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Sample records for actors decentralizing environmental

  1. Environmental aspects of decentralized electricity production

    Renewable energy sources are the focus of considerable interest because they do not place future generations at risk; the development of cogeneration has been favorably received on the whole because it uses energy that would otherwise be lost. Difficulties are sometimes encountered in the development of small-scale hydroelectric facilities (older facilities negative aspects, over production impression in France, etc.). Environmental protection regulations do not distinguish between centralized and decentralized electricity production, but between large and small production facilities

  2. Post-decentralization regional economies and actors -- putting the capacity of Local governments to the test

    Matsui, Kazuhisa

    2005-01-01

    Decentralization in Indonesia was introduced institutionally in 2001, with a democratization drive promoted by international donors and by the intention of the new government to clear away the centralistic image of Soeharto. Decentralization has had some effects on regional economies and on local government administration. Compared to the period before decentralization, the share of gross regional domestic product and local government finance has increased in Java, though investment and bank ...

  3. Decentralization and environmentally sound decision making: Policy implications

    Hugo Cardona Castillo

    2007-01-01

    Among the major political and economic trends that have been evolving in Latin America in recent years, the emergence of municipal governments as frontline actors stands out. Central American countries have begun to grant local governments greater rights and responsibilities regarding natural resource management. In Guatemala, one of the major pieces of legislation to achieve important rural development goals, as claimed by the government, is the Law of Decentralization. As more decision maki...

  4. Value added structures and coordination structures of the decentral power generation. An actor-centered and institution-centered analyses by means of selected case examples; Wertschoepfungs- und Koordinationsstrukturen der dezentralen Stromerzeugung. Eine akteur- und institutionenzentrierte Analyse anhand ausgewaehlter Fallbeispiele

    Brocke, Tobias

    2012-07-01

    Against the background of energy policy and climate policy decisions, the decentralized power generation has gained in importance in Germany. Previous research activities on this topic mostly concerned with technical, legal, environmental and economic issues as well as potential analyses for certain forms of power generation. In contrast, the contribution under consideration deals with the organizational structures and governance structures of the decentralized power generation at local and regional level. In particular, it concerns the question to what extent the decentralized power generation results in the formation of localized production connections. In addition, it is about the importance of institutional framework as well as the role of regulatory, political and civil society actors who are affected by the distributed power generation.

  5. Impacts of Decentralization on Environmental Management in Thailand

    Soparatana Jarusombat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process, institutional and legal framework within which the environmental management operates in Thailand. It specifically focuses on the decentralization within central and local government’s role in environmental management. The methods of this research use literature review. The aim of the paper is to examine how interface between the central and local loci of power have affected pieces of legislation relating to management of the environment by central and local government in Thailand.

  6. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresalientes de varios de ellos en América Latina. Seguidamente se postula que el análisis se debe centrar en los escenarios sociales donde esos actores se pueden manifestar. Se ofrece una distinción preliminar de escenarios que permite integrar a nuevos y viejos movimientos sociales y establecer relaciones de articulación y equivalencia.The concept of "key actors" in the field of environmental politics is analyzed. Beyond the definition of social actor, the assumption of the existence of key actors implies conceptual and practical limitations, as it depends of each specific situation. Everyone could be a key actor under differential roles in the generation of environmental politics. As an alternative, the term "noteworthy actors" is used and a brief review of them in Latin America is presented. The relevant question should address the social scenarios from where these actors can express themselves. A preliminary distinction of scenarios is presented, in which old and new social movements could be integrated and relationships of articulation and equivalence could be established.

  7. Actors or Spectators? Vulnerability and Critical Environmental Law

    Andreas Philippopoulos‐Mihalopoulos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether we as humans should remain spectators of the great theatre of ecological disaster or become actors is a false dichotomy. In this chapter, I argue that both are needed, since the critical distance of spectatorship does not annul the need for immersion in the ecological continuum. A tool in the realisation of this is the concept of vulnerability, which is here conceptualised as a space of ‘the middle’ (as opposed, emphatically, to ‘the centre’ and offers an opportunity to think away from the sterile debate on eco/anthropocentricity and from such limiting hierarchies as animal/human, human/environmental, natural/artificial. This new, vulnerable position of the middle allows the reconfiguration of ecological processes, and more specifically, the position of environmental law in relation to them. Environmental law now finds itself amidst a new, moving, ‘open ecology’ of social, biological and ecological processes. This is a new, radical conceptualisation of what I have called ‘critical environmental law’, based upon an epistemology of observation and an ontology of being part of this open ecology. Environmental law, in this light, is simultaneously reformulated as being an invitation to disciplinary and ontological openness and yet a call to remain immanent within existing legal structures. This finds expression in four critical environmental positions that set the stage for the further elaboration of a critical environmental law. La cuestión de si nosotros, como seres humanos, debemos seguir siendo espectadores del gran teatro de la catástrofe ecológica o convertirnos en actores es una dicotomía falsa. En este artículo se sostiene que ambos son necesarios, ya que la distancia crítica del espectador no anula la necesidad de una inmersión en el continuum ecológico. Una herramienta para la realización de esto es el concepto de vulnerabilidad, que aquí se concibe como un espacio 'intermedio' (en oposici

  8. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Eduardo Gudynas

    2001-01-01

    Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresaliente...

  9. Local actors facing environmental issues : Lessons from a bottom-up approach

    Maurel, Marie-Claude

    2009-01-01

    This chapter, analyzing the implementation of “local sustainable development” in the LEADER programs, questions the environmental contents of local communities development plans. To what extent the sustainability paradigm is shared by local actors and is connected to a genuine new awareness? In the first part, the paper develops the conceptual framework of the implementation of new public policies for local development in New Member States. In the second one, the way in which local actors hav...

  10. Gobernanza ambiental, actores sociales y conflictos en las Áreas Naturales Protegidas mexicanas Environmental Governance, Social Actors and Conflicts in Mexican Natural Protected Areas

    Ludger Brenner

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los retos que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sian Ka'an, una de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas más importantes en México. El estudio identifica los actores sociales involucrados, sus intereses, estrategias, poder relativo y acciones. La información pone en claro que el mayor problema que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental resulta de los intereses y acciones contradictorias que llevan a cabo los diferentes actores sociales.This article analizes the challenges faced by environmental governance of the Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve, one of the most important protected natural areas in Mexico. The study focuses on social actors involved, their interests, strategies, relative power and actions. The information obtained shows that the main problem faced by environmental governance actions comes from the various social actors.

  11. The decentralization of the environmental administration in Colombia from the perspective of the energy planning

    This paper, part of an analysis on the relationship between the satisfaction of the basic necessities and the achievement of a sustainable human development The author makes a recount of the evolution of the environmental legislation in Colombia, emphasizing in the character decentralization and environmentalist of the constitution of 1991 and his implications on the environmental administration of the municipalities. At the end it is approached and the national energy politics is evaluated, specifically the national energetic Plan, 1997-2010 inside the context of the development of the country

  12. New actors in environmental management: The case of the civil society in Ensenada

    Nain Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The environment is a complex space where multiple interests converge, so the traditional government has been insufficient to respond to the new demands of the environmental management. In this sense, the theory governance suggests a bigger role for social actors in decision-making for a more effective resolution of environmental problems. This article focuses on the Civil Society Organizations (cso’s of Ensenada, due to its relevance in the public sphere and the ecological value of the area. Twenty two csos, its participants and the network of actors were characterized through a survey. It was found that three types of csos are focusing on the conservation agenda and urban sustainability.

  13. An Integrated Decentralized Energy Planning Model considering Demand-Side Management and Environmental Measures

    Seyed Mahmood Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized energy planning (DEP is looked upon as an indisputable opportunity for energy planning of villages, isolated islands, and far spots. Nonetheless, at this decentralized planning level, the value of demand-side resources is not fairly examined, despite enjoying great advantages. Therefore, the core task of this study is to integrate demand-side resources, as a competing solution against supply-side alternatives, with decentralized energy planning decisions and demonstrate the rewarding role it plays. Moreover, sustainability indicators (SIs are incorporated into DEP attempts in order to attain sustainable development. It is emphasized that unless these indicators are considered at lower energy planning levels, they will be ignored at higher planning levels as well. Hence, to the best knowledge of the authors, this study for the first time takes into account greenhouse gas (GHG emissions produced by utilization of renewable energies in DEP optimization models. To address the issues mentioned previously, multiobjective linear programming model along with a min-max goal programming approach is employed. Finally, using data taken from the literature, the model is solved, and the obtained results are discussed. The results show that DSM policies have remarkably contributed to significant improvements especially in terms of environmental indicators.

  14. Cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water system for wastewater reuse and environmental protection.

    Chen, R; Wang, X C

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposed a net benefit value (NBV) model for cost-benefit evaluation of wastewater treatment and reuse projects, and attention was mainly paid to decentralized systems which are drawing wide interests all over the world especially in the water-deficient countries and regions. In the NBV model, all the factors related to project costs are monetary ones which can be calculated by using traditional methods, while many of the factors related to project benefits are non-monetary ones which need sophisticated methods for monetization. In this regard, the authors elaborated several methods for monetization of the benefits from wastewater discharge reduction, local environment improvement, and human health protection. The proposed model and methods were applied for the cost-benefit evaluation of a decentralized water reclamation and reuse project in a newly developed residential area in Xi'an, China. The system with dual-pipe collection and grey water treatment and reuse was found to be economically ineligible (NBV > 0) when all the treated water is reused for artificial pond replenishment, gardening and other non-potable purposes by taking into account the benefit of water saving. As environmental benefits are further considered, the economic advantage of the project is more significant. PMID:19403964

  15. Cooperation over Water Resources as a Tool for Desecuritisation: the Israeli – Palestinian Environmental NGOs as Desecuritising Actor

    Bezen Balamir Coskun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the Israeli and Palestinian environmental NGOs as desecuritising actors who have attempted to initiate a desecuritisation process. In this regard, the article first reviews the Copenhagen School's securitisation theory with a particular focus on the concept of desecuritisation and desecuritising actor. Based on the notion of desecuritisation, an analytical framework for analysis will be suggested here to integrate Israeli-Palestinian environmental NGOs' water management efforts as contributions in desecuritisation of relations between Israelis and Palestinians with wider conflict resolution efforts.

  16. Cooperation over Water Resources as a Tool for Desecuritisation: the Israeli – Palestinian Environmental NGOs as Desecuritising Actor

    Bezen Balamir Coskun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the Israeli and Palestinian environmental NGOs as desecuritising actors who have attempted to initiate a desecuritisation process. In this regard, the article first reviews the Copenhagen School’s securitisation theory with a particular focus on the concept of desecuritisation and desecuritising actor. Based on the notion of desecuritisation, an analytical framework for analysis will be suggested here to integrate Israeli-Palestinian environmental NGOs’ water management efforts as contributions in desecuritisation of relations between Israelis and Palestinians with wider conflict resolution efforts.

  17. Optimizing decentralized renewable energy production by combining potentials and integrated environmental impact analysis. A case study in the Hannover region

    In Europe, the integration of decentralized renewable energy production in regional planning processes plays a crucial role. In particular, regions face a major challenge in order to set up renewable decentralized energy systems and incorporate them into the electricity grid. This paper presents a methodological concept and preliminary tests of applications in order to create an optimization model for an improved renewable energy development and planning practice: firstly, the energy potentials of micro renewable resources are estimated, and secondly the outcomes are combined with an estimation of resulting environmental impacts. Including these data into the spatial analysis, different scenarios can be developed in order to support decision making in landscape planning on the basis of environmental and landscape criteria as well as energy issues, including technical aspects and costs. The case study area is the Hannover region. First results show good energy potentials, which will be in a next step evaluated and combined with environmental impacts in order to improve energy efficiency by integrated renewable, decentralized power plants and energy mix. (orig.)

  18. Decentralized Governance and Environmental Change: Local Institutional Moderation of Deforestation in Bolivia

    Andersson, Krister; Gibson, Clark C.

    2007-01-01

    Dozens of countries have decentralized at least part of their natural resource policies over the last two decades. Despite the length of time that these policy experiments have been in force, there is little agreement about their effectiveness. We argue that part of this ambivalence stems from three limitations of extant studies, suggesting that…

  19. Understanding decentralization

    J. Bauer

    2008-01-01

    While decentralization policies have become increasingly popular in developing countries, this presentation explores the definition of decentralization in terms of "who" is gaining control over "what" resource. It is shown that historical and ecological contexts play a strong role in the shaping of the success of decentralization policies. Further addressed are social and biological science approaches, and the benefits gleaned through adopting practices from each.

  20. Gobernanza ambiental, actores sociales y conflictos en las Áreas Naturales Protegidas mexicanas Environmental Governance, Social Actors and Conflicts in Mexican Natural Protected Areas

    Ludger Brenner

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo analiza los retos que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental de la Reserva de la Biosfera Sian Ka'an, una de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas más importantes en México. El estudio identifica los actores sociales involucrados, sus intereses, estrategias, poder relativo y acciones. La información pone en claro que el mayor problema que enfrenta la gobernanza ambiental resulta de los intereses y acciones contradictorias que llevan a cabo los diferentes actores sociales.This article analize...

  1. Fiscal decentralization and Pollution: Institutions Matter

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Mennel, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the impact of fiscal decentralization on different indicators of pollution for more than 80 countries from 1970 to 2000. Our cross country estimates show that fiscal decentralization increases pollution. However, higher quality of institutions can limit the destructive environmental effects of decentralization. The empirical results confirm a strand of the literature on decentralization that predicts a “race to the bottom” under federalism. The mitigating effect of good governance...

  2. Fertilizer efficiency and environmental risk of irrigating Impatiens with composting leachate in decentralized solid waste management

    The reduction and reuse of composting leachate is an issue of importance in the field of decentralized solid waste management. In this study, composting leachate from source-separated food waste was treated and subsequently used as liquid fertilizer to irrigate Impatiens (Impatiens balsamina). The leachate was altered by adjusting storage time and dilution, and through addition of microbial inocula. For each test case, the effects of irrigation were monitored by analyzing the Impatiens extension degree, numbers of leaves and flowers, dry weight, and photosynthetic pigment content to assess fertilizer efficiency. The main results obtained revealed that the addition of microbial inocula and lengthening of storage times may lower COD concentrations, adjust pH value and maintain a comparatively high level of nutrient contents. By adding microbial inocula, a COD concentration of 9.6% and BOD5 concentration of 6.7% were obtained for non-treated leachate with the same storage time. COD concentrations in leachate decreased to 69.4% after 36 weeks storage. Moreover, composting leachate promoted growth of Impatiens. The dry weight biomass of Impatiens irrigated using treated diluted leachate was 1.15-2.94 times that obtained for Impatiens irrigated using tap water. Lastly, following the irrigation of Impatiens over a short period, soil did not accumulate VOCs and heavy metals to levels exceeding relative standards. Further research on heavy metal and salinity accumulation in plants should be undertaken to meet the needs of large-scale applications.

  3. Decentralized control

    Steffen, Chris

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the time-delay problem and the reliability problem which arise in trying to perform robotic construction operations at a remote space location are presented. The effects of the time-delay upon the control system design will be itemized. A high level overview of a decentralized method of control which is expected to perform better than the centralized approach in solving the time-delay problem is given. The lower level, decentralized, autonomous, Troter Move-Bar algorithm is also presented (Troters are coordinated independent robots). The solution of the reliability problem is connected to adding redundancy to the system. One method of adding redundancy is given.

  4. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  5. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  6. Foreign aid and decentralization: Policies for autonomy and programming for responsiveness

    Dickovick, J. Tyler

    2013-01-01

    Donor support for decentralization comes in two main categories: recommendations at the policy level and project activities at the programming level. At the policy level, donors promote decentralization by recommending greater autonomy for subnational actors. That is, they advocate for reforms that increase the extent (or 'quantity') of decentralization. At the programming level, donors implement projects intended to improve the capacity and accountability (or 'quality') of decentralized gove...

  7. A clean and green ASEAN. The ASEAN as actor of multilateral environmental policy using the example of the international climate regime

    The book discusses the following issues. Fundamentals, international climate policy, institutional and procedural boundary conditions of ASEAN, compilation of the indicator list, climate policy of ASEAN. The chapter on the climate policy of ASEAN covers the following topics: the question of development of ASEAN, development of a regional environmental policy, the ASEAN as actor in the international climate policy, cooperation in case of trans-border haze pollution, energy cooperation.

  8. Change-actors in the U.S. electric energy system: The role of environmental groups in utility adoption and diffusion of wind power

    We study the contribution of environmental groups to new technology adoption and diffusion by dominant incumbents. Building on institutional and social movement theory, we develop a theoretical framework that sheds light on environmental groups as change-actors. We theorize that by approaching embedded key constituents with various strategic actions, environmental groups affect taken-for-granted beliefs, build legitimacy for renewable energy technologies, and convince skeptical constituents to support the new technology. We verify our theoretical framework with a case study of wind power development in Colorado. We find that environmentalists educate constituents on the benefits of the new technology, engage in activities leading to regulatory and legislative decisions for wind, while also providing direct assistance to the utility. As a result, utilities are both pressured and encouraged to adopt and diffuse wind power on a large-scale. This research directs attention to the role of environmental groups as change-actors and the legitimating effects of their actions. It highlights their part in creating a more favorable institutional environment for new technologies while directly influencing the incumbent's technology choice. This paper contributes to an understanding of bottom-up, actor-initiated changes in energy systems taking into account both the systemic technological infrastructure and the institutional context. - Highlights: • We study environmentalists′ impact on utility-scale renewable technology diffusion. • Incumbent-dominated systems hinder the diffusion of new technologies. • Environmental groups′ strategic actions increase legitimacy for new technologies. • Environmental groups′ legitimating actions affect incumbent′s technology choice. • Environmental groups create a favorable institutional context for new technologies

  9. Analysis of economic efficiency and environmental acceptability of decentral power supply systems; Analyse der Wirtschaftlichkeit und Umweltvertraeglichkeit dezentraler Energieversorgungssysteme

    Dangelmaier, W.; Emmrich, A.; Koesters, C. [Heinz Nixdorf Inst., Univ. Paderborn, Paderborn (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Using the example of a communal supply area, the contribution outlines the cost development, the consumption of resources, and the emissions expected from enhanced decentral power supply on the basis of renewables. The best alternative is derived from an overall economic analysis. (orig.) [German] In diesem Artikel werden am Beispiel eines kommunalen Energieversorgungsgebietes die sich ergebende Kostenentwicklung, der Ressourcenverbrauch und die Emissionsbelastung aufgezeigt, die sich bei einer Steigerung der dezentralen und der regenerativen Energieproduktion ergeben. Im Rahmen einer gesamtwirtschaftlichen Nutzwertanalyse wird die Alternative mit dem hoechsten Gesamtnutzwert bestimmt. (orig.)

  10. The decentralized implementability problem

    Fiaz, Shaik; Trentelman, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the problems of decentralized implementability and decentralized regular implementability in the context of finite-dimensional linear differential system behaviors. Given a plant behavior with a pre-specified partition of the system variable and a desired behavior, the problem of decentralized implementability is to find a controller which is decentralized with respect to the given partition and implements (regularly) the desired behavior with respect to the plant. In th...

  11. Decentralized Network Coding

    Fragouli, C.; Soljanin, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes deterministic algorithms for decentralized network coding. Decentralized coding allows to locally specify the coding operations at network nodes without knowledge of the overall network topology, and to accommodate future changes in the network such as addition of receivers. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first deterministic decentralized algorithms proposed for network coding.

  12. Sustainability evaluation of decentralized electricity generation

    Decentralized power generation is gaining significance in liberalized electricity markets. An increasing decentralization of power supply is expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the advantages and disadvantages of decentralized electricity generation according to the overall concept of sustainable development. On the basis of a hierarchically structured set of sustainability criteria, four future scenarios for Germany are assessed, all of which describe different concepts of electricity supply in the context of the corresponding social and economic developments. The scenarios are developed in an explorative way according to the scenario method and the sustainability criteria are established by a discursive method with societal actors. The evaluation is carried out by scientific experts. By applying an expanded analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multicriteria evaluation is conducted that identifies dissent among the experts. The results demonstrate that decentralized electricity generation can contribute to climate protection. The extent to which it simultaneously guarantees security of supply is still a matter of controversy. However, experts agree that technical and economic boundary conditions are of major importance in this field. In the final section, the article discusses the method employed here as well as implications for future decentralized energy supply. (author)

  13. Comparing forest decentralization and local institutional change in Bolivia, Kenya, Mexico and Uganda

    Coleman, E.; Fleischman, F.; Bauer, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we assess the institutional and environmental impacts of forest decentralization policies in Bolivia, Kenya, Mexico, and Uganda. Although decentralization is often described as if it were a single policy intervention, many different types of reforms have been described as decentralization. We develop theories of institutional impacts based upon the specific decentralization reforms in the specific context of each country and then argue that decentralization impacts are moderated...

  14. Environmental Pollution,Fiscal Decentralization and China’s Economic Growth%环境污染、财政分权与中国经济增长

    贺俊; 刘亮亮; 唐述毅

    2016-01-01

    通过将环境污染强度和环境质量作为内生要素分别引入生产函数与效用函数,构建出带有环境污染约束的内生增长模型,探究了环境污染与经济增长之间的动态关系。基于2004—2012年中国31省的省际面板数据,考察了经济增长对环境污染的影响,研究发现:二氧化硫排放与实际人均 GDP 之间的关系正处于中国环境库兹涅茨曲线的上升阶段,离转折点尚有一段距离。在此基础上引进财政分权这一调节变量,研究发现:财政分权弱化了人均收入水平对环境污染的正向影响。%By taking environmental pollution intensity and environmental quality as endogenous factors,the production function and utility function were introduced respectively to build an endogenous growth model with environmental pollution constraints,and the dynamic relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth was explored.Then,based on China’s provincial panel data of 31 provinces from 2004 to 2012, the effect of economic growth on environment pollution was investigated,which suggested that the relationship between sulfur dioxide emissions and the actual GDP per capita is at a rising stage of Chinese environmental Kuznets curve,and there is still a distance from the turning point. On the basis of it,fiscal decentralization was introduced as a moderating variable, whose results indicated that fiscal decentralization weakens the positive effect of income level per capita on environmental pollution.

  15. Decentralized stochastic control

    Mahajan, Aditya; Mannan, Mehnaz

    2013-01-01

    Decentralized stochastic control refers to the multi-stage optimization of a dynamical system by multiple controllers that have access to different information. Decentralization of information gives rise to new conceptual challenges that require new solution approaches. In this expository paper, we use the notion of an \\emph{information-state} to explain the two commonly used solution approaches to decentralized control: the person-by-person approach and the common-information approach.

  16. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse and...... understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....

  17. Indonesia's Decentralization After Crisis

    Ma, Jun; Hofman, Bert

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, the Indonesian Parliament adopted two laws requiring that drastic decentralization measures be implemented in fiscal 2001 in a "big bang" fashion. Several lessons can be drawn from Indonesia's experience. 1) Ideally, decentralization should be managed so that the devolution of fiscal resources occurs in line with the devolution of spending. In reality, politics determines the devo...

  18. ADAPTING TO ENVIRONMENTAL AND URBANISATION STRESSORS: FARMER AND LOCAL ACTOR INNOVATION IN URBAN AND PERIURBAN AREAS IN CANADA

    Bryant, Christopher; Chahine, Ghalia; Delusca, Kénel; Daouda, Oumarou; Doyon, Mélanie; Singh, Bhawan; Brklacich, Michael; Thomassin, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Urban and periurban agricultural producers have faced many stressors – both negative ones and positive ones – particularly from the mid-20th century onwards. They have included urban development pressures, exurban development, the evolving markets for the products of these producers – food and other products, and environmental challenges stemming from farming's own technologies. More recently, these stressors have been compounded by climate change and variability. The importance of the decisi...

  19. 财政分权、环境管制与污染治理%Fiscal Decentralization, Environmental Regulation and Pollution Control

    李云雁

    2012-01-01

    Fiscal decentralization is the important institution impacting economic and social development in China, environmental regulation is the key factor promoting enterprise pollution control. In the financial decentralization system, the central government and the local government interests vary between the economic growth and environmental quality trade-offs. As environmental regulation implementation, local governments have motivation of sacrificing the quality of the environment to economic profit in economic incentives among governments. To encourage local governments to make better the implementation of environmental regulation, and prevent collusion between government and enterprises, the central government should establish the incentive and constraint mechanism of environmental regulation through paying the information rent and imposing fines on local government and enterprises.%财政分权是影响中国经济社会发展的重要制度改革,环境管制是推动企业污染治理的关键因素。在财政分权体制下,对于经济增长和环境质量的权衡取舍,中央政府和地方政府的利益诉求各有不同。地方政府作为环境管制的具体执行者,在政府间以经济激励为核心的竞争机制下,具有与企业“合谋”牺牲环境质量换取经济利益的动机。为激励地方政府更好地履行环境监管职责,约束政企合谋,中央政府可以通过向企业和地方政府支付信息租金和征收罚金,建立环境管制的激励约束机制。中国环境管制的实践具有加强中央集权模式的发展趋势,环境管制分权化的程度主要受企业减排成本差异、地区间发展水平和环境监测技术三方面因素的影响。现阶段,中国应转变以国内生产总值为核心的政府绩效考核评价体系,强化经济激励手段,提高政府补贴,积极开发环境在线监测技术,加大对环境违规的惩处力度,科学审核环境成本

  20. Amoebae as potential environmental hosts for Mycobacterium ulcerans and other mycobacteria, but doubtful actors in Buruli ulcer epidemiology.

    Sophie Gryseels

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, remain unknown. Ecological, genetic and epidemiological information nonetheless suggests that M. ulcerans may reside in aquatic protozoa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We experimentally infected Acanthamoeba polyphaga with M. ulcerans and found that the bacilli were phagocytised, not digested and remained viable for the duration of the experiment. Furthermore, we collected 13 water, 90 biofilm and 45 detritus samples in both Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in Ghana, from which we cultivated amoeboid protozoa and mycobacteria. M. ulcerans was not isolated, but other mycobacteria were as frequently isolated from intracellular as from extracellular sources, suggesting that they commonly infect amoebae in nature. We screened the samples as well as the amoeba cultures for the M. ulcerans markers IS2404, IS2606 and KR-B. IS2404 was detected in 2% of the environmental samples and in 4% of the amoeba cultures. The IS2404 positive amoeba cultures included up to 5 different protozoan species, and originated both from Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report of experimental infection of amoebae with M. ulcerans and of the detection of the marker IS2404 in amoeba cultures isolated from the environment. We conclude that amoeba are potential natural hosts for M. ulcerans, yet remain sceptical about their implication in the transmission of M. ulcerans to humans and their importance in the epidemiology of Buruli ulcer.

  1. Amoebae as Potential Environmental Hosts for Mycobacterium ulcerans and Other Mycobacteria, but Doubtful Actors in Buruli Ulcer Epidemiology

    Gryseels, Sophie; Amissah, Diana; Durnez, Lies; Vandelannoote, Koen; Leirs, Herwig; De Jonckheere, Johan; Portaels, Françoise; Ablordey, Anthony; Eddyani, Miriam

    2012-01-01

    Background The reservoir and mode of transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans, the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, remain unknown. Ecological, genetic and epidemiological information nonetheless suggests that M. ulcerans may reside in aquatic protozoa. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally infected Acanthamoeba polyphaga with M. ulcerans and found that the bacilli were phagocytised, not digested and remained viable for the duration of the experiment. Furthermore, we collected 13 water, 90 biofilm and 45 detritus samples in both Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities in Ghana, from which we cultivated amoeboid protozoa and mycobacteria. M. ulcerans was not isolated, but other mycobacteria were as frequently isolated from intracellular as from extracellular sources, suggesting that they commonly infect amoebae in nature. We screened the samples as well as the amoeba cultures for the M. ulcerans markers IS2404, IS2606 and KR-B. IS2404 was detected in 2% of the environmental samples and in 4% of the amoeba cultures. The IS2404 positive amoeba cultures included up to 5 different protozoan species, and originated both from Buruli ulcer endemic and non-endemic communities. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of experimental infection of amoebae with M. ulcerans and of the detection of the marker IS2404 in amoeba cultures isolated from the environment. We conclude that amoeba are potential natural hosts for M. ulcerans, yet remain sceptical about their implication in the transmission of M. ulcerans to humans and their importance in the epidemiology of Buruli ulcer. PMID:22880141

  2. Efficient decentralized consensus protocols

    Lakshman, T. V.; Agrawala, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Decentralized consensus protocols are characterized by successive rounds of message interchanges. Protocols which achieve a consensus in one round of message interchange require O(N-squared) messages, where N is the number of participants. In this paper, a communication scheme, based on finite projective planes, which requires only O(N sq rt N) messages for each round is presented. Using this communication scheme, decentralized consensus protocols which achieve a consensus within two rounds of message interchange are developed. The protocols are symmetric, and the communication scheme does not impose any hierarchical structure. The scheme is illustrated using blocking and nonblocking commit protocols, decentralized extrema finding, and computation of the sum function.

  3. MACROECONOMIC IMPACT OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA; Andrei Cristian STOICA

    2014-01-01

    The concept of decentralization has a variety of expressions, but the meaning generally accepted refers to the transfer of authority and responsibility of the public functions from central government to sub-national public entities or even to the private sector. Decentralization process is complex, affecting many aspects of social and economic life and public management, and its design and implementation cover several stages, depending on the cyclical and structural developments of the countr...

  4. Decentralized energy studies: bibliography

    Ohi, J.M.; Unseld, C.T.; Levine, A.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of literature on decentralized energy systems. It is arranged according to topical (e.g., lifestyle and values, institutions, and economics) and geographical scale to facilitate quick reference to specific areas of interest. Also included are articles by and about Amory B. Lovins who has played a pivotal role in making energy decentralization an important topic of national debate. Periodicals, other bibliographies, and directories are also listed.

  5. Indonesia; Managing Decentralization

    Ehtisham Ahmad; Ali M. Mansoor

    2002-01-01

    The process of decentralization in Indonesia was initiated after a long period of autocratic rule. Despite the political imperatives, there is a need to carefully sequence the fiscal decentralization to ensure that financing follows the assignment of functions. The functions should be commensurate with the capacity to provide public services. The paper argues for the proper sequencing to avoid jeopardizing macroeconomic stability or the effective delivery of public services.

  6. Decentralization and Natural Disasters

    Timothy J. Goodspeed

    2013-01-01

    This paper surveys recent research on decentralization and natural disasters. The first part discusses results from theoretical models that have been used to study the issues that arise when natural disasters occur in a country with more than one level of government. The next section discusses the empirical results that have been found in the literature. A third section briefly touches upon practical problems that arise when decentralized governments are confronted with a natural disaster. Th...

  7. Actor/Character Dualism

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  8. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process. (letter)

  9. Indirect decentralized repetitive control

    Lee, Soo Cheol; Longman, Richard W.

    1993-01-01

    Learning control refers to controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect decentralized learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper extends these results to apply to the indirect repetitive control problem in which a periodic (i.e., repetitive) command is given to a control system. Decentralized indirect repetitive control algorithms are presented that have guaranteed convergence to zero tracking error under very general conditions. The original motivation of the repetitive control and learning control fields was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the desired trajectory. Decentralized repetitive control is natural for this application because the feedback control for link rotations is normally implemented in a decentralized manner, treating each link as if it is independent of the other links.

  10. A clean and green ASEAN. The ASEAN as actor of multilateral environmental policy using the example of the international climate regime; A clean and green ASEAN. Die ASEAN als Akteur multiateraler Umweltpolitik am Beispiel des internationalen Klimaregimes

    Dobersalske, Katrin

    2014-07-01

    The book discusses the following issues. Fundamentals, international climate policy, institutional and procedural boundary conditions of ASEAN, compilation of the indicator list, climate policy of ASEAN. The chapter on the climate policy of ASEAN covers the following topics: the question of development of ASEAN, development of a regional environmental policy, the ASEAN as actor in the international climate policy, cooperation in case of trans-border haze pollution, energy cooperation.

  11. Decentralized Energy from Waste Systems

    Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change.

  12. Decentralized energy from waste systems

    In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change. (author)

  13. EMERGING DIMENSIONS OF DECENTRALIZATION DEBATE IN THE AGE OF GLOCALIZATION

    Sharma, Chanchal Kumar

    2008-01-01

    In 21st Century the development landscape worldwide is constantly being shaped and reshaped by the simultaneous processes of globalization and localization (collectively called Glocalization). In this scenario the subnational political units are emerging as the principle actors in the global economy. With this the location or site of governance is changing. Thus the need is to situate the debate on decentralization in context of glocalization. This chapter is an attempt to understand ‘why’ an...

  14. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  15. Decentralized stochastic control

    Speyer, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Decentralized stochastic control is characterized by being decentralized in that the information to one controller is not the same as information to another controller. The system including the information has a stochastic or uncertain component. This complicates the development of decision rules which one determines under the assumption that the system is deterministic. The system is dynamic which means the present decisions affect future system responses and the information in the system. This circumstance presents a complex problem where tools like dynamic programming are no longer applicable. These difficulties are discussed from an intuitive viewpoint. Particular assumptions are introduced which allow a limited theory which produces mechanizable affine decision rules.

  16. Decentralized control and communication

    Bakule, Lubomír; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-10. ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralization * communication * large-scale complex systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.289, year: 2012

  17. Indirect decentralized learning control

    Longman, Richard W.; Lee, Soo C.; Phan, M.

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this specific task. In a previous work, the authors presented a theory of indirect learning control based on use of indirect adaptive control concepts employing simultaneous identification and control. This paper develops improved indirect learning control algorithms, and studies the use of such controllers in decentralized systems. The original motivation of the learning control field was learning in robots doing repetitive tasks such as on an assembly line. This paper starts with decentralized discrete time systems, and progresses to the robot application, modeling the robot as a time varying linear system in the neighborhood of the nominal trajectory, and using the usual robot controllers that are decentralized, treating each link as if it is independent of any coupling with other links. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the indirect learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures convergence to zero tracking error of the decentralized indirect learning control of the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  18. Decentralized control: An overview

    Bakule, Lubomír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2008), s. 87-98. ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200750802; GA MŠk(CZ) LA 282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralized control * large-scale systems * decomposition Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2008

  19. Transformations of the Political Communication in Social Media Era – from Mediatization to Decentralization

    Tănase Tasente

    2014-01-01

    The political communication in media era performs on two dimensions: the horizontal dimension – between political actors and journalists – and on vertical dimension – the media product is decentralized to the consumer public. In Social Media Era, the horizontal dimension completely disappears and the communication is routed by the online opinion leaders in the social groups. Thus, in the new public space, the main communication actors are not journalists and politicians, but publi...

  20. MACROECONOMIC IMPACT OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of decentralization has a variety of expressions, but the meaning generally accepted refers to the transfer of authority and responsibility of the public functions from central government to sub-national public entities or even to the private sector. Decentralization process is complex, affecting many aspects of social and economic life and public management, and its design and implementation cover several stages, depending on the cyclical and structural developments of the country. From an economic perspective, decentralization is seen as a means of primary importance in terms of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of public services and macroeconomic stability due to the redistribution of public finances while in a much closer logic of the government policy objectives. But the decentralization process behaves as well some risks, because it involves the implementation of appropriate mechanisms for the establishment of income and expenditure programming at the subnational level, which, if is not correlated with macroeconomic policy imperatives can lead to major imbalances, both financially as in termes of economic and social life. Equally, ensuring the balance of the budget at the local level is imperative to fulfill, this goal imposing a legal framework and specific procedures to size transfers of public funds, targeted or untargeted. Also, public and local authorities have to adopt appropriate laws and regulations such that sub-national public entities can access loans - such as bank loans or debentures from domestic or external market - in terms of a strict monitoring national financial stability. In all aspects of decentralization - political, administrative, financial -, public authorities should develop and implement the most effective mechanisms to coordinate macroeconomic objectives and both sectoral and local interests and establish clear responsibilities - exclusive or shared - for all parties involved in the

  1. Development Sociology. Actor Perspectives

    Long, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, Development Sociology focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and social constructionist form of analysis. This style of analysis is opposed to the traditional structuralist/institutional

  2. Economic and environmental benefits analysis of decentralized heating using biomass gasification gas in rural area%农村生物质气化燃气分散供暖经济和环境效益分析

    周卫红; 陈冠益; 马隆龙; 颜蓓蓓; 夏宗鹏

    2014-01-01

    为了充分利用农业废弃物资源,改善北方农村冬季供暖条件,该文对生物质气化燃气分散式供暖技术进行了经济和环境效益分析,探讨其在农村供暖中的可行性。生物质气化分散式供暖具有节约能源、减少大气污染、温度调节方便等优点。通过借鉴天然气分散式供暖的研究成果和对生物质气分散式供暖进行分析,结果表明采取分段式控温、分房间控温和建筑物节能改造等手段可将供暖费用降到合理水平,基本与城市供暖费用相同。通过该文分析可知生物质气化燃气分散式供暖可以作为农村供暖的一种新模式。%The economic and environmental benefits of decentralized heating technology produced by burning gas through the biomass gasification method were analyzed in this paper. The whole decentralized heating system can be divided into three sections. In the first section, the biomass is converted into the biomass gasification gas (i.e., combustible gas). In the second, pipelines are adopted through which the biomass gasification gas is transported to the user’s home. Indoor heating pipes consist of the third section, which connect the transporting pipelines with a gas-heating stove located at the user’s home. The economic estimation shows that the heating cost is 37.59 yuan per square meter in rural areas during a heating period with this kind of decentralized heating system, which is higher than the heating cost in cities. But the decentralized heating method has many other advantages, such as saving energy, easy charging, easy adjusting of the temperature, reducing gas costs, and simultaneous hot water supply. The decentralized heating cost is charged by gas consumption. Thus, household heat meters should be installed for measuring the gas consumption;and accordingly, the charge calculation can be obtained for heating enterprises. Users can easily adjust the indoor temperature in different periods

  3. Linear decentralized learning control

    Lee, Soo C.; Longman, Richard W.; Phan, Minh

    1992-01-01

    The new field of learning control develops controllers that learn to improve their performance at executing a given task, based on experience performing this task. The simplest forms of learning control are based on the same concept as integral control, but operating in the domain of the repetitions of the task. This paper studies the use of such controllers in a decentralized system, such as a robot with the controller for each link acting independently. The basic result of the paper is to show that stability of the learning controllers for all subsystems when the coupling between subsystems is turned off, assures stability of the decentralized learning in the coupled system, provided that the sample time in the digital learning controller is sufficiently short.

  4. Decentralized Portfolio Management

    Benjamin Miranda Tabak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a mean-variance model to analyze the problem of decentralized portfolio management. We find the solution for the optimal portfolio allocation for a head trader operating in n different markets, which is called the optimal centralized portfolio. However, as there are many traders specialized in different markets, the solution to the problem of optimal decentralized allocation should be different from the centralized case. In this paper we derive conditions for the solutions to be equivalent. We use multivariate normal returns and a negative exponential function to solve the problem analytically. We generate the equivalence of solutions by assuming that different traders face different interest rates for borrowing and lending. This interest rate is dependent on the ratio of the degrees of risk aversion of the trader and the head trader, on the excess return, and on the correlation between asset returns.

  5. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the sta...

  6. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  7. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  8. The rising influence of urban actors

    Nijman, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    It is time to recognize cities as global actors. City networks are reaching across the globe and local city governments are collaborating on crucial environmental issues. Coordinating policy at a local level, they are increasingly taking the lead in tackling global problems such as climate change.

  9. Building social infrastructure for decentralized NRM

    Keith M. Moore; Cissé, Salmana; Touré, A.

    2006-01-01

    Metadata only record In this round table, we describe the process, successes and failures associated with developing a new platform (community-based natural resource management committee) for an ethnically diverse population (involving CSO, NGO, and government stakeholders) in the context of West African decentralization and supportive of local NRM decision making and practice consistent with environmental and socio-cultural conditions. The objective of the effort was focused on raising aw...

  10. Decentralized control of complex systems

    Siljak, Dragoslav D

    2011-01-01

    Complex systems require fast control action in response to local input, and perturbations dictate the use of decentralized information and control structures. This much-cited reference book explores the approaches to synthesizing control laws under decentralized information structure constraints.Starting with a graph-theoretic framework for structural modeling of complex systems, the text presents results related to robust stabilization via decentralized state feedback. Subsequent chapters explore optimization, output feedback, the manipulative power of graphs, overlapping decompositions and t

  11. Fiscal Decentralization and Economic Development

    1993-01-01

    Discusses fiscal decentralization and economic development in developed and developing countries. Explores historical trends in fiscal centralization and puts them in context of the developing countries.

  12. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    -network-theory (ANT) into surveillance studies (Ball 2002, Adey 2004, Gad & Lauritsen 2009). In this paper, I further explore the potential of this connection by experimenting with Marilyn Strathern’s concept of the fractal (1991), which has been discussed in newer ANT literature (Law 2002; Law 2004; Jensen 2007). I...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  13. Decentralized Distributed Bayesian Estimation

    Dedecius, Kamil; Sečkárová, Vladimíra

    Praha: ÚTIA AVČR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Janžura, M.; Ivánek, J.). s. 16-16 [7th International Workshop on Data–Algorithms–Decision Making. 27.11.2011-29.11.2011, Mariánská] R&D Projects: GA ČR 102/08/0567; GA ČR GA102/08/0567 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : estimation * distributed estimation * model Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/AS/dedecius-decentralized distributed bayesian estimation.pdf

  14. Decentralized adaptive control

    Oh, B. J.; Jamshidi, M.; Seraji, H.

    1988-01-01

    A decentralized adaptive control is proposed to stabilize and track the nonlinear, interconnected subsystems with unknown parameters. The adaptation of the controller gain is derived by using model reference adaptive control theory based on Lyapunov's direct method. The adaptive gains consist of sigma, proportional, and integral combination of the measured and reference values of the corresponding subsystem. The proposed control is applied to the joint control of a two-link robot manipulator, and the performance in computer simulation corresponds with what is expected in theoretical development.

  15. On Decentralization and Life Satisfaction

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2008-01-01

    We empirically analyze the impact of fiscal and political decentralization on subjective well-being in a cross-section of 60,000 individuals from 66 countries. More spending or revenue decentralization raises well-being while greater local autonomy is beneficial only via government consumption...

  16. Decentralization of place brand communication

    Дубейковский, В. А.; Dubeykovskiy, V.

    2013-01-01

    Each place has a huge number of stakeholders. This article will make an introduction to the topic of decentralization of place brand communication and provide relevant examples of country, city and district branding. By decentralization the author means the process of uncontrollable place brand communication by various stakeholders.

  17. Decentralized control with input saturation

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    2004-01-01

    In decentralized control it is known that the system can be stabilized only if the so-called fixed modes are all stable. If we have input constraints then (semi-)global stability requires all poles to be in the closed left half plane. This paper establishes that these two requirements are necessary and sufficient for stabilizability of a decentralized system with input saturation.

  18. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  19. Coalition or decentralization

    Mahdiraji, Hannan Amoozad; Govindan, Kannan; Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras;

    2014-01-01

    Supply chains have become the major and dominant paradigm of business and competition. The main challenge is how to act in multi-echelon supply chains considering the levels involved. Making a choice independently or integrating with some or all levels will be a critical decision, and therefore...... affects the overall profit of the chain. This article proposes a non-cooperative game theory approach to helping in making a better decision in the supply chain and gaining the most accessible benefit. Our research considers unlimited three-echelon supply chains with S suppliers, M manufacturers and K...... retailers. The Nash equilibrium and definition are used bearing in mind inventory and pricing and marketing cost as decision variables for this matter. This paper studies a three-echelon supply chain network and focuses on the value of integrating a pair of partners in the chain. In the decentralized case...

  20. Actors: From Audience to Provider

    Charlier, Bernadette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes actors' experiences of distance learning systems in a wide variety of cultural and organizational contexts. In line with the project of this special series of issues, results of research, much of which is longitudinal, allow us to suggest answers to the following questions: Who are the actors of distance…

  1. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie

    2013-01-01

    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  2. The Infrastructure Gap and Decentralization

    Luis Andres; Dan Biller; Jordan Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an economic logic for underpinning decentralization in the infrastructure sectors. It starts by detailing the definition of the infrastructure gap and the methodologies to calculate it. It provides some global trends for developing countries in terms of the gap and briefly discusses financing possibilities for developing countries to address the gap. Then it turns to the discussion of the link between the infrastructure gap and decentralization, providing a typology infras...

  3. Fiscal decentralization and fiscal discipline

    Çakır, Nida

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, the effects of fiscal procedures, fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization, on fiscal discipline are analyzed in a theoretical framework. A model of two optimization problems is established: central government’s optimization problem and local government’s optimization problem representing the two fiscal procedures; fiscal centralization and fiscal decentralization respectively. Comparative static analysis is per...

  4. The moral problem of worse actors

    Scott Wisor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil company might know their assets will be bought by a company with worse environmental and labor practices. Or the engineer might know her position will be filled by a more ambitious and amoral engineer. I call this the moral problem of worse actors (MPWA. MPWA gives reason, at least some of the time, to consider otherwise morally impermissible actions permissible or even obligatory. On my account, doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA remains morally objectionable even if permissible or obligatory, and this brings additional moral responsibilities and obligations to the actor. Similarly, not doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA may also bring additional (but different moral responsibilities and obligations. Acknowledging MPWA creates considerable challenges, as many bad actors may appeal to it to justify morally objectionable action. In this paper, I develop a set of strategies for individuals and institutions to handle MPWA. This includes appeals to integrity and the proper attribution of expressive responsibility, regulatory responsibility, and compensatory responsibility. I also address a set of related concerns, including worries about incentivizing would-be bad actors, concerns about epistemic uncertainty, and the problem of mala in se exceptions.

  5. Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France

    In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)

  6. An actor manages: Actor training and managerial ideology

    Chow, BDV

    2014-01-01

    This article reads the development of psychologically based actor training against larger changes in the organisation of work in North America and Europe in the twentieth century. Konstantin Stanislavky's System and later adaptations including the American Method are wrapped into a larger ideology of individual self-management and discipline – mental, physical, and emotional – that accompanies the emergent managerial class of the post-war era. An actor is an ideal manager, and therefore prefi...

  7. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive...

  8. Hacia un entrenamiento del actor

    Urieta Lago, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    Esta investigación está basada en la intención de crear una guía de entrenamiento para el actor, que busca asumir un compromiso con su cuerpo, como instrumento para la creación escénica. El trabajo del actor-actriz está irremediablemente vinculado a su cuerpo, todo lo humano se enmarca en un cuerpo vivido, en el espacio y en el tiempo, no es algo neutral. Sabemos que cada actor-actriz, tiene una noción de su esquema corporal, entendiendo por esquema corporal la representación en imágenes de l...

  9. Decentration of a spectacle lens

    Bartkowska, Janina

    1998-10-01

    The correct placing of the lenses plays an important role in the ophthalmological practice. Centering errors cause disadvantageous prismatic effects and worsen image quality. The optical axes of the spectacles should pass by rotation centers of the eyes. An often met error consists in a faulty center distance, in a wrong positioning of the lenses axis or their placing too high, too low, or in the inclining without lowering. The errors reach some millimeters and some degrees of arc. In technical optics acceptable errors are fractions or hundredths of millimeters and minutes or seconds of arc. Therefore only first powers of decentration are taken into account. In the spectacle optics one cannot omit the second powers of decentration vector. An astigmatism proportional to the square of decentration arises in the center of the field. The off axis aberrations are a quadratic function of the decentration with linear term. The aberrations are calculated by admitting a virtual diaphragm in the point of intersection of the lens axis with the eye's view axis. This method can be applied also to the lenses with aspheric surface and to astigmatic lenses, if the decentration vector lies in one of the principal sections of toroidal surface.

  10. Understanding decentralized forest governance: an application of the institutional analysis and development framework

    Krister Andersson

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes how local institutional arrangements shape outcomes in the increasingly decentralized policy regimes of the non-industrialized world. The goal is to evaluate local institutional strategies associated with effective forest governance. I use the Institutional Analysis and Development (IAD framework to study the institutional conditions conducive to effective decentralized forest governance and how these relate to sustainability. The IAD-guided analysis allows me to formulate a series of testable hypotheses about which institutional factors influence the likelihood for successful governance outcomes in a decentralized context. I then test the hypotheses using recent empirical data from forestry-sector activities in 32 randomly selected municipal governments in Bolivia. Preliminary results suggest that local governance systems are more successful when the system’s governance actors enjoy favorable conditions for information exchange and learning.

  11. Comment on ‘Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system’

    In the article ‘Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system’ published in Environmental Research Letters (2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 024007), Shehabi et al compared a decentralized and a centralized system on the basis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants, and claimed that economies of scale lower the environmental impacts from a centralized system on a per-volume basis. In this comment, we present literature and data from New York State, USA to argue that the authors’ comparison between a small decentralized system (0.015 MGD) and a large centralized system (66.5 MGD) is unconventional and inappropriate. (comment)

  12. Financial Decentralization Reflected in the Revenues and Expenses of Local Budgets in Romania

    Gheorghe MATEI; Olivia MANOLE

    2014-01-01

    Decentralization process, due to its inter-sectoral feature, is a very difficult process and requires constant coordination between the actors involved, as well as the undertaking by them, including by the recipients (local public administration authorities), of the measures agreed on. Thus,for this process to be successfully implemented, the transfer of administrative responsibilities must be correlated with that of the financial resources.

  13. Financial Decentralization Reflected in the Revenues and Expenses of Local Budgets in Romania

    Gheorghe MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization process, due to its inter-sectoral feature, is a very difficult process and requires constant coordination between the actors involved, as well as the undertaking by them, including by the recipients (local public administration authorities, of the measures agreed on. Thus,for this process to be successfully implemented, the transfer of administrative responsibilities must be correlated with that of the financial resources.

  14. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  15. Decentralization and Environment: An Application to Water Policies

    Garcia-Valiñas, Maria Angeles

    2005-01-01

    By means of a two-jurisdictional model, this paper analyses the optimal division of environmental policymaking functions among the different government levels, identifying the most appropriate level of decentralization in each case. The paper focuses on water resources policies, with an application to Spanish regions during the 1996-2001 period. The estimation of an environmental quality-consumption transformation function allows the implementation of a simulation to find the most efficient p...

  16. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  17. Decentralized control: Status and outlook

    Bakule, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2014), s. 71-80. ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : decentralized control * networked control systems * event-triggered approach Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.518, year: 2014

  18. Decentralized Supervisory Control with Coalgebra

    Komenda, Jan; van Schuppen, J. H.

    Cambridge : European Union Control Association, 2003, 1-8. [European Control Conference. Cambridge (GB), 01.09.2003-04.09.2003] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : coalgebra * decentralized control * discrete-event systems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  19. FYR Macedonia : Decentralization Status Report

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    To institutionalize the decentralization elements of the peace settlement in Macedonia, the Framework Agreement calls for specific changes in the Constitution, and three specific items of legislation: a new law on local governments specifying the functions they are to assume, a local finance law specifying how these functions are to be financed, and, a law revising the boundaries of local ...

  20. Actors in land and building cadastre procedures

    Rakovec, Jana

    2012-01-01

    In this graduation thesis I discuss the role of actors in land and building cadastre procedures. Individual surveying services are presented, as well as the role of actors in these individual surveying services. Individual actors are described in great detail, namely with referring to rules and regulations on the basis of which the actors are entering the land and building cadastre procedures. Further on, I offer a description of various manners on how to gain information on actors and also t...

  1. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    Kamali, Maryam; Petre, Luigia; Sere, Kaisa; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.4

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between...

  2. The Path From Passivity Toward Entrepreneurship: Public Sector Actors in Brownfield Regeneration Processes in Central Eastern Europe

    Alexandrescu, F.; Martinat, S.; Klusa ek, P.; Bartke, S.

    2014-01-01

    Europeanization research dealing with the environmental transition in Eastern Europe has focused on the roles of state actors in adopting European regulations. Less well understood are the framings and roles of public administration actors when European Union regulations do not prescribe specific institutional changes. This article offers a micro perspective on the framings and roles of such actors in several cases of brownfield regeneration. Actors can play a proactive role, thereby fosterin...

  3. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative...... data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive functions. Games are designed to take advantage of the characteristics of the human players......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  4. Multi-vehicle decentralized fusion and tracking

    El-Fallah, A.; Zatezalo, A.; Mahler, R.; Mehra, R. K.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a decentralized fusion and tracking based on a distributed multi-source multitarget filtering and robust communication with the following features: (i) data reduction; (ii) a disruption tolerant dissemination procedure that takes advantage of storage and mobility; and (iii) efficient data set reconciliation algorithms. We developed and implemented complex high-fidelity marine application demonstration of this approach that encompasses all relevant environmental parameters. In the simulated example, multi-source information is fused by exploiting sensors from disparate Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUV) and Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) multi-sensor platforms. Communications among the platforms are continuously establishing and breaking depending on the time-changing geometry. We compare and evaluate the developed algorithms by assessing their performance against different scenarios.

  5. An Empirical Analysis on the Impact of Fiscal Decentralization on Environmental Pollution in China%财政分权对中国环境污染影响程度的实证分析

    薛钢; 潘孝珍

    2012-01-01

    财政分权体现了中央政府和地方政府间的财政权力分配关系,它可以通过支出分权度和收入分权度两个指标进行衡量.从理论上分析,大多数研究结论都认为财政分权与污染量排放存在负激励,但是缺乏相应的实证研究.本文利用1998年到2009年的省级面板数据,对中国财政分权与污染物排放规模之间的关系进行了实证分析.本文选取工业废气排放量、工业固体废弃物排放量、工业废水排放量和二氧化硫排放量作为衡量污染物排放规模的指标,选择支出分权度与收入分权度作为解释变量,选择人均GDP、人口密度、城市化水平、外商投资总额、工业化水平作为控制变量.本文还将所有省份按照地理位置划分为东部和中西部两组进行稳健性检验.研究结果表明:以支出分权度衡量的财政分权指标与污染物排放规模负相关,且实证结果具有稳健性,以收入分权度衡量的财政分权指标与污染物排放规模的关系从实证的角度来讲不确定.%Fiscal decentralization reflects the distribution financial power between the central government and local government. It can be measured through the two indicators which are expenditure decentralization and revenue decentralization. From the theoretical analysis, most studies have concluded that there is a negative incentive between the fiscal decentralization and the amount of pollutant discharge, but lacks the empirical research. Utilizing the provincial panel data from 1998 to 2009, this paper carried on the empirical analysis about the relationship between China' s fiscal decentralization and the scale of pollutant discharge. The industrial waste gas discharge amount, industrial solid wastes discharge amount, industrial waste water discharge amount and sulfur dioxide discharge amount were selected as the indicators to measure the scale of pollutant discharge in the paper. The paper selected the expenditure

  6. DESAR - decentralized sanitation and reuse. 30. Sewage seminar; 13. DECHEMA expert discussion on environmental protection; DESAR - Kleine Klaeranlagen und Wasserwiederverwendung. 30. Abwassertechnisches Seminar; 13. DECHEMA-Fachgespraech Umweltschutz

    Wilderer, P.A.; Paris, S.; Wiesner, J. (eds.)

    2001-07-01

    Historically, domestic wastewaters are collected in large sewerage networks, transporting the waste from the site of production to the site of treatment (if implemented). For such systems, large civil and infra-structural investments (like electricity supply) are required, generally paid by the authorities from the tax income. In addition, in order to prevent clogging, a substantial amount of clean, and often potable, water is required which subsequently results in a dilution of the concentrated waste. The treatment systems, which need to be, developed to treat the huge flows of diluted wastewater, are extremely expensive and consume large amounts of energy. Moreover, the installed sewerage often suffers from lack of maintenance leading to huge losses of wastewater (particularly in the less prosperous countries). From the environmental engineering point of view, the generally applied centralised sanitation concept can be questioned. Concentrated wastes are relatively easy to manage while diluted wastes require large investments for purification. Obviously, many places are already served with sewer systems and a certain extent of sewerage will always be needed. Nonetheless, the extent to which this will be brought to practice needs reconsideration. This applies for a more decentralised approach. Also when decentralised sanitation and reuse (DESAR) is applied, different approaches are possible. It should become clear that the choice for the collection and transport system would determine for an important part the subsequent treatment and reuse. At the other hand the type of use, will determine the extent of treatment. The types of reuse will for important parts determine the extent of post treatment needed especially the removal of pathogens. (orig.)

  7. Problems in decentralized data acquisition

    This paper describes INIS (International Nuclear Information System) which is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with 73 Member States and 14 international organizations. INIS is a computerized system for collecting, processing and disseminating nuclear information. The collection and scanning of literature, input preparation and the dissemination of output are completely decentralized, the checking and merging of the information data are centralized. This paper shows the structure, management, processing and problem areas of this system. (Author)

  8. Fiscal Decentralization, Redistribution and Growth

    Neyapti, Bilin; Bulut-Cevik, Zeynep Burcu

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the welfare implications of a transfer mechanism in a fiscally decentralized economy where local governments select their tax collection effort to maximize their lifetime utility. We consider a transfer rule that both punishes for the lack of efficiency in tax-collection and compensates for the deviation of pre-tax or transfer income from a target level; in addition, a portion of transfers is considered to be directed towards investment. Simulations of the model's optimal ...

  9. Decentralization and REDD+ in Brazil

    Fabiano Toni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent discussions on REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks have raised optimism about reducing carbon emissions and deforestation in tropical countries. If approved under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, REDD+ mechanisms may generate a substantial influx of financial resources to developing countries. Some authors argue that this money could reverse the ongoing process of decentralization of forest policies that has spread through a large number of developing countries in the past two decades. Central states will be accountable for REDD+ money, and may be compelled to control and keep a significant share of REDD+ funds. Supporters of decentralization argue that centralized implementation of REDD+ will be ineffective and inefficient. In this paper, I examine the relation between subnational governments and REDD+ in Brazil. Data show that some state governments in the Brazilian Amazon have played a key role in creating protected areas (PAs after 2003, which helped decrease deforestation rates. Governors have different stimuli for creating PAs. Some respond to the needs of their political constituency; others have expectations to boost the forest sector so as to increase fiscal revenues. Governors also have led the discussion on REDD+ in Brazil since 2008. Considering their interests and political power, REDD+ is unlikely to curb decentralization in Brazil.

  10. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-01-01

    The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1) the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2) decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when deci...

  11. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  12. Decentralized Provision of Public Infrastructure and Corruption

    Anwar Shah

    2014-01-01

    During the past three decades, a large number of countries have introduced reforms to decentralize public decision making. Such reforms have proved controversial. Critics of these reforms argue that decentralized provision of infrastructure enhances vulnerability to corruption. Proponents of these reforms counter that corruption arises from lack of people empowerment and decentralization by bringing decision making closer to people shines sunlight on government operations and empowers people ...

  13. Decentralized Service Orchestration by Continuous Message Passing

    R. Jayaprakash; M Shanmugam; Manikandan, P.; S. SHIVARAJ

    2010-01-01

    Decentralized service stands for distributing segments of workflow among various workflow engines, and workflow has set of activities responsible for invoking Web Services. Decentralized Orchestration holds an upper hand over Centralized Orchestration in producing optimal solutions in terms of scalability and network traffic by overcoming inefficient routing of messages. Although decentralized orchestration being more optimal in scalability it lacks in very significant part of web services an...

  14. Voting, Lobbying, and the Decentralization Theorem

    Lockwood, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    This paper revisits the fiscal "decentralization theorem", by relaxing the role of the assumption that governments are benevolent, while retaining the assumption of policy uniformity. If instead, decisions are made by direct majority voting, (i) centralization can welfare-dominate decentralization even if there are no externalities and regions are heterogenous; (ii) decentralization can welfare-dominate centralization even if there are positive externalities and regions are hom...

  15. Enforcing Privacy in Decentralized Mobile Social Networks

    Nguyen, Hiep H.; Imine, Abdessamad; Rusinowitch, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This position paper first summarizes work done by the first author on location privacy and differential privacy. These techniques will help to solve privacy problems in decentralized mobile social networks, which is the main theme of his PhD research. The paper then briefly reviews the state-of-the-art in privacy-preservation of social graphs and clarifies the lack of attention to graph sharing in decentralized setting. Finally, some initial ideas on how to realize such soft decentralized acc...

  16. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    Dahl, Christian M.; Le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob Roland

    This paper studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use a detailed panel data set covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides exogenous variation in the...... individual worker's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. Consistent with predictions we find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems. However, the differences across wage-setting systems are...

  17. Privileged Emotion Managers: The Case of Actors

    Orzechowicz, David

    2008-01-01

    Theatre provides a unique set of conditions for the management of emotions. Drawing on participant observation from one repertory theater, three university productions, and interviews with stage actors, directors, and acting instructors, I conceptualize actors as privileged emotion managers. Actors access structural resources that enable their…

  18. Decentralized rural electrification: state of the art and technical and economic perspectives

    This paper reviews the approach currently underlying decentralized rural electrification. This is based on analysing requirements, arranging them by priority, choosing appropriate solutions combining the criteria of energy efficiency with the use of local, renewable energy resources. The main decentralized rural electrification techniques in use are described briefly, along with the corresponding energy services each of them can cover. The current costs of the systems, projects, and services are discussed along with the short - and medium - term technical and economic changes in decentralized electrical production and consumption, with a view toward expanding to Larger-scale dissemination. The development of decentralized rural electrification by renewable energies has a potential impact in terms of environmental benefits and coasts cuts, and a few pointer are given as to how these costs and benefits can be better defined in the future. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  19. The Grenelle de l'Environnement - actors, discourses, effects

    This document proposes an abstract of a collective publication which aimed at assessing the effects of the French environmental policy 'Grenelle de l'Environnement', its methodological originality and its consequences in terms of environmental public policies. The authors propose a sociological analysis of the about thousand five hundred involved actors, a thorough analysis of discourses, and an inventory of effects in three specific fields

  20. The role of various actors in achieving the administrative decentralization process......

    Tatiana CASTRAŞAN

    2016-01-01

    Under the current conditions, when all attention is paid to primary tasks of rule of law, cultural and economic development, strengthening of rule of law in society, role of public administration prevail as the main task of the state. The public administrations system it is inseparably linked to the implementation of state policy through the activities they perform. In particular, it emphasizes the role of local authorities as a basic factor of the localities development and ac...

  1. 财政分权、政治晋升与环境冲突--基于省级空间面板数据的实证检验%Fiscal Decentralization,Political Promotion and Environmental Conflict---An Empirical Analysis Based on Spatial Panel Data

    田艳芳

    2015-01-01

    本文从财政分权、政治晋升的角度分析了地方政府治理结构存在诱发环境冲突的机制,并使用1998—2011年省级面板数据构建空间计量模型检验财政分权、政治晋升与环境冲突的关系。研究发现,财政分权是环境冲突产生的重要制度性原因;政治晋升对环境冲突的影响是双面的;相较市场失灵,环境冲突更多反映的是政府失灵。在上述基础上,本文提出了相关对策与建议。%Environmental pollution is a cause of environmental conflict,but the government's lack of envi-ronmental services and the dereliction of duty of social management is the main cause.Using provincial panel data from 1998 to 2011 to build the spatial econometric model,this paper test the relationship between fiscal decentralization,political advancement and environmental conflicts.The research shows that fiscal decentrali-zation is an important institutional reason of causing the environment conflict.Fiscal decentralization gives the local government great autonomy in fiscal revenue and expenditure.Tax reform since 1994 increased the spending pressure of local government,which makes the local government emphasize growth while neglecting the public service.Political promotion impacts the environment conflict in two directions,on the one hand, the local government competes neglects the environmental services and social management which can induce environment conflict,while stability assessment has certain inhibitory effect on the environment conflict.The study also finds that the relationship between environmental conflicts and per capita income is inverted u -shaped.Compared with market failure,the environmental conflicts more reflect the government failure.The research has important influence on the governance structure of local government.Further financial reform should be based on the governance responsibilities,and political assessment should fully consider factors of public service

  2. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature of the ...... actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  3. Wage dispersion and decentralization of wage bargaining

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Le Maire, D.; Munch, Jacob R.

    2013-01-01

    's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. We find a wage premium associated with firm-level bargaining relative to sector-level bargaining and that the return to skills is higher under the more decentralized wage-setting systems. Using quantile regression...

  4. Visualizing the Collective Learner through Decentralized Networks

    Castro, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Understandings of decentralized networks are increasingly used to describe a way to structure curriculum and pedagogy. It is often understood as a structural model to organize pedagogical and curricular relationships in which there is no center. While this is important it also bears introducing into the discourse that decentralized networks are…

  5. tradicional: Conflictos y actores laborales

    Héctor Lucena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una línea de investigación más general que se ocupa de analizar las transformaciones en las Relaciones de Trabajo. El presente documento centra su atención en los cambios que experimenta la Organización del Trabajo y como ellos repercuten en la conflictividad laboral. Se parte de reconocer que la relación capital-trabajo es de naturaleza conflictiva, pero que los mecanismos de convivencia entre las partes y todo el marco regulatorio, permiten y facilitan el desenvolvimiento y la convivencia productiva. Sin embargo, los cambios en la Organización del Trabajo que reducen la fuerza de trabajo y lesionan conquistas históricas de los trabajadores, estimulan el desarrollo de conflictos colectivos, los que materializan en tanto existan constituidos los actores laborales. En el proceso de investigación seguido en esta línea, se revisa la literatura pertinente, se analizan casos de la realidad laboral venezolana reciente vía hemeroteca y entrevistas, privilegiándose la huelga de Sidor en el 2004. Se concluye, destacando que los cambios que paulatinamente se emprenden desde la empresa para modificar la Organización del Trabajo, erosionan la capacidad de respuesta de los actores laborales representativos de los trabajadores.

  6. Decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources as a chance for local economic development. A qualitative study of two pioneer regions in Germany

    Klagge, Britta; Brocke, Tobias [Osnabrueck Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geography

    2012-12-15

    Empirical research on the local economic effects associated with decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources has only just started. So far, most studies focus on quantifying economic effects and neglect the conditions and constellations which support and enable local economic development based on decentralized electricity generation. This, however, is the focus of this paper which looks at these issues, employing the value chain concept in combination with a governance perspective. Empirically, we take a qualitative approach and analyze two case studies of pioneer regions, in which decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources has developed very dynamically. The case study regions are Soltau, with a special focus on biogas production, and Emden, where wind energy plays a special role. Based on the early activities of some pioneers, these regions have developed specific actor constellations and organizational structures and have entered development paths in which renewable energies became an important economic factor. The analysis highlights the importance of institutional context and supportive governance structures for an early advancement of decentralized electricity generation from renewable sources, with a key role of local actors and governance constellations. It also points to the importance of cooperative relationships among local business actors for creating a competitive advantage for (some) regional firms. Our analysis shows that with the geographical proliferation of electricity generation from renewable sources, specialized firms tend to reach beyond their regions, thus offering first-mover advantages for firms in pioneer regions in comparison with latecomers.

  7. Fully Abstract Game Semantics for Actors

    Wang, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Along the way paved by the recent concurrent game semantics for process algebra CCS and $\\pi$-calculus, based on the basic characteristics of the actor computational model and the very reductive semantics for actors, we establish a fully abstract concurrent game semantics for actors by borrowing the algebraic structure from CCS. This semantics can both be seen as an innocent presheaf semantics, and a concurrent game semantics.

  8. Centralized versus Decentralized Infrastructure Networks

    Hines, Paul D H; Schläpfer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    While many large infrastructure networks, such as power, water, and natural gas systems, have similar physical properties governing flows, these systems tend to have distinctly different sizes and topological structures. This paper seeks to understand how these different size-scales and topological features can emerge from relatively simple design principles. Specifically, we seek to describe the conditions under which it is optimal to build decentralized network infrastructures, such as a microgrid, rather than centralized ones, such as a large high-voltage power system. While our method is simple it is useful in explaining why sometimes, but not always, it is economical to build large, interconnected networks and in other cases it is preferable to use smaller, distributed systems. The results indicate that there is not a single set of infrastructure cost conditions under which optimally-designed networks will have highly centralized architectures. Instead, as costs increase we find that average network size...

  9. Wind Farm Decentralized Dynamic Modeling With Parameters

    Soltani, Mohsen; Shakeri, Sayyed Mojtaba; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran;

    2010-01-01

    Development of dynamic wind flow models for wind farms is part of the research in European research FP7 project AEOLUS. The objective of this report is to provide decentralized dynamic wind flow models with parameters. The report presents a structure for decentralized flow models with inputs from a...... available local models. The results of this report are especially useful, but not limited, to design a decentralized wind farm controller, since in centralized controller design one can also use the model and update it in a central computing node....

  10. Transfer Pricing in the Decentralized Multinational Corporation

    Dawson, Peter C.; Miller, Stephen M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper considers how the multinational corporation's transfer price responds to changes in international corporate effective tax rates. It extends the decentralized decision-making analysis of transfer pricing in the context of different tax rates. It adopts and extends Bond's (1980) model of the decentralized multinational corporation that assumes centralized transfer pricing. The direction of transfer price change is as expected, while the magnitude of change is likely to be less than p...

  11. Enabling technologies for decentralized interpersonal communication

    Hautakorpi, Jani

    2010-01-01

    In the recent years the Internet users have witnessed the emergence of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) technologies and applications. One class of P2P applications is comprised of applications that are targeted for interpersonal communication. The communication applications that utilize P2P technologies are referred to as decentralized interpersonal communication applications. Such applications are decentralized in a sense that they do not require assistance from centralized servers for setting up multime...

  12. Decentralization and Regional Inflation in Indonesia

    Tirtosuharto, Darius; Adiwilaga, Handri

    2013-01-01

    The link between decentralization and inflation as one of the key aspects of macroeconomic stability has been surveyed by a number of studies and the findings are generally inconclusive. Using sample data of developing and developed countries, the study found that decentralization correlates with lower inflation in developed countries and vice versa, it correlates with higher inflation in developing countries. The key question is what factors play a role in controlling inflation in a decentra...

  13. Can Indonesia Decentralize? Plans, Problems, and Prospects

    James Alm; Aten, Robert H.; Roy Bahl

    2000-01-01

    Indonesia is engaged in an unprecedented major social and economic experiment in which much authority and responsibility for its governmental expenditures are being decentralized from the national government, largely to the local government level rather than the provincial government level. From being the most centralized large country in the world, Indonesia is likely to become one of the most decentralized if this process is successful. This paper addresses the major issues that are arising...

  14. Institutional Model of Decentralization in Action

    Azis, Iwan J.

    2011-01-01

    Applying the Institutional Model of Decentralization, the paper argues that the presumption that local democracy will impose accountability pressure on elected officials does not always hold. Even in a democratic system like in Indonesia, decentralization policy is welfare-enhancing only for the developed regions, not for all, exacerbating interregional welfare disparity. This "captured democracy" is largely due to the presence of "negative local capture". Where welfare has not improved, limi...

  15. Refinancing and Decentralization: Evidence from China.

    Park, Albert; SHEN, MINGGAO

    2008-01-01

    Decentralization can complement market liberalization by strengthening incentives of agents to exploit local information in response to market signals. In China, however, banks centralized lending authority following financial reforms in the mid-1990s. We offer a new theory of financial decentralization in which centralization provides a credible commitment not to refinance bad projects by reducing available information. Using data from Chinese rural financial institutions, we empirically ass...

  16. Decentralized Coordination of Autonomous Vehicles at intersections

    Makarem, Laleh; Gillet, Denis

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the decentralized coordination of point-mass autonomous vehicles at intersections using navigation functions is considered. As main contribution, the inertia of the vehicles is taken into account to enable on-board energy optimization for crossing. In such a way, heavier vehicles that need more energy and time for acceleration or breaking are given an indirect priority at intersections. The proposed decentralized coordination scheme of autonomous vehicles at intersection is com...

  17. Decentralized electricity production. v. 1 and 2

    The first part of the symposium is concerned with market analysis, case studies and prospectives for the decentralized production of electricity in France: cogeneration, heat networks, municipal waste incineration, etc. Financing systems and microeconomical analysis are presented. The second part is devoted to macroeconomical outlooks (France and Europe mainly) on decentralized electricity production (cogeneration, small-scale hydroelectric power plants), to other countries experience (PV systems connected to the grid, cogeneration, etc.) and to price contracts and regulations

  18. Decentralized network management based on mobile agent

    李锋; 冯珊

    2004-01-01

    The mobile agent technology can be employed effectively for the decentralized management of complex networks. We show how the integration of mobile agent with legacy management protocol, such as simple network management protocol (SNMP), leads to decentralized management architecture. HostWatcher is a framework that allows mobile agents to roam network, collect and process data, and perform certain adaptive actions. A prototype system is built and a quantitative analysis underlines the benefits in respect to reducing network load.

  19. Decentralized energy supply and electricity market structures

    Weber, Christoph; Vogel, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Small decentralized power generation units (DG) are politically promoted because of their potential to reduce GHG-emissions and the existing dependency on fossil fuels. A long term goal of this promotion should be the creation of a level playing field for DG and conventional power generation. Due to the impact of DG on the electricity grid infrastructure, future regulation should consider the costs and benefits of the integration of decentralized energy generation units. Without an adequate c...

  20. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that decentralized governance is gendered and technocratic as grassroots women's effective participation is lacking. Second, it shows that the insertion of women in local governance is merely a symbolic politica...

  1. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  2. Memorias, subjetividades y actores sociales

    Olga Marlene Sánchez Moncada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una síntesis temática a modo de balance sobre la producción desarrollada en cinco años de la Maestría en Estudios Sociales de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. De hecho, los estudiantes de la línea ''Memoria, identidades y actores sociales'' han adelantado sus respectivas investigaciones en torno a estas temáticas con sus correspondientes especificidades. En cuanto a las memorias, han trabajado indagaciones sobre ciencias sociales escolares y la configuración de memoria nacional, en las cuales se han acompañado procesos de construcción de memoria con organizaciones sociales, además de analizar procesos de construcción de memorias sobre el conflicto armado colombiano. Asimismo, se ha abordado una variedad de temas en el enfoque dado a los individuos con potencial de cambio y transformación social. Finalmente, en relación con las subjetividades se han explorado temas como: performatividad, identidades atribuidas, identidades autoatribuidas y la constitución de sujeto.

  3. Reply to Comment on ‘Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system’

    Complementing centralized water-related infrastructure with decentralized facilities is being considered in some communities and a life-cycle perspective is needed for informed decision making. Our 2012 study presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems. While the analysis framework could be applied to cases with a variety of sizes, we evaluated two currently operating systems in California, one decentralized and one centralized plant with a much larger capacity. The disparate scales of the two plants represent an ‘off-the-grid’ suburban neighborhood-scale system compared with a similarly sized neighborhood connecting to an adjacent large centralized plant. Deciding whether or not to connect expanding developments to nearby centralized plants is a realistic scenario for future growth, making the treatment plants evaluated in our study a realistic choice for comparison. (reply)

  4. Journalism : new media, new actors - new ethics?

    Fidalgo, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    The traditional field of journalism has been facing major challenges in recent years, either because new actors have entered that field (professional journalists actually lost the monopoly of searching, gathering, editing and diffusing news in the public sphere), or because the old actors are increasingly asked to play new roles. The social demand for more public participation in the process of handling news and information, added to the fabulous possibilities of communication brought by the ...

  5. Robust Decentralized Controller Design: Subsystem Approach

    Rosinová, Danica; Thuan, Nguyen Quang; Veselý, Vojtech; Marko, L'ubomír

    2012-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the robust output feedback PI controller design for complex large-scale stable systems with a state decentralized control structure. A decentralized control design procedure is proposed for static output feedback control which is based on solving robust control design problems of subsystems' size. The presented approach is based on the Generalized Gershgorin Theorem and uses the so-called equivalent subsystems approach to consider the interactions in the local robust controller design. The resulting decentralized control scheme has been successfully tested on two examples: a linearized model of three interconnected boiler-turbine subsystems and a linear model of four cooperating DC motors where the problem is to design four local PI controllers for a large scale system which will guarantee robust stability and performance of the closed-loop uncertain system.

  6. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2000-01-01

    A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and control design. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure for...... decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process. The...... control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination of...

  7. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and controld esign. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure for...... decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process. The...... control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination of...

  8. Decentralized and Tactical Air Traffic Flow Management

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1997-01-01

    This project dealt with the following topics: 1. Review and description of the existing air traffic flow management system (ATFM) and identification of aspects with potential for improvement. 2. Identification and review of existing models and simulations dealing with all system segments (enroute, terminal area, ground) 3. Formulation of concepts for overall decentralization of the ATFM system, ranging from moderate decentralization to full decentralization 4. Specification of the modifications to the ATFM system required to accommodate each of the alternative concepts. 5. Identification of issues that need to be addressed with regard to: determination of the way the ATFM system would be operating; types of flow management strategies that would be used; and estimation of the effectiveness of ATFM with regard to reducing delay and re-routing costs. 6. Concept evaluation through identification of criteria and methodologies for accommodating the interests of stakeholders and of approaches to optimization of operational procedures for all segments of the ATFM system.

  9. Distribution of decentralized renewable energy resources

    The existence of a great number of inhabitants without electricity, living in areas of low population density, with modest energy requirements and low income provides a major potential market for decentralized renewable energy sources. Ademe and EDF in 1993 made two agreements concerning the development of Renewable Energy Sources. The first aims at promoting their decentralized use in France in pertinent cases. The second agreement concerns other countries and has two ambitions: facilitate short-term developments and produce in the longer term a standardised proposal for decentralized energy production using Renewable Energy Sources to a considerable extent. These ideas are explained, and the principles behind the implementation of both Ademe-EDF agreements as well as their future prospects are described. (R.P.)

  10. Macroeconomic Instability and Fiscal Decentralization: An Empirical Analysis

    Ahmad Zafarullah Abdul Jalil; Mukaramah Harun; Siti Hadijah Che Mat

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to fill a critical gap in the literature by analyzing the effects of decentralization on the macroeconomic stability. A survey of the voluminous literature on decentralization suggests that the question of the links between decentralization and macroeconomic stability has been relatively scantily analyzed. Even though there is still a lot of room for analysis as far as the effects of decentralization on other aspects of the economy are concerned, we believe...

  11. Decentralization and the Shadow Economy: Oates Meets Allingham-Sandmo

    Andreas Bühn; Christian Lessmann; Gunther Markwardt

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of decentralization on the shadow economy. We argue that decentralization may decrease the size of the shadow economy mainly through two transmission channels: (1) Decentralization enhancing public sector efficiency (efficiency effect), and (2) decentralization reducing the distance between bureaucrats and economic agents, which increases the probability of detection of shadow economic activities (deterrence effect). Using various measures of fiscal, political an...

  12. Decentralization and good governance: The case of Indonesia

    Green, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Indonesia began a process of rapid government decentralization in 1999 from a formerly strong centralized government structure. I review the history of decentralization in Indonesia and assess how Indonesia has fared in pursuing a decentralization policy since 1999. I illustrate how Indonesia meets several criteria of successful decentralization and how it is fails the criteria in principle in other areas. Finally, I indicate the likely future challenges faced by Indonesia as it implements de...

  13. LINK OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION TO POVERTY REDUCTION: INDONESIAN CONTEXT

    Rr. Sita Dewi Kusumaningrum

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Link of Fiscal Decentralization to Poverty Reduction: Indonesian Context. It is identified from the literature studies that there are links between fiscal decentralization and poverty reduction. However, the links occurs in different ways among countries and local governments. This is a preliminary study which aims at observing the potential link pattern of fiscal decentralization to poverty reduction in Indonesian provinces before and in the period of fiscal decentralization implem...

  14. Fiscal decentralization and development: How crucial is local politics?

    Pal, Sarmistha; Roy, Jaideep

    2010-01-01

    Does fiscal decentralization in a politically decentralized less developed country help strengthen democratic institutions at the grass root level? And is the impact of such decentralization on local politics important in determining local development? Our study on Indonesia suggests that fiscal decentralization enhanced free and fair local elections, though the incidence of elite capture, and the consequent breakdown of local democracy, was also present in significant proportions. Fiscal de...

  15. Factors of Tax Decentralization in OECD-Europe Countries

    Jílek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the issue of tax decentralization to local government. The aim of the article is to describe the tax decentralization to local governments with respect to its possible determinants and to verify empirically the relevancy of theoretical factors generally explaining fiscal decentralization to the tax decentralization. The analysis is based on data panel of OECD-European covering the period of 1995 to 2013. Upon these data we build panel regression model. Estimated equatio...

  16. Decentralized digital adaptive control of robot motion

    Tarokh, M.

    1990-01-01

    A decentralized model reference adaptive scheme is developed for digital control of robot manipulators. The adaptation laws are derived using hyperstability theory, which guarantees asymptotic trajectory tracking despite gross robot parameter variations. The control scheme has a decentralized structure in the sense that each local controller receives only its joint angle measurement to produce its joint torque. The independent joint controllers have simple structures and can be programmed using a very simple and computationally fast algorithm. As a result, the scheme is suitable for real-time motion control.

  17. Distribution of decentralized renewable energy resources

    For many years, ADEME has actively pursued a program for the development and use of renewable energy sources and is therefore interested in the electrification of isolated sites by means of autonomous systems (solar, wind, hydro). The extremely limited internal market (mountain refuges, sheepfold...) in France led ADEME to an agreement with EDF with two objectives: promoting the decentralized use in France in pertinent cases (such as in overseas departments), and achieving technological know-how and references to serve as a support for a wider distribution particularly in developing countries with a standardized proposal for decentralized energy production using renewable energy sources

  18. Decentralizing Indonesia : A Regional Public Expenditure Review Overview Report

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    Indonesia has embarked upon a radical and rapid decentralization program. Regional autonomy is transforming one of the most centralized countries in the world into one of the more decentralized ones. If managed well, a country as large and diverse as Indonesia will benefit greatly from decentralization, through more efficient service delivery, but also national unity and democracy. Yet, n...

  19. Time varying controllers in discrete-time decentralized control

    C. DELIU; Stoorvogel, Anton A.; Saberi, Ali; Roy, Sandip; Malek, Babak

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of finding a time-varying controller which can stabilize a decentralized discrete-time system. In continuous-time, it was already known that time-varying decentralized controllers can achieve stabilization in cases where time-invariant decentralized controllers cannnot. This paper works out the details for the discrete-time case.

  20. Hot water supply in ''Smart Home''. Decentralized supply, decentralized control; Warmwasserversorgung im 'Smart Home'. Dezentral versorgen, dezentral steuern

    Wiechers, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    The separation of the heating system and domestic hot water is already established in commercial and residential construction. The decentralized hot water supply offers environmental and economic benefits. In this paper it is shown that one can also do this in a detached house. [German] Die Trennung von Heizsystem und Warmwasserbereitung ist im Gewerbe- und Wohnungsbau bereits etabliert. Die dezentrale Warmwasserversorgung bietet oekologische und oekonomische Vorteile. In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass man dies auch bei einem Einfamilienhaus durchfuehren kann.

  1. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee

    2015-04-01

    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  2. Local Responses to Decentralization Policy in Indonesia.

    Bjork, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    Ethnographic fieldwork in six junior high schools in East Java, Indonesia, focused on local responses to a national policy devolving authority over the curriculum to the schools. Interviews and observations in the schools revealed little change in teacher actions. The objectives of decentralization clashed with deeply rooted ideas about authority,…

  3. Decentralized Procurement in Light of Strategic Inventories

    Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian

    2014-01-01

    and confirmed to be a multifaceted choice. This paper complements existing studies by detailing the trade-offs in the centralization versus decentralization decision in light of firm's decision to cede procurement choices to its individual devisions can help moderate inventory levels and provide a natural salve...

  4. Decentralization of Management in Colleges and Universities.

    Quinn, George M.

    1979-01-01

    Alfred University has developed a Management Information System intended to support decentralized management, with more decision-making responsibilities delegated to academic managers. Information systems, curriculum interaction modeling, program costs, budget preparation and planning, and a training program for academic managers are discussed.…

  5. Near optimal decentralized H_inf control

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    It is shown that foir a class of decentralized control problems there does not exist a sequence of controllers of bounded order which obtains near optimal control. Neither does there exist an infinity dimentional optimal controller. Using the insight of the line of proof of these results, a...... heuristic design algorithm is proposed for designing near optimal controllers of increasing orders....

  6. Reclassification in a small decentralized medical library.

    Tong, J G; Brennen, P W; Byrd, G D

    1977-07-01

    This study describes procedures and indentifies problems in the reclassification of a small medical school library collection that is decentralized into five locations in three different communities. A total of 9,915 monographic titles (14,911 volumes) were reclassified in a nine-month period. The reclassification staff consisted of one professional, two nonprofessionals, and one partime student assistant. PMID:884347

  7. Decentralization and Educational Reform in Florida.

    Pierce, Lawrence C.

    In 1973 Florida embarked on an ambitious adventure to improve the quality of public education by decentralizing many aspects of educational decision-making to the school site. The strategy incorporated a comprehensive reform of the state's school finance system, the development of a management information and accounting system, requirements for…

  8. GDCluster: a general decentralized clustering algorithm

    Mashayekhi, Hoda; Habibi, Jafar; Khalafbeigi, Tania; Voulgaris, Spyros; Steen, van Maarten

    2015-01-01

    In many popular applications like peer-to-peer systems, large amounts of data are distributed among multiple sources. Analysis of this data and identifying clusters is challenging due to processing, storage, and transmission costs. In this paper, we propose GDCluster, a general fully decentralized c

  9. GDCluster: A General Decentralized Clustering Algorithm

    Mashayekhi, H.; Khalafbeigi, T.; Habibi, J.; Voulgaris, S.; Steen, van M.

    2015-01-01

    In many popular applications like peer-to-peer systems, large amounts of data are distributed among multiple sources. Analysis of this data and identifying clusters is challenging due to processing, storage, and transmission costs. In this paper, we propose GDCluster, a general fully decentralized c

  10. On decentralized estimation. [for large linear systems

    Siljak, D. D.; Vukcevic, M. B.

    1978-01-01

    A multilevel scheme is proposed to construct decentralized estimators for large linear systems. The scheme is numerically attractive since only observability tests of low-order subsystems are required. Equally important is the fact that the constructed estimators are reliable under structural perturbations and can tolerate a wide range of nonlinearities in coupling among the subsystems.

  11. Renewable energy sources and decentralized electricity production

    Technological assessment, economic analysis, feasibility and potential development of the decentralized electricity production by various renewable energy sources (Small-scale hydro-electricity, wind energy, photovoltaic energy, thermodynamical solar plants, electricity from biomass) are presented and comparisons are made with other countries situation. Recommendations for optimal development are proposed

  12. Decentralized multirate control of interconnected systems

    Bakule, Lubomír; Böhm, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2002), s. 131-136. ISSN 1109-2734 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : decentralized control * large-scale systems * multirate systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  13. Coalgebra and coinduction in decentralized supervisory control

    Komenda, Jan

    Oxford : Elsevier Science Ltd, 2004, s. 193-198. [Control Systems Design 2003. Bratislava (SK), 07.09.2003-10.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/03/P077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : decentralized control * coobservability * decomposability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  14. Coalgebra and coinduction in decentralized supervisory control

    Komenda, Jan

    Bratislava, 2003, s. 1-3. [IFAC Control System Design. Bratislava (SK), 07.09.2003-10.09.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP201/03/P077 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : decentralized control * coobservability * decomposability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  15. Decentralized electricity production and the tertiary sector

    A decentralized project development have to start with an in-depth audit of the client's heating and electricity requirements, taking into consideration the size of the facility, the quality of the supply, the quality of the service performed, the quality of the economic equation and the quality of the environment

  16. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System.

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  17. Leadership and the Decentralized Control of Schools

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the literature related to leadership and the decentralized control of schools. It first considers the distinctive goals of public and private agencies, the specific constraints that shape the autonomy of leaders in different sectors, and the ways in which new models of public management are infusing public agencies with…

  18. Effective Location Management of Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Nauman Aslam

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increasing availability of heterogeneous sensor networks that consist of a large number of resource constrained nodes (sensors and a small number of powerful resource rich nodes (actors. Such heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Actor Network (WSANs offer improvement of sensor networks' capacity/coverage, energy conservation and network lifetime. This paper investigates the case where sensors are organized into clusters and mobile actors are used for maintaining an energy efficient topology by periodically manipulating their geographical position. We present an elegant technique that allows actor nodes to find an optimal geographical location with respect to their associated cluster heads such that the overall energy consumed is minimized. The proposed technique includes a weighted cost function based on the residual energy levels of cluster heads that allows the mobile actor to optimally fine-tune its geographical location. We present simulation results that demonstrate a significant increase of network lifetime over the traditional cluster based WSN deployments.

  19. New Actors and Alliances in Development

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    ‘New actors and alliances in development’ brings together an interdisciplinary group of scholars exploring how development financing and interventions are being shaped by a wider and more complex platform of actors than usually considered in the existing literature. The contributors also trace...... governments. Despite the diversity of these actors and alliances, several commonalities arise: they are often based on hybrid transnationalism and diffuse notions of development responsibility; rather than being new per se, they are newly being studied as practices that are now coming to be understood...... as ‘development’; and they are limited in their ability to act as agents of development by their lack of accountability or pro-poor commitment. The articles in this collection point to images and representations as increasingly important in development ‘branding’ and suggest fruitful new ground for critical...

  20. Decentralization of Health System in Islamic Republic of Iran

    MJ Kabir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of peripheral area, service or action. Basically decentralized governance, if properly planned and implemented, offers important opportunities for enhanced human development. The studies about this issue in different countries show that most of the decentralizations have been implemented in European countries and in comparison, the Middle East countries have been utilized lower degrees of the decentralization process. In fact, decentralization in the health system is a policy pursued for a variety of purposes including; increase in service delivery effectiveness and equity, improving efficiency and quality, fairness of financial contribution and planning for choosing the most appropriate interventions for the health priorities in peripheral regions. To implement decentralized governance, there is a spectrum of different choices that the government should regulate their degrees. Providing an appropriate atmosphere for decentralization is essential, otherwise lack of planning and achievement can result in complications for the system.

  1. The Corporation as a Political Actor

    Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . On the other hand, European scholars have recently promoted an understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) emphasizing that firms often assume a political role because they increasingly provide public goods and become involved in multi-actor governance processes. This article contrasts...... perspectives share a number of commonalities and complement each other....

  2. Sobre o natural e o actor

    Tavares, Margarida

    2010-01-01

    Neste artigo, procura-se reflectir sobre o conceito de natural quando aplicado ao trabalho do actor. Parte-se de quatro relevantes textos da dramaturgia ocidental, a saber: Hamlet, de Shakespeare; Crítica da ‘Escola das mulheres’ e O improviso de Versalhes, de Molière; e O teatro cómico, de Goldoni.

  3. Off-Policy Actor-Critic

    Degris, Thomas; Sutton, Richard S

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the first actor-critic algorithm for off-policy reinforcement learning. Our algorithm is online and incremental, and its per-time-step complexity scales linearly with the number of learned weights. Previous work on actor-critic algorithms is limited to the on-policy setting and does not take advantage of the recent advances in off-policy gradient temporal-difference learning. Off-policy techniques, such as Greedy-GQ, enable a target policy to be learned while following and obtaining data from another (behavior) policy. For many problems, however, actor-critic methods are more practical than action value methods (like Greedy-GQ) because they explicitly represent the policy; consequently, the policy can be stochastic and utilize a large action space. In this paper, we illustrate how to practically combine the generality and learning potential of off-policy learning with the flexibility in action selection given by actor-critic methods. We derive an incremental, linear time and space complexi...

  4. Decentralized Energy from Waste Systems

    Blanca Antizar-Ladislao; Turrion-Gomez, Juan L.

    2010-01-01

    In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decen...

  5. Denmark: consensus seeking and decentralization

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Christiansen, Peter Munk; Winter, Søren

    Governance and Environment in Western Europe: Politics, Policy and Administration, provides an up-to-date overview of developments in this area focusing on a selection of ten countries in Western Europe and the European Union. The countries examined are: Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, T...... similar problems of environmental management have responded politically and (re)organised their administrative systems for implementing these policies....

  6. Asynchronous decentralized method for interconnected electricity markets

    This paper presents an asynchronous decentralized method to solve the optimization problem of interconnected electricity markets. The proposed method decomposes the optimization problem of combined electricity markets into individual optimization problems. The impact of neighboring markets' information is included in the objective function of the individual market optimization problem by the standard Lagrangian relaxation method. Most decentralized optimization methods use synchronous models of communication to exchange updated market information among markets during the iterative process. In this paper, however, the solutions of the individual optimization problems are coordinated through an asynchronous communication model until they converge to the global optimal solution of combined markets. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed asynchronous method over the existing synchronous methods. (author)

  7. Ecology Based Decentralized Agent Management System

    Peysakhov, Maxim D.; Cicirello, Vincent A.; Regli, William C.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of maintaining a desired number of mobile agents on a network is not trivial, especially if we want a completely decentralized solution. Decentralized control makes a system more r e bust and less susceptible to partial failures. The problem is exacerbated on wireless ad hoc networks where host mobility can result in significant changes in the network size and topology. In this paper we propose an ecology-inspired approach to the management of the number of agents. The approach associates agents with living organisms and tasks with food. Agents procreate or die based on the abundance of uncompleted tasks (food). We performed a series of experiments investigating properties of such systems and analyzed their stability under various conditions. We concluded that the ecology based metaphor can be successfully applied to the management of agent populations on wireless ad hoc networks.

  8. Centralization vs. decentralization in medical school libraries.

    Crawford, H

    1966-07-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568

  9. Management Methods of Decentralized Public Services

    BILOUSEAC Irina Adriana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article, having as theme the typology of public services management and the implications on decentralization, is the foundation of theoretical concepts, but also the analysis from a practical point of view of both types of management applied in the management of public services in Romania and of the effects they cause on the Romanian public administration capacity to provide efficient public services. Although the users of decentralized public services don’t have the possibility of choosing the service provider, the analysis of the management methods is important, because depending on the type of management chosen there are advantages and disadvantages for the local community. It has to be analyzed for each particularly case which type of management leads to a greater satisfaction of a social need appeared.

  10. Inventory related compensation in decentralized organizations

    Barbara Schöndube-Pirchegger; Guido Voigt

    2014-01-01

    We consider a principal agent problem in a decentralized organization. The agent holds private information with respect to an uncertain demand within a single selling season. As such his task is to determine the optimal order quantity. Being head of a profit center, however, he naturally focuses on maximizing profit of his particular unit while the principal aims at maximizing long run firm value. This goal incongruency results in a systematic shortfall of order quantity chosen by the agent a...

  11. Health Spending and Decentralization in Indonesia

    Kruse, Ioana; Pradhan, Menno; Sparrow, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Using a panel dataset of 320 Indonesian districts we examine the impact of district budgets on public health spending, utilization patters in the public and private sector, and private health spending in the four years after decentralization. We exploit the panel structure of the data and the fact that district budgets are largely driven by central government transfers to determine causal patterns. We find that the elasticity of public health spending with respect to district budgets is aroun...

  12. Decentralization in Nation State Building of Indonesia

    Matsui, Kazuhisa; 松井, 和久

    2003-01-01

    Introduction:Today, many countries, regardless of developed or developing, are trying to promotedecentralization. According to Manor, as his quoting of Nickson’s argument,decentralization stems from the necessity to strengthen local governments as proxy ofcivil society to fill the yawning gap between the state and civil society (Manor [1999]:30). With the end to the Cold War following the collapse of the Soviet Union renderingthe cause of the “leadership of the central government to counter c...

  13. Fiscal decentralization and urbanization in Indonesia

    Comola, Margherita; De Mello, Luiz

    2010-01-01

    Indonesia went through a process of fiscal decentralization in 2001 involving the devolution of several policymaking and service delivery functions to the subnational tiers of government (provinces and districts). This process is likely to have affected regional patterns of urbanization, because the new prerogatives granted to the local governments have altered the distribution of urban amenities and labour market outcomes among and within the local jurisdictions. This paper uses a dataset of...

  14. Dynamical Decentralized Voltage Control of MTDC Grids

    Andreasson, Martin; Li, Na

    2015-01-01

    High-voltage direct current (HVDC) is a commonly used technology for long-distance electric power transmission, mainly due to its low resistive losses. When connecting multiple HVDC lines into a multi-terminal HVDC (MTDC) system, several challenges arise. To ensure safe and efficient operation of MTDC systems, the voltage of all terminals need to be steered to within an operational range. In this paper we study the commonly used decentralized voltage droop controller, and show that it in gene...

  15. Decentralized learning for wireless communications and networking

    Giannakis, Georgios B.; Ling, Qing; Mateos, Gonzalo; Ioannis D. Schizas; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter deals with decentralized learning algorithms for in-network processing of graph-valued data. A generic learning problem is formulated and recast into a separable form, which is iteratively minimized using the alternating-direction method of multipliers (ADMM) so as to gain the desired degree of parallelization. Without exchanging elements from the distributed training sets and keeping inter-node communications at affordable levels, the local (per-node) learners consent to the des...

  16. Rural Roads: The Challenge of Decentralized Implementation

    Simon D. Ellis; Aurelio Menendez

    2014-01-01

    This paper will review the key elements required for effective decentralized implementation of rural roads programs. It will review the range of options available and the evidence for successful implementation where it exists. Section 2 makes the case for the importance of rural roads and sets out the evidence for the socio-economic benefits. Section 3 addresses the responsibilities for implementation and critical importance of having clarity over network ownership. Section 4 highlights the d...

  17. Analyzing Von Neumann machines using decentralized symmetries

    Fang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The artificial intelligence method to e-business is defined not only by the study of fiber-optic cables, but also by the unproven need for vacuum tubes. Given the current status of virtual archetypes, theorists clearly desire the exploration of semaphores, which embodies the compelling principles of cryptoanalysis. We present an algorithm for probabilistic theory (Buck), which we use to disprove that write-back caches can be made decentralized, lossless, and reliable.

  18. Balance, accountability, and responsiveness : lessons about decentralization

    Shah, Anwar

    1998-01-01

    The author examines the reasons developing countries are reexamining the respective roles of the private sector, civil society, and various levels of government--and considering new fiscal arrangements between national and lower levels of government. Decentralization may be particularly well-suited to developing countries, where central governments are not aswell developed as in industrial countries--because information requirements and transaction costs are lower at lower levels of governmen...

  19. Decentralizing Education Resources: School Grants in Senegal

    Carneiro, Pedro; Koussihouèdé, Oswald; Lahire, Nathalie; Meghir, Costas; Mommaerts, Corina

    2015-01-01

    The impact of school resources on the quality of education in developing countries may depend crucially on whether resources are targeted efficiently. In this paper we use a randomized experiment to analyze the impact of a school grants program in Senegal, which decentralized a portion of the country's education budget. We find large positive effects on test scores at younger grades that persist at least two years. We show that these effects are concentrated among schools that focused funds o...

  20. Decentralizing Eligibility for a Federal Antipoverty Program

    Ravallion, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In theory, the informational advantage of decentralizing the eligibility criteria for a federal antipoverty program could come at a large cost to the program's performance in reaching the poor nationally. Whether this happens in practice depends on the size of the local-income effect on the eligibility cutoffs. China's Di Bao program provides a case study. Poorer municipalities adopt systematically lower thresholds—roughly negating intercity differences in need for the program and generating ...

  1. Decentralization and heterogeneity in complex adaptative systems

    González Rodríguez, Diego; Hernández Carrión, José Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Following a bacterial-based modeling approach, the authors want to model and analyze the impact of both decentralization and heterogeneity on group behavior and collective learning. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Inspired by bacterial conjugation, the authors have defined an artificial society in which agents’ strategies adapt to changes in resources location, allowing migration, and survival in a dynamic sugarscape-like scenario. To study the impact of these variables the auth...

  2. Decentralized control: An overview (Plenary talk)

    Bakule, Lubomír

    Gdansk : IFAC - GUT, 2007, s. 1-10. ISSN 1367-5788. [IFAC/IFORS/IMACS/IFIP Symposium on Large Scale Complex Systems: Theory and Applications /11./. Gdansk (PL), 23.07.2007-25.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2075304; GA MŠk(CZ) LA 282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralized control * large scale systems * decomposition * delay * uncertainty * robustness Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  3. Decentralized overlapping control for civil structures

    Bakule, Lubomír; Papík, Martin; Rehák, Branislav

    Ponta Delgada: University of the Azores, 2015 - (Araújo, A.; Mota Soreas, C.) ISBN 978-989-96276-7-3. [ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Smart Structures and Materials (SMART 2015) /7./. Ponta Delgada (PT), 03.06.2015-06.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : building benchmark * decentralized control * overlapping decompositions Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  4. WATER MARKETS AND DECENTRALIZED WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT

    K. William Easter; Robert HEARNE

    1994-01-01

    Because of its importance and the perceived inability of private sector sources to meet water demands, many countries have depended on the public sector to provide water services for their populations. Yet this has resulted in many inefficient public water projects and in inadequate supplies of good quality and reliable water. Decentralization of water management, including the use of water markets, cannot solve all of the water problems, but it can improve the efficiency of water allocation....

  5. Decentralized Control and Communication (Plenary talk)

    Bakule, Lubomír

    Villeneuve d'Ascq: IFAC, 2010, s. 1-11. ISBN 978-2-915913-26-2. [IFAC Symposium on Large Scale Systems: Theory and Applications /12/. Villeneuve d'Ascq (FR), 12.07.2010-14.07.2010] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralization * communication * large-scale systems * complex systems * networked control systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  6. File Transfer Algorithm for Autonomous Decentralized System

    GUI Xun; TAN Yong-dong; Qian Qing-quan

    2008-01-01

    A file transfer algorithm based on ADP (autonomous decentralized protocol) was proposed to solve the problem that the ADS (autonomous decentralized system) middleware (NeXUS/Dlink) lacks of file transfer functions for Windows. The algorithm realizes the peer-to-peer file transfer, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution in the same data field based on communication patterns provided by the ADP. The peer-to-peer file transfer is implemented through a peer-to-peer communication path, one-to-N inquiry/multi-response file transfer and one-to-N file distribution are implemented through multicast commtmieation. In this algorithm, a file to be transferred is named with a GUID ( global unique identification), every data packet is marked with a sequence number, and file-receiving in parallel is implemented by caching DPOs (data processing objects) and multithread technologies. The algorithm is applied in a simulation system of the decentralized control platform, and the test results and long time stable mrming prove the feasibility of the algorithm.

  7. [Paradoxes of health decentralization policies in Brazil].

    Pasche, Dário Frederico; Righi, Liane Beatriz; Thomé, Henrique Inácio; Stolz, Eveline Dischkaln

    2006-12-01

    The constitution of Brazil directs that the country's health system, the Unified Health System (Sistema Unico de Saúde), be politically and administratively decentralized. Nevertheless, handing over competencies, responsibilities, and resources to subnational levels, especially to municipal governments, has been a slow process, lasting almost two decades. Advances have been brought about by the Unified Health System, which, from a analytical perspective, is a public and universal system. Despite that, the decentralization process needs to overcome norms that keep all levels of management dependent on Brazil's federal Government. The subnational levels have consistently faced difficulties in performing their macromanagement functions with autonomy, especially when it comes to financing and to the establishment or organization of health care networks. Boldness and responsibility will be needed to prevent Brazil's health decentralization process from leading to fragmentation. New political agreements between different levels of government, with a reassignment of responsibilities and the enhancement of a culture of technical cooperation, are fundamental requisites to making the Unified Health System have a health policy that is truly public and universal. PMID:17341333

  8. Decentralized Formation Control for Small-Scale Robot Teams with Anonymity

    Lee, Geunho; Nak Young, Chong

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents decentralized formation controls for a team of anonymous mobile robots performing a task through cooperation. Robot teams are required to generate and maintain various geometric patterns adapting to environmental changes in many cooperative robotics applications. In particular, all robots must continue to strive toward achieving the team’s mission even if some members fail to perform their role. Toward this end, formation control approaches are proposed under the condition...

  9. LOCAL BUDGETS UNDER CURRENT DECENTRALIZATION: UKRAINE AND FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

    O. Cheberyako; O. Ryabokon

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the major trends and issues of development of local budgets in Ukraine. A study of the essence of fiscal decentralization as one of the components of the management, aimed at reducing the dependence of local governments from the central government with regard to foreign experience. Particular attention is paid to local budgets under decentralization of own and delegated financial powers. The theoretical principles of fiscal decentralization and its proven impact on t...

  10. Governance decentralization and local infrastructure provision in Indonesia:

    Chowdhury, Shyamnal; Yamauchi, Futoshi; Dewina, Reno

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the recent decentralization of governance in Indonesia and its impact on local infrastructure provision. The decentralization of decisionmaking power to local jurisdictions in Indonesia may have improved the matching of public infrastructures provision with local preferences. However, decentralization has made local public infrastructures depend on local resources. Due to differences in initial endowments, this may result in the divergence of local public infrastructures i...

  11. IMPLEMENTATION OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN INDONESIA: 2001-2009

    Nursini Nursini

    2012-01-01

    In Indonesia, the implementation of fiscal decentralization has entered the 9th year, however, so far many problems and obstacles which is faced during the implementation to stimulate economic growth and reduce poverty. This study aims to analyze: (1) trend of government expenditure in decentralization era and regional autonomy during 2001-2009, (2) fiscal decentralization degree in Indonesia. This objective is achieved through descriptive analysis using secondary data for 2001-2009. The resu...

  12. Fiscal Decentralization Policy in Promoting Indonesia Human Development

    Ady Soejoto; Waspodo Tjipto Subroto; Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    Goal of this research is promoting human development in Indonesia through fiscal decentralization. In general, funds decentralization, economic growth, public expenditure, and a decline in total poor population in the autonomous region provide significant positive effect on human development index (HDI), thus increasing decentralization funds as balance grants to autonomous regions can be used to finance local expenditure, especially public social expenditure in education and health increased...

  13. EFFECT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON CAPITAL EXPENDITURE, GROWTH, AND WELFARE

    Rudy Badrudin

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the influence of fiscal decentralization on capital expenditure, economic growth, and social welfare of 29 regencies and 6 cities in Central Java Province based on the data of year 2004 to 2008. The method used to analyze the hypotheses is the Partial Least Square. The results showes that fiscal decentralization has no significant effect on capital expenditure; fiscal decentralization has significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; capital expenditure has ...

  14. Choosing between Centralized and Decentralized Models of Tax Administration

    Jorge Martinez-Vazquez; Andrey Timofeev

    2005-01-01

    The international experience shows a variety of approaches to the organization and degree of decentralization in tax administration. It is quite common to observe, even in countries that are otherwise significantly decentralized as is the case in the Scandinavian Countries, a highly centralized organization of tax administration. Nevertheless, there are other countries, in small number, where tax administration is highly decentralized; in some cases, as in Germany, even central government tax...

  15. Political decentralization and corruption: Evidence from around the world

    Fan, CS; Lin, C.; Treisman, D

    2009-01-01

    How does political decentralization affect the frequency and costliness of bribe extraction by corrupt officials? Previous empirical studies, using subjective indexes of perceived corruption and mostly fiscal indicators of decentralization, have suggested conflicting conclusions. In search of more precise findings, we combine and explore two new data sources—an original cross-national data set on particular types of decentralization and the results of a firm level survey conducted in 80 count...

  16. Fiscal Decentralization in China: History, Impact, Challenges and Next Steps

    Chunli Shen; Jing Jin; Heng-fu Zou

    2006-01-01

    Fiscal decentralization has been a fundamental aspect of China's transition to a market economy; and the country has made substantial efforts to break down its highly centralized fiscal management system with various forms of fiscal contracting systems (1978-1993) and later a tax sharing system (1994-present). The objectives of this paper are to provide a comprehensive review of China¡¯s experience in fiscal decentralization over the last decade, explore the impact of fiscal decentralization ...

  17. THE EFFICIENCY OF DECENTRALIZED AND CENTRALIZED MARKETS FOR LEMONS

    Diego Moreno; John Wooders

    2001-01-01

    In markets with adverse selection, when average quality is low and frictions are small decentralized trade produces a greater surplus than predicted by the competitive model: under decentralized trade some high-quality units of the good trade whereas, due to the "lemons problem", only low-quality units trade in the competitive equilibrium. This suggests a reason why these markets are often decentralized. Remarkably, under some conditions payoffs are competitive as frictions vanish, even thoug...

  18. Rethinking Decentralization in Education in terms of Administrative Problems

    Vasiliki Papadopoulou; Ramazan Yirci

    2013-01-01

    The general purpose of this study is to thoroughly examine decentralization in education according to the literature and previous research, and to discuss the applicability of educational decentralization practices in Turkey. The literature was reviewed for the study and findings reported. It has been observed that decentralization in education practices were realized in many countries after the 1980’s. It is obvious that the educational system in Turkey has difficulty in meeting the needs, a...

  19. Local authorities and electricity: territories, actors and issues within the local public service in France; Les collectivites locales et l'electricite. Territoires, acteurs et enjeux autour du service public local de l'electricite en france

    Bouvier, G

    2005-06-15

    In France, the role of local authorities in the organization of the electricity supply system is largely unknown mainly due to the size of the state-owned utility Electricite de France (EDF). Local authorities and their groupings played a major role in the electrification of the national territory and have kept important prerogatives as conceding authorities of this service of general interest. These groupings also became the tools of the soft power of local actors. The geopolitical analysis of the relationships between local municipalities and electric power stakeholders shows the diversity of actors and opinions. Stuck between market liberalization issues and decentralization to local authorities, these groupings tend to reinforce their competencies. Furthermore, decentralization goes along with a reinforcement of the political involvement in local energy policy and with conflicts on the adequate territorial scale for theses policies. (author)

  20. EFFECT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON CAPITAL EXPENDITURE, GROWTH, AND WELFARE

    Rudy Badrudin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the influence of fiscal decentralization on capital expenditure, economic growth, and social welfare of 29 regencies and 6 cities in Central Java Province based on the data of year 2004 to 2008. The method used to analyze the hypotheses is the Partial Least Square. The results showes that fiscal decentralization has no significant effect on capital expenditure; fiscal decentralization has significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; capital expenditure has no significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; and economic growth has significant effect on social welfare.Keywords: Fiscal decentralization, capital expenditure, economic growth, social welfareJEL classification: H76, I31, 043

  1. The moral problem of worse actors

    Wisor, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil comp...

  2. Test Case Generation of Actor Systems

    Albert Albiol, Elvira; Arenas Sánchez, Purificación; Gómez Zamalloa, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Testing is a vital part of the software development process. It is even more so in the context of concurrent languages, since due to undesired task interleavings and to unexpected behaviours of the underlying task scheduler, errors can go easily undetected. Test case generation (TCG) is the process of automatically generating test inputs for interesting coverage criteria, which are then applied to the system under test. This paper presents a TCG framework for actor systems, which consists of...

  3. Towards feature selection in actor-critic algorithms

    Rohanimanesh, Khashayar; Roy, Nicholas; Tedrake, Russell Louis

    2009-01-01

    Choosing features for the critic in actor-critic algorithms with function approximation is known to be a challenge. Too few critic features can lead to degeneracy of the actor gradient, and too many features may lead to slower convergence of the learner. In this paper, we show that a wellstudied class of actor policies satisfy the known requirements for convergence when the actor features are selected carefully. We demonstrate that two popular representations for va...

  4. Worlds Apart: A Social Theoretical Exploration of Local Networks, Natural Actors, and Practitioners of Rural Development in Southern Honduras

    Brian J. Gareau

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of incorporating the socioecological realities of alternative networks into analyses of rural development. Cultural theory is examined, which provides a base upon which rural development can identify difference in worldviews based on difference in sociological conditions and environmental phenomena. Actor-oriented theory problematizes the ideal types of cultural theory, providing a means of give-and-take between actors’ worldviews of different networks. Ac...

  5. Foreign Direct Investment, Local Government Competition and Environmental Pollution:Empirical Analysis on Fiscal Decentralization%外商直接投资、地方政府竞争与环境污染——基于财政分权视角的经验研究

    邓玉萍; 许和连

    2013-01-01

    本文利用2003-2010年全国278个地级城市统计数据,通过构建联立方程模型实证研究了分权体制下的地方政府引资竞争与环境污染之间的关系.实证结果表明:在财政分权体制下,地方政府间的策略性竞争行为显著影响到FDI的区位选择,其中本辖区财政分权水平的提高有利于增强当地引资能力,而邻近辖区财政分权水平的提高则明显阻碍了本地FDI的流入,积极的财政支出扩张和资金缺口成为各地区竞相争夺FDI的主要动力.与此同时,分权体制下的FDI竞争主要通过以下两种渠道影响到地区环境质量:一方面,FDI本身的生产活动对当地环境质量产生了显著的影响,外资带来了绿色环保的生产技术和治理经验有助于提高国内环境污染治理效率,并降低污染排放总量.另一方面,FDI通过影响经济活动的产出或规模来间接地作用于环境,这主要表现为政治晋升和经济激励下的分权体制弱化了FDI的增长效应,地方政府对GDP的过度关注使得区域恶性引资竞争日益激烈,导致中西部地区经济增长陷入低效率的“纳什均衡陷阱”,从而进一步加大了部分地区顺利跨越EKC曲线转折点的难度.%Based on a sample of 278 Chinese cities during 2003-2010,this paper attempts to empirically study on the relationship between the competition for FDI and environmental pollution by a simultaneous estimation.The estimated results show that governments' strategical competition exert significant impacts on the choice of FDI under the institution of fiscal decentralization.Among these,the improvement of local fiscal decentralization is favorable to enhancing local capacity of attracting FDI,while that in neighbouring area obviously decreases local FDI inflows.Proactive fiscal policy and funding gap have become the main motive forces to contend FDI with each other.In the meantime,the competition for FDI affects local environmental quality

  6. A bridge between decentralized and coordination control

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2013 - (Basar, T.; Milenkovic, O.), s. 966-972 ISBN 978-1-4799-3409-6. [Annual Allerton Conference on Communication , Control, and Computing. Monticello (US), 02.10.2013-03.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028; GA MŠk LH13012 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : decentralized control * coordination control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6736630

  7. A bridge between decentralized and coordination control

    Komenda, Jan; Masopust, Tomáš

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2013 - (Basar, T.; Milenkovic, O.), s. 966-972 ISBN 978-1-4799-3409-6. [Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing. Monticello (US), 02.10.2013-03.10.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0517; GA ČR(CZ) GPP202/11/P028; GA MŠk LH13012 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : decentralized control * coordination control Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6736630

  8. P2P Techniques for Decentralized Applications

    Pacitti, Esther

    2012-01-01

    As an alternative to traditional client-server systems, Peer-to-Peer (P2P) systems provide major advantages in terms of scalability, autonomy and dynamic behavior of peers, and decentralization of control. Thus, they are well suited for large-scale data sharing in distributed environments. Most of the existing P2P approaches for data sharing rely on either structured networks (e.g., DHTs) for efficient indexing, or unstructured networks for ease of deployment, or some combination. However, these approaches have some limitations, such as lack of freedom for data placement in DHTs, and high late

  9. Decentralized Coordinated Control Strategy of Islanded Microgrids

    Wu, Dan

    control strategies in this thesis, in order to promote the decentralization of the overall system. Especially the consensus algorithm based secondary level is investigated in the thesis in order to simplify the communication configuration which only flood information through the neighboring units...... without additional communication facility assistance within this thesis. Here two bus-signaling method (BSM) methods are proposed. The power line is then not only taken as physical connection among the distributed units, but also the signal carrier to inform Microgrid components changing their control...

  10. Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First......, the canonical pricing rule is the smallest among those that improve upon the Stand Alone bound, and are either superadditive or piece-wise linear in connection costs. Our second, direct characterization relies on two simple properties highlighting the special role of the source cost....

  11. Decentralized, Adaptive, Look-Ahead Particle Filtering

    Ahmed, Mohamed Osama; Bibalan, Pouyan T.; De Freitas, Nando; Fauvel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The decentralized particle filter (DPF) was proposed recently to increase the level of parallelism of particle filtering. Given a decomposition of the state space into two nested sets of variables, the DPF uses a particle filter to sample the first set and then conditions on this sample to generate a set of samples for the second set of variables. The DPF can be understood as a variant of the popular Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF), where the second step is carried out using Monte Ca...

  12. Decentralized Control: Status and Outlook (Plenary talk)

    Bakule, Lubomír

    Shanghai: International Federation of Automatic Control , 2013, s. 4-5. (Large Scale Complex Systems Theory and Applications. Volume 13). ISBN 978-3-902823-39-7. ISSN 1474-6670. [IFAC Symposium of Large Scale Complex Systems /13./ (LSS 2013). Shanghai (CN), 07.07.2013-10.07.2013] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12014; GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : decentralized control * networked control systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  13. Macroeconomic aspects of decentralized electricity production

    The development of decentralized electricity production should be viewed first and foremost as a means of adapting production resources to meet the needs of the users between 1995 and 1997. Consumer production and cogeneration are not, however, simply stopgap solutions operating on the fringe of electricity production. These methods serve to highlight a problem that has already been raised in the past: the real advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems managed by companies that exercise a virtual monopoly in either the public or private sector

  14. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  15. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  16. Health Strategy in a Post-Crisis, Decentralized Indonesia

    Samuel S. Lieberman; Marzoeki, Puti

    2002-01-01

    The study reviews the strategy for a prospective health development, and the health benefits associated with decentralization, in a likely challenging near to medium term period in Indonesia. It addresses the major government reorganization, expected to take effect in January 2001, which could well define the social process during the next decade, consisting of decentralization of spending...

  17. Health Strategy in a Post-Crisis, Decentralizing Indonesia

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The study reviews the strategy for a prospective health development, and the health benefits associated with decentralization, in a likely challenging near to medium term period in Indonesia. It addresses the major government reorganization, expected to take effect in January 2001, which could well define the social process during the next decade, consisting of decentralization of spending...

  18. Study on Concept of Centralization and Decentralization Group Decision Making

    ZHANG Qin-sheng; XI You-min; WANG Ying-luo

    2002-01-01

    The paper extracts the concept of Centralization Group Decision Making (CGDM) and Decentralization Group Decision Making (DGDM) from management systems on bases of studies on Informational Centralization Process (ICP) and Informational Decentralization Process (IDP), then the similarities and differences between CGDM and DGDM are presented. Further, the taxonomy of CGDM and DGDM is researched.

  19. The Decentralization Mirage: Comparing Decisionmaking Arrangements in Four High Schools.

    Bimber, Bruce

    Decentralization has been one of the centerpieces of education reform in the United States over the past decade, yet the results so far are not encouraging. This booklet presents findings of a study that explored the hypothesis that decentralization efforts have failed to relax external constraints on schools or to enable school staffs to make…

  20. Decentralized Budgeting in Education: Model Variations and Practitioner Perspectives.

    Hall, George; Metsinger, Jackie; McGinnis, Patricia

    In educational settings, decentralized budgeting refers to various fiscal practices that disperse budgeting responsibility away from central administration to the line education units. This distributed decision-making is common to several financial management models. Among the many financial management models that employ decentralized budgeting…

  1. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  2. Decentralization, economic development, and growth in Turkish provinces

    Tosun, Mehmet Serkan; Yilmaz, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    There have been important developments in the decentralization of the government structure in Turkey since the early 1980s. This paper examines economic development and growth in Turkish provinces. Although there is a rich literature on the economic effects of government decentralization from both developed and developing countries, these effects have not been examined widely in the contex...

  3. An index of political support for decentralization: the Spanish case.

    Molero, J.C. (Juan Carlos); Rodríguez-Tejedo, I. (Isabel)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a method to make measurable what was not: the discourses of politicians regarding decentralization. For this purpose, we develop a matrix of arguments and a set of indexes, and apply them to provide a snapshot of the politicians views on the General Law of Budgetary Stability, a landmark for the process of decentralization in Spain.

  4. Negotiation in Decentralization Case Study of China's Carbon Trading in the Power Sector

    Yang, Ming

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese government set a target to reduce China’s carbon intensity by 40%-45% in 2020 at its 2005 level. To achieve this target, the government has allocated targets to provinces, cities, and large enterprises, and selected five pilot provinces and eight cities for CO2 emission trading. Such emission trading process will involve decentralization, optimization, and negotiation. The prime objective of this book is to perform academic research on simulating the negotiation process. Through this research, a methodological framework and its implementation are set up to analyze, model and facilitate the process of negotiation among central government and individual energy producers under environmental, economical and social constraints. Negotiation in Decentralization: Case Study of China's Carbon Trading in the Power Sector discusses research carried out on negotiation issues in China regarding Chinese power sector reform over the past 30 years. Results show that conflicts exist between power groups and the ...

  5. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  6. Diásporas y transiciones en la Teoría del Actor-Red Diasporas and transitions in Actor-Network Theory

    Blanca Callén

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es una presentación del monográfico Diásporas y transiciones en la teoría del actor-red. Sus páginas presentan las principales características de esta teoría, una manera de entender sus orígenes y una descripción de su presente estableciendo un paralelismo con la etnometodología. El texto finaliza con una valoración del estado de la teoría del actor-red en España y un comentario sobre un congreso que llevó el título de Presente y futuro de la teoría del actor-red y que constituye el embrión del presente monográfico. En el texto se defiende una tesis muy simple: la teoría del actor-red nace con cierta relevancia para el pensamiento social en el momento en que se difracta en una miríada de usos y aplicaciones diferentes. El principal corolario de este hecho también es muy sencillo: la gran diferencia entre la teoría del actor-red y otras propuestas del pensamiento social es su permanente estado de diáspora y transición.
    This paper is an introduction to the monograph titled Diasporas and Transitions in the Actor-Network Theory. Drawing a parallel with ethnomethodology, its pages present the main features of this theory, a way to figure out its origins and a description of its present. The text ends with a brief look at the state of art of actor-network theory in Spain and an appraisal of a meeting titled Present and Future of Actor-Network Theory, which is the origin of our monograph. In this paper we put forward a very simple idea: Actor-Network Theory was born with certain relevance in Social Sciences when it diffracted in a myriad of different uses and applications. The main corollary of such an idea is also straightforward: the very difference between Actor-Network Theory and other perspectives in Social Sciences resides in the permanent diaspora and transition of the former.

  7. Fusion-supported decentralized nuclear energy system

    A decentralized nuclear energy system is proposed comprising mass-produced pressurized water reactors in the size range 10 to 300 MW (thermal), to be used for the production of process heat, space heat, and electricity in applications where petroleum and natural gas are presently used. Special attention is given to maximizing the refueling interval with no interim batch shuffling in order to minimize fuel transport, reactor downtime, and opportunity for fissile diversion. These objectives demand a substantial fissile enrichment (7 to 15%). The preferred fissile fuel is U-233, which offers an order of magnitude savings in ore requirements (compared with U-235 fuel), and whose higher conversion ratio in thermal reactors serves to extend the period of useful reactivity and relieve demand on the fissile breeding plants (compared with Pu-239 fuel). Application of the neutral-beam-driven tokamak fusion-neutron source to a U-233 breeding pilot plant is examined. This scheme can be extended in part to a decentralized fusion energy system, wherein remotely located large fusion reactors supply excess tritium to a distributed system of relatively small nonbreeding D-T reactors

  8. Fusion-supported decentralized nuclear energy system

    A decentralized nuclear energy system is proposed comprising mass-produced pressurized water reactors in the size range 10 to 300 MW (thermal), to be used for the production of process heat, space heat, and electricity in applications where petroleum and natural gas are presently used. Special attention is given to maximizing the refueling interval with no interim batch shuffling in order to minimize fuel transport, reactor downtime, and opportunity for fissile diversion. The smallest reactors could be deployed as nuclear batteries, kept in the equivalent of spent-fuel shipping casks and returned to nuclear fuel centers for refueling. These objectives demand a substantial fissile enrichment (7 to 15%). The preferred fissile fuel is U-233, which offers an order of magnitude savings in ore requirements (compared with U-235 fuel), and whose higher conversion ratio in thermal reactors serves to extend the period of useful reactivity and relieve demand on the fissile breeding plants (compared with Pu-239 fuel). Application of the neutral-beam-driven tokamak fusion-neutron source to a U-233 breeding pilot plant is examined. This scheme can be extended in part to a decentralized fusion energy system, wherein remotely located large fusion reactors supply excess tritium to a distributed system of relatively small nonbreeding D-T reactors

  9. Decentralized control experiments on NASA's flexible grid

    Ozguner, U.; Yurkowich, S.; Martin, J., III; Al-Abbass, F.

    1986-01-01

    Methods arising from the area of decentralized control are emerging for analysis and control synthesis for large flexible structures. In this paper the control strategy involves a decentralized model reference adaptive approach using a variable structure control. Local models are formulated based on desired damping and response time in a model-following scheme for various modal configurations. Variable structure controllers are then designed employing co-located angular rate and position feedback. In this scheme local control forces the system to move on a local sliding mode in some local error space. An important feature of this approach is that the local subsystem is made insensitive to dynamical interactions with other subsystems once the sliding surface is reached. Experiments based on the above have been performed for NASA's flexible grid experimental apparatus. The grid is designed to admit appreciable low-frequency structural dynamics, and allows for implementation of distributed computing components, inertial sensors, and actuation devices. A finite-element analysis of the grid provides the model for control system design and simulation; results of several simulations are reported on here, and a discussion of application experiments on the apparatus is presented.

  10. Decentralized, Adaptive, Look-Ahead Particle Filtering

    Ahmed, Mohamed Osama; de Freitas, Nando; Fauvel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The decentralized particle filter (DPF) was proposed recently to increase the level of parallelism of particle filtering. Given a decomposition of the state space into two nested sets of variables, the DPF uses a particle filter to sample the first set and then conditions on this sample to generate a set of samples for the second set of variables. The DPF can be understood as a variant of the popular Rao-Blackwellized particle filter (RBPF), where the second step is carried out using Monte Carlo approximations instead of analytical inference. As a result, the range of applications of the DPF is broader than the one for the RBPF. In this paper, we improve the DPF in two ways. First, we derive a Monte Carlo approximation of the optimal proposal distribution and, consequently, design and implement a more efficient look-ahead DPF. Although the decentralized filters were initially designed to capitalize on parallel implementation, we show that the look-ahead DPF can outperform the standard particle filter even on ...