in Sweden is aiming to replace fossil energy with renewable sources such as biofuels, e.g., wood Pellets produced from shavings and sawdust of pine and spruce. Reported health effects in the wood processing industries are airway, eye and skin irritation, reduced lung function as well as eczema. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of airway and skin symptoms and measure lung function in a population of pellet operators in the Swedish wood industry. Additional reported acute effects from the airways, eyes, nose and skin were recorded. From May 2004 until April 2005 50 blue-collar workers from four Swedish pellet-producing industries were investigated. The study included a questionnaire about skin and airway symptoms (n=50), acute effect questionnaire (n=67; 44 individuals) as well as a test of the lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift (n=118; 39 individuals). Acute effects questionnaire and spirometry were done one to three times per participants and for the acute effects the worker had to assess their symptoms in the airways, eyes, nose and skin between 6 and 8 times during a day. The results from the symptom questionnaires were compared with reference data from other Swedish studies and the lung function data with a European reference material. Statistical tests used were chi-2-test for the questionnaire, t-test for lung function before shift compared expected values, and for difference in lung function between before and after work shift mixed models with subjects as a random factor. No statistical significant difference was seen for the skin and airway symptoms in the questionnaire. Reported acute effects were seen especially for eye and nose symptoms (table 1). Spirometry showed significantly higher forced vital capacity (FVC; p=0.0003) and no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; p=0.08) before work shift compared to expected values. FVC was 108,1 % and FEV1 was 104

  14. Effects of acute oligohydramnios on respiratory system of fetal sheep.

    Savich, R D; Guerra, F A; Lee, C C; Padbury, J F; Kitterman, J A

    1992-08-01

    Prolonged oligohydramnios, or a lack of amniotic fluid, is associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and subsequent perinatal morbidity, but it is unclear whether short-term or acute oligohydramnios has any effect on the fetal respiratory system. To investigate the acute effects of removal of amniotic fluid, we studied nine chronically catheterized fetal sheep at 122-127 days gestation. During a control period, we measured the volume of fluid in the fetal potential airways and air spaces (VL), production rate of that fluid, incidence and amplitude of fetal breathing movements, tracheal pressures, and fetal plasma concentrations of cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. We then drained the amniotic fluid for a short period of time [24-48 h, 30.0 +/- 4.0 (SE) h] and repeated the above measurements. The volume of fluid drained for the initial studies was 1,004 +/- 236 ml. Acute oligohydramnios decreased VL from 35.4 +/- 2.9 ml/kg during control to 22.0 +/- 1.6 after oligohydramnios (P less than 0.004). Acute oligohydramnios did not affect the fetal lung fluid production rate, fetal breathing movements, or any of the other measured variables. Seven repeat studies were performed in six of the fetuses after reaccumulation of the amniotic fluid at 130-138 days, and in four of these studies the lung volume also decreased, although the overall mean for the repeat studies was not significantly different (27.0 +/- 5.2 ml/kg for control vs. 25.5 +/- 5.5 ml/kg for oligohydramnios). Again, none of the other measured variables were altered by oligohydramnios in the repeat studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1399988

  15. Exploring the Relationships between the Electronic Health Record System Components and Patient Outcomes in an Acute Hospital Setting

    Wiggley, Shirley L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the electronic health record system components and patient outcomes in an acute hospital setting, given that the current presidential administration has earmarked nearly $50 billion to the implementation of the electronic health record. The relationship between the…

  16. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine; Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1...... stimuli (visual analog scale [VAS]), assessments of thermal and mechanical detection thresholds, and areas of secondary hyperalgesia. Side effects drowsiness and postural instability were assessed by subjective ratings (VAS). RESULTS: The burn injury induced significant primary and secondary hyperalgesia...... inflammation following a thermal injury. These observations suggest a clinical potential of gabapentin in the treatment of postoperative pain....

  17. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression...... other neuroprotective agent had any beneficial effect in confirmative clinical trials or had any positive effect in the subgroup analysis. Citicoline is the only drug that in a number of different clinical stroke trials continuously had some neuroprotective benefit....... lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute...... therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11...

  18. Effects of acute and chronic administration of neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on neuronal excitability in mice

    Svob Strac, Dubravka; Vlainic, Josipa; Samardzic, Janko; Erhardt, Julija; Krsnik, Zeljka

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurosteroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) has been associated with important brain functions, including neuronal survival, memory, and behavior, showing therapeutic potential in various neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders. However, the antagonistic effects of DHEAS on γ-amino-butyric acidA receptors and its facilitatory action on glutamatergic neurotransmission might lead to enhanced brain excitability and seizures and thus limit DHEAS therapeutic applications. The aim of this study was to investigate possible age and sex differences in the neuronal excitability of the mice following acute and chronic DHEAS administration. Methods DHEAS was administered intraperitoneally in male and female adult and old mice either acutely or repeatedly once daily for 4 weeks in a 10 mg/kg dose. To investigate the potential proconvulsant properties of DHEAS, we studied the effects of acute and chronic DHEAS treatment on picrotoxin-, pentylentetrazole-, and N-methyl-D-aspartate-induced seizures in mice. The effects of acute and chronic DHEAS administration on the locomotor activity, motor coordination, and body weight of the mice were also studied. We also investigated the effects of DHEAS treatment on [3H]flunitrazepam binding to the mouse brain membranes. Results DHEAS did not modify the locomotor activity, motor coordination, body weight, and brain [3H]flunitrazepam binding of male and female mice. The results failed to demonstrate significant effects of single- and long-term DHEAS treatment on the convulsive susceptibility in both adult and aged mice of both sexes. However, small but significant changes regarding sex differences in the susceptibility to seizures were observed following DHEAS administration to mice. Conclusion Although our findings suggest that DHEAS treatment might be safe for various potential therapeutic applications in adult as well as in old age, they also support subtle interaction of DHEAS with male and female hormonal status

  19. Evaluation of the antidepressant-like effects of acute and sub-acute administration of crocin and crocetin in mice

    Bahareh Amin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the putative antidepressant effects of crocin and crocetin, two major active ingredients of Crocus sativus L. (saffron using mice in two different regimens of acute and sub-acute administration. Material and Methods: In acute treatment, antidepressant-like activities of crocin and crocetin (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p. were evaluated using forced swim test (FST. In sub-acute study (21 times with 24-h intervals, antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of drugs were examined using FST and tail suspension test (TST. Locomotor activity and motor coordination were studied using open field and rotarod tests, respectively. Results: Acute treatment with crocin (40 mg/kg and crocetin (20 and 40 mg/kg produced antidepressant-like effect in FST without affecting the baseline locomotion in mice. Sub-acute oral administration of crocin significantly decreased immobility time only at the highest dose (100 mg/kg. Crocetin (12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg was able to decrease immobility time in FST and TST. Locomotor activity and coordination of mice were not affected by crocin or crocetin. Conclusion: Since higher doses of crocin was required to show antidepressant effects, more efficacy of crocetin may be concluded. This observation provides further support for metabolism of crocin to crocetin following oral administration.

  20. The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED)

    The Air Toxics Health Effects Database (ATHED) is currently used by the EPA's Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) to support risk assessments for the Residual Risk Program. An assessment of the residual risk is required to be performed at a specified time (typically 8years) following the promulgation of a technology-based Maximum Achievable Control Technologies (MACT) standard. The goal of the Residual Risk Program is to assure that the risk that remains after MACT standards are implemented (i.e., the 'residual risk') is acceptable, and if not, to propose additional regulations to mitigate those risks. ATHED maintains all available reference values for each chemical as separate data records, and includes values for all exposure durations (acute, short-term, subchronic and chronic). These values are used as benchmarks to determine acceptable exposure levels to the hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) listed in Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. ATHED also provides useful background information on the uncertainty and/or modifying factors that were applied in the derivation of each reference value, as well as the point of departure and the critical study/studies. To facilitate comparisons across durations for a specific chemical, ATHED data can be graphically presented

  1. Health effects of Chernobyl: newer perspectives

    On the 26th of April 1986, the 4th unit of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the former Soviet Union exploded, following a scheduled but not-well-planned testing of a turbo-generator prior to a shutdown of the reactor. This led to a release of large amounts of radioactive material into the atmosphere, resulting in a cloud not only over in the Soviet Union, but due to prevailing meteorological condition, over the Eastern Europe as well. Over the past ten years, a large number of agencies in the areas of human health and hygiene, agriculture and veterinary sciences in addition to those involved in radiation protection and radiation safety have studied the impact of the accident. These studies were also extended to evaluate and mitigate the consequences. The accident has been a warning, and has provided lessons in mitigating the consequences of any industrial accident. Newer perspectives have emerged in the area of early diagnosis and treatment of the acute effects of radiation. Research in the areas of genetics, molecular biology and radiation biology will contribute to better medical care in future. (author). 3 tabs

  2. Health effects of dietary phospholipids

    Küllenberg Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Beneficial effects of dietary phospholipids (PLs have been mentioned since the early 1900's in relation to different illnesses and symptoms, e.g. coronary heart disease, inflammation or cancer. This article gives a summary of the most common therapeutic uses of dietary PLs to provide an overview of their approved and proposed benefits; and to identify further investigational needs. From the majority of the studies it became evident that dietary PLs have a positive impact in several diseases, apparently without severe side effects. Furthermore, they were shown to reduce side effects of some drugs. Both effects can partially be explained by the fact that PL are highly effective in delivering their fatty acid (FA residues for incorporation into the membranes of cells involved in different diseases, e.g. immune or cancer cells. The altered membrane composition is assumed to have effects on the activity of membrane proteins (e.g. receptors by affecting the microstructure of membranes and, therefore, the characteristics of the cellular membrane, e.g. of lipid rafts, or by influencing the biosynthesis of FA derived lipid second messengers. However, since the FAs originally bound to the applied PLs are increased in the cellular membrane after their consumption or supplementation, the FA composition of the PL and thus the type of PL is crucial for its effect. Here, we have reviewed the effects of PL from soy, egg yolk, milk and marine sources. Most studies have been performed in vitro or in animals and only limited evidence is available for the benefit of PL supplementation in humans. More research is needed to understand the impact of PL supplementation and confirm its health benefits.

  3. Acute bronchodilator responsiveness and health outcomes in COPD patients in the UPLIFT trial

    Decramer Marc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Debate continues as to whether acute bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR predicts long-term outcomes in COPD. Furthermore, there is no consensus on a threshold for BDR. Methods At baseline and during the 4-year Understanding Potential Long-term Improvements in Function with Tiotropium (UPLIFT® trial, patients had spirometry performed before and after administration of ipratropium bromide 80 mcg and albuterol 400 mcg. Patients were split according to three BDR thresholds: ≥12% + ≥200 mL above baseline (criterion A, ≥15% above baseline (criterion B; and ≥10% absolute increase in percent predicted FEV1 values (criterion C. Several outcomes (pre-dose spirometry, exacerbations, St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] total score were assessed according to presence or absence of BDR in the treatment groups. Results 5783 of 5993 randomized patients had evaluable pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry at baseline. Mean age (SD was 64 (8 years, with 75% men, mean post-bronchodilator FEV1 1.33 ± 0.44 L (47.6 ± 12.7% predicted and 30% current smokers. At baseline, 52%, 66%, and 39% of patients had acute BDR using criterion A, B, and C, respectively. The presence of BDR was variable at follow-up visits. Statistically significant improvements in spirometry and health outcomes occurred with tiotropium regardless of the baseline BDR or criterion used. Conclusions A large proportion of COPD patients demonstrate significant acute BDR. BDR in these patients is variable over time and differs according to the criterion used. BDR status at baseline does not predict long-term response to tiotropium. Assessment of acute BDR should not be used as a decision-making tool when prescribing tiotropium to patients with COPD.

  4. Health effects of exhaust particles

    Pihlava, T.; Uuppo, M.; Niemi, S.

    2013-11-01

    This report introduces general information about diesel particles and their health effects. The purpose of this report is to introduce particulate matter pollution and present some recent studies made regarding the health effects of particulate matter. The aim is not to go very deeply into the science, but instead to keep the text understandable for the average layman. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets. These small particles are made up of a number of components that include for example acids, such as nitrates and sulphates, as well as organic chemicals, metals and dust particles from the soil. Particulate matter comes from several sources, such as transportation emissions, industrial emissions, forest fires, cigarette smoke, volcanic ash and climate variations. Particles are divided into coarse particles with diameters less than 10 ..m, fine particles with diameters smaller than 2.5 ..m and ultra-fine particles with diameters less than 0.1 ..m. The particulate matter in diesel exhaust gas is a highly complex mixture of organic, inorganic, solid, volatile and partly volatile compounds. Many of these particles do not form until they reach the air. Many carcinogenic compounds have been found in diesel exhaust gas and it is considered carcinogenic to humans. Particulate matter can cause several health effects, such as premature death in persons with heart or lung disease, cancer, nonfatal heart attacks, irregular heartbeat, aggravated asthma, decreased lung function and an increase in respiratory symptoms, such as irritation of the airways, coughing or difficulty breathing. It is estimated that in Finland about 1300 people die prematurely due to particles and the economic loss in the EU due to the health effects of particles can be calculated in the billions. Ultra-fine particles are considered to be the most harmful to human health. Ultrafine particles usually make the most of their quantity and surface area

  5. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research

  6. Health effects of risk-assessment categories

    Kramer, C.F.; Rybicka, K.; Knutson, A.; Morris, S.C.

    1983-10-01

    Environmental and occupational health effects associated with exposures to various chemicals are a subject of increasing concern. One recently developed methodology for assessing the health impacts of various chemical compounds involves the classification of similar chemicals into risk-assessment categories (RACs). This report reviews documented human health effects for a broad range of pollutants, classified by RACs. It complements other studies that have estimated human health effects by RAC based on analysis and extrapolation of data from animal research.

  7. Categories of adverse health effects from indoor air pollution

    There is a lack of precision in the definition of health, which leads to confusion in the assessment of adverse effects arising from indoor air pollution. Adverse health effects range from annoyance to life-threatening conditions. Survey responses suggest that males and females differ in their perception of a healthy person, but both sexes envisage a male in terms of positive fitness, strength, energy and the possession of an athletic body, rather than how long one was likely to live. Psychological fitness was relatively unimportant in describing the health of others, but was rates as very important with respect to one's own health. Mortality statistics tend to obscure the proportion of the population who suffer chronic illness that is not life threatening. Although health is largely determined by genetic constitution, lifestyle and environmental factors, the morale of an individual is also important. A new classification of the adverse effects on health of indoor air pollution is proposed: this includes 'comfort' responses, such as sick building syndrome (category 1); acute chemical effects, the nature of which depends upon the specific intoxicant (category 2B), and perceived chronic grave risk, including cancer causation (category 3). The magnitude of risk in this latter category is imprecise, because its measurement involves the technique of quantitative risk assessment. (author) 1 fig., 2 tabs., 158 refs

  8. Health effects and medical surveillance

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manuals to provide adequate training, instruction or information on health effects and medical surveillance for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiation. Sources of ionizing radiations have a large number of applications in the workplace. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not harmful. Some applications involve sources that could deliver more significant radiation doses, particularly when poor methods are practised or an accident occurs. The radiations cannot be seen, felt or sensed by the human body in any way and excessive exposures may cause detriment to the health of a worker in a way that is not immediately apparent. When the symptoms occur, weeks or possibly years later, an untrained worker or inexperienced medical staff probably cannot recognize the effects to be due to the radiation exposure. This Manual explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  9. Curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage

    Rui-xing SUN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to observe the curative effect of monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection on acute cerebral hemorrhage. A total of 120 cases with acute cerebral hemorrhage were treated with Xingnaojing injection monotherapy (control group, N = 60 or monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection (combined treatment group, N = 60. Bleeding amount and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores of 2 groups were both significantly reduced on the 21th day after treatment (P = 0.000, for all, but bleeding amount and NIHSS scores in combined treatment group were significantly lower than those in control group (P = 0.000, for all. After 21 d treatment, total effective rate of combined treatment group was 86.67% (52/60, which was significantly higher than that of control group [66.67% (40/60; χ2 = 1.493, P = 0.024]. For patients with acute cerebral hemorrhage, monosialotetrahexosylganglioside combined with Xingnaojing injection can significantly improve the neurological function. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.07.014

  10. Prevalence and predictors of patient adherence to health recommendations after acute coronary syndrome: data for targeted interventions?

    Lee, WL; Abdullah, KL; Bulgiba, AM; Abidin, IZ

    2013-01-01

    Background: Poor adherence is a significant nursing and public health concern because it affects patients’ quality of life. It compounds the disease burden of the growing coronary heart disease population. Promoting optimal patient adherence to cardiac-health enhancing recommendations by healthcare providers can reduce mortality and morbidity risk after acute coronary syndrome (ACS).  Aim: This paper sought to examine rates and predictors of patient adherence to health recommen...

  11. Mother`s health care-seeking behavior for children with acute respiratory infections in a post-earthquake setting

    Yulinar Wusanani; Djauhar Ismail; Rina Triasih

    2013-01-01

    Background Delayed health care-seeking behavior is a cause of high mortality in children due to acute respiratory infections (ARIs). Factors that may affect health care-seeking behavior are socioeconomic status, maternal age, maternal education, parents’ perception of illness, child’s age, number of children under five years of age in the family, and occurrence of natural disasters. The 2006 Central Java earthquake damaged homes and health care facilities, and led to increased poverty among t...

  12. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    E Nakimuli-Mpungu; B Mutamba; Nshemerirwe, S; Kiwuwa, MS; Musisi, S

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania. Methods We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immu...

  13. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Jacob Jesurun RS; Lavakumar S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The term acute renal failure (ARF) is at present called acute kidney injury (AKI). AKI is a reversible condition in which there is a sudden decline in renal function, manifested by elevated SCr and BUN which occurs in hours to days to weeks. The present study was to evaluate the nephron protective effect of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure in wistar albino rats. Methods: Experimental evaluation was done in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. 2...

  14. Marijuana’s Acute Effects on Cognitive Bias for Affective and Marijuana Cues

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; McGeary, John E.; Valerie S. Knopik

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana’s ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7–3.0 % delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affec...

  15. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    "Mortazavi H

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Cheilitis with a frequency of 88 percent was the most frequent side effect. Hair loss (22.97%, dry mouth with thirst (15.09%, dryness of mucous membranes (13.12%, xerosis with pruritus (11.15%, nose bleeding (8.31%, paronychia (5.47%, facial dermatitis (3.06%, conjunctivitis (2.84% and in addition to mucocutaneous ones, chills (2.63%, headache (2.19%, mental depression (2.19%, urinary frequency (1.53% and papilledema (0.44% were among the other observed toxicities, The relationship between mucocutaneous side effect with dosage of etretinate, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucoctaneous toxicities and sex was significant, sex and, age of the patients was evaluated. The association between mucocutaneous toxicities and sex was significant (P<0.05. We observed four rare side effect in the patients including hair color lightening appering as whitening or blondness, hair waving, dyspareunia and gynecomastia. In conclusion, females were more to acute mucocutaneous toxicities of etretinate.

  16. Effects of nuclear war on health and health services

    This report reviews the findings since 1987 in the field of research related to the possible impact of nuclear war and nuclear explosions on health and health services. An annex contains the finding and conclusions of a 1989 United Nations study on the climatic and other effects of nuclear war. 1 tab

  17. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Formaldehyde

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for formaldehyde was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous cons...

  18. Health and environmental effects of nuclear weapons

    This report briefly reviews previous WHO work on the health consequences of nuclear war and concentrates on current information about the effects of nuclear weapons on health, and related environmental problems. 15 refs

  19. Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution

    ... Health Risks Health Effects of Ozone and Particle Pollution Two types of air pollution dominate in the ... So what are ozone and particle pollution? Ozone Pollution It may be hard to imagine that the ...

  20. Acute Childhood Illnesses and Health Seeking Behaviour among under five children in a village of Hooghly district, West Bengal

    Indira Dey (Pal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: – Acute respiratory infections and diarrhoeal diseases are important causes of morbidity in children worldwide. IMNCI component is addressing these two illnesses in a major way and is concentrating on health care practices of community. Objective: – to find out their health seeking behaviour. Methodology: – A community based , cross-sectional study was conducted in the Mollasimla village of Hooghly district of West Bengal using 2 weeks recall for acute illnesses. Results – It was found that 56.8%, 23.8% and 18.9% children suffered from ARI, fever and diarrhea respectively. Overall treatment rate was above 93% and most of the children were treated in hospitals and health centre. Conclusion: – Acute illnesses are still largely prevalent in the rural community. As mothers are the first care givers, they should be made aware of the preventive measures and the need for seeking treatment.

  1. Effective access to health care in Mexico

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Dolci, Germán Fajardo; Ávila, Mauricio Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Background Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Methods Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining fin...

  2. Health effects of ionizing radiation

    Ionizing radiation is energy that travels through space as electromagnetic waves or a stream of fast moving particles. In the workplace, the sources of ionizing radiation are radioactive substances, nuclear power plants, x-ray machines and nuclear devices used in medicine, research and industry. Commonly encountered types of radiation are alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays. Alpha particles have very little penetrating power and pose a risk only when the radioactive substance is deposited inside the body. Beta particles are more penetrating than alpha particles and can penetrate the outer body tissues causing damage to the skin and the eyes. Gamma rays are highly penetrating and can cause radiation damage to the whole body. The probability of radiation-induced disease depends on the accumulated amount of radiation dose. The main health effects of ionizing radiation are cancers in exposed persons and genetic disorders in the children, grandchildren and subsequent generations of the exposed parents. The fetus is highly sensitive to radiation-induced abnormalities. At high doses, radiation can cause cataracts in the eyes. There is no firm evidence that ionizing radiation causes premature aging. Radiation-induced sterility is highly unlikely for occupational doses. The data on the combined effect of ionizing radiation and other cancer-causing physical and chemical agents are inconclusive

  3. EFFECTS OF ACUTE HYPOGLYCEMIA ON THE OREXIN SYSTEM IN RAT

    Yu-yan Zhao; Lei Guo; Jian Du; Guo-liang Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of acute glucose level changes on expression of prepro-orexin, orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) mRNA in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cells.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n= 10). The acute hypoglycemia rat model was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of insulin. Twenty acute hypoglycemia rats were divided into group B and group C. Group B was allowed to eat freely, while group C was food-deprived. Control rats were injected the same volume of saline. The effect of glucose levels (2.8 mmol/L and 8.3 mmol/L) on pancreatic islet cell orexin system was detected in pancreas islet cell cultured in vitro. The expression of prepro-orexin and OXR mRNA was examined in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cell cultured in vitro using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR).Results Expression of orexin mRNA increased about 150% for the food-deprived hypoglycemia rats in comparison with control group (P < 0.01), whereas expression of OX1R mRNA decreased up to 30% (P < 0.01). However, expression of OX2R mRNA was unchanged in comparison with control group. In vitro, after incubation with 2.8 mmol/L glucose for 6hours, the expression of prepro-orexin mRNA increased 2 times in rat pancreas islet cells in comparison with 8.3 mmol/Lglucose group (P < 0.01). But the expression of OX1R mRNA was not sensitive to acute glucose fluctuation.Conclusions Orexin in rat hypothalamus is stimulated by decline in blood glucose and inhibited by signals related to feeding. Moreover, glucose plays a role in modulating the gene expression of prepro-orexin in rat pancreatic islet cells.

  4. Effectiveness of chelation therapy with time after acute uranium intoxication

    The effect of increasing the time interval between acute uranium exposure and chelation therapy was studied in male Swiss mice. Gallic acid, 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3- benzenedisulfonic acid (Tiron), diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), and 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-AS) were administered ip at 0, 0.25, 1, 4, and 24 hr after sc injection of 10 mg/kg of uranyl acetate dihydrate. Chelating agents were given at doses equal to one-fourth of their respective LD50 values. Daily elimination of uranium into urine and feces was determined for 4 days after which time the mice were killed, and the concentration of uranium was measured in kidney, spleen, and bone. The excretion of uranium was especially rapid in the first 24 hr. Treatment with Tiron or gallic acid at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly increased the total excretion of the metal. In kidney and bone, only administration of Tiron at 0, 0.25, or 1 hr after uranium injection, or gallic acid at 1 hr after uranium exposure significantly reduced tissue uranium concentrations. Treatment at later times (4 to 24 hr) did not increase the total excretion of the metal and did not decrease the tissue uranium concentrations 4 days after uranyl acetate administration. The results show that the length of time before initiating chelation therapy for acute uranium intoxication greatly influences the effectiveness of this therapy

  5. Effects of Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygen Treatment in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction: A Pilot Study

    Cheng-Hsin Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke is controversial. This prospective study assessed the efficacy and safety of HBOT as adjuvant treatment on 46 acute ischemic stroke in patients who did not receive thrombolytic therapy. The HBOT group (n=16 received conventional medical treatment with 10 sessions of adjunctive HBOT within 3–5 days after stroke onset, while the control group (n=30 received the same treatment but without HBOT. Early (around two weeks after onset and late (one month after onset outcomes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, NIHSS scores and efficacy (changes of NIHSS scores of HBOT were evaluated. The baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Both early and late outcomes of the HBOT group showed significant difference (P≤0.001. In the control group, there was only significant difference in early outcome (P=0.004. For early efficacy, there was no difference when comparing changes of NIHSS scores between the two groups (P=0.140 but there was statistically significant difference when comparing changes of NIHSS scores at one month (P≤0.001. The HBOT used in this study may be effective for patients with acute ischemic stroke and is a safe and harmless adjunctive treatment.

  6. Health consequences in the Chernobyl emergency workers surviving after confirmed acute radiation sickness. Chapter 1

    On April 26, 1986 the accident at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) took place during the planned test of one of the safety systems. According to the International Nuclear Event Scale (INES of the IAEA) the Chernobyl accident is classified as the only event by today at the 7th (most severe) level. The accident caused the deaths within a few days or weeks of 30 ChNPP employees and firemen (including 28 deaths that were due to radiation exposure), brought about the evacuation of about 116,000 people from areas surrounding the reactor during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of about 220 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The highest doses were received by the approximately 600 emergency workers who were on the site of the Chernobyl power plant during the night of the accident. The most important exposures were due to external irradiation, as the intake of radionuclides through inhalation was relatively small in most cases. Acute radiation sickness (ARS) was confirmed for 134 of those emergency workers. Forty-one of these patients received whole-body doses from external irradiation of less than 2.1 Gy. Ninety-three patients received higher doses and had more severe ARS: 50 persons with doses between 2.2 and 4.1 Gy, 22 between 4.2 and 6.4 Gy, and 21 between 6.5 and 16 Gy. In 1986-1987 237 emergency workers were diagnosed with ARS. Later, this disease was confirmed in 134 patients, of which 108 were treated in Russia and 26 in Ukraine. Of these confirmed 134 patients, 28 died in the acute period (first 3 months) after the accident due to extremely severe radiation induced bone marrow and skin damages. Between 1987 and 2001, a further 14 ARS patients and 7 NOARS patients died. The main causes of their death were sudden coronary death (7 cases), oncohaematological pathology (3 cases), liver cirrhosis (2 cases) and infectious lung diseases (2 cases). In Ukraine stochastic health effects (malignant neoplasms) have been

  7. Chemosensory effects during acute exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP).

    van Thriel, Christoph; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Schäper, Michael; Juran, Stephanie A; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Wrbitzky, Renate; Stache, Jürgen; Golka, Klaus; Bader, Michael

    2007-12-10

    Organic solvents are still essential in many industrial applications. To improve safety and health in the working environment lower occupational thresholds limits have been established and less toxic substitutes were introduced. N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a versatile solvent that is used as a substitute for dichloromethane in paint strippers. Due to conflicting results, there is a debate whether NMP causes irritations of the upper airways/eyes or not. In a human experimental study we examined the chemosensory effects of NMP under controlled conditions. Fifteen healthy males were investigated in a cross-over study. NMP vapor concentrations were 10, 40 and 80 mg/m(3) for 2 x 4h with an exposure-free lunch break of 30 min. To maximize chemosensory effects a peak exposure scenario (25mg/m(3) baseline, 160 mg/m(3) peaks 4 x 15 min, time-weighted average: 72 mg/m(3)) was tested. The four different conditions were conducted with and without moderate physical workload. Chemosensory effects were measured physiologically by anterior rhinomanometry, eye blink rate and breathing frequency. Subjectively, ratings of acute health symptoms and intensity of olfactory and trigeminal sensations were collected repeatedly throughout the exposures. All physiological variables were unaffected by the different NMP concentrations and even the peak exposures were non-effective on these measures. Olfactory mediated health symptoms increased dose-dependently. For these symptoms a strong adaptation was observable, especially during the first 4h of the exposures. Other acute symptoms were not significantly affected. Comparable to the symptoms, only olfactory sensations increased dose-dependently. Trigeminal sensations (e.g. eye and nose irritations) were evaluated as being barely detectable during the different exposures, only during 160 mg/m(3) exposure peak weak and transient eye irritation were reported. The results clearly suggest that NMP concentrations of up to 160 mg/m(3) caused no

  8. Health Knowledge Effects: An Integrated Community Health Promotion Platform.

    Chang, I-Chiu; Lin, Chih-Yu; Tseng, Hsiao-Ting; Ho, Wen-Yu

    2016-03-01

    The Taiwanese government subsidizes healthcare providers offering preventive medicine to patients to help reduce the threats of chronic sickness and halt skyrocketing medical expenditures. Usually, nurses are the primary workers who perform community health promotion; however, because of the chronic shortage of working nurses, many Taiwan hospitals have closed wards and deferred the responsibility of promoting primary prevention. With a community health promotion platform integrating interactive response features and Web sites for community patients and hospital staff, a case hospital efficiently sustained the community health services. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the integrated community health promotion platform for conducting education. Fifty-four patients/residents were invited to join a quasi-experiment of health education, and a follow-up survey was conducted to assess the acceptance of the community health promotion platform from both the experimental group of learners/users and the hospital staff. The results showed that the community health promotion platform was effective in improving participant health awareness. The experimental group outperformed the control group, with higher posttest scores and longer knowledge retention. Furthermore, users indicated a high acceptance of the community health promotion platform. PMID:26657621

  9. The 2016 revision to the World Health Organization classification of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia.

    Arber, Daniel A; Orazi, Attilio; Hasserjian, Robert; Thiele, Jürgen; Borowitz, Michael J; Le Beau, Michelle M; Bloomfield, Clara D; Cazzola, Mario; Vardiman, James W

    2016-05-19

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues was last updated in 2008. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the identification of unique biomarkers associated with some myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemias, largely derived from gene expression analysis and next-generation sequencing that can significantly improve the diagnostic criteria as well as the prognostic relevance of entities currently included in the WHO classification and that also suggest new entities that should be added. Therefore, there is a clear need for a revision to the current classification. The revisions to the categories of myeloid neoplasms and acute leukemia will be published in a monograph in 2016 and reflect a consensus of opinion of hematopathologists, hematologists, oncologists, and geneticists. The 2016 edition represents a revision of the prior classification rather than an entirely new classification and attempts to incorporate new clinical, prognostic, morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic data that have emerged since the last edition. The major changes in the classification and their rationale are presented here. PMID:27069254

  10. Acute effect of different stretching methods on isometric muscle strength

    Gabriel Vasconcellos de Lima Costa e Silva

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the acute effect of static stretching methods (SS and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF on the static muscle strength (SMS. Eleven young male subjects with strength training experience, performed 3 tests with a 48h interval between them, randomly selected, where each one subject carried out all procedures: a hand grip without stretching; b hand grip preceded by static stretching of wrist flexors muscles; c hand grip preceded by PNF stretching of wrist flexors muscles. The Shapiro-Wilk test verified the normality of data, and a one-way ANOVA with repeated measures, followed by Tukey’s post hoc test, evaluated the differences between the groups. The significance was set at p 0.05. In conclusion, both stretching methods had caused negative effects on isometric strength, reducing its levels.

  11. Comparison of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation IV to predict intensive care unit mortality

    Bashu Dev Parajuli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Clinical assessment of severity of illness is an essential component of medical practice to predict the outcome of critically ill-patient. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE model is one of the widely used scoring systems. Aims: This study was designed to evaluate the Performance of APACHE II and IV scoring systems in our Intensive Care Unit (ICU. Settings and Design: A prospective study in 6 bedded ICU, including 76 patients all above 15 years. Subjects and Methods: APACHE II and APACHE IV scores were calculated based on the worst values in the first 24 h of admission. All enrolled patients were followed, and outcome was recorded as survivors or nonsurvivors. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS version 17. Results: The mean APACHE score was significantly higher among nonsurvivors than survivors (P < 0.005. Discrimination for APACHE II and APACHE IV was fair with area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.73 and 0.79 respectively. The cut-off point with best Youden index for APACHE II was 17 and for APACHE IV was 85. Above cut-off point, mortality was higher for both models (P < 0.005. Hosmer-Lemeshow Chi-square coefficient test showed better calibration for APACHE II than APACHE IV. A positive correlation was seen between the models with Spearman′s correlation coefficient of 0.748 (P < 0.01. Conclusions: Discrimination was better for APACHE IV than APACHE II model however Calibration was better for APACHE II than APACHE IV model in our study. There was good correlation between the two models observed in our study.

  12. Effect of democracy on health: ecological study

    Franco, Álvaro; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Can political regimes be singled out as a factor affecting health? Rating countries by the extent of their freedom is a useful proxy for measuring the effects of democracy on health related variables. Although the influence of democracy in preventing famines has been reported, there have been no empirical studies on the relation between the extent of freedom allowed by political regimes and the effect on a nation’s health. We explored the effect of democracy on life expectancy and...

  13. A critical narrative analysis of shared decision-making in acute inpatient mental health care.

    Stacey, Gemma; Felton, Anne; Morgan, Alastair; Stickley, Theo; Willis, Martin; Diamond, Bob; Houghton, Philip; Johnson, Beverley; Dumenya, John

    2016-01-01

    Shared decision-making (SDM) is a high priority in healthcare policy and is complementary to the recovery philosophy in mental health care. This agenda has been operationalised within the Values-Based Practice (VBP) framework, which offers a theoretical and practical model to promote democratic interprofessional approaches to decision-making. However, these are limited by a lack of recognition of the implications of power implicit within the mental health system. This study considers issues of power within the context of decision-making and examines to what extent decisions about patients' care on acute in-patient wards are perceived to be shared. Focus groups were conducted with 46 mental health professionals, service users, and carers. The data were analysed using the framework of critical narrative analysis (CNA). The findings of the study suggested each group constructed different identity positions, which placed them as inside or outside of the decision-making process. This reflected their view of themselves as best placed to influence a decision on behalf of the service user. In conclusion, the discourse of VBP and SDM needs to take account of how differentials of power and the positioning of speakers affect the context in which decisions take place. PMID:26833106

  14. Improving the care for people with acute low-back pain by allied health professionals (the ALIGN trial: A cluster randomised trial protocol

    Keating Jennifer L

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability between clinical practice guideline recommendations and actual clinical practice exists in many areas of health care. A 2004 systematic review examining the effectiveness of guideline implementation interventions concluded there was a lack of evidence to support decisions about effective interventions to promote the uptake of guidelines. Further, the review recommended the use of theory in the development of implementation interventions. A clinical practice guideline for the management of acute low-back pain has been developed in Australia (2003. Acute low-back pain is a common condition, has a high burden, and there is some indication of an evidence-practice gap in the allied health setting. This provides an opportunity to develop and test a theory-based implementation intervention which, if effective, may provide benefits for patients with this condition. Aims This study aims to estimate the effectiveness of a theory-based intervention to increase allied health practitioners' (physiotherapists and chiropractors in Victoria, Australia compliance with a clinical practice guideline for acute non-specific low back pain (LBP, compared with providing practitioners with a printed copy of the guideline. Specifically, our primary objectives are to establish if the intervention is effective in reducing the percentage of acute non-specific LBP patients who are either referred for or receive an x-ray, and improving mean level of disability for patients three months post-onset of acute LBP. Methods The design of the study is a cluster randomised trial. Restricted randomisation was used to randomise 210 practices (clusters to an intervention or control group. Practitioners in the control group received a printed copy of the guideline. Practitioners in the intervention group received a theory-based intervention developed to address prospectively identified barriers to practitioner compliance with the guideline. The

  15. The effects of different remedies on acute myocardial infarction

    Objective: To investigate the different treatment effects of intravenous thrombolysis vs primary coronary angioplasty and interhospital transfer for primary coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction within 12 hours after onset. Methods: During January 2004 to December 2005, 63 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction admitted directly for primary PCI and 25 patients transferred from other hospitals for primary. PCI were compared with 32 patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Each patients arrived at hospital within 12 h from chest pain onset. T-test and Chi-square test were used to analyze the rate of mortality, re-infarction, heart failure in-hospital and 1-year latter. Results: Among the 3 groups, for group of intravenous thrombolysis, time interval from arriving to having reflow was the shortest (1.1 ± 0.2 h vs 2.3 ± 1.0 h vs 2.1 ± 1.1 h, P < 0.01), the mortalities in hospital (6.3% vs 3.2% vs 4.0%) and 1-year follow up (12.5% vs 4.8% vs 8.0%)were highest in spite of no statistic difference. After 1 year, the rate of reinfarction in intravenous thrombolysis group is higher than that in PCI group (18.8% vs 4.5%, P < 0.05). Conclusions: The key point of AMI remedy is to open the criminal vessel as fast as possible. Interhospital transfer for PCI is feasible and safe. (authors)

  16. Health Effects and Energy Choices

    Newill, Vaun A.

    1975-01-01

    The United States will continue to have a high energy demand to maintain our present life style. The development of a national health policy statement that would serve to coordinate federal programs for research and regulation of environmental health is suggested. (BT)

  17. Effectiveness of a transitional home care program in reducing acute hospital utilization: a quasi-experimental study

    Low, Lian Leng; Vasanwala, Farhad Fakhrudin; Ng, Lee Beng; Chen, Cynthia; Lee, Kheng Hock; Tan, Shu Yun

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving healthcare utilization is essential as health systems around the world grapple with the escalating demands for acute hospital resources. Evidence suggests that transitional care programs are effective to improve utilization of healthcare. However, the evidence for transitional care programs that enhance the home medical care model and provide multi-disciplinary patient-centered care is not well established. We evaluated if a transitional home care program operated by the ...

  18. Differential Acute Effects of Selenomethionine and Sodium Selenite on the Severity of Colitis

    Franziska Hiller

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European population is only suboptimally supplied with the essential trace element selenium. Such a selenium status is supposed to worsen colitis while colitis-suppressive effects were observed with adequate or supplemented amounts of both organic selenomethionine (SeMet and inorganic sodium selenite. In order to better understand the effect of these selenocompounds on colitis development we examined colonic phenotypes of mice fed supplemented diets before the onset of colitis or during the acute phase. Colitis was induced by treating mice with 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS for seven days. The selenium-enriched diets were either provided directly after weaning (long-term or were given to mice with a suboptimal selenium status after DSS withdrawal (short-term. While long-term selenium supplementation had no effect on colitis development, short-term selenite supplementation, however, resulted in a more severe colitis. Colonic selenoprotein expression was maximized in all selenium-supplemented groups independent of the selenocompound or intervention time. This indicates that the short-term selenite effect appears to be independent from colonic selenoprotein expression. In conclusion, a selenite supplementation during acute colitis has no health benefits but may even aggravate the course of disease.

  19. Differential acute effects of selenomethionine and sodium selenite on the severity of colitis.

    Hiller, Franziska; Oldorff, Lisa; Besselt, Karolin; Kipp, Anna Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The European population is only suboptimally supplied with the essential trace element selenium. Such a selenium status is supposed to worsen colitis while colitis-suppressive effects were observed with adequate or supplemented amounts of both organic selenomethionine (SeMet) and inorganic sodium selenite. In order to better understand the effect of these selenocompounds on colitis development we examined colonic phenotypes of mice fed supplemented diets before the onset of colitis or during the acute phase. Colitis was induced by treating mice with 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for seven days. The selenium-enriched diets were either provided directly after weaning (long-term) or were given to mice with a suboptimal selenium status after DSS withdrawal (short-term). While long-term selenium supplementation had no effect on colitis development, short-term selenite supplementation, however, resulted in a more severe colitis. Colonic selenoprotein expression was maximized in all selenium-supplemented groups independent of the selenocompound or intervention time. This indicates that the short-term selenite effect appears to be independent from colonic selenoprotein expression. In conclusion, a selenite supplementation during acute colitis has no health benefits but may even aggravate the course of disease. PMID:25867950

  20. Acute kidney injury: short-term and long-term effects.

    Doyle, James F; Forni, Lui G

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the most common cause of organ dysfunction in critically ill adults, with a single episode of AKI, regardless of stage, carrying a significant morbidity and mortality risk. Since the consensus on AKI nomenclature has been reached, data reflecting outcomes have become more apparent allowing investigation of both short- and long-term outcomes.Classically the short-term effects of AKI can be thought of as those reflecting an acute deterioration in renal function per se. However, the effects of AKI, especially with regard to distant organ function ("organ cross-talk"), are being elucidated as is the increased susceptibility to other conditions. With regards to the long-term effects, the consideration that outcome is a simple binary endpoint of dialysis or not, or survival or not, is overly simplistic, with the reality being much more complex.Also discussed are currently available treatment strategies to mitigate these adverse effects, as they have the potential to improve patient outcome and provide considerable economic health savings. Moving forward, an agreement for defining renal recovery is warranted if we are to assess and extrapolate the efficacy of novel therapies. Future research should focus on targeted therapies assessed by measure of long-term outcomes. PMID:27373891

  1. Cost effectiveness of diagnostic strategies for patients with acute, undifferentiated chest pain

    Goodacre, S; Calvert, N.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Patients presenting to hospital with acute, undifferentiated chest pain have a low, but important, risk of significant myocardial ischaemia. Potential diagnostic strategies for patients with acute, undifferentiated chest pain vary from low cost, poor effectiveness (discharging all home) to high cost, high effectiveness (admission and intensive investigation). This paper aimed to estimate the relative cost effectiveness of these strategies.

  2. The emerging role of exercise and health counseling in patients with acute leukemia undergoing chemotherapy during outpatient management

    Jarden, Mary; Adamsen, Lis; Kjeldsen, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility, safety and benefits of a 6-week exercise and health counseling intervention in patients with acute leukemia undergoing consolidation chemotherapy during outpatient management. Seventeen of twenty patients completed study requirements (85%), adherence to...... exercise was 73% and for health counseling 92%. There were improvements in the 6-min-walk-distance (p=0.0013), sit-to-stand test (p=0.0062), the right and left biceps arm-curl tests p=0.0002 and p=0.0002, respectively; health-related quality of life (p=0.0209) (FACT-An), vitality (p=0.0015), mental health...

  3. Protective effects of rhubarb on experimental severe acute pancreatitis

    Yu-Qing Zhao; Xiao-Hong Liu; Tetsuhide Ito; Jia-Ming Qian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of rhubarb on severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats.METHODS: Severe acute pancreatitis was induced by two intraperitoneal injections of cerulein (40 μg/kg body weight) plus 5-h restraint water-immersion stress. Rhubarb (75-150 mg/kg) was orally fed before the first cerulein injection.The degree of pancreatic edema, serum amylase level,local pancreatic blood flow (PBF), and histological alterations were investigated. The effects of rhubarb on pancreatic exocrine secretion in this model were evaluated by comparing with those of somatostatin.RESULTS: In the Cerulein+Stress group, severe edema and diffuse hemorrhage in the pancreas were observed,the pancreatic wet weight (11.60±0.61 g/Kg) and serum amylase (458 490±43 100 U/L) were markedly increased (P<0.01 vs control). In the rhubarb (150 mg/kg) treated rats, necrosis and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) infiltration in the pancreas were significantly reduced (P<0.01), and a marked decrease (50%) in serum amylase levels was also observed (P<0.01). PBF dropped to 38%(93±5 Ml/min per 100 g) of the control in the Cerulein+Stressgroup and partly recovered in the Cerulein+Stress+Rhubarb 150 mg group (135±12 Ml/min per 100 g) (P<0.01). The pancreatic exocrine function was impaired in the SAP rats.The amylase levels of pancreatic juice were reduced in the rats treated with rhubarb or somatostatin, comparing with that of untreated SAP group. The bicarbonate concentration of pancreatic juice was markedly elevated only in the rhubarb treated group (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Rhubarb can exert protective effects on SAP, probably by inhibiting the inflammation of pancreas,improving pancreatic microcirculation, and altering exocrine secretion.

  4. Demographic and stroke-related factors as predictors of quality of acute stroke care provided by allied health professionals

    Luker J; Bernhardt J; Grimmer-Somers KA

    2011-01-01

    Julie A Luker1, Julie Bernhardt2,3, Karen A Grimmer-Somers11International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia; 2School of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 3Stroke Division, Florey Neurosciences Institute, Heidelberg Heights, Victoria, AustraliaBackground: We recently indicated that patient age on its own is not a determinant of quality of allied health care received after an acute stroke. It has not bee...

  5. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established Safety Culture, the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  6. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine;

    2001-01-01

    ,200 mg or placebo was given on 2 separate study days. Three hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm(2), 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1...... (P <.0001). Gabapentin diminished the decrease in mechanical pain threshold in the burn area (P =.04) and reduced secondary hyperalgesia, but the reduction was not significant (P =.06). Heat pain thresholds, pain during the burn, and mechanical pain in the area of secondary hyperalgesia were not...

  7. Side effect of cranial radiation in childhood acute leukemia, 1

    We examined the somnolence syndrome, which is one of the side effects of cranial irradiation. Out of 53 patients in acute leukemia who had received cranial irradiation, nine patients (17%) developed the somnolence syndrome. Patients with the somnolence syndrome showed slow waves on EEG. Some patients had ventricular dilatation and widening of sulci before cranial irradiation on CT findings, but these findings improved after cranial irradiation. Out of nine cases with the somnolence syndrome, 6 patients survived and did not experience difficulties in school. But one patient showed calcification on CT brain scan. It is considered that the cause of the somnolence syndrome is a trasient inhibition of myelin synthesis and most patients improved without serious sequelae. It is necessary to follow up many cases of somnolence syndrome. (author)

  8. High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise: Effect on Young People's Cardiometabolic Health and Cognition.

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Nevill, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    With only a quarter of young people currently meeting physical activity guidelines, two key areas of concern are the effects of exercise on cardiometabolic health and cognition. Despite the fact that physical activity in young people is typically high intensity and intermittent in nature, much of the literature examines traditional endurance-type exercise. This review provides an update on the effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on young people's cardiometabolic health and cognition. High-intensity intermittent exercise has acute beneficial effects on endothelial function and postprandial lipemia and chronic positive effects on weight management. In addition, there is emerging evidence regarding chronic benefits on the blood lipid profile, blood pressure, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, emerging evidence suggests beneficial acute and chronic effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on cognition. However, further research is required in both cardiometabolic health and cognition, particularly regarding the impact of school-based interventions in adolescents. PMID:27399821

  9. Amelioration of Acute Mercury Toxicity by a Novel, Non-Toxic Lipid Soluble Chelator N,N′bis-(2-mercaptoethyl)isophthalamide: Effect on Animal Survival, Health, Mercury Excretion and Organ Accumulation

    Clarke, David; Buchanan, Roger; Gupta, Niladri; Haley, Boyd

    2012-01-01

    The toxic effects of mercury are known to be complex with specific enzyme inhibitions and subsequent oxidative stress adding to the damaging effects. There are likely other factors involved, such as the development of impaired metal ion homeostasis and depletion of thiol and selenium based metabolites such as cysteine and selenium. Much of the toxicity of mercury occurs at the intracellular level via binding of Hg2+ to thiol groups in specific proteins. Therefore, amelioration of mercury toxi...

  10. Protective effects of gelsolin on acute radiation symptom

    This paper is to study the protective effect of gelsolin on acute radiation symptoms after total body irradiation. The concentration of plasma gelsolin was determined by a commercial ELISA Kit before and post-irradiation at different times by 137Cs γ rays with 4 Gy and 8 Gy. Levels of prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (FIB) were detected by an STAGO blood coagulation instrument at different times post-irradiation with 6 Gy γ ray. Otherwise the contents of the plasma malonaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and whole blood glutathione (GSH) were examined at 2 d and 7 a respectively after radiation. We found that the plasma levels of gelsolin were rising at 24 h post-radiation and a persistent degression tendency of gelsolin concentration was found from 24 h to 72 h post-irradiation with 4 Gy and 8 Gy. This decreasing degree had a positive correlation with the exposure dose. On the day from 4 d to 7 d after radiation treatment, the gelsolin treatment group had significantly higher PT and APTT, but low FIB than those of irradiated control group. Within 14 d to 18 d post-radiation, APTT, PT and FIB in gelsolin treatment group were lower than those in irradiated control group, but only APTT and PT differences were prominent. Levels of GSH and SOD in gelsolin treatment group were conspicuously higher than those in irradiated control group; whereas MDA levels were significantly lower than the irradiated control group. Gelsolin may have some certain protective effects on acute radiation disease in improving radiation hemorrhagic injury and eliminating free radicals. (authors)

  11. Acute Effect of Hookah Smoking on the Human Coronary Microcirculation.

    Nelson, Michael D; Rezk-Hanna, Mary; Rader, Florian; Mason, O'Neil R; Tang, Xiu; Shidban, Sarah; Rosenberry, Ryan; Benowitz, Neal L; Tashkin, Donald P; Elashoff, Robert M; Lindner, Jonathan R; Victor, Ronald G

    2016-06-01

    Hookah (water pipe) smoking is a major new understudied epidemic affecting youth. Because burning charcoal is used to heat the tobacco product, hookah smoke delivers not only nicotine but also large amounts of charcoal combustion products, including carbon-rich nanoparticles that constitute putative coronary vasoconstrictor stimuli and carbon monoxide, a known coronary vasodilator. We used myocardial contrast echocardiography perfusion imaging with intravenous lipid shelled microbubbles in young adult hookah smokers to determine the net effect of smoking hookah on myocardial blood flow. In 9 hookah smokers (age 27 ± 5 years, mean ± SD), we measured myocardial blood flow velocity (β), myocardial blood volume (A), myocardial blood flow (A × β) as well as myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) before and immediately after 30 minutes of ad lib hookah smoking. Myocardial blood flow did not decrease with hookah smoking but rather increased acutely (88 ± 10 to 120 ± 19 a.u./s, mean ± SE, p = 0.02), matching a mild increase in MVO2 (6.5 ± 0.3 to 7.6 ± 0.4 ml·minute(-1), p hookah, the increased MVO2 was accompanied by decreased heart rate variability, an indirect index of adrenergic overactivity, and eliminated by β-adrenergic blockade (i.v. propranolol). In conclusion, nanoparticle-enriched hookah smoke either is not an acute coronary vasoconstrictor stimulus or its vasoconstrictor effect is too weak to overcome the physiologic dilation of coronary microvessels matching mild cardiac β-adrenergic stimulation. PMID:27067622

  12. Acute Effects of Carbohydrate Supplementation on Intermittent Sports Performance

    Lindsay B. Baker

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent sports (e.g., team sports are diverse in their rules and regulations but similar in the pattern of play; that is, intermittent high-intensity movements and the execution of sport-specific skills over a prolonged period of time (~1–2 h. Performance during intermittent sports is dependent upon a combination of anaerobic and aerobic energy systems, both of which rely on muscle glycogen and/or blood glucose as an important substrate for energy production. The aims of this paper are to review: (1 potential biological mechanisms by which carbohydrate may impact intermittent sport performance; (2 the acute effects of carbohydrate ingestion on intermittent sport performance, including intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity, sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition; and (3 what recommendations can be derived for carbohydrate intake before/during exercise in intermittent sports based on the available evidence. The most researched intermittent sport is soccer but some sport-specific studies have also been conducted in other sports (e.g., rugby, field hockey, basketball, American football, and racquet sports. Carbohydrate ingestion before/during exercise has been shown in most studies to enhance intermittent high-intensity exercise capacity. However, studies have shown mixed results with regards to the acute effects of carbohydrate intake on sprinting, jumping, skill, change of direction speed, and cognition. In most of these studies the amount of carbohydrate consumed was ~30–60 g/h in the form of a 6%–7% carbohydrate solution comprised of sucrose, glucose, and/or maltodextrin. The magnitude of the impact that carbohydrate ingestion has on intermittent sport performance is likely dependent on the carbohydrate status of the individual; that is, carbohydrate ingestion has the greatest impact on performance under circumstances eliciting fatigue and/or hypoglycemia. Accordingly, carbohydrate ingestion before

  13. Effect of combined Antioxidants on Acute Myocardial infarction size

    B.Farahani; K.Hadiyan; A.Mohseni

    2001-01-01

    SummaryBackground and purpose : The role of oxygen-derived free radicals in destruction of myocardial cells during acute ischemia or reperfusion has been proved. This phenomenon made the workers to study and find the inhibitory therapeutic methods in order to reduce the myocardial cell destruction during acute myocardial infarction. This study evaluates the role of combined antioxidants on acute myocardial infarction sige in patients referring to vali asr hospital of Arak.Materials and Method...

  14. From neurotoxic to chemosensory effects: new insights on acute solvent neurotoxicity exemplified by acute effects of 2-ethylhexanol.

    van Thriel, Christoph; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, Michael; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Juran, Stephanie; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Seeber, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    Historically, acute solvent neurotoxicity was strongly related to reversible narcotic states that could be detected by neurobehavioral tests (e.g., simple reaction time). Nowadays, the occupational exposure to chemicals is markedly reduced and the avoidance of chemosensory effects is more important for the regulation of solvents. Exemplarily, this study examines if the chemosensory perception of 2-ethylhexanol is capable to distract performance in demanding neurobehavioral tasks. In two experiments three time-weighted average concentrations of 2-ethylhexanol (C(TWA): 1.5, 10, and 20 ppm) were investigated. In experiment A (n=24) variable concentrations over time (4h) were used, experiment B (n=22) investigated constant concentrations. The experiments were conducted in a 29 m3 exposure laboratory. Cross-over designs with randomized sequences of exposures were used. Among the 46 male participants 19 subjects reported enhanced chemical sensitivity; the other 27 subjects did not show this personality feature. During the exposure periods neurobehavioral tests were presented twice (beginning; end), the intensity of chemosensory perceptions were rated thrice. The intensity of chemosensory perceptions showed a clear dose-dependency. Subjects' performance in the vigilance test was not affected by the different exposures. Moreover, the results of neurobehavioral tests measuring executive function were neither affected by the C(TWA) concentration nor by the exposure peaks. With increasing C(TWA), a subgroup of the chemically sensitive subjects showed deteriorated accuracy in a divided attention task. Especially the 20 ppm conditions were very annoying. Only during the constant 10 ppm condition the time courses of the annoyance and nasal irritation ratings indicated some adaptation. In general, with the applied neurobehavioral tests distractive effects of acute 2-ethylhexanol exposures up to 20 ppm could not be confirmed. In sensitive groups such distractive effects of

  15. Assessing chronic fish health: An application to a case of an acute exposure to chemically treated crude oil.

    Mauduit, F; Domenici, P; Farrell, A P; Lacroix, C; Le Floch, S; Lemaire, P; Nicolas-Kopec, A; Whittington, M; Zambonino-Infante, J L; Claireaux, G

    2016-09-01

    Human alteration of marine ecosystems is substantial and growing. Yet, no adequate methodology exists that provides reliable predictions of how environmental degradation will affect these ecosystems at a relevant level of biological organization. The primary objective of this study was to develop a methodology to evaluate a fish's capacity to face a well-established environmental challenge, an exposure to chemically dispersed oil, and characterize the long-term consequences. Therefore, we applied high-throughput, non-lethal challenge tests to assess hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed as proxies for a fish's functional integrity. These whole animal challenge tests were implemented before (1 month) and after (1 month) juvenile European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) had been acutely exposed (48h) to a mixture containing 0.08gL(-1) of weathered Arabian light crude oil plus 4% dispersant (Corexit© EC9500A), a realistic exposure concentration during an oil spill. In addition, experimental populations were then transferred into semi-natural tidal mesocosm ponds and correlates of Darwinian fitness (growth and survival) were monitored over a period of 4 months. Our results revealed that fish acutely exposed to chemically dispersed oil remained impaired in terms of their hypoxia tolerance and swimming performance, but not in temperature susceptibility for 1 month post-exposure. Nevertheless, these functional impairments had no subsequent ecological consequences under mildly selective environmental conditions since growth and survival were not impacted during the mesocosm pond study. Furthermore, the earlier effects on fish performance were presumably temporary because re-testing the fish 10 months post-exposure revealed no significant residual effects on hypoxia tolerance, temperature susceptibility and maximal swimming speed. We propose that the functional proxies and correlates of Darwinian fitness used here provide a useful

  16. Mixed phenotype acute leukemia

    Ye Zixing; Wang Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To highlight the current understanding of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL).Data sources We collected the relevant articles in PubMed (from 1985 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia","hybrid acute leukemia","biphenotypic acute leukemia",and "mixed lineage leukemia".We also collected the relevant studies in WanFang Data base (from 2000 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia" and "hybrid acute leukemia".Study selection We included all relevant studies concerning mixed phenotype acute leukemia in English and Chinese version,with no limitation of research design.The duplicated articles are excluded.Results MPAL is a rare subgroup of acute leukemia which expresses the myeloid and lymphoid markers simultaneously.The clinical manifestations of MPAL are similar to other acute leukemias.The World Health Organization classification and the European Group for Immunological classification of Leukaemias 1998 cdteria are most widely used.MPAL does not have a standard therapy regimen.Its treatment depends mostly on the patient's unique immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features,and also the experience of individual physician.The lack of effective treatment contributes to an undesirable prognosis.Conclusion Our understanding about MPAL is still limited.The diagnostic criteria have not been unified.The treatment of MPAL remains to be investigated.The prognostic factor is largely unclear yet.A better diagnostic cdteria and targeted therapeutics will improve the therapy effect and a subsequently better prognosis.

  17. Effects of nuclear war on health and health services

    This report was prepared by an International Committee of Experts in Medical Sciences and Public Health in response to resolution WHA34.38, by which the World Health Assembly had requested the Director-General to create such a committee to study the contribution that WHO could and should make to facilitate the implementation of the United Nations resolutions on strengthening peace, detente and disarmament and preventing thermonuclear conflict. The Committee established several working groups and allocated to them the task of collecting, reviewing, and summarizing the most recent information on the possible effects of nuclear weapon explosions on health and the health services. The reports of the working groups as well as the literature cited served as a basis for the Committee's report, which presents its collective views. Separate abstracts were prepared for the nine working groups' reports, containing the scientific details

  18. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cocaine on the Spontaneous Behavior of Pigeons

    Pinkston, Jonathan W.; Branch, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    The present experiment examined the effects of acute and daily cocaine on spontaneous behavior patterns of pigeons. After determining the acute effects of a range of doses, 9 pigeons were divided into three groups that received one of three doses of cocaine daily, either 1.0, 3.0, or 10.0 mg/kg cocaine. Measures were taken of spontaneous…

  19. Prediction of acute stroke progression by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale

    Vinh Phuong; Tran Van Huy

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the occurrence of neurological changes during the first 48 hours after acute stroke as it relates to the initial stroke severity assessment. Methods The assessment with the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was performed serially for the first 48 hours on 68 consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to the Department of Geriatric Cardiology at the Khanh Hoa Hospital, Nha Trang, Vietnam. Incidence of stroke progression (a ≥ 3-point increase on the NIHSS) was recorded and analysis performed to determine its association with initial stroke severity and other demographic and physiological variables. Deficit resolution by 48 hours, defined as an NIHSS score of 0 or 1, measured the frequency of functional recovery predicted by the initial deficit.Results Overall progression was noted in 28% of events (19/68). Applying Bayes' solution to the observed frequency of worsening, the greatest likelihood of predicting future patient progression occurred with NIHSS score of =7 and >7. Patients with an initial NIHSS score of =7 experienced a 13% (6/47) worsening rate versus those of an initial score of>7 with a 62% (13/21) worsening rate (P<0.01). 42.5%(20/47) of those with an initial score of =7 were functionally normal at 48 hours, whereas only 4.7% (1/21) of those with scores of >7 retnrned to a normal examination within this period (x2, P<0.05). Conclusions This study suggests that the early clinical course of neurological deficit after acute stroke be dependent on the initial stroke severity and that a dichotomy in early outcome exist surrounding an initial NIHSS score of 7. These findings may have significant implications for the design and patient stratification in treatment protocols with respect to primary clinical outcome.

  20. Health and environmental effects document for batteries: 1980

    1980-11-01

    An evaluation is presented of the ecological and health effects of the near-term electric storage batteries (lead/acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron) as related to electric and hybrid vehicle applications. The storage battery technology is considered in its totality, and emissions are estimated for the complete cycle. For estimating quantities of various emissions, the market penetration is assumed to be 3 x 10/sup 6/ Pb/acid battery-powered vehicles and 8 x 10/sup 6/ each of the Ni/Zn and Ni/Fe battery-powered vehicles on the road by the year 2000. Ecological effects are assessed using the Estimated Permissible Concentration (EPC) approach. Pb, S, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn, and Sb appear to be the most hazardous emission constituents and exceed EPC values for protection of ecology in one or more of the battery-related industries. More definitive, quantitative estimates of damage to the biota and to the ecosystem are not feasible because of paucity of relevant information. Health effects as a result of increased levels of lead, arsenic, and cadmium in the environment and risks of exposure to arsine, stibine, and antimony trioxide released during charging are assessed. Health effects among the occupationally exposed are also assessed using the toxicological models. Acute and chronic effects of exposure to stibine, arsine, and antimony trioxide are described.

  1. Environmental effects of acute oil spills. Marine environment

    Biological effects as result of acute oil spill pollution may be considered as a product of: the existing biophysical conditions; occurrence and appearance of organisms in time and space; the fate of the oil in time and space; the vulnerability of the various organisms for oil and oil derivatives in a three-dimensional perspective. In general, it seems as every individual oil spill has its own nature and dynamics, inter alia because the physical, chemical and biological conditions never are the same. This means that the properties of the recipients often are more important than the amount of oil that is spilled. This may be exemplified by two oil spills in recent time. Exxon Valdez (1989), where 35000 ton oil were released in a partly closed sea area, caused considerable effects. From Braer (1993) the double amount of oil was spilled, but in an open sea area and at a time where the presence of dense concentrations of environmental components was limited, and the physical conditions favorable with respect to evaporation and dilution. Preliminary results show that the environmental effects were very limited. 311 refs., 32 figs., 10 tabs

  2. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M.; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C.; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Methods: Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Results: The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Conclusion: Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein. PMID:26635308

  3. Acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy balance

    Shannon, J. R.; Gottesdiener, K.; Jordan, J.; Chen, K.; Flattery, S.; Larson, P. J.; Candelore, M. R.; Gertz, B.; Robertson, D.; Sun, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ephedrine is used to help achieve weight control. Data on its true efficacy and mechanisms in altering energy balance in human subjects are limited. We aimed to determine the acute effect of ephedrine on 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work and urinary catecholamines in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study. Ten healthy volunteers were given ephedrine (50 mg) or placebo thrice daily during each of two 24-h periods (ephedrine and placebo) in a whole-room indirect calorimeter, which accurately measures minute-by-minute energy expenditure and mechanical work. Measurements were taken of 24-h energy expenditure, mechanical work, urinary catecholamines and binding of (+/-)ephedrine in vitro to human beta1-, beta2- and beta3-adrenoreceptors. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure was 3.6% greater (8965+/-1301 versus 8648+/-1347 kJ, Penergy expenditure in normal human subjects. A lack of binding of ephedrine to beta3-adrenoreceptors and the observed decrease in urinary noradrenaline during ephedrine treatment suggest that the thermogenic effect of ephedrine results from direct beta1-/beta2-adrenoreceptor agonism. An indirect beta3-adrenergic effect through the release of noradrenaline seems unlikely as urinary noradrenaline decreased significantly with ephedrine.

  4. Potential effects on health of global warming

    Haines, A. (Univ. College London Medical School, London (United Kingdom). Whittington Hospital); Parry, M. (Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Environmental Change Unit)

    1993-12-01

    Prediction of the impacts of global climate change on health is complicated by a number of factors. These include: the difficulty in predicting regional changes in climate, the capacity for adaptation to climate change, the interactions between the effects of global climate change and a number of other key determinants of health, including population growth and poverty, and the availability of adequate preventive and curative facilities for diseases that may be effected by climate change. Nevertheless, it is of importance to consider the potential health impacts of global climate change for a number of reasons. It is also important to monitor diseases which could be effected by climate change in order to detect changes in incidence as early as possible and study possible interactions with other factors. It seems likely that the possible impacts on health of climate change will be a major determinant of the degree to which policies aimed at reducing global warming are followed, as perceptions of the effect of climate change to human health and well-being are particularly likely to influence public opinion. The potential health impacts of climate change can be divided into direct (primary) and indirect (secondary and tertiary) effects. Primary effects are those related to the effect of temperature on human well-being and disease. Secondary effects include the impacts on health of changes in food production, availability of water and of sea level rise. A tertiary level of impacts can also be hypothesized.

  5. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs* **

    Torres, Ronaldo Lopes; Torres, Iraci Lucena da Silva; Laste, Gabriela; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Cardoso, Paulo Francisco Guerreiro; Belló-Klein, Adriane

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.); acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methy...

  6. Effects of urtica dioica extract on experimental acute pancreatitis model in rats

    Yilmaz, Baris; Basar, Ömer; Aktas, Bora; Altinbas, Akif; Ekiz, Fuat; Büyükcam, Fatih; Albayrak, Aynur; Ginis, Zeynep; Öztürk, Gülfer; Coban, Sahin; Ucar, Engin; Kaya, Oskay; Yüksel, Osman; Caner, Sedat; Delibasi, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the acute inflammation of pancreas and peripancreatic tissues, and distant organs are also affected. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Urtica dioica extract (UDE) treatment on cerulein induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Twenty-one Wistar Albino rats were divided into three groups: Control, Pancreatitis, and UDE treatment group. In the control group no procedures were performed. In the pancreatitis and treatment groups, pancreatitis was induced with ...

  7. Staff nurse perceptions of the impact of mentalization-based therapy skills training when working with borderline personality disorder in acute mental health: a qualitative study.

    Warrender, D

    2015-10-01

    People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly prevalent in acute mental health wards, with staff nurses identifying a challenge in working with people who can be significantly distressed. This has contributed to a negative stereotype verging on stigmatization. Mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is a psychological therapy which has been shown to be of benefit to people with a diagnosis of BPD, yet it has been utilized and evaluated only in partial hospitalization and outpatient settings. Despite this, most people diagnosed with BPD will continue to be treated in generic inpatient settings such as acute mental health. Mentalization-based therapy skills training (MBT-S) is a new and cost-effective 2-day workshop aiming to provide generalist practitioners with MBT skills for use in generic settings. This study aimed to capture staff perceptions of the impact of MBT-S on their practice when working with people with a diagnosis of BPD in acute mental health. Through two focus groups, this study assessed the perceptions of nine staff nurses. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized in data analysis. Participants found the approach easy to grasp, improving of consistency between staff and flexible in its use in planned or 'off the cuff' discussions. MBT-S promoted empathy and humane responses to self-harm, impacted on participants ability to tolerate risk and went some way to turning the negative perception of BPD through changing the notion of patients as 'deliberately difficult'. Staff felt empowered and more confident in working with people with a diagnosis of BPD. The positive implication for practice was the ease in which the approach was adopted and participants perception of MBT-S as an empowering skill set which also contributed to attitudinal change. In acute mental health environments, which may not have the resources to provide long-term structured treatments to patients, MBT-S could be viewed as ideal as participants

  8. Effect of streptokinase on human neutrophil function in vitro and in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Hansen, P R; Kharazmi, A

    1994-01-01

    The clinical benefit of streptokinase (SK) in the treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction may be influenced by effects other than myocardial reperfusion per se. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs) have been hypothesized to participate in the process of reperfusion injury in the...... postischemic myocardium. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate the effect of SK on human PMN function in vitro, and ex vivo in patients with acute myocardial infarction. SK was not in itself chemotactic to PMNs, and preincubation with SK did not alter the chemotactic response of PMNs to...... formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (FMLP) or zymosan-activated serum. However, incubation of fresh citrated plasma with SK resulted in the generation of chemotactic activity, and this effect was dependent on complement activation by SK. In experiments with PMNs from 20 health donors, preincubation of plasma and SK...

  9. Acute hazardous substance releases resulting in adverse health consequences in children: Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance system, 1996-2003.

    Wattigney, Wendy A; Kaye, Wendy E; Orr, Maureen F

    2007-11-01

    Because of their small size and ongoing organ development, children may be more susceptible than adults to the harmful effects of toxic chemicals. The objective of the study reported here was to identify frequent locations, released substances, and factors contributing to short-term chemical exposures associated with adverse health consequences experienced by children. The study examined the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system data from 1996-2003. Eligible events involved the acute release of a hazardous substance associated with at least one child being injured. The study found that injured children were predominantly at school, home, or a recreational center when events took place. School-related events were associated with the accidental release of acids and the release of pepper spray by pranksters. Carbon monoxide poisonings occurring in the home, retail stores, entertainment facilities, and hotels were responsible for about 10 percent of events involving child victims. Chlorine was one of the top chemicals harmful to children, particularly at public swimming pools. Although human error contributed to the majority of releases involving child victims, equipment failure was responsible for most chlorine and ammonia releases. The authors conclude that chemical releases resulting in injury to children occur mostly in schools, homes, and recreational areas. Surveillance of acute hazardous chemical releases helped identify contributing causes and can guide the development of prevention outreach activities. Chemical accidents cannot be entirely prevented, but efforts can be taken to provide safer environments in which children can live, learn, and play. Wide dissemination of safety recommendations and education programs is required to protect children from needless environmental dangers. PMID:18044249

  10. Oral health status of patients with acute coronary syndrome – a case control study

    Ziebolz Dirk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this investigation was to assess the state of oral health of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS and to compare this with that of a provably healthy control group (H. Methods 33 patients who were receiving treatment as inpatients following acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina pectoris took part in the study (ACS-group. A healthy control group (H-group made up of blood donors, was formed following matching for age, gender, and smoking habit with the study patient group. The dental investigation consisted of the dental status (DMF-T, a plaque-Index (PI, an assessment of gingival inflammation (GI and periodontal situation (Periodontal Screening Index: PSR®/PSI, and attachment loss (AL. Statistical evaluation: t-test, Mann–Whitney-test and chi- squared test (level of significance p  Results The mean DMF-T of the ACS-group (18.7 ± 6.8 and the H-group (19.4 ± 5.1 showed no difference (p = 0.7. Although, in the ACS-group the average loss of teeth (M-T: 8.4 ± 5.2 was higher than in the H-group (M-T: 5.8 ± 6.6 the difference was not significant (p = 0.2. Whereas with the PI no difference between the two groups was found (p = 0.9, the ACS-group showed significantly more signs of inflammation (GI than the H-group (p = 0.045. In the case of PSR®/PSI, there was no difference between the two groups (p = 0.7. With regard to AL, no difference was revealed between ACS- and H-group (p = 0.2. Conclusion Although, the state of oral health of the ACS-group differed only insignificantly from that of control, patients with ACS showed more signs of gingival inflammation and a higher loss of teeth.

  11. Health effects of indoor odorants.

    Cone, J E; Shusterman, D

    1991-01-01

    People assess the quality of the air indoors primarily on the basis of its odors and on their perception of associated health risk. The major current contributors to indoor odorants are human occupant odors (body odor), environmental tobacco smoke, volatile building materials, bio-odorants (particularly mold and animal-derived materials), air fresheners, deodorants, and perfumes. These are most often present as complex mixtures, making measurement of the total odorant problem difficult. There...

  12. The Health Effects of Motorization

    Christopher Millett; Sutapa Agrawal; Ruth Sullivan; Mario Vaz; Anura Kurpad; A V Bharathi; Dorairaj Prabhakaran; Kolli Srinath Reddy; Sanjay Kinra; George Davey Smith; Shah Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and obesity (excessive body fat) are major threats to global health. Every year, more than 36 million people (including 29 million in LMICs) die from NCDs—nearly two-thirds of the world's annual deaths. Cardiovascular diseases (conditions that affect the heart and the circulation), diabetes, cancer, and respiratory diseases are responsible for most NCD-related deaths. Obesity is a risk factor for all these NCDs and the global prevale...

  13. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    Adibzadeh, F.; Verhaart, R. F.; Verduijn, G. M.; Fortunati, V.; Rijnen, Z.; Franckena, M.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Paulides, M. M.

    2015-02-01

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H&N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H&N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H&N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF.

  14. Association of acute adverse effects with high local SAR induced in the brain from prolonged RF head and neck hyperthermia

    To provide an adequate level of protection for humans from exposure to radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to assure that any adverse health effects are avoided. The basic restrictions in terms of the specific energy absorption rate (SAR) were prescribed by IEEE and ICNIRP. An example of a therapeutic application of non-ionizing EMF is hyperthermia (HT), in which intense RF energy is focused at a target region. Deep HT in the head and neck (H and N) region involves inducing energy at 434 MHz for 60 min on target. Still, stray exposure of the brain is considerable, but to date only very limited side-effects were observed. The objective of this study is to investigate the stringency of the current basic restrictions by relating the induced EM dose in the brain of patients treated with deep head and neck (H and N) HT to the scored acute health effects. We performed a simulation study to calculate the induced peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (psSAR10g) in the brains of 16 selected H and N patients who received the highest SAR exposure in the brain, i.e. who had the minimum brain-target distance and received high forwarded power during treatment. The results show that the maximum induced SAR in the brain of the patients can exceed the current basic restrictions (IEEE and ICNIRP) on psSAR10g for occupational environments by 14 times. Even considering the high local SAR in the brain, evaluation of acute effects by the common toxicity criteria (CTC) scores revealed no indication of a serious acute neurological effect. In addition, this study provides pioneering quantitative human data on the association between maximum brain SAR level and acute adverse effects when brains are exposed to prolonged RF EMF. (paper)

  15. An overview of health effects on noise

    Osada, Y.

    1988-12-01

    Although noise can damage the inner ear and cause other pathological changes, its most common negative effects are non-somatic, such as a perception of noisiness and disturbance of daily activities. According to the definition of health by WHO, this should be considered as a health hazard. These health effects of noise can be classified into the following three categories: (I) hearing loss, perception of noisiness and masking are produced along the auditory pathway and are thus direct and specific effects of noise; (II) interference with performance, rest and sleep, a feeling of discomfort and some physiological effects are produced as indirect and non-specific effects via reticular formation of the midbrain; (III) annoyance is not merely a feeling of unpleasantness but the feeling of being bothered or troubled, and includes the development of a particular attitude toward the noise source. Individual or group behavioral responses will be evoked when annoyance develops. Annoyance and behavioral response are integrated and composite effects. The health effects of noise are modified by many factors related to both the noise and the individual. Noise level, frequency spectrum, duration and impulsiveness modify the effects. Sex, age, health status and mental character also have an influence on the effects. Direct effects of noise are most dependent on the physical nature of the noise and least dependent on human factors. Indirect effects are more dependent, and integrated effects most dependent, on human factors.

  16. ANALGETIC EFFECT OF J. CURCAS ON ACUTE DENTAL PAIN

    Indrya Kirana Mattulada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Reducing pain is the first phase of treatment in dentistry. Pain can be reduced by application of peroral analgetic medicines such as paracetamol, although on certain circumstances such as pulpitis paim, this is less helpful. Dentists often use eugenol to alleviate acute pulpitis pain, while latex of Jaropha curcas is one of the most popular analgetic agent used by people. The objective of this study was to compare the analgetic effect of the latex of J. curcas with paracetamol by the hot plate test. Thirty male mices aged 2 – 3 months old, weight 20 -30 gram were divided into 5 groups. The lyophilized latex of J. curcas was diluted into 5, 10, and 15% respectively, and the dose was 5 mg/Kg BW. The dose of paracetamol (positive control was 1,3 mg/Kg BW and sterile aquabidest (negative control was 1,3 mg/Kg BW. All agents were administered orally. Analgetic activity was evaluated after 3, 6, and 24 hours. The test was considered positive if the latent time of the test group was equal or 3 times higher than the control group. Data was analyzed by 1-way Anova. Had it been a difference, research would be continued using HSD test (p,0,05. Latex of J. curcas has the same analgetic effect as paracetamol on 3 and 6 hours observation, but was reduced on 24 hours observation.

  17. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  18. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR GLYCOL ETHERS

    The document represents a brief, quantitatively oriented scientific summary of health effects data. It was developed by the Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office to assist the Office of Emergency and Remedial Response in establishing chemical-specific health-related goals ...

  19. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR TCMTB

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for TCMTB was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of wa...

  20. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR TEMEPHOS

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Temephos was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of...

  1. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit;

    2016-01-01

    toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall......Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi...... method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis...

  2. Health effects of energy development

    Our accumulated technology has added roughly 50 years to the average life span of a human being in North America. Most of this increase in life span has occurred within the last 100 years. Cheap and safe supplies of energy are required for the industrial prosperity that has made this possible. The best estimates available all indicate that nuclear power and natural gas are the safest forms of contemporary energy production. The largest potential radiation hazard to which we are currently exposed appears to derive from our houses; increased attention by public health authorities to the control of this particular hazard may be warranted. (Auth)

  3. Short-run Effects of Job Loss on Health Conditions, Health Insurance, and Health Care Utilization

    Jessamyn Schaller; Ann Huff Stevens

    2014-01-01

    Job loss in the United States is associated with long-term reductions in income and long-term increases in mortality rates. This paper examines the short- to medium-term changes in health, health care access, and health care utilization after job loss that lead to these long-term effects. Using a sample with more than 9800 individual job losses and longitudinal data on a wide variety of health-related measures and outcomes, we show that job loss results in worse self-reported health, includin...

  4. Detection of acute deterioration in health status visit among COPD patients by monitoring COPD assessment test score

    Pothirat C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Atikun Limsukon, Athavudh Deesomchok, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Nittaya PhetsukDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT could play a role in detecting acute deterioration in health status during monitoring visits in routine clinical practice.Objective: To evaluate the discriminative property of a change in CAT score from a stable baseline visit for detecting acute deterioration in health status visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients.Methods: The CAT questionnaire was administered to stable COPD patients routinely attending the chest clinic of Chiang Mai University Hospital who were monitored using the CAT score every 1–3 months for 15 months. Acute deterioration in health status was defined as worsening or exacerbation. CAT scores at baseline, and subsequent visits with acute deterioration in health status were analyzed using the t-test. The receiver operating characteristic curve was performed to evaluate the discriminative property of change in CAT score for detecting acute deterioration during a health status visit.Results: A total of 354 follow-up visits were made by 140 patients, aged 71.1±8.4 years, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.49%±18.2% predicted, who were monitored for 15 months. The mean CAT score change between stable baseline visits, by patients’ and physicians’ global assessments, were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.37–0.46 and 0.18 (95% CI, -0.23–0.60, respectively. At worsening visits, as assessed by patients, there was significant increase in CAT score (6.07; 95% CI, 4.95–7.19. There were also significant increases in CAT scores at visits with mild and moderate exacerbation (5.51 [95% CI, 4.39–6

  5. Health-related quality of life assessment in Indonesian childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Sutaryo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on Health-related Quality of Life (HRQOL in children with cancer were conducted in developed countries. The aims of this study were to assess the HRQOL in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients in Indonesia and to assess the influence of demographic and medical characteristics on HRQOL. Methods After cultural linguistic validation, a cross-sectional study of HRQOL was conducted with childhood ALL patients and their guardians in various phases of treatment using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scale and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™ 3.0 Cancer Module. Results Ninety-eight guardians and 55 patients participated. The internal consistency of both scales ranged from 0.57 to 0.92. HRQOL of Indonesian patients was comparable with those in developed countries. There were moderate to good correlations between self-reports and proxy-reports, however guardians tended to report worse HRQOL than patients. Children of the 2–5 year-group significantly had more problems in procedural anxiety, treatment anxiety and communication subscales than in older groups (p Conclusion Younger children had more problems in procedural anxiety, treatment anxiety and communication subscales. Therefore, special care during intervention procedures is needed to promote their normal development. Psychosocial support should be provided to children and their parents to facilitate their coping with disease and its treatment.

  6. Leadership support for ward managers in acute mental health inpatient settings.

    Bonner, Gwen; McLaughlin, Sue

    2014-05-01

    This article shares findings of work undertaken with a group of mental health ward managers to consider their roles through workshops using an action learning approach. The tensions between the need to balance the burden of administrative tasks and act as clinical role models, leaders and managers are considered in the context of providing recovery-focused services. The group reviewed their leadership styles, broke down the administrative elements of their roles using activity logs, reviewed their working environments and considered how recovery focused they believed their wards to be. Findings support the notion that the ward manager role in acute inpatient settings is at times unmanageable. Administration is one aspect of the role for which ward managers feel unprepared and the high number of administrative tasks take them away from front line clinical care, leading to frustration. Absence from clinical areas reduces opportunities for role modeling good clinical practice to other staff. Despite the frustrations of administrative tasks, overall the managers thought they were supportive to their staff and that their wards were recovery focused. PMID:24779763

  7. Costs and effectiveness of a brief MRI examination of patients with acute knee injury

    E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); J.J. Nikken (Jeroen); A.Z. Ginai (Abida); G.P. Krestin (Gabriel); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A.B. van Vugt (Arie); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of this study was to assess the costs and effectiveness of selective short magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with acute knee injury. A model was developed to evaluate the selective use of MRI in patients with acute knee injury and no fracture on radiography based on th

  8. Effects of chronic kidney disease on platelet response to antiplatelet therapy in acute myocardial infarction patients

    邓捷

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the effects of dual antiplatelet therapy on platelet response in acute myocardial infarction patients with chronic kidney disease. Methods From September 2011 to June 2012,a total of 195 acute myocardial infarction patients with drug eluting stent implanting were enrolled. Among them,133 cases had normal

  9. Anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol, curcumin and simvastatin in acute small intestinal inflammation.

    Stefan Bereswill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The health beneficial effects of Resveratrol, Curcumin and Simvastatin have been demonstrated in various experimental models of inflammation. We investigated the potential anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms of the above mentioned compounds in a murine model of hyper-acute Th1-type ileitis following peroral infection with Toxoplasma gondii. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that after peroral administration of Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin, mice were protected from ileitis development and survived the acute phase of inflammation whereas all Placebo treated controls died. In particular, Resveratrol treatment resulted in longer-term survival. Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin treated animals displayed significantly increased numbers of regulatory T cells and augmented intestinal epithelial cell proliferation/regeneration in the ileum mucosa compared to placebo control animals. In contrast, mucosal T lymphocyte and neutrophilic granulocyte numbers in treated mice were reduced. In addition, levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in ileum, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were increased whereas pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-23p19, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, MCP-1 was found to be significantly lower in the ileum of treated animals as compared to Placebo controls. Furthermore, treated animals displayed not only fewer pro-inflammatory enterobacteria and enterococci but also higher anti-inflammatory lactobacilli and bifidobacteria loads. Most importantly, treatment with all three compounds preserved intestinal barrier functions as indicated by reduced bacterial translocation rates into spleen, liver, kidney and blood. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Oral treatment with Resveratrol, Curcumin or Simvastatin ameliorates acute small intestinal inflammation by down-regulating Th1-type immune responses and prevents bacterial translocation by maintaining gut barrier function. These findings provide novel

  10. Refugee children: mental health and effective interventions.

    Pacione, Laura; Measham, Toby; Rousseau, Cécile

    2013-02-01

    The mental health consequences of war and other forms of organized violence for children represent a serious global public health issue. Much of the research on the mental health of war-affected civilians has focused on refugees who have sought asylum in high-income countries and face the dual stress of a traumatic past and resettlement. This review will focus on the mental health of refugee children who have fled war as well as interventions to both prevent and treat adverse mental health outcomes. While war can have devastating mental health consequences, children raised in the midst of armed conflict also display resilience. Effective interventions for refugee children will be discussed both in terms of prevention and treatment of psychopathology, with a focus on recent developments in the field. PMID:23307563

  11. Refresher course title: human health effects abstract title: Case Report: Iridium 192 - Health effects during 20 years after irradiation

    Case Report has presented health effects of high level of irradiation with gamma rays from 192Ir on the patient M. L. during 21 years after an incident. The main purpose was to investigate long time consequences of partial high level irradiation on human health. Locally, short-term irradiation with high, deadly dose, caused acute radiation syndrome with reversible disorder of function of the individual, most exposed, organs. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations (dicentric), characteristic for direct irradiation, was increased. However, dicentric analyzes did not give expected result for an acute radioactivity illness. Radio-dermatitis had begun already after the incident, while changes on the heart began gradually, not earlier than six months, up to two years after the incident. Irradiated parts of the patient skin have been changed with auto-transplanted skin and appropriate therapy had been taken. More than two decades after the irradiation, system (leukemia) nor solitary tumor on near organs (liver, heart, lungs, bones) did not happened. Radiation illness did not happened in spite of very large dose, because impacts were local and body was uneven irradiated. Also, an appropriate therapy was organized and potential illness did not happen. (authors)

  12. Refresher course title: human health effects abstract title: Case Report: Iridium 192 - Health effects during 20 years after irradiation

    Snezana, Milacica [Belgrade Univ. of Institute of Occupational Medicine and Radiological Protection, Faculty of Medicine, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Jadranko, Simic [South East Europe Consultants, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2006-07-01

    Case Report has presented health effects of high level of irradiation with gamma rays from {sup 192}Ir on the patient M. L. during 21 years after an incident. The main purpose was to investigate long time consequences of partial high level irradiation on human health. Locally, short-term irradiation with high, deadly dose, caused acute radiation syndrome with reversible disorder of function of the individual, most exposed, organs. Frequency of chromosomal aberrations (dicentric), characteristic for direct irradiation, was increased. However, dicentric analyzes did not give expected result for an acute radioactivity illness. Radio-dermatitis had begun already after the incident, while changes on the heart began gradually, not earlier than six months, up to two years after the incident. Irradiated parts of the patient skin have been changed with auto-transplanted skin and appropriate therapy had been taken. More than two decades after the irradiation, system (leukemia) nor solitary tumor on near organs (liver, heart, lungs, bones) did not happened. Radiation illness did not happened in spite of very large dose, because impacts were local and body was uneven irradiated. Also, an appropriate therapy was organized and potential illness did not happen. (authors)

  13. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  14. Effects of Smoking on Your Health

    ... and Nicotine Smoked Tobacco Products Smokeless Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction ... Bronchus Esophagus Oral Cavity Lip Nasopharynx Nasal Cavity Larynx Stomach Bladder Pancreas Kidney Liver Uterine Cervix Colon ...

  15. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSESSMENT FOR TIN AND COMPOUNDS

    The report summarizes and evaluates information relevant to a preliminary interim assessment of adverse health effects associated with specific chemicals or compounds. The Office of Emergency and Remedial Response (Superfund) uses these documents in preparing cost-benefit analyse...

  16. Factors associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 5 years: evidence from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey

    Gebertsadik A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Achamyelesh Geberetsadik,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Yemane Berhane3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 3Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data are not fully exploited to identify locally relevant risk factors. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with ARI in children under the age of 5 years in Ethiopia.Methods: Further analysis of the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey was carried out involving 11,645 children under the age of 5 years and their mothers. Information relevant to the current study was extracted from the main data set and a working data set was prepared. A complex survey logistic regression analysis was applied.Results: Acute ARI in this study was associated with severe malnutrition. Children who were severely wasted were highly likely to develop ARI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–2.5. ARI was less likely to occur in children from families with an educated father and professional mother (AOR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2–0.6 and AOR 0.1; 95% CI 0.01–0.6, respectively.Conclusion: Malnourished children from a lower socioeconomic category are more likely to suffer from ARI. Targeting disadvantaged children for effective interventions can help reduce the burden of morbidity and death due to ARI. Keywords: acute respiratory tract infection, pneumonia, severe malnutrition, children, Ethiopia

  17. Acute and sub-acute effects of repetitive kicking on hip adduction torque in injury-free elite youth soccer players

    Jensen, Jesper; Bandholm, Thomas; Hölmich, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Hip adduction strength is important for kicking and acceleration in soccer players. Changes in hip adduction strength may therefore have an effect on soccer players' athletic performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute and sub-acute effects of a kicking drill session on hi...

  18. Commuters’ air pollution exposure and acute health effects

    Zuurbier, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    People spend a substantial proportion of their time in traffic. In Europe, the average daily time in traffic is one to one and a half hour. Because of high in-traffic exposures and because most of the journeys are made during rush hours, the one to one and a half hour in traffic contributes dispropo

  19. Commuters’ air pollution exposure and acute health effects

    Zuurbier, M.M.M.

    2011-01-01

    People spend a substantial proportion of their time in traffic. In Europe, the average daily time in traffic is one to one and a half hour. Because of high in-traffic exposures and because most of the journeys are made during rush hours, the one to one and a half hour in traffic contributes disproportionately to total daily exposure to traffic related air pollution. So far a limited number of studies compared particulate matter exposures of different groups of commuters. There is limited evid...

  20. Clinical effect of rhEGF on acute radiation stomatitis

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) on acute radiation stomatitis (ARS). Methods: A total of 90 patients with head and neck malignant tumor going to receive radiotherapy were randomized into 3 groups: prophylactic application group (group A); therapeutic application group (group B) and the control group(group C). The irradiated mucous membrane was sprayed with rhEGF at the beginning of radiotherapy in group A and sprayed after grade I radiation stomatitis had appeared in group B. Comparison was made with control patients (group C) who received routine oral care with Dobell's solution. The rate of ARS and the clinical effect of rhEGF were evaluated. Results: The ARS appeared in 73% (22/30) of the patients after irradiated at a dose more than 10 Gy in group A, and appeared in 83% (25/30) of the patients irradiated at a dose less than 10 Gy in group C. In groups A and B, the rates of grades III and IV ARS were obviously lower than those in group C. The average curative time of the rhEGF treatment groups (group A or B) was less than 7 days whereas, that of the control group (group C) was more than 10 days. The total effective rate of the rhEGF treatment groups was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.01). Conclusion: Prophylactic application of rhEGF can postpone the development of ARS. rhEGF can reduce the incidence of grades III and IV of ARS and shorten the curative time of ARS by either prophylactic or therapeutic application. Therefore, it should be highly recommended and popularized. (authors)

  1. Protective Effects of Hydrogen Gas on Experimental Acute Pancreatitis

    Zhou, Hao-xin; Han, Bing; Hou, Li-Min; An, Ting-Ting; Jia, Guang; Cheng, Zhuo-Xin; Ma, Yong; Zhou, Yi-Nan; Kong, Rui; Wang, Shuang-Jia; Wang, Yong-Wei; Sun, Xue-Jun; Pan, Shang-Ha; Sun, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease mediated by damage to acinar cells and pancreatic inflammation. In patients with AP, subsequent systemic inflammatory responses and multiple organs dysfunction commonly occur. Interactions between cytokines and oxidative stress greatly contribute to the amplification of uncontrolled inflammatory responses. Molecular hydrogen (H2) is a potent free radical scavenger that not only ameliorates oxidative stress but also lowers cytokine levels. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of H2 gas on AP both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro assessment, AR42J cells were treated with cerulein and then incubated in H2-rich or normal medium for 24 h, and for the in vivo experiment, AP was induced through a retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the pancreatobiliary duct (0.1 mL/100 g body weight). Wistar rats were treated with inhaled air or 2% H2 gas and sacrificed 12 h following the induction of pancreatitis. Specimens were collected and processed to measure the amylase and lipase activity levels; the myeloperoxidase activity and production levels; the cytokine mRNA expression levels; the 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, malondialdehyde, and glutathione levels; and the cell survival rate. Histological examinations and immunohistochemical analyses were then conducted. The results revealed significant reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of H2 gas were associated with reductions in AR42J cell and pancreatic tissue damage. In conclusion, our results suggest that H2 gas is capable of ameliorating damage to the pancreas and AR42J cells and that H2 exerts protective effects both in vitro and in vivo on subjects with AP. Thus, the results obtained indicate that this gas may represent a novel therapy agent in the management of AP. PMID:27115738

  2. Acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise

    Serkan İbiş

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Main of aim of this study in which 18 volunteers with average of 21,6 years are involved is to search acute effect of hematological parameters on aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Max VO2 values of volunteers are obtained using Astrand bicycle ergonometric test.   Aerobic exercise was taken with %50 of max VO2 for 45 minutes and anaerobic exercise was taken with %120 of max VO2 till exhausted. Blood samples were taken before exercise, just after exercise and 24 hours after exercise and we looked at hematocrit values. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA test. There are no significant values observed in hemotological results for aerobic exercise. But, there were some significant values observed in Hb, Hct, Wbc just after anaerobic exercise whereas some significant decreases were observed for 24 hours after exercise. Comparison of both exercises time showed that there is significant increase in anaerobic exercise and decreases in aerobic exercise. As a result, maximal and hard exercise affects hematological values more then moderate exercise. The reason of this observation is because there has been a change in hematocrit levels and movement of leucocyte from margination pool to demargination pool in blood circulation duration of exercise and after exercise.

  3. Effects of Montelukast in an Experimental Model of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Angı, Serkan; Eken, Hüseyin; Kılıc, Erol; Karaköse, Oktay; Balci, Gürhan; Somuncu, Erkan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological effects of Montelukast on pancreatic damage in an experimental acute pancreatitis model created by cerulein in rats before and after the induction of pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Forty rats were divided into 4 groups with 10 rats each. The study groups were: the Cerulein (C) group, the Cerulein + early Montelukast (CMe) group, the Cerulein + late Montelukast (CMl) group, and the Control group. The pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, leukocyte, hematocrit, pancreatic amylase, and lipase values were measured in the arterial blood samples taken immediately before rats were killed. RESULTS There were statistically significant differences between the C group and the Control group in the values of pancreatic amylase, lipase, blood leukocyte, hematocrit, pH, pO2, pCO2, HCO3, and pancreatic water content, and also in each of the values of edema, inflammation, vacuolization, necrosis, and total histopathological score (Ppancreatic amylase, lipase, pH, PO2, pCO2, HCO3, pancreatic water content, histopathological edema, inflammation, and total histopathological score values were significantly different between the groups (Ppancreatitis might not result in any benefit; however, when they are given in the early phases or prophylactically, they may decrease pancreatic damage. PMID:27479458

  4. Hepatic effect of NAC on sevear acute pancteatise of rats

    Fang Chen; Ye-Jiang Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the hepatic protection of n-acetyl cysteine(NAC) on severe acute pancreatitis(SAP).Methods:SD rats were randomly divided into control group,SAP group and NAC group.SAPAHO method was adopted to establish the model,2 h after modeling, rats inNAC group had intraperitoneal injection ofNAC(200 mg/kg).Ten rats from each group were sacrificed in every6 and12 h at different time points respectively.Liver damage, liver function and serum amylase,AST,ALT and malondialdehyde(MDA) were determined.Results:Serum amylase,AST, ALT andMDA content inSAP,NAC group at each time point were significantly higher in the control group(P<0.05), serum amylase,AST,ALT andMDA content inNAC group rats were lower in theSAP group significantly(P<0.05);Microscopic examination showed that the liver injury in rats and theNAC group significantly reduced in theSAP group.Conclusions:NAC provides effective protection against liver damage toSAP, protective fromSAP liver injury.

  5. Effective management of acute deep vein thrombosis: direct oral anticoagulants.

    Roussin, A

    2015-02-01

    Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and accounts for most venous thromboembolic events. Although DVT is not directly life-threatening, thrombi in the proximal veins of the leg can embolize to the lungs to form a pulmonary embolism, which may prove rapidly fatal. If untreated, DVT can also lead to significant morbidity, including development of post-thrombotic syndrome. Among many risk factors, surgery, hospitalization, older age and active cancer increase the risk of VTE, and a previous event increases the risk of recurrence. Early detection and effective clot resolution are vital in managing DVT. Conventional approaches to acute treatment of VTE involve initial fast-acting parenteral heparin overlapping with and followed by vitamin K antagonist therapy. However, vitamin K antagonists have a narrow therapeutic window, require regular monitoring, and have multiple food and drug interactions. Results from phase III clinical studies involving direct Factor Xa and IIa inhibitors suggest that these agents provide an alternative therapeutic option that overcomes some of the complications associated with conventional treatment with predictable pharmacological properties and convenient dosing schedules. Analysis of data from the rivaroxaban EINSTEIN studies also suggests that these agents have the potential to improve patient-reported treatment satisfaction and reduce the length of hospital stay compared with conventional therapy. This review considers these treatment options, suitable treatment durations to prevent recurrence, and the management of DVT treatment in challenging patient groups. PMID:24927023

  6. Cerebral blood flow effects of acute intravenous heroin administration.

    Kosel, Markus; Noss, Roger S; Hämmig, Robert; Wielepp, Peter; Bundeli, Petra; Heidbreder, Rebeca; Kinser, Jane A; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Fisch, Hans-Ulrich; Kayser, Sarah; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2008-04-01

    We examined acute effects of intravenous diacetylmorphine (heroin) administration - which induces a characteristic biphasic response: A short rush-sensation associated with intense pleasurable feelings followed by a subjectively different period of euphoria on cerebral blood flow. This was assessed in nine male heroin dependent patients participating in a heroin maintenance program in a setting resembling everyday pattern of heroin abuse. 99mTc-HMPAO was administered 45 s (rush) and 15 min (euphoria) after administration of i.v. heroin and 45 s after administration of saline (placebo). Plasma concentration of diacetylmorphine and its metabolites were measured with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Compared to the euphoria condition, rush was associated with blood flow increase in the left posterior cerebellar lobe, left anterior cingulate gyrus and right precuneus. Our results are in line with recent reports indicating that the cerebellum is an important component in functional brain systems subserving sensory and motor integration, learning, modulation of affect, motivation and social behaviour, which all play important roles in reinforcing properties of opioids. PMID:18207374

  7. Effects of acute spinalization on neurons of postural networks.

    Zelenin, Pavel V; Lyalka, Vladimir F; Hsu, Li-Ju; Orlovsky, Grigori N; Deliagina, Tatiana G

    2016-01-01

    Postural limb reflexes (PLRs) represent a substantial component of postural corrections. Spinalization results in loss of postural functions, including disappearance of PLRs. The aim of the present study was to characterize the effects of acute spinalization on two populations of spinal neurons (F and E) mediating PLRs, which we characterized previously. For this purpose, in decerebrate rabbits spinalized at T12, responses of interneurons from L5 to stimulation causing PLRs before spinalization, were recorded. The results were compared to control data obtained in our previous study. We found that spinalization affected the distribution of F- and E-neurons across the spinal grey matter, caused a significant decrease in their activity, as well as disturbances in processing of posture-related sensory inputs. A two-fold decrease in the proportion of F-neurons in the intermediate grey matter was observed. Location of populations of F- and E-neurons exhibiting significant decrease in their activity was determined. A dramatic decrease of the efficacy of sensory input from the ipsilateral limb to F-neurons, and from the contralateral limb to E-neurons was found. These changes in operation of postural networks underlie the loss of postural control after spinalization, and represent a starting point for the development of spasticity. PMID:27302149

  8. Effects of Cooking Fuels on Acute Respiratory Infections in Children in Tanzania

    Satoshi Nakai

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene are the most used cooking fuels in Tanzania. Biomass fuel use has been linked to Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI in children. It is not clear whether the use of charcoal and kerosene has health advantage over biomass fuels. In this study, the effects of biomass fuels, charcoal/kerosene on ARI in children under five years old in Tanzania are quantified and compared based on data from Tanzania Demographic and Health survey conducted between 2004 and 2005. Approximately 85% and 15% of children were from biomass fuels and charcoal/kerosene using homes respectively. Average ARI prevalence was about 11%. The prevalence of ARI across various fuel types used for cooking did not vary much from the national prevalence. Odds ratio for ARI, adjusting for child’s sex, age and place of residence; mother’s education, mother’s age at child birth and household living standard, indicated that the effect of biomass fuels on ARI is the same as the effect of charcoal/kerosene (OR 1.01; 95% CI: 0.78-1.42. The findings suggest that to achieve meaningful reduction of ARI prevalence in Tanzania, a shift from the use of biomass fuels, charcoal and kerosene for cooking to clean fuels such as gas and electricity may be essential. Further studies, however, are needed for concrete policy recommendation.

  9. [Vegetarian diets; effect on health].

    de Luis Román, D; Aller, R; Castaño, O

    2007-03-01

    Vegetarian diets are those diets mainly based on the consumption of vegetable product, but that also permit consumption of eggs and milk. The American Dietetic Association made a declaration on these vegetarian diets in which they stated that vegetarian diet is healthy, nutritionally adequate and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases>. Some studies have shown beneficial results in obesity, cancer, Parkinson disease, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus and urinary stones, compared with the omnivorous. The possible theoretical benefits in some diseases has been seen in the medical practice (diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular risk). However more studies are needed in the case of Parkinson's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:17397638

  10. Health effects of vegan diets.

    Craig, Winston J

    2009-05-01

    Recently, vegetarian diets have experienced an increase in popularity. A vegetarian diet is associated with many health benefits because of its higher content of fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, potassium, magnesium, and many phytochemicals and a fat content that is more unsaturated. Compared with other vegetarian diets, vegan diets tend to contain less saturated fat and cholesterol and more dietary fiber. Vegans tend to be thinner, have lower serum cholesterol, and lower blood pressure, reducing their risk of heart disease. However, eliminating all animal products from the diet increases the risk of certain nutritional deficiencies. Micronutrients of special concern for the vegan include vitamins B-12 and D, calcium, and long-chain n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Unless vegans regularly consume foods that are fortified with these nutrients, appropriate supplements should be consumed. In some cases, iron and zinc status of vegans may also be of concern because of the limited bioavailability of these minerals. PMID:19279075

  11. Mapping physicians' admission diagnoses to structured concepts towards fully automatic calculation of acute physiology and chronic health evaluation score

    Chandra, Subhash; Kashyap, Rahul; Trillo-Alvarez, Cesar A; Tsapenko, Mykola; Yilmaz, Murat; Hanson, Andrew C.; Pickering, Brian W.; Gajic, Ognjen; Vitaly HERASEVICH

    2011-01-01

    Objective Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) is most widely used as a mortality prediction score in US intensive care units (ICUs), but its calculation is onerous. The authors aimed to develop and validate automatic mapping of physicians' admission diagnoses to structured concepts for automated APACHE IV calculation. Methods This retrospective study was conducted in medical ICUs of a tertiary healthcare and academic centre. Boolean-logic text searches were used to map adm...

  12. Challenges for the implementation of World Health Organization guidelines for acute stress, PTSD, and bereavement: a qualitative study in Uganda

    Kane, Jeremy C.; Adaku, Alex; Nakku, Juliet; Odokonyero, Raymond; Okello, James; Musisi, Seggane; Augustinavicius, Jura; Greene, M. Claire; Alderman, Steve; Tol, Wietse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) published new guidelines for the management of conditions specifically related to stress, including symptoms of acute stress, bereavement, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is important to evaluate potential challenges for the implementation of these guidelines in low-resource settings, however, there is a dearth of research in this area. The current qualitative study aimed to assess perspectives on the feasibility and accept...

  13. Effects of oral montelukast on airway function in acute asthma.

    Cýllý, A; Kara, A; Ozdemir, T; Oğüş, C; Gülkesen, K H

    2003-05-01

    Montelukast, a specific cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist, has been shown to improve pulmonary function within 1 h of ingestion. This study was undertaken to compare the effects on peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) of oral montelukast added to intravenous steroid, intravenous steroid alone and placebo during the 24 h period following administration. Seventy asthmatic patients (FEV1 40-80% predicted and > or = 15% improvement after inhaled beta agonist) were enrolled in a single blind study to receive oral montelukast (10 mg) plus intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg), intravenous prednisolone (1 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomised fashion. The patients received one ofthe above three groups of medication before any other treatments. This was immediately followed by the aerosol treatments of 100 mcg of terbutaline sulphate divided into three doses during 1 h as described in the consensus statement. Thereafter, patients were observed for 24 h to document the effects on PEFR, Borg dyspnoea score and need for rescue medication. The primary end point was percentage change at different time points. Secondary end points were Borg dyspnoea score and use of rescue medication. Compared with placebo, montelukast added to the prednisolone group and the prednisolone alone group had significant percentage change from baseline in PEFR in the entire 24 h period (P<0.05). The difference in PEFR between montelukast plus prednisolone group and prednisolone group favoured the montelukast plus prednisolone group but did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, montelukast plus prednisolone group required less inhaled short-acting beta agonistthan other two groups. The results of this study indicate that adding montelukast to steroid in acute asthma may have some additive improvement in lung functions. PMID:12735671

  14. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual’s health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. Aim: The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Methods: Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web pages and documents published from different international institutions. Results: Fluoride occurs naturally in our environment but we consume it in small amounts. Exposure can occur through dietary intake, respiration and fluoride supplements. The most important factor for fluoride presence in alimentation is fluoridated water. Methods, which led to greater fluoride exposure and lowered caries prevalence, are considered to be one of the greatest accomplishments in the 20th century`s public dental health. During pregnancy, the placenta acts as a barrier. The fluoride, therefore, crosses the placenta in low concentrations. Fluoride can be transmitted through the plasma into the mother’s milk; however, the concentration is low. The most important action of fluoride is topical, when it is present in the saliva in the appropriate concentration. The most important effect of fluoride on caries incidence is through its role in the process of remineralization and demineralization of tooth enamel. Acute toxicity can occur after ingesting one or more doses of fluoride over a short time period which then leads to poisoning. Today, poisoning is mainly due to unsupervised ingestion of products for dental and oral hygiene and over-fluoridated water. Conclusion: Even though fluoride can be toxic in extremely high concentrations, it`s topical use is safe. The European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommends a preventive topical use of fluoride supplements because of their

  15. Acute exercise improves cognition in the depressed elderly: the effect of dual-tasks

    Paulo Eduardo Vasques; Helena Moraes; Heitor Silveira; Andrea Camaz Deslandes; Jerson Laks

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of physical exercise on the cognitive function of depressed elderly patients in a dual-task experiment. INTRODUCTION: Physical exercise has a positive effect on the brain and may even act as a treatment for major depressive disorder. However, the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on cognitive function during and after one session of aerobic training in elderly depressive patients are not known. METHODS: Ten elderly subjec...

  16. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    Amiri-Nikpour, Mohammad Reza; Nazarbaghi, Surena; Ahmadi-Salmasi, Babak; Mokari, Tayebeh; Tahamtan, Urya; Rezaei, Yousef

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the cerebrolysin impact on the neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow. Methods In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 46 patients who had acute focal ischemic stroke were randomly assigned into two groups to receive intravenously either 30 mL of cerebrolysin diluted in normal saline daily for 10 days (n=23) or normal saline alone (n=23) adjunct to 100 mg of aspirin daily. All patients were examined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and transcranial Doppler to measure the mean flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI) of their cerebral arteries at baseline as well as on days 30, 60, and 90. Results The patients’ mean age was 60±9.7 years, and 51.2% of patients were male. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on day 60 (median 10, interquartile range 9–11, P=0.008) and day 90 (median 11, interquartile range 10–13.5, P=0.001). The median of PI in the right middle cerebral artery was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on days 30, 60, and 90 (P<0.05). One patient in the cerebrolysin group and two patients in the placebo group died before day 30 (4.3% versus 8.7%). Conclusion Cerebrolysin can be useful to improve the neurological outcomes and the PI of middle cerebral artery in patients with acute focal ischemic stroke. PMID:25516711

  17. Investing in acute health services: is it time to change the paradigm?

    Kerr, Rhonda; Hendrie, Delia V; Moorin, Rachael

    2014-11-01

    Objective Capital is an essential enabler of contemporary public hospital services funding hospital buildings, medical equipment, information technology and communications. Capital investment is best understood within the context of the services it is designed and funded to facilitate. The aim of the present study was to explore the information on capital investment in Australian public hospitals and the relationship between investment and acute care service delivery in the context of efficient pricing for hospital services. Methods This paper examines the investment in Australian public hospitals relative to the growth in recurrent hospital costs since 2000-01 drawing from the available data, the grey literature and the reports of six major reviews of hospital services in Australia since 2004. Results Although the average annual capital investment over the decade from 2000-01 represents 7.1% of recurrent expenditure on hospitals, the most recent estimate of the cost of capital consumed delivering services is 9% per annum. Five of six major inquiries into health care delivery required increased capital funding to bring clinical service delivery to an acceptable standard. The sixth inquiry lamented the quality of information on capital for public hospitals. In 2012-13, capital investment was equivalent to 6.2% of recurrent expenditure, 31% lower than the cost of capital consumed in that year. Conclusions Capital is a vital enabler of hospital service delivery and innovation, but there is a poor alignment between the available information on the capital investment in public hospitals and contemporary clinical requirements. The policy to have capital included in activity-based payments for hospital services necessitates an accurate value for capital at the diagnosis-related group (DRG) level relevant to contemporary clinical care, rather than the replacement value of the asset stock. What is known about the topic? Deeble's comprehensive hospital-based review of

  18. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Elsa Brillaud; Aleksandra Piotrowski; Anthony Lecomte; Franck Robidel; Rene de Seze [Toxicology Unit, INERIS, Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2006-07-01

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  19. Effects of an acute and a sub-chronic 900 MHz GSM exposure on brain activity and behaviors of rats

    Radio frequencies are suspected to produce health effects. Concerning the mobile phone technology, according to position during use (close to the head), possible effects of radio frequencies on the central nervous system have to be evaluated. Previous works showed contradictory results, possibly due to experimental design diversity. In the framework of R.A.M.P. 2001 project, we evaluated possible effect of a 900 MHz GSM exposure on the central nervous system of rat at a structural, a functional and a behavioral level after acute or sub-chronic exposures. Rats were exposed using a loop antenna system to different S.A.R. levels and durations, according to results of the French C.O.M.O.B.I.O. 2001 project. A functional effect was found (modification of the cerebral activity and increase of the glia surface) after an acute exposure, even at a low level of brain averaged S.A.R. (1.5 W/kg). No cumulative effect was observed after a sub-chronic exposure (same amplitude of the effect). No structural or behavioral consequence was noted. We do not conclude on the neurotoxicity of the 900 MHz GSM exposure on the rat brain. Our results do not indicate any health risk. (authors)

  20. Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Leão, Sílvia; Conde, Bebiana; Fontes, Paulo; Calvo, Teresa; Afonso, Abel; Moreira, Ilídio

    2016-04-01

    The effect of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) on clinical outcomes after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is incompletely defined. We sought to determine the prevalence of OSA in patients with ACS and evaluate prognostic impact of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in these patients. This was a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 73 patients admitted on cardiac intensive care unit for ACS. Cardiorespiratory sleep study and/or polysomnography were performed in all patients. CPAP was recommended if Apnea-Hypopnea Index ≥5. The main study outcome was a composite of death for any cause, myocardial infarction, and myocardial revascularization. OSA was diagnosed in 46 patients (63%). Age and cardiovascular risk factors were not significantly different between groups. OSA was classified as mild (m-OSA) in 14 patients (30%) and as moderate-to-severe (s-OSA) in 32 patients (70%). After a median follow-up of 75 months (interquartile range 71 to 79), patients with s-OSA had lower event-free survival rate. After adjustment for gender, patients with s-OSA showed a significantly higher incidence of the composite end point (hazard ratio 3.58, 95% CI 1.09 to 17.73, p = 0.035). Adherence to CPAP occurred in 19 patients (41%), but compliance to CPAP therapy did not reduce the risk of composite end point (hazard ratio 0.87, 95% CI 0.31 to 2.46, p = 0.798). In conclusion, OSA is an underdiagnosed disease with high prevalence in patients with ACS. It is urgent to establish screening protocols because those have high diagnostic yield and allow identifying a group of patients with manifestly unfavorable prognosis. PMID:26857162

  1. Modeling acute health risks associated with accidental releases of toxic gases

    Haskin, F.E.; Ding, C.; Summa, K.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering; Young, M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Accident Analysis and Consequence Assessment Dept.

    1996-09-01

    CHEM{_}MACCS has been developed from the radiological accident consequence code, MACCS, to perform probabilistic calculations of potential off-site consequences of the accidental atmospheric release of hazardous chemicals. The principal phenomena considered in CHEM{_}MACCS are atmospheric transport, mitigative actions based on dose projection, dose accumulation by a number of pathways, and early and latent health effects. CHEM{_}MACCS provides the following capabilities: (1) statistical weather sampling data (8,760 hourly data points per year), (2) population dose and health effect risk calculations based on site-specific population data, (3) health effects calculations including the consideration of potential site specific mitigative actions (evacuation and shielding), and (4) modeling of multiple release segments. Three different sample problems are contained in this report to show how to use CHEM{_}MACCS. Three test problems are run to compare CHEM{_}MACCS and D2PC. The doses versus the downwind centerline distances from the source for the given doses are in very close agreement.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes in Canada

    Grima DT

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Daniel T Grima1, Stephen T Brown1, Laveena Kamboj2, Kevin R Bainey3, Ron Goeree4,5, Paul Oh6, Krishnan Ramanathan7, Shaun G Goodman81Cornerstone Research Group, Burlington, ON, 2AstraZeneca Canada, Mississauga, ON, 3Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute/University of Alberta Hospital, Edmonton, AB, 4Program for Assessment of Technology in Health, St Joseph's Hospital, Hamilton, ON, 5Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, 6University Health Network, Toronto, ON, 7St Paul's Hospital, Vancouver, BC, 8St Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: Ticagrelor demonstrated a significant reduction in major cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS compared with clopidogrel in the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes (PLATO trial. The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel in ACS patients from the perspective of the Canadian publicly funded health care system.Methods: A two-part model was developed consisting of a 1-year decision tree and a lifetime Markov model. Within the decision tree, patients remained event-free, experienced a nonfatal myocardial infarction, a nonfatal stroke, or death due to vascular or nonvascular related causes based on data from the PLATO trial. The lifetime Markov model followed these patients and allowed for subsequent myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Patient utility and resource use were derived from the PLATO trial. Transition probabilities and specific Canadian unit costs were derived from published sources. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted.Results: In the base case lifetime analysis, treatment with ticagrelor resulted in more years of life per person (0.097, more quality-adjusted life years per person (QALYs, 0.084, and an incremental cost per QALY gained of $9,745 (Canadian$, assuming a generic cost for clopidogrel. A

  3. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs

  4. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can conceivably be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. The health effects that could potentially arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, as well as irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. The results of this search are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 is a summary of the results of the literature search; Volume 2 is the complete results of the literature search and contains all references to the material reviewed. 16 tabs.

  5. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    1980-09-01

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  6. Children, adolescents, and the media: health effects.

    Strasburger, Victor C; Jordan, Amy B; Donnerstein, Ed

    2012-06-01

    The media can be a powerful teacher of children and adolescents and have a profound impact on their health. The media are not the leading cause of any major health problem in the United States, but they do contribute to a variety of pediatric and adolescent health problems. Given that children and teens spend >7 hours a day with media, one would think that adult society would recognize its impact on young people's attitudes and behaviors. Too little has been done to protect children and adolescents from harmful media effects and to maximize the powerfully prosocial aspects of modern media. PMID:22643165

  7. Effects of Losartan on acute atrial electrical remodeling

    李悦; 李为民; 薛竟宜; 韩薇; 杨树森; 谷宏越

    2004-01-01

    Background Atrial electrical remodeling (AER) contributes to the maintainance of atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was to compare the effects of Losartan with those of Diltiazem on tachycardia-induced acute AER in rabbits.Methods Twenty-one rabbits paced with maximal atrial capture rate for 3 hours in the right atrium (RA) were randomly divided into saline group, Diltiazem group and Losartan group. After autonomic blockage, we measured atrial effective refractory period (AERP), AERP rate adapting feature, AERP dispersion and RA conduction time at basic cycle lengths (BCLs) of 200 ms and 150 ms at baseline, 0.5 hour, 1 hour, 2 and 3 hours after rapid atrial pacing. Results In the saline group, there was a prompt decrease in AERP as a result of rapid atrial pacing, and AERP200 and AERP150 were shortened sharply within 0.5 hour of pacing (30.2±10.5 ms and 24.1±9.1 ms, respectively). The AERP did not change dramatically in the Diltiazem and Losartan groups. In the saline group, the value of (AERP200-AERP150)/50 ms in high RA was 0.17±0.08 at baseline and became significantly smaller at 0.5 hour (0.08±0.06), 1 hour (0.09±0.06), 2 hours (0.08±0.04) and 3 hours (0.09±0.05) (all P<0.05), suggesting a reduction of rate adaptation of AERP. The value of (AERP200-AERP150)/50 ms in high RA did not change during the 3 hours of pacing in both Diltiazem and Losartan groups. In the saline group, AERP dispersion increased significantly at 2 and 3 hours (P<0.05). However, Diltiazem could not prevent the increase of AERP dispersion at 3 hours (P<0.05). During Losartan infusion, the AERP dispersion was no longer increased after rapid atrial pacing. There was no significant difference in RA conduction time among the three groups.Conclusion Like calcium antagonist Diltiazem, Losartan could prevent AERP shortening and preserve rate adaptation of AERP after rapid atrial pacing. Losartan is more effective than Diltiazem in inhibiting the increase of AERP dispersion.

  8. Effect of the Duration Time of a Nuclear Accident on Radiological Health Consequences

    Hyojoon Jeong; Misun Park; Haesun Jeong; Wontae Hwang; Eunhan Kim; Moonhee Han

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the effect of duration time of a nuclear accident on the radiation dose of a densely populated area and the resulting acute health effects. In the case of nuclear accidents, the total emissions of radioactive materials can be classified into several categories. Therefore, the release information is very important for the assessment of risk to the public. We confirmed that when the duration time of the emissions are prolonged to 7 hours, the concentrations of radio...

  9. Effective Structural Health Monitoring with Additive Manufacturing

    De Baere, Dieter; Strantza, Maria; Hinderdael, Michaël; Devesse, Wim; Guillaume, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The current remaining challenges for structural health monitoring (SHM) systems prevented the introduction of SHM systems on a large scale within industrial applications. An effective SHM system is required for the reduction of the direct operation costs, improvement of the life-safety and the introduction of additive manufactured components for critical structures. In this paper, a new structural health monitoring methodology will be presented for components that can be processed by additive...

  10. Racism, Other Discriminations and Effects on Health

    Gil González, Diana; Vives Cases, Carmen; Borrell, Carme; Andrés A. Agudelo Suárez; Davó Blanes, María del Carmen; Miralles Bueno, Juan José; Álvarez-Dardet Díaz, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We study the probability of perceived racism/other forms of discrimination on immigrant and Spanish populations within different public spheres and show their effect on the health of immigrants using a cross-sectional design (ENS-06). Variables: perceived racism/other forms of discrimination (exposure), socio-demographic (explicative), health indicators (dependent). Frequencies, prevalences, and bivariate/multivariate analysis were conducted separately for men (M) and women (W). We estimated ...

  11. Effects of Leadership Styles on Organizational Health

    Korkmaz, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of the leadership style of the principal, “transformational leadership and transactional leadership”, along with teachers' job satisfaction on school's organizational health. Specifically speaking, it investigates to what extent the variations in school health can be related to principal's leadership style and teachers' job satisfaction. To this end, a Likert-type questionnaire was administered to 635 teachers out of 875-person sample, wor...

  12. Acute toxicity and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbon on the metabolic index in Etroplus suratensis

    Ansari, Z.A.; Farshchi, P.

    Acute toxicity (LC sub(50)) and effect of some petroleum hydrocarbons (Toluene, Quinoline, Pyridine and Naphthalene) on the metabolic index (oxygen consumption rate) of an estuarine fish. Etroplus suratensis is reported. The LC sub(50) values were...

  13. Effect of azole antifungal therapy on vincristine toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    Schie, R.M. van; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Hoogerbrugge, P.M.; Loo, D.M. te

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vincristine is one of the cornerstones of the treatment of children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Constipation, and peripheral and central neurotoxicities are the most common side effects. A comparative study exploring vincristine toxicity in individual patients receiving vin

  14. Preventive effect of Cichorium intybus L. two extracts on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: These data suggest that C. intybus hydroalcoholic extracts were effective to protect against experimental acute pancreatitis and the efficacy was partly dependent to the dose and was more significant after parenteral administration.

  15. Effectiveness of an Early Versus Conservative Invasive Treatment Strategy in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Hansen, Kim Wadt; Sorensen, Rikke; Madsen, Mette; Madsen, Jan Kyst; Jensen, Jan Skov; von Kappelgaard, Lene Mia; Mortensen, Poul Erik; Lange, Theis; Galatius, Soren

    2015-01-01

    Background: Randomized clinical trials have found that early invasive strategies reduce mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and rehospitalization compared with a conservative invasive approach in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs), but the effectiveness of such strategies in real-world settings is...

  16. Health status measured by the Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) improves following post-acute pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with advanced COPD: a prospective observational study

    van Dam van Isselt, Eléonore F; Spruit, Monica; Groenewegen-Sipkema, Karin H; Chavannes, Niels H.; Achterberg, Wilco P.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate outcomes of the Clinical Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Questionnaire (CCQ) in patients with advanced COPD admitted for a post-acute pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programme and to relate (change in) health status to lung function, degree of dyspnoea and (change in) functional capacity. Methods: This is a prospective observational study in patients with advanced COPD admitted for a post-acute PR programme in a skilled nursing facility. Health status (CCQ) and fu...

  17. Compliance with referrals for non-acute child health conditions: evidence from the longitudinal ASENZE study in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa

    Uwemedimo, Omolara T; Arpadi, Stephen M.; Chhagan, Meera K.; Kauchali, Shuaib; Craib, Murray H.; Bah, Fatimatou; Davidson, Leslie L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Caregiver compliance with referrals for child health services is essential to child health outcomes. Many studies in sub-Saharan Africa have examined compliance patterns for children referred for acute, life-threatening conditions but few for children referred for non-acute conditions. The aims of this analysis were to determine the rate of referral compliance and investigate factors associated with referral compliance in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. Methods From September 2008–201...

  18. Perspectives for integration into the local health system of community-based management of acute malnutrition in children under 5 years: a qualitative study in Bangladesh

    Kouam, Camille Eric; Delisle, Hélène; Ebbing, Hans J; Israël, Anne Dominique; Salpéteur, Cécile; Aïssa, Myriam Aït; Ridde, Valery

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute malnutrition is a major cause of death among under-five children in low- and middle-income countries. United Nations agencies recommend the integration of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) into the local health systems for sustainability. The objective of the study was to assess the preparedness of the health system to implement CMAM targeting children under-five years in two sub-districts of Bangladesh. Methods The assessment was performed through direc...

  19. Negative health effects studied in several countries

    During the Chernobyl nuclear accident, fewer than a hundred people suffered from such acute radiation-induced damage that it proved fatal within a few months. As to any other health hazards that may have been caused by the event, foetal damage would be the fastest to appear. Such damage would lead to disturbed growth and development among children. However, no increase has been detected in the incidence of these disturbances in the areas around Chernobyl or elsewhere in Europe. Some observations suggest that the number of cases with Down's syndrome has increased. The main health hazard resulting from radiation is cancer. The cancer morbidity rate does not start to rise until ten years after exposure to radiation; therefore, any increase that might have been caused by the accident cannot be detected yet. It has, however, been noticed that the occurrence of thyroid cancer has increased rather sharply in areas adjacent to Chernobyl. It is evident that the nuclear accident will eventually cause tens of thousands of extra cancer deaths globally. The addition to the normal incidence of cancer is very small, and probably only a very small proportion of the cases can be detected by statistical methods. (orig.) (2 figs.)

  20. Clinical effects of comprehensive therapy of early psychological intervention and rehabilitation training on neurological rehabilitation of patients with acute stroke

    Duo-Yu Wu; Min Guo; Yun-Suo Gao; Yan-Hai Kang; Jun-Cheng Guo; Xiang-Ling Jiang; Feng Chen; Tao Liu

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of comprehensive therapy of psychological intervention and rehabilitation training on the mental health of the patients with acute stroke. Methods: A total of 120 patients with acute stroke were randomly divided into trial group and control group. Both groups were given the corresponding drug therapy, medical basic nursing and convention nursing. Besides, psychological intervention and comprehensive rehabilitation training were added to the trial group. SCL-90, Europ stroke scales (ESS) score were assessed with each patient on day 3 for the first time and on day 21 for the second time;Barthel index was assessed on the day 90. Results: After psychological intervention, SCL-90 declined significantly in the trial group comparing with the control group, there were signicant differences in the somatization, obsession, depression, anxiety, fear, ESS score, Barthel index and other psychological factors between the trial group and control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Comprehensive therapy of early psychological intervention and rehabilitation training can significantly improve the mental health, limb movement function, stress ability and activity of daily living on the patients with acute stroke.

  1. Hypoxyradiotherapy of uterine cervix cancer to decrease of acute side-effects and treatment complications

    The authors have reported on preliminary results of hypoxyradiotherapy in the course of external irradiation in patients with uterine cervix cancer from a view-point of the occurrence of acute reactions and treatment complications. A mixture of nitrogen and oxygen containing 8.0 to 8.5% of O2 was used to provoke acute hypoxia during irradiation. The applied dosis of external irradiation was simultaneously increased by 40%. On the basis of a randomized study with 120 patients, acute hypoxia was found to protect healthy tissues against post-radiation damage. When the dosis of 96 Gy in the paracervical space and that of 75 Gy in the pelvic wall were applied, acute side-effects decreases significantly if compared with a conventional radiotherapeutic procedure (p<0.01). Radiological preconditions for using acute hypoxia in radiotherapy are discussed. (orig.)

  2. 21 CFR 320.28 - Correlation of bioavailability with an acute pharmacological effect or clinical evidence.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Correlation of bioavailability with an acute..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE BIOAVAILABILITY AND BIOEQUIVALENCE REQUIREMENTS Procedures for Determining the Bioavailability or Bioequivalence of Drug Products §...

  3. Effect of Oral Ondansetron on Decreasing the Vomiting Associated with Acute Gastroenteritis in Iranian Children

    Haniyeh Mohammadpour; Saman Rezaieian; Hamidreza Badeli; Kioomars Golshekan; Afagh Hassanzadehrad

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral ondansetron in decreasing the vomiting due to acute gastroenteritis in children.Methods: In a single center, randomized, double blind, controlled trial, the effect of oral ondansetron was compared with placebo on 176 patients between 1 and 10 years old with acute gastroenteritis. 30 minutes after drug administration, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) was initiated. Severity of vomiting was evaluated during emergency department ...

  4. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a sing...

  5. Effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide on treatment of caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in mice

    Ozer Cakir, Ozlem; Esen, Hasan; Toker, Aysun; Ataseven, Huseyin; Demir, Ali; Polat, Hakki

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research continues to develop novel therapeutic modalities that particularly focus on the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to assess the effects of diclofenac sodium and octreotide, alone or in combination, on pancreatic enzymes, pancreatic myeloperoxidase activity, histopathology and apoptosis of pancreas cells, using a model of experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. Objectives: We aimed to demonstrate effects of diclofenac sodium, octreotide and their com...

  6. Comparison of the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic features in rats

    Fatemeh ROSTAMKHANI; Homeira ZARDOOZ; Saleh ZAHEDIASL; Babak FARROKHI

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic factors.Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups.Stress was applied by a communication box acutely (1 d) and chronically (15 and 30 d).Blood sampling was carried out by retro-orbital-puncture method.The plasma levels of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,insulin,and corticosterone were measured.In addition,feed and water intake,latency to eat and drink,adrenal and body weights were determined.Acute and chronic psychological stress did not significantly change basal plasma corticosterone levels.However,immediately (1 min) after acute exposure to stress,plasma corticosterone level increased compared to that before stress exposure.Acute stress increased plasma insulin levels significantly.Fifteen days of stress exposure resulted in plasma glucose increase.Chronic stress significantly increased feed intake,latency to eat,and adrenal weight compared to acute stress.The body weights of both control and stressed groups increased markedly during the experiment.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index did not change significantly in the stressed group.In conclusion,application of acute and chronic psychological stress leads to different metabolic and/or behavioral changes but the metabolic changes resulting from acute exposure to stress seem to be more pronounced.

  7. Health effects and medical surveillance

    Source of ionizing radiations have innumerable applications in the work place. Usually, even where the work is performed safely, the employees involved inevitably receive small, regular exposures to radiation that are not manifestly harmful. This Module explains how ionizing radiations can interact with and affect human tissues, the various factors that influence the outcome and the detrimental effects that may result. The medical surveillance that is appropriate for those working with radiation sources, depending on the degree of hazard of the work, is described. The Manual will be of most benefit it if forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a medically qualified expert. Where medical surveillance is appropriate for radiation employees, the services of a qualified doctor, occupational physician or other trained medical staff will be required

  8. Acute Radiation Effects Resulting from Exposure to Solar Particle Event-Like Radiation

    Kennedy, Ann; Cengel, Keith

    2012-07-01

    A major solar particle event (SPE) may place astronauts at significant risk for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), which may be exacerbated when combined with other space flight stressors, such that the mission or crew health may be compromised. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) Center of Acute Radiation Research (CARR) is focused on the assessment of risks of adverse biological effects related to the ARS in animal models exposed to space flight stressors combined with the types of radiation expected during an SPE. As part of this program, FDA-approved drugs that may prevent and/or mitigate ARS symptoms are being evaluated. The CARR studies are focused on the adverse biological effects resulting from exposure to the types of radiation, at the appropriate energies, doses and dose-rates, present during an SPE (and standard reference radiations, gamma rays or electrons). The ARS is a phased syndrome which often includes vomiting and fatigue. Other acute adverse biologic effects of concern are the loss of hematopoietic cells, which can result in compromised bone marrow and immune cell functions. There is also concern for skin damage from high SPE radiation doses, including burns, and resulting immune system dysfunction. Using 3 separate animal model systems (ferrets, mice and pigs), the major ARS biologic endpoints being evaluated are: 1) vomiting/retching and fatigue, 2) hematologic changes (with focus on white blood cells) and immune system changes resulting from exposure to SPE radiation with and without reduced weightbearing conditions, and 3) skin injury and related immune system functions. In all of these areas of research, statistically significant adverse health effects have been observed in animals exposed to SPE-like radiation. Countermeasures for the management of ARS symptoms are being evaluated. New research findings from the past grant year will be discussed. Acknowledgements: This research is supported by the NSBRI Center of Acute

  9. Specific Effects of Acute Moderate Exercise on Cognitive Control

    Davranche, Karen; McMorris, Terry

    2009-01-01

    The main issue of this study was to determine whether cognitive control is affected by acute moderate exercise. Twelve participants [4 females (VO[subscript 2 max]=42 ml/kg/min) and 8 males (VO[subscript 2 max]=48 ml/kg/min)] performed a Simon task while cycling at a carefully controlled workload intensity corresponding to their individual…

  10. Effect of acute postural variation on diabetic macular oedema

    Vinten, Martin; la Cour, Morten; Lund-Andersen, Henrik; Larsen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to study the pathophysiology of diabetic macular oedema (DMO) by analysis of concomitant changes in macular volume (MV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intraocular pressure (IOP), and retinal artery and vein diameters in response to acute postural changes in patients with DMO...

  11. The effects of acute radiation exposure on the serum components

    The blood samples were collected from the experimental animals 24 hrs after irradiation of gamma doses upto 80 Gy. Native PAGE showed a decreasing trend in gamma globulin fraction of serum from the irradiated group compared to control, while SDS PAGE indicated an enhanced tendency in protein of molecular weight 30,000 to 40,000. Serum albumin slightly decreased with radiation doses as a result of decrease in total protein amount. Radiation exposure had little or no effects on such lipid related components as phospholipid, triglyceride, and cholesterol, respectively. Among others, glutamic pyryvic transaminase (GPT) showed a drastic decrease in its amount 24 hrs after radiation exposure, which can be applied to the health care program for radiation workers. (Author)

  12. Acute and long-term effects of exposure to sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 in sheep

    S. R. Gooneratne

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute and long-term effects of a single, relative lyhigh oral dose (0.25a nd 0.30 mg/kg of sodium monofluoroacetate (1080 on the survival and productivity of sheep were evaluated to establish a better understanding of 1080 poisoning and identify more specific changes diagnostic of toxicosis. In survivors, clinical signs of acute 1080 toxicosis such as salivation and lethar gywere generally very mild. Fasted animals were more prone to 1080 toxicity. In animals that died, more severe signs, including tachypnoea, dyspnoea, and tremors occurred for 15-20 min prior to death. 1080 concentrations were highest in the blood> heart> skeletal muscle> liver. 1080 could not be detected in any of these organs of the animals that survived. Serum citratec oncentratione were elevated for 4 days after dosing. No clinical or biochemical abnormalities were found in any animal after 4 days. Histopathological lesions were most marked in the heart and lung with inflammation, necrosis, and scattered foci of fibrous tissue in the myocardium, pulmonary oedema and inflammation of the lung. No adverse longterm effects on general health or reproductive performance were observed in any sheep that survived the first 4 days following exposure to 1080. The most reliable diagnostic in dicators of 1080 exposure in sheep were measurement of its residues in blood, skeletal muscle and ruminal contents, increased serum citratec oncentratione; l evated heart rate,and characteristic electrocardiograpchh anges(up to 4 days after exposure. Death from 1080 is most likely to occur within 96 h, and animals that survived this period appeared normal.

  13. The economic costs of radiation-induced health effects: Estimation and simulation

    This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs

  14. The economic costs of radiation-induced health effects: Estimation and simulation

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    This effort improves the quantitative information available for use in evaluating actions that alter health risks due to population exposure to ionizing radiation. To project the potential future costs of changes in health effects risks, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) constructed a probabilistic computer model, Health Effects Costs Model (HECOM), which utilizes the health effect incidence estimates from accident consequences models to calculate the discounted sum of the economic costs associated with population exposure to ionizing radiation. Application of HECOM to value-impact and environmental impact analyses should greatly increase the quality of the information available for regulatory decision making. Three major types of health effects present risks for any population sustaining a significant radiation exposure: acute radiation injuries (and fatalities), latent cancers, and impairments due to genetic effects. The literature pertaining to both incidence and treatment of these health effects was reviewed by PNL and provided the basis for developing economic cost estimates. The economic costs of health effects estimated by HECOM represent both the value of resources consumed in diagnosing, treating, and caring for the patient and the value of goods not produced because of illness or premature death due to the health effect. Additional costs to society, such as pain and suffering, are not included in the PNL economic cost measures since they do not divert resources from other uses, are difficult to quantify, and do not have a value observable in the marketplace. 83 refs., 3 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Literature survey: health effects of radiation

    This report was originally written as a chapter of a report entitled 'Air pollution effects of electric power generation, a literature survey', written jointly by the Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) and the Institutt for Atomenergi (IFA). (INIS RN242406). A survey is presented of the health effects of radiation. It has not, however, been the intention of the authors to make a complete list of all the literature relevant to this subject. The NILU/IFA report was meant as a first step towards a method of comparing the health effects of electric power generation by fission, gas and oil. Consequently information relevant to quantification of the health effects on humans has been selected. It is pointed out that quantitative information on the health effects of low radiation and dose rates, as are relevant to routine releases, does not exist for humans. The convention of linear extrapolation from higher doses and dose rates is used worldwide, but it is felt by most that the estimates are conservative. As an example of the use of the current best estimates, a calculation of normal release radiation doses is performed. (Auth.)

  16. Consensus definitions of 14 severe acute toxic effects for childhood lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment: a Delphi consensus.

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Escherich, Gabriele; Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Halsey, Christina; Hough, Rachael; Jeha, Sima; Kato, Motohiro; Liang, Der-Cherng; Mikkelsen, Torben Stamm; Möricke, Anja; Niinimäki, Riitta; Piette, Caroline; Putti, Maria Caterina; Raetz, Elizabeth; Silverman, Lewis B; Skinner, Roderick; Tuckuviene, Ruta; van der Sluis, Inge; Zapotocka, Ester

    2016-06-01

    Although there are high survival rates for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, their outcome is often counterbalanced by the burden of toxic effects. This is because reported frequencies vary widely across studies, partly because of diverse definitions of toxic effects. Using the Delphi method, 15 international childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia study groups assessed acute lymphoblastic leukaemia protocols to address toxic effects that were to be considered by the Ponte di Legno working group. 14 acute toxic effects (hypersensitivity to asparaginase, hyperlipidaemia, osteonecrosis, asparaginase-associated pancreatitis, arterial hypertension, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, seizures, depressed level of consciousness, methotrexate-related stroke-like syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, high-dose methotrexate-related nephrotoxicity, sinusoidal obstructive syndrome, thromboembolism, and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia) that are serious but too rare to be addressed comprehensively within any single group, or are deemed to need consensus definitions for reliable incidence comparisons, were selected for assessment. Our results showed that none of the protocols addressed all 14 toxic effects, that no two protocols shared identical definitions of all toxic effects, and that no toxic effect definition was shared by all protocols. Using the Delphi method over three face-to-face plenary meetings, consensus definitions were obtained for all 14 toxic effects. In the overall assessment of outcome of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment, these expert opinion-based definitions will allow reliable comparisons of frequencies and severities of acute toxic effects across treatment protocols, and facilitate international research on cause, guidelines for treatment adaptation, preventive strategies, and development of consensus algorithms for reporting on acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treatment. PMID:27299279

  17. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables

  18. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Aurengo, A. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, Dept. Nucleaire Medecine, 75 - Paris (France)

    2003-07-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  19. Chernobyl: the effects on public health?

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  20. Acute mucocutaneous and systemic adverse effects of Etretinate

    "Mortazavi H; Shariati B.; Zarrinpour N "

    2003-01-01

    This cross sectional study was carried out between 1993 to 1998 at Razi Skin Hospital, the affiliated Dermatology Department of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Eight hundred patients receiving etretinate for various skin diseases took part in this study. Among them, 457 patients with first admission to dermatologic clinic who had at least four regular sequential visits and responding to our questionnaire were selected to enter the study for evaluating acute toxicity of etretinate. Chei...

  1. Effect of copaiba oil on acute pancreatitis in mice

    Daniel L Medeiros; Thiago E. V. Lemos; Luiz H. F. Junior; Tarciso B. S. Montenegro; Paula R. S. Camara

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The anti-inflammatory activity of copaiba oil was evaluated using a cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis model in mice. Methods: Mice were pretreated with Copaiba sp oleoresin before induction of pancreatitis. Pancreatitis was induced by intraperitoneal injection (five injections at hourly intervals) of cerulein solution and, 6 h later, pancreatic and lung damage were analyzed macroscopically for the severity of necrosis, and by protein plasma extravasation and plasma amylase ac...

  2. The effectiveness of M-health technologies for improving health and health services: a systematic review protocol

    Patel Vikram; Galli Leandro; Felix Lambert; Phillips Gemma; Free Caroline; Edwards Philip

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The application of mobile computing and communication technology is rapidly expanding in the fields of health care and public health. This systematic review will summarise the evidence for the effectiveness of mobile technology interventions for improving health and health service outcomes (M-health) around the world. Findings To be included in the review interventions must aim to improve or promote health or health service use and quality, employing any mobile computing a...

  3. ATMOSPHERIC HEALTH EFFECTS FRAMEWORK (AHEF) MODEL

    The Atmospheric and Health Effects Framework (AHEF) is used to assess theglobal impacts of substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (ODS). The AHEF is a series of FORTRAN modeling modules that collectively form a simulation framework for (a) translating ODS production into emi...

  4. Effect of drugs on the pulmonary changes in experimental acute pancreatitis in the rat.

    Berry, A R; Taylor, T V

    1982-01-01

    Respiratory complications of acute pancreatitis are well recognised and are closely related to a poor prognosis. Using an experimental model in the rat, a decrease in lung compliance and an increase in lung weight were produced in acute pancreatitis. The effects of dexamethasone, heparin, and aspirin on these changes were studied. The mean specific lung compliance was reduced by 16% in the pancreatitis group compared with the control group (p less than 0.05) and this change was abolished by d...

  5. A retrospective observational study of the effectiveness of paliperidone palmitate on acute inpatient hospitalization rates

    Bressington, Daniel; Stock, Jon; Hulbert, Sabina; MacInnes, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective mirror-image observational study aimed to establish the effects of the long-acting antipsychotic injection paliperidone palmitate (PP) on acute inpatient hospitalization rates. We utilized routinely collected clinical data to compare the number and length of acute patient admissions 1 year before and 1 year after initiation of PP. A single cohort of 66 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and who had received monthly injections of PP for at least 1 year were included ...

  6. Preventive Effect of Cichorium Intybus L. Two Extracts on Cerulein-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Mice

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Ali-Reza Ghannadi; Parvin Mahzouni; Ali-Reza Abed

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory condition of pancreas with sudden onset, high mortality rate and multiple organ failure characteristics. It has been shown that oxygen free radicals have an important role in development of pancreatitis and its complications. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-hepatotoxicity and gastroprotective properties of Cichorium intybus L. suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects in the management of acute pancreatitis. Methods: Five in...

  7. Effect of Auricular Acupressure on Acute Nausea and Vomiting Induced by Chemotherapy among Breast Cancer Patients

    Mohammad Eghbali; Shokoh Varaei; Seyedeh Fatemeh Jalalinia; Mozhgan Aalam Samimi; Kiarash Sa’atchi; Mir Saeed Yekaninejad

    2015-01-01

      Background & Aim: Approximately 75% of patients with cancer experience acute nausea and vomiting (24 hours after chemotherapy). The aim of this study was to determine the effect of auricular acupressure in relieving acute nausea and vomiting among women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy .   Methods & Materials: This study was a posttest only randomized clinical trial conducted on 48 women with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Imam Khomeini and Hazrat Rasoul Akra...

  8. Immediate effects of anterior to posterior talocrural joint mobilizations following acute lateral ankle sprain

    Cosby, Nicole L.; Koroch, Michael; Grindstaff, Terry L.; Parente, William; Hertel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    Restrictions in ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) have been associated with decreased posterior talar glide in individuals with an acute lateral ankle sprain. Talocrural joint mobilizations may be used to restore joint arthrokinematics. Our purpose was to examine the effects of a single bout of anterior to posterior (AP) talocrural joint mobilization on self-reported function, dorsiflexion ROM, and posterior talar translation in individuals with an acute lateral ankle sprain. This sing...

  9. Brewing complications: the effect of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing

    Radek, Katherine A.; Ranzer, Matthew J.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol consumption is linked to a higher incidence of traumatic wounds and increases the risk for morbidity and mortality following surgical or traumatic injury. One of the most profound effects of acute ethanol exposure on wound healing occurs during the inflammatory response, and altered cytokine production is a primary component. Acute ethanol exposure also impairs the proliferative response during healing, causing delays in epithelial coverage, collagen synthesis, and blood vessel regrow...

  10. The Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab in Patients with Acute Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    Lim, Ji Won; Ryu, Su Jeong; Shin, Min Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of intravitreal bevacizumab injection (IVBI) in acute central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) patients. Methods Patients with acute CSC received IVBI (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) or observation by randomization. Twelve eyes in each group completed 6 months of regular follow-up and were ultimately included in this study. Each patient was assessed using best corrected visual acuity measurements, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography at baseline and had reg...

  11. Cigarette smoking: health effects and control strategies.

    Alberg, Anthony J

    2008-12-01

    Active cigarette smoking causes a broad spectrum of diseases that extend to many different organ systems. Its numerous deleterious health effects, combined with the substantial prevalence of cigarette smoking, make it a major worldwide cause of death. Smoking contributes so heavily to the mortality burden because it is a major cause of vascular disease, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In addition to these diseases, cigarette smoking also causes other respiratory symptoms, adversely affects reproductive outcomes and is a cause of diminished health status. Furthermore, exposure to secondhand smoke is an established cause of coronary heart disease and lung cancer, as well as a host of other adverse health effects. Given that cigarette smoking is such a major threat to global public health, controlling the worldwide epidemic of cigarette smoking would lead to enormous public health benefits. Strategies to control cigarette smoking at the societal level include smoke-free workplace legislation, increasing cigarette taxes and regulating cigarette advertising. On the individual level, preventing the initiation of cigarette smoking among youths is the optimal strategy; in practice, discovering efficacious primary prevention interventions has proven challenging. During the past two decades, major advances have been made in extending the menu of options available to assist dependent smokers in successfully quitting smoking. Successfully combating cigarette smoking requires a broad-based commitment to smoking control from multiple stakeholders, along with a multifaceted strategy that addresses both societal and individual factors. PMID:19198699

  12. Effects of nutrition on oral health

    G A Agbelusi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutrition represents a summation of intake, absorption, storage and utilization of foods by the tissues. Oral tissues are one of the most sensitive indicators of nutritional state of the body. Nutritional deficiencies are associated with changes in the integrity (health and appearance of the oral structures/ tissues and these changes are frequently the first clinical signs of deficiency. Nutrition affects oral health and oral health affects nutrition. The effects of malnutrition can be seen in the oral structures in all stages of human growth and development from conception to old age. The consequence of certain oral diseases may compromise the nutrition by affecting the intake and mastication particularly in some vulnerable groups like people with severe caries, severe oral ulceration, advanced periodontal disease and the resulting edentulousness. The HIV pandemic has added another dimension to the issue of nutrition and oral health. Oral lesions are some of the earliest lesions seen in HIV/AIDS and 90% of HIV/AIDS patients will have oral lesions at a point in the course of the disease. These oral lesions are painful; disturb food intake and mastication thereby further compromising the nutrition of the affected individuals. In Africa, particularly the Sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of poverty, economic downturn and the HIV pandemic have added another dimension to the issue of food availability and nutrition. Malnutrition is a real problem in this area. This paper will examine the effects of compromised nutrition on oral health and the reverse.

  13. Sleep disruption and its effect on lymphocyte redeployment following an acute bout of exercise.

    Ingram, Lesley A; Simpson, Richard J; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption and deprivation are common in contemporary society and have been linked with poor health, decreased job performance and increased life-stress. The rapid redeployment of lymphocytes between the blood and tissues is an archetypal feature of the acute stress response, but it is not known if short-term perturbations in sleep architecture affect lymphocyte redeployment. We examined the effects of a disrupted night sleep on the exercise-induced redeployment of lymphocytes and their subtypes. 10 healthy male cyclists performed 1h of cycling at a fixed power output on an indoor cycle ergometer, following a night of undisrupted sleep (US) or a night of disrupted sleep (DS). Blood was collected before, immediately after and 1h after exercise completion. Lymphocytes and their subtypes were enumerated using direct immunofluorescence assays and 4-colour flow cytometry. DS was associated with elevated concentrations of total lymphocytes and CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK-cells. Although not affecting baseline levels, DS augmented the exercise-induced redeployment of CD8(+) T-cells, with the naïve/early differentiated subtypes (KLRG1(-)/CD45RA(+)) being affected most. While the mobilisation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets (NK cells, CD8(+) T-cells γδ T-cells), tended to be larger in response to exercise following DS, their enhanced egress at 1h post-exercise was more marked. This occurred despite similar serum cortisol and catecholamine levels between the US and DS trials. NK-cells redeployed with exercise after DS retained their expression of perforin and Granzyme-B indicating that DS did not affect NK-cell 'arming'. Our findings indicate that short-term changes in sleep architecture may 'prime' the immune system and cause minor enhancements in lymphocyte trafficking in response to acute dynamic exercise. PMID:25582807

  14. Cost-effectiveness of intravenous thrombolysis with alteplase within a 3-hour window after acute ischemic stroke

    Ehlers, Lars; Andersen, Grethe; Clausen, Lone Beltoft;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the costs and cost-effectiveness of intravenous thrombolysis treatment with alteplase (Actilyse) of acute ischemic stroke with 24-hour in-house neurology coverage and use of magnetic resonance imaging. METHODS: A health economic model...... was designed to calculate the marginal cost-effectiveness ratios for time spans of 1, 2, 3 and 30 years. Effect data were extracted from a meta-analysis of six large-scale randomized and placebo-controlled studies of thrombolytic therapy with alteplase. Cost data were extracted from thrombolysis treatment...... at Aarhus Hospital, Denmark, and from previously published literature. RESULTS: The calculated cost-effectiveness ratio after the first year was $55,591 US per quality-adjusted life-year (base case). After the second year, computation of the cost-effectiveness ratio showed that thrombolysis was cost...

  15. Intermediate and long-term health effects

    This report summarizes the health effects caused by immune suppression, infectious diseases, and food supplies and starvation in the aftermath of a nuclear war. It has been concluded that starvation will be essentially global - a consequence of a major nuclear war that at present seems likely to cause more deaths than all the direct effects of nuclear war combined. 68 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. Effect of the acute postoperative pancreatitis at the postoperative period in the abdominal surgery

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the influence of development of the acute postoperative pancreatitis at the early postoperative period; determine its influence at the frequency and spectrum of complications after abdominal surgery. Material and methods. The work is based on the results of the complex examination and surgical treatment of 1934 patients with various disorders of the digestive system (complicated duodenal ulcer and gastric ulcer, gastric cancer, the proximal and distal pancreatic cancer, colon cancer and postgastrectomy syndromes. The dependence of the overall incidence of postoperative complications, the number of complications per patient, and the number of infectious and inflammatory complications per patient, hospital mortality and length of postoperative hospital days for the development of acute postoperative pancreatitis were studied. Results. Acute postoperative pancreatitis is a leading cause of morbidity postoperative intra-abdominal operations. 97,8% of the cases of complicated early postoperative period of the operations on the organs of the abdominal cavity caused by the development of acute postoperative pancreatitis. Specific complications for the acute postoperative pancreatitis (satellite complications were identified. Satellite complication had a clearly defined correlation with the development of the acute postoperative pancreatitis. The negative effect of acute postoperative pancreatitis on the severity of the postoperative period, on the morbidity, on the number of complications per patient, on the number of the infectious and inflammatory complications per patient, hospital mortality and on the duration of the postoperative hospital stay were found.

  17. THE EFFECT OF ACUTE MYOCARDIUM ISCHEMIC ON HEART FUNCTION OF PREGNANCY RAT

    Zheng Xiaopu; Ma Aiqun; Niu Changmin; Dong Anping; Han Ke; Liu Yu; Zhang Wei; Geng Tao

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of acute myocardium ischemic on heart function of pregnancy rat.Methods 13 female SD rats and 6 early pregnancy rats were divided into normal group, unpregnant group with acute myocardial infarction and early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction. The anterior branch of the left coronary artery was ligated. 3 weeks later, Image 1.31 software was used to measure areas of myocardial infarction,and to evaluate hemodynamics of heart with powerLAB4.12, and cardiac tissues were stained with Massion. Results Compared with unpregnant group with acute myocardial infarction , the early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction had less myocardial infarction area (28. 86% vs. 36. 8%), and had a higher left ventricle end systolic pressure, ±dp/dt max, and lower left ventricle end diastolic pressure. Massion stain showed the amount of collagen of the lesion was less in the early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction than that in unpregnant group.Conclusion The early pregnant group with acute myocardial infarction had better heart contractive and diastolic function.

  18. Public relations effectiveness in public health institutions.

    Springston, Jeffrey K; Weaver Lariscy, Ruth Ann

    2005-01-01

    This article explores public relations effectiveness in public health institutions. First, the two major elements that comprise public relations effectiveness are discussed: reputation management and stakeholder relations. The factors that define effective reputation management are examined, as are the roles of issues and crisis management in building and maintaining reputation. The article also examines the major facets of stakeholder relations, including an inventory of stakeholder linkages and key audiences, such as the media. Finally, methods of evaluating public relations effectiveness at both the program level and the institutional level are explored. PMID:16521670

  19. Acute effect of fine particulate matter on mortality in three Southeastern states from 2007-2011.

    Lee, Mihye; Koutrakis, Petros; Coull, Brent; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on acute effects of air pollution have generally been limited to larger cities, leaving questions about rural populations behind. Recently, we had developed a spatiotemporal model to predict daily PM2.5 level at a 1 km(2) using satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) data. Based on the results from the model, we applied a case-crossover study to evaluate the acute effect of PM2.5 on mortality in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia between 2007 and 2011. Mortality data were acquired from the Departments of Public Health in the States and modeled PM2.5 exposures were assigned to the zip code of residence of each decedent. We performed various stratified analyses by age, sex, race, education, cause of death, residence, and environmental protection agency (EPA) standards. We also compared results of analyses using our modeled PM2.5 levels and those imputed daily from the nearest monitoring station. 848,270 non-accidental death records were analyzed and we found each 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 (mean lag 0 and lag 1) was associated with a 1.56% (1.19 and 1.94) increase in daily deaths. Cardiovascular disease (2.32%, 1.57-3.07) showed the highest effect estimate. Blacks (2.19%, 1.43-2.96) and persons with education ≤ 8 year (3.13%, 2.08-4.19) were the most vulnerable populations. The effect of PM2.5 on mortality still exists in zip code areas that meet the PM2.5 EPA annual standard (2.06%, 1.97-2.15). The effect of PM2.5 below both EPA daily and annual standards was 2.08% (95% confidence interval=1.99-2.17). Our results showed more power and suggested that the PM2.5 effects on rural populations have been underestimated due to selection bias and information bias. We have demonstrated that our AOD-based exposure models can be successfully applied to epidemiologic studies. This will add new study populations in rural areas, and will confer more generalizability to conclusions from such studies. PMID:26306925

  20. Likely health outcomes for untreated acute febrile illness in the tropics in decision and economic models; a Delphi survey.

    Yoel Lubell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modelling is widely used to inform decisions about management of malaria and acute febrile illnesses. Most models depend on estimates of the probability that untreated patients with malaria or bacterial illnesses will progress to severe disease or death. However, data on these key parameters are lacking and assumptions are frequently made based on expert opinion. Widely diverse opinions can lead to conflicting outcomes in models they inform. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A Delphi survey was conducted with malaria experts aiming to reach consensus on key parameters for public health and economic models, relating to the outcome of untreated febrile illnesses. Survey questions were stratified by malaria transmission intensity, patient age, and HIV prevalence. The impact of the variability in opinion on decision models is illustrated with a model previously used to assess the cost-effectiveness of malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Some consensus was reached around the probability that patients from higher transmission settings with untreated malaria would progress to severe disease (median 3%, inter-quartile range (IQR 1-5%, and the probability that a non-malaria illness required antibiotics in areas of low HIV prevalence (median 20%. Children living in low transmission areas were considered to be at higher risk of progressing to severe malaria (median 30%, IQR 10-58% than those from higher transmission areas (median 13%, IQR 7-30%. Estimates of the probability of dying from severe malaria were high in all settings (medians 60-73%. However, opinions varied widely for most parameters, and did not converge on resurveying. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights the uncertainty around potential consequences of untreated malaria and bacterial illnesses. The lack of consensus on most parameters, the wide range of estimates, and the impact of variability in estimates on model outputs, demonstrate the importance of sensitivity analysis for decision models

  1. Determination of acute toxicity and the effects of sub-acute concentrations of CuO nanoparticles on blood parameters in Rutilus rutilus

    Abdolreza Jahanbakhshi; Aliakbar Hedayati; Aref Pirbeigi; Mahsa Javadimoosavi

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s):Copper oxidenanoparticles have different industrial applications so it is inevitable that nanoparticulate products finally find their way into aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless there is little information available about their effects on some of edible fish. The present study aims to determine the acute toxicity and evaluate the effect of two sub-acute concentrations (50 and 70% 96 h LC50) of CuO-NPs on some hematological and biochemical parameters of R. rutilus. Materials and Met...

  2. Ginseng Extract Enhances Anti-cancer Effect of Cytarabine on Human Acute Leukemia Cells

    Yiju Hou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ginseng as a traditional medicine is well known to exhibit various pharmacological effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the active ingredient extracted from ginseng. The pharmacological modulatory effects of Rg3 on multidrug resistant cancer cells are reported in the present study. Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute leukemia. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses, for example hematopoiesis depression. In this study, using hl60 human leukemia cells, we investigated the possible synergistic anti-cancer effects between ginseng extract Rg3 and cytarabine on acute myeloid leukemia cells. Results of this study demonstrate that Rg3 can enhance the anti-proliferation effect of cytarabine on hl60 cells and may decrease the dosage of cytarabine needed for acute myeloid leukemia treatment.

  3. Short- and longer-term health-care resource utilization and costs associated with acute ischemic stroke

    Johnson BH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barbara H Johnson,1 Machaon M Bonafede,1 Crystal Watson2 1Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA Objectives: The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke is approximately $140,048 in the United States, placing stroke among the top 10 most costly conditions among Medicare beneficiaries. The objective of this study was to describe the health-care resource utilization and costs in the year following hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke (AIS.Methods: This retrospective claims analysis quantifies utilization and costs following inpatient admission for AIS among the commercially insured and Medicare beneficiaries in the Truven Health databases. Patients who were 18 years or older and continuously enrolled for 12 months before and after an AIS event occurring (index between January 2009 and December 2012 were identified. Patients with AIS in the year preindex were excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated at admission and in the preindex, respectively. Direct costs, readmissions, and inpatient length of stay (LOS were described in the year postindex.Results: The eligible populations comprised 20,314 commercially insured patients and 31,037 Medicare beneficiaries. Average all-cause costs were $61,354 and $44,929 (commercial and Medicare, respectively in the first year after the AIS. Approximately 50%–55% of total 12-month costs were incurred between day 31 and day 365 following the incident AIS. One quarter (24.6% of commercially insured patients and 38.8% of Medicare beneficiaries were readmitted within 30 days with 16.6% and 71.7% (commercial and Medicare, respectively of those having a principal diagnosis of AIS. The average AIS-related readmission length of stay was nearly three times that of the initial hospitalization for both commercially insured patients (3.8 vs 10.8 days and Medicare beneficiaries (4.0 vs 10.8 days

  4. Review of the health effects of wildland fire smoke on wildland firefighters and the public.

    Adetona, Olorunfemi; Reinhardt, Timothy E; Domitrovich, Joe; Broyles, George; Adetona, Anna M; Kleinman, Michael T; Ottmar, Roger D; Naeher, Luke P

    2016-02-01

    Each year, the general public and wildland firefighters in the US are exposed to smoke from wildland fires. As part of an effort to characterize health risks of breathing this smoke, a review of the literature was conducted using five major databases, including PubMed and MEDLINE Web of Knowledge, to identify smoke components that present the highest hazard potential, the mechanisms of toxicity, review epidemiological studies for health effects and identify the current gap in knowledge on the health impacts of wildland fire smoke exposure. Respiratory events measured in time series studies as incidences of disease-caused mortality, hospital admissions, emergency room visits and symptoms in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients are the health effects that are most commonly associated with community level exposure to wildland fire smoke. A few recent studies have also determined associations between acute wildland fire smoke exposure and cardiovascular health end-points. These cardiopulmonary effects were mostly observed in association with ambient air concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). However, research on the health effects of this mixture is currently limited. The health effects of acute exposures beyond susceptible populations and the effects of chronic exposures experienced by the wildland firefighter are largely unknown. Longitudinal studies of wildland firefighters during and/or after the firefighting career could help elucidate some of the unknown health impacts of cumulative exposure to wildland fire smoke, establish occupational exposure limits and help determine the types of exposure controls that may be applicable to the occupation. PMID:26915822

  5. Effects of recreational soccer on physical fitness and health indices in sedentary healthy and unhealthy subjects.

    Hammami, A; Chamari, K; Slimani, M; Shephard, R J; Yousfi, N; Tabka, Z; Bouhlel, E

    2016-06-01

    Recreational soccer (RS) is becoming a popular alternative to the classical continuous exercise mode used for the improvement of cardiovascular and metabolic fitness in untrained people. The objective of this paper was to conduct a detailed systematic review of the literature, identifying the physiological responses to RS and the training effects of RS on aerobic fitness and health in untrained healthy individuals and clinical patients. PubMed, Google Scholar and ScienceDirect databases were searched using terms related to recreational soccer. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCT) that assessed acute physiological responses to RS or the training effects of RS on physical fitness and health in sedentary, untrained subjects of any age or health status. All studies were assessed for methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Thirty-five articles met the inclusion criteria; seven examined the acute response to RS, and 28 assessed training effects. Clear evidence was found that RS had positive effects on many health-related indices and variables, including VO2max (gains of 7-16%), blood pressure (reductions of 6-13 mmHg), body composition (decreased fat mass and improved indices of bone health), and metabolic and cardiac function. These positive effects were observed in both healthy individuals and clinical patients, irrespective of age or sex. Although this review provides clear evidence of the positive effects of RS on health, most studies had limitations of methodology (an average PEDro score < 6). Furthermore, many of the training studies were from a small number of research groups. Future studies should be extended to other countries and institutions to ensure generality of the results. Regular RS training leads to significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations and gains of health both in sedentary individuals and clinical patients at all ages, suggesting that RS is a potentially highly motivational method to enhance population health

  6. [Cardioprotective effect of GABA derivatives in acute alcohol intoxication].

    Perfilova, V N; Tiurenkov, I N; Berestovitskaia, V M; Vasil'eva, O S

    2006-01-01

    Cardioprotective properties of GABA analogs under conditions of acute alcoholic intoxication have been studied using the following functional tests: volume loads, tests for adrenoreactivity, and maximum isometric load. The experiments showed that a 32% aqueous ethanol solution intraperitoneally injected in a dose of 8 g/kg produces a cardiotoxic action, which is manifested by a decrease in the inotropic reserve in load tests. Citrocard (50 mg/kg), phenibut (50 mg/kg), and piracetam (200 mg/kg) prevent the alcohol-induced myocardium injury, as shown by the heart contractility retained on a higher level in the test group than in the control group. PMID:16995433

  7. Mental health effects of climate change

    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We all know that 2014 has been declared as the hottest year globally by the Meteorological department of United States of America. Climate change is a global challenge which is likely to affect the mankind in substantial ways. Not only climate change is expected to affect physical health, it is also likely to affect mental health. Increasing ambient temperatures is likely to increase rates of aggression and violent suicides, while prolonged droughts due to climate change can lead to more number of farmer suicides. Droughts otherwise can lead to impaired mental health and stress. Increased frequency of disasters with climate change can lead to posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder, and depression. Changes in climate and global warming may require population to migrate, which can lead to acculturation stress. It can also lead to increased rates of physical illnesses, which secondarily would be associated with psychological distress. The possible effects of mitigation measures on mental health are also discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of what can and should be done to tackle the expected mental health issues consequent to climate change.

  8. Effect of health development assistance on health status in sub-Saharan Africa

    Negeri KG; Halemariam D

    2016-01-01

    Keneni Gutema Negeri,1 Damen Halemariam,21School of Public and Environmental Health, Health Service Management Unit, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Introduction: Data on the effect of health aid on the health status in developing countries are inconclusive. Moreover, studies on this issue in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce. Therefore, this stud...

  9. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs

  10. Health effects assessment of chemical exposures: ARIES methodology

    Sierra, L; Montero, M.; Rabago, I.; Vidania, R.

    1995-07-01

    In this work, we present ARIES* update: a system designed in order to facilitate the human health effects assessment produced by accidental release of toxic chemicals. The first version of ARIES was developed in relation to 82/501/EEC Directive about mayor accidents in the chemical industry. So, the first aim was the support of the effects assessment derived for the chemicals included into this directive. From this establishment, it was considered acute exposures for high concentrations. In this report, we present the actual methodology for considering other type of exposures, such as environmental and occupational. Likewise other versions, the methodology comprises two approaches: quantitative and qualitative assessments. Quantitative assessment incorporates the mathematical algorithms useful to evaluate the effects produced by the most important routes of exposure: inhalation, ingestion, eye contact and skin absorption, in a short, medium and long term. It has been included models that realizes an accurate quantification of doses, effects,... and so on, such as simple approaches when the available information is not enough. Qualitative assessment, designed in order to complement or replace the previous one, is incorporated into an informatics system, developed in Clipper. It executes and displays outstanding and important toxicological information of about 100 chemicals. This information comes from ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) database through a collaboration with JRC-ISPRA working group. (Author) 24 refs.

  11. Hyperacute thrombolysis with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator of acute ischemic stroke: Feasibility and effectivity from an Indian perspective

    Sharma S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the constraints of resources, thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke (AIS is under evaluation in developing countries like India, especially in areas such as western Utter Pradesh, where it is overly crowded and there is poor affordability. Aim: This study was done to evaluate recombinant tissue plasminogen activator r-tpa in acute ischemic stroke in hyper acute phase, in selected patients of western Utter Pradesh, in terms of feasibility and effectivity. Design: Open, non randomized study. Materials and Methods: Thirty two patients were classified using Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke treatment (TOAST criteria (large artery atherosclerotic = 8; cardio embolic = 6; small vessel occlusion = 14; other determined etiology = 2; undetermined etiology = 2. The mean time to reach the hospital was 2 h (1.15-3.0, the mean door to CT scan 20 min (10-40 and door to r-tpa injection was 30 min (24-68. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores ranged from 11-22 (mean 15.5 +2.7. The dose of r-tpa administered was 0.9 mg/kg. Results: Twenty one patients (65.6% showed significant improvement on the NIHSS score, at 48 h (4 points. (Mean change = 10; range = 4-17. At one month, 25 (78% recorded improvement on the Barthel index (mean change = 45%. One developed frontal lobe hemorrhage and another developed recurrent stroke; one died of aspiration; and four showed no improvement. Modified Rankin score (m RS was administered at the end of three months to 28 patients (90%; however, the rest could not be directly observed. The average modified Rankin Score was 1.2 (0-2. Conclusions: Hyperacute thrombolysis was found feasible and effective in selected patients with AIS from western Utter Pradesh and who had poor affordability.

  12. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Rastyani; Alikhani; Sedighi; Kazemi; Farhadi Kohan; Arabestani

    2015-01-01

    Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. ...

  13. Radiation health effects. Experience from Chernobyl to Fukushima

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986 led to a high level of radioactive contamination over wide area in Europe. High radiation-dose exposure to 134 power plant staff and emergency personnel resulted in acute radiation syndrome. The internal radiation exposure by radioactive iodine-131 caused operated thyroid cancer among more than 6000 children at the time of the accident until 2010. The low dose irradiation by radioactive cesium-137 continues even today, and evacuation and relocation proved a deeply traumatic experience to many people. Since the Chernobyl accident, WHO and IAEA have established a global assistance system to strengthen the activities related to radiation emergency medical preparedness and response network. Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in 2011 has also caused many people to evacuate, and great suffering, hardship, and anxiety to the residents of Fukushima Prefecture. Therefore the Fukushima Prefectural Government is now conducting the 'The Fukushima Health Management Survey' to alleviate residents' concerns about radiation and to facilitate suitable healthcare in the future. It is necessary to continue scientific research around Chernobyl and provide accurate information on radiation health effects not only to the Fukushima residents but also toward all over the world. (author)

  14. Effects of COX-2 inhibitor in temporomandibular joint acute inflammation.

    Schütz, T C B; Andersen, M L; Tufik, S

    2007-05-01

    Since it is recognized that cyclo-oxygenase-2 mediates nociception and the sleep-wake cycle as well, and that acute inflammation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) results in sleep disturbances, we hypothesized that cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor would restore the sleep pattern in this inflammatory rat model. First, sleep was monitored after the injection of Freund's adjuvant (FA group) or saline (SHAM group) into the rats' temporomandibular joint. Second, etoricoxib was co-administered in these groups. The Freund's adjuvant group showed a reduction in sleep efficiency, in rapid eye movement (REM), and in non-REM sleep, and an increase in sleep and REM sleep latency when compared with the SHAM group, while etoricoxib substantially increased sleep quality in the Freund's adjuvant group. These parameters returned progressively to those found in the SHAM group. Etoricoxib improved the sleep parameters, suggesting the involvement of the cyclo-oxygenase-2 enzyme in acute inflammation of the TMJ, specifically in REM sleep. PMID:17452571

  15. HELLE: Health Effects of Low Level Exposures

    The Health Council is closely involved in establishing the scientific foundation of exposure limits for substances and radiation in order to protect public health. Through the years, the Council has contributed to the formulation of principles and procedures, both for carcinogenic and for noncarcinogenic agents. As a rule, the discussion with regard to the derivation of health-based recommended exposure limits centers around the appropriateness of extrapolation methods (What can be inferred from data on high exposure levels and on experimental animals?). Generally speaking, there is a lack of direct information on the health effects of low levels of exposure. Effects at these levels cannot usually be detected by means of traditional animal experiments or epidemiological research. The capacity of these analytical instruments to distinguish between ''signal'' and ''noise'' is inadequate in most cases. Annex B of this report contains a brief outline of the difficulties and the established methods for tackling this problem. In spite of this, the hope exists that the posited weak signals, if they are indeed present, can be detected by other means. The search will have to take place on a deeper level. In other words, effort must be made to discover what occurs at underlying levels of biological organization when organisms are exposed to low doses of radiation or substances. Molecular and cell biology provide various methods and techniques which give an insight into the processes within the cell. This results in an increase in the knowledge about the molecular and cellular effects of exposure to agents, or stated differently, the working mechanisms which form the basis of the health effects. Last year, the Health Council considered that the time was ripe to take stock of the state of knowledge in this field. To this end, an international working conference was held from 19 to 21 October 1997, entitled ''Health Effects of Low Level Exposures: Scientific Developments and

  16. Cerebrolysin effects on neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow in acute ischemic stroke

    Amiri-Nikpour MR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Reza Amiri-Nikpour,1 Surena Nazarbaghi,1 Babak Ahmadi-Salmasi,1 Tayebeh Mokari,2 Urya Tahamtan,2 Yousef Rezaei3 1Department of Neurology, Imam Khomeini Hospital, 2School of Medicine, 3Seyyed-al-Shohada Heart Center, Urmia University of Medical Sciences, Urmia, Iran Background: Cerebrolysin, a brain-derived neuropeptide, has been shown to improve the neurological outcomes of stroke, but no study has demonstrated its effect on cerebral blood flow. This study aimed to determine the cerebrolysin impact on the neurological outcomes and cerebral blood flow. Methods: In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial, 46 patients who had acute focal ischemic stroke were randomly assigned into two groups to receive intravenously either 30 mL of cerebrolysin diluted in normal saline daily for 10 days (n=23 or normal saline alone (n=23 adjunct to 100 mg of aspirin daily. All patients were examined using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and transcranial Doppler to measure the mean flow velocity and pulsatility index (PI of their cerebral arteries at baseline as well as on days 30, 60, and 90. Results: The patients’ mean age was 60±9.7 years, and 51.2% of patients were male. The National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on day 60 (median 10, interquartile range 9–11, P=0.008 and day 90 (median 11, interquartile range 10–13.5, P=0.001. The median of PI in the right middle cerebral artery was significantly lower in the cerebrolysin group compared with the placebo group on days 30, 60, and 90 (P<0.05. One patient in the cerebrolysin group and two patients in the placebo group died before day 30 (4.3% versus 8.7%. Conclusion: Cerebrolysin can be useful to improve the neurological outcomes and the PI of middle cerebral artery in patients with acute focal ischemic stroke. Keywords: ischemic stroke, cerebrolysin, neuroprotection, NIHSS, mean

  17. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally. PMID:10346051

  18. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke

    Pierson, W.E.; Koenig, J.Q.; Bardana, E.J. Jr.

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo(a)pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal.29 references.

  19. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.

    Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

    1989-09-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde--are possible human carcinogens. Fine particulate matter has been associated with decreased pulmonary function in children and with increased chronic lung disease in Nepal, where exposure to very high amounts of wood smoke occurs in residences. Wood smoke fumes, taken from both outdoor and indoor samples, have shown mutagenic activity in short-term bioassay tests. Because of the potential health effects of wood smoke, exposure to this source of air pollution should be minimal. PMID:2686171

  20. Characteristics of effective health care managers.

    Johnson, Sherryl W

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of traditional and contemporary management theories. Concerns, characteristics, and skills of effective managers are also presented. Further, a self-assessment (survey) of 7 highly effective health care managers in a South Georgia community was conducted to determine their ratings on 6 management indices. The assessment or Scale of Transformational Leadership uses a Likert-type scale to allow for the evaluation of managers. The scale contains 6 management elements for assessment: attention, meaning, trust, self, vision, and feeling. Individual ratings and group summary skills rating are presented. Findings revealed the order of managerial importance of the elements as follows (from highest to lowest): Management of Trust, Management of Attention, Management of Self, Management of Feeling, Management of Meaning, and Management of Risk. As a second tier, the final ratings are corroborated by health care management interns. PMID:15923923

  1. Potential adverse health effects of wood smoke.

    Pierson, W E; Koenig, J Q; Bardana, E J

    1989-01-01

    The use of wood stoves has increased greatly in the past decade, causing concern in many communities about the health effects of wood smoke. Wood smoke is known to contain such compounds as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, aldehydes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fine respirable particulate matter. All of these have been shown to cause deleterious physiologic responses in laboratory studies in humans. Some compounds found in wood smoke--benzo[a]pyrene and formaldehyde-...

  2. Evaluation of the results of acute viral gastroenteritis data in Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory in 2009

    Albayrak, Nurhan; Dilek YAĞCI-ÇAĞLAYIK; Ayşe Başak ALTAŞ; Korukluoğlu, Gülay; Ertek, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Astrovirus are responsible for most non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. The incidence of these viral agents in Turkey is not well known. In this study, it was aimed to document the viral etiology of the stool samples which were send to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency (RSNPHA), Virology Reference and Research Laboratory for investigation of viral acute gastroenteritis agents. Method: A total of 147 stool samples from 11 different ...

  3. Stroke mortality: predictive value of simple laboratory tests and acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation III scoring system: a hospital based study

    Ajeet K. Chaurasia; Manoj K. Mathur; N C Dwivedi; Manjul Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute stroke is a heterogeneous condition with respect to prognosis. This study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the significance of routine simple blood parameters and APACHE (acute physiology, age, chronic health evaluation) III scoring system as methods of prediction of 1-month mortality in stroke patients and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of APACHE III scoring system in predicting short term outcome in critically ill patients having stroke. Methods: Patie...

  4. Effects of Acute Exposures to Carbon Dioxide Upon Cognitive Functions

    Scully, R. R.; Alexander, D. J.; Ryder, V. E.; Lam, C. W.; Statish, U.; Basner, M.

    2016-01-01

    controlled at levels that are well below current spacecraft limits. Our study will extend the earlier study to determine if crew-like subjects are similarly effected by CO2. In addition to employing the Strategic Management Simulation tool, we will use the Cognition battery of psychometric measures that are being utilized aboard the ISS. It will be important to learn, by using Cognition, if additional cognitive domains are sensitive to concentrations of CO2 at or below limits currently controlled by flight rules. While spaceflight Cognition data will greatly enhance the knowledge base related to inflight behavioral health and performance, some of the measures may be influenced by fatigue (related to sleep deprivation and or workload) and changes in circadian rhythms. Therefore our use of this battery of tests in a well-controlled, ground-based study that is free of these potential confounding influences will establish a baseline terrestrial data set against which Cognition data collected in flight may be assessed. The findings from this study will be useful to the NASA Toxicology Office and the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology, which assists NASA in setting environmental standards, for revision of the SMAC for CO2, and for designing further studies on effects of CO2 upon cognitive functions.

  5. Modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on survival of animal population: acute versus chronic exposure.

    Kryshev, A I; Sazykina, T G

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the present paper was application of a model, which was originally developed to simulate chronic ionizing radiation effects in a generic isolated population, to the case of acute exposure, and comparison of the dynamic features of radiation effects on the population survival in cases of acute and chronic exposure. Two modes of exposure were considered: acute exposure (2-35 Gy) and chronic lifetime exposure with the same integrated dose. Calculations were made for a generic mice population; however, the model can be applied for other animals with proper selection of parameter values. In case of acute exposure, in the range 2-11 Gy, the population response was in two phases. During a first phase, there was a depletion in population survival; the second phase was a recovery period due to reparation of damage and biosynthesis of new biomass. Model predictions indicate that a generic mice population, living in ideal conditions, has the potential for recovery (within a mouse lifetime period) from acute exposure with dose up to 10-11 Gy, i.e., the population may recover from doses above an LD50 (6.2 Gy). Following acute doses above 14 Gy, however, the mice population went to extinction without recovery. In contrast, under chronic lifetime exposures (500 days), radiation had little effect on population survival up to integrated doses of 14-15 Gy, so the survival of a population subjected to chronic exposure was much better compared with that after an acute exposure with the same dose. Due to the effect of "wasted radiation", the integrated dose of chronic exposure could be about two times higher than acute dose, producing the same effect on survival. It is concluded that the developed generic population model including the repair of radiation damage can be applied both to acute and chronic modes of exposure; results of calculations for generic mice population are in qualitative agreement with published data on radiation effects in mice. PMID

  6. [Effect of shengmaisan on serum lipid peroxidation in acute viral myocarditis].

    Zhao, M H; Rong, Y Z; Lu, B J

    1996-03-01

    The effect of Shengmaisan (SMS) on 62 acute viral myocarditis patients and its peroxidation damage was studied. The results revealed that the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in blood were decreased and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma was increased in acute viral myocarditis patients in comparison with the healthy controls (P SMS group and placebo group. After treatment, both SOD and GSH-Px activities were increased and the level of MDA decreased (P SMS group, while those in placebo group were not changed (P < 0.05). The results suggested that the myocardial damage of viral myocarditis is closely related with lipid peroxidation SMS acts as an effective free radical scavenger and anti-lipid peroxidation drug. SMS could prevent the damage of myocardia and might be taken as one of the effective therapeutic methods in treatment of acute viral myocarditis. PMID:9208534

  7. Factors associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 5 years: evidence from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey

    Gebertsadik A; Worku A; Berhane Y

    2015-01-01

    Achamyelesh Geberetsadik,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Yemane Berhane3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 3Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data ...

  8. Factors associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 5 years: evidence from the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey

    Gebertsadik Tekle, Achamyelesh

    2015-01-01

    Achamyelesh Geberetsadik,1 Alemayehu Worku,2 Yemane Berhane31School of Public and Environmental Health, Hawassa University, Hawassa, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 3Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) remains the major cause of child mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa. Various factors are associated with its occurrence and vary by context. However, available large-scale, population-based data ar...

  9. Effects of Breaking Sitting by Standing and Acute Exercise on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Sedentary behavior, which includes sitting and TV viewing, has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breaking sedentary behavior improves metabolic health such as postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Objectives Here, we examined whether breaking sitting by standing and acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress. Patient and Methods Fifteen participants performed 3 trials (sitting, standing, and exercise, each lasting 2 days, in a randomised order. On day one of sitting trial, participants sat in a chair. For the standing trial, the participants stood 6 times, for a 45-minute period each time. For the exercise trial, the participants walked or ran at approximately 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 30 minutes. On day two of each trial, participants rested and consumed the standardised breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected in the morning and afternoon on day one, and fasting and at 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandially on day two. Results The concentrations of serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs measured at 4 hours (P = 0.064 and 6 hours (P = 0.071 tended to be higher than that in the fasting state in the sitting trial, but not standing and exercise trial (two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, trial × time interaction, P = 0.006. Conclusions Our results indicate the importance of reducing sitting time for improving postprandial oxidative stress status.

  10. The effect of game-based exercise on infant acute lymphocytic leukaemia patients

    Édgar Cortés-Reyes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To establish the effect of a game-based exercise programme on Physical Deconditioning Syndrome (PDS in 5 to 12 year-old children suffering Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL. Materials and methods. This was a quasi-experimental study involving seven children being treated for ALL at the National Cancer Institute (NCI in Bogotá, Colombia. Fitness determinants (aerobic capacity, muscle strength, flexibility, motor skills and proprioception were initially assessed to establish their exercise regime category, classifying subjects into three levels. Post-intervention assessment at the end of the programme verified changes in such determinants. Results. Seven children aged 5 to 12 years-old (9±2.13 years suffering from ALL (4 girls and 3 boys met the inclusion criteria. Most determinants underwent changes leading to an increase in patients' evaluation scores (except for muscle strength, which remained constant. Whilst determinant variation was important, a greater difference was found when the overall score was analysed (p=0.05, signifying that the intervention had changed these children's health status. Conclusion. Game-based exercise was useful for managing PDS in 5 to12 year-old ALL patients and suggested new ways of providing an intervention concerning physical therapy. However, studies involving a larger target population and longer intervention time are needed to identify new findings in this field.

  11. The effect of electrical neurostimulation on collateral perfusion during acute coronary occlusion

    van den Heuvel Ad FM; de Smet Bart JGL; Tan Eng-Shiong; Jessurun Gillian A; DeJongste Mike JL; Anthonio Rutger L; de Vries Jessica; Staal Michiel J; Zijlstra Felix

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Electrical neurostimulation can be used to treat patients with refractory angina, it reduces angina and ischemia. Previous data have suggested that electrical neurostimulation may alleviate myocardial ischaemia through increased collateral perfusion. We investigated the effect of electrical neurostimulation on functional collateral perfusion, assessed by distal coronary pressure measurement during acute coronary occlusion. We sought to study the effect of electrical neuros...

  12. Comparison of effects of quinapril versus enalapril on vasoactive substances following acute myocardial infarction.

    Tsikouris, James P; Simoni, Jan; Suarez, Jose A; Sutthiwan, Piraon; Ziska, Martin; Meyerrose, Gary E

    2004-09-01

    The true existence of a class effect in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors remains controversial. The present trial explored the effects of 2 ACE inhibitors after acute myocardial infarction and found no difference in endothelin-1 production but a greater increase in the production of total nitric oxide with quinapril than with enalapril. PMID:15342298

  13. The effectiveness and safety of treatments used for acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Florez, Ivan D.; Al-Khalifah, Reem; Sierra, Javier M.; Granados, Claudia M.; Yepes-Nuñez, Juan J.; Cuello-Garcia, Carlos; Perez-Gaxiola, Giordano; Zea, Adriana M.; Hernandez, Gilma N.; Veroniki, Areti-Angeliki; Guyatt, Gordon H; Thabane, Lehana

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute diarrhea and acute gastroenteritis (AD/AGE) are common among children in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and high-income countries (HIC). Supportive therapy including maintaining feeding, prevention of dehydration, and use of oral rehydration solution (ORS), is the mainstay of treatment in all children. Several additional treatments aiming to reduce the episode duration have been compared to placebo, but the differences in effectiveness among them are unknown. Methods...

  14. Acute effects of tibolone on cerebral vascular reactivity in vitro

    Lund, C O; Nilas, Lisbeth; Dalsgaard, T; Pedersen, S H; Ottesen, B

    2003-01-01

    of the hormones on the concentration-response curves with calcium were examined. RESULTS: Tibolone and its metabolites induced a concentration-dependent relaxation comparable to that of 17beta-estradiol (area under the curve (AUC); tibolone vs. 17beta-estradiol: 242 vs. 251; p < 0.05, analysis of...... variance). L-NAME increased the AUC for all substances compared with controls (p < 0.05, Student's t test), except for 17beta-estradiol. Preincubation with TEA induced no changes. The concentration-dependent contraction curves with calcium were shifted rightward by all hormones. CONCLUSIONS: The study...... demonstrates that the acute relaxation induced by tibolone and its metabolites in cerebral arteries in vitro is comparable to that with 17beta-estradiol, and seems to be mediated by inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels and possibly partly by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism....

  15. Side effects of treatment in childhood acute leukemia, 2

    We evaluated delayed neurotoxicities in treatment of childhood acute leukemia. Of 28 patients treated over 2 years who were examined on computed tomography of brain scans, 7 patients had abnormal findings. These abnormalities included two cases of leukoencephalopathy, three cases of intracranial calcifications, and two of ventricular dilatation. These patients were under 6 years old at the onset of disease, especially under 3 years old. Also, delayed neurotoxicities developed after relapse of leukemia, especially CNS relapse. It was considered that these were caused by cranial irradiation, intravenous methotrexate injection, intrathecal methotrexate, and sometimes high-dose Ara-C therapy, etc. Most of the cases of leukoencephalopathy were associated with treatment of intermediate-dose or high-dose methotrexate after relapse. These abnormalities must be carefully considered in the treatment of younger children with leukemia and patients with relapse. (author)

  16. The effect of relationship status on health with dynamic health and persistent relationships.

    Kohn, Jennifer L; Averett, Susan L

    2014-07-01

    The dynamic evolution of health and persistent relationship status pose econometric challenges to disentangling the causal effect of relationships on health from the selection effect of health on relationship choice. Using a new econometric strategy we find that marriage is not universally better for health. Rather, cohabitation benefits the health of men and women over 45, being never married is no worse for health, and only divorce marginally harms the health of younger men. We find strong evidence that unobservable health-related factors can confound estimates. Our method can be applied to other research questions with dynamic dependent and multivariate endogenous variables. PMID:24769050

  17. The acute effect of vibration applications on jumping performance

    Şener Soylu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, vibration has become very popular as a method of exercise and training and drawn attention of researchers. The aim of this study was to analyses the acute affect of vibration applications as a method of exercise and training on jumping performance. In this study experimental group consists of 25 subjects who are studying at Physical Education and Sports Department of Sakarya University (age 22.2±1.7 years, height 179.2±4.8 cm. body weight 71.5±9.0 kg. This study included a vibration at density of 35 Hz (3x30 sec. frequency  that result from  aerobic exercise that has low density and b just  methods of aerobic exercise (without any vibration that has  low density. Subjects have taken the tests of countermovement and squat jumping after 2 minutes of each application. All applications and tests have been done in nonconsecutive days in a random scheme. In statistical analysis Wilcoxon has been applied in nonparametric scheme. For counter movement jumping; height of jumping,  the difference between before and after  the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power has been found significiant (respectively, p<0.05; p<0.05; p<0.01. In addition to this, no statistical difference was found for squat vertical jumping before and after the application of vibration related to the point of peak power and average power (respectively, p>0.05; p>0.05; p>0.05. As a result, it is concluded that vibration that is applied at the range of 35 Hz frequency could increase the performance of acute countermovement jumping. 

  18. The effect of hospital volume on patient outcomes in severe acute pancreatitis

    Shen Hsiu-Nien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the relation between hospital volume and outcome in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP. The determination is important because patient outcome may be improved through volume-based selective referral. Methods In this cohort study, we analyzed 22,551 SAP patients in 2,208 hospital-years (between 2000 and 2009 from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Primary outcome was hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were hospital length of stay and charges. Hospital SAP volume was measured both as categorical and as continuous variables (per one case increase each hospital-year. The effect was assessed using multivariable logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations accounting for hospital clustering effect. Adjusted covariates included patient and hospital characteristics (model 1, and additional treatment variables (model 2. Results Irrespective of the measurements, increasing hospital volume was associated with reduced risk of hospital mortality after adjusting the patient and hospital characteristics (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.995, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.993-0.998 for per one case increase. The patients treated in the highest volume quartile (≥14 cases per hospital-year had 42% lower risk of hospital mortality than those in the lowest volume quartile (1 case per hospital-year after adjusting the patient and hospital characteristics (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83. However, an inverse relation between volume and hospital stay or hospital charges was observed only when the volume was analyzed as a categorical variable. After adjusting the treatment covariates, the volume effect on hospital mortality disappeared regardless of the volume measures. Conclusions These findings support the use of volume-based selective referral for patients with SAP and suggest that differences in levels or processes of care among hospitals may have contributed to the volume

  19. Study on effect of self-management in health education of parents of children with acute otitis media%自我管理运用于急性中耳炎患儿家长健康教育效果探讨

    伍修娥; 袁轲; 车小雯

    2014-01-01

    Objective To approach the application value of self-management model in health education of parents of children with acute otitis media(AOM). Methods According to the odd and even numbers of visit orders,156 AOM children and their parents were divided into the observation group and the control group ,78 cases in each group. The parents of the obser-vation group were received self-management model health education,including credit promotion,motivational interview,psycho-logical support,health diary,etc. Meanwhile,the control group was given a regular health education. Results The mean time of children′s AOM treatment in the observation group was shorter than that in the control group ,the recurernce rate was lower than that in the control group,while the awareness rate was higher than that of the control group,and the differences were all statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion Implementing self-management of health education model for AOM children′s parents,can strengthen their compliance behaviors,improve the cure rate and reduce the recurrence rate of the disease.%目的:探讨自我管理模式在急性中耳炎(AOM)患儿家长健康教育中的应用价值。方法按照就诊顺序的单双号将2013年6~12月就诊的156例AOM患儿及其家长(156例)均分为观察组和对照组各78例。观察组对患儿家长实施自我管理的健康教育,包括资信宣教、动机面谈、心理支持、健康日记等方法。对照组实施常规健康教育。

  20. Acute and Chronic Effects of Cannabinoids on Human Cognition-A Systematic Review.

    Broyd, Samantha J; van Hell, Hendrika H; Beale, Camilla; Yücel, Murat; Solowij, Nadia

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition during acute intoxication as well as in the unintoxicated state in long-term users. However, the evidence has been mixed and contested, and no systematic reviews of the literature on neuropsychological task-based measures of cognition have been conducted in an attempt to synthesize the findings. We systematically review the empirical research published in the past decade (from January 2004 to February 2015) on acute and chronic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids and on persistence or recovery after abstinence. We summarize the findings into the major categories of the cognitive domains investigated, considering sample characteristics and associations with various cannabis use parameters. Verbal learning and memory and attention are most consistently impaired by acute and chronic exposure to cannabis. Psychomotor function is most affected during acute intoxication, with some evidence for persistence in chronic users and after cessation of use. Impaired verbal memory, attention, and some executive functions may persist after prolonged abstinence, but persistence or recovery across all cognitive domains remains underresearched. Associations between poorer performance and a range of cannabis use parameters, including a younger age of onset, are frequently reported. Little further evidence has emerged for the development of tolerance to the acutely impairing effects of cannabis. Evidence for potential protection from harmful effects by cannabidiol continues to increase but is not definitive. In light of increasing trends toward legalization of cannabis, the knowledge gained from this body of research needs to be incorporated into strategies to minimize harm. PMID:26858214

  1. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    Ganaraja B

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on ceruloplasmin level in acute stress. AIMS: To assess the estradiol induced changes in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration on exposure of the rats to acute stress. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Acute stress was induced by forcing the rats to swim till exhaustion. The rats were overiectomised bilaterally to remove the primary source of sex hormones. And hormone replacement was done later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar albino female rats were used. Acute stress was induced before overiectomy, following recovery from surgery, and again after Estradiol Valerate injection (for 10 days in same group of rats. The plasma ceruloplasmin was estimated immediately after stress during each stage - that is preoperative control, stressed control, after overiectomy and then following treatment with Estradiol Valerate. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample T test was applied to analyze the findings. Results: We found lowest ceruloplasmin level after stress in overiectomised animals, while on substitution of estradiol the trend appeared to be reversed. CONCLUSION: The result suggested a direct effect of estrogen on hepatic ceruloplasmin production/release and this could account for some of the beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy.

  2. Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs for Acute and Chronic Seizures in Children with Encephalitis.

    Kuang-Lin Lin

    Full Text Available Encephalitis presents with seizures in the acute phase and increases the risk of late unprovoked seizures and epilepsy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of antiepileptic drugs in pediatric patients with acute seizures due to encephalitis and epilepsy.Cases of acute pediatric encephalitis between January 2000 and December 2010 were reviewed. Clinical data, including onset at age, seizure type, seizure frequency, effects of antiepileptic drugs, and prognosis were analyzed.During the study period, 1038 patients (450 girls, 588 boys were enrolled. Among them, 44.6% (463 had seizures in the acute phase, 33% had status epilepticus, and 26% (251 developed postencephalitic epilepsy. At one year of follow-up, 205 of the 251 patients with postencephalitic epilepsy were receiving antiepileptic drugs while 18% were seizure free even after discontinuing the antiepileptic drugs. Among those with postencephalitic epilepsy, 67% had favorable outcomes and were using <2 anti-epileptic drugs while 15% had intractable seizures and were using ≥ 2 antiepileptic drugs. After benzodiazepines, intravenous phenobarbital was preferred over phenytoin as treatment of postencephalitic seizures in the acute phase. For refractory status epilepticus, high-dose topiramate combined with intravenous high-dose phenobarbital or high-dose lidocaine had less side effects.Children with encephalitis have a high rate of postencephalitic epilepsy. Phenobarbital and clonazepam are the most common drugs used, alone or in combination, for postencephalitic epilepsy.

  3. Countermeasures for Space Radiation Induced Malignancies and Acute Biological Effects

    Kennedy, Ann

    ., Wan, X.S., Nuth, M., Davis, J., Ko, Y.-H., Sayers, C.M., Baran, M., Ware, J.H. and Kennedy, A.R. Dietary antioxidants protect hematopoietic cells and improve animal survival following total body irradiation. Radiation Res. (in press) [9] Kennedy, A.R., Davis, J.G., Carlton, W. and Ware, J.H. Effects of dietary antioxidant supplementation on the development of malignancies and other neoplastic lesions in mice exposed to proton or iron ion radiation. Radiation Res. (submitted) [10] Kennedy, A.R. The Status of Human Trials Utilizing Bowman-Birk Inhibitor Concentrate from Soybeans. In: Soy in Health and Disease Prevention, edited by Michihiro Sugano, CRC Press Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, Chapter 12, pp. 207-223, 2005. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS; This work was supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58.

  4. The acute effect of kinesio taping on hamstring extensibility in university students

    MERINO-MARBAN R.,; FERNANDEZ-RODRIGUEZ E.,; LOPEZ-FERNANDEZ I,.; Mayorga-Vega, D.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim and rationale of our study was to determine the acute effect of kinesio taping on theextensibility of the hamstring muscle among university students.Design: An intra-subject experimental design was used to evaluate the possible acute effects of KT using the Xshapedtaping technique in order to affect hamstring muscle extensibility.Method: Forty-three healthy university students (age 21.98 ± 4.68 years, body mass 71.50 ± 13.49 kg, height172.35 ± 8.17 cm) were assessed for ha...

  5. Late cardiac effects of anthracycline containing therapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Rathe, Mathias; Carlsen, Niels L T; Oxhøj, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    At present about 80% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured following treatment with multi-drug chemotherapy. A major concern for this growing number of survivors is the risk of late effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether signs of cardiomyo......At present about 80% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) will be cured following treatment with multi-drug chemotherapy. A major concern for this growing number of survivors is the risk of late effects of treatment. The aim of this study was to determine whether signs of...

  6. Effect of somatostatin on the sphincter of Oddi in patients with acute non-biliary pancreatitis

    Lai, K.; Lo, G.; Cheng, J; Fu, M; Wang, E; Chan, H.; Wang, Y.; P. Hsu; Lin, C.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Somatostatin has been used to prevent pancreatitis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography but its effect on acute non-biliary pancreatitis is still unclear.
AIM—The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of the sphincter of Oddi (SO) and the effect of somatostatin on patients with non-biliary pancreatitis.
METHODS—Twenty patients (18 males, two females) with acute pancreatitis (alcoholic 18, idiopathic two) received SO manometry within one week after admis...

  7. Introduction to working group on tropospheric ozone, Health Effects Institute environmental epidemiology planning project.

    Tager, I B

    1993-01-01

    The working group on tropospheric ozone of the Health Effects Institute has evaluated the need for epidemiologic studies on the health effects of ozone (O3) exposure. This paper summarizes current data and identifies possible research questions. The extent to which ozone exposure results in chronic health effects is largely undefined and is the central issue for epidemiologic studies. Most current data focus on transient endpoints; the link between acute changes in symptoms and/or lung function and possible chronic effects has not been established. Concepts of ozone-induced health effects have been extended to include processes of chronic disease (e.g., markers of ongoing inflammation and repair, markers of accelerated lung aging). Traditional epidemiologic studies performed have focused only on accelerated lung aging and are limited by a number of methodologic problems. Recent, very preliminary, studies suggest new opportunities for the use of human lung tissue and a variety biological response markers as part of epidemiologic studies. The identification of sensitive subpopulations with regard to ozone-induced health effects has been studied incompletely and is important both in terms of study efficiency and mechanistic insight. Methodologic advances in the reconstruction of past ozone exposure are seen as essential, as is the incorporation of emerging markers of biologic response to ozone into traditional epidemiologic study designs. Finally, more data on the joint and independent contribution of other ambient air pollutants to putative ozone-induced health effects is warranted. PMID:8206032

  8. The modelling of health effects in COSYMA

    The presentation gives a brief overview of the types of health effects considered in each of the three subsystems of COSYMA, the way that the corresponding models are implemented and their present default parameter values. The risk of early effects is calculated using hazard functions, as recently recommended by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and NRPB. The early fatal effects specified in COSYMA comprise those following the irradiation of the bone marrow (hematopoietic syndrome), the lung (pulmonary syndrome), the GI-tract (gastrointestinal syndrome) and skin (skin burns). In addition the mortality of pre-and neonates after exposure in utero is quantified. Of the possible non-fatal effects the only ones included are those which lead to a severe disability of the affected person for the rest of their life or which require medical treatment and/or social care

  9. Properties, use and health effects of depleted uranium

    Depleted uranium (DU), a waste product of uranium enrichment, has several civilian and military applications. It was used as armor-piercing ammunition in international military conflicts and was claimed to contribute to health problems, known as the Gulf War Syndrome. This led to renewed efforts to assess the environmental consequences and health impact of DU use. The radiological and chemical properties of DU can be compared to those of natural uranium, which is ubiquitously present in soil at a typical concentration of 3 mg/kg. Natural uranium has the same chemo toxicity, but its radiotoxicity is 60% higher. Due to low specific radioactivity and the dominance of alpha radiation no acute risk is attributed to external exposure to DU. The major risk is DU dust, generated when DU ammunition hits hard targets. After deposition on the ground, resuspension takes place, if the DU containing particle size sufficiently small. However, transfer to drinking water or locally produced food has little potential to lead to significant exposure to DU. Since poor solubility of uranium compounds and lack of information on speciation precludes the use of radioecological models for exposure assessment, bio monitoring has to be used for assessing exposed persons. With the exception of crews of military vehicles having been hit by DU penetrators, no body burdens above the range of values for natural uranium have been found. Therefore, observable health effects are not expected and residual cancer risk estimates have to be based on theoretical considerations. They appear to be very minor for all post-conflict situations, i.e. a fraction of those expected from natural radiation. (author)

  10. Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets.

    Key, Timothy J; Appleby, Paul N; Rosell, Magdalena S

    2006-02-01

    Vegetarian diets do not contain meat, poultry or fish; vegan diets further exclude dairy products and eggs. Vegetarian and vegan diets can vary widely, but the empirical evidence largely relates to the nutritional content and health effects of the average diet of well-educated vegetarians living in Western countries, together with some information on vegetarians in non-Western countries. In general, vegetarian diets provide relatively large amounts of cereals, pulses, nuts, fruits and vegetables. In terms of nutrients, vegetarian diets are usually rich in carbohydrates, n-6 fatty acids, dietary fibre, carotenoids, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E and Mg, and relatively low in protein, saturated fat, long-chain n-3 fatty acids, retinol, vitamin B(12) and Zn; vegans may have particularly low intakes of vitamin B(12) and low intakes of Ca. Cross-sectional studies of vegetarians and vegans have shown that on average they have a relatively low BMI and a low plasma cholesterol concentration; recent studies have also shown higher plasma homocysteine concentrations than in non-vegetarians. Cohort studies of vegetarians have shown a moderate reduction in mortality from IHD but little difference in other major causes of death or all-cause mortality in comparison with health-conscious non-vegetarians from the same population. Studies of cancer have not shown clear differences in cancer rates between vegetarians and non-vegetarians. More data are needed, particularly on the health of vegans and on the possible impacts on health of low intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids and vitamin B(12). Overall, the data suggest that the health of Western vegetarians is good and similar to that of comparable non-vegetarians. PMID:16441942

  11. Short-term and medium-term health effects of thermonuclear weapons and war on individuals and health services

    In the aftermath of a thermonuclear attack a number of health problems would appear, related to the changed living conditions, lack of food, absence of sanitation, the environmental effects, and disruption of the health services. Internal irradiation by ingestion of radioactive isotopes deposited on the ground would constitute a major hazard from the fallout. In the first few weeks following the attack iodine-131 would present the greatest hazard. Its main entry into the body would be through milk from livestock grazing on pastures contaminated with fallout; milk from local cattle pasturing in open land would thus be unsuitable for consumption. There is much speculation about the possible outbreaks of communicable diseases following a nuclear attack. Infection could emerge as a major problem. It constitutes a leading cause of death in burns. In the Japanese experience acute radiation sickness was generally accompanied by infectious complications

  12. The Effects of 830 nm Light-Emitting Diode Therapy on Acute Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus: A Pilot Study

    Park, Kui Young; Han, Tae Young; Kim, In Su; Yeo, In Kwon; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2013-01-01

    Background Skin lesions and pain are the most distinctive features of herpes zoster. Light-emitting diode (LED) therapy is an effective treatment known for its wound-healing effects. Objective To determine whether the LED treatment affects wound healing and acute pain in acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus. Methods We recruited 28 consecutive Korean patients with acute herpes zoster ophthalmicus for the study. In the control group (group A), 14 subjects received oral famcyclovir. In the experime...

  13. Effect of edaravone on favorable outcome in patients with acute cerebral large vessel occlusion: subanalysis of RESCUE-Japan Registry.

    Miyaji, Yuki; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Egashira, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Manabu; Uchida, Kazutaka; Kageyama, Hirohito; Tomogane, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    The data of the nationwide prospective registry of acute cerebral large vessel occlusion (LVO; RESCUE-Japan Registry) were analyzed to know the effect of edaravone, a free radical scavenger, on clinical outcome at 90 days after onset. In this registry, patients with acute cerebral LVO admitted within 24 h after onset were prospectively registered. The effect of various factors including endovascular treatment (EVT), intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rt-PA), and other medication including edaravone on favorable outcome (modified Rankin scale 0-1) was analyzed. Of the 1,454 registered patients, 1,442 patients (99.2%) had the information of edaravone were analyzed. In total, edaravone group had more patients with favorable outcome compared to non-edaravone group (22.9% vs. 13.8%, p = 0.0006). Edaravone increased favorable outcome in patients treated with IV rt-PA (29.4% vs. 11.1%, p = 0.0107), but not with EVT (21.2% vs. 13.9%, p = 0.309). Logistic regression analysis revealed that higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score on admission [odds ratio (OR) 0.875, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.858-0.894] and advanced age (OR 0.963, 95%CI 0.952-0.975) were significantly related to unfavorable outcome. In contrast, IV rt-PA (OR 2.489, 95%CI 1.867-3.319), EVT (OR 1.375, 95%CI 1.013-1.865), and edaravone (OR 1.483, 95%CI 1.027-2.143) were significantly associated with favorable outcome. This analysis indicated that IV rt-PA, EVT, and edaravone were effective to obtain favorable outcome in patients with acute LVO. Combination IV rt-PA with edaravone was more effective. PMID:25739433

  14. Age-related differences in pulmonary effects of acute and subchronic episodic ozone exposures in Brown Norway rats.

    Snow, Samantha J; Gordon, Christopher J; Bass, Virginia L; Schladweiler, Mette C; Ledbetter, Allen D; Jarema, Kimberly A; Phillips, Pamela M; Johnstone, Andrew F; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2016-06-01

    Ozone (O3) is known to induce adverse pulmonary and systemic health effects. Importantly, children and older persons are considered at-risk populations for O3-induced dysfunction, yet the mechanisms accounting for the age-related pulmonary responses to O3 are uncertain. In this study, we examined age-related susceptibility to O3 using 1 mo (adolescent), 4 mo (young adult), 12 mo (adult) and 24 mo (senescent) male Brown Norway rats exposed to filtered air or O3 (0.25 and 1.00 ppm), 6 h/day, two days/week for 1 week (acute) or 13 weeks (subchronic). Ventilatory function, assessed by whole-body plethysmography, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) biomarkers of injury and inflammation were used to examine O3-induced pulmonary effects. Relaxation time declined in all ages following the weekly exposures; however, this effect persisted only in the 24 mo rats following a five days recovery, demonstrating an inability to induce adaptation commonly seen with repeated O3 exposures. PenH was increased in all groups with an augmented response in the 4 mo rats following the subchronic O3 exposures. O3 led to increased breathing frequency and minute volume in the 1 and 4 mo animals. Markers of pulmonary permeability were increased in all age groups. Elevations in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity and lung inflammation following an acute O3 exposure were noted in only the 1 and 4 mo rats, which likely received an increased effective O3 dose. These data demonstrate that adolescent and young adult animals are more susceptible to changes in ventilation and pulmonary injury/inflammation caused by acute and episodic O3 exposure. PMID:27097751

  15. Estimating long-term health effects

    The long-term health effects from iodine 131 and cesium 137 as a result of the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the USSR are discussed. Computer-generated radiation exposure distributions to the population in Europe have resulted in the following estimates: 2000-40,000 thyroid tumor cases from iodine 131 inhalation of which a few percent might be fatal; 10,000-250,000 potential thyroid tumor cases from iodine 131 absorbed via the grass-cow-milk route in the absence of actions by the public health authorities to block this exposure route; 3500-70,000 cancer cases from whole-body doses of cesium 137 (external and internal), of which approximately half might be fatal. Although there are uncertainties in these estimates they serve to indicate the magnitude of the problem

  16. Effect of gamma irradiation on acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of red ginger (zingiber officinale)

    Red ginger is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of diseases. Evaluation of the toxic properties of red ginger is very important to know the negative harmful impact to human health. Therefore, before it is consumed by humans, it is needed to conduct acute oral toxicity of red ginger extract in mice. Thin rhizome of red ginger in poly ethylene plastic packaging was irradiated by gamma rays at a dose of 10 kGy with a dose rate of 10 kGy/h. The ethanol extract of unirradiated as well as irradiated red ginger was then tested for the acute oral toxicity using OECD Guideline test method. The results showed that throughout the 14 days of treatment there was a change in behavior pattern, clinical symptoms and body weight of control mice and treatment groups. Histopathological examination of kidneys, heart, liver, lungs and spleen of the dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weight showed normal condition and no significant side effects observation. While central venous damage and a reduced number of hepatocyte cells in male mice occurred in the test dose higher than 2000 mg/kg body weight, whereas in female mice it occurred in the test group dose higher than 1250 mg/kg bw. Based on renal histology of male and female mice at doses higher than 1250 mg/kg body weight, there were damage to Bowman's capsule, glomerulus, proximal vessel and distal vessels. LD50 of unirradiated and irradiated with 10 kGy of ethanol extract of red ginger were 1887 mg/kg body weight and 2639 mg/kg body weight, respectively, and it can be categorized as moderately toxic. Oral administration of ethanol extract of red ginger with dose of 1250 mg/kg body weight gave an effect in mice organs. From these results it can be concluded that oral administration of both unirradiated and irradiated with a dose 10 kGy of ethanol extract consider safe at a dose less than 1250 mg/kg body weigh. (author)

  17. Health effects of marijuana: a review.

    Nixon, Panda Jnr

    2006-09-01

    The prevalence of marijuana use disorder has increased among marijuana users. Marijuana is an illicit drug that is becoming commonly used among youths and young adults and is detrimental to the human health. This review addresses the questions that most people have about the use and the effects of marijuana on the human health. The review focuses on the effects and its seriousness, affecting physical, mental, emotional, and behavioral changes to the human existence. Most of the findings in this review were based upon studies done recently in the United States of America. This review shows that that the most commonly used illicit drug (marijuana) contains an active chemical called delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which causes the mind-altering effects. When marijuana is smoked, its active ingredient, THC, travels throughout the body, including the brain, to produce its many effects. THC attaches to sites called cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells in the brain, affecting the way those cells function. The questions addressed include: "Is there treatments for marijuana abusers?"; and "Can marijuana be used as some forms of medication to human?". PMID:18181401

  18. The effectiveness of health communication strategies in health education in Kushima, Japan.

    Ebina, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Fumiko; Taniguchi, Izumi; Togari, Taisuke; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Sparks, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Japan's 2008 health policy focuses more than ever on health education for behaviour change and outcome measures for physical health status. This is at odds with contemporary health promotion and health education, which frame health as a resource for everyday life and indicate that the evaluation of interventions should measure broader aspects of health rather than just physical aspects. The application of a combination of different health communication models and theories allows for a customized approach, depending on the types of change that are being sought, and can lead to increased relevance as well as a better fit when it comes to evaluating the achievement of broad health promotion goals. This article explores the application of the Outcome Model for Health Promotion to a two-year health education intervention in Kushima, Japan. This model measures program effectiveness from four aspects: physical health outcomes; intermediate health outcomes; health promotion outcomes; and health promotion actions. A quantitative and qualitative longitudinal, mixed model study design and methods were used for the analysis. Data was taken from health exams, structured interviews, and participant observations collected from 67 participants at four times over two years. This intervention relied primarily on health education and communication to achieve mental and social health outcomes more significantly and faster than physical health outcomes. The importance of moving outcome measurement beyond direct health achievements is discussed in light of the relationships between physical, mental, and social health and its determinants, and our results. PMID:20357347

  19. Comparative effectiveness research on patients with acute ischemic stroke using Markov decision processes

    Wu Darong

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several methodological issues with non-randomized comparative clinical studies have been raised, one of which is whether the methods used can adequately identify uncertainties that evolve dynamically with time in real-world systems. The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of different combinations of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM treatments and combinations of TCM and Western medicine interventions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS by using Markov decision process (MDP theory. MDP theory appears to be a promising new method for use in comparative effectiveness research. Methods The electronic health records (EHR of patients with AIS hospitalized at the 2nd Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine between May 2005 and July 2008 were collected. Each record was portioned into two "state-action-reward" stages divided by three time points: the first, third, and last day of hospital stay. We used the well-developed optimality technique in MDP theory with the finite horizon criterion to make the dynamic comparison of different treatment combinations. Results A total of 1504 records with a primary diagnosis of AIS were identified. Only states with more than 10 (including 10 patients' information were included, which gave 960 records to be enrolled in the MDP model. Optimal combinations were obtained for 30 types of patient condition. Conclusion MDP theory makes it possible to dynamically compare the effectiveness of different combinations of treatments. However, the optimal interventions obtained by the MDP theory here require further validation in clinical practice. Further exploratory studies with MDP theory in other areas in which complex interventions are common would be worthwhile.

  20. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  1. Falls screening and assessment tools used in acute mental health settings: a review of policies in England and Wales

    Narayanan, V.; Dickinson, A.; Victor, C.; Griffiths, C.; Humphrey, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives There is an urgent need to improve the care of older people at risk of falls or who experience falls in mental health settings. The aims of this study were to evaluate the individual falls risk assessment tools adopted by National Health Service (NHS) mental health trusts in England and healthcare boards in Wales, to evaluate the comprehensiveness of these tools and to review their predictive validity. Methods All NHS mental health trusts in England (n = 56) and healthcare boards in Wales (n = 6) were invited to supply their falls policies and other relevant documentation (e.g. local falls audits). In order to check the comprehensiveness of tools listed in policy documents, the risk variables of the tools adopted by the mental health trusts’ policies were compared with the 2004 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) falls prevention guidelines. A comprehensive analytical literature review was undertaken to evaluate the predictive validity of the tools used in these settings. Results Falls policies were obtained from 46 mental health trusts. Thirty-five policies met the study inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. The main falls assessment tools used were the St. Thomas’ Risk Assessment Tool in Falling Elderly Inpatients (STRATIFY), Falls Risk Assessment Scale for the Elderly, Morse Falls Scale (MFS) and Falls Risk Assessment Tool (FRAT). On detailed examination, a number of different versions of the FRAT were evident; validated tools had inconsistent predictive validity and none of them had been validated in mental health settings. Conclusions Falls risk assessment is the most commonly used component of risk prevention strategies, but most policies included unvalidated tools and even well validated tool such as the STRATIFY and the MFS that are reported to have inconsistent predictive accuracy. This raises questions about operational usefulness, as none of these tools have been tested in acute mental health

  2. Are Health Related Outcomes in Acute Pancreatitis Improving? An Analysis of National Trends in the U.S. from 1997 to 2003

    Alphonso Brown

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Context Acute pancreatitis is a common inflammatory disorder of the pancreas. Within the past decade our ability to diagnose and treat complications of acute pancreatitis has improved. Despite advances in diagnostic and therapeutic technology it is unclear whether we have been able to impact health related outcomes of acute pancreatitis such as incidence and mortality. Objective The aim of this study was to use a national database of U.S. hospitals to evaluate the trends in the incidence and mortality associated with acute pancreatitis. We also examined the impact that patient demographic and hospital characteristics have on health related outcomes in acute pancreatitis. Methods We analyzed the National Inpatient Sample Database (NIS for all subjects in which acute pancreatitis (ICD-9 code: 577.0 was the principal discharge diagnosis during the period from 1997-2003. All identified subjects were analyzed for demographic characteristics as well as hospital characteristics. Main outcome measures The mean frequency of discharges for acute pancreatitis, percentage mortality and mean length of stay for acute pancreatitis were determined for all identified cases. Statistics The statistical significance of the difference in the discharge frequency, mortality and length of stay over the study period was determined by utilization of the chi-square test for trend and the linear regression. Results During the study period there were 1,476,498 admissions with a principal discharge diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. The frequency of discharges with acute pancreatitis increased by 30.2% (P<0.001 during the period from 1997-2003. The average mortality associated with acute pancreatitis decreased by 35.2% (P<0.001 and the median length of stay decreased by 9.4% (P=0.002. Most discharges with acute pancreatitis were in the Southern U.S. and were at large non-teaching hospitals located in urban areas. Discussion Possible explanations for the results of our study

  3. Effect of Vagotomy on Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and eighty-two SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, fast operating group and food-intake operating group. The experimental model of acute pancreatitis (AP) in rats was established by injecting 5 % sodium taurocholate into the pancreatic duct of rat according to Aho's method. The sandostatin was used for positive contrast. The concentrations of serum amylase, calcium, C reaction protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were assayed respectively at different time points. The pathological sections were observed. Each operating group contained 10 rats. The mortality of the operating groups was observed during the 24 h. The serum amylase level in the AP rats was reduced after receiving vagotomy (VG, P<0.05). Although the serum calcium level in most groups was decreased, the reduction in the group with VG plus sandostatin was not obvious (P>0.05). The increase of CRP and IL-6 was not obvious after VG (P>0.05). The change of mortality was not significant (P>0.05). The pathological sections showed that the AP pathological change was mild after VG. The disease condition of food-intake operating group was more serious than that of fast operating group. It was suggested that VG had some influence on the prognosis of AP in rats.

  4. Acute and Subacute Effects of Urban Air Pollution on Cardiopulmonary Emergencies and Mortality: Time Series Studies in Austrian Cities

    Daniel Rabczenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily pollution data (collected in Graz over 16 years and in the Linz over 18 years were used for time series studies (GAM and case-crossover on the relationship with daily mortality (overall and specific causes of death. Diagnoses of patients who had been transported to hospitals in Linz were also available on a daily basis from eight years for time series analyses of cardiopulmonary emergencies. Increases in air pollutant levels over several days were followed by increases in mortality and the observed effects increased with the length of the exposure window considered, up to a maximum of 15 days. These mortality changes in Graz and Linz showed similar patterns like the ones found before in Vienna. A significant association of mortality could be demonstrated with NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 even in summer, when concentrations are lower and mainly related to motor traffic. Cardiorespiratory ambulance transports increased with NO2/PM2.5/PM10 by 2.0/6.1/1.7% per 10 µg/m³ on the same day. Monitoring of NO2 (related to motor traffic and fine particulates at urban background stations predicts acute effects on cardiopulmonary emergencies and extended effects on cardiopulmonary mortality. Both components of urban air pollution are indicators of acute cardiopulmonary health risks, which need to be monitored and reduced, even below current standards.

  5. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    Katja eJäger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention including cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6 to 8 years old attended a 20-minute sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children`s updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test, immediately after (post-test, and 40 minutes after (follow-up the intervention or control condition respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition levelled out 40 minutes after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity including cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained trough cortisol elevation after acute physical activity.

  6. Health Effects of Climate Change (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    ... may increase the risk of diseases spread by mosquitoes and other insects. Learn More Explore the links below to learn more about how climate change can affect your health. Read About It Climate ...

  7. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Pinar Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus [Tamarindus indica L. (T. indica)], belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae), commonly known as Tamarind tree, is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine. The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T. indica. Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google. The keywords Tamarind, T. indica were used for search. Only the health related articles selected. Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent, Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nigeria and most of the tropical countries. It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain, diarrhea and dysentery, some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations, wound healing, constipation and inflammation. It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals, and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antivenomic, antioxidant, antimalarial, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, antiasthmatic, laxative and anti-hyperlipidemic activity. T. indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases. It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access. Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  8. Tamarindus indica and its health related effects

    Pinar; Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Tamarindus[Tamarindus indica L.(T.Indira)],belongs to the family Leguminosae(Fabaceae),commonly known as Tamarind tree,is one of the fruit tree species that is used as traditional medicine.The aim of this article is to review the current literatue on health related effect of T.indir.a.Literature review about this plant was conducted between 2003 and 2014 through Pubmed and Google.The keywords Tamarind,T.indica were used for search.Only the health related articles selected.Tamarind tree is found especially in the Indian subcontinent,Africa,Pakistan,Bangladesh,Nigeria and most of the tropical countries.It is preferred to be used for abdominal pain,diarrhea and dysentery,some bacterial infections and parasitic infestations,wound healing,constipation and inflammation.It is a rich source of most of the essential amino acids and phytochemicals,and hence the plant is reported to possess antidiabetic,antimicrobial,antivenomic,antioxidant,antimalarial,cardioprotective,hepatoprotective,antiasthmatic,laxative and anti-hyperlipidemir activity.T.indica has ameliorative effects on many diseases.It can also be preferred as a nutritious support for malnourished patients as it is cheap and easy to access.Those effects should be clarified with further research.

  9. Health-related ad information and health motivation effects on product evaluations

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the effect of health-related ad information on perceived product healthfulness and purchase intention. Also, the study investigates whether consumers' health motivation moderates the effects, because of the way health motivation affects processing of health-related information...... in ads. Three types of healthrelated ad elements are distinguished: functional claims, process claims and health imagery. These elements were combined in mock ads and an online experiment was run to test the study hypotheses. Results show that health imagery has the largest impact on consumers' product...

  10. Effectiveness and safety of different azacitidine dosage regimens in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes or acute myeloid leukemia.

    García-Delgado, Regina; de Miguel, Dunia; Bailén, Alicia; González, José Ramón; Bargay, Joan; Falantes, José F; Andreu, Rafael; Ramos, Fernando; Tormo, Mar; Brunet, Salut; Figueredo, Antonio; Casaño, Javier; Medina, Angeles; Badiella, Llorenç; Jurado, Antonio Fernández; Sanz, Guillermo

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the effectiveness and tolerability of azacitidine in patients with World Health Organization-defined myelodysplastic syndromes, or acute myeloid leukemia with 20-30% bone marrow blasts. Patients were treated with azacitidine, with one of three dosage regimens: for 5 days (AZA 5); 7 days including a 2-day break (AZA 5-2-2); or 7 days (AZA 7); all 28-day cycles. Overall response rates were 39.4%, 67.9%, and 51.3%, respectively, and median overall survival (OS) durations were 13.2, 19.1, and 14.9 months. Neutropenia was the most common grade 3-4 adverse event. These results suggest better effectiveness-tolerability profiles for 7-day schedules. PMID:24795069

  11. Chronic hyperleptinemia induces resistance to acute natriuretic and NO-mimetic effects of leptin.

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Wojtak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Apart from controlling energy balance, leptin, secreted by adipose tissue, is also involved in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Previous studies have demonstrated that acutely administered leptin stimulates natriuresis and vascular nitric oxide (NO) production and that these effects are impaired in obese animals. However, the mechanism of resistance to leptin is not clear. Because obesity is associated with chronically elevated leptin, we examined if long-term hyperleptinemia impairs acute effects of leptin on sodium excretion and NO production in the absence of obesity. Hyperleptinemia was induced in lean rats by administration of exogenous leptin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg/day for 7 days, and then acute effect of leptin (1mg/kg i.v.) was studied under general anesthesia. Leptin increased fractional sodium excretion and decreased Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity in the renal medulla. In addition, leptin increased the level of NO metabolites and cyclic GMP in plasma and aortic wall. These acute effects of leptin were impaired in hyperleptinemic animals. In both control and hyperleptinemic groups the effect of leptin on Na(+) excretion and renal Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was abolished by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, wortmannin, but not by protein kinase B/Akt inhibitor, triciribine,. In contrast, acute effect of leptin on NO metabolites and cGMP was abolished by triciribine but not by wortmannin. Leptin stimulated Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) in aortic tissue but not in the kidney, and this effect was comparable in control and hyperleptinemic groups. These results suggest that hyperleptinemia may mediate "renal" and "vascular" leptin resistance observed in obesity. PMID:19854228

  12. Health effects of industrial exposure to thorium

    The objective of this project is to determine the health effects of industrial exposure to thorium and the long-term pattern of deposition of inhaled thorium and its daughter products in human tissues. We obtained the study populations from employment records of the Lindsay Chemical Company and its corporate successors. The company was primarily engaged in the extraction of thorium and rare earth chemicals from monazite ores and in the production of thorium-impregnated mantles for gas lamps. From all available records, which date back to 1925, we have identified 3542 male and 1040 female employees. 1 ref

  13. Health Effects of the New Nordic Diet

    Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg

    period. Based on this study, the health effects of the NND are considerable as shown by the lower body weight and lower blood pressure. The follow up period clearly illustrated the challenges related to the voluntary and self-administered adherence to new dietary guidelines but also supports thatthe NND...... group. Self-evaluated dietary compliance and satisfaction with NND was high in the NND group during the intervention and remained relatively high during the follow up period. The ADD groups’ satisfaction with NND during the follow up period was higher compared to the satisfaction with ADD in the same...

  14. Probiotics and oral health effects in children

    Twetman, Svante; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Probiotics are living micro-organisms added to food which beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to present a general background on probiotics and its health effects in children, and to examine the evidence for oral...... conducted through February 2007 in PubMed. Studies describing an installation or intervention trial in humans with a controlled design and an oral endpoint measure were considered. Fourteen papers with dental focus were identified, of which two were narrative reviews. RESULTS: Only one study of dental...

  15. Separate and Cumulative Effects of Adverse Childhood Experiences in Predicting Adult Health and Health Care Utilization

    Chartier, Mariette J.; Walker, John R.; Naimark, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Objectives of this population-based study were: (1) to examine the relative contribution of childhood abuse and other adverse childhood experiences to poor adult health and increased health care utilization and (2) to examine the cumulative effects of adverse childhood experiences on adult health and health care utilization. Methods:…

  16. HEALTH - module for assessment of stochastic health effects after nuclear accidents

    In this paper the program module HEALTH for assessment of stochastic health effects in the case of nuclear accidents is presented. Program module HEALTH is a part of the new European real-time computer system RODOS for nuclear emergency and preparedness. Some of the key features of module HEALTH are presented, and some possible further improvements are discussed (author)

  17. Comparison Between the Acute Pulmonary Vascular Effects of Oxygen with Nitric Oxide and Sildenafil

    Ronald W. Day

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Right heart catheterization is performed in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension to determine the severity of disease and their pulmonary vascular reactivity. The acute pulmonary vascular effect of inhaled nitric oxide is frequently used to identify patients who will respond favorably to vasodilator therapy. This study sought to determine whether the acute pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen with nitric oxide and intravenous sildenafil are similar. Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of 13 individuals with pulmonary hypertension who underwent heart catheterization and acute vasodilator testing was performed. The hemodynamic measurements during five phases (21% to 53% oxygen, 100% oxygen, 100% oxygen with 20 ppm nitric oxide, 21% to 51% oxygen, and 21% to 51% oxygen with 0.05 mg/kg to 0.29 mg/kg intravenous sildenafil of the procedures were compared.Results. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance acutely decreased with 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, and 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mm Hg, mean ± standard error of the mean was 38 ± 4 during 21% to 53% oxygen, 32 ± 3 during 100% oxygen, 29 ± 2 during 100% oxygen with nitric oxide, 37 ± 3 during 21% to 51% oxygen, and 32 ± 2 during 21% to 51% oxygen with sildenafil. There was not a significant correlation between the percent change in pulmonary vascular resistance from baseline with oxygen and nitric oxide, and from baseline with sildenafil (r2 = 0.011, p = 0.738. Conclusions. Oxygen with nitric oxide and sildenafil decreased pulmonary vascular resistance. However, the pulmonary vascular effects of oxygen and nitric oxide cannot be used to predict the acute response to sildenafil. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the acute response to sildenafil can be used to predict the long-term response to treatment with an oral phosphodiesterase V inhibitor.

  18. The concentration of swine production. Effects on swine health, productivity, human health, and the environment.

    Donham, K J

    2000-11-01

    hazard. We know that our soils may become excessively laden with P, Cu, and Zn, which retard plant growth and create toxic conditions for grazing animals. There are concerns about air pollution. Odors have negative sensory and physical health consequences. H2S and dust may cause toxic effects on neighbors. NH3 vaporizing from manure sources may be carried with precipitation to cause eutrophication in lakes or altered ecosystems in natural areas. CH4 escaping from degrading manure contributes to greenhouse gases. Workers in confined livestock structures have high risk for a variety of chronic respiratory conditions. They also are at risk for acute poisoning from H2S in operations where liquid manure is stored in confined spaces. There have been numerous health complaints in recent years from community neighbors of large-scale livestock operations. One study showed adverse altered mood states, and another showed evidence of respiratory illness similar to what workers experience. Although it has not been possible to objectively measure conditions and know toxic levels of substances causing these illnesses, there are so-called extratoxic mechanisms, such as inherent aversion to putrefactive odors and exacerbation of preexisting conditions that lower the tolerance threshold. Environmental concerns regarding livestock production are not new. In the early and mid-1970s, there were many conferences and publications regarding odors and water contamination from livestock operations. Although most of what is known in this area has been known for 20 years, relatively little effective efforts have been made to correct the concerns. In fact, trends over this past decade have increased the concerns. This past decade has seen a tremendous acceleration in the concentration and consolidation of agriculture, capping a slow trend over the past 50 years toward larger, fewer, and more-specialized farms. This trend has gone against the old saying that "dilution is the solution to pollution

  19. The effect of acute exercise on collagen turnover in human tendons

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Pingel, Jessica; Boesen, Mikael;

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading of human tendon stimulates collagen synthesis, but the relationship between acute loading responses and training status of the tendon is not clear. We tested the effect of prolonged load deprivation on the acute loading-induced collagen turnover in human tendons, by applying the...... the contra-lateral leg was used habitually. Following the procedure both Achilles tendons and calf muscles were loaded with the same absolute load during a 1-h treadmill run. Tissue collagen turnover was measured by microdialysis performed post-immobilization but pre-exercise around both Achilles...

  20. THE EFFECT OF ANISODAMINE ON CEREBRAL RESUSCITATION OF RATS IN ACUTE CEREBRAL ISCHEMIA FROM CARDIAC ARREST

    彭新琦; 曹苏谊; 可君

    1995-01-01

    In order to investigate the mechanisms of acute cerebral ischemia,and to look for effective drugs on cerebral resuscitation,we made a model of acute complete global brain ischemia,reperfusion and resuscita-tion on rats according to Garavilla's method.Our results showed that the event of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury could result in the in-crease of total brain calcium content,and anisodamine has the same reducing brain calcium contents as dil-tiazem's,while improving neurological outcome and alleviating injury to neurons.

  1. No acute effects of grape juice on appetite, implicit memory, and mood

    Mattes, Richard D.; Hendrickson, Sara J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Animal experiments document effects of grape juice on cognitive performance and motor skills, and observational studies in humans suggest an inverse association between flavonoid intake and cognitive decline. These effects may be related to the antioxidant properties of polyphenols. Juice consumption and flavonoid intake may also affect appetite. Objective: To study the acute effects of grape juice consumption on appetite, mood and implicit memory during a time of increased lethar...

  2. Ginseng Extract Enhances Anti-cancer Effect of Cytarabine on Human Acute Leukemia Cells

    Yiju Hou; Xiaodong Liu; Zhonghai Yuan; Yan Li

    2015-01-01

    Ginseng as a traditional medicine is well known to exhibit various pharmacological effects. Ginsenoside Rg3 is the active ingredient extracted from ginseng. The pharmacological modulatory effects of Rg3 on multidrug resistant cancer cells are reported in the present study. Cytarabine is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of acute leukemia. However, this compound has serious side effects at high doses, for example hematopoiesis depression. In this study, using hl60 human leukemia cells...

  3. Acute Effects of Competitive Exercise on Risk-Taking in a Sample of Adolescent Male Athletes

    Black, Anne C.; Hochman, Edward; Rosen, Marc I.

    2013-01-01

    Exercise acutely reduces cravings for tobacco and alcohol, but the mechanism accounting for this relationship is not fully understood. To explore exercise's effects on general risk-taking, we compared the performances of 20 adolescent male athletes on the balloon analog risk task (BART) immediately after periods of exercise (playing tennis) and rest. Statistically significant risk-taking effects were observed post-exercise. The established attenuating effect of exercise on desire for substanc...

  4. Acute Effects of Whole Body Vibration on Inhibition in Healthy Children

    Anne E den Heijer; Groen, Yvonne; Anselm B M Fuermaier; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.; van der Zee, Eddy A.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Whole Body Vibration (WBV) is a passive exercise method known to have beneficial effects on various physical measures. Studies on adults furthermore demonstrated beneficial effects of WBV treatment on cognition (e.g. inhibition). The present study replicated these findings in healthy children and examined acute effects of WBV treatment on inhibition. Methods Fifty-five healthy children (aged 8–13) participated in this within-subject design study. WBV treatment was applied by having...

  5. The effects of acute anticipatory stress on frontal executive functions in healthy females

    Brookmann, Frieda

    2010-01-01

    Objective Results from previous studies show effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on cognitive functions, particularly those mediated by the hippocampus, but little research has examined the effects of cortisol on frontal executive functions, despite a preponderance of cortisol receptors in the frontal lobes. Existing research has focused on traditional measures of executive functions and the findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of acute stres...

  6. Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers

    Dumont, G J H; Schoemaker, R C; Touw, D J; Sweep, F C G J; Buitelaar, J K; van Gerven, J M A; Verkes, R J

    2010-01-01

    In Western societies, a considerable percentage of young people use 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or 'ecstasy'). The use of alcohol (ethanol) in combination with ecstasy is common. The aim of the present study was to assess the acute psychomotor and subjective effects of (co-) administrati

  7. Effect of glutathione S-transferases on the survival of patients with acute myeloid leukaemia

    Autrup, Judith; Hokland, Peter; Pedersen, Lars;

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in glutathione S-transferases (GST) on the survival of acute myeloid leukaemia patients receiving adriamycin induction therapy. A total of 89 patients were included in the study. Patients who carried at least one GSTM...

  8. The effect of referral for cardiac rehabilitation on survival following acute myocardial infarction

    Lewinter, Christian; Bland, John M; Crouch, Simon; Doherty, Patrick; Lewin, Robert J; Køber, Lars; Hall, Alistair S; Gale, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: International guidelines recommend referral for cardiac rehabilitation (CR) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, the impact on long-term survival after CR referral has not been adjusted by time-variance. We compared the effects of CR referral after hospitalization for AMI...

  9. Acute effects of all-trans-retinoic acid in ischemic injury

    All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) is a vitamin A derivative that is important in neuronal patterning, survival, and neurite outgrowth. We investigated the relatively acute effects of ATRA (100 nM and 1 µM) on cell swelling in ischemic injury and on key features hypothesized to contribute to cell swelli...

  10. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation. PMID:12722156

  11. Nephroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root in gentamicin induced acute renal failure

    Jacob Jesurun RS

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of abutilon indicum root has nephron protective effect in gentamicin induced acute renal failure. Nephro protective action in this study could be due to the antioxidant and other phytochemical of abutilon indicum root. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 841-845

  12. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats#

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for both ozone-induced metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wistar-Kyoto rats ...

  13. Acute Ozone-Induced Pulmonary and Systemic Metabolic Effects are Diminished in Adrenalectomized Rats

    Acute ozone exposure increases circulating stress hormones and induces peripheral metabolic alterations in animals and humans. We hypothesized that the increase of adrenal-derived stress hormones is necessary for ozone-induced systemic metabolic effects and lung injury. Male Wis...

  14. Protective effects of allicin on acute cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    ZHENGYan-hua; CHENChong-hong

    2004-01-01

    AIM To study the protective effects of allicin on acute focal cerebral ischemia reperfusioninjury. METHODS: The model of cerebral ishemia-3 h/reperfusion - 24h was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in SD rats. Allicin (10,20mg·kg-1) was administered once daily in rats: at 0 h of reperfusion. After 24h reperfusion, the content of

  15. Acute effects of high-dose intragastric nicotine on mucosal defense mechanisms

    Lindell, G; Bukhave, Klaus; Lilja, I; Madsen, J. Rask; Graffner, H

    1997-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease is overrepresented among smokers; they also heal slowly and relapse frequently. Data are accumulating that smoking is detrimental to gastroduodenal mucosal cytoprotection. This study was designed to assess acute effects of high-dose intragastric nicotine, as it has been shown...

  16. Arrhythmogenic Effect of Sympathetic Histamine in Mouse Hearts Subjected to Acute Ischemia

    He, Gonghao; HU, JING; Li, Teng; Ma, Xue; Meng, Jingru; Jia, Min; Lu, Jun; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Chen, Zhong; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2011-01-01

    The role of histamine as a newly recognized sympathetic neurotransmitter has been presented previously, and its postsynaptic effects greatly depended on the activities of sympathetic nerves. Cardiac sympathetic nerves become overactivated under acute myocardial ischemic conditions and release neurotransmitters in large amounts, inducing ventricular arrhythmia. Therefore, it is proposed that cardiac sympathetic histamine, in addition to norepinephrine, may have a significant arrhythmogenic eff...

  17. Acute Alcohol Effects on Repetition Priming and Word Recognition Memory with Equivalent Memory Cues

    Ray, Suchismita; Bates, Marsha E.

    2006-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication effects on memory were examined using a recollection-based word recognition memory task and a repetition priming task of memory for the same information without explicit reference to the study context. Memory cues were equivalent across tasks; encoding was manipulated by varying the frequency of occurrence (FOC) of words…

  18. Acute effects of the ampakine farampator on memory and information processing in healthy elderly volunteers.

    Wezenberg, E.; Verkes, R.J.; Ruigt, G.S.F.; Hulstijn, W.; Sabbe, B.G.C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Ampakines act as positive allosteric modulators of AMPA-type glutamate receptors and facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a mechanism associated with memory storage and consolidation. The present study investigated the acute effects of farampator, 1-(benzofurazan-5-ylcarbonyl) piperi

  19. The effects of experimentally manipulated social status on acute eating behavior: A randomized, crossover pilot study.

    Cardel, M I; Johnson, S L; Beck, J; Dhurandhar, E; Keita, A D; Tomczik, A C; Pavela, G; Huo, T; Janicke, D M; Muller, K; Piff, P K; Peters, J C; Hill, J O; Allison, D B

    2016-08-01

    Both subjective and objectively measured social status has been associated with multiple health outcomes, including weight status, but the mechanism for this relationship remains unclear. Experimental studies may help identify the causal mechanisms underlying low social standing as a pathway for obesity. Our objective was to investigate the effects of experimentally manipulated social status on ad libitum acute dietary intakes and stress-related outcomes as potential mechanisms relating social status and weight. This was a pilot feasibility, randomized, crossover study in Hispanic young adults (n=9; age 19-25; 67% female; BMI ≥18.5 and ≤30kg/m(2)). At visit 1, participants consumed a standardized breakfast and were randomized to a high social status position (HIGH) or low social status position (LOW) in a rigged game of Monopoly™. The rules for the game differed substantially in terms of degree of 'privilege' depending on randomization to HIGH or LOW. Following Monopoly™, participants were given an ad libitum buffet meal and energy intakes (kcal) were estimated by pre- and post-weighing foods consumed. Stress-related markers were measured at baseline, after the game of Monopoly™, and after lunch. Visit 2 used the same standardized protocol; however, participants were exposed to the opposite social status condition. When compared to HIGH, participants in LOW consumed 130 more calories (p=0.07) and a significantly higher proportion of their daily calorie needs in the ad libitum buffet meal (39% in LOW versus 31% in HIGH; p=0.04). In LOW, participants reported decreased feelings of pride and powerfulness following Monopoly™ (p=0.05) and after their lunch meal (p=0.08). Relative to HIGH, participants in LOW demonstrated higher heart rates following Monopoly™ (p=0.06), but this relationship was not significant once lunch was consumed (p=0.31). Our pilot data suggest a possible causal relationship between experimentally manipulated low social status and

  20. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  1. Adverse Health Effects of Nighttime Lighting

    Motta, M.

    2012-06-01

    The effects of poor lighting and glare on public safety are well-known, as are the harmful environmental effects on various species and the environment in general. What is less well-known is the potential harmful medical effects of excessive poor nighttime lighting. A significant body of research has been developed over the last few years regarding this problem. One of the most significant effects is the startling increased risk for breast cancer by excessive exposure to nighttime lighting. The mechanism is felt to be by disruption of the circadian rhythm and suppression of melatonin production from the pineal gland. Melatonin has an anticancer effect that is lost when its production is disrupted. I am in the process of developing a monograph that will summarize this important body of research, to be presented and endorsed by the American Medical Association, and its Council of Science and Public health. This paper is a brief overall summary of this little known potential harmful effect of poor and excessive nighttime lighting.

  2. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605

  3. Acute health problems in industrial production of swine and possible solutions

    Gagrčin Mladen; Simić Milijana; Došen Radoslav; Ivetić Vojin

    2002-01-01

    The main characteristic of swine herds in the territory of the Republic of Serbia is an unsatisfactory health status accompanied by increased incidence of contagious parasitic, genetic and other disorders. All this is a consequence of long-term unfavorable production conditions (maintenance of animals, diet, treatment, prevention, etc), which to a large extent altered the course and outcome of the mentioned diseases, and which had direct impact on the parameters which determine the health sta...

  4. The Effect of Probiotics on Animal Health

    Nicolae Corcionivoschi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria and their effect in combating digestive disorders in humans and animals has been demonstrated and supported in numerous scientific studies. Probiotic bacteria are used in a wide range of nutritional techniques in order to support the host organism during physiological strain, to reduce stress due to technology and to combat diarrheal syndromes (occurring naturally or pharmacologically induced. Based on a rich bibliographic material, this paper presents the role of probiotic bacteria to equilibrate the beneficial microbial population and in bacterial turnover by stimulating the host immune response via specific secretions (eg. bacteriocins and competitive exclusion of potentially pathogenic germs in the digestive tract (Salmonella, E. coli. In the same context, this review presents the basic studies on the effect of probiotic bacteria in health maintenance for the main species of farm animals: pigs, poultry, cattle and sheep.

  5. The effect of an acute increase in central blood volume on the response of cerebral blood flow to acute hypotension.

    Ogoh, Shigehiko; Hirasawa, Ai; Sugawara, Jun; Nakahara, Hidehiro; Ueda, Shinya; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Miyamoto, Tadayoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the response of cerebral blood flow to an acute change in perfusion pressure is modified by an acute increase in central blood volume. Nine young, healthy subjects voluntarily participated in this study. To measure dynamic cerebral autoregulation during normocapnic and hypercapnic (5%) conditions, the change in middle cerebral artery mean blood flow velocity was analyzed during acute hypotension caused by two methods: 1) thigh-cuff occlusion release (without change in central blood volume); and 2) during the recovery phase immediately following release of lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -50 mmHg) that initiated an acute increase in central blood volume. In the thigh-cuff occlusion release protocol, as expected, hypercapnia decreased the rate of regulation, as an index of dynamic cerebral autoregulation (0.236 ± 0.018 and 0.167 ± 0.025 s(-1), P = 0.024). Compared with the cuff-occlusion release, the acute increase in central blood volume (relative to the LBNP condition) with LBNP release attenuated dynamic cerebral autoregulation (P = 0.009). Therefore, the hypercapnia-induced attenuation of dynamic cerebral autoregulation was not observed in the LBNP release protocol (P = 0.574). These findings suggest that an acute change in systemic blood distribution modifies dynamic cerebral autoregulation during acute hypotension. PMID:26159757

  6. The Impact of Acute Urinary Retention After Iodine-125 Prostate Brachytherapy on Health-Related Quality of Life

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of acute urinary retention (AUR) in patients treated with 125I prostate brachytherapy on short- and long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL); and to assess whether pretreatment HRQOL has additional value in the prediction of AUR. Methods and Materials: For 127 patients treated with 125I brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer between December 2000 and June 2003, toxicity and HRQOL data were prospectively collected. Patients received a HRQOL questionnaire at five time points: before and 1 month, 6 months, 1 year, and 6 years after treatment. The questionnaire included the RAND-36 generic health survey, the cancer-specific European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30), the tumor-specific EORTC prostate cancer module (EORTC QLQ-PR25), and the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index. Results: Of 127 patients, 13 (10.2%) developed AUR. Patients with AUR had a significantly worse urinary QOL at all time points compared with patients without AUR. The mean difference over time (6 years) between both groups for the EORTC QLQ-PR25 urinary symptom score was 13.0 points (p < 0.001) and for the AUA urinary symptom score was 15.7 points (p = 0.001). Global QOL scores (EORTC QLQ-C30) over time for patients who developed AUR were significantly worse compared with patients without AUR (mean difference 6.7 points; p = 0.043). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, pretreatment International Prostate Symptom Score (p = 0.004) and neoadjuvant hormonal treatment (p = 0.034) were predictors of AUR. Quality of life did not have added predictive value. Conclusion: Acute urinary retention after prostate brachytherapy has a significant negative impact on patient's HRQOL up to 6 years after treatment, in terms of both global QOL measures and urinary symptom scores. Furthermore, our results suggest limited value of pretreatment HRQOL measures for the prediction of AUR.

  7. Development of quality indicators for monitoring outcomes of frail elderly hospitalised in acute care health settings: Study Protocol

    Travers Catherine M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frail older people admitted to acute care hospitals are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes, including geriatric syndromes, although targeted care strategies can improve health outcomes for these patients. It is therefore important to assess inter-hospital variation in performance in order to plan and resource improvement programs. Clinical quality outcome indicators provide a mechanism for identifying variation in performance over time and between hospitals, however to date there has been no routine use of such indicators in acute care settings. A barrier to using quality indicators is lack of access to routinely collected clinical data. The interRAI Acute Care (AC assessment system supports comprehensive geriatric assessment of older people within routine daily practice in hospital and includes process and outcome data pertaining to geriatric syndromes. This paper reports the study protocol for the development of aged care quality indicators for acute care hospitals. Methods/Design The study will be conducted in three phases: 1. Development of a preliminary inclusive set of quality indicators set based on a literature review and expert panel consultation, 2. A prospective field study including recruitment of 480 patients aged 70 years or older across 9 Australian hospitals. Each patient will be assessed on admission and discharge using the interRAI AC, and will undergo daily monitoring to observe outcomes. Medical records will be independently audited, and 3. Analysis and compilation of a definitive quality indicator set, including two anonymous voting rounds for quality indicator inclusion by the expert panel. Discussion The approach to quality indicators proposed in this protocol has four distinct advantages over previous efforts: the quality indicators focus on outcomes; they can be collected as part of a routinely applied clinical information and decision support system; the clinical data will be robust and will

  8. Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    Chun-Chih Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute aerobic exercise failed to influence executive function as assessed by the WCST, revealing that this classical neuropsychological test tapping executive function may not be sensitive to acute exercise. Our findings suggest that acute exercise does not broadly affect the entire family of executive functions, or its effect on a specific aspect of executive function may be task-dependent, as proposed by Etnier and Chang (2009.

  9. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    Chien-Heng Chu; Alderman, Brandon L.; Gao-Xia Wei; Yu-Kai Chang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute exercise on motor response inhibition using both behavioral and electrophysiological approaches. Methods: The P3 and N1 event-related potential (ERP) components were recorded while performing a stop-signal task in 21 college students following a moderately intense acute exercise bout for 30 min and a sedentary control session that involved reading. Results: Acute exercise induced a shorter stop signal response time...

  10. Risk Stratification and Effects of Pharmacotherapy in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) based on data from Pilot AMI Registry

    Peleška, Jan; Grünfeldová, H.; Monhart, Z.; Faltus, Václav; Tomečková, Marie; Ryšavá, D.; Velimský, T.; Ballek, L.; Hubač, J.; Charalampidi, K.; Jánský, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 30 (2007), s. 367-367. ISSN 1420-4096. [Central European Meeting on Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease Prevention . 11.10.2007-13.10.2007, Kraków] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : pilot registry of acute myocardial infarction * risk stratification in acute myocardial infarction * effects of pharmacotherapy in acute myocardial infarction Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  11. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  12. Health effects of atomic-bomb radiation

    This review described carcinogenic and genetic effects of A-bomb radiation. Effects have been investigated on 120,000 exposed people for their life span, 20,000 for health examinations, 3,000 people exposed in the womb and 80,000 second-generations of the exposed people. Epidemiological data revealed the presence of carcinogenic effects: Cancer death amounted to 9% from 1950 to 1990. However, carcinogenic mechanism is unknown yet. Genetic effects have been studied from the points of lesion at birth, sex ratio, chromosome aberration, biochemical test and mortality rate of children of exposed people and, although the effects have been experimentally shown in animals, are not observed in those children. This may be derived from the fact that there are few people who were exposed to such a high dose as used experimentally (0.2 Sv exposure to people within 2.5 km diameter-area from the explosion point vs >3 Sv in animals). Data are presented in Research Foundation home page. (K.H.)

  13. Pyrethroids: exposure and health effects--an update.

    Saillenfait, Anne-Marie; Ndiaye, Dieynaba; Sabaté, Jean-Philippe

    2015-05-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids are present in numerous commercial insecticide formulations and have extensive indoor and outdoor applications worldwide, including agricultural, public, residential, and veterinary usages for pest control. Pyrethroid use has increased continuously in recent years. The aim of this review is to provide updated and comprehensive information on human exposure and potential hazards associated with this class of pesticides. An initial keyword search in the PubMed database was conducted to identify relevant articles. Were taken into considerations only the studies published in the last decade that have assessed exposure and health effects of pyrethroids in human populations. Literature review shows that exposure evaluations increasingly focus on biomonitoring and that a large number of recent epidemiological studies pertain to the effects of pyrethroids on male fertility and prenatal development. The main metabolites of pyrethroids have frequently been detected in urine samples from the general population, confirming widespread exposure of children and adults to one or more pyrethroids. Non-occupational exposure to pyrethroids mainly occurs through ingestion of residues in food, or ingestion of or dermal contact with contaminated house dust or surface-adhering particles, following domestic use. Although clinical features resulting from acute accidental exposure to pyrethroids are well described (e.g., paraesthesiae, and respiratory, eye and skin irritation), information regarding their chronic effects at low concentrations is both limited and controversial. Several recent epidemiological studies have raised concerns about potentially adverse effects on sperm quality and sperm DNA, reproductive hormones, and pregnancy outcomes. Early neurobehavioural development after in utero exposure is discussed. Further research is needed to clarify the possible risks associated with long-term environmental exposure to pyrethroids. PMID:25648288

  14. Follow-up of delayed health consequences of acute radiation exposure. Lessons to be learned from their medical management

    While the use of radioactive materials around the world offers a wide range of benefits in medicine, industry and research, safety precautions are essential to limit the exposure of persons to harmful radiation. When the quantity of radioactive material employed is substantial, as when radioactive sources are used for radiotherapy in medicine or for industrial radiography, extreme care is necessary to prevent accidents that may lead to severe health consequences for the individuals involved. Despite the fact that the precautions to be taken are clearly established, accidents with radiation sources continue to occur, albeit infrequently. The IAEA, as part of its 'Safety of Radiation Sources' and 'Emergency Response' subprogrammes, follows up severe accidents of this kind. In so doing, the IAEA attempts to document both the circumstances leading to the accident and the subsequent medical treatment in order to define the lessons to be learned from these events. The overall objective is to provide information that will be of benefit to organizations with responsibilities for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and the medical management of radiation accidents. The International Atomic Energy Agency has issued a number of publications on radiation accidents which have occurred in the past 15 years, reporting on the causes, radiation safety aspects and medical management of those affected particularly in the acute phase following an accident. These reports cover the accidents in Chernobyl, Ukraine (the Republic of the former Soviet Union) and Goiania (Brazil), and those in El Salvador, Vietnam, Belarus, Israel, Estonia, Costa Rica, Georgia, Russian Federation, Turkey, Peru and Panama. In 1998 the IAEA published three Safety Reports, co-sponsored by the World Health Organization, aimed at disseminating medical information on the recognition and treatment of radiation injuries, planning the medical response to radiation accidents and occupational health

  15. Acute radiation syndrome and delayed effects of radiation exposure

    The results of the overall irradiation of the body with large doses are described. Effects of irradiation are presented separately for central nervous, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems. Damages of cellular level and late effects in the whole body scale are shown. 7 refs, 2 figs

  16. The effectiveness of heliox in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Sema Yilmaz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study histopathologically indicated the effectiveness of heliox in the decreasing of neutrophil infiltation, interstitial/intraalveolar edema, perivascular and/or intraalveolar hemorrhage and HM formation in ARDS. Besides the known effect of heliox in obstructive lung disease, inhaled heliox therapy could be associated with the improvement of inflamation in ARDS.

  17. The Effects of Acute Exercise and Exercise Training on Plasma Homocysteine: A Meta-Analysis

    Deminice, Rafael; Ribeiro, Diogo Farias; Frajacomo, Fernando Tadeu Trevisan

    2016-01-01

    Background Although studies have demonstrated that physical exercise alters homocysteine levels in the blood, meta-analyses of the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine blood concentration have not been performed, especially regarding the duration and intensity of exercise, which could affect homocysteine levels differently. Objective The aim of this meta-analysis was to ascertain the effects of acute exercise and exercise training on homocysteine levels in the blood. Method A review was conducted according to the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses using the online databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and SciELO to identify relevant studies published through June 2015. Review Manager was used to calculate the effect size of acute exercise and exercise training using the change in Hcy plasmaserum concentration from baseline to post-acute exercise and trained vs. sedentary control groups, respectively. Weighted mean differences were calculated using random effect models. Results Given the abundance of studies, acute exercise trials were divided into two subgroups according to exercise volume and intensity, whereas the effects of exercise training were analyzed together. Overall, 22 studies with a total of 520 participants indicated increased plasma homocysteine concentration after acute exercise (1.18 μmol/L, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.65, p homocysteine levels in the blood. Increased homocysteine induced by exercise was significantly associated with volume of exercise, but not intensity. By contrast, resistance training reduced plasma homocysteine concentration (-1.53 μmol/L, 95% CI: -2.77 to -0.28, p = .02), though aerobic training did not. The cumulative results of the seven studies with a total of 230 participants in exercise training analysis did not demonstrate a significant impact on homocysteine levels in the blood (-0.56 μmol/L, 95% CI: -1.61 to 0.50, p = .23). Conclusions Current evidence

  18. Guidance on health effects of toxic chemicals. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    Foust, C.B.; Griffin, G.D.; Munro, N.B.; Socolof, M.L.

    1994-02-01

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES), and Martin Marietta Utility Services, Inc. (MMUS), are engaged in phased programs to update the safety documentation for the existing US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facilities. The safety analysis of potential toxic hazards requires a methodology for evaluating human health effects of predicted toxic exposures. This report provides a consistent set of health effects and documents toxicity estimates corresponding to these health effects for some of the more important chemicals found within MMES and MMUS. The estimates are based on published toxicity information and apply to acute exposures for an ``average`` individual. The health effects (toxicological endpoints) used in this report are (1) the detection threshold; (2) the no-observed adverse effect level; (3) the onset of irritation/reversible effects; (4) the onset of irreversible effects; and (5) a lethal exposure, defined to be the 50% lethal level. An irreversible effect is defined as a significant effect on a person`s quality of life, e.g., serious injury. Predicted consequences are evaluated on the basis of concentration and exposure time.

  19. Capitals diminished, denied, mustered and deployed. A qualitative longitudinal study of women's four year trajectories after acute health crisis, Burkina Faso

    Murray, SF; Akoum, MS; Storeng, KT

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that health crises can play a key role in precipitating or exacerbating poverty. For women of reproductive age in low-income countries, the complications of pregnancy are a common cause of acute health crisis, yet investigation of longer-term dynamics set in motion by such events, and their interactions with other aspects of social life, is rare. This article presents findings from longitudinal qualitative research conducted in Burkina Faso over 2004-2010. Guid...

  20. Effects of copper on the acute cortisol response and associated physiology in rainbow trout.

    Tellis, Margaret S; Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of chronic waterborne copper (Cu) exposure on the acute stress-induced cortisol response and associated physiological consequences in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were exposed to 30 μg Cu/L in moderately hard water (120 mg/L as CaCO(3)) for 40 days, following which time the acute cortisol response was examined with a series of stressors. At 40 days, a 65% increase in Cu was observed in the gill, but no accumulation was observed in the liver, brain or head kidney. Stressors such as air exposure or confinement did not elicit an increase in circulating cortisol levels for Cu-exposed fish, in contrast to controls. However, this inhibitory effect on the acute cortisol response appeared to have few implications on the ability of Cu-exposed fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. For example, plasma Na(+), Ca(2+) and glucose levels as well as hepatic glycogen levels were the same post-stress in control and Cu-exposed fish. Trout were also challenged with exposure to 50% seawater for 48 h, where Cu-exposed trout maintained plasma Na(+), glucose and hepatic glycogen levels. However, Cu-exposed fish experienced decreased plasma K(+) levels throughout the Cu exposure and stress tests. In conclusion, chronic Cu exposure resulted in the abolition of an acute cortisol response post-stress. There was no Cu accumulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI axis) suggesting this was not a direct toxic effect of Cu on the cortisol regulatory pathway. However, the lack of an acute cortisol response in Cu-exposed fish did not impair the ability of the fish to maintain ion and carbohydrate homeostasis. This effect on cortisol may be a strategy to reduce costs during the chronic stress of Cu exposure, and not endocrine disruption as a result of toxic injury. PMID:21964321

  1. World Trade Center Health Program; Addition of New-Onset Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and WTC-Related Acute Traumatic Injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions. Final rule.

    2016-07-01

    The World Trade Center (WTC) Health Program conducted a review of published, peer-reviewed epidemiologic studies regarding potential evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and acute traumatic injury among individuals who were responders to or survivors of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. The Administrator of the WTC Health Program (Administrator) found that these studies provide substantial evidence to support a causal association between each of these health conditions and 9/11 exposures. As a result, the Administrator is publishing a final rule to add both new-onset COPD and WTC-related acute traumatic injury to the List of WTC-Related Health Conditions eligible for treatment coverage in the WTC Health Program. PMID:27382662

  2. The effects of acute exercise on executive functioning, mood and attention

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It is internationally recognised that exercise is beneficial—both physically and mentally. However, only a minority of published research has explored the unique contribution of the exercise task itself. We tested the effect an ‘acute bout of moderate exercise’ had on selective attention, executive function and mood. We hypothesised that acute exercise would improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the controls. Method: 29 females and 11 males aged between 18-50 (M=26.5, SD=8.8 were administered the Stroop Colour-Interference Test, Erikson Flanker Task and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS.  Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (exercise or relaxation. The experimental group (N=20 performed 20 minutes of exercise on a treadmill. The control group (N=20 relaxed for 20 minutes. Measures were taken before and after the intervention. Results: An independent samples t-test compared the differences between post-test and pre-test for the two groups. Results revealed a significant difference between the exercise group and control group on the measures of mood. The exercise group reported increased positive affect (t(38 = 3.10, p = .004, d = .99 and decreased negative affect (t(38 = -3.24, p = .003, d = 1.0 on the post-test. No significant differences between the exercise and control groups were obtained for the two tasks of cognitive performance. Conclusions: A significant difference in the PANAS ratings following exercise offers strong support to earlier research demonstrating that acute exercise improves mood. Although no significant improvement in performance was observed in the two cognitive tasks following acute exercise, it is possible that fitness levels could be the relevant factor, rather than acute exercise as a task. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that acute exercise improves cognitive performance.

  3. The effects of levan on the acute inflammatory response.

    Sedgwick, A D; Rutman, A.; Sin, Y. M.; Mackay, A. R.; Willoughby, D A

    1984-01-01

    The fructose polymer levan has been shown to affect the accumulation of leucocytes in inflammatory lesions. The present study has investigated the effect of levan on experimental pleurisy induced by carrageenan and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals. Total pleural polymorphonuclear leucocyte counts and exudate volumes were significantly reduced by levan treatment. We were, however, unable to detect any effect on mononuclear cell numbers. Furthermore, levan treatment significantly...

  4. Corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in songbird plasma and brain: effects of season and acute stress

    Newman, Amy E.M.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged increases in plasma glucocorticoids can exacerbate neurodegeneration. In rats, these neurodegenerative effects can be reduced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor with anti-glucocorticoid actions. In song sparrows, season and acute restraint stress affect circulating levels of corticosterone and DHEA, and the effects of stress differ in plasma collected from the brachial and jugular veins. Jugular plasma is an indirect index of the neural steroidal milieu. Here, w...

  5. The Effect of Opium Addiction on Arrhythmia Following Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Mostafa Shokoohi; Hamid Najafipour; Afsaneh Forood; Morvarid Dadras; Fatemeh Mirzaiepour

    2012-01-01

    The effect of opium addiction on the appearance of different types of arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been assessed in few studies. This study is aimed to determine the effect of opium on post-MI arrhythmia and also to address the differences in the appearance of different types of arrhythmias after AMI between opium addicted and non-addicted patients. In this comparative study, participants were classified into two groups with opium addiction (n=94) and without opium ...

  6. Acute Dose-Related Differential Effects of Methylphenidate on Murine Cystometric Parameters

    Choi, Sung Ho; Cho, Young Sam; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Tack; Kim, Khae Hawn

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Methylphenidate is the most widely used central nervous system stimulant in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. However, few studies have assessed its effects on voiding. Various doses of methylphenidate were investigated for their effects on cystometric parameters in conscious mice. Methods Ten male C57BL/6 mice, weighing between 20 and 23 g, were used in this study. To compare the acute drug responses before and after the oral medication was administered in the a...

  7. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells that survive combination chemotherapy in vivo remain sensitive to allogeneic immune effects

    Jansson, Johan; Hsu, Yu-Chiao; Kuzin, Igor I.; Campbell, Andrew; Mullen, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is often performed for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) whose disease has relapsed after chemotherapy treatment. However, graft versus leukemia (GVL) effects in ALL are generally weak and the mechanisms of this weakness are unknown. These studies tested the hypothesis that ALL cells that have survived conventional chemotherapy in vivo acquire relative resistance to the allogeneic GVL effect. C57BL/6 mice were injected with mur...

  8. Effect of trimetazidine on heart rate variability in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Jing ZHANG; HE, SHENGHU; Wang, Xuefei; WANG, DAXIN

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Trimetazidine has mainly been used in coronary insufficiency, angina and elderly myocardial infarction. However, the effect of trimetazidine on the efficacy, heart rate variability (HRV) and protection of myocardial ischemia in elderly patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of trimetazidine on the efficacy HRV and protection of myocardial ischemia in patients with ACS. Methods: One hundred twenty two el...

  9. The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD

    Aaron T. Piepmeier; Chia-Hao Shih; Margaret Whedon; Lauren M. Williams; Matthew E. Davis; David A. Henning; SeYun Park; Calkins, Susan D.; Jennifer L. Etnier

    2015-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood disorder that affects approximately 11% of children in the United States. Research supports that a single session of exercise benefits cognitive performance by children, and a limited number of studies have demonstrated that these effects can also be realized by children with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance by children with and without ADHD. ...

  10. Microbiological effects and clinical use of xylitol in preventing acute otitis media

    Tapiainen, T. (Terhi)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract The purpose was to evaluate the microbiological mechanism of action of xylitol and to assess its use in clinical practice for preventing acute otitis media (AOM). To test whether the effect of xylitol on S. pneumoniae is inhibited by fructose, a total of 20 strains of S. pneumoniae were exposed to xylitol in the presence of fructose and other carbon sources. Addition of 5% xylitol to the media resulted in marked growth inhibition, an effect which was totally el...

  11. Effect of acute moderate exercise on cognitive P300 in persons having sedentary lifestyles

    Kumar, Naresh; Singh, Manjeet; Sood, Sushma; Beena,; Sakshi; Roy, Prasanta Saha; Behera, Joshil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are conflicting reports regarding the effect of exercise on cognition. We therefore planned to assess the acute effect of moderate exercise on cognition, studied by event-related brain potential P300, in subjects having sedentary lifestyles. Materials and Methods: Sixty adults (40 males and 20 females) in the age-group of 18–30 years having sedentary lifestyles were included in the study. Baseline P300 was first measured and after that the subjects were divided into two equa...

  12. Comparison the effectiveness of aripiprazole and risperidone for the treatment of acute bipolar mania

    Amir Akhavan Rezayat; Paria Hebrani; Fatemeh Behdani; Mohamad Salaran; Majid Nabizadeh Marvast

    2014-01-01

    Background: Second-generation antipsychotics, approved for the treatment of mania, are associated with adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic disorders. Aripiprazole, a recently introduced second-generation antipsychotic, are thought to account for its low propensity for weight gain, metabolic disturbances and sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of risperidone versus aripiprazole in the treatment of acute mania. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients wi...

  13. Effect of Tamoxifen and Lithium on Treatment of Acute Mania Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    Fallah, Elham; Arman, Sorror; Najafi, Mostafa; Shayegh, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Objective Many studies have supported the role of protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors in the physiopathology and treatment of bipolar disorder in adults. Tamoxifen is one of the drugs with the effect of PKC inhibition. This study aimed to determine the effect of tamoxifen on the rate of improvement mania symptoms in the sample of children and adolescents with acute mania. Materials & Methods In this randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial study, registered in www.irct.ir with the code of ...

  14. The effect of acute tryptophan depletion on emotional distraction and subsequent memory

    Wang, Lihong; Mullette-Gillman, O’Dhaniel A.; Gadde, Kishore M; Kuhn, Cynthia M.; McCarthy, Gregory; Huettel, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Serotonin is a key neurotransmitter involved in emotional regulation and memory. A number of studies using acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) in healthy subjects have shown that a temporary serotonin reduction both induces a negative emotional bias and impairs long-term memory. However, little is known about the specific effects of ATD on emotional memory. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the effect of ATD on negative memory and executive function in healthy v...

  15. Clinical Effects of Arsenic Trioxide by Slowing-intravenous Infusion on Acute Promyelocyte Leukemia

    Jin Zhou; Ran Meng; Bao-feng Yang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Although As2O3 is effective in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), some side effects, such as leukocytosis which can increase the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and early death rate, often occur during the early stage of As2O3 treatment. In this paper, the advantages of continuously slow intravenous As2O3 infusion on relieving leukocytosis and decreasing the incidence of cerebral hemorrhage and early death rate were observed clinically.

  16. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  17. Acute effects of corticosterone injection on paternal behavior in California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) fathers.

    Harris, Breanna N; Perea-Rodriguez, Juan Pablo; Saltzman, Wendy

    2011-11-01

    Glucocorticoids are thought to mediate the disruption of parental behavior in response to acute and chronic stress. Previous research supports their role in chronic stress; however, no study has experimentally tested the effects of acute glucocorticoid elevation on paternal behavior. We tested the prediction that acute corticosterone (CORT) increases would decrease paternal behavior in California mouse fathers and would lead to longer-term effects on reproductive success, as even short-term increases in CORT have been shown to produce lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. First-time fathers were injected with 30 mg/kg CORT, 60 mg/kg CORT or vehicle, or left unmanipulated. Interactions between the male and its pup(s) were recorded 1.5-2h after injection and scored for paternal and non-paternal behavior. Treatment groups were combined into control (unmanipulated + vehicle, n = 15) and CORT (30 mg/kg + 60 mg/kg, n = 16) for analysis based on resulting plasma CORT concentrations. CORT treatment did not alter paternal or non-paternal behaviors or any long-term measures (male body mass or temperature, pup growth rate, pup survival, interbirth interval, number or mass of pups born in the second litter). Fathers showed a significant rise in body mass at day 30 postpartum, followed by a decrease in body mass after the birth of the second litter; however, this pattern did not differ between the CORT and control groups. In summary, acute elevation of plasma CORT did not alter direct paternal behavior, body mass, or reproductive outcomes, suggesting that acute CORT elevation alone does not overtly disrupt paternal care in this biparental mammal. PMID:21939660

  18. Health physics evaluation of an accident involving acute overexposure to a radiography source

    An accident, involving the loss of an iridium-192 radiographic source and the subsequent serious overexposure of a third party, is described. Health physics aspects, particularly dosimetrical aspects are addressed and compared with results obtained by means of chromosome aberration dosimetry. Details are provided on the medical observations and treatment of the patient

  19. Refocusing acute psychiatry, performance management, standards and accountability, a new context for mental health nursing.

    Harnett, P J

    2009-06-01

    The term \\'performance management\\' has an aversive \\'managerial\\' aspect, is unappealing to many public sector staff and has an \\'image problem\\'. Perhaps as a consequence, it has failed to make a significant impact on Irish public sector workers, notably mental health nurses. In this paper, performance management is introduced and examined within an Irish healthcare context and with reference to its use in other countries. Some of the challenges faced by Irish mental health nurses and the potential benefits of working within a performance managed workplace are discussed. The paper concludes that performance management is likely to increasingly affect nurses, either as active agents or as passive recipients of a change that is thrust on them. The authors anticipate that the performance management \\'image problem\\' will give way to recognition that this is a fundamental change which has the potential to enable health services to change. This change will bring high standards of transparency, worker involvement in decision making, an explicit value base for health services and individual teams. It provides the potential for clear practice standards and high standards of transparency as well as worker welfare in all aspects, including supporting employment and career progression.

  20. New cost-effective treatment strategies for acute emergency situations.

    Chandra, Subani; Chong, David H

    2014-01-01

    In an era of ever-increasing healthcare costs, new treatments must not only improve outcomes and quality of care but also be cost-effective. This is most challenging for emergency and critical care. Bigger and better has been the mantra of Western medical care for decades, leading to costlier but not necessarily better care. Recent advances focused on new implementation processes for evidence-based best practices such as checklists and bundles have transformed medical care. We outline recent advances in medical practice that have positively affected both the quality of care and its cost-effectiveness. Future medical care must be smarter and more effective if we are to meet the increasing demands of an aging patient population in the context of ever more limited resources. PMID:24160941

  1. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

  2. Cohort effects on the need for health care and implications for health care planning in Canada.

    Whittaker, William; Birch, Stephen; MacKenzie, Adrian; Murphy, Gail Tomblin

    2016-01-01

    The sustainability of publicly funded health care systems is an issue for governments around the world. The economic climate limits governments' fiscal capacity to continue to devote an increasing share of public funds to health care. Meanwhile the demands for health care within populations continue to increase. Planning the future requirements for health care is typically based on applying current levels of health service use by age to demographic projections of the population. But changes in age-specific levels of health over time would undermine this 'constant use by age' assumption. We use representative Canadian survey data (Canadian Community Health Survey) covering the period 2001-2012, to identify the separate trends in demography (population ageing) and epidemiology (population health) on self-reported health. We propose an approach to estimating future health care requirements that incorporates cohort trends in health. Overall health care requirements for the population increase as the size and mean age of the population increase, but these effects are mitigated by cohort trends in health-we find the estimated need for health care is lower when models account for cohort effects in addition to age effects. PMID:26586614

  3. Acute differential effects of milk-derived dietary proteins on postprandial lipaemia in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Holmer-Jensen, J; Hartvigsen, M L; Mortensen, L S; Astrup, A; de Vrese, M; Holst, J J; Thomsen, C; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2012-01-01

    Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-b...

  4. The effect of music on pain and acute confusion in older adults undergoing hip and knee surgery.

    McCaffrey, Ruth; Locsin, Rozzano

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music listening in older adults following hip or knee surgery. Acute confusion and pain after surgery can increase length of stay and reduce function. Study results demonstrate a reduction in acute confusion and pain and improved ambulation and higher satisfaction scores in older adults who listened to music. PMID:16974175

  5. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on motor response inhibition: An ERP study using the stop-signal task

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exercise has a selective and beneficial effect on cognitive function, specifically affecting the motor response inhibition aspect of executive function. Furthermore, acute exercise predominately impacts later stages of information processing during motor response inhibition, which may lead to an increase in attentional resource allocation and confer the ability to successfully withhold a response to achieve motor response inhibition.

  6. Systematic review of safety checklists for use by medical care teams in acute hospital settings - limited evidence of effectiveness

    Ko Henry CH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is a fundamental component of good quality health care. Checklists have been proposed as a method of improving patient safety. This systematic review, asked "In acute hospital settings, would the use of safety checklists applied by medical care teams, compared to not using checklists, improve patient safety?" Methods We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE for randomised controlled trials published in English before September 2009. Studies were selected and appraised by two reviewers independently in consultation with colleagues, using inclusion, exclusion and appraisal criteria established a priori. Results Nine cohort studies with historical controls studies from four hospital care settings were included-intensive care unit, emergency department, surgery, and acute care. The studies used a variety of designs of safety checklists, and implemented them in different ways, however most incorporated an educational component to teach the staff how to use the checklist. The studies assessed outcomes occurring a few weeks to a maximum of 12 months post-implementation, and these outcomes were diverse. The studies were generally of low to moderate quality and of low levels of evidence, with all but one of the studies containing a high risk of bias. The results of these studies suggest some improvements in patient safety arising from use of safety checklists, but these were not consistent across all studies or for all outcomes. Some studies showed no difference in outcomes between checklist use and standard care without a checklist. Due to the variations in setting, checklist design, educational training given, and outcomes measured, it was unfeasible to accurately summarise any trends across all studies. Conclusions The included studies suggest some benefits of using safety checklists to improve protocol adherence and patient safety, but due to the risk of bias in these studies, their results

  7. The Effect of Toxic Cyanobacteria on Human and Animal Health

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  8. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    George Lekha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO, extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract′s efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours.

  9. Acute effects of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China

    Air pollution has been accepted as an important contributor to asthma development and exacerbation. However, the evidence is limited in China. In this study, we investigated the acute effect of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China. We applied over-dispersed generalized additive model adjusted for weather conditions, day of the week, long-term and seasonal trends. An interquartile range increase in the moving average concentrations of PM10, SO2, NO2 and BC on the concurrent day and previous day corresponded to 1.82%, 6.41%, 8.26% and 6.62% increase of asthmatic hospitalization, respectively. The effects of SO2 and NO2 were robust after adjustment for PM10. The associations appeared to be more evident in the cool season than in the warm season. Our results contribute to the limited data in the scientific literature on acute effects of air pollution on asthma in high exposure settings, which are typical in developing countries. - Highlights: • Few prior studies in China examine the effect of air pollution on asthma. • We found acute effect of air pollution on asthma hospitalization in Shanghai. • Our results contribute to limited data on air pollution and asthma in China. - Ambient air pollution increases the risk of asthma hospitalization in Shanghai, China

  10. Acute analgesic effects of nicotine and tobacco in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Ditre, Joseph W; Heckman, Bryan W; Zale, Emily L; Kosiba, Jesse D; Maisto, Stephen A

    2016-07-01

    Although animal models have consistently demonstrated acute pain inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco, human experimental studies have yielded mixed results. The main goal of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of nicotine/tobacco administration on human experimental pain threshold and tolerance ratings. A search of PubMed and PsycINFO online databases identified 13 eligible articles, including k = 21 tests of pain tolerance (N = 393) and k = 15 tests of pain threshold (N = 339). Meta-analytic integration for both threshold and tolerance outcomes revealed that nicotine administered through tobacco smoke and other delivery systems (eg, patch, nasal spray) produced acute analgesic effects that may be characterized as small to medium in magnitude (Hedges g = 0.35, 95% confidence interval = 0.21-0.50). Publication bias-corrected estimates remained significant and indicated that these effects may be closer to small. Sex composition was observed to be a significant moderator, such that pain threshold effects were more robust among samples that included more men than women. These results help to clarify a mixed literature and may ultimately help to inform the treatment of both pain and nicotine dependence. Pain and tobacco smoking are both highly prevalent and comorbid conditions. Current smoking has been associated with more severe chronic pain and physical impairment. Acute nicotine-induced analgesia could make smoking more rewarding and harder to give up. Future research should use dynamic measures of experimental pain reactivity and further explore biopsychosocial mechanisms of action. PMID:27023418

  11. Acute health problems in industrial production of swine and possible solutions

    Gagrčin Mladen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristic of swine herds in the territory of the Republic of Serbia is an unsatisfactory health status accompanied by increased incidence of contagious parasitic, genetic and other disorders. All this is a consequence of long-term unfavorable production conditions (maintenance of animals, diet, treatment, prevention, etc, which to a large extent altered the course and outcome of the mentioned diseases, and which had direct impact on the parameters which determine the health status of animals in a population. The health status of swine populations in our country are mostly determined by the presence of swine plague, but also diseases of pluricausal character, such as coli in fections, actinobđcillosis, atrophic rhinitis dysentery, and others. One must also not forget the presence of diseases which can be maintained in herds for a long time as enzootic diseases (Aujeszkyi, leptospirosis, tuberculosis, etc. Among parasitic diseases trichinellosis deserves special attention since it endangers the health of humans more and more every day. Most of the mentioned diseases are exhibited in very different clinical forms, so that their timely detection is very difficult and their control complex. That is why swine production in our country is characterized by a low percentage of fertilization, small number of live and large number of still-born piglets, and a high level of mortality in all categories. A logical consequence of this is a small number of produced porkers per sow, mostly of poor quality. In conditions where there are many diseases of different etiology, their control is complex and consequences always connected to a reduction or complete annulment of the expected benefits from an animal of high genetic potential veterinary-medical protection must cede its place to health protection as a technology which is based on a policy of disease prevention. This implies the establishment and maintenance of a high health status in swine

  12. CONTRASTING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE AND CHRONIC SMOKING IN DETOXIFIED ALCOHOLICS

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that acute nicotine administration provides a compensatory mechanism by which alcoholics might alleviate attentional deficits. In contrast, chronic smoking is increasingly recognized as negatively affecting neurobehavioral integrity. These opposing effects have not been simultaneously examined. Thus, we sought to a) extend previous work by exploring the effects of acute nicotine effects on vigilance components of attention and replicate previous findings suggesting that treatment-seeking alcoholics experience benefit to a greater extent than do other groups; and b) to examine the impact of chronic smoking on these tasks and across subgroups. Methods Substance abusing participants (N=86) were recruited and subgrouped on the basis of dependency criteria as either alcoholics, alcoholics with co-morbid stimulant dependence, or stimulant dependent individuals. Groups of cigarette-smoking (N=17) and non-smoking (N=22) community controls were recruited as comparison groups. Smoking subjects were assigned a placebo, low, or high dose nicotine patch in a double-blind placebo controlled fashion. Non-smoking controls were administered either a placebo or low dose. Testing occurred after dose stabilization. Results General linear models indicated greater sensitivity to acute nicotine administration among alcoholics than other groups when controlling for the effect of intensity of smoking history, as reflected by pack-years. Pack-years correlated negatively with performance measures in alcoholics but not stimulant abusing subgroups or smoking controls. Finally, regression analyses demonstrated that pack-years predicted poorer performance only for the alcoholic subgroup. Conclusions These results support previous work finding a compensatory effect of acute nicotine administration on attentional performance in alcoholics and reinforce the consideration of recent nicotine use as a confound in neurocognitive studies of alcoholics. Of

  13. HEALTH LOCUS OF CONTROL PERCEPTION OF ADOLESCENTS, AND ITS EFFECTS ON THEIR HEALTH BEHAVIOURS

    Ruhi Selcuk TABAK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this study is to investigate the relationships between health locus of control perceptions and health behaviours of adolescents as well as the effectiveness of lectures on health locus of control to them. The subjects of our study are 192 students in 6 groups of the 9. Grade students of a high school. Three groups of 108 students were randomly selected as the experiment group who were subjected to 4 class-hours specific lectures on health locus of control. The rest 84 students constituted the control group. A 34-item questionnaire for health behaviours and the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLOC, were filled by the students before and after the lectures. The lectures on health locus of control increased the perception of internal health locus of control of adolescents while decreasing chance health locus of control. The differences between experiment and control groups in this aspect were found to be statistically significant. Internal health locus of control is the main source for the increase of responsibility and management of individuals on their health. The relations that were detected between students’ health behaviours and information solicitation and their perceptions of health locus of control showed that the students with higher internal health locus of control are more eager to be responsible and active for their health, especially, for the health behaviours such as physical exercise, smoking, tooth-brushing, medical check-ups so on. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 118-130

  14. Human health implications of norovirus acute gastroenteritis as a result of hydric pollution

    An investigation, in Ciudad Quesada of Costa Rica, has been carried out to explore and characterize the outbreak of acute gastroenteritis in the area. Surveillance data and medical records of the patients were analyzed to develop a descriptive study between July 8 and July 14, 2010 in the canton of San Carlos. A fact sheet was applied to obtain information from patients. ELISA test was performed to the stool samples to detect the presence of enteropathogens. Water samples were analyzed for bacteria and fecal coliform in the distribution system. A total of 352 cases were confirmed in the studied region. The most frequent symptoms among confirmed cases were: diarrhea (94,2%), nausea (92,7%) and vomiting (91,7%). The average age of patients is 29 years (15,8%) and (50,8%) has been female. The age group that has been most affected are infants of 1-4 years (attack rate 18,2/1,000 population). The area that has been most affected is the central area of Ciudad Quesada. In five out of six stool tests has been possible to isolate the norovirus. In water Escherichia coli has been witnessed by what has been suggested that the norovirus has been transmitted by water contaminated with fecal matter. Water quality monitoring has been recommended and promote the use of potable water as well as the sensitization of rural communities about hygiene and disease prevention. (author)

  15. Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis and Implications for Honey Bee Health

    Chen, Yan Ping; Pettis, Jeffery S.; Corona, Miguel; Chen, Wei Ping; Li, Cong Jun; Spivak, Marla; Visscher, P. Kirk; DeGrandi-Hoffman, Gloria; Boncristiani, Humberto; Zhao, Yan; vanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Delaplane, Keith; Solter, Leellen; Drummond, Francis; Kramer, Matthew; Lipkin, W. Ian; Palacios, Gustavo; Hamilton, Michele C.; Smith, Barton; Huang, Shao Kang; Zheng, Huo Qing; Li, Ji Lian; Zhang, Xuan; Zhou, Ai Fen; Wu, Li You; Zhou, Ji Zhong; Lee, Myeong-L.; Teixeira, Erica W.; Li, Zhi Guo; Evans, Jay D.

    2014-01-01

    Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is a widespread RNA virus of honey bees that has been linked with colony losses. Here we describe the transmission, prevalence, and genetic traits of this virus, along with host transcriptional responses to infections. Further, we present RNAi-based strategies for limiting an important mechanism used by IAPV to subvert host defenses. Our study shows that IAPV is established as a persistent infection in honey bee populations, likely enabled by both horizontal and vertical transmission pathways. The phenotypic differences in pathology among different strains of IAPV found globally may be due to high levels of standing genetic variation. Microarray profiles of host responses to IAPV infection revealed that mitochondrial function is the most significantly affected biological process, suggesting that viral infection causes significant disturbance in energy-related host processes. The expression of genes involved in immune pathways in adult bees indicates that IAPV infection triggers active immune responses. The evidence that silencing an IAPV-encoded putative suppressor of RNAi reduces IAPV replication suggests a functional assignment for a particular genomic region of IAPV and closely related viruses from the Family Dicistroviridae, and indicates a novel therapeutic strategy for limiting multiple honey bee viruses simultaneously and reducing colony losses due to viral diseases. We believe that the knowledge and insights gained from this study will provide a new platform for continuing studies of the IAPV–host interactions and have positive implications for disease management that will lead to mitigation of escalating honey bee colony losses worldwide. PMID:25079600

  16. Evaluation of the results of acute viral gastroenteritis data in Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory in 2009

    Nurhan ALBAYRAK

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Norovirus, Rotavirus, Adenovirus and Astrovirus are responsible for most non-bacterial acute gastroenteritis. The incidence of these viral agents in Turkey is not well known. In this study, it was aimed to document the viral etiology of the stool samples which were send to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency (RSNPHA, Virology Reference and Research Laboratory for investigation of viral acute gastroenteritis agents. Method: A total of 147 stool samples from 11 different provinces were send to the Virology Laboratory for Reference and Research of RSNPHA in 2009. Samples were collected from patients admitted because of acute gastroenteritis and from the cases with the signs of illness at different times of the year and sent by the Provincial Health Directorates to our laboratory. The samples were examined in the laboratory using the commercial multiplex real-time PCR kit for norovirus genotype I, norovirus genotype II, rotavirus, adenovirus and astrovirus. Results: 65 (44.2 % samples were found to be positive at least for one viral agent and 10 (6.8 % samples for more than one viral agent. Norovirus (particularly genotype II infections were detected as the most prevalent viral agent in acute gastroenteritis patients in this period. Rotavirus infections were determined as the second most common infection after norovirus infections. Adenovirus infections have been found to be the least prevalent agent in the laboratory. Conclusion: Results of this study showed that norovirus genotype II has been more commonly responsible for acute diarrhea than the other viral pathogens. The viral agents we have studied should be considered as pathogens that can be seen in all seasons. Viral factors should not be underestimated as the cause of acute gastroenteritis; additionally it should be noted that acute gastroenteritis could be caused by coinfection of viral agents.

  17. Effect of the Duration Time of a Nuclear Accident on Radiological Health Consequences

    Hyojoon Jeong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to quantify the effect of duration time of a nuclear accident on the radiation dose of a densely populated area and the resulting acute health effects. In the case of nuclear accidents, the total emissions of radioactive materials can be classified into several categories. Therefore, the release information is very important for the assessment of risk to the public. We confirmed that when the duration time of the emissions are prolonged to 7 hours, the concentrations of radioactive substances in the ambient air are reduced by 50% compared to that when the duration time of emission is one hour. This means that the risk evaluation using only the first wind direction of an accident is very conservative, so it has to be used as a screening level for the risk assessment. Furthermore, it is judged that the proper control of the emission time of a nuclear accident can minimize the health effects on residents.

  18. The effects of levan on the acute inflammatory response.

    Sedgwick, A. D.; Rutman, A.; Sin, Y. M.; Mackay, A. R.; Willoughby, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The fructose polymer levan has been shown to affect the accumulation of leucocytes in inflammatory lesions. The present study has investigated the effect of levan on experimental pleurisy induced by carrageenan and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals. Total pleural polymorphonuclear leucocyte counts and exudate volumes were significantly reduced by levan treatment. We were, however, unable to detect any effect on mononuclear cell numbers. Furthermore, levan treatment significantly reduced peripheral leucocyte numbers. The counter-irritant activity of levan was compared with that of a known counter-irritant, dextran. The ability of levan to reduce pleural polymorph numbers and exudate volume could not be accounted for totally by counter-irritation. Studies using an in-vitro leucocyte adhesion assay system indicate that levan affects leucocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium. PMID:6201184

  19. Rays Sting: The Acute Cellular Effects of Ionizing Radiation Exposure.

    Franco, A; Ciccarelli, M; Sorriento, D; Napolitano, L; Fiordelisi, A; Trimarco, B; Durante, M; Iaccarino, G

    2016-05-01

    High-precision radiation therapy is a clinical approach that uses the targeted delivery of ionizing radiation, and the subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high proliferative, radiation sensitive cancers. In particular, in thoracic cancer ratdiation treatments, can not avoid a certain amount of cardiac toxicity. Given the low proliferative rate of cardiac myocytes, research has looked at the effect of radiation on endothelial cells and consequent coronary heart disease as the mechanism of ratdiation induced cardiotoxicity. In fact, little is known concerning the direct effect of radiation on mitochondria dynamis in cardiomyocyte. The main effect of ionizing radiation is the production of ROS and recent works have uncovered that they directly participates to pivotal cell function like mitochondrial quality control. In particular ROS seems to act as check point within the cell to promote either mitochondrial biogenesis and survival or mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Thus, it appears evident that the functional state of the cell, as well as the expression patterns of molecules involved in mitochondrial metabolism may differently modulate mitochondrial fate in response to radiation induced ROS responses. Different molecules have been described to localize to mitochondria and regulate ROS production in response to stress, in particular GRK2. In this review we will discuss the evidences on the cardiac toxicity induced by X ray radiation on cardiomyocytes with emphasis on the role played by mitochondria dynamism. PMID:27326395

  20. Effects of acute laboratory stress on executive functions

    Katrin Starcke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999: Attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40 were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20, or to a rest condition (N = 20. Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group. The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.

  1. Health effect of low dose/low dose rate radiation

    The clarified and non-clarified scientific knowledge is discussed to consider the cause of confusion of explanation of the title subject. The low dose is defined roughly lower than 200 mGy and low dose rate, 0.05 mGy/min. The health effect is evaluated from 2 aspects of clinical symptom/radiation hazard protection. In the clinical aspect, the effect is classified in physical (early and late) and genetic ones, and is classified in stochastic (no threshold value, TV) and deterministic (with TV) ones from the radioprotection aspect. Although the absence of TV in the carcinogenic and genetic effects has not been proved, ICRP employs the stochastic standpoint from the safety aspect for radioprotection. The lowest human TV known now is 100 mGy, meaning that human deterministic effect would not be generated below this dose. Genetic deterministic effect can be observable only in animal experiments. These facts suggest that the practical risk of exposure to <100 mGy in human is the carcinogenesis. The relationship between carcinogenic risk in A-bomb survivors and their exposed dose are found fitted to the linear no TV model, but the epidemiologic data, because of restriction of subject number analyzed, do not always mean that the model is applicable even below the dose <100 mGy. This would be one of confusing causes in explanation: no carcinogenic risk at <100 mGy or risk linear to dose even at <100 mGy, neither of which is scientifically conclusive at present. Also mentioned is the scarce risk of cancer in residents living in the high background radiation regions in the world in comparison with that in the A-bomb survivors exposed to the chronic or acute low dose/dose rate. Molecular events are explained for the low-dose radiation-induced DNA damage and its repair, gene mutation and chromosome aberration, hypothesis of carcinogenesis by mutation, and non-targeting effect of radiation (bystander effect and gene instability). Further researches to elucidate the low dose

  2. Predicting Levels of Policy Advocacy Engagement Among Acute-Care Health Professionals.

    Jansson, Bruce S; Nyamathi, Adeline; Heidemann, Gretchen; Bird, Melissa; Ward, Cathy Rogers; Brown-Saltzman, Katherine; Duan, Lei; Kaplan, Charles

    2016-02-01

    This study aims to describe the factors that predict health professionals' engagement in policy advocacy. The researchers used a cross-sectional research design with a sample of 97 nurses, 94 social workers, and 104 medical residents from eight hospitals in Los Angeles. Bivariate correlations explored whether seven predictor scales were associated with health professionals' policy advocacy engagement and revealed that five of the eight factors were significantly associated with it (p engagement, eagerness, skills, tangible support, and organizational receptivity. Regression analysis examined whether the seven scales, when controlling for sociodemographic variables and hospital site, predicted levels of policy advocacy engagement. Results revealed that patient advocacy engagement (p engagement. Ethical commitment did not predict policy advocacy engagement. The model explained 36% of the variance in policy advocacy engagement. Limitations of the study and its implications for future research, practice, and policy are discussed. PMID:27151835

  3. Nurse-sensitive health care outcomes in acute care settings: an integrative analysis of the literature.

    Pierce, S F

    1997-04-01

    With the advent of profit maximization in health care came an increased focus on defining quality through outcomes achieved. The article describes an analysis of the nursing literature from 1974 to 1996 using Donabedian's structure-process-outcome framework and the specific indicators identified by the American Nurses Association report card, the Institute of Medicine, and the nursing-sensitive outcomes classification. Although evidence exists documenting nursing's positive impact on patient outcomes, this analysis suggests a real need to integrate our clinical and administrative studies and to employ a more comprehensive, longitudinal, multifacility approach if we are to answer the scientific question regarding which nursing structures and processes truly produce the best health outcomes. PMID:9097521

  4. Early seizures in patients with acute stroke: Frequency, predictive factors, and effect on clinical outcome

    Andrea Alberti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Alberti, Maurizio Paciaroni, Valeria Caso, Michele Venti, Francesco Palmerini, Giancarlo AgnelliStroke Unit and Division of Internal and Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, ItalyBackground: Early seizure (ES may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and the predictive factors for ES as well the effects of ES on the clinical outcome at hospital discharge in patients with first-ever stroke.Patients and methods: A total of 638 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke (543 ischemic, 95 hemorrhagic, admitted to our Stroke Unit, were included in this prospective study. ES were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded.Results: Thirty-one patients (4.8% had ES. Seizures were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke. ES was not associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability. After multivariate analysis, hemorrhagic transformation resulted as an independent predictive factor for ES (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 1.95–22.61; p = 0.003.Conclusion: ES occur in about 5% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES does not seem to be associated with an adverse outcome at hospital discharge after acute stroke.Keywords: seizures, stroke, cortical involvement, hemorrhagic transformation

  5. Early seizures in patients with acute stroke: Frequency, predictive factors, and effect on clinical outcome

    Alberti, Andrea; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Caso, Valeria; Venti, Michele; Palmerini, Francesco; Agnelli, Giancarlo

    2008-01-01

    Background Early seizure (ES) may complicate the clinical course of patients with acute stroke. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of and the predictive factors for ES as well the effects of ES on the clinical outcome at hospital discharge in patients with first-ever stroke. Patients and methods A total of 638 consecutive patients with first-ever stroke (543 ischemic, 95 hemorrhagic), admitted to our Stroke Unit, were included in this prospective study. ES were defined as seizures occurring within 7 days from acute stroke. Patients with history of epilepsy were excluded. Results Thirty-one patients (4.8%) had ES. Seizures were significantly more common in patients with cortical involvement, severe and large stroke, and in patient with cortical hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke. ES was not associated with an increase in adverse outcome (mortality and disability). After multivariate analysis, hemorrhagic transformation resulted as an independent predictive factor for ES (OR = 6.5; 95% CI: 1.95–22.61; p = 0.003). Conclusion ES occur in about 5% of patients with acute stroke. In these patients hemorrhagic transformation is a predictive factor for ES. ES does not seem to be associated with an adverse outcome at hospital discharge after acute stroke. PMID:18827922

  6. Effect of acute and chronic cholinesterase inhibition on biogenic amines in rat brain.

    Soininen, H; Unni, L; Shillcutt, S

    1990-12-01

    The effects of five cholinesterase inhibitors on forebrain monoamine and their metabolite levels, and on forebrain and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity in rat were studied in acute and chronic conditions. Acute tetrahydroaminoacridine (THA) dosing caused lower brain (68%) and higher plasma (90%) ChE inhibition than the other drugs studied and increased levels of brain dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) (236%), homovanillic acid (HVA) (197%) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) (130%). Acute physostigmine (PHY) administration caused a 215% increase in brain DOPAC content. Despite high brain ChE inhibition induced by metrifonate (MTF), dichlorvos (DDVP) or naled no changes in brain noradrenaline (NA), dopamine (DA) or serotonin (5-HT) occurred due to treatment with the study drugs in the acute study. In the chronic 10-day study THA or PHY caused no substantial ChE inhibition in brain when measured 18 hours after the last dose, whereas MTF induced 74% ChE inhibition. Long-term treatment with THA or MTF caused no changes in monoamine levels, but PHY treatment resulted in slightly increased 5-HT values. These results suggest that MTF, DDVP and naled seem to act solely by cholinergic mechanisms. However, the central neuropharmacological mechanism of action of THA and PHY may involve changes in cholinergic as well as dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems. PMID:1711162

  7. The Effect of an Intraperitoneal Injection of Melatonin on Serum Amylase Levels in Acute Pancreatitis

    Cavit Çöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Several experimental studies have been carried out to explain the ph ysiopathological mechan isms and to introduce endocrinological, enzymatic, biochemical and histopathol ogical changes in organism s during acute pancreatitis. Objective To evaluate the effect of an intraperitoneal injection of melatonin on serum amylase levels. Design Experimental acut e pancreatitis was experimentally caused through panc reatic duct ligation in 20 Winstar Albino rats . The rats were then divided into two groups: control and melatonin groups. Intervention The serum amylase level was measured on the 7 th day after acute pancreatitis had developed. In the melatonin group, an intraperitoneal injecti on of melatonin (20 mg/kg/day was performed starting from the 2 nd day after pancreatic duct ligation. Main outcome measure The levels of serum amylase were measured with an auto analyzer. Results It was found that the mean (±SD level of serum amylase in th e control group was 947±182 IU/mL wh ile it was 358±177 IU/mL in the experimental group (P<0.001. Conclusions The 20 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection of melatonin which was carried out for one week attenuated the serum amylase levels to a statistically si gnificant degree. The researchers believe that intraperitoneal in jections of melatonin decrease the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  8. Effect of acute paraquat poisoning on CYP450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method.

    Wang, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhiyi; Chen, Dongxin; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Yingying; Liu, Zezheng; Zhang, Lijing; Wen, Congcong; Wang, Xianqin; Ma, Jianshe

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly effective contact herbicide that is marketed worldwide as a fantastical, non-selective compound for broadleaf weed control. As compared to most pesticides, paraquat is extremely toxic to humans and the lack of strategies to manage paraquat poisoning has resulted in high fatality rates. The rats were randomly divided into acute paraquat poisoning group and control group. The paraquat group rats were given 36 mg/kg paraquat by intragastric administration. The influence of acute paraquat poisoning on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were evaluated by cocktail method, they were responded by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. The six probe drugs were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. In the results of paraquat group compared to control group, there was statistical pharmacokinetic difference for bupropion, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. Acute paraquat poisoning may induce the activities of CYP2C19, and inhibit of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after acute paraquat poisoning. PMID:26770539

  9. Acute antidepressant effects of intramuscular versus intravenous ketamine

    Harihar Chilukuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Conventional antidepressants take two weeks before their therapeutic action begins. Recent studies have reported on the rapid antidepressant effect of ketamine when given as an intravenous (I.V. infusion. Little is known about its intramuscular (I.M. use in depression. Hence this study was conducted to compare the safety, tolerability and efficacy of I.M. versus. I.V. ketamine in Major Depression (ICD-10. Materials and Methods: It was a randomized open label parallel group study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Study sample consisted of 27 subjects having major depression divided randomly into three groups of nine subjects each. Ketamine administered to each group in the dose of 0.5 mg/kg as an I.V. infusion, as 0.5 mg/kg I.M. or 0.25 mg/kg I.M. respectively. Depression rated on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D before the injection, two hours later, the next day, and after three days. Data analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Results: Mean age of the sample was 36.81 years (SD 11.815. Two hours after the injection, HAM-D fell by 58.86%, 60.29% & 57.36% in each group respectively. The improvement was sustained for next three days. Adverse effects noticed were rare, of mild nature and transient, lasting less than an hour. Conclusions: Intramuscular ketamine in the dose of 0.25 mg/kg is as effective and safe as 0.5 mg/kg given either I.M. or I.V., substantially alleviating depressive symptoms within a few hours and sustained for 3 days.

  10. Effect of health system reforms in Turkey on user satisfaction.

    Stokes, Jonathan; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Hone, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2015-12-01

    In 2003, the Turkish government introduced major health system changes, the Health Transformation Programme (HTP), to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). The HTP leveraged changes in all parts of the health system, organization, financing, resource management and service delivery, with a new family medicine model introducing primary care at the heart of the system. This article examines the effect of these health system changes on user satisfaction, a key goal of a responsive health system. Utilizing the results of a nationally representative yearly survey introduced at the baseline of the health system transformation, multivariate logistic regression analysis is used to examine the yearly effect on satisfaction with health services. During the 9-year period analyzed (2004-2012), there was a nearly 20% rise in reported health service use, coinciding with increased access, measured by insurance coverage. Controlling for factors known to contribute to user satisfaction in the literature, there is a significant (P Turkey. PMID:26528391

  11. Acute effects of ghrelin administration on glucose and lipid metabolism

    Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Djurhuus, Christian Born; Gjedsted, Jakob;

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single-blind, p......CONTEXT: Ghrelin infusion increases plasma glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, but it is uncertain whether this is secondary to the concomitant release of GH. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study direct effects of ghrelin on substrate metabolism. DESIGN: This was a randomized, single......-blind, placebo-controlled two-period crossover study. SETTING: The study was performed in a university clinical research laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eight healthy men aged 27.2 +/- 0.9 yr with a body mass index of 23.4 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2) were included in the study. INTERVENTION: Subjects received infusion of ghrelin...... the final 2 h of each infusion. RESULTS: Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal decreased with ghrelin [basal: 1.9 +/- 0.1 (ghrelin) vs. 2.3 +/- 0.1 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.03; clamp: 3.9 +/- 0.6 (ghrelin) vs. 6.1 +/- 0.5 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.02], whereas endogenous glucose...

  12. Health effects of low level radiation

    In 1982, Prof. Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri Univ. asserted 'Radiation Hormesis' on the Journal of Health Physics and he published two books. CRIEPI initiated the research program on Radiation Hormesis following his assertion to confirm 'is it true or not?' After nearly ten year research activities on data surveys and animal tests with many Universities, we are realizing scientific truth of bio-positive effects by low level radiation exposures. The interesting bio-positive effects we found could be categorized in following five groups. 1) Rejuvenation of cells such as increase of SOD and cell membrane permeability, 2) Moderation of psychological stress through response of key enzymes, 3) Suppression and therapy of adult-diseases such as diabetes and hypertension, 4) Suppression of cancer through enhancement of immune systems such as lymphocytes, 5) Suppression of cancer and ratio-adaptive response by activation of DNA repair and apoptosis. In the responses of many specialists to our initiation of radiation hormesis research program following T.D. Luckey's claim about low level radiation, I have to pick up for the first, the great success of Prof. Sakamoto. Prof. Sakamoto had been already applying whole body low dose irradiation for ten years before our radiation hormesis research started on the therapy to suppress the cancer reappearing after treatment. He reported about his successful trial to real patients and showed an enhancement of immune system. (author)

  13. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed. PMID:26476885

  14. Beneficial Effects of Environmental Gases: Health Prospective

    Radioactive radon gas is widely considered to be a health hazard by environmental agencies in the United States and in Europe. Yet despite the warnings of these agencies, thousands of people annually expose themselves to radon for therapeutic purposes, in facilities ranging from rustic old mines, to upscale spas and clinics. The inert natural radioactive gas radon has been used since the beginning of the century in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. In many places in the world, radon is used for therapeutic purposes for various diseases. Radon inhalation is applied in a thermal gallery with atmospheric radon concentrations up to 100 kBq/m3, elevated temperature up to 41 EC , and humidity close to 100%, or in the form of radon baths where Rn is emanated from water with high natural Rn activity. Frequently, a combination of both treatment procedures is applied. Evidence from empirical experience and from clinical observational studies suggests that radon has analgesic, anti inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects. Ozone is one of nature's most powerful oxidants. It increases the effectiveness of the antioxidant enzyme system, which scavenge excess free radicals in the body. It is used in water purification and sewage treatment and is now being applied medically to treat many diseases from wounds and colitis to cancer, stroke and AIDS. According to the dosage and concentration range, medical ozone is a pharmaceutical agent that exerts specific properties and a well-defined range of efficacy. This paper describes the medical application of environmental gases: radon and ozone

  15. Genetic NMDA receptor deficiency disrupts acute and chronic effects of cocaine but not amphetamine.

    Ramsey, Amy J; Laakso, Aki; Cyr, Michel; Sotnikova, Tatyana D; Salahpour, Ali; Medvedev, Ivan O; Dykstra, Linda A; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Caron, Marc G

    2008-10-01

    NMDA receptor-mediated glutamate transmission is required for several forms of neuronal plasticity. Its role in the neuronal responses to addictive drugs is an ongoing subject of investigation. We report here that the acute locomotor-stimulating effect of cocaine is absent in NMDA receptor-deficient mice (NR1-KD). In contrast, their acute responses to amphetamine and to direct dopamine receptor agonists are not significantly altered. The striking attenuation of cocaine's acute effects is not likely explained by alterations in the dopaminergic system of NR1-KD mice, since most parameters of pre- and postsynaptic dopamine function are unchanged. Consistent with the behavioral findings, cocaine induces less c-Fos expression in the striatum of these mice, while amphetamine-induced c-Fos expression is intact. Furthermore, chronic cocaine-induced sensitization and conditioned place preference are attenuated and develop more slowly in mutant animals, but amphetamine's effects are not altered significantly. Our results highlight the importance of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission specifically in cocaine actions, and support a hypothesis that cocaine and amphetamine elicit their effects through differential actions on signaling pathways. PMID:18185498

  16. World Health organization guidelines for management of acute stress, PTSD, and bereavement: key challenges on the road ahead

    Tol, W.A.; C. Barbui; Bisson, J.; J. Cohen; Hijazi, Z.; Jones, L; Jong, de, Franciska; N. Magrini; Omigbodun, O.; Seedat, S.; Silove, D; de Souza, R.; Sumathipala, A.; Vijayakumar, L.; Weissbecker, I

    2014-01-01

    - The implementation of new WHO mental health guidelines for conditions and disorders specifically related to stress is likely to face obstacles, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. - Formulation of evidence-based guidelines is complicated by limited knowledge regarding (a) the effectiveness of commonly implemented interventions, (b) the effectiveness of established evidence-based interventions when used in situations of ongoing adversity, and (c) the effectiveness of widely use...

  17. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  18. Acute glomerulonephritis in children: A seven-year experience in a tertiary health center

    Ali Güneş

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine clinicaland laboratory characteristics of children with AGN in atertiary university hospital.Materials and methods: Hospital records of childrenwhich hospitalized with AGN diagnosis in Pediatric NephrologyUnit, between 2004 and 2011, were retrospectivelyreviewed. Patients were divided into threesubgroups as age 10 years.Characteristics at hospital admission including, bloodpressure, diuresis state, serum urea, creatinine and electrolytelevels, complement factors C3 and C4, completeblood count and urine analysis results were recorded.Data about primary infection, treatments, disease courseand outcome were recorded and analyzed.Results: Totally 220 children (157 male, 71.2%; 63 female,28.8% were included. Probable etiological infectionswere tonsillopharyngitis in 133 (60.5%, pyodermain 12 (5.5%, other infections in 27 (12.2% children. In48 (21.8 children with AGN, no primary infection weredetected. Edema was found in 81.4% of patients, hypertensionin 73.6%, and pulmonary stasis in 22.6%. Low C3levels were found in 89.1%, azotemia in 45.9%, hematuriain 95.4%, nephritic proteinuria in 80.5%, and leukocyturiain 37.6% of patients. Diuresis was enabled withinone week in 82%. Additional vasodilators were given to45 (20.5% patients, and hemodialysis was performedto three. Except for frequency of low C3 (p=0.018 andanemia (p=0.006, no significant differences were foundin clinical and laboratory findings between age groups(p>0.05.Conclusions: No difference was found in clinical andlaboratory features of AGN based on age groups, excludinglow C3 and anemia frequency. J Clin Exp Invest 2012;3 (3: 357-362Key words: Acute glomerulonephritis, childhood, clinicalfindings, laboratory findings, age grops

  19. Effect of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia on the outcome of patients with acute myeloid leukemia

    ESPíRITO SANTO, ANA ESPÍRITO; CHACIM, SÉRGIO; FERREIRA, ISABEL; LEITE, LUÍS; MOREIRA, CLAUDIA; PEREIRA, DULCINEIA; DANTAS BRITO, MARGARIDA DANTAS; NUNES, MARTA; DOMINGUES, NELSON; OLIVEIRA, ISABEL; MOREIRA, ILÍDIA; MARTINS, ANGELO; VITERBO, LUÍSA; MARIZ, JOSÉ MÁRIO; MEDEIROS, RUI

    2016-01-01

    Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is a rare and almost always fatal late side effect of antineoplastic treatment involving chemotherapy, radiotherapy or the two combined. The present retrospective study intended to characterize t-AML patients that were diagnosed and treated in a single referral to an oncological institution in North Portugal. Over the past 10 years, 231 cases of AML were diagnosed and treated at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto, of which 38 t-AML cases were identified. Data regarding the patient demographics, primary diagnosis and treatment, age at onset of therapy-related myeloid neoplasm, latency time of the neoplasm, cytogenetic characteristics, AML therapy and outcome were collected from medical records. A previous diagnosis with solid tumors was present in 28 patients, and 10 patients possessed a history of hematological conditions, all a lymphoproliferative disorder. Breast cancer was the most frequent solid tumor identified (39.5% of all solid tumors diagnosed). The mean latency time was 3 years. In the present study, t-AML patients were older (PAML patients. The overall survival time was observed to be significantly poorer among individuals with t-AML (PAML and those with de novo AML (P=0.983). Additionally, patients with promyelocytic leukemia possess a good prognosis, even when AML occurs as a secondary event (P=0.98). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to evaluate t-AML in Portugal and the results are consistent with the data published previously in other populations. The present study concludes that although t-AML demonstrates a poor prognosis, this is not observed among younger patients or promyelocytic leukemia patients.

  20. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteers...... on 3 separate days with 7-day intervals. They received either (1) subcutaneous infiltration with ketamine in the burn area (local treatment) and contralateral placebo injections, or (2) subcutaneous ketamine contralateral to the burn (systemic treatment) and placebo in the burn area, or (3) placebo...... significant hyperalgesia. Local ketamine infiltration reduced pain during the burn injury compared with systemic treatment and placebo (P < 0.01). Heat pain thresholds were increased by local ketamine treatment compared with placebo immediately after injection (P < 0.03), and so were the mechanical pain...