Sample records for actor network perspective

  1. Towards a new perspective of managing ideas in front-end innovation as actor networks

    Vagn, Anna Rose; Clausen, Christian; Gish, Liv


    been identified as front-end innovation processes. The front-end innovation is distinguished from linear product development and characterised as more informal, unstructured, and unpredictable. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front......For decades the innovation process in R&D organisations has been discussed. Product development processes is well-established in R&D organisations and improvements has been implemented through theories as Lean product development and agile methods. In recent decades, more diffuse processes have......-end innovation of R&D organisations. Through theoretical and empirical investigations of managing activities of idea processes an indicative analysis in the perspective of actor network theory is performed. The analysis show how managers and employees navigate in a complex environment of organisational...

  2. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten


    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive...

  3. Technological change and users: An actor-network perspective on the digitalization of video surveillance

    Weaver, Benjamin; Lahtinen, Markus


    This paper discusses aspects of technological change and the path towards institutionalization of new innovations, with a focus on how users matter and are part of the co-construction of such change. An empirical example from the security industry is used to illustrate how two distinct phases in the analog-to-digital shift in video surveillance technology have had very different outcomes with respect to the pace and nature of user adoption. The notions of actor- networks and communities of pr...

  4. Development Sociology. Actor Perspectives

    Long, N.E.


    Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, Development Sociology focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and social constructionist form of analysis. This style of analysis is opposed to the traditional structuralist/institutional

  5. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten


    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative...... data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive functions. Games are designed to take advantage of the characteristics of the human players......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  6. Transitions across place and space – Spatial transitions in an Actor Network perspective

    Kerndrup, Søren; Mosgaard, Mette


    a simple one dimensional framework based on geographical distance overlooking the social, economic and institutional dimensions. (Latour 2005, Boshma 2005, Knoben 2008) Therefore the aim of this paper is to combine the transitions framework with a relational geographic perspective influenced by the...

  7. Thinking Management and Leadership within Colleges and Schools Somewhat Differently: A Practice-Based, Actor-Network Theory Perspective

    Mulcahy, Dianne; Perillo, Suzanne


    This article examines the significance of materiality for management and leadership in education using resources provided by actor-network theory (ANT). Espousing the idea that human interactions are mediated by material objects and that these objects participate in the production of practices, ANT affords thinking management and leadership in a…

  8. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    Kamali, Maryam; Petre, Luigia; Sere, Kaisa; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.4


    Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between...

  9. The Adoption Of Tailor-made IT-based Accounting Systems Within Indonesian SMEs From Actor Network Theory Perspective

    Samiaji Sarosa


    Full Text Available This paper examines the adoption process of computer-based accounting information systems within Indonesian SMEs. The analysis was conducted using theoretical framework proposed by Slappendel [1] which is interactive process. Interactive process argues that adoption of innovation (IT in particular should be viewed as an interactive process between individual member, organization, and its environment. One of the emerging theories within interactive process is Actor Network Theory (ANT proposed by Latour, Callon, and Law[2-7]. ANT classified adoption process as four stages process, namely problematisation, interrestment, enrolment, and mobilization. We used qualitative approach to gather data, analyze and draw conclusion. As the result we come up with factors that influencing the adoption process along with the failure and success of such endeavour. We argues that ANT is better in explaining the adoption of IT compared to other model due its ability to identified not only the factors but also the process of adoption and explaining the success or failure of the process.

  10. Discutindo a aprendizagem sob a perspectiva da teoria ator-rede Discussing learning under actor-network theory perspective

    Maria de Fátima Aranha de Queiroz e Melo


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, discutimos as aprendizagens como um fenômeno dinâmico e multifacetado, produto de uma série de condições que emergem numa causalidade em redes, tomando o corpo enquanto uma instância mediadora que se afeta como um todo nas interações com o mundo. Apoiamo-nos no conceito de tradução defendido pela Teoria Ator-Rede, buscando seus desdobramentos no campo da Psicologia para entender a construção das identidades como apostas sempre provisórias das mesclas de materialidade e socialidade que vão se processando ao longo das biografias dos humanos. Valemo-nos dos princípios Stengers-Despret, atualizados por Latour, apontando para uma epistemologia política alternativa ao fazer uma reflexão sobre o ensinar, o aprender e construir conhecimento: enquanto um processo necessariamente vinculado e sintonizado com outros; enquanto uma empreitada de riscos que leva em conta, como estratégia de sobrevivência, as recalcitrâncias em humanos e não humanos; que oferece ocasiões para diferir num movimento em que todos os envolvidos se modificam pelos efeitos que causam reciprocamente uns nos outros; enquanto uma prática plural e inclusiva, tendo, finalmente, um mundo comum como o objetivo maior destas construções.In this paper, we pose learning as a dynamic and multifaceted phenomenon, which is the product of a series of conditions emerging from a networking causality, taking body as a mediating instance between subject and the world, affecting reciprocally each other. Based on concept of translation, defended by Actor-Network Theory, we searched their unfolding in Psychology field in order to understand the construction of identities as bets, always temporaries, of materiality and sociality processed mixtures, during human biography lifetime. We used Stengers-Despret principles, brought up to date for Latour, pointing to an alternative political epistemology reflecting on teaching, learning and knowledge construction: while a

  11. Diásporas y transiciones en la Teoría del Actor-Red Diasporas and transitions in Actor-Network Theory

    Blanca Callén


    Full Text Available Este texto es una presentación del monográfico Diásporas y transiciones en la teoría del actor-red. Sus páginas presentan las principales características de esta teoría, una manera de entender sus orígenes y una descripción de su presente estableciendo un paralelismo con la etnometodología. El texto finaliza con una valoración del estado de la teoría del actor-red en España y un comentario sobre un congreso que llevó el título de Presente y futuro de la teoría del actor-red y que constituye el embrión del presente monográfico. En el texto se defiende una tesis muy simple: la teoría del actor-red nace con cierta relevancia para el pensamiento social en el momento en que se difracta en una miríada de usos y aplicaciones diferentes. El principal corolario de este hecho también es muy sencillo: la gran diferencia entre la teoría del actor-red y otras propuestas del pensamiento social es su permanente estado de diáspora y transición.
    This paper is an introduction to the monograph titled Diasporas and Transitions in the Actor-Network Theory. Drawing a parallel with ethnomethodology, its pages present the main features of this theory, a way to figure out its origins and a description of its present. The text ends with a brief look at the state of art of actor-network theory in Spain and an appraisal of a meeting titled Present and Future of Actor-Network Theory, which is the origin of our monograph. In this paper we put forward a very simple idea: Actor-Network Theory was born with certain relevance in Social Sciences when it diffracted in a myriad of different uses and applications. The main corollary of such an idea is also straightforward: the very difference between Actor-Network Theory and other perspectives in Social Sciences resides in the permanent diaspora and transition of the former.

  12. Effective Location Management of Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Nauman Aslam


    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increasing availability of heterogeneous sensor networks that consist of a large number of resource constrained nodes (sensors and a small number of powerful resource rich nodes (actors. Such heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Actor Network (WSANs offer improvement of sensor networks' capacity/coverage, energy conservation and network lifetime. This paper investigates the case where sensors are organized into clusters and mobile actors are used for maintaining an energy efficient topology by periodically manipulating their geographical position. We present an elegant technique that allows actor nodes to find an optimal geographical location with respect to their associated cluster heads such that the overall energy consumed is minimized. The proposed technique includes a weighted cost function based on the residual energy levels of cluster heads that allows the mobile actor to optimally fine-tune its geographical location. We present simulation results that demonstrate a significant increase of network lifetime over the traditional cluster based WSN deployments.

  13. Multidimensionality of Actors in Business Networks: The Influence of Social Action in Pharmacy Networks in Finland

    Steinby, Camilla


    In the markets-as-networks approach business networks are conceived as dynamic actor structures, giving focus to exchange relationships and actors’ capabilities to control and co-ordinate activities and resources. Researchers have shared an understanding that actors’ actions are crucial for the development of business networks and for network dynamics. However, researchers have mainly studied firms as business actors and excluded individuals, although both firms and individuals can be see...

  14. Using Actor Network Theory to Understand Information Security Management

    Hedström, Karin; Dhillon, Gurpreet; Karlsson, Fredrik


    This paper presents an Actor Network Theory (ANT) analysis of a computer hack at a large university. Computer hacks are usually addressed through technical means thus ensuring that perpetrators are unable to exploit system vulnerabilities. We however argue that a computer hack is a result of different events in a heterogeneous network embodying human and non-human actors. Hence a secure organizational environment is one that is characterized by 'stability' and 'social order', which is a resul...

  15. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan


    of a critical literature review and discussion. Findings – Since the early 1990s, actor-network theory, particularly the work of Bruno Latour, has inspired accounting researchers and led to a number of innovative studies of accounting phenomena. In particular, Latour's book, Science in Action, has been......Purpose – This paper aims to discuss how Bruno Latour's version of actor-network theory has influenced accounting research. It also seeks to show that Latour's writings contain unexplored potential that may inspire future accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form...... number of accounting papers that apply actor-network theory. A different sample might have given a somewhat different picture. Furthermore, it focuses on the influence of Latour's work and refrains from discussing how the writings of Michel Callon, John Law or other thinkers within the actor...

  16. The role of HR actors in knowledge networks

    Nada Zupan; Robert Kaše


    Purpose – The paper aims to examine structural positions of individuals, especially HR actors (line managers and HR specialists) within relational networks for creating and sharing knowledge and to explore implications for designing and implementing HR practices in knowledge-intensive firms (KIF). Design/methodology/approach – This article used exploratory research design conducting a single case study of a KIF. Social network analysis (SNA) – network centrality measures and visualization too...

  17. Actor-networking ceta-sociality, or, what is sociological about contemporary whales?

    Blok, Anders


    to near-sacrosanct agent, is far from self-evident. This article advocates a change of theoretical perspective, inspired by the work of actor-network theorists Bruno Latour and Michel Callon. Rather than focussing solely on the ‘humanity' of human-animal relations, as does most of sociology, actor......-network theory (ANT) allows for the inclusion of non-human ‘actants' (like whales) into the fabric of sociality. In the ontology of ANT, sociality emerges as semiotic-material configurations of humans, animals and technologies. Starting from a critical review of the work by Adrian Franklin on growing...... ‘zoocentrism' in late modernity, the article proceeds by demonstrating how an ‘ecologised' ANT sociology contributes towards a better understanding of the emergence of whale ‘actor-hood' in global society. In broader terms, the article argues that as societies themselves ecologise by weaving ever...

  18. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    Van der Laan, T.A.


    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with Watkins Q learning. They introduce deep Q networks (DQN) that learn to associate High dimensional inputs with Q values in order to produce discrete actions, allowing the system to learn complex strategi...

  19. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    Van der Laan, T.A.


    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with Watki

  20. Actor-Network Theory and Tourism : Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    Duim, van der V.R.; Ren, C.; Jóhannesson, G.T.


    The recent surfacing of actor-network theory (ANT) in tourism studies correlates to a rising interest in understanding tourism as emergent thorough relational practice connecting cultures, natures and technologies in multifarious ways. Despite the widespread application of ANT across the social scie

  1. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    Bajde, Domen


    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and propositions...

  2. Actor-Network Theory as a sociotechnical lens to explore the relationship of nurses and technology in practice: methodological considerations for nursing research.

    Booth, Richard G; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Donelle, Lorie; Compeau, Deborah


    Actor-Network Theory is a research lens that has gained popularity in the nursing and health sciences domains. The perspective allows a researcher to describe the interaction of actors (both human and non-human) within networked sociomaterial contexts, including complex practice environments where nurses and health technology operate. This study will describe Actor-Network Theory and provide methodological considerations for researchers who are interested in using this sociotechnical lens within nursing and informatics-related research. Considerations related to technology conceptualization, levels of analysis, and sampling procedures in Actor-Network Theory based research are addressed. Finally, implications for future nursing research within complex environments are highlighted. PMID:26531190

  3. Redes, atores e desenvolvimento rural: perspectivas na construção de uma abordagem relacional Networks, actors and rural development: perspectives in the construction of a relational approach

    Claudia Job Schmitt


    Full Text Available A construção de uma abordagem relacional, capaz de dar conta das complexas dinâmicas sociais que configuram o mundo rural contemporâneo, em sua diversidade, tem se constituído, sobretudo a partir da década de 80, como um desafio para as ciências sociais. Nessa direção, diferentes correntes interpretativas passaram a incorporar a noção de rede como ferramenta capaz de interligar atores, objetos, significados e práticas, no estudo dos processos de desenvolvimento rural. Este artigo busca explorar alguns dessas referências de análise, identificando elementos de convergência e pontos de descontinuidade entre diferentes perspectivas.The construction of a relational approach to the study of the complex social dynamics configuring the contemporary rural world stands, particularly after the 1980's, as a challenge for the social sciences. In this direction, different lines of interpretation incorporated the notion of network, as an analytical tool connecting actors, meanings, objects and practices, in the study of rural development processes. This article aims to explore some of these analytical frames of reference, identifying convergences and discontinuities among different perspectives.

  4. Getting to Know Your Job-A Social Actor Perspective on Using Information Technology

    Alf Westelius


    Full Text Available This article aims to develop an empirically grounded understanding of how newcomers learn to do their work and the role information systems play in this learning. Actor network theory views technology as an important actor. Information systems are built on and embody knowledge of the work and how to perform it. The influence of this actor depends on the other actors` ability to "translate" the capability of the technology into their own work setting. From a social constructionist perspective, it could be expected that the understanding and knowledge of the work is the result of mutual development of images in the group. However, this article builds on research showing that people working closely together can still hold radically different conceptions of their work. Three distinct understandings of work that are associated with different levels of competence and with different demands on the administrative information system are found. These different understandings of the work have implications both for training and for the development of information systems.

  5. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai


    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  6. Mining and Visualizing Research Networks using the Artefact-Actor-Network Approach

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Wilke, Adrian; Moi, Matthias; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter


    Reinhardt, W., Wilke, A., Moi, M., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Mining and Visualizing Research Networks using the Artefact-Actor-Network Approach. In A. Abraham (Ed.), Computational Social Networks. Mining and Visualization (pp. 233-268). Springer. Also available at

  7. Actor-Network Theory: sensitive terms and enduring tensions

    Mol, A.


    ANT is not a "theory", or, if it is, then a "theory" does not necessarily offer a coherent framework, but may as well be an adaptable, open repository. A list of terms. A set of sensitivities. If ANT is a theory, then a theory helps to tell cases, draw contrasts, articulate silent layers, turn questions upside down, focus on the unexpected, add to one’s sensitivities, propose new terms, and shift stories from one context to another. In this presentation of "Actor Network Theory" the terms "ac...




    Full Text Available Automatic recovering node failure in wireless sensor actor network to identify the cutvertex and to meet to the node failure. The network consists of many nodes that are constructed into a tree structure. Once the tree has been constructed the shortest path is found by the Aodv protocol.If a node failure occurs in the shortest path then the cut-vertex could be recovered and the data can be securely passed on to the destination in an alternative route obtained from the routing table. Heartbeat messages acknowledge the node failure. The feasible path is not found by the protocol, and then the network is divided into two or many parts. The MLeDir algorithm is used to identify the network failure and disjoint block of the network. The disjoint block is identified by the MLeDir algorithm and to rectify the disjoint block of failure network nodes. MLeDir algorithm is moving only the respective nodes from source to destination.

  9. Ship Finds and Their Management as Actor Network

    Tuddenham, David Berg


    Ship finds in Norwegian waters that are more than 100 years old came under the jurisdiction of the Cultural Heritage Management (CHM) in 1963, when section 12a of the Norwegian Cultural Heritage Act was implemented. As a consequence, a functional division between land and sea was created where management objects receive different values depending on whether or not they belong to a ship. The objective of this paper is to review Norwegian CHM underwater policy, and discuss the creation of a new management object and its borders with the introduction of a section on ship finds specifically focusing on Actor Network Theory. It is argued that the understanding of the ship find and its belongings can not be understood as something based on inherent qualities to the management object. Instead this paper proposes to comprehend the ship find as a phenomenon held together within a heterogeneous network.

  10. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili


    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  11. The Interactive Constitution of Actors in Industrial Networks: The Case of the Norwegian City of Alesund

    Frans Prenkert


    The actor-dimension of the Activitiy-Resource-Actor (ARA)-model has not gained the same attention among Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) scholars as the resource and activity dimensions. However, the issue of what an actor actually is, in the sense of its interactive constitution, is important from an industrial marketing and purchasing perspective that emphasizes the interactive character of the business landscape. This is adressed in this paper. As a concequence of their interactiv...

  12. Reassembling the Social - An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory

    Latour, Bruno


    Reassembling the Social is a fundamental challenge from one of the world's leading social theorists to how we understand society and the 'social'. Bruno Latour's contention is that the world 'social' as used by Social Scientists has become laden with assumptions to the point where it has become misnomer. When the adjective is applied to a phenomenon, it is used to indicate a stabilized state of affairs, a bundle of ties that in due course may be used to account for another phenomenon. But Latour also finds the word used as if it described a type of material, in a comparable way to an adjective such as 'wooden' or 'steely'. Rather than simply indicating what is already assembled together, it is now used in a way that makes assumptions about the nature of what is assembled. It has become a word that designates two distinct things: a process of assembling: and a type of material, distinct from others. Latour shows why 'the social' cannot be thought of as a kind of material or domain, and disputes attempts to provide a 'social explanation' of other states of affairs. While these attempts have been productive (and probably necessary) in the past, the very success of the social sciences mean that they are largely no longer so. At the present stage it is no longer possible to inspect the precise constituents entering the social domain. Latour returns to the original meaning of 'the social' to redefine the notion and allow it to trace connections again. It will then be possible to resume the traditional goal of the social sciences, but using more refined tools. Drawing on his extensive work examining the 'assemblages' of nature, Latour finds it necessary to scrutinize thoroughly the exact content of what is assembled under the umbrella of Society. This approach, a 'sociology of associations' has become known as Actor-Network-Theory, and this book is an essential introduction both for those seeking to understand Actor-Network-Theory, or the ideas of one of its most

  13. Actor Network Theory Approach and its Application in Investigating Agricultural Climate Information System

    Maryam Sharifzadeh


    Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.

  14. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna


    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups. PMID:26184275

  15. Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Nazir Ahmad Zafar


    Full Text Available Maintaining inter-actor connectivity is extremely crucial in mission-critical applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs, as actors have to quickly plan optimal coordinated responses to detected events. Failure of a critical actor partitions the inter-actor network into disjoint segments besides leaving a coverage hole, and thus hinders the network operation. This paper presents a Partitioning detection and Connectivity Restoration (PCR algorithm to tolerate critical actor failure. As part of pre-failure planning, PCR determines critical/non-critical actors based on localized information and designates each critical node with an appropriate backup (preferably non-critical. The pre-designated backup detects the failure of its primary actor and initiates a post-failure recovery process that may involve coordinated multi-actor relocation. To prove the correctness, we construct a formal specification of PCR using Z notation. We model WSAN topology as a dynamic graph and transform PCR to corresponding formal specification using Z notation. Formal specification is analyzed and validated using the Z Eves tool. Moreover, we simulate the specification to quantitatively analyze the efficiency of PCR. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of PCR and the results shown that it outperforms contemporary schemes found in the literature.

  16. A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Lee, Yunho; Lee, Soojin


    Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have bee...

  17. Clarifying the role of actor network theory (ANT) for the accounting of information system in Iran

    DEHKORDI, Bahareh Banitalebi; ROODPOSHTI, Fraydoon Rahnamay; NIKOMARAM, Hashem; TALEBNIA, Ghodratollah


    Abstract. In this research is paid to clarify the role of actor network theory (ANT) for the accounting of information system in Iran with the aim of the determining of the human and non-human actors effective on the accounting information systems, the analysis of relationships between the human and non-human actors on the net and to determine the effective factors on the accounting information systems in terms of types of actors for the first time in Iran. In this research which is done in t...

  18. Trustful Relations : a Perspective on Trust in Actor Relations in Forestry

    Egestad, P.S.


    This work has proposed, exemplified and discussed an existential perspective on trust in actor relations in forestry. The background that has caused the inquiry into social relations is the changes that are taking place in forestry to

  19. Essays on actor models in exchange networks and social dilemmas

    Assen, Marcus Adrianus Leonardus Maria van


    A central problem in economics and sociology is that of explaining or predicting phenomena at the macro-level. One possible mode of explanation or prediction of macro-level phenomena entails examining processes internal to the system that involve actors at the micro-level. In this dissertation complexities were added to the model of the actor on the micro-level in order to better predict and understand two macro-level phenomena that receive a lot of attention in social science research in gen...

  20. Networks: An Economic Perspective

    Jackson, Matthew O; Zenou, Yves


    We discuss social network analysis from the perspective of economics. We organize the presentaion around the theme of externalities: the effects that one's behavior has on others' well-being. Externalities underlie the interdependencies that make networks interesting. We discuss network formation, as well as interactions between peoples' behaviors within a given network, and the implications in a variety of settings. Finally, we highlight some empirical challenges inherent in the statistical analysis of network-based data.

  1. A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Lee, Yunho


    Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have been proposed which adds greater mobility and activity to the existing sensor networks. Although WSANs share many common grounds with sensor networks, it is difficult to apply existing security technologies due to the fact that WSANs contain actor nodes that are resource-independent and mobile. Therefore, this research seeks to demonstrate ways to provide security, integrity, and authentication services for WSANs secure operation, by separating networks into hierarchical structure by each node's abilities and provides differ...

  2. Theorising big IT programmes in healthcare: strong structuration theory meets actor-network theory.

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob


    The UK National Health Service is grappling with various large and controversial IT programmes. We sought to develop a sharper theoretical perspective on the question "What happens - at macro-, meso- and micro-level - when government tries to modernise a health service with the help of big IT?" Using examples from data fragments at the micro-level of clinical work, we considered how structuration theory and actor-network theory (ANT) might be combined to inform empirical investigation. Giddens (1984) argued that social structures and human agency are recursively linked and co-evolve. ANT studies the relationships that link people and technologies in dynamic networks. It considers how discourses become inscribed in data structures and decision models of software, making certain network relations irreversible. Stones' (2005) strong structuration theory (SST) is a refinement of Giddens' work, systematically concerned with empirical research. It views human agents as linked in dynamic networks of position-practices. A quadripartite approcach considers [a] external social structures (conditions for action); [b] internal social structures (agents' capabilities and what they 'know' about the social world); [c] active agency and actions and [d] outcomes as they feed back on the position-practice network. In contrast to early structuration theory and ANT, SST insists on disciplined conceptual methodology and linking this with empirical evidence. In this paper, we adapt SST for the study of technology programmes, integrating elements from material interactionism and ANT. We argue, for example, that the position-practice network can be a socio-technical one in which technologies in conjunction with humans can be studied as 'actants'. Human agents, with their complex socio-cultural frames, are required to instantiate technology in social practices. Structurally relevant properties inscribed and embedded in technological artefacts constrain and enable human agency. The fortunes

  3. The Influence of the Actor Network on the Innovative Process of Transgenic Soybean in Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil

    Doriana Daroit


    Full Text Available Rio Grande do Sul was the first Brazilian state to plant genetically modified soybean. The sowing occurred in 1998 with Roundup Ready soybean seeds from Monsanto smuggled from Argentina. The aim of this study is to investigate how this innovative process of planting transgenic soybean came about in Rio Grande do Sul based on the actor network involved in the period 1998 to 2003. Although the innovative process has been discussed in the literature on innovation management since the work of Schumpeter, there is still no clear understanding of the issues of interests and power that involve the innovative process. Given this, from within the literature we have sought a perspective that would understand the innovative process as being political. We adopted Actor Network Theory as a base for the discussion of the primary and secondary data obtained regarding the controversy surrounding transgenic soybean in RS. The results point to the existence of two translation chains that contribute towards the formation of actor networks.

  4. Pessoas sem voz, redes indizíveis e grupos descartáveis: os limites da teoria do actor-rede Voiceless people, unnamable networks and disposable groups: the limits of actor-network theory

    José Manuel de Oliveira Mendes


    Full Text Available Neste artigo procede-se a uma reflexão crítica sobre a teoria do actor-rede de Michel Callon e Bruno Latour. Salienta-se a necessidade de incorporar no estudo do social as emoções e a imponderabilidade.Tendo como referência a análise de situações de catástrofe ou de acontecimentos extremos, propõe-se uma reflexão sobre o trabalho político que coloca fora das redes sociais, como irrecuperáveis e descartáveis, todos os que não criam ou não possuem valor na perspectiva hegemónica e que, por conseguinte, não são construídos como portadores de direitos sociais e políticos, tornando-se invisíveis e ausentes das análises convencionais propostas pela teoria do actor-rede.In this paper a critical analysis of Bruno Latour and Michel Callon’s actor-network theory is proposed. It is argued that studies about the social must incorporate emotions and imponderability. Focusing on the analysis of catastrophes and extreme events, a reflection on the political work that excludes from the social networks, as irretrievable and disposable, all those that do not create or do not carry value in the hegemonic perspective and, therefore, are not construed as having social and political rights is presented. These irretrievable and disposable persons and groups become invisible and absent in the conventional analyses proposed by actor-network theory.

  5. Hydraulic and marine energies. Market evolution and perspectives on the medium term for the sector actors

    In its first part, this report proposes an analysis of the hydraulic and marine energy sector and of its perspectives through the identification of its main activity determining factors, a presentation of the activity evolution until 2015, and a discussion of the process of concession renewal, and of the development of small hydroelectric projects. The second part presents and comments the financial performance of enterprises belonging to the sector, and the third part an overview of highlights and of development focuses of operators (increase of production capacities, concession renewals, international development, and diversification in other renewable energies). The third part reports an analysis of the sector context: structural brakes and drivers, hydraulic world market, hydraulic French market. The three last parts propose an analysis of the sector economic structure and of actors, data sheet for operators, equipment manufacturers and engineering companies, and economic and financial indicators for 192 operators which allow a comparative overview of these actors

  6. Illuminating the Dark Side of the Internet with Actor-Network Theory: An Integrative Review of Current Cybercrime Research

    Rocci Luppicini


    Full Text Available Cybercrime is a relatively new area of research within criminology and media studies. The purpose of this paper is to pull together current research scholarship at the intersection of Actor-Network Theory (ANT and cybercrime by addressing the following question: How does ANT apply to cybercrime research? A selective integrative review of cybercrime research utilizing ANT was conducted to examine recent developments and identify trends. The review draws on core research papers that span 2002 to 2013. Findings provided a strong indication of ANT’s role in key areas of current cybercrime, namely, cyber bullying, cyber theft, and cyber terrorism and cyber espionage. More specifically, ANT was applied within cyber criminology research to address complex problems involving human-technological interactions, advance alternative models and theoretical perspectives, compare ANT with existing models and theoretical perspectives, and leverage understanding of network influences on actors. Recommendations are provided to help optimize the application of ANT to cybercrime research and practice. This paper helps advance knowledge at the intersection of ANT and the study of cyber criminology.

  7. Using Actor-Network Theory to Understanding Virtual Community Networks of Older People Using the Internet

    Jerzy Lepa


    Full Text Available Older people around the world are adopting the Internet at an increasing rate, and in the process are forming virtual community networks in a way that would not otherwise have been possible. Internet interactions by this group include e-mail, chat groups, community forums and discussion groups as well as the individual use of the Web for information purposes. Some of these virtual networks relate older people to other older people, while other networks span age groups as when, for instance, a grandmother communicates by e-mail with her grandchildren. But linking to the Internet is not always straightforward as family members, friends and the technology, along with other non-human actors, often intrude. This highlights the socio-technical nature of these networks and the need to investigate them in a way that allows this to be seen. To attempt an understanding of the formation and operation of virtual networks of older people, and the interactions involved, a socio-technical approach is required and this paper will attempt such an analysis based on research, in an Australian context, undertaken by the authors.

  8. Extended mind and after: socially extended mind and actor-network.

    Kono, Tetsuya


    The concept of extended mind has been impressively developed over the last 10 years by many philosophers and cognitive scientists. The extended mind thesis (EM) affirms that the mind is not simply ensconced inside the head, but extends to the whole system of brain-body-environment. Recently, some philosophers and psychologists try to adapt the idea of EM to the domain of social cognition research. Mind is socially extended (SEM). However, EM/SEM theory has problems to analyze the interactions among a subject and its surroundings with opposition, antagonism, or conflict; it also tends to think that the environment surrounding the subject is passive or static, and to neglect the power of non-human actants to direct and regulate the human subject. In these points, actor-network theory (ANT) proposed by Latour and Callon is more persuasive, while sharing some important ideas with EM/SEM theory. Actor-network is a hybrid community which is composed of a series of heterogeneous elements, animate and inanimate for a certain period of time. I shall conclude that EM/SEM could be best analyzed as a special case of actor-network. EM/SEM is a system which can be controlled by a human agent alone. In order to understand collective behavior, philosophy and psychology have to study the actor-network in which human individuals are situated. PMID:23975479

  9. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Ahn, Song-ee


    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  10. Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives.

    Joel, Daphna; Niv, Yael; Ruppin, Eytan


    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor-critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and learning guided by a prediction error signal in the actor. We selectively review several actor-critic models of the basal ganglia with an emphasis on two important aspects: the way in which models of the critic reproduce the temporal dynamics of dopamine firing, and the extent to which models of the actor take into account known basal ganglia anatomy and physiology. To complement the efforts to relate basal ganglia mechanisms to reinforcement learning (RL), we introduce an alternative approach to modeling a critic network, which uses Evolutionary Computation techniques to 'evolve' an optimal RL mechanism, and relate the evolved mechanism to the basic model of the critic. We conclude our discussion of models of the critic by a critical discussion of the anatomical plausibility of implementations of a critic in basal ganglia circuitry, and conclude that such implementations build on assumptions that are inconsistent with the known anatomy of the basal ganglia. We return to the actor component of the actor-critic model, which is usually modeled at the striatal level with very little detail. We describe an alternative model of the basal ganglia which takes into account several important, and previously neglected, anatomical and physiological characteristics of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connectivity and suggests that the basal ganglia performs reinforcement-biased dimensionality reduction of cortical inputs. We further suggest that since such selective encoding may bias the representation at the level of the frontal cortex towards the selection of rewarded

  11. Management in Networks On multi-actor decision making

    de Bruijn, Hans


    Getting what you want - even if you are the boss - isn't always easy. Almost every organization, big or small, works among a network of competing interests. Whether it's governments pushing through policies, companies trying to increase profits, or even families deciding where to move house, rarely can decisions be made in isolation from competing interests both within the organization and outside it. In this accessible and straightforward account, Hans de Bruijn and Ernst ten Heuvelhof cast light on multi-stakeholder decision-making. Shunning simplistic model talk, they reveal the nuts and bo

  12. Editorial of the Special Issue on Human-Technology Interaction and Technology Adoption: Exploring Frameworks other than Actor-Network Theory

    Tanev, Stoyan


    Actor-network theory (ANT) has established itself as a valuable resource for the analysis of technology innovation and adoption. One of the main reasons for the success of the Innovation Translation Model (a specific instantiation of ANT) is the fact that it fits very well the emerging dominance of ecosystem or multiple stakeholder perspectives on technology development and technology adoption. At the same time the variety of technology adoption contexts would easily undermine the credibility...

  13. American Long-Distance Locomobility and the Spaces of Actor-Network Theory

    Michael Minn


    Full Text Available Much of the discourse surrounding national intercity passenger rail service in the United States revolves around why it has lagged so far behind European and Asian counterparts. However, a more interesting question might be why it has survived despite competition from faster, more nimble transport modes, discriminatory public policy, and the ascension of neoliberal discourse hostile to public endeavor. This paper uses the concept of durability in actor-network theory to offer some insights into how the system has achieved a remarkable but problematic stability, and how that durability relates to an imagined role for national intercity passenger rail in a future of increasingly constrained material resources. This paper also demonstrates the application of actor-network theory (ANT in a way that can serve as a useful introduction to and template for the use of that methodology.

  14. Monitoring communication outbreaks among an unknown team of actors in dynamic networks

    Sparks, Ross


    This paper investigates the detection of communication outbreaks among a small team of actors in time-varying networks. We propose monitoring plans for known and unknown teams based on generalizations of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) statistic. For unknown teams, we propose an efficient neighborhood-based search to estimate a collection of candidate teams. This procedure dramatically reduces the computational complexity of an exhaustive search. Our procedure consists of two steps: communication counts between actors are first smoothed using a multivariate EWMA strategy. Densely connected teams are identified as candidates using a neighborhood search approach. These candidate teams are then monitored using a surveillance plan derived from a generalized EWMA statistic. Monitoring plans are established for collaborative teams, teams with a dominant leader, as well as for global outbreaks. We consider weighted heterogeneous dynamic networks, where the expected communication count between each p...


    Yohann Rech


    Full Text Available Actor-network theory (ANT shows how scientific and technical innovations may take the form of a socio-technical network, by the aggregation of humans and non-humans (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1989. This article reflects on the contributions and limits of ANT to examine a particular object of research presenting regular innovations: the outdoor recreation. Firstly, the integration of non-humans to the analysis (Latour, 2006 is relevant in the study of nature sports because physical entities transform the action and involve specific associations. Then it is a particular epistemological positioning that shakes the dichotomies up and givesimportance to the reflexive activity of actors. Finally, understanding the development of collectives is useful for the study of nature sports. The construction of a social coexistence between different activities (sports activities and other activities strongly questions the political transformation of contemporary democracy, including the establishment of a participatory management.

  16. Symmetrical twins: On the relationship between Actor-Network theory and the sociology of critical capacities

    Guggenheim, Michael; Pottast, Joerg


    This article explores the elective affinities between Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and the sociology of critical capacities. It argues that these two research programmes can be understood as symmetrical twins. We show the extent to which the exchange between Bruno Latour and Luc Boltanski has influenced their respective theoretical developments. Three strong encounters between the twin research programmes may be distinguished. The first encounter concerns explanations for social change. The sec...

  17. Restructuring and territorial governance: the contribution of actor-network theory

    Antoine, Mélanie; Dalon, Gelica


    The aim of this paper is to shed light, in an exploratory manner, on the role of the choices made in terms of governance in reorganisation projects initiated on territories affected by companies' restructuring. Actor-network theory is used to analyse the dynamics present on three territories concerned by the restructuring of a same company. It allows to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the territorial reorganisation's modes of management and to highlight their decisive influence on th...

  18. Bruno Latour, actor-networks, and the critique of critical sociology

    Spasić Ivana


    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical opus of Bruno Latour and his treatment of the concept of critique. In the first section "actor-network theory" is presented through its key notions (actant, network, translation, associations together with Latour’s theory of modernity. In the second section various aspects of the relation between Latour and critique are discussed - first his own criticism of others (standard sociology and especially "critical", i.e. Bourdieu’s sociology, then the criticisms aimed at his work, to conclude with the political ambivalences of Latour’s attempt to develop an "acritical" social theory. .

  19. Reputation management in online social networks for governmental actors: opportunities and threats

    Diana-Maria CISMARU


    The paper discusses the role of social networks as factors of restoring and maintaining balance in a system of communication marked of conflicts and biased attitudes. Online social networks offer for governmental actors the possibility to interact in a two-way model with publics, transforming “politics” in “policies” by stimulating feed-back and participation. The data was collected from an empirical case, a project of reputation management for a minister in a former government in a South-Eas...

  20. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  1. Social Capital In Networks Of Software SME's: A Relationship Value Perspective

    Westerlund, M.; Svahn, S


    Utilizing theories on social capital, business networks and relationship value, we explore the aspects that provide value in relationships with different actors in the software industry. IVe take the focal perspective of a software vendor and classify its relationships with actors into three distinctive types bv the function in their valuecreating network. The study is guided bv the premise that some relationships related to supply, distribution or supporting the business are more important t...

  2. Worlds Apart: A Social Theoretical Exploration of Local Networks, Natural Actors, and Practitioners of Rural Development in Southern Honduras

    Brian J. Gareau


    This paper explores the importance of incorporating the socioecological realities of alternative networks into analyses of rural development. Cultural theory is examined, which provides a base upon which rural development can identify difference in worldviews based on difference in sociological conditions and environmental phenomena. Actor-oriented theory problematizes the ideal types of cultural theory, providing a means of give-and-take between actors’ worldviews of different networks. Ac...

  3. Validation of networks derived from snowball sampling of municipal science education actors

    von der Fehr, Ane; Sølberg, Jan; Bruun, Jesper


    Social network analysis (SNA) has been used in many educational studies in the past decade, but what these studies have in common is that the populations in question in most cases are defined and known to the researchers studying the networks. Snowball sampling is an SNA methodology most often used...... to study hidden populations, for example, groups of homosexual people, drug users or people with sexually transmitted diseases. By use of a snowball sampling approach, this study mapped municipal social networks of educational actors, who were otherwise hidden to the researchers. Subsequently, the...... populations in educational settings, but also that qualitative studies are needed in order to interpret the networks in real-life contexts....

  4. The social value of biodiversity and ecosystem services from the perspectives of different social actors


    Full Text Available A vast literature is now available on ecosystem services (ES, their potential as a tool for analyzing intertwined processes of ecological and social change, and their monetary valuation. Much less is known about the social value of different ES for different social actors (SA, and their links with specific components of biodiversity. We unpack the social aspects of an interdisciplinary and multi-SA methodology that allows us to assess how different SA perceive and value different ES, and how they associate them with different components of biodiversity, ecological attributes, and ecosystem types. We apply the methodology to a study area in the Gran Chaco region of South America, presenting original social-ecological information from the field. Being affected by the rapid and widespread expansion of agribusiness over the woody ecosystems of southern South America, this location provides a policy-relevant context in which to test our approach. We identified six major ecosystem types and five relevant SA. We carried out 163 individual in-depth interviews and ran seven single-actor focus groups. We identified 116 ES, which were then aggregated into 22 more general categories. Although all SA perceived all ecosystem types as multifunctional, they showed markedly different perceptions of and interests in the ES provided by them. Subsistence farmers and extension officers valued a large number of ES primarily provided by the most pristine ecosystems. Members of conservation agencies and policymakers also identified a wide range of ES, spanning all ecosystem types. However, large farmers and cattle ranchers recognized a dependency on only a small number of ES. Therefore, the rapid expansion of agribusiness occurring in this region is a threat to a large number of ES considered valuable by a wide range of SA. Without necessarily having to resort to monetary valuation, our methodology provides a rigorous quantitative-qualitative way to compare the

  5. A spiking neural network model of an actor-critic learning agent.

    Potjans, Wiebke; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus


    The ability to adapt behavior to maximize reward as a result of interactions with the environment is crucial for the survival of any higher organism. In the framework of reinforcement learning, temporal-difference learning algorithms provide an effective strategy for such goal-directed adaptation, but it is unclear to what extent these algorithms are compatible with neural computation. In this article, we present a spiking neural network model that implements actor-critic temporal-difference learning by combining local plasticity rules with a global reward signal. The network is capable of solving a nontrivial gridworld task with sparse rewards. We derive a quantitative mapping of plasticity parameters and synaptic weights to the corresponding variables in the standard algorithmic formulation and demonstrate that the network learns with a similar speed to its discrete time counterpart and attains the same equilibrium performance. PMID:19196231

  6. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen


    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  7. Disconnection of the ‘organic’ food production from the ‘organic network’? - A Danish actor network case study

    Noe, Egon


    The Danish case of organic agriculture is generally regarded as a success story. But the enrolment of new actors and the growing economic interest may lead to a change of the ideological foundation of organic agriculture. The scope of this paper is to explore what happens to organic agriculture through the process of dissemination of the organic mode of farming and enrolment of conventional farmers into organic farming from an Actor Network Theory (ANT) approach. This is explored through an i...

  8. Reputation management in online social networks for governmental actors: opportunities and threats

    Diana-Maria CISMARU


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of social networks as factors of restoring and maintaining balance in a system of communication marked of conflicts and biased attitudes. Online social networks offer for governmental actors the possibility to interact in a two-way model with publics, transforming “politics” in “policies” by stimulating feed-back and participation. The data was collected from an empirical case, a project of reputation management for a minister in a former government in a South-Eastern European country. Findings show that social networks’ communication might have a strong internal and external impact, but the extent of the impact depends on several independent factors, as the previous reputation or the media agenda.

  9. Complex networks an algorithmic perspective

    Erciyes, Kayhan


    Network science is a rapidly emerging field of study that encompasses mathematics, computer science, physics, and engineering. A key issue in the study of complex networks is to understand the collective behavior of the various elements of these networks.Although the results from graph theory have proven to be powerful in investigating the structures of complex networks, few books focus on the algorithmic aspects of complex network analysis. Filling this need, Complex Networks: An Algorithmic Perspective supplies the basic theoretical algorithmic and graph theoretic knowledge needed by every r

  10. Contracting private sector providers for public sector health services in Jalisco, Mexico: perspectives of system actors

    González Luz


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Contracting out health services is a strategy that many health systems in the developing world are following, despite the lack of decisive evidence that this is the best way to improve quality, increase efficiency and expand coverage. A large body of literature has appeared in recent years focusing on the results of several contracting strategies, but very few papers have addressed aspects of the managerial process and how this can affect results. Case description This paper describes and analyses the perceptions and opinions of managers and workers about the benefits and challenges of the contracting model that has been in place for almost 10 years in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Both qualitative and quantitative information was collected. An open-ended questionnaire was used to obtain information from a group of managers, while information provided by a self-selected group of workers was collected via a closed-ended questionnaire. The analysis contrasted the information obtained from each source. Discussion and Evaluation Findings show that perceptions of managers and workers vary for most of the items studied. For managers the model has been a success, as it has allowed for expansion of coverage based on a cost-effective strategy, while for workers the model also possesses positive elements but fails to provide fair labour relationships, which negatively affects their performance. Conclusion Perspectives of the two main groups of actors in Jalisco's contracting model are important in the design and adjustment of an adequate contracting model that includes managerial elements to give incentives to worker performance, a key element necessary to achieve the model's ultimate objectives. Lessons learnt from this study could be relevant for the experience of contracting models in other developing countries.

  11. Multirate parallel distributed compensation of a cluster in wireless sensor and actor networks

    Yang, Chun-xi; Huang, Ling-yun; Zhang, Hao; Hua, Wang


    The stabilisation problem for one of the clusters with bounded multiple random time delays and packet dropouts in wireless sensor and actor networks is investigated in this paper. A new multirate switching model is constructed to describe the feature of this single input multiple output linear system. According to the difficulty of controller design under multi-constraints in multirate switching model, this model can be converted to a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. By designing a multirate parallel distributed compensation, a sufficient condition is established to ensure this closed-loop fuzzy control system to be globally exponentially stable. The solution of the multirate parallel distributed compensation gains can be obtained by solving an auxiliary convex optimisation problem. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show, compared with solving switching controller, multirate parallel distributed compensation can be obtained easily. Furthermore, it has stronger robust stability than arbitrary switching controller and single-rate parallel distributed compensation under the same conditions.

  12. Ethics in actor networks, or: what Latour could learn from Darwin and Dewey.

    Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp


    In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense. PMID:23371512

  13. On Efficient Link Recommendation in Social Networks Using Actor-Fact Matrices

    Michał Ciesielczyk


    Full Text Available Link recommendation is a popular research subject in the field of social network analysis and mining. Often, the main emphasis is put on the development of new recommendation algorithms, semantic enhancements to existing solutions, design of new similarity measures, and so forth. However, relatively little scientific attention has been paid to the impact that various data representation models have on the performance of recommendation algorithms. And by performance we do not mean the time or memory efficiency of algorithms, but the precision and recall of recommender systems. Our recent findings unanimously show that the choice of network representation model has an important and measurable impact on the quality of recommendations. In this paper we argue that the computation quality of link recommendation algorithms depends significantly on the social network representation and we advocate the use of actor-fact matrix as the best alternative. We verify our findings using several state-of-the-art link recommendation algorithms, such as SVD, RSVD, and RRI using both single-relation and multirelation dataset.

  14. Modeling and Analyzing Gene Co-Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Actor-Semiotic Networks and Centrality Signatures

    David C.Y. Fung


    Full Text Available Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is currently the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Because of its high prevalence in developing nations, there have been numerous efforts made in the molecular characterization of primary HCC. However, a better understanding into the pathology of HCC required software-assisted network modeling and analysis. In this paper, the author presented his first attempt in exploring the biological implication of gene co-expression in HCC using actor-semiotic network modeling and analysis. The network was first constructed by integrating inter-actor relationships, e.g. gene co-expression, microRNA-to-gene, and protein interactions, with semiotic relationships, e.g. gene-to-Gene Ontology Process. Topological features that are highly discriminative of the HCC phenotype were identified by visual inspection. Finally, the author devised a graph signature- based analysis method to supplement the network exploration.

  15. Research Note: The consequences of different methods for handling missing network data in Stochastic Actor Based Models

    Hipp, John R.; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T.; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M.


    Although stochastic actor based models (e.g., as implemented in the SIENA software program) are growing in popularity as a technique for estimating longitudinal network data, a relatively understudied issue is the consequence of missing network data for longitudinal analysis. We explore this issue in our research note by utilizing data from four schools in an existing dataset (the AddHealth dataset) over three time points, assessing the substantive consequences of using four different strateg...

  16. Workplace bullying as sensemaking: An analysis of target and actor perspectives on initial hostile interactions

    Zábrodská, Kateřina; Ellwood, C.; Zaemdaar, S.; Mudrák, Jiří


    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2016), s. 136-157. ISSN 1475-9551 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP407/10/P146; GA ČR GA14-02098S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : workplace bullying * workplace hostility * sensemaking * target * actor * collective biography * stories Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2014

  17. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth


    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  18. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances’ in research on mobile learning

    Wright, Steve; Parchoma, Gale


    How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-network...

  19. Illuminating the Dark Side of the Internet with Actor-Network Theory: An Integrative Review of Current Cybercrime Research

    Rocci Luppicini


    Cybercrime is a relatively new area of research within criminology and media studies. The purpose of this paper is to pull together current research scholarship at the intersection of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and cybercrime by addressing the following question: How does ANT apply to cybercrime research? A selective integrative review of cybercrime research utilizing ANT was conducted to examine recent developments and identify trends. The review draws on core research papers that span 2002 ...

  20. Connecting to Global Production Networks: Challenges for Regional Actors in Northern Norway

    Trond Nilsen


    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Northern Norway has been perceived as a land of opportunity. Announcements of offshore oil and gas discoveries off the coast of Finnmark have contributed to increased market activity in related sectors like service and construction. However, regional firms continue to score at the bottom of innovation indexes and seldom compete on international markets. Based on in-depth interviews with representatives from key businesses in three sectors in Northern Norway, we examine the bottlenecks that have prevented these firms from gaining new market positions through the interplay of these regional firms and agencies with the Global Production Network (GPN. We adopt the concept of “strategic coupling” and explore whether an actor approach can contribute to an improved understanding of this relationship. The paper demonstrates that regional strategies and public policy differ between the sectors. Public policy is important for regional firms within the petroleum sector. However, the funds available for regional firms continue to be limited due to the size and relevance of the measures. In the construction sector, public policy instruments are important, but not sufficiently adapted to the challenges these firms face. While the petroleum sector receives support and backing from regional agencies in order to connect to GPN, the wind power sector is actively hindered by the same agencies. The former have the opportunity to take part in new regional path creation; the latter have experienced a lack of strategic cooperation and face the risk of reducing strategic couplings to GPN, leading to path dependent processes that lock these firms into traditional and low-tech sectors.

  1. Editorial of the Special Issue on Human-Technology Interaction and Technology Adoption: Exploring Frameworks other than Actor-Network Theory

    Tanev, Stoyan


    Actor-network theory (ANT) has established itself as a valuable resource for the analysis of technology innovation and adoption. One of the main reasons for the success of the Innovation Translation Model (a specific instantiation of ANT) is the fact that it fits very well the emerging dominance of...... ecosystem or multiple stakeholder perspectives on technology development and technology adoption. At the same time the variety of technology adoption contexts would easily undermine the credibility of any methodology pretending to possess the ability to adequately address all possible contexts and research...... challenges. This is why in this special issue we have focused on exploring, in parallel to ANT, other approaches that have also proven valuable in studying technology adoption and human-technology interaction. Some of these approaches share significant common ground with ANT. They also diverge in some...

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility in Garment Sourcing Networks: Factory Management Perspectives on Ethical Trade in Sri Lanka

    Perry, P.; Wood, SM; Fernie, J


    With complex buyer-driven global production networks and a labour-intensive manufacturing process, the fashion industry has become a focal point for debates on the social responsibility of business. Utilising an interview methodology with influential actors from seven export garment manufacturers in Sri Lanka, we explore the situated knowledge at one nodal point of the production network. We conceptualise factory management perspectives on the implementation of corporate social responsibility...

  3. Network structures as a model of interaction between state and non-state actors in EU foreign policy

    Sinegubov Alexey Leonidovich


    Full Text Available This article studies the role of network structures in EU foreign policy. The role of networks in functioning of EU is analyzed as the model of interaction between state and non-state actors in contemporary world politics. Some studies, including the project of National Intelligence Council of USA, demonstrate that there is a tendency of growing influence of non-state actors. The model of interaction that has developed in EU can be considered as a model of the future. That’s why the type of force used by EU is called “post-modern”. This model is conductive to wide use of “soft power” and some of its variants including “normative” and “network” power. Quasi-federal character of EU’s structure, whiсh is characterized by many intersecting and delegated sovereign functions, is a reason of appearance of the analyzed model. Network practices and network technologies are widely used in the process of developing and realization of EU’s policy on three levels: 1 development and realization of EU’s general policy; 2 the policy of EU’s enlargement and deeper integration of the newcomers into Europe’s life; 3 the neighborhood policy and “Europeanization” of neighboring to EU states that cannot become EU members. The last dimension of EU policy causes a conflict with Russia, which makes this analysis politically relevant.

  4. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.


    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...

  5. Positive Development, Sense of Belonging, and Support of Peers among Early Adolescents: Perspectives of Different Actors

    Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle


    Trusting relationships at school and within other social networks emerge as protective factors that are crucial to the positive development of early adolescents. School is one of the critical environments where they can develop a sense of belonging. This study involved 20 qualitative interviews with school staff and youth workers recruited from…

  6. Teachers' professional development in a community: A study of the central actors, their networks and web-based learning

    Jiri Lallimo


    Full Text Available The goal of this article was to study teachers' professional development related to web-based learning in the context of the teacher community. The object was to learn in what kind of networks teachers share the knowledge of web-based learning and what are the factors in the community that support or challenge teachers professional development of web-based learning. The findings of the study revealed that there are teachers who are especially active, called the central actors in this study, in the teacher community who collaborate and share knowledge of web-based learning. These central actors share both technical and pedagogical knowledge of web-based learning in networks that include both internal and external relations in the community and involve people, artefacts and a variety of media. Furthermore, the central actors appear to bridge different fields of teaching expertise in their community.According to the central actors' experiences the important factors that support teachers' professional development of web-based learning in the community are; the possibility to learn from colleagues and from everyday working practices, an emotionally safe atmosphere, the leader's personal support and community-level commitment. Also, the flexibility in work planning, challenging pupils, shared lessons with colleagues, training events in an authentic work environment and colleagues' professionalism are considered meaningful for professional development. As challenges, the knowledge sharing of web-based learning in the community needs mutual interests, transactive memory, time and facilities, peer support, a safe atmosphere and meaningful pedagogical practices.On the basis of the findings of the study it is suggested that by intensive collaboration related to web-based learning it may be possible to break the boundaries of individual teachership and create such sociocultural activities which support collaborative professional development in the teacher

  7. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar


    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  8. Learning about a fish from an ANT: actor network theory and science education in the postgenomic era

    Pierce, Clayton


    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by the FDA, AquaBounty Technologies' AquAdvantage® salmon, as a vehicle for exploring the ways in which the biosciences have fundamentally altered the boundary between nature and culture and thus the way the public understands both. In response to the new challenges of a postgenomic society, I outline three frameworks for using ANT literacies in classroom settings. Each frame, I argue, is foundational to the development of a scientific literacy that can trace and map actors involved in controversies such as the AquAdvantage® salmon. In examining these frames I follow the actor of a salmon through an environmental history lens, the technoscientific literacy operating in AquaBounty's FDA application and the National Academies new science education framework, and finally to a model of democracy rooted in an ethic of the common. The ultimate claim of this article is that until science education (and education in general) can begin to include nonhumans such as the AquAdvantage® salmon as part of a common political framework, students, educators, and community members will continue to be at the mercy of experts and corporate stakeholders for defining the terms in which people heal, feed, and educate themselves now and in the future.

  9. Networks in Action: New Actors and Practices in Education Policy in Brazil

    Shiroma, Eneida Oto


    This paper focuses on the role of networks in the policy-making process in education and discusses the potential of network analysis as an analytical tool for education policy research. Drawing on publically available data from personal or institutional websites, this paper reports the findings from research carried out between 2005 and 2011.…

  10. Actor-network procedures: Modeling multi-factor authentication, device pairing, social interactions

    Pavlovic, Dusko


    As computation spreads from computers to networks of computers, and migrates into cyberspace, it ceases to be globally programmable, but it remains programmable indirectly: network computations cannot be controlled, but they can be steered by local constraints on network nodes. The tasks of "programming" global behaviors through local constraints belong to the area of security. The "program particles" that assure that a system of local interactions leads towards some desired global goals are called security protocols. As computation spreads beyond cyberspace, into physical and social spaces, new security tasks and problems arise. As networks are extended by physical sensors and controllers, including the humans, and interlaced with social networks, the engineering concepts and techniques of computer security blend with the social processes of security. These new connectors for computational and social software require a new "discipline of programming" of global behaviors through local constraints. Since the n...

  11. Collaboration and entanglement: An actor-network theory analysis of team-based intraprofessional care for patients with advanced heart failure.

    McDougall, A; Goldszmidt, M; Kinsella, E A; Smith, S; Lingard, L


    Despite calls for more interprofessional and intraprofessional team-based approaches in healthcare, we lack sufficient understanding of how this happens in the context of patient care teams. This multi-perspective, team-based interview study examined how medical teams negotiated collaborative tensions. From 2011 to 2013, 50 patients across five sites in three Canadian provinces were interviewed about their care experiences and were asked to identify members of their health care teams. Patient-identified team members were subsequently interviewed to form 50 "Team Sampling Units" (TSUs), consisting of 209 interviews with patients, caregivers and healthcare providers. Results are gathered from a focused analysis of 13 TSUs where intraprofessional collaborative tensions involved treating fluid overload, or edema, a common HF symptom. Drawing on actor-network theory (ANT), the analysis focused on intraprofessional collaboration between specialty care teams in cardiology and nephrology. The study found that despite a shared narrative of common purpose between cardiology teams and nephrology teams, fluid management tools and techniques formed sites of collaborative tension. In particular, care activities involved asynchronous clinical interpretations, geographically distributed specialist care, fragmented forms of communication, and uncertainty due to clinical complexity. Teams 'disentangled' fluid in order to focus on its physiological function and mobilisation. Teams also used distinct 'framings' of fluid management that created perceived collaborative tensions. This study advances collaborative entanglement as a conceptual framework for understanding, teaching, and potentially ameliorating some of the tensions that manifest during intraprofessional care for patients with complex, chronic disease. PMID:27490299

  12. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    Pieters, Wolter


    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  13. Visualization of Evolving Social Networks using Actor-Level and Community-Level Trajectories

    Márcia Oliveira; João Gama


    In recent years we witnessed an impressive advance in the social networks field, which became a "hot" topic and a focus of considerable attention. Also, the development of methods that focus on the analysis and understanding of the evolution of data are gaining momentum. In this paper we present an approach to visualize the evolution of dynamic social networks by using Tucker decomposition and the concept of temporal trajectory. Our visualization strategy is based on the definition of traject...

  14. Networks and Networking - A Statistical Physics Perspective

    Yeung, Chi Ho


    Efficient networking in communication systems, both wired and wireless, has a substantial economic and societal impact. While communication networks become increasingly more complex, the ever increasing demand for higher transmission volume, quality of service, robustness and reduced energy consumption require new tools and methods to meet these conflicting pressures. The new methodology should serve for gaining better understanding of the properties of these networks at the macroscopic level, as well as for the development of new principled optimization and management algorithms at the microscopic level. Methods of statistical physics seem the best place to start the search for new approaches as they have been developed specifically to deal with non-linear large scale systems. This review aims at presenting an overview of tools that have been developed within the statistical physics community and that can be readily applied to address the emerging problems in networking. As network properties are at the hear...

  15. The use of social network analysis in innovation studies: Mapping actors and technologies

    Valk, T. van der; Gijsbers, G.


    The utilization of social network analysis (SNA) in policy development and evaluation is still very limited. The aim of this paper is to identify research themes in innovation that may benefit from the application of SNA, and to examine implications for management and policy that are derived from th

  16. Simposio Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions"

    Rosa Borge


    Participación en el Simposio Internacional "Changing Politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions", que tuvo lugar en la Universidad de Florencia los días 5 y 6 de octubre del 2007.

  17. An actor-based model of social network influence on adolescent body size, screen time, and playing sports.

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence, however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI, screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151. Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.

  18. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv


    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  19. Understanding Responsible Innovation in Small Producers’ Clusters in Vietnam through Actor-Network Theory

    Jaap Voeten; Job de Haan; Gerard de Groot; Nigel Roome


    Innovation is increasingly recognised as an alternative for poverty alleviation in developing countries. However, cases of innovation in small producers’ clusters in Vietnam imply negative externalities that conflict with today’s notions of sustainable and inclusive development. This article analyses how small producers innovate while taking environmental and social considerations into account through an interactive societal process towards a community network, conceptualised as responsible i...

  20. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas


    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24750076

  1. The market of solar and photovoltaic energies. Grid parity, new support mechanisms, and innovations in financing modes: perspectives by 2018 and overview of actors

    This study first proposes an analysis and a discussion of perspectives for the sector of solar and photovoltaic energies. It identifies the main determining factors of the sector activity, proposes an overview of the sector activity between 2006 and 2015 (evolution of determining factors, installed power, production of photovoltaic electricity, installations on private dwellings, electricity price, foreign trade of photovoltaic arrays, turnover for the solar thermal and photovoltaic sector), discusses perspectives by 2018 in terms of installed power, of turnover, and of opportunities and threats. The second part proposes a description of the sector context: analysis of structural brakes and drivers, overview of the world market, installed power and photovoltaic electricity production in Europe, and overview of the French context of photovoltaic solar energy (energy policy, commitment of public authorities, electricity purchase tariff, and competitiveness of photovoltaic electricity). The third part evokes highlights of the sector and discusses the offer evolution: emergence of new financing modes, technological innovations, diversification of activity, international activity of French actors, and takeovers and optimisation of organisations. The fourth part reports an analysis of the competition context: competition pressure on array manufacturers, pressure on solar plant operators, and analysis of substitutes to solar energy. The fifth part proposes an overview of the economic structure and existing competing forces of the sector in France, and provides sheets of data for the main French actors. The last part proposes economic and financial indicators to assess and compare the performance of 200 enterprises belonging to this sector

  2. Application of actor level social characteristic indicator selection for the precursory detection of bullies in online social networks

    White, Holly M.; Fields, Jeremy; Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.


    Bullying is a national problem for families, courts, schools, and the economy. Social, educational, and professional lives of victims are affected. Early detection of bullies mitigates destructive effects of bullying. Our previous research found, given specific characteristics of an actor, actor logics can be developed utilizing input from natural language processing and graph analysis. Given similar characteristics of cyberbullies, in this paper, we create specific actor logics and apply these to a select social media dataset for the purpose of rapid identification of cyberbullying.

  3. Evidential Networks from a Different Perspective

    Vejnarová, Jiřina

    Heidelberg : Springer, 2012 - (Kruse, R.; Berthold, M.; Moewes, C.; Gil, M.; Grzegorzewski, P.; Hryniewicz, O.), s. 429-436 ISBN 978-3-642-33041-4. - (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. 190). [Soft Methods In Probability and Statistics. Konstanz (DE), 04.10.2012-06.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : evidence theory * conditioning * conditional independence * evidential networks Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics networks from a different perspective.pdf

  4. A network perspective on metabolic inconsistency

    Sonnenschein Nikolaus


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating gene expression profiles and metabolic pathways under different experimental conditions is essential for understanding the coherence of these two layers of cellular organization. The network character of metabolic systems can be instrumental in developing concepts of agreement between expression data and pathways. A network-driven interpretation of gene expression data has the potential of suggesting novel classifiers for pathological cellular states and of contributing to a general theoretical understanding of gene regulation. Results Here, we analyze the coherence of gene expression patterns and a reconstruction of human metabolism, using consistency scores obtained from network and constraint-based analysis methods. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the two measures, demonstrating that a substantial part of inconsistencies between metabolic processes and gene expression can be understood from a network perspective alone. Prompted by this finding, we investigate the topological context of the individual biochemical reactions responsible for the observed inconsistencies. On this basis, we are able to separate the differential contributions that bear physiological information about the system, from the unspecific contributions that unravel gaps in the metabolic reconstruction. We demonstrate the biological potential of our network-driven approach by analyzing transcriptome profiles of aldosterone producing adenomas that have been obtained from a cohort of Primary Aldosteronism patients. We unravel systematics in the data that could not have been resolved by conventional microarray data analysis. In particular, we discover two distinct metabolic states in the adenoma expression patterns. Conclusions The methodology presented here can help understand metabolic inconsistencies from a network perspective. It thus serves as a mediator between the topology of metabolic systems and their dynamical

  5. Blowing against the wind-An exploratory application of actor network theory to the analysis of local controversies and participation processes in wind energy

    This paper analyses the deployment of wind power and the related local controversies using actor-network theory (ANT). ANT provides conceptual instruments for a fine-tuned analysis of the contingencies that condition a project's success or failure by focusing on the micro-decisions that intertwine the material aspects of the technology, the site where it is implemented, the participation process, and the social relations in which they are embedded. By considering controversies as alternative efforts of competing networks of actors to 'frame' the reality and enroll others, ANT sheds light on the complex and political nature of planning a wind farm project, insofar as it consist in aligning material and human behaviours into a predictable scenario. 'Overflows' occur when actors do not conform to expectations, adopt conflicting positions and develop their own interpretations of the project, thus obliging designers to adapt their frames and change their plans. To demonstrate this framework, we apply it to the case of a wind farm project in the South of France, near Albi. Our analysis suggests a new approach to examining wind power projects in terms of the interaction between globally circulating technologies, unique characteristics of the site, the participation process and the social dynamics that emerge when these are combined.

  6. From Classroom Learning to E-learning: An Actor-Network Perspective

    Hustad, Eli; Arntzen, Aurilla Aurelie Bechina


    This study examines the implementation of a learning management system (LMS) to support education of Norwegian athletic judges. The association that represents these judges (FDU) is the highest authority as regards authorization and control of sport judgers, and their operation is mainly based upon voluntary work. The athletic sport is getting increasingly popular, and there is a need to recruit more judges to be able to carry out athletics meetings. By offering courses online, the FDU hopes ...

  7. Tracing Cultural Memory:Holiday snapshots at sites of memory in an actor-network perspective

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina


    We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired by their encounters – to address a question that thirty years of ground - breaking research into memory has not yet sufficiently answered: What can we learn about the dynamics of cultural memory by e...

  8. Consequences of Strategic Choices within an e-Procurement Implementation Process -From an Actor Network Perspective

    Krag, Lotte; Thomsen, Mette; Jensen, Tina Blegind


    In recent years, many companies have changed their IT strategy from developing systems in-house to implementing integrated software solutions. Along with the implementation of large Management Information Systems (MIS) such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, several strategic choices...... implementing an e-Procurement system - more specifically, an Enterprise Buyer Professional (EBP) module in SAP R/3 for commercial purchasing. These strategic choices are (1) outsourcing the electronic catalogue of the EBP system to an electronic market place, (2) constituting a change management group for the...... have to be made in order to ensure the success of the implementation in terms of the technical aspects, the business model and the organisation. This article deals with three strategic choices made by the management in the case company, a large European medical company, regarding the process of...

  9. Analysis of the text of a textbook of biology oriented by actor-network theory: a study on the theme “biological evolution”

    Francisco Ângelo Coutinho


    Full Text Available In this paper we present a strategy for analyzing the text of the textbook based on principles of Actor-Network Theory. This theory seeks to understand central claims about knowledge, subjectivity, society and nature, as effects of an interaction network. By analyzing the argumentative strategies employed by the authors of the text analyzed, we found that there is a process of strengthening the scientific explanation that construct a conception of science and which leaves religious conceptions isolated. In this process, the authors establish a network that exclude religious explanation of the field of rationality and interdict the rationality of religion. We wondered whether this is the best attitude when considering the diversity present in school.

  10. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    Bøge, Ask Risom


    -network-theory (ANT) into surveillance studies (Ball 2002, Adey 2004, Gad & Lauritsen 2009). In this paper, I further explore the potential of this connection by experimenting with Marilyn Strathern’s concept of the fractal (1991), which has been discussed in newer ANT literature (Law 2002; Law 2004; Jensen 2007). I...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  11. Evidence for Informing Health Policy Development in Low- Income Countries (LICS: Perspectives of Policy Actors in Uganda

    Juliet Nabyonga-Orem


    Full Text Available Background Although there is a general agreement on the benefits of evidence informed health policy development given resource constraints especially in Low-Income Countries (LICs, the definition of what evidence is, and what evidence is suitable to guide decision-making is still unclear. Our study is contributing to filling this knowledge gap. We aimed to explore health policy actors’ views regarding what evidence they deemed appropriate to guide health policy development. Methods Using exploratory qualitative methods, we conducted interviews with 51 key informants using an indepth interview guide. We interviewed a diverse group of stakeholders in health policy development and knowledge translation in the Uganda health sector. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis techniques. Results Different stakeholders lay emphasis on different kinds of evidence. While donors preferred international evidence and Ministry of Health (MoH officials looked to local evidence, district health managers preferred local evidence, evidence from routine monitoring and evaluation, and reports from service providers. Service providers on the other hand preferred local evidence and routine monitoring and evaluation reports whilst researchers preferred systematic reviews and clinical trials. Stakeholders preferred evidence covering several aspects impacting on decision-making highlighting the fact that although policy actors look for factual information, they also require evidence on context and implementation feasibility of a policy decision. Conclusion What LICslike Uganda categorize as evidence suitable for informing policy encompasses several types with no consensus on what is deemed as most appropriate. Evidence must be of high quality, applicable, acceptable to the users, and informing different aspects of decision-making.

  12. The sun also rises in Norway: Solar scientists as transition actors

    Åm, Heidrun


    This study contributes to transition studies through an empirical analysis of scientists at the Norwegian Research Center for Solar Cell Technology. From a policy perspective, this research center is a concrete undertaking within transitions politics. How do solar energy scientists make sense of this mission and what strategies do they adopt? The analysis adopts a bottom-up perspective focusing on the politics involved in actor-networks constructing and empowering sustainable innovations. I s...

  13. Networks and Fault Lines: Understanding the role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration: a network governance perspective

    Gerard van Bortel


    economic objectives. They have largely similar tasks and responsibilities, but work in very divergent contexts. This study devotes careful attention to the contingencies of time and place of decisionmaking in order to regenerate insights that are also relevant outside the case-study areas. Therefore, this study places Dutch and English housing associations in their respective political economies, welfare regimes and rental housing systems. The study also highlights the ambiguous position—between state, market, and society—of housing associations.Neighbourhood regeneration evolved from slum clearance and complete area redevelopment in the 1950s and 1960s, towards more integral place-based approaches—in the 1970s and 1980s—with a stronger emphasis on improving the existing housing stock and involving local communities. The nature of the involvement of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration has changed over time in response to government policies, public opinion, their own strategies, and the strategies of their umbrella organisations. In both England and the Netherlands, their increasingly prominent role —especially after the start of the new millennium—was driven by pressures on housing associations to take a leading role in neighbourhood regeneration.A governance network perspective on neighbourhood regenerationThe emergence of the ‘network society’ has led to a fragmentation of power and resources. This fragmentation has led to increased interdependence of actors; public, private and community actors need to collaborate to solve problems. This study uses a governance network approach to explore the complexity and uncertainties involved in neighbourhood regeneration decision-making. The study explores five interrelated questions [see Chapter 1, §1.2], each related to a component of a theoretical framework on decision-making in a network setting. These questions involve context, networks, actors, processes and outcomes.In order to answer the

  14. Linking the levels: network and relational perspectives for community psychology.

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Christens, Brian D


    In this article, we assert that relationships and networks are of paramount importance for understanding and improving settings, neighborhoods, communities, and larger social systems. Despite previous acknowledgements of their relevance, relational and social network perspectives and analyses remain underrepresented in community psychological research and action. Here, we claim that network and relational perspectives can provide conceptual and empirical 'links' between levels of analysis, more fully reflecting a transactional view. We also describe some of the sophisticated methodologies that can be employed in empirical studies drawing on these perspectives. Additionally, we contend that core concepts in community psychology such as health promotion, empowerment, coalition building, and dissemination and implementation can be better understood when employing relational and network perspectives. As an introduction to this special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology, we draw out themes and key points from the articles in the issue, and offer recommendations for future advancement of these perspectives in the field. PMID:24752731

  15. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances' in research on mobile learning

    Gale Parchoma


    Full Text Available How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-networktheory is drawn on as a theoretical lens through which to critically considerhow this concept is articulated, and in particular to explore the way it positionsand controls mobile devices as technologies for learning. Parallels in contemporaryaccounts of mobile learning are drawn with classifications of previous discoursesaround the introduction of computers into schools. An alternativeagenda for mobile learning research is suggested with a focus on authentic andinformal contexts rather than controlled experiments.

  16. Bullying in classrooms : Participant roles from a social network perspective

    Huitsing, Gijs; Veenstra, René


    The aim of this research was to investigate if and how the group process of bullying can be examined using a social network perspective. In two studies, bullying was investigated using a social network version of the participant-role questionnaire. Study 1 explored the social network structure of on

  17. Performing Sociology Through Actor-Network Theory: From Impressionist Cartography to the Dirtiness of Mediations Hacer sociología a través de la teoría del actor-red: de la cartografía impresionista a la suciedad de las mediaciones

    Daniel Muriel


    Full Text Available In this paper I try to outline the existence of certain problems I have found during my research work, within sociology discipline, when it comes to follow some of the main threads of the complex fabric that constitutes the Actor-Network Theory (ANT. In the same way, I suggest some possible subterfuges to go around those problems. Two are the problems and two are the subterfuges as well destined to tackle them. On the one hand, I face the problem of the magnitude and fidelity that ANT's descriptions demand, thoroughly detailed and local, which clashes with the requirements of sociological theory that seeks abstractions and regularities. The subterfuge I propose is the one called "impressionist cartography". On the other hand, I bump into the difficulty of the irreversibility of mediations and the sanitized representations carried out, sometimes, by ANT. In order to fight this, I use the subterfuge oriented to adopt the premise of the "inevitable dirtiness of mediations". En este artículo intento proponer un esbozo de ciertos problemas que me he encontrado en el transcurro de mi investigación, dentro de la disciplina de la sociología, cuando he intentado seguir algunas de las principales tramas del complejo entramado de la teoría del actor-red (ANT, así como de los subterfugios que planteo para bordearlos. Dos son los problemas y dos los posibles subterfugios para abordarlos. Por un lado, me encuentro con el problema de la envergadura y fidelidad de las descripciones que exige la ANT, muy localizadas y minuciosas, que choca con los requerimientos de la teoría sociológica que busca regularidades y abstracciones. El subterfugio que planteo es el de la "cartografía impresionista". Por otro lado, me topo con la dificultad de la

  18. Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena.

    Deas, L; Mattu, L; Gnich, W


    Increased political enthusiasm for evidence-based policy and action has re-ignited interest in the use of evidence within political and practitioner networks. Theories of evidence-based policy making and practice are being re-considered in an attempt to better understand the processes through which knowledge translation occurs. Understanding how policy develops, and practice results, has the potential to facilitate effective evidence use. Further knowledge of the factors which shape healthcare delivery and their influence in different contexts is needed. This paper explores the processes involved in the development of a complex intervention in Scotland's National Health Service (NHS). It uses a national oral health programme for children (Childsmile) as a case study, drawing upon key actors' perceptions of the influence of different drivers (research evidence, practitioner knowledge and values, policy, and political and local context) to programme development. Framework analysis is used to analyse stakeholder accounts from in-depth interviews. Documentary review is also undertaken. Findings suggest that Childsmile can be described as an 'evidence-informed' intervention, blending available research evidence with knowledge from practitioner experience and continual learning through evaluation, to plan delivery. The importance of context was underscored, in terms of the need to align with prevailing political ideology and in the facilitative strength of networks within the relatively small public health community in Scotland. Respondents' perceptions support several existing theoretical models of translation, however no single theory offered a comprehensive framework covering all aspects of the complex processes reported. Childsmile's use of best available evidence and on-going contribution to knowledge suggest that the programme is an example of intelligent policy making with international relevance. PMID:24034945

  19. Special Issue on ActorNetwork Theory, Value CoCreation and Design in Open Innovation Environments

    Tanev, Stoyan; Storni, Cristiano; Stuedahl, Dagny


    The present special issue focuses on the application of ANT to the articulation of a cocreative perspective on design in open innovation environments. The Editors invited submissions by authors using ANT to explore and discuss the link between value co-creation, design and innovation and especially...... those focusing on some aspects of technological innovation. The editorial process concluded with four articles which address the topic in different and somewhat complementary ways....

  20. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse and...... understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....

  1. Some Quantum Information Inequalities from a Quantum Bayesian Networks Perspective

    Tucci, Robert R.


    This is primarily a pedagogical paper. The paper re-visits some well-known quantum information theory inequalities. It does this from a quantum Bayesian networks perspective. The paper illustrates some of the benefits of using quantum Bayesian networks to discuss quantum SIT (Shannon Information Theory).

  2. A Directory Service for Perspective Access Networks

    Goodell, Geoffrey Lewis; Roussopoulos, Mema; Bradner, Scott O.


    Network fragmentation occurs when the accessibility of a network-based resource to an observer is a function of how the observer is connected to the network. In the context of the Internet, network fragmentation is well-known and occurs in many situations, including an increasing preponderance of network address translation, firewalls, and virtual private networks. Recently, however, new threats to Internet consistency have received media attention. Alternative namespaces have emerged as the ...

  3. A Complex-Network Perspective on Alexander's Wholeness

    Jiang, Bin


    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains mysterious and hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty, and apply it into sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks, in order to make Alexander's profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander's thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty in fine structures. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their whole...


    Agnieszka Marek; Kalina Grzesiuk


    Diffusion of knowledge is recognized as one of the key factors that determines organizational success in the knowledge-based economy. The research problem concerns the way social networks and organizational culture may influence knowledge sharing among the agents in general. This article presents the review and critical analysis of literature on the diffusion of knowledge from network and cultural perspective. The results of the research show that both social networks and organizational cultu...

  5. Complexities of social networks: A Physicist's perspective

    Sen, Parongama


    The review is a survey of the present status of research in social networks highlighting the topics of small world property, degree distributions, community structure, assortativity, modelling, dynamics and searching in social networks.

  6. Information theory perspective on network robustness

    Schieber, Tiago A.; Carpi, Laura; Frery, Alejandro C.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Ravetti, Martín G.


    A crucial challenge in network theory is the study of the robustness of a network when facing a sequence of failures. In this work, we propose a dynamical definition of network robustness based on Information Theory, that considers measurements of the structural changes caused by failures of the network's components. Failures are defined here as a temporal process defined in a sequence. Robustness is then evaluated by measuring dissimilarities between topologies after each time step of the sequence, providing a dynamical information about the topological damage. We thoroughly analyze the efficiency of the method in capturing small perturbations by considering different probability distributions on networks. In particular, we find that distributions based on distances are more consistent in capturing network structural deviations, as better reflect the consequences of the failures. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology.

  7. The political history of biofuels in the European Union - Actors, Networks and Strategies; Den politiska historien om biodrivmedel i den Europeiska Unionen - Aktoerer, naetverk och strategier

    Nordangaard, Jacob


    The story of biofuels in the European Union is about much more than simply replace petroleum in the transport sector. It is rather a complex story accompanied by an overall desire to change the world's political architecture. This change has been made in order to address global environmental problems such as climate change while creating frameworks and certifications for the global trade in commodities such as palm oil and soy. The process has been full of contradictions in what biofuels can solve and given rise to exaggerated rhetoric about the fuel's environmental benefits versus its harmful impact on the environment and food prices. Doomsday reeking arguments about climate disasters, oil shortages and the destruction of the world's rain forests have been used alternately in diverse contexts. In this process, various market interests have come to stand against each other in the battle for the raw materials used in biofuel production. Good intentions to protect the priceless nature from industrial exploitation has been used as a way to disadvantage certain raw materials as an energy crop. This has given rise to the unholy alliances between environmentalists and corporations to create broad support for positions while individual nations have assisted with capital and resources to promote various self-interests. In the end it has been a matter of building so powerful network as possible, and present a hard hitting problem requiring a solution for success. Out of chaos, it has been born order. This thesis describes the process and the main actors and networks that have driven this.

  8. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand

    Russell Steve


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Results Twenty six out of 36 (72% respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17% whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. Conclusion This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  9. 10041 Executive Summary -- Perspectives Workshop: Digital Social Networks

    Bry, Francois; Cap, Clemens; Dahm, Ingo; Maintz, Julia; Schaffert, Sebastian


    The Perspective Workshop on “Digital Social Networks” held in between January 25th and 29th, 2010 at the research centre Schloss Dagstuhl focused on technological, socio-economical, and political aspects of digital social networks, and, more generally, digital social media. Digital social media give rise to users and communities to collaboratively generate and exchange content and to interact. They enable social computation, i.e. computations that involve both software and groups of people. ...

  10. Computational social networks tools, perspectives and applications

    Abraham, Ajith


    Provides the latest advances in computational social networks, and illustrates how organizations can gain a competitive advantage by applying these ideas in real-world scenarios Presents a specific focus on practical tools and applications Provides experience reports, survey articles, and intelligence techniques and theories relating to specific problems in network technology

  11. A User Perspective on Social Networking Sites

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Porras, Jari; Hajikhani, Arash;


    For years, social media have been a part of daily life. Within the last 5-10 years, the use of social media (and in particular social networking sites) has expanded to almost all sides of life: private people, businesses and public institutions. This paper presents an overview of different uses of...... social networks to give a picture of the variety in use. The paper describes differences in private persons’ use of social networking sites, different business purposes, and how social networking sites can challenge public administrations. Throughout the paper there are provided small cases and...... situations where the social networking sites have been used in a remarkable way. The paper is made in collaboration between partners in the World Wide Research Forum....

  12. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  13. The Corporation as a Political Actor

    Rasche, Andreas


    . On the other hand, European scholars have recently promoted an understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) emphasizing that firms often assume a political role because they increasingly provide public goods and become involved in multi-actor governance processes. This article contrasts...... perspectives share a number of commonalities and complement each other....

  14. Network design management and technical perspectives

    Piliouras, Teresa C


    MAKING THE BUSINESS CASE FOR THE NETWORKManagement Overview of Network DesignDefine the Business ObjectivesDetermine Potential Risks, Dependencies, Costs andBenefitsIdentify Project RequirementsDevelop Project Implementation ApproachStrategic Positioning Using NetworksCase StudiesCalculation of Technology's Strategic ValueDealing with Major Design ChallengesOrganizational Concerns and RecommendationsTechnology Concerns and RecommendationsSimilarities and Differences between Voice and DataNetwork Design and PlanningMajor Trends and Technology EnablersSocietal TrendsService Provider TrendsMajor

  15. Computer systems and networks: Status and perspectives

    The properties of computers are discussed, both as separate units and in inter-coupled systems. The main elements of modern processor thechnology are reviewed and the associated peripheral components are disscussed in the light of the prevailling rapid pace of developments. Particular emphais is given to the impact of very large scale integrated circuitry in these developments. Computer networks, and considered in some detail, including comon-carrier and local-area networks and the problem of inter-working is included in the discussion. Components of network systems and the associated technology are also among the topics treated. (orig.)

  16. Networked learning in higher education: practitioners' perspectives

    Chris Jones


    Full Text Available This paper arises from the work of the JISC Committee on Awareness, Liaison and Training (CALT-funded 'Networked Learning in Higher Education' project. Networked learning is a term that has had a currency for some years now and can be seen as part of the development of a new paradigm in education (Harasim, Hiltz, Teles and Turoff, 1995; Koschmann 1996; Romiszowski and Ravitz, 1997. We have defined networked learning as learning in which C&.IT is used to promote connections: between one learner and other learners; between learners and tutors; between a learning community and its learning resources.

  17. Plant Evolution: A Manufacturing Network Perspective

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry


    Viewing them as portfolios of products and processes, we aim to address how plants evolve in the context of a manufacturing network and how the evolution of one plant impacts other plants in the same manufacturing network. Based on discussions of ten plants from three Danish companies, we identify...... two different trajectories. Together, these trajectories determine the evolution of a manufacturing network. Factors appearing to affect the two trajectories include competencies built up, transferred or acquired locally, market potential, performance considerations, local, situational factors and...

  18. The performance of public corporate actors: Essays on effects of institutional and network embeddedness in supranational, national, and local collaborative contexts

    Schalk, J.


    Public corporate actors – governments, government bureaucracies, and nongovernmental organizations strongly involved in the delivery of public services – address key social problems in society. They permeate many dimensions of our personal lives. They impact our health care, education, and social security. Yet, instances of policy failure and organizational mismanagement are numerous, and the global economic and financial crisis places pressure on public corporate actors to deliver services m...

  19. Networks and Fault Lines: Understanding the role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration: a network governance perspective

    Gerard van Bortel


    The changing role of housing associations in neighbourhood regenerationThis study aims to increase our understanding of the role of social housing organisations in neighbourhood regeneration governance networks, in order to enhance the performance and outcomes of these networks. Our understanding of how governance networks work is still limited, especially concerning the role of non-state actors like housing associations. Hierarchical government steering is increasingly mixed with market mech...

  20. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P


    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare. PMID:27120815

  1. A Game Theoretic Perspective on Network Topologies

    Lichter, Shaun; Friesz, Terry


    As an alternative view to the graph formation models in the statistical physics community, we introduce graph formation models using \\textit{network formation} through selfish competition as an approach to modeling graphs with particular topologies. We further investigate a specific application of our results to collaborative oligopolies. We extend the results of Goyal and Joshi (S. Goyal and S. Joshi. Networks of collaboration in oligopoly. Games and Economic behavior, 43(1):57-85, 2003), who first considered the problem of collaboration networks of oligopolies and showed that under certain linear assumptions network collaboration produced a stable complete graph through selfish competition. We show with nonlinear cost functions and player payoff alteration that stable collaboration graphs with an arbitrary degree sequence can result.

  2. Actor/Character Dualism

    Riis, Johannes


    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  3. Maneiras de pesquisar no cotidiano: contribuição da teoria do ator-rede Ways of researching everyday life: the actor-network theory contribution

    Ronald João Jacques Arendt


    Full Text Available A partir da temática geral do XI Simpósio da ANPEPP"Maneiras de pesquisar no cotidiano: contribuições para a formação em pesquisa em Psicologia", e tendo em vista a participação do autor no GT "Cotidiano e Práticas Sociais" da ANPEPP, este texto busca descrever a prática de formação em pesquisa a partir da teoria do ator-rede. Após efetuar a recensão de um texto de Bruno Latour, um diálogo entre um professor e um aluno em que são expostas as principais características da prática de pesquisa no âmbito desta abordagem, o autor busca precisar o posicionamento epistemológico-metodológico da referida teoria assim como suas raízes fundadas na filosofia pragmática, descrevendo sucintamente algumas proposições de William James e John Dewey.Using the actor-network theory, this paper describes the practices of becoming educated in research, based on the general subject of the XI ANPPEP Symposium "Ways of searching in everyday life: contributions to the formation of research in Psychology", considering that the author was a participant in the ANPEPP work group "Everyday life and Social Practices". After summarizing a paper of Bruno Latour, a dialogue between a professor and a student in which the main characteristics of the research practice in this approach are outlined, the author exposes in a more accurate manner the epistemological and methodological positioning of the referred theory and its pragmatic philosophical roots, describing briefly some propositions of William James and John Dewey.

  4. Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria: Opiniones y expectativas sobre estrategias de prevención y tratamiento desde la perspectiva de diferentes actores sociales Dietary behavior disorders: Opinions and expectancies on prevention and treatment strategies from the perspective of the several social actors

    J.C. March


    circuito asistencial, así como el seguimiento posthospitalario se identifican como cuestiones abiertas a futuras investigaciones.AIMS: The prevalence increase of Eating Disorders in the last decades emphasizes the necessity to develop strategies from the public healthcare system which include the perspective of the principal implicated social actors. The present study aims to know their opinions and expectations regarding the prevention and treatment of Eating Disorders. METHODS: Realization of 5 focus groups (with relatives, adolescents, professionals from the health and educational sector, representatives from institutions and support groups and 14 semi-structured interviews (with Eating Disorder patients and relatives about strengths and weaknesses of actual prevention and treatment programs, expectations of change and suggestions for improvement. Analysis of contents and triangulation of results. RESULTS: The absence of resources and knowledge about Eating Disorders, the scarcity of transversal programs and insufficient coordination were named as the main weaknesses whereas interdisciplinary pilot programs were positively valued. As principal demands, major endowment of human and material resources, increased coverage of specialized services, promotion of specific training and improvement of coordination was asked for. Regarding prevention, preference toward an unspecific approach to the subject in order to hinder imitation between young people was highlighted. The care in Day Hospitals was considered one of the most appropriate treatment modalities for the characteristics of this disease being valued the potentially therapeutic effect of contact between Eating Disorder patients. The support network, the education field and the family were named as other important pillars in a multidisciplinary approach to the disease. There was also a demand for the development of combined programs. CONLCUSIONS: The discussion of different psychotherapeutic approaches, the role of

  5. Viewing engineering offshoring in a network perspective

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Zhang, Yufeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema


    of how to effectively manage engineering offshoring activities in a context of global engineering networks. The main research question, therefore, is: “Can offshoring of engineering tasks be explained and managed using the concept of Global Engineering Networks (GEN)?” Effective approaches to handling...... of large multinational corporations in Denmark were carried out. Data gathering was mainly documentary studies and interviews. The main data analysis approaches were coding (Strauss and Corbin) and pattern-matching (Yin). The dataset was analysed using the GEN framework suggested by Zhang et al. and Zhang...... by extending the GEN framework to address complications within engineering offshoring. This strengthens both academic fields, and will be able to help engineering managers to develop appropriate engineering network configurations for offshore engineering operations....

  6. User-centric networking future perspectives

    Aldini, Alessandro


    This work represents a milestone for the? 'ULOOP User-centric Wireless Local Loop' project funded by the EU IST Seventh Framework Programme.ULOOP is focused on the robust, secure, and autonomic deployment of user-centric wireless networks. Contributions by ULOOP partners as well as invited tutorials by international experts in the field. The expected impact is to increase awareness to user-centric networking in terms, e.g., of business opportunities and quality of experience, and to present adequate technology to sustain the growth of user-friendly wireless architectures.Throughout the last 3

  7. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    Julian Maluck

    Full Text Available Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990-2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector's role individually, (cross-clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network's substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies

  8. Industrial Networks

    Karlsson, Christer


    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...... the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  9. The business incubator in a network perspective

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm


    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...

  10. Correlation in mobile call networks from structure perspective

    Bin WU; Deyong HU; Qi YE; Bai WANG


    Researchers have done considerable work on the structure of social network recently, but mostly neglected the correlation between two connected nodes. In this pa-per, our primary goal is to acquire users' structural proper-ties in mobile call networks. We take a novel perspective-structure correlation between two connected users perspec-tive to study the structural properties. To investigate the structural properties in static and dynamic mobile call net-works, we define some metrics which are based on the clique size vectors of mobile call users. By exploring several real-world mobile call networks, which contain hundreds of thou-sands of mobile call users respectively, we find that people tend to communicate with the one who has a similar struc-ture in static mobile call networks. Moreover, It is found that the connected people have similar structural changes on the whole in dynamic mobile call networks, and the structures of some two connected persons both have growing or shrinking trends. We use a visualization toolkit to give a view of the growing or shrinking scenarios temporally.

  11. Youth, friendship, and gaming: a network perspective.

    De Grove, Frederik


    With digital games being part of the leisure of a multitude of young people, it is important to understand to what extent gaming-related practices such as talking about games or playing games together are associated with the quality of friendship relations with players and nonplayers. Based on 100 friendship networks, this study explored to what extent those practices permeated the everyday life of youngsters and whether they could be considered as a part of doing friendship. Results indicated that gaming as a conversational topic was widespread within and between networks. Furthermore, regardless of gender, this was significantly associated with friendship quality in almost all of the networks. When considering playing games together, a somewhat different picture emerged. In contrast to conversational practices, playing together was less widespread. Moreover, both the occurrence and the effect of co-play and friendship quality was gendered. The findings of this study show that a focus on gaming-related practices yields a fruitful starting point when considering the role of digital games in a social context that is not limited to people playing (online) games. Furthermore, they also feed into the ongoing debate of possible effects of digital games in that it shows that the way in which games influence the lives of young people goes beyond a direct effects approach. PMID:25127060

  12. Minimal CDS motion-based connectivity recovery algorithm in wireless sensor and actor networks%基于最小连通支配集移动的WSANs连接恢复算法

    周杰; 姚雷; 杜景林


    In the mission-critical application of WSANs, one or multiple actors failure might lead to partitioning the inter-actor networks, and thus autonomous detection and connectivity restoration were highly desirable to maintain inter-actor connectivity. In this paper, we presented a minimal CDS motion-based connectivity recovery algorithm MCDSR which proactively identified actors whether were cut-vertices or not to the network connectivity , and designated minimal CDS backup nodes. If the nodes suddenly failed, the minimal block backup nodes moved and initiated a recovery process until the network was reconnected. Through simulated experiments, the results showed that the algorithm was more effective than present algorithms in terms of total number of relocated nodes, total travel distance,cover reduction.%在无线传感器与执行器网络( wireless sensor-actor networks,简称WSANs)关键任务应用中,单个或多个节点的失效可能造成内执行器节点产生网络分隔,自动检测和快速恢复来保持内执行器网络的连接性显得非常重要。论文提出了一种基于最小连通支配集移动的连接性恢复算法( minmal CDS motion-based connectivity recovery,简称 MCDSR),该算法主动探测影响网络连通的割点,并为其指定最小的连通支配集。一旦检测到节点失效,备份的支配集初始化恢复进程直到网络连接恢复。并通过实验与现有的恢复算法进行比较,发现MCDSR算法在移动的节点数目、总的移动距离、覆盖度减少等方面有更好性能。

  13. Edge anisotropy and the geometric perspective on flow networks

    Molkenthin, Nora; Tupikina, Liubov; Marwan, Norbert; Donges, Jonathan F; Feudel, Ulrike; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V


    Spatial networks have recently attracted great interest in various fields of research. While the traditional network-theoretic viewpoint is commonly restricted to their topological characteristics (often disregarding existing spatial constraints), this work takes a geometric perspective, which considers vertices and edges as objects in a metric space and quantifies the corresponding spatial distribution and alignment. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of edge anisotropy and define a class of measures characterizing the spatial directedness of connections. Specifically, we demonstrate that the local anisotropy of edges incident to a given vertex provides useful information about the local geometry of geophysical flows based on networks constructed from spatio-temporal data, which is complementary to topological characteristics of the same flow networks. Taken both structural and geometric viewpoints together can thus assist the identification of underlying flow structures from observations of scalar v...

  14. Exploring the Relations, Bargaining Forms and Dynamics of the EU Food Supply Chain under the Perspective of the Key Actors: Evidence from Greece and Denmark

    Konstantinos Galanopoulos


    Full Text Available  The objective of this paper is to offer qualitative and quantitative insights on the perceptions of the actors in the EU food supply chain on a broad spectrum of topics that characterise its operation and conduct, highlighting also potential differences in North and South European countries. Issues explored pertained to actors’ relations with up- and downstream partners, the future dynamic and challenges of the food sector, the influence of policy intervention and attitudes towards genetically modified products (GMPs and organic production. For this purpose, a total of 34 food supply chain actors in Denmark and Greece were interviewed using a semi-structured interview process. A comparative analysis of the interviews pinpointed many similarities in the behaviour and the perceptions of the Greek and Danish farmers, cooperatives, processors and retailers alike. Still, while it is evident that companies and farmers of both countries struggle with a lot of the same problems, several differences in perceptions are also identified. These refer mainly to attitudes towards mergers and acquisitions, innovations, GMPs and the effects and limitations of EU policy intervention.

  15. Network robustness assessed within a dual connectivity perspective

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Zaliapin, Ilya; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi


    Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. Typically, in these studies, robustness is assessed only in terms of the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack (the harder it is to destroy the connectivity of the 'healthy' nodes, the more robust the network is considered). However, in many systems, the connectivity of the affected nodes too may play a significant role in evaluating the overall network robustness. Here, we propose a dual perspective approach, wherein at any instant in the network evolution under attack, two distinct networks are defined: (i) the Active Network (AN) composed of the unaffected nodes and (ii) the Idle Network (IN) composed of the affected nodes. The proposed robustness metric considers both the efficiency of destroying the AN and the efficiency of building-up the IN. We show that trade-offs between the efficiency of Active and Idle network dynamics give rise to surprising crossovers and ...

  16. 10041 Abstracts Collection -- Perspectives Workshop: Digital Social Networks

    Bry, Francois; Cap, Clemens; Dahm, Ingo; Maintz, Julia; Schaffert, Sebastian


    From 24.01.2010 to 29.01.2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10041 ``Perspectives Workshop: Digital Social Networks'' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl ~--~ Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar top...

  17. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  18. Uncovering Influence through Social Network Analysis: The Role of Schools in Education for Sustainable Development

    Kolleck, Nina


    This paper examines the implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Germany and explores the possibilities of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for uncovering influential actors in educational policy innovation processes. From the theoretical perspective, an actor's influence is inferred from its relative position within…

  19. Network planning from telecom provider's perspective

    Zhou, Minli; Chen, Ziqing


    The network planner of the incumbent telecom service provider faces a series of challenges following technology developments, riding demand changes and utilizing existing resources. It is believed that the telecom planning that was started from the early time for PSTN deployment has been contributed to the foundation for the telecom planning but does not provide enough methodologies to help today's planning activities. The planning work for the provider must make innovation for adapting to the dynamic environment and supporting business development. In this paper, the situations and trends faced by the telecom service provider are first reviewed, the planning system restructure and planning methodologies innovation for meeting present situations are then presented, and the issues and directions are finally summarized.

  20. Multi-Agent Based Simulation of Organizational Routines on Complex Networks

    Dehua Gao; Xiuquan Deng; Qiuhong Zhao; Hong Zhou; Bing Bai


    Organizational routines are collective phenomena involving multiple individual actors. They are crucial in helping to understand how organizations behave and change in a certain period. In this paper, by regarding the individual habits of multiple actors involved as fundamental building blocks, we consider organizational routines from an ‘emergence-based’ perspective. We emphasise the impacts of connections or network topologies among individual actors in the formation of organizational r...

  1. The Contrivance of Mobile Learning: An Actor-Network Perspective on the Emergence of a Research Field

    Decuypere, Mathias; Simons, Maarten; Masschelein, Jan


    The ongoing development of mobile devices like cell phones, iPods, PDAs, and so on is seen by an increasing number of educationalists as a chance to focus on a new kind of learning. This mobile learning, as it is called, should enable students to learn while on the move. Rather than giving a genealogy of the use of mobile equipment in education,…

  2. Tacos, Tiendas and Mezcal: An actor-network perspective on small-scale entrepreneurial projects in Western Mexico.

    Verschoor, G.M.


    The role of small firms in developing countries is a subject of continuous interest in both academic and policy circles. Small firms account for a large part of economic activity, and their employment share is remarkable. Yet, although considerable knowledge about them exists, some of the key issues

  3. The rising influence of urban actors

    Nijman, J.E.


    It is time to recognize cities as global actors. City networks are reaching across the globe and local city governments are collaborating on crucial environmental issues. Coordinating policy at a local level, they are increasingly taking the lead in tackling global problems such as climate change.


    Graham Brewer; Aiobheann McVeigh; Jason von Meding


    The literature is replete with accounts of the struggle to effectively target and deploy postdisaster aid so as to achieve maximum benefit to recipients, both direct and indirect, over the short- and longer-term. Generally these stories balance success with lessons learned from failure, in order to inform practice in future recovery and reconstruction events. They are often derived from the heroic accounts of key actors in case studies, on the understandable basis that these carefully selecte...

  5. Public-Private Partnerships for the Provision of Port Infrastructure: An Explorative Multi-Actor Perspective on Critical Success Factors1

    Geoffrey Aerts


    Full Text Available Public-private cooperation on the level of project finance, and provision of large-scale infrastructure projects, is increasing on the global level. This paper uses a multi-actor analysis, in order to explore the critical success factors (CSFs for sound implementation of public-private partnerships (PPPs in the port context, and to determine the diverging opinions of stakeholders with regard to the importance of these CSFs. The results indicate that eight CSFs are of superior importance in port PPPs: the concreteness and preciseness of the concession agreement, the ability to appropriately allocate and share risk, the technical feasibility of the project, the commitment made by partners, the attractiveness of the financial package, a clear definition of responsibilities, the presence of a strong private consortium and a realistic cost/benefit assessment. The reason for their importance is their deal-breaking character, which can lead to a total failure of PPP projects during the early stages of project conception.

  6. Social Network Perspective: Model of Student Knowledge Sharing On Social Network Media

    Bentar Priyopradono


    Full Text Available Recently, the role and development of information technology especially the internet, gives impact and influence in social relationship especially for social network site services users. The impact and influence the use of Internet which is related to exchange information and knowledge sharing still become one of the interesting topics to be researched. Now, the use of social media network by students are the best way to them to increase their knowledge as communication media such as, exchange the information or sharing about something. This research describes about knowledge sharing model of students by using social network perspective analysis in social network media. Based on this model, it can be seen if the students can be participated in social network media.

  7. Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations: Current status and perspective

    Yatskiv, Y.; Bolotin, S.; Bolotina, O.; Khoda, O.; Medvedsky, M.; Sydorenko, G.; Stopkhay, Y.; Volvach, O.

    Current status and perspective of establishing the Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations (UKRGEONETWORK) is reviewed in connection with Integrated Space Geodetic Systems project. The UKRGEONETWORK consists of several stations which form GPS, SLR, and VLBI subnetworks as well as Gravimetry subsystem. Some information concerned with current activity of the UKRGEONETWORK in particular precise orbit determination in software complex Kiev-Geodynamic, ionospheric modelling in Klio program, and EOP determination on SteelBreeze software is given. Plan for upgrading the hardware of stations and for increasing the number of collocation sites is considered.

  8. Industrial Marketing in a Network Perspective : A Qualitative study of ABB Crane Systems and its Sales Network

    Strömberg, Peter; Jain, Sandeep


    Research question: How is the sales network of ABB Crane system related to industrial marketing in anetwork perspective? Purpose of the research:The main task is to investigate if the sales network of ABB Crane Systems is related toestablished theory of industrial marketing in a network perspective. Method: The research strategy has been formed from a deductive approach and the empiricaldata has been gathered with a qualitative approach. Both primary and secondary data hasbeen used in order t...

  9. Organic Design of Massively Distributed Systems: A Complex Networks Perspective

    Scholtes, Ingo


    The vision of Organic Computing addresses challenges that arise in the design of future information systems that are comprised of numerous, heterogeneous, resource-constrained and error-prone components or devices. Here, the notion organic particularly highlights the idea that, in order to be manageable, such systems should exhibit self-organization, self-adaptation and self-healing characteristics similar to those of biological systems. In recent years, the principles underlying many of the interesting characteristics of natural systems have been investigated from the perspective of complex systems science, particularly using the conceptual framework of statistical physics and statistical mechanics. In this article, we review some of the interesting relations between statistical physics and networked systems and discuss applications in the engineering of organic networked computing systems with predictable, quantifiable and controllable self-* properties.

  10. Competence network University and Research 'perspective nuclear technology in Germany'

    With a fresh concept, the competence network University and Research revived the tradition of network meetings between research, universities and the nuclear industry on 23 and 24 September 2013. The DAtF (Deutsches Atomforum e.V.) (German Nuclear Forum, registered association) in cooperation with AREVA GmbH and VGB PowerTech e.V., invited those concerned to meet in Erlangen under the motto 'Perspective nuclear technology in Germany'. Around 50 representatives from education and research institutes followed the invitation, as did experts and decision-makers from the nuclear industry. The objective of this series of events is to broach the issue of the conservation of competence in nuclear technology in Germany and internationally, and make the related issues the subject of discussion as well as promote a regular exchange of information and experience between industry, research and educational institutions. (orig.)

  11. Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions and their actors

    Osvaldo Omar Ron


    The work exposed here seeks to display, as a synthesis, the general characteristics and some conclusions of the investigation project "Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions through actors' perspective", developed between 2003 and 2005. It is through it that we sought to recognize the ideas and concepts that coexist in everyday institutional life, by recovering the voice of sport institutions' actors - parents, leaders, trainers and teachers, practising and players-, and also by...

  12. The biogas market. Which perspectives for the methanation market by 2017? Who are the best positioned actors to take advantage of opportunities?

    As biogas is the most promising but also disregarded segment of renewable energies, this report first proposes an analysis of this market and its perspectives by discussing the determining factors of activity, by analysing the evolution of the activity between 2010 and 2014 in France (final consumption, consumption per segment, number of installations, number of installations per segment), and by applying three forecast scenarios to the market evolution by 2020. The second part proposes an analysis of the main consumer sectors. The next part discusses business models implemented by operators, and the competition structure. Highlights and supply evolution are then presented and discussed in terms of prospect diversification, supply safety, and improvement of installation efficiency. Synthetic sheets of 158 operators are then provided, containing management, economic and financial data for the 2008-2012 period, and proposing comparisons through 5 main indicators

  13. Social Networks in Natural Resource Management: What Is There to Learn from a Structural Perspective?

    Henrik Ernstson


    Full Text Available Social networks among actors and stakeholders are gaining attention in studies of natural resource management, particularly those of adaptive management based on different forms of participation and co-management. In this sense, social networks have primarily been envisioned as enabling different actors to collaborate and coordinate management efforts. Here, we continue the discussion initiated by Newman and Dale (2005, which highlighted the fact that not all social networks are created equal. We discuss the relation between some structural characteristics and functions of social networks with respect to natural resource management, thus focusing on structural implications that are often overlooked when studying social networks within the context of natural resource management. We present several network measures used to quantify structural characteristics of social networks and link them to a number of features such as learning, leadership, and trust, which are identified as important in natural resource management. We show schematically that there may be inherent juxtapositions among different structural characteristics that need to be balanced in what we envision as social network structures conducive to adaptive co-management of natural resources. We argue that it is essential to develop an understanding of the effects that different structural characteristics of social networks have on natural resource management.

  14. Collaboration on technological innovation in Danish fashion chains: A network perspective

    Tambo, Torben


    and departments stores, technology and service providers, ownership structures and local level supply chain facilities. This paper analyses theoretical and empirical views of innovation in international retail networks using lead actors in the (Danish) fashion industry as a case to highlight how this industry...... maintains branded stores as primary retail channels better than other industries. In order to approach the retail network as an important organisational innovation system in relation to brand owners, the aim of this paper is to characterise key elements of innovation in retail networks. The approach...

  15. The World Trade Web: A Multiple-Network Perspective

    Sgrignoli, Paolo


    International Trade (IT) plays a fundamental role in today's economy: by connecting world countries production and consumption processes, it radically contributes in shaping their economy and development path. Although its evolving structure and determinants have been widely analyzed in the literature, much less has been done to understand its interplay with other complex phenomena. The aim of this work is, precisely in this direction, to study the relations of IT with International Migration (IM) and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). In both cases the procedure used is to first approach the problem in a multiple-networks perspective and than deepen the analysis by using ad hoc econometrics techniques. With respect to IM, a general positive correlation with IT is highlighted and product categories for which this effect is stronger are identified and cross-checked with previous classifications. Next, employing spatial econometric techniques and proposing a new way to define country neighbors based on the most ...

  16. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel


    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. PMID:27102810

  17. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie


    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  18. Actors: From Audience to Provider

    Charlier, Bernadette


    This article describes and analyzes actors' experiences of distance learning systems in a wide variety of cultural and organizational contexts. In line with the project of this special series of issues, results of research, much of which is longitudinal, allow us to suggest answers to the following questions: Who are the actors of distance…

  19. Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions and their actors

    Osvaldo Omar Ron


    Full Text Available The work exposed here seeks to display, as a synthesis, the general characteristics and some conclusions of the investigation project "Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions through actors' perspective", developed between 2003 and 2005. It is through it that we sought to recognize the ideas and concepts that coexist in everyday institutional life, by recovering the voice of sport institutions' actors - parents, leaders, trainers and teachers, practising and players-, and also by analyzing speeches and practices; those institutions' distinguishing forms of organization; the ways that diverse actors relate and the social forms acting on them. We investigated sport institutions with the purpose of tracking the senses and meaning that actors grant them, their organization and dynamics, the reasons for their behaviour, the principles and logics that shape them. We also analyzed the joints that link them to external macroinstitutions, their autonomy or dependency with regard to the latter, and their incidence on sport institutions' logics

  20. Les institutions et les acteurs en santé au travail au Québec et en France : regard croisé Occupational health institutions and actors in Québec and in France: new comparative perspective Las instituciones y los actores en salud laboral en Quebec y en Francia : una mirada cruzada

    Nathalie Ferré


    Full Text Available Au Québec comme en France, l’environnement institutionnel dans le domaine de la santé et de la sécurité au travail présente une grande densité. La loi québécoise du 21 décembre 1979, orchestrant l’ensemble du dispositif, a placé en son cœur la Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail. Elle cumule toutes les fonctions constitutionnelles en matière de prévention et de réparation. Elle est assistée par un corps d’inspection et s’appuie sur le réseau public de santé. En France, le paysage est plus éclaté. Il n’existe pas d’organisme équivalent. L’inspection du travail intervient pour s’assurer du respect des normes. Les organismes de sécurité sociale, qui prennent en charge les lésions professionnelles, incitent les employeurs à faire de la prévention. Les médecins du travail sont des travailleurs subordonnés, liés aux entreprises dans lesquelles ils interviennent. Dans les établissements, plusieurs acteurs héritent de missions diverses. L’étendue de la responsabilité de l’employeur est plus importante en France.In Québec, as in France, the institutional environment in the occupational health and safety field is extremely important. The Québec law of December 21, 1979, orchestrating its entire organization, placed the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (workers’ compensation board at its centre. It encompasses all the constitutional prevention and repair functions. It is assisted by an inspection body and is supported by the public health network. In France, the landscape is more dispersed. There is no equivalent organization. Work inspection comes into play to ensure compliance with standards. Social security organizations, which take charge of occupational injuries, encourage employers to do prevention. Occupational health physicians are subordinate workers, linked to the companies in which they work. In establishments, several actors inherit various missions

  1. The Path From Passivity Toward Entrepreneurship: Public Sector Actors in Brownfield Regeneration Processes in Central Eastern Europe

    Alexandrescu, F.; Martinat, S.; Klusa ek, P.; Bartke, S.


    Europeanization research dealing with the environmental transition in Eastern Europe has focused on the roles of state actors in adopting European regulations. Less well understood are the framings and roles of public administration actors when European Union regulations do not prescribe specific institutional changes. This article offers a micro perspective on the framings and roles of such actors in several cases of brownfield regeneration. Actors can play a proactive role, thereby fosterin...

  2. An actor manages: Actor training and managerial ideology

    Chow, BDV


    This article reads the development of psychologically based actor training against larger changes in the organisation of work in North America and Europe in the twentieth century. Konstantin Stanislavky's System and later adaptations including the American Method are wrapped into a larger ideology of individual self-management and discipline – mental, physical, and emotional – that accompanies the emergent managerial class of the post-war era. An actor is an ideal manager, and therefore prefi...

  3. Hacia un entrenamiento del actor

    Urieta Lago, Amparo


    Esta investigación está basada en la intención de crear una guía de entrenamiento para el actor, que busca asumir un compromiso con su cuerpo, como instrumento para la creación escénica. El trabajo del actor-actriz está irremediablemente vinculado a su cuerpo, todo lo humano se enmarca en un cuerpo vivido, en el espacio y en el tiempo, no es algo neutral. Sabemos que cada actor-actriz, tiene una noción de su esquema corporal, entendiendo por esquema corporal la representación en imágenes de l...

  4. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    Tryggestad, Kjell


    third case account for how the strategic technology and the strategic collective emerge and co-produce each other as a macro-actor, only to become transformed in unexpected ways - as common technology and reflective human subjects.In the concluding section, it is argued that the humanity of the......-human entities to the explanatory repertoire of strategy research, another line of inquiry is pursued. The performative perspective thus proposed, is inspired by the classical work of Von Clausewitz and the recent anthropology of science, technology and organizational identities. In the proposed perspective, the...... outcomes.Three cases are presented, each of them with a particular bearing on how materials participate in the making of emerging strategic identities and outcomes:The first case account for strategies transforming plans into anti-plans. This is a case of how a strategic plan is betrayed (or rejected) by...

  5. Molecular signatures of ovarian diseases: Insights from network medicine perspective.

    Kori, Medi; Gov, Esra; Arga, Kazim Yalcin


    Dysfunctions and disorders in the ovary lead to a host of diseases including ovarian cancer, ovarian endometriosis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind ovarian diseases is a great challenge. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of transcriptome data for ovarian cancer, ovarian endometriosis, and PCOS, and integrated the information gained from statistical analysis with genome-scale biological networks (protein-protein interaction, transcriptional regulatory, and metabolic). Comparative and integrative analyses yielded reporter biomolecules (genes, proteins, metabolites, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs), and unique or common signatures at protein, metabolism, and transcription regulation levels, which might be beneficial to uncovering the underlying biological mechanisms behind the diseases. These signatures were mostly associated with formation or initiation of cancer development, and pointed out the potential tendency of PCOS and endometriosis to tumorigenesis. Molecules and pathways related to MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and apoptosis were the mutual determinants in the pathogenesis of all three diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first report that screens these diseases from a network medicine perspective. This study provides signatures which could be considered as potential therapeutic targets and/or as medical prognostic biomarkers in further experimental and clinical studies. Abbreviations DAVID: Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery; DEGs: differentially expressed genes; GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; LIMMA: Linear Models for Microarray Data; MBRole: Metabolite Biological Role; miRNA: micro-RNA; PCOS: polycystic ovarian syndrome; PPI: protein-protein interaction; RMA: Robust Multi-Array Average; TF: transcription factor. PMID:27341345

  6. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    McEwan, Bree


    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance. PMID:23962125

  7. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  8. A Graph Minor Perspective to Multicast Network Coding

    Yin, Xunrui; Wang, Yan; Li, Zongpeng; Wang, Xin; Xue, Xiangyang


    Network Coding encourages information coding across a communication network. While the necessity, benefit and complexity of network coding are sensitive to the underlying graph structure of a network, existing theory on network coding often treats the network topology as a black box, focusing on algebraic or information theoretic aspects of the problem. This work aims at an in-depth examination of the relation between algebraic coding and network topologies. We mathematically establish a seri...

  9. Sport, Media and Sponsor: the Shifting Balance of Power in the Sports Network

    Wolfe, Rosita; Meenaghan, Tony; O'Sullivan, Paul


    As sport has become an important social and economic activity it is increasingly the subject of management analysis. This article adopts a network perspective to examine developments in the sports network. In particular, it examines relationships between network "actors" such as corporate sponsors, media and the owners of sport and analyses the changing balance of power in the sports network. Key media drivers of change in the network such as cable and satellite television, pay-per-view and d...

  10. The issue network of zero carbon built environments: a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Rydin, Y. J.


    Environmental politics research frequently centres on the analysis of networks but predominantly from a qualitative perspective. The case is made for combining quantitative analysis of policy networks alongside qualitative research. This enables the structure and form of the network to be considered and focused attention then paid to how actors operationalise the network and give agency to the position of central nodes. This is explored through an empirical analysis of the issue network surro...

  11. Sociología del desarrollo: una perspectiva centrada en el actor

    Long, N.E.


    This is a translation of : Development sociology : actor perspectives / London [etc.] : Routledge, 2001. - 294 p. ISBN 0415235359 Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, this book focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and soci

  12. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Liming, Drew


    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  13. Cognitive Energy Harvesting and Transmission from a Network Perspective

    Lee, Seunghyun; Huang, Kaibin; Zhang, Rui


    Wireless networks can be self-sustaining by harvesting energy from radio-frequency (RF) signals. Building on classic cognitive radio networks, we propose a novel method for network coexisting where mobiles from a secondary network, called secondary transmitters (STs), either harvest energy from transmissions by nearby transmitters from a primary network, called primary transmitters (PTs), or transmit information if PTs are sufficiently far away; STs store harvested energy in rechargeable batt...

  14. Actors in land and building cadastre procedures

    Rakovec, Jana


    In this graduation thesis I discuss the role of actors in land and building cadastre procedures. Individual surveying services are presented, as well as the role of actors in these individual surveying services. Individual actors are described in great detail, namely with referring to rules and regulations on the basis of which the actors are entering the land and building cadastre procedures. Further on, I offer a description of various manners on how to gain information on actors and also t...

  15. Framing by Actors in the Human Rights Debate: the Kony 2012 Campaign

    Meriläinen, Niina; Vos, Marita


    Human rights actors form networks and debate in issue arenas to find solutions to violations. Framing can be used to create and increase issue salience as well as organisational importance, thus influencing power relations and the human rights debate. Not all the actors are equally powerful, meaning that the more dominant actors function as gatekeepers, controlling the debate and the subsequent decision-making process. The campaign Kony 2012 by Invisible Children (IC) is u...

  16. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    P. Lafata


    Passive optical networks (PONs) represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passi...

  17. Random Graphs and Social Networks: An Economics Perspective

    Yannis M. Ioannides


    This review of current research on networks emphasizes three strands of the literature on social networks. The first strand is composed of models of endogenous network formation from both the economics and the computer science literature. The review highlights the sen- sitive dependence of the topology of endogenous networks on parameters of the behavioral models employed. The second strand draws from the recent econophysics literature in order to review the recent revival of interest in the ...

  18. Unfolding Perspectives on Networked Professional Learning: Exploring Ties and Time

    de Laat, Maarten; Strijbos, Jan-Willem


    Networked learning and learning networks are commonplace concepts in most contemporary discourse on learning in the 21st century. This special issue provides a collection of studies that address the need for a growing body of empirical work to extent the limited understanding of the use and benefits of networks in relation to learning and…

  19. Ecological networks in Europe; strategies, criteria and perspectives

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Lipsky, Z.; Aarsen, van den L.F.M.


    Ecological networks have been developed all over Europe within nature conservation planning and integrated planning. In the Netherlands the national ecological network is worked out in provincial conservation plans. In the Czech Republic the establishment of the ecological network is part of the nat

  20. Design Management in the Textile Industry - A Network Perspective

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Bang, Anne Louise


    in larger networks of suppliers, customers and other relations. Comparing the organisational networks we discuss how design activities unfold under different organisational settings. We also demonstrate that it is crucial for the companies who rely on external production facilities to have a strong design...... management in order to maintain the relationships in their network of customers and suppliers....

  1. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations; Services publics en reseau: perspectives de concurrence et nouvelles regulations

    Bergougnoux, J


    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  2. Virtual learning networks for sustainable development

    de Kraker, Joop; Cörvers, Ron


    Sustainable development is a participatory, multi-actor process. In this process, learning plays a major role as participants have to exchange and integrate a diversity of perspectives and types of knowledge and expertise in order to arrive at innovative, jointly supported solutions. Virtual learning networks can support these processes in at least two important ways. In higher education, virtual mobility networks can provide effective learning environments for the development of the competen...

  3. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    P. Lafata


    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  4. Balancing Renewable Electricity Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas


    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO2 emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the techn...

  5. Local stakeholder involvement in the perspective of nuclear waste management: lessons form the Cowam network

    The management of high level radioactive waste is nowadays recognised as a complex decision-making process entailing technical, environmental, ethical, social, political and economic dimensions where no solution can be reached solely on the basis of technical considerations. While this issue is acknowledged as a problem for the community as a whole, waste management remains a global problem looking for a local solution. Starting from this view, COWAM network (Community Waste Management), developed under the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission, addressed the following objectives: 1) To empower local actors through a networking process; 2) To gather and discuss the available experiences of decision-making processes at the local level within their national context in Europe; 3) To set up an arena for balanced exchanges between local actors, NGOs, regulators and implementers; 4) To promote new approaches to decision-making in national contexts in Europe. COWAM network comprises 230 delegates from 10 European countries, involving in priority local communities and NGOs. The emphasis put on the local participation enabled members of COWAM network to overcome distrust and to build common lessons and views beyond usual stakeholder positions. Through the analysis of case studies different issues were identified, among them two relate more specifically to: 1) Expertise what is the purpose of expertise on environmental impact in the decision-making process? How is this expertise linked with other scientific and non scientific issues? What is the role of stakeholders in expertise? 2) Environmental quality in the long term and sustainable development how is the impact of radioactive waste management facilities on the environment in the long term taken into account? how is this associated with the sustainable development of the hosting community? How are local stakeholders involved in these issues and what is the expected benefit from their participation? (author)

  6. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman


    This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... actors. In exploring the void between these two streams of literature, we deploy the concept of network pictures to discuss managed change in network settings. We analyze a change project from the furniture industry and address the consequences of attempting to manage change activities in a network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures of the...

  7. Deep vs. shallow networks : An approximation theory perspective

    Mhaskar, Hrushikesh; Poggio, Tomaso


    The paper briefy reviews several recent results on hierarchical architectures for learning from examples, that may formally explain the conditions under which Deep Convolutional Neural Networks perform much better in function approximation problems than shallow, one-hidden layer architectures. The paper announces new results for a non-smooth activation function - the ReLU function - used in present-day neural networks, as well as for the Gaussian networks. We propose a new definition of relat...

  8. National networks of corporate power : an Irish perspective

    Mac Canna, Leo; Brennan, Niamh; O'Higgins, Eleanor


    This paper maps the network of interlocking directorships formed by the boards of the top 50 financial and 200 non-financial companies in Ireland. The Irish network is compared with those in ten countries, based on the same sample size and selection criteria as used in this paper, using the methods and theory of Social Network Analysis (SNA). Fundamental to the paper is the idea that the network of interlocking directorates is in some way structured, and not the result of random processes. ...

  9. A social network perspective of lead users and creativity

    Kratzer, Jan; Lettl, Christopher


    closely correlates to individual creativity, and both, in turn, to the provision of information in social networks. This study, guided by lead user theory, creativity research and network theory, investigates 16 school-groups of children examining the relationship between the children's social networks...... and their resulting creativity and lead userness. In addition, the interplay between lead userness and creativity is discussed and empirically tested. The main result of this study is that children who are positioned as bridging links between different groups in social networks reveal both a high...

  10. An Actor-Critic Algorithm for Sequence Prediction

    Bahdanau, Dzmitry; Brakel, Philemon; Xu, Kelvin; Goyal, Anirudh; Lowe, Ryan; Pineau, Joelle; Courville, Aaron; Bengio, Yoshua


    We present an approach to training neural networks to generate sequences using actor-critic methods from reinforcement learning (RL). Current log-likelihood training methods are limited by the discrepancy between their training and testing modes, as models must generate tokens conditioned on their previous guesses rather than the ground-truth tokens. We address this problem by introducing a \\textit{critic} network that is trained to predict the value of an output token, given the policy of an...

  11. Broadcast Networks and the Outsiders: Legal Responsibility from Two Perspectives.

    Deming, Caren J.

    This paper examines the legal responsibility of networks to fairly represent outsiders in network employment and programming. The outsiders--women, racial and ethnic minorities, homosexuals, older people, members of minor political parties--have been using legal avenues provided by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Equal…

  12. Evolution based on chromosome affinity from a network perspective

    Monteiro, R. L. S.; Fontoura, J. R. A.; Carneiro, T. K. G.; Moret, M. A.; Pereira, H. B. B.


    Recent studies have focused on models to simulate the complex phenomenon of evolution of species. Several studies have been performed with theoretical models based on Darwin's theories to associate them with the actual evolution of species. However, none of the existing models include the affinity between individuals using network properties. In this paper, we present a new model based on the concept of affinity. The model is used to simulate the evolution of species in an ecosystem composed of individuals and their relationships. We propose an evolutive algorithm that incorporates the degree centrality and efficiency network properties to perform the crossover process and to obtain the network topology objective, respectively. Using a real network as a starting point, we simulate its evolution and compare its results with the results of 5788 computer-generated networks.

  13. Modularity in Complex Multilayer Networks with Multiple Aspects: A Static Perspective

    Zhang, Han; Lai, Jian-Huang; Yu, Philip S


    Complex systems are usually illustrated by networks which captures the topology of the interactions between the entities. To better understand the roles played by the entities in the system one needs to uncover the underlying community structure of the system. In recent years, systems with interactions that have various types or can change over time between the entities have attracted an increasing research attention. However, algorithms aiming to solve the key problem - community detection - in multilayer networks are still limited. In this work, we first introduce the multilayer network model representation with multiple aspects, which is flexible to a variety of networks. Then based on this model, we naturally derive the multilayer modularity - a widely adopted objective function of community detection in networks - from a static perspective as an evaluation metric to evaluate the quality of the communities detected in multilayer networks. It enables us to better understand the essence of the modularity by...

  14. Special COP 21 - Stakes and actors

    A first set of article comments and discusses the various stakes and challenges of the 21. Conference of Parties (COP 21): the negotiation process which resulted in a synthesis which is to be signed by 95 States in Paris, the elaboration of an Agenda of solutions with the commitment of enterprises and local authorities, the issue of international financing as some promises remained not kept for the support to adaptation of developing countries. A second set of articles addresses the involved actors and their technological or economic challenges: the needed evolution of energy (electricity, heat, gas, fuel) producers away from fossil energies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the strategy of the French company Engie in the field of photovoltaic, wind and more generally renewable energies, innovating trends of decentralisation of energy production (offshore wind energy, hydrogen, plasma torch, flexible photovoltaic arrays, the wind tree, the floating wind turbine, new technologies for solar arrays), the perspectives for industrial sectors concerned by energy transition (with the example of Schneider Electric), emerging technologies (oil lamp, new boilers, desalination equipment, storage of wind energy, co-generation), developments and perspectives in the transport sector (example of Renault, new technologies for hybrid propulsion, bio-refineries, reduction of fuel consumption, hybrid aircraft, and heat management in railways) and in the building sector (new standards and applications, new building materials). A last article outlines the threat that climate can be for profitability and the taking of the carbon risk into account by the insurance and financial sectors

  15. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Henrik Österblom

    Full Text Available Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  16. Engaging Actors in Co-Designing Heterogeneous Innovations

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lindegaard, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project...... related to translating and transporting the results of these different events due to the institutional and professional framing of projects and design processes. We are analyzing these through an actor network approach and use the translation term to describe how the participants slowly became engaged in...... our project’s agenda by going through the different stages of translation. The paper is finalized with reflections on the difficulties in engaging actors in a co-design process and transporting results into the existing framed context of design and architectural work....

  17. In search of a network theory of innovations: relations, positions, and perspectives

    L. Leydesdorff; P. Ahrweiler


    As a complement to Nelson and Winter's (1977) article titled "In Search of a Useful Theory of Innovation," a sociological perspective on innovation networks can be elaborated using Luhmann's social systems theory, on the one hand, and Latour's "sociology of translations," on the other. Because of a

  18. Social Network Perspectives Reveal Strength of Academic Developers as Weak Ties

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina


    Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…

  19. Privileged Emotion Managers: The Case of Actors

    Orzechowicz, David


    Theatre provides a unique set of conditions for the management of emotions. Drawing on participant observation from one repertory theater, three university productions, and interviews with stage actors, directors, and acting instructors, I conceptualize actors as privileged emotion managers. Actors access structural resources that enable their…

  20. Complex network perspective on structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus metabolic network

    L Ying; D W Ding


    With remarkable advances in reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks, uncovering complex network structure and function from these networks is becoming one of the most important topics in system biology. This work aims at studying the structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) metabolic network by complex network methods. We first generated a metabolite graph from the recently reconstructed high-quality S. aureus metabolic network model. Then, based on `bow tie' structure character, we explain and discuss the global structure of S. aureus metabolic network. The functional significance, global structural properties, modularity and centrality analysis of giant strong component in S. aureus metabolic networks are studied.

  1. Women in formal corporate networks: an organisational citizenship perspective.

    Singh, Val; Vinnicombe, Susan; Kumra, Savita


    To investigate women's corporate networks, and the reported benefits for the women and their employers. To gain insight into the motivation for these voluntary activities, by drawing on organisational citizenship theory.

  2. Structural properties of network revenue management models: an economic perspective

    Morton, Alec


    Many revenue management problems have a network aspect. In this paper, we argue that a network can be thought of as a system of substitutable and complementary products, and the value of a revenue management model should be supermodular or submodular in the availability of two resources as the resources are economic substitutes or complements. We demonstrate that this is true in the case of a two-resource dynamic stochastic revenue management model, and show how this applies for multi-resourc...

  3. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities in China : From a Business Network Perspective

    Liu, Dan; Fu, Yanwei


    The emerging cleantech market in China will bring new business opportunities for Swedish cleantech SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises). In such an internationalization process, business network building is an important approach that Swedish entrepreneurs should consider about. Guanxi is a culture pattern in China and plays important role in business of Chinese context. The purpose of the thesis is to find how business network and guanxi affect on Swedish SMEs’ internationalization, especially...

  4. A Network Perspective on Individual-Level Ambidexterity in Organizations

    Rogan, Michelle; Mors, Marie Louise


    Addressing the call for a deeper understanding of ambidexterity at the individual level, we propose that managers’ networks are an important yet understudied factor in the ability to balance the trade-off between exploring for new business and exploiting existing business. Analyses of 1,449 ties ...... predominately explored or exploited. The findings suggest that managers’ networks are important levers for their ability to behave ambidextrously and offer insights into the microfoundations of organizational ambidexterity....

  5. Mimicking Nature´s way of organizing in industry: a network learning perspective

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    The purpose of this paper is to further advance existing theory on industrial ecology, organisational network and organisational learning in order to speed up the development towards increased environmental awareness and behavior. It is argued that such a perspective offers a unique opportunity to...... reconsider organisational learning as being both an internal as well as an external phenomenon. By bringing network learning into an existing interorganisational setting (such as industrial ecology) new potentials for increased learning emerge for the participating companies. The concept of network learning...

  6. The network perspective: an integration of attachment and family systems theories.

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Hanney, Lesley


    In this article we discuss the network paradigm as a useful base from which to integrate attachment and family systems theories. The network perspective refers to the application of general systems theory to living systems, and provides a framework that conceptualizes the dyadic and family systems as simultaneously distinct and interconnected. Network thinking requires that the clinician holds multiple perspectives in mind, considers each system level as both a part and a whole, and shifts the focus of attention between levels as required. Key epistemological issues that have hindered the integration of the theories are discussed. These include inconsistencies within attachment theory itself and confusion surrounding the theoretical conceptualizations of the relationship between attachment and family systems theories. Detailed information about attachment categories is provided using the Dynamic Maturational model. Case vignettes illustrating work with young children and their families explore the clinical implications of integrating attachment data into family therapy practice. PMID:12395561

  7. El entrenamiento como base de la formación actoral

    Carlos Araque Osorio


    Full Text Available The text presents a reflection on the actor’s training and its implications, virtues and contributions to the professional formation of actors. It starts from the experience that the author has assimilated as teacher and director, but mainly as an active actor, that appeals to his body as a work tool. From this perspective, the relationships between exercise, system and rehearsal are analyzed. Performance is not an esoteric and mystic act propitiated by the gods, it is a work that requires preparation, dedication and conscious inquiry. The actor or the actress that are unable to train in solitude, cannot contribute to a group, perhaps, this should be done without losing the perspective that theater is a collective act, in which communication plays an important role. For this reason, is fundamental to know how it is expressed, how it is signified and how a communication is begun between the actor and the spectator.

  8. A financial network perspective of financial institutions' systemic risk contributions

    Huang, Wei-Qiang; Zhuang, Xin-Tian; Yao, Shuang; Uryasev, Stan


    This study considers the effects of the financial institutions' local topology structure in the financial network on their systemic risk contribution using data from the Chinese stock market. We first measure the systemic risk contribution with the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) which is estimated by applying dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model (DCC-MVGARCH). Financial networks are constructed from dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) with graph filtering method of minimum spanning trees (MSTs). Then we investigate dynamics of systemic risk contributions of financial institution. Also we study dynamics of financial institution's local topology structure in the financial network. Finally, we analyze the quantitative relationships between the local topology structure and systemic risk contribution with panel data regression analysis. We find that financial institutions with greater node strength, larger node betweenness centrality, larger node closeness centrality and larger node clustering coefficient tend to be associated with larger systemic risk contributions.

  9. Interleukin-7 Receptor Signaling Network: An Integrated Systems Perspective

    Megan J. Palmer; Vinay S. Mahajan; Lily C. Trajman; Darrell J. Irvine; Douglas A.Lauffenburger; Jianzhu Chen


    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential cytokine for the development and homeostatic maintenance of T and B lymphocytes. Binding of IL-7 to its cognate receptor, the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R), activates multiple pathways that regulate lymphocyte survival, glucose uptake, proliferation and differentiation. There has been much interest in understanding how IL-7 receptor signaling is modulated at multiple interconnected network levels. This review examines how the strength of the signal through the IL-7 receptor is modulated in T and B cells, including the use of shared receptor components, signaling crosstaik, shared interaction domains, feedback loops, integrated gene regulation, muitimerization and ligand competition. We discuss how these network control mechanisms could integrate to govern the properties of IL-7R signaling in lymphocytes in health and disease. Analysis of IL-7receptor signaling at a network level in a systematic manner will allow for a comprehensive approach to understanding the impact of multiple signaling pathways on lymphocyte biology.

  10. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Jin Qin


    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  11. Two years of real progress in European HEP networking: A CERN perspective

    The last two years have been marked by real progress in networking in HEP. Home-made developments, studies and plans have given way to the use of real networks involving hundreds of HEP and other computers and based on externally produced software and hardware. Within the last year, the first generation of industrial software products following some of the international standards for networking have become available. Related developments are taking place in networking for on-line systems and indeed the LEP experiments are distinguished by their heavy and crucial reliance on both local and wide-area networks. This paper describes the progress made at CERN since the last two years and looks at perspectives for the future. (orig.)

  12. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    Skaates, Maria Anne


    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature of the ...... actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  13. Three perspectives on the evolving electric vehicles innovation network of Finland

    Rasanen, R.-S.; Temmes, A.; Lovio, R.


    This report compiles the electric vehicle related work done in 2012 in the project: Future innovation and technology policy for sustainable system-level transitions: the case of transport (FIP-Trans). The project focuses on researching alternative and complementary socio-technical pathways and related policy options for sustainable transition in the Finnish transport sector. The project is financed by Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation. Analysis is continued in 2013. In this paper we study the evolving electric vehicle innovation network of Finland. The analysis is built on combining the theoretical aspects of Strategic Niche Management and Technology Innovation Systems. Based on the literature we develop a framework for analyzing the development of innovation networks. The framework contains four steps. The first step is the identification and analysis of the main actors and their activities. The second step is the identification and analysis of the main events affecting the development of the industry. This step is based on the use of event structure analysis. The third step consists of the analysis of development of the architecture of the system while the fourth step deals with the description and analysis of the niche and innovation system development processes in a combined manner. The data consists of interviews, policy and consultation papers, newspaper articles, press releases and other enterprise publications and of private databases containing financial information of the enterprises. Based on the theoretical framework, the four separate, but complementing qualitative analyses were made. The electric vehicle niche has evolved through the interaction of private and public sector actors. The involvement of public sector affected strongly on the evolution of the system arenas and was an important event for the resource mobilization of the industry. As with other Finnish industries, the importance of the international dimension

  14. Perspectives on next-generation technology for environmental sensor networks

    Benson, Barbara J; Bond, Barbara J; Hamilton, Michael P; Monson, Russell K.; Han, Richard


    Sensor networks promise to transform and expand environmental science. However, many technological dif- ficulties must be overcome to achieve this potential. Partnerships of ecologists with computer scientists and engineers are critical in meeting these challenges. Technological issues include promoting innovation in new sensor design, incorporating power optimization schemes, integrating appropriate communication protocols, streamlining data management and access, using innovative graphic an...

  15. The CE3R Network: current status and future perspectives

    Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Pesaresi, Damiano; Živčić, Mladen; Costa, Giovanni; Kuk, Kresimir; Bondár, István; Duni, Llambro; Spacek, Petr


    In order to improve the monitoring of seismic activities in the border regions and to enhance the collaboration between countries and seismological institutions in Central Europe, the Environment Agency of the Slovenian Republic (ARSO), the Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (OGS), the University of Trieste (UniTS) and the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) established in 2001 the "South Eastern Alps Transfrontier Seismological Network". In May 2014 ARSO, OGS, UniTS and ZAMG agreed to formalize the transfrontier network, to name it "Central and East European Earthquake Research Network", (CE3RN or CE3R Network) in order to locate it geographically since cross-border networks can be established in other areas of the world and to expand their cooperation, including institutions in other countries. The University of Zagreb (UniZG) joined CE3RN in October 2014. The Kövesligethy Radó Seismological Observatory (KRSZO) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences joined CE3RN in October 2015. The Institute of Geosciences, Energy, Water and Environment (IGEWE) of the Polytechnic University of Tirana joined CE3RN in November 2015. The Institute of Physics of the Earth (IPE) of the Masaryk University in Brno joined CE3RN in November 2015. CE3RN Parties intend to formalize and possibly extend their ongoing cooperation in the field of seismological data acquisition, exchange and use for seismological and earthquake engineering and civil protection purposes. The purpose of this cooperation is to retain and expand the existing cross-border network, specify the rules of conduct in the network management, improvements, extensions and enlargements, enhance seismological research in the region, and support civil protection activities. Since the formal establishment of CE3RN, several common projects have been completed, like the SeismoSAT project for the seismic data center connection over satellite funded by the Interreg

  16. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Ryan R. J. McAllister


    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.


    José Hernando Ávila-Toscano


    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó identificar la estructura de socialización de una subcultura urbana con la medición de indicadores estructurales de su red social e identificación de subagrupaciones. Se empleó el instrumento Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ISSIS con 11 miembros de la subcultura roqueros. Se procesaron los datos mediante el análisis de redes sociales (ARS con el software Ucinet, para detectar conjuntos de actores con el procedimiento de conglomerados jerárquicos; y los gráficos de la red se crearon con NetDraw. Se identificaron niveles moderados de indicadores estructurales y las agrupaciones presentaron un número amplio de actores según el criterio de atracción por similaridad. Los subgrupos en la red fueron escasos, lo que muestra a la subcultura como una unidad social cuya integración se da por vinculaciones estrechas entre sus miembros.

  18. tradicional: Conflictos y actores laborales

    Héctor Lucena


    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una línea de investigación más general que se ocupa de analizar las transformaciones en las Relaciones de Trabajo. El presente documento centra su atención en los cambios que experimenta la Organización del Trabajo y como ellos repercuten en la conflictividad laboral. Se parte de reconocer que la relación capital-trabajo es de naturaleza conflictiva, pero que los mecanismos de convivencia entre las partes y todo el marco regulatorio, permiten y facilitan el desenvolvimiento y la convivencia productiva. Sin embargo, los cambios en la Organización del Trabajo que reducen la fuerza de trabajo y lesionan conquistas históricas de los trabajadores, estimulan el desarrollo de conflictos colectivos, los que materializan en tanto existan constituidos los actores laborales. En el proceso de investigación seguido en esta línea, se revisa la literatura pertinente, se analizan casos de la realidad laboral venezolana reciente vía hemeroteca y entrevistas, privilegiándose la huelga de Sidor en el 2004. Se concluye, destacando que los cambios que paulatinamente se emprenden desde la empresa para modificar la Organización del Trabajo, erosionan la capacidad de respuesta de los actores laborales representativos de los trabajadores.

  19. Relational correlates of interpersonal citizenship behavior: a social network perspective.

    Bowler, Wm Matthew; Brass, Daniel J


    This study examines the role of social network ties in the performance and receipt of interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB), one form of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). A field study involving 141 employees of a manufacturing firm provided evidence that social network ties are related to the performance and receipt of ICB. Results support hypothesized relationships, which are based on social exchange theory, suggesting strength of friendship is related to performance and receipt of ICB. Support was also found for impression management-based hypotheses suggesting that asymmetric influence and 3rd-party influence are related to the performance and receipt of ICB. These relationships were significant when controlling for job satisfaction, commitment, procedural justice, hierarchical level, demographic similarity, and job similarity. Implications and directions for future research are addressed. PMID:16435939

  20. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia


    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  1. Overview of HEP wide area networking: Producer perspective

    The prime role of HEP network producers is to understand user requirements and to translate them into policies and solutions; the next stage is to manage in a collaborative way the resulting services. Close coordination is essential, and concrete steps have been taken by HEP in Europe and the USA to set up the appropriate management structures. External constraints also exist (PTTs, policies on standards, ...) and the HEP network provider has to accomodate all these components in the planning of future services. This paper mainly discusses what has been achieved worldwide by HEP in this context - a set of coordinated conventional services using multivendor and proprietary protocols and mainly based on leased lines - and what can be expected in the coming years: advanced services consistent with the Supercomputer-Workstation era, based on high (megabit) to very high (hundred megabit) links. This is required to actually achieve collaborative and distributed processing of HEP data. (orig.)

  2. The entrepreneurial proces in a dynamic network perspective

    V. Christensen, Patrizia; P. Ulhøi, John; Madsen, Henning


    The main focus of this paper is on individuals and/or groups of individuals who create or seize a new technology-based or knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial opportunity. For this purpose, a theoretical framework for studying entrepreneurship, using financial, social and human capital, including social ties and networks, has been developed. Research themes or questions concerning how social ties and entrepreneurs’ background affect the funding, launching and subsequent developm...

  3. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes: comparative genomics and network perspectives

    Zhu, Kevin; Liu, Qi; Zhou, Yubo; Tao, Cui; Zhao, Zhongming; Sun, Jingchun; Xu, Hua


    Background Defective tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and hyperactive oncogenes (OCGs) heavily contribute to cell proliferation and apoptosis during cancer development through genetic variations such as somatic mutations and deletions. Moreover, they usually do not perform their cellular functions individually but rather execute jointly. Therefore, a comprehensive comparison of their mutation patterns and network properties may provide a deeper understanding of their roles in the cancer developm...

  4. Quality of Experience on Smartphones : Network, Application, and Energy Perspectives

    Ickin, Selim


    Smartphones have become crucial enablers for users to exploit online services such as learning, leisure, communicating, and socializing. The user-perceived quality of applications and services is an important factor to consider, in order to achieve lean resource management, to prevent user churn and revenue depletion of service or network providers. This is often studied within the scope of Quality of Experience (QoE), which has attracted researchers both in academia and industry. The objecti...

  5. Inter-generational Contact From a Network Perspective

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Koehly, Laura M.


    Pathways for resource—or other—exchanges within families have long been known to be dependent on the structure of relations between generations (Silverstein, 2011; Fuller-Thomson et al., 1997; Agree et al., 2005; Treas and Marcum, 2011). Much life course research has theorized models of inter-generational exchange— including, the ‘sandwich generation’ (Miller, 1981) and the ‘skipped generation’ pathways (Chalfie, 1994)—but there is little work relating these theories to relevant network mecha...


    Rathwell, Kaitlyn


    Understanding how humans and ecosystems interact across landscapes is an importantchallenge for the development of sustainable societies. Human dominated landscapes arefrequently heterogeneous in their distribution of ecosystems and the associated goods andservices. It can be difficult to create management strategies that cater to diverse demandsfrom different resource managers, while at the same time promoting healthy functioningof ecosystems held in common. I use a social network perspectiv...

  7. Traffic Convexity Aware Cellular Networks: A Vehicular Heavy User Perspective

    Shim, Taehyoung; Park, Jihong; Ko, Seung-Woo; Kim, Seong-Lyun; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin Gu


    Rampant mobile traffic increase in modern cellular networks is mostly caused by large-sized multimedia contents. Recent advancements in smart devices as well as radio access technologies promote the consumption of bulky content, even for people in moving vehicles, referred to as vehicular heavy users. In this article the emergence of vehicular heavy user traffic is observed by field experiments conducted in 2012 and 2015 in Seoul, Korea. The experiments reveal that such traffic is becoming do...

  8. Idea Management: Perspectives from Leadership, Learning, and Network Theory

    Deichmann, Dirk


    textabstractIn this dissertation, we focus on how leadership styles, individual learning behaviors, and social network structures drive or inhibit organizational members to repeatedly generate and develop innovative ideas. Taking the idea management programs of three multinational companies as the research setting, we investigate, in four empirical papers using different sources and methods, how innovative behavior can be supported, influenced, or changed. Within this context, we concentrate ...

  9. Automatic Fire Detection: A Survey from Wireless Sensor Network Perspective

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, N; Havinga, P.J.M.


    Automatic fire detection is important for early detection and promptly extinguishing fire. There are ample studies investigating the best sensor combinations and appropriate techniques for early fire detection. In the previous studies fire detection has either been considered as an application of a certain field (e.g., event detection for wireless sensor networks) or the main concern for which techniques have been specifically designed (e.g., fire detection using remote sensing techniques). T...

  10. Wireless sensor networks: state of the art and future perspective

    Tuyl, van, J.M.; Os, van, H.; Henten, van, J.W.


    To reduce labour costs, the responsibilities of greenhouse production managers are ever increasing. This makes the decision-making process more complex and more information from the greenhouse work floor is needed. There is a tendency towards monitoring and managing crop production at plant level instead of monitoring the whole greenhouse, and as such there is an increasing amount of information coming from smaller individual sub-systems. To gather this information, Wireless Sensor Networks (...

  11. A physical layer perspective on access network sharing

    Pfeiffer, Thomas


    Unlike in copper or wireless networks, there is no sharing of resources in fiber access networks yet, other than bit stream access or cable sharing, in which the fibers of a cable are let to one or multiple operators. Sharing optical resources on a single fiber among multiple operators or different services has not yet been applied. While this would allow for a better exploitation of installed infrastructures, there are operational issues which still need to be resolved, before this sharing model can be implemented in networks. Operating multiple optical systems and services over a common fiber plant, autonomously and independently from each other, can result in mutual distortions on the physical layer. These distortions will degrade the performance of the involved systems, unless precautions are taken in the infrastructure hardware to eliminate or to reduce them to an acceptable level. Moreover, the infrastructure needs to be designed such as to support different system technologies and to ensure a guaranteed quality of the end-to-end connections. In this paper, suitable means are proposed to be introduced in fiber access infrastructures that will allow for shared utilization of the fibers while safeguarding the operational needs and business interests of the involved parties.

  12. On the Development Model of Tri-networks Integration---A Case Study of Shanghai Based on Actor-Network Theory%基于行动者-网络的三网融合发展模式研究--以上海市为例



    我国三网融合于2010年进入实质性发展阶段,与之相关的技术问题、利益问题和规制问题等都备受关注,探索三网融合发展模式成为社会各界讨论的焦点。基于行动者-网络研究表明,上海市三网融合发展是混合外生与内生的发展模式---“过程由产业部门控制,决策由政府推动和产业部门选择”的模式。通过网络组构发现,在上海市三网融合过程中发生过“伪取代”,“势均力敌”的资源持有状态有助于融合各方力量加以发展,并亟待制度方面的“顶层设计”。同时,案例研究表明,行动者-网络理论成为三网融合研究范式,仍需要从内部与外部空间分割问题、内生与外生因素界定、网络大小问题、网络数量问题和政府权力问题等方面进一步探究。%2010 witnessed significant development of China ’s tri-networks integration.Since then, related technical issues, interests and regulations have drawn much attention from the public and the development mode of tri-networks integration has also become a central issue for discussion and debate among many circles .Based on actor-network theory, this study of tri-networks integration in Shanghai shows that the city has created a model that combines exogenous and endogenous development , that is,“process controlled by the industrial sec-tor, decision making led by government and selected by industry sectors ”.As is demonstrated in the network configuration, the“pseudo replacement” that occurs in Shanghai ’s tri-networks integration helps to create well balanced resources pools which foster the development of tri -networks integration.The case study also suggests that it's urgent to develop “top-level” designing in system and institutions .Besides, the actor-network theory, if it is to serve as a research paradigm for tri-networks integration, needs to be further developed and refined in order to better

  13. Network externality perspective of feed-in-tariffs (FIT) instruments-Some observations and suggestions

    Existing energy policy frameworks revolving around the acceleration of deployment of renewable energy technology can be broadly classified as the quantity vs. price approach. With this brief viewpoint, this paper suggests another perspective of viewing these instruments in terms of a more fundamental basis: whether the deployment in capacity is in terms of a cost minimization approach or a network externality approach. We suggest that the generic price or feed in tariff (FIT) approach in subsidizing renewable electricity generation and associated income would create a bandwagon or self-propagation effect among users rendering the renewable energy technology spreads like a software or information technology. Our objective is to raise awareness of this technology dynamics oriented perspective in renewable deployment supplementing the conventional installation subsidies perspective. We hope that it would inspire more empirical works and studies relating to the policy implications of this viewpoint.

  14. Global mobility of talent from a perspective of new industrial policy: Open migration chains and diaspora networks

    Kuznetsov, Yevgeny; Sabel, Charles


    The paper views migration of skills from a perspective of new industrial policy. It introduces two types of search networks: open migration chains and diaspora networks. Migration chains are sequences of educational or job opportunities which allows a migrant to move to progressively complex educational and job tasks necessary to work in the global environment. Diaspora networks are networks of diaspora members to advance their collective goals, often (but not necessarily) for the benefits of...

  15. A study on the critical factors which influence habitual entrepreneurs' success in networking from the perspective of social captial theory

    Li, Siqi


    The aim of the research is to provide an insight on the critical factors which influence habitual entrepreneurs’ success in networking through which effective networking strategies may lead to increased business performance. The perspective of explaining the factors adopts social capital theory and social dimensions of entrepreneurs’ network. The key findings suggest that social capital is in a form of non-linear pattern that the interactions are complex. Network configuration influences effe...

  16. Actor Bonds in Situations of Discontinuous Business Activities

    Skaates, Maria Anne


    Demand in many industrial buying situations, e.g. project purchases or procurement related to virtual organizations, is discontinuous. In situations of discontinuity, networks are often more of an ad hos informational and social nature, as strong activity and resource links are not present...... the institutional concept of the "field". Finally this paper introduces the concept of "social capital" (Bourdieu, 1983) and discusses whether it can be used to conceptualize the dynamic features of actor bonds in situations of discontinuity....

  17. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L.


    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  18. Microarchitecture of network-on-chip routers a designer's perspective

    Dimitrakopoulos, Giorgos; Seitanidis, Ioannis


    This book provides a unified overview of network-on-chip router micro-architecture, the corresponding design opportunities and challenges, and existing solutions to overcome these challenges. The discussion focuses on the heart of a NoC, the NoC router, and how it interacts with the rest of the system. Coverage includes both basic and advanced design techniques that cover the entire router design space including router organization, flow control, pipelined operation, buffering architectures, as well as allocators' structure and algorithms. Router micro-architectural options are presented in a


    Chuikina, Viktoriya; Ekberg-Tamminen, Sari


    Problem Description: Since there are recognized similarities in the construction industry between relationship building and strategic CSR engaging thus managing and communicating CSR should be evaluated from the industrial network perspective. Close interaction between stakeholders and implemented strategic CSR facilitate to perform successfully and remain competitive when facing challenges in modern construction industry. Peab AB was chosen for the research as one of the leading construction...

  20. Discourse of international internship from a holistic perspective – Case: CEMS MIM network

    Miettinen, Emma


    Discourse of international internship from holistic perspective – Case: CEMS MIM network Introduction International internship is currently a mandatory part of Community of European Management Schools (CEMS) curriculum which is a joint Master’s degree in international management that can be studied in Helsinki School of Economics. Therefore, the topic was found important and was chosen as a focus of this thesis. Objectives The objective is to research the concept from a holist...

  1. Benefits of Semantics on Web Service Composition from a Complex Network Perspective.

    Cherifi, Chantal; Labatut, Vincent; Santucci, Jean-François


    The number of publicly available Web services (WS) is continuously growing, and in parallel, we are witnessing a rapid development in semantic-related web technologies. The intersection of the semantic web and WS allows the development of semantic WS. In this work, we adopt a complex network perspective to perform a comparative analysis of the syntactic and semantic approaches used to describe WS. From a collection of publicly available WS descriptions, we extract syntactic and semantic WS in...

  2. Bringing a network perspective to Chinese internet studies: an exploratory analysis

    Chen, Yu-wen


    This paper adopts a network perspective to explore the ways digitally-mediated relationships prompt social and/or political participation in China. In the "chicken game scenario", my analysis suggests that collective actions are facilitated by both weak and strong ties, which generate a fairly unified collective identity that is conductive to high-risk mobilization. In the "public crisis scenario", it is generally weak ties that facilitate relatively lower-risk mobilization. In the "compromis...

  3. E-learning networked environments and architectures a knowledge processing perspective

    Wu, Xindong; Pierre, Samuel


    This book provides state-of-the-art e-learning networked environments and architectures carried out over the last few years from a knowledge management perspective. It contains a comprehensive discussion of e-learning concepts, models, experiments and best practices. Presenting a wide-ranging survey of methods and applications from contributors from around the world, this book will be a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners and graduates.

  4. Fully Abstract Game Semantics for Actors

    Wang, Yong


    Along the way paved by the recent concurrent game semantics for process algebra CCS and $\\pi$-calculus, based on the basic characteristics of the actor computational model and the very reductive semantics for actors, we establish a fully abstract concurrent game semantics for actors by borrowing the algebraic structure from CCS. This semantics can both be seen as an innocent presheaf semantics, and a concurrent game semantics.

  5. Dissemination of Word of Mouth Based on SNA Centrality Modeling and Power of Actors - An Empirical Analysis of Internet Word of Mouth


    Combined with social network analysis (SNA), the actors¡¯ dissemination net of word of mouth is analyzed, and the network of "concern" and "being concerned" is described. With index of centrality measure, three aspects of the actors in the word-of-mouth network are discussed in terms of the degree centrality, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality. The dimensions of the power of actors are divided, and the sample data of word-of-mouth spreading is analyzed with hierarchical clustering. ...

  6. Sensor networks and netcentric perspectives of civil government

    Jones, Deirdre R.; Howard, Timothy G.


    Observations of weather and climate yield demonstrated societal benefits, and have been officially part of U.S. government activities since Jefferson. Observing sensor networks contribute to real-time warnings of extreme weather, and to long-term analysis of endemic disease. To learn more about netcentric technologies and their role in observing sensor networks, the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) organized a seminar that examined System-of-Systems (SOS), Enterprise Architecture (EA) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) concepts, using two NOAA programs, the Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO-IDE) and the Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS), as examples. Further analysis of the seminar material shows the interrelationship of SOS and EA, with the enabling capability of IPv6 and the framework of a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), can help NOAA organize sensor systems-of-systems on a global scale in support of the Global Earth Observing System-of-Systems (GEOSS).

  7. Modelling Spiking Neural Network from the Architecture Evaluation Perspective

    Yu Ji; You-Hui Zhang; Wei-Min Zheng


    The brain-inspired spiking neural network (SNN) computing paradigm offers the potential for low-power and scalable computing, suited to many intelligent tasks that conventional computational systems find difficult. On the other hand, NoC (network-on-chips) based very large scale integration (VLSI) systems have been widely used to mimic neuro-biological architectures (including SNNs). This paper proposes an evaluation methodology for SNN applications from the aspect of micro-architecture. First, we extract accurate SNN models from existing simulators of neural systems. Second, a cycle-accurate NoC simulator is implemented to execute the aforementioned SNN applications to get timing and energy-consumption information. We believe this method not only benefits the exploration of NoC design space but also bridges the gap between applications (especially those from the neuroscientists’ community) and neuromorphic hardware. Based on the method, we have evaluated some typical SNNs in terms of timing and energy. The method is valuable for the development of neuromorphic hardware and applications.

  8. Towards the integration of social network analysis in an inter-organizational networks perspective

    Bergenholtz, Carsten; Waldstrøm, Christian

    This conceptual paper deals with the issue of studying inter-organizational networks while applying social network analysis (SNA). SNA is a widely recognized technique in network research, particularly within intra-organizational settings, while there seems to be a significant gap in the inter-organizational...... setting. Based on a literature review of both SNA as a methodology and/or theory and the field of inter-organizational networks, the aim is to gain an overview in order to provide a clear setting for SNA in inter-organizational research....

  9. Urban Traffic Dynamics: A Scale-Free Network Perspective

    Hu, M B; Jiang, R; Wu, Q S; Wang, B H; Wu, Y H; Hu, Mao-Bin; Wang, Wen-Xu; Jiang, Rui; Wu, Qing-Song; Wang, Bing-Hong; Wu, Yong-Hong


    This letter propose a new model for characterizing traffic dynamics in scale-free networks. With a replotted road map of cities with roads mapped to vertices and intersections to edges, and introducing the road capacity L and its handling ability at intersections C, the model can be applied to urban traffic system. Simulations give the overall capacity of the traffic system which is quantified by a phase transition from free flow to congestion. Moreover, we report the fundamental diagram of flow against density, in which hysteresis is found, indicating that the system is bistable in a certain range of vehicle density. In addition, the fundamental diagram is significantly different from single-lane traffic model and 2-D BML model with four states: free flow, saturated flow, bistable and jammed.

  10. Operating a global seismic network - perspectives from the USGS GSN

    Gee, L. S.; Derr, J. S.; Hutt, C. R.; Bolton, H.; Ford, D.; Gyure, G. S.; Storm, T.; Leith, W.


    The Global Seismographic Network (GSN) is a permanent digital network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors connected by a global telecommunications network, serving as a multi-use scientific facility used for seismic monitoring for response applications, basic and applied research in solid earthquake geophysics, and earth science education. A joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the National Science Foundation, and Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology (IRIS), the GSN provides near- uniform, worldwide monitoring of the Earth through 144 modern, globally distributed seismic stations. The USGS currently operates 90 GSN or GSN-affiliate stations. As a US government program, the USGS GSN is evaluated on several performance measures including data availability, data latency, and cost effectiveness. The USGS-component of the GSN, like the GSN as a whole, is in transition from a period of rapid growth to steady- state operations. The program faces challenges of aging equipment and increased operating costs at the same time that national and international earthquake and tsunami monitoring agencies place an increased reliance on GSN data. Data acquisition of the USGS GSN is based on the Quanterra Q680 datalogger, a workhorse system that is approaching twenty years in the field, often in harsh environments. An IRIS instrumentation committee recently selected the Quanterra Q330 HR as the "next generation" GSN data acquisition system, and the USGS will begin deploying the new equipment in the middle of 2007. These new systems will address many of the issues associated with the ageing Q680 while providing a platform for interoperability across the GSN.. In order to address the challenge of increasing operational costs, the USGS employs several tools. First, the USGS benefits from the contributions of local host institutions. The station operators are the first line of defense when a station experiences problems, changing boards

  11. Evolution and Controllability of Cancer Networks: A Boolean Perspective.

    Srihari, Sriganesh; Raman, Venkatesh; Leong, Hon Wai; Ragan, Mark A


    Cancer forms a robust system capable of maintaining stable functioning (cell sustenance and proliferation) despite perturbations. Cancer progresses as stages over time typically with increasing aggressiveness and worsening prognosis. Characterizing these stages and identifying the genes driving transitions between them is critical to understand cancer progression and to develop effective anti-cancer therapies. In this work, we propose a novel model for the `cancer system' as a Boolean state space in which a Boolean network, built from protein-interaction and gene-expression data from different stages of cancer, transits between Boolean satisfiability states by "editing" interactions and "flipping" genes. Edits reflect rewiring of the PPI network while flipping of genes reflect activation or silencing of genes between stages. We formulate a minimization problem min flip to identify these genes driving the transitions. The application of our model (called BoolSpace) on three case studies-pancreatic and breast tumours in human and post spinal-cord injury (SCI) in rats-reveals valuable insights into the phenomenon of cancer progression: (i) interactions involved in core cell-cycle and DNA-damage repair pathways are significantly rewired in tumours, indicating significant impact to key genome-stabilizing mechanisms; (ii) several of the genes flipped are serine/threonine kinases which act as biological switches, reflecting cellular switching mechanisms between stages; and (iii) different sets of genes are flipped during the initial and final stages indicating a pattern to tumour progression. Based on these results, we hypothesize that robustness of cancer partly stems from "passing of the baton" between genes at different stages-genes from different biological processes and/or cellular components are involved in different stages of tumour progression thereby allowing tumour cells to evade targeted therapy, and therefore an effective therapy should target a "cover set" of

  12. Aging brain from a network science perspective: something to be positive about?

    Michelle W Voss

    Full Text Available To better understand age differences in brain function and behavior, the current study applied network science to model functional interactions between brain regions. We observed a shift in network topology whereby for older adults subcortical and cerebellar structures overlapping with the Salience network had more connectivity to the rest of the brain, coupled with fragmentation of large-scale cortical networks such as the Default and Fronto-Parietal networks. Additionally, greater integration of the dorsal medial thalamus and red nucleus in the Salience network was associated with greater satisfaction with life for older adults, which is consistent with theoretical predictions of age-related increases in emotion regulation that are thought to help maintain well-being and life satisfaction in late adulthood. In regard to cognitive abilities, greater ventral medial prefrontal cortex coherence with its topological neighbors in the Default Network was associated with faster processing speed. Results suggest that large-scale organizing properties of the brain differ with normal aging, and this perspective may offer novel insight into understanding age-related differences in cognitive function and well-being.

  13. The Stability of Exchange Networks

    Doğan, G.; Assen, M. van; Rijt, A. van de; V.W. Buskens


    Economic and sociological exchange theories predict divisions of exchange benefits given an assumed fixed network of exchange relations. Since network structure has been found to have a large impact on actors’ payoffs, actors have strong incentives for network change.Weanswer the question what happens to both the network structure and actor payoffs whenmyopic actors change their links in order to maximize their payoffs. We investigate the networks that are stable, the networks that are effici...

  14. Bilinear Mixed-Effects Models for Affiliation Networks

    Jia, Yanan; Calder, Catherine A.; Christopher R. Browning


    An affiliation network is a particular type of two-mode social network that consists of a set of `actors' and a set of `events' where ties indicate an actor's participation in an event. Although networks describe a variety of consequential social structures, statistical methods for studying affiliation networks are less well developed than methods for studying one-mode, or actor-actor, networks. One way to analyze affiliation networks is to consider one-mode network matrices that are derived ...

  15. Measuring the default risk of sovereign debt from the perspective of network

    Chuang, Hongwei; Ho, Hwai-Chung


    Recently, there has been a growing interest in network research, especially in the fields of biology, computer science, and sociology. It is natural to address complex financial issues such as the European sovereign debt crisis from the perspective of network. In this article, we construct a network model according to the debt-credit relations instead of using the conventional methodology to measure the default risk. Based on the model, a risk index is examined using the quarterly report of consolidated foreign claims from the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) and debt/GDP ratios among these reporting countries. The empirical results show that this index can help the regulators and practitioners not only to determine the status of interconnectivity but also to point out the degree of the sovereign debt default risk. Our approach sheds new light on the investigation of quantifying the systemic risk.


    Logica BANICA


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Web became more than a space for product presentation, but also a capitalization market (e-commerce and an efficient way to know the customer preferences and to meet their requirements. Large companies have the financial potential to use various marketing strategies and, in particular, digital-marketing. Instead, small businesses are looking for lower cost or no cost methods (also called guerrilla marketing. A small company can compete with a large company by approaching a particular range of products that excel in quality, and also by inventiveness in the marketing strategy. During 2010-2015 the potential of Information Technology and Communications (IT&C sector was proved for the companies which aimed towards modernization of technologies and introduced new strategies in order to commercialize new products. An important challenge for companies was to be aware of the changes in customer behaviour, using social networks software. Finally, research centers have set up new IT&C services and improved marketing and communications following the crisis. More and more companies invest in analytic tools to monitor their marketing strategies and Big Data becomes extremely useful for this purpose, using information like customer demographics and spending habits, oscillation between simplicity, comfort and glamour. There are various tools that can transform in a very short time, massive amounts of data into real business value in a very short time, helping companies and retailers to understand, at any point in the product lifecycle, which trends are gaining and which are losing ground. These insights give them the possibility to reduce the risk of not selling their products by making adjustments to the design, production or promotional strategies, before putting the goods on the market. In this paper we aim to present the advantages of exploring customer requirements from social media for marketing strategy of an enterprise, by using SNA

  17. Actor-Network Theory as I image it. Brief essay on traffic lights La ANT tal como yo la imagino. Breve ensayo sobre el cosmos semafórico

    Carlos Enrique Silva Rios


    ="hps">I decided to do my research in Barcelona only. Later on, for studying people crossing the street, I decided to consider traffic lights as a starting point. Then I undertook the task of preparing a field diary based on some of the notions of Actor-Network Theory as Bruno Latour puts them. I did not use Investment dimensions in a universal service perspective: Next generation networks, alternative funding mechanisms and public-private partnerships

    Falch, Morten; Henten, Anders


    This paper seeks to examine the investment dimensions of next generation networks from a universal service perspective in a European context. The question is how new network infrastructures for providing access for everyone to communication, information and entertainment services in the present and...

  18. Sentiment Polarization and Balance among Users in Online Social Networks

    Hillmann, Robert; Trier, Matthias


    Communication within online social network applications enables users to express and share sentiments electronically. Existing studies examined the existence or distribution of sentiments in online communication at a general level or in small-observed groups. Our paper extends this research...... by analyzing sentiment exchange within social networks from an ego-network perspective. We draw from research on social influence and social attachment to develop theories of node polarization, balance effects and sentiment mirroring within communication dyads. Our empirical analysis covers a multitude...... of social networks in which the sentiment valence of all messages was determined. Subsequently we studied ego-networks of focal actors (ego) and their immediate contacts. Results support our theories and indicate that actors develop polarized sentiments towards individual peers but keep sentiment in balance...

  19. Actors of the hydrogen sector in France

    This document proposes brief presentations (web site address, activities) of actors operating in the hydrogen sector in France. These actors are public actors who can be incentive or financing actors (ADEME, ANR) or research institutions (CNRS, CEA, university and engineering schools, IFP, INERIS, INRETS), private actors like industrial groups (Air Liquide, AREVA, GDF Suez, Total, PSA Peugeot Citroen, Renault, Saint-Gobain, SNECMA, ST Microelectronics, 3M, Veolia Environnement) or small companies (Alca Torda Applications, Axane, CETH2, Helion, MaHytec, N-GHY, PaxiTech, Sertronic, ULLIT). It also presents the HyPAC platform created by the AFH2 and ADEME), the AFH2 (the French Association for Hydrogen), and regional initiatives

  1. Memorias, subjetividades y actores sociales

    Olga Marlene Sánchez Moncada


    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una síntesis temática a modo de balance sobre la producción desarrollada en cinco años de la Maestría en Estudios Sociales de la Universidad Pedagógica Nacional. De hecho, los estudiantes de la línea ''Memoria, identidades y actores sociales'' han adelantado sus respectivas investigaciones en torno a estas temáticas con sus correspondientes especificidades. En cuanto a las memorias, han trabajado indagaciones sobre ciencias sociales escolares y la configuración de memoria nacional, en las cuales se han acompañado procesos de construcción de memoria con organizaciones sociales, además de analizar procesos de construcción de memorias sobre el conflicto armado colombiano. Asimismo, se ha abordado una variedad de temas en el enfoque dado a los individuos con potencial de cambio y transformación social. Finalmente, en relación con las subjetividades se han explorado temas como: performatividad, identidades atribuidas, identidades autoatribuidas y la constitución de sujeto.

  2. Social Network Perspective: Model of Student Knowledge Sharing On Social Network Media

    Bentar Priyopradono; Danny Manongga; Wiranto H. Utomo


    Recently, the role and development of information technology especially the internet, gives impact and influence in social relationship especially for social network site services users. The impact and influence the use of Internet which is related to exchange information and knowledge sharing still become one of the interesting topics to be researched. Now, the use of social media network by students are the best way to them to increase their knowledge as communication media such as, exchang...

  3. Actors influencing sense-making of ICT adoption in SMEs : The case of Zenergy AB

    Onicescu, Ana-Maria


    Background Every company nowadays needs to use ICT artifacts to cope with the business development. The adoption and use of ICT involves different actors who make sense of ICT in relation to their work environment. This thesis focuses on the relationships between the actors involved in SME’s ICT adoption and their influence upon the process. Purpose          The purpose of this thesis is to explore the interactions between different actors in the SME’s network and analyze how they influence t...

  4. Photonic Network R&D Activities in Japan-Current Activities and Future Perspectives

    Kitayama, Ken-Ichi; Miki, Tetsuya; Morioka, Toshio; Tsushima, Hideaki; Koga, Masafumi; Mori, Kazuyuki; Araki, Soichiro; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Onaka, Hiroshi; Namiki, Shu; Aoyama, Tomonori


    R&D activities on photonic networks in Japan are presented. First, milestones in current ongoing R&D programs supported by Japanese government agencies are introduced, including long-distance and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) fiber transmission, wavelength routing, optical burst switching (OBS), and control-plane technology for IP backbone networks. Their goal was set to evolve a legacy telecommunications network to IP-over-WDM networks by introducing technologies for WDM and wavelength routing. We then discuss the perspectives of so-called PHASE II R&D programs for photonic networks over the next 5 years until 2010, by focusing on the report that has been recently issued by the Photonic Internet Forum (PIF), a consortium that has major carriers, telecom vendors, and Japanese academics as members. The PHASE II R&D programs should serve to establish a photonic platform to provide abundant bandwidth on demand, at any time on a real-time basis, through the customer's initiative to promote bandwidth-rich applications, such as grid computing, real-time digital-cinema streaming, medical and educational applications, and network storage in e-commerce.

  5. Resistance and Security Index of Networks: Structural Information Perspective of Network Security

    Li, Angsheng; Hu, Qifu; Liu, Jun; Pan, Yicheng


    Recently, Li and Pan defined the metric of the K-dimensional structure entropy of a structured noisy dataset G to be the information that controls the formation of the K-dimensional structure of G that is evolved by the rules, order and laws of G, excluding the random variations that occur in G. Here, we propose the notion of resistance of networks based on the one- and two-dimensional structural information of graphs. Given a graph G, we define the resistance of G, written , as the greatest overall number of bits required to determine the code of the module that is accessible via random walks with stationary distribution in G, from which the random walks cannot escape. We show that the resistance of networks follows the resistance law of networks, that is, for a network G, the resistance of G is , where and are the one- and two-dimensional structure entropies of G, respectively. Based on the resistance law, we define the security index of a network G to be the normalised resistance of G, that is, . We show that the resistance and security index are both well-defined measures for the security of the networks.

  6. Ocean Research - Perspectives from an international Ocean Research Coordination Network

    Pearlman, Jay; Williams, Albert, III


    The need for improved coordination in ocean observations is more urgent now given the issues of climate change, sustainable food sources and increased need for energy. Ocean researchers must work across disciplines to provide policy makers with clear and understandable assessments of the state of the ocean. With advances in technology, not only in observation, but also communication and computer science, we are in a new era where we can answer questions asked over the last 100 years at the time and space scales that are relevant. Programs like GLOBEC moved us forward but we are still challenged by the disciplinary divide. Interdisciplinary problem solving must be addressed not only by the exchange of data between the many sides, but through levels where questions require day-to-day collaboration. A National Science Foundation-funded Research Coordination Network (RCN) is addressing approaches for improving interdisciplinary research capabilities in the ocean sciences. During the last year, the RCN had a working group for Open Data led by John Orcutt, Peter Pissierssens and Albert Williams III. The teams has focused on three areas: 1. Data and Information formats and standards; 2. Data access models (including IPR, business models for open data, data policies,...); 3. Data publishing, data citation. There has been a significant trend toward free and open access to data in the last few years. In 2007, the US announced that Landsat data would be available at no charge. Float data from the US (NDBC), JCOMM and OceanSites offer web-based access. The IODE is developing its Ocean Data Portal giving immediate and free access to ocean data. However, from the aspect of long-term collaborations across communities, this global trend is less robust than might appear at the surface. While there are many standard data formats for data exchange, there is not yet widespread uniformity in their adoption. Use of standard data formats can be encouraged in several ways: sponsors of

  7. Engaging Actors in Co-Designing Heterogeneous Innovations

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lindegaard, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project...... focused on textiles role in healing hospital environments, the co-design process analyzed is a process of designing textile products for these environments. During the co-design process we engaged architects, engineers and textile designers. The focus in this paper is specifically on the challenges...... related to translating and transporting the results of these different events due to the institutional and professional framing of projects and design processes. We are analyzing these through an actor network approach and use the translation term to describe how the participants slowly became engaged in...

  8. Network Threat Characterization in Multiple Intrusion Perspectives using Data Mining Technique

    Oluwafemi Oriola


    Full Text Available For effective security incidence response on the network, a reputable approach must be in place at bothprotected and unprotected region of the network. This is because compromise in the demilitarized zonecould be precursor to threat inside the network. The improved complexity of attacks in present times andvulnerability of system are motivations for this work. Past and present approaches to intrusion detectionand prevention have neglected victim and attacker properties despite the fact that for intrusion to occur,an overt act by an attacker and a manifestation, observable by the intended victim, which results fromthat act are required. Therefore, this paper presents a threat characterization model for attacks from thevictim and the attacker perspective of intrusion using data mining technique. The data mining techniquecombines Frequent Temporal Sequence Association Mining and Fuzzy Logic. Apriori Association Miningalgorithm was used to mine temporal rule patterns from alert sequences while Fuzzy Control System wasused to rate exploits. The results of the experiment show that accurate threat characterization in multipleintrusion perspectives could be actualized using Fuzzy Association Mining. Also, the results proved thatsequence of exploits could be used to rate threat and are motivated by victim properties and attackerobjectives.

  9. Real Time Semantic Interoperability in AD HOC Networks of Geospatial Data Sources: Challenges, Achievements and Perspectives

    Mostafavi, M. A.; Bakillah, M.


    Recent advances in geospatial technologies have made available large amount of geospatial data. Meanwhile, new developments in Internet and communication technologies created a shift from isolated geospatial databases to ad hoc networks of geospatial data sources, where data sources can join or leave the network, and form groups to share data and services. However, effective integration and sharing of geospatial data among these data sources and their users are hampered by semantic heterogeneities. These heterogeneities affect the spatial, temporal and thematic aspects of geospatial concepts. There have been many efforts to address semantic interoperability issues in the geospatial domain. These efforts were mainly focused on resolving heterogeneities caused by different and implicit representations of the concepts. However, many approaches have focused on the thematic aspects, leaving aside the explicit representation of spatial and temporal aspects. Also, most semantic interoperability approaches for networks have focused on automating the semantic mapping process. However, the ad hoc network structure is continuously modified by source addition or removal, formation of groups, etc. This dynamic aspect is often neglected in those approaches. This paper proposes a conceptual framework for real time semantic interoperability in ad hoc networks of geospatial data sources. The conceptual framework presents the fundamental elements of real time semantic interoperability through a hierarchy of interrelated semantic states and processes. Then, we use the conceptual framework to set the discussion on the achievements that have already been made, the challenges that remain to be addressed and perspectives with respect to these challenges.

  10. Beyond the magic circle : A network perspective on role-play in online games

    Copier, M.


    Currently, game research is characterized by the (re)construction of contested boundaries such as the “magic circle” of the game experience. These boundaries create dichotomies, for instance, between the real and the imaginary that hide the complexity of actual play, design and research. In this thesis I propose to go “beyond the magic circle” in order to understand games and play from a network perspective. My case study is role-play in the online game World of Warcraft (Blizzard Entertainme...

  11. Clock Synchronization in Wireless Sensor Networks: A New Model and Analysis Approach Based on Networked Control Perspective

    Wang Ting


    Full Text Available Motivated by the importance of the clock synchronization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs, this paper proposes a new research approach and model approach, which quantitatively analyzes clock synchronization from the perspective of modern control theory. Two kinds of control strategies are used as examples to analyze the effect of the control strategy on clock synchronization from different perspectives, namely, the single-step optimal control and the LQG global optimal control. The proposed method establishes a state space model for clock relationship, thus making dimension extension and parameter identification easier, and is robust to changes under the condition of node failures and new nodes. And through the design of different control strategies and performance index functions, the method can satisfy various requirements of the synchronization precision, convergence speed, energy consumption and the computational complexity, and so on. Finally, the simulations show that the synchronization accuracy of the proposed method is higher than that of the existing protocol, and the former convergence speed of the synchronization error is faster.

  12. Understanding Urban Traffic Flow Characteristics from the Network Centrality Perspective at Different Granularities

    Zhao, P. X.; Zhao, S. M.


    In this study, we analyze urban traffic flow using taxi trajectory data to understand the characteristics of traffic flow from the network centrality perspective at point (intersection), line (road), and area (community) granularities. The entire analysis process comprises three steps. The first step utilizes the taxi trajectory data to evaluate traffic flow at different granularities. Second, the centrality indices are calculated based on research units at different granularities. Third, correlation analysis between the centrality indices and corresponding urban traffic flow is performed. Experimental results indicate that urbaxperimental results indicate that urbaxperimental results indicate that urban traffic flow is relatively influenced by the road network structure. However, urban traffic flow also depends on the research unit size. Traditional centralities and traffic flow exhibit a low correlation at point granularity but exhibit a high correlation at line and area granularities. Furthermore, the conclusions of this study reflect the universality of the modifiable areal unit problem.

  13. Survey on Wireless Sensor Network Technologies for Industrial Automation: The Security and Quality of Service Perspectives

    Delphine Christin


    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs are gradually adopted in the industrial world due to their advantages over wired networks. In addition to saving cabling costs, WSNs widen the realm of environments feasible for monitoring. They thus add sensing and acting capabilities to objects in the physical world and allow for communication among these objects or with services in the future Internet. However, the acceptance of WSNs by the industrial automation community is impeded by open issues, such as security guarantees and provision of Quality of Service (QoS. To examine both of these perspectives, we select and survey relevant WSN technologies dedicated to industrial automation. We determine QoS requirements and carry out a threat analysis, which act as basis of our evaluation of the current state-of-the-art. According to the results of this evaluation, we identify and discuss open research issues.

  14. A Faculty Peer Network for Integrating Consumer Health Solutions in Nursing Education: Contextual Influences and Perspectives.

    Doyle, Glynda


    The Canadian Association of Schools of Nursing and Canada Health Infoway recently launched a national project to facilitate the integration of digital and consumer health solutions into undergraduate nursing programs across Canada. Led by eleven nursing faculty members with expertise in informatics, the Digital Health Nursing Faculty Peer Network provided a forum for mentorship and support to other nursing faculty (72) across Canada and facilitated the development of a number of strategies to advance the incorporation of digital health content into undergraduate nursing curricula (e.g., the creation of a Faculty Toolkit for teaching Consumer Health Solutions). In this panel presentation, contextual and regional influences as well as specific perspectives related to the experience of each of the panelists within the Faculty Peer Network project will be outlined and discussed. PMID:27332275

  15. A Networked Perspective on the Engineering Design Process: At the Intersection of Process and Organisation Architectures

    Parraguez, Pedro

    The design process of engineering systems frequently involves hundreds of activities and people over long periods of time and is implemented through complex networks of information exchanges. Such socio-technical complexity makes design processes hard to manage, and as a result, engineering design......-based process models. The results of the NPr Framework’s application in two case studies showed that decision makers in engineering design projects were able to gain new insights into their complex design processes through the framework. Such insights allowed them to better support and manage design activities...... projects often fail to be on time, on budget, and meeting specifications. Despite the wealth of process models available, previous approaches have been insufficient to provide a networked perspective that allows the challenging combination of organisational and process complexity to unfold. The lack...

  16. The network and the remodeling theories of aging: historical background and new perspectives.

    Franceschi, C; Valensin, S; Bonafè, M; Paolisso, G; Yashin, A I; Monti, D; De Benedictis, G


    Two general theories, i.e. "the network theory of aging" (1989) and "the remodeling theory of aging" (1995), as well as their implications, new developments, and perspectives are reviewed and discussed. Particular attention has been paid to illustrate: (i) how the network theory of aging fits with recent data on aging and longevity in unicellular organisms (yeast), multicellular organisms (worms), and mammals (mice and humans); (ii) the evolutionary and experimental basis of the remodeling theory of aging (immunological, genetic, and metabolic data in healthy centenarians, and studies on the evolution of the immune response, stress and inflammation) and its recent development (the concepts of "immunological space" and "inflamm-aging"); (iii) the profound relationship between these two theories and the data which suggest that aging and longevity are related, in a complex way, to the capability to cope with a variety of stressors. PMID:11053678

  17. Journalism : new media, new actors - new ethics?

    Fidalgo, Joaquim


    The traditional field of journalism has been facing major challenges in recent years, either because new actors have entered that field (professional journalists actually lost the monopoly of searching, gathering, editing and diffusing news in the public sphere), or because the old actors are increasingly asked to play new roles. The social demand for more public participation in the process of handling news and information, added to the fabulous possibilities of communication brought by the ...

  18. Exploring empowerment in settings: mapping distributions of network power.

    Neal, Jennifer Watling


    This paper brings together two trends in the empowerment literature-understanding empowerment in settings and understanding empowerment as relational-by examining what makes settings empowering from a social network perspective. Specifically, extending Neal and Neal's (Am J Community Psychol 48(3/4):157-167, 2011) conception of network power, an empowering setting is defined as one in which (1) actors have existing relationships that allow for the exchange of resources and (2) the distribution of network power among actors in the setting is roughly equal. The paper includes a description of how researchers can examine distributions of network power in settings. Next, this process is illustrated in both an abstract example and using empirical data on early adolescents' peer relationships in urban classrooms. Finally, implications for theory, methods, and intervention related to understanding empowering settings are explored. PMID:24213301

  19. Local Community Mining on Distributed and Dynamic Networks From a Multiagent Perspective.

    Bu, Zhan; Wu, Zhiang; Cao, Jie; Jiang, Yichuan


    Distributed and dynamic networks are ubiquitous in many real-world applications. Due to the huge-scale, decentralized, and dynamic characteristics, the global topological view is either too hard to obtain or even not available. So, most existing community detection methods working on the global view fail to handle such decentralized and dynamic large networks. In this paper, we propose a novel autonomy-oriented computing-based method for community mining (AOCCM) from the multiagent perspective in the distributed environment. In particular, AOCCM utilizes reactive agents to pick the neighborhood node with the largest structural similarity as the candidate node, and thus determine whether it should be added into local community based on the modularity gain. We further improve AOCCM to a more efficient incremental version named AOCCM-i for mining communities from dynamic networks. AOCCM and AOCCM-i can be easily expanded to detect both nonoverlapping and overlapping global community structures. Experimental results on real-life networks demonstrate that the proposed methods can reduce the computational cost by avoiding repeated structural similarity calculation and can still obtain the high-quality communities. PMID:26087512

  20. A Technical and Business Perspective on Wireless Sensor Network for Manufacturing Execution System

    Wei Xu


    Full Text Available Motivated by the complex production management with difficulties in error-prone assembly system and inaccurate supply chain inventory, this paper designs a novel manufacturing execution system (MES architecture for intelligent monitoring based on wireless sensor network (WSN. The technical perspective includes analysis on the proposed manufacturing resource mutual inductance method under active sensing network, appreciation technology of multisource information, and dynamic optimization technology for manufacturing execution processes. From business perspective, this paper elaborates the impact of RFID investment on complex product by establishing a three-stage supply chain model that involves two suppliers carrying out Stackelberg games (manufacturer and retailer. The optimal cost threshold values of technology investment are examined for both the centralized and the decentralized scenarios utilizing quantitative modeling methods. By analyzing and comparing the optimal profit with or without investment on WSN, this paper establishes a supply chain coordination and boosting model. The results of this paper have contributed significantly for one to make decision on whether RFID should be adopted among its members in supply chain. The system performance and model extension are verified via numerical analyses.

  1. Understanding Online Health Groups for Depression: Social Network and Linguistic Perspectives


    Background Mental health problems have become increasingly prevalent in the past decade. With the advance of Web 2.0 technologies, social media present a novel platform for Web users to form online health groups. Members of online health groups discuss health-related issues and mutually help one another by anonymously revealing their mental conditions, sharing personal experiences, exchanging health information, and providing suggestions and support. The conversations in online health groups contain valuable information to facilitate the understanding of their mutual help behaviors and their mental health problems. Objective We aimed to characterize the conversations in a major online health group for major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in a popular Chinese social media platform. In particular, we intended to explain how Web users discuss depression-related issues from the perspective of the social networks and linguistic patterns revealed by the members’ conversations. Methods Social network analysis and linguistic analysis were employed to characterize the social structure and linguistic patterns, respectively. Furthermore, we integrated both perspectives to exploit the hidden relations between them. Results We found an intensive use of self-focus words and negative affect words. In general, group members used a higher proportion of negative affect words than positive affect words. The social network of the MDD group for depression possessed small-world and scale-free properties, with a much higher reciprocity ratio and clustering coefficient value as compared to the networks of other social media platforms and classic network models. We observed a number of interesting relationships, either strong correlations or convergent trends, between the topological properties and linguistic properties of the MDD group members. Conclusions (1) The MDD group members have the characteristics of self-preoccupation and negative thought content, according to Beck

  2. Innovation in the plural of the alpine cre-actors

    Andréa Finger-Stich


    Full Text Available The capacity to innovate for a sustainable development of alpine territories cannot depend only on economic, legal and political conditions defined by the State at national and international levels. It depends also on local conditions that situate historically and geographically the actors in a continuity of social and ecological relationships. This approach highlights the collective – thus organisational – dimensions of the innovation process, including the imagination, the development, the implementation and even the diffusion of a new practice. Our point of view is that for contributing to the sustainable development of the Alps, innovations need to change the ecological, political, social and cultural relationships engaging the actors in these territories. This change affects as much the object territory as the subject actor of the territory. This is why innovating in the Alps means also innovating the Alps and the alpine actors (Cosalp, 2008. Based on a research about local people’s participation in the management of alpine communal forests, the article shows the importance of local interactions involving actors of diverse occupation, gender, age and origins1.La capacité d’innovation pour un développement durable des territoires alpins ne peut dépendre uniquement de conditions économiques, légales et politiques définies par les Etats aux échelles nationale et internationale. Elle dépend aussi de conditions locales, qui situent historiquement et géographiquement les acteurs dans une continuité de relations sociales et écologiques. Cette perspective accentue l’importance de la dimension collective, donc organisationnelle, du processus d’innovation, allant de l’imagination, puis au développement, à la réalisation – voire la diffusion – d’une nouvelle pratique. Le point de vue de cet article est qu’une innovation, pour contribuer au développement durable des Alpes, doit changer les relations

  3. Network Perspectives on Showrooming : Examining Trust and Commitment in the Hair Care Industry

    Jorstedt, Jakob; Engqvist, Emma


    Consumers are increasingly adopting new ways of purchasing and consuming hair care products, utilizing multiple channels (showrooming) in a hair care market where E-commerce actors are increasingly offering premium products at low price points. While previous research has extensively portrayed consumers as the central actor and villain of showrooming, this paper has instead focused its purpose and empirical investigation on the act ions and relationships between consumers, hairdressers, L’Oré...

  4. A helping hand or a servant discipline? Interpreting non-academic perspectives on the roles of social science in participatory policy-making

    Burchell, Kevin


    In the UK, a diverse network of actors has emerged around the delivery of government-sponsored processes of public participation in science and technology. Although this network includes social scientists, the relationship between social science and participatory policy-making remains an ambiguous one. My objective in this paper is to reflect in an exploratory manner on non-academic perspectives of the roles of social science in public participation. In particular, I draw attention to the ...

  5. Network approach for local and community governance of energy: The case of Oxfordshire

    One of the many barriers to the incorporation of local and community actors in emerging energy governance structures and policy delivery mechanisms is the lack of thorough understanding of how they work in practice, and how best to support and develop effective local energy governance. Taking a meso-level perspective and a network approach to governance, this paper sheds some new light on this issue, by focusing on the relation, channels of communication and interactions between low carbon community groups (LCCGs) and other actors. Based on data gathered from LCCGs in Oxfordshire, UK, via network survey and interviews the research maps the relations in terms of the exchanges of information and financial support, and presents a relation-based structure of local energy governance. Analysis reveals the intensity of energy related information exchanges that is taking place at the county level and highlights the centrality of intermediary organization in facilitating information flow. The analysis also identifies actors that are not very dominant in their amount of exchanges, but fill ‘weak-tie’ functions between otherwise disconnected LCCGs or other actors in the network. As an analytical tool the analysis could be useful for various state and non-state actors that want to better understand and support – financially and otherwise – actors that enable energy related local action. - Highlights: • We used social network analysis to examine local and community governance of energy. • We examined information and financial support flow within the network. • Analysis highlights central and peripheral actors in the local governance structure. • The findings highlight the central role intermediary organizations have in local governance structures

  6. Interpersonal Influence within Car Buyers’ Social Networks: Five Perspectives on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Demonstration Participants

    Axsen, Jonn; Kurani, Kenneth S


    To explore the role of social interactions in individuals’ assessments of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), this study analyzes over 190 social (interpersonal) interactions elicited in interviews with 31 individuals in eight different social networks centered on households in the Sacramento, California region. Results are framed within five theoretical perspectives on social influence: contagion, conformity, dissemination, translation, and reflexivity. Responses within networks cent...

  7. What Determines Social Capital in a Social-Ecological System? Insights from a Network Perspective

    Barnes-Mauthe, Michele; Gray, Steven Allen; Arita, Shawn; Lynham, John; Leung, PingSun


    Social capital is an important resource that can be mobilized for purposive action or competitive gain. The distribution of social capital in social-ecological systems can determine who is more productive at extracting ecological resources and who emerges as influential in guiding their management, thereby empowering some while disempowering others. Despite its importance, the factors that contribute to variation in social capital among individuals have not been widely studied. We adopt a network perspective to examine what determines social capital among individuals in social-ecological systems. We begin by identifying network measures of social capital relevant for individuals in this context, and review existing evidence concerning their determinants. Using a complete social network dataset from Hawaii's longline fishery, we employ social network analysis and other statistical methods to empirically estimate these measures and determine the extent to which individual stakeholder attributes explain variation within them. We find that ethnicity is the strongest predictor of social capital. Measures of human capital (i.e., education, experience), years living in the community, and information-sharing attitudes are also important. Surprisingly, we find that when controlling for other factors, industry leaders and formal fishery representatives are generally not well connected. Our results offer new quantitative insights on the relationship between stakeholder diversity, social networks, and social capital in a coupled social-ecological system, which can aid in identifying barriers and opportunities for action to overcome resource management problems. Our results also have implications for achieving resource governance that is not only ecologically and economically sustainable, but also equitable.

  8. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    To date, a fairly large amount of research has explored how social and organizational processes function and change ‘inside’ virtual spaces. In this article, add to the literature dismantling the longstanding dichotomy between the virtual world and the real world, by analyzing the importance of...... materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory...... and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...

  9. Bad Actors Criticality Assessment for Pipeline system

    Nasir, Meseret; Chong, Kit wee; Osman, Sabtuni; Siaw Khur, Wee


    Failure of a pipeline system could bring huge economic loss. In order to mitigate such catastrophic loss, it is required to evaluate and rank the impact of each bad actor of the pipeline system. In this study, bad actors are known as the root causes or any potential factor leading to the system downtime. Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) is used to analyze the probability of occurrence for each bad actor. Bimbaum's Importance and criticality measure (BICM) is also employed to rank the impact of each bad actor on the pipeline system failure. The results demonstrate that internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage are critical and highly contribute to the pipeline system failure with 48.0%, 12.4% and 6.0% respectively. Thus, a minor improvement in internal corrosion; external corrosion and construction damage would bring significant changes in the pipeline system performance and reliability. These results could also be useful to develop efficient maintenance strategy by identifying the critical bad actors.

  10. When Danish industry relocates – globalisation in an everyday perspective

    Louise Karlskov Skyggebjerg


    Full Text Available When Danish companies move their production abroad, it is often verbalised as a tragedy with focus on the loss of production workplaces in Denmark. This article instead examines what explicitly happens when a company relocates. Based on a study of Royal Copenhagen’s relocation to Thailand as well as a study of a number of Danish companies’ production units in China (Grundfos, RMG Steel, MCI and Fiberline, the focus of this article is on relocation in an everyday perspective with special emphasis on communication, transfer of competencies, company culture and differences in culture.It is concluded – inspired by actor-network theory – that relocation is a complicated process which is not concluded with the opening of a new factory. Many different actor types play significant roles in relation to the manner in which the relocation is carried out in practice; both in the short term during the actual relocation process and in the long term when the relocation has become commonplace. Among the key actor types are human actors such as cultural bridge builders, but not least material actors such as raw materials and buildings as well as immaterial actors such as ‘Danishness’ and ‘the history of the company’. The many actor types indicate, among other, that the dream of relocating becoming a simple process - providing working procedures and products are documented and described to an adequate degree - must be rejected.This article draws inspiration from theories and research about knowledge (transfer, differences in culture, companies’ (historical narratives and recent materiality studies. Methodically, this article is based on two interview based contemporary documentary studies.

  11. A Framework and Classification for Fault Detection Approaches in Wireless Sensor Networks with an Energy Efficiency Perspective

    Zhang, Yue; Dragoni, Nicola; Wang, Jiangtao


    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are more and more considered a key enabling technology for the realisation of the Internet of Things (IoT) vision. With the long term goal of designing fault-tolerant IoT systems, this paper proposes a fault detection framework for WSNs with the perspective of energy...

  12. New Actors and Alliances in Development

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    ‘New actors and alliances in development’ brings together an interdisciplinary group of scholars exploring how development financing and interventions are being shaped by a wider and more complex platform of actors than usually considered in the existing literature. The contributors also trace...... governments. Despite the diversity of these actors and alliances, several commonalities arise: they are often based on hybrid transnationalism and diffuse notions of development responsibility; rather than being new per se, they are newly being studied as practices that are now coming to be understood...... as ‘development’; and they are limited in their ability to act as agents of development by their lack of accountability or pro-poor commitment. The articles in this collection point to images and representations as increasingly important in development ‘branding’ and suggest fruitful new ground for critical...

  13. Song Perception by Professional Singers and Actors: An MEG Study.

    Rosslau, Ken; Herholz, Sibylle C; Knief, Arne; Ortmann, Magdalene; Deuster, Dirk; Schmidt, Claus-Michael; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinetteam; Pantev, Christo; Dobel, Christian


    The cortical correlates of speech and music perception are essentially overlapping, and the specific effects of different types of training on these networks remain unknown. We compared two groups of vocally trained professionals for music and speech, singers and actors, using recited and sung rhyme sequences from German art songs with semantic and/ or prosodic/melodic violations (i.e. violations of pitch) of the last word, in order to measure the evoked activation in a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) experiment. MEG data confirmed the existence of intertwined networks for the sung and spoken modality in an early time window after word violation. In essence for this early response, higher activity was measured after melodic/prosodic than semantic violations in predominantly right temporal areas. For singers as well as for actors, modality-specific effects were evident in predominantly left-temporal lateralized activity after semantic expectancy violations in the spoken modality, and right-dominant temporal activity in response to melodic violations in the sung modality. As an indication of a special group-dependent audiation process, higher neuronal activity for singers appeared in a late time window in right temporal and left parietal areas, both after the recited and the sung sequences. PMID:26863437

  14. Fortis Inc.'s acquisition of Aquila Networks Canada (BC) : ratepayers perspective

    The BC Public Interest Advocacy Centre is a non-profit society providing legal representation to various groups, including a number of consumer groups in the area of utility regulation since 1982. This paper provides a background and historical perspective to Fortis Inc.'s acquisition of Aquila Networks, a U.S. based company previously known as Utilicorp United Inc. Details were outlined of Utilicorp's initial acquisition of the West Kootenay Power and Light Company Ltd., a small, locally owned utility with rates lower than BC Hydro. It was purchased for $80 million, a substantial premium over its estimated book value of $30 million. Various alternatives by regional districts to forestall the sale were outlined, including attempts to transform the utility into a publicly owned utility district as well as the establishment of the Kootenay Okanagon Electricity Consumers' Association, whose purpose was to keep the utility in Canadian hands. Due to extensive opposition, the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC) imposed conditions on its approval of the sale. A brief outline of Utilicorp's aggressive expansion into the energy market was provided, including details of its failures in the market and its subsequent name change to Aquila Networks, ostensibly due to negative perceptions associated with its name. Details of Aquila Networks' direct contravention of the conditions imposed on it by the BCUC were presented, including moving its head office to Calgary in 2002, the various rates applications made to recover its acquisition premium and its breaching of conditions of the makeup of the board of directors. Against this background, the purchase of Aquila Networks by Fortis Inc., a Canadian company, has been greeted with enthusiasm. It was concluded that Fortis Inc. must be careful not to squander the goodwill of ratepayers and communities in its service area. It was recommended that the utility be locally managed and responsive to local issues. tabs., figs

  15. Scenarios for a urban energy transition. Actors, regulations, technologies

    Cities concentrate populations, consumptions, levers of actions, and are places of various experiments for energy transition. This book aims at giving an overview of possible scenarios of development of renewable energies in urban context. It is based on interviews of actors of the energy, building and urban planning sectors by researchers in town planning, management, technology, political and economic sciences. The authors examine what would occur if large companies would manage entire quarters, if local authorities would supervise production and supply, if the State would take control of all fields of action again, or if consumer cooperatives would exchange energy and pool productions. In its different chapters, the book presents four scenarios of energy coordination in urban context by 2040, discuss energy transition in urban spaces, discuss the perspectives of evolution towards more autonomous cities and quarters from an energetic point of view, and discuss business models and urban energetic innovations

  16. Off-Policy Actor-Critic

    Degris, Thomas; Sutton, Richard S


    This paper presents the first actor-critic algorithm for off-policy reinforcement learning. Our algorithm is online and incremental, and its per-time-step complexity scales linearly with the number of learned weights. Previous work on actor-critic algorithms is limited to the on-policy setting and does not take advantage of the recent advances in off-policy gradient temporal-difference learning. Off-policy techniques, such as Greedy-GQ, enable a target policy to be learned while following and obtaining data from another (behavior) policy. For many problems, however, actor-critic methods are more practical than action value methods (like Greedy-GQ) because they explicitly represent the policy; consequently, the policy can be stochastic and utilize a large action space. In this paper, we illustrate how to practically combine the generality and learning potential of off-policy learning with the flexibility in action selection given by actor-critic methods. We derive an incremental, linear time and space complexi...

  17. Sobre o natural e o actor

    Tavares, Margarida


    Neste artigo, procura-se reflectir sobre o conceito de natural quando aplicado ao trabalho do actor. Parte-se de quatro relevantes textos da dramaturgia ocidental, a saber: Hamlet, de Shakespeare; Crítica da ‘Escola das mulheres’ e O improviso de Versalhes, de Molière; e O teatro cómico, de Goldoni.

  18. A network perspective on the calamity, induced inaccessibility of communities and the robustness of centralized, landbound relief efforts

    Valenzuela, Jesus Felix; Legara, Erika Fille; Fu, Xiuju; Goh, Rick Siow Mong; de Souza, Robert; Monterola, Christopher


    We examine the robustness of centralized, landbound relief operations' capability to promptly reach areas affected by a disaster event from a network perspective. We initially look at two idealized road networks: a two-dimensional grid and a scale-free network, and compare them to an actual road network obtained from OpenStreetMap. We show that, from a node designated as the center for relief operations (a "relief center"), damage to a road network causes a substantial fraction of the other nodes (about 20% in the three networks we examined) to become initially inaccessible from any relief effort, although the remaining majority can still be reached readily. Furthermore, we show the presence of a threshold in the two idealized road networks but not in the real one. Below this threshold, all nodes can robustly be reached in a short span of time, and above it, not only the partitioning mentioned above sets in, but also the time needed to reach the nodes becomes susceptible to the amount of damage sustained by the road network. Under damage sustained by random segments of the network, this threshold is higher in the scale-free network compared to the grid, due to the robustness of the former against random attacks. Our results may be of importance in formulating contingency plans for the logistics of disaster relief operations.

  19. The Stability of Interbank Market Network: A Perspective on Contagion and Risk Sharing

    Chi Xie


    Full Text Available As an important part of the financial system, interbank market provides banks with liquidity and credit lending and also is the main channel for risk contagion. In this paper, we test the existence of systematic risk contagion within the Chinese interbank market. By building the networks of the Chinese interbank market for each year and using the measure of mutual information, we quantitatively detect the changes of interbank market networks and observe that the correlations between banks become increasingly tighter in recent years. With the bilateral risk exposure among Chinese listed commercial banks, we find that the possibility of systemic risk contagion in Chinese interbank market is fairly small. But of great concern on each individual bank, the matter is different. Our simulation shows that the failures of three special banks (i.e., Agricultural Bank of China and Bank of China and Industrial and Commercial Bank of China most likely lead to systemic risk contagion. Furthermore, we test the antirisk ability of the Chinese interbank market from the perspective of risk sharing and discover that the interbank market is stable when the loss scale is lower than forty percent of banks’ total core capital.

  20. State of the Art of Network Security Perspectives in Cloud Computing

    Oh, Tae Hwan; Lim, Shinyoung; Choi, Young B.; Park, Kwang-Roh; Lee, Heejo; Choi, Hyunsang

    Cloud computing is now regarded as one of social phenomenon that satisfy customers' needs. It is possible that the customers' needs and the primary principle of economy - gain maximum benefits from minimum investment - reflects realization of cloud computing. We are living in the connected society with flood of information and without connected computers to the Internet, our activities and work of daily living will be impossible. Cloud computing is able to provide customers with custom-tailored features of application software and user's environment based on the customer's needs by adopting on-demand outsourcing of computing resources through the Internet. It also provides cloud computing users with high-end computing power and expensive application software package, and accordingly the users will access their data and the application software where they are located at the remote system. As the cloud computing system is connected to the Internet, network security issues of cloud computing are considered as mandatory prior to real world service. In this paper, survey and issues on the network security in cloud computing are discussed from the perspective of real world service environments.

  1. Empowerment through participation? Collective mobilization and transnational women's movements as actors in the European sphere

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    transnational European sphere. This paper analyses the role of transnational civil society actors as mediators of wellbeing for the ones active within the organisations and networks. The objective is to assess wellbeing as the ability to participate in political activities both in terms of who participates and...

  2. The moral problem of worse actors

    Scott Wisor


    Full Text Available Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil company might know their assets will be bought by a company with worse environmental and labor practices. Or the engineer might know her position will be filled by a more ambitious and amoral engineer. I call this the moral problem of worse actors (MPWA. MPWA gives reason, at least some of the time, to consider otherwise morally impermissible actions permissible or even obligatory. On my account, doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA remains morally objectionable even if permissible or obligatory, and this brings additional moral responsibilities and obligations to the actor. Similarly, not doing the action in the circumstances of MPWA may also bring additional (but different moral responsibilities and obligations. Acknowledging MPWA creates considerable challenges, as many bad actors may appeal to it to justify morally objectionable action. In this paper, I develop a set of strategies for individuals and institutions to handle MPWA. This includes appeals to integrity and the proper attribution of expressive responsibility, regulatory responsibility, and compensatory responsibility. I also address a set of related concerns, including worries about incentivizing would-be bad actors, concerns about epistemic uncertainty, and the problem of mala in se exceptions.

  3. [The emergence and institutionalization of sexology in Portugal: processes, actors, and specificities].

    Alarcão, Violeta; Machado, Fernando Luís; Giami, Alain


    Based on Bourdieu's field theory, this article analyzes the emergence and institutionalization of sexology as a science and profession in Portugal, identifying relevant institutions, actors, and professional practices and discussing its relations and specificities. The analysis begins by contextualizing the emergence of modern Western sexology in order to comprehend the Portuguese case in the international sexology context. The second section describes the social, cultural, and institutional factors that have driven the professionalization of sexology. The third section describes the emergence of Portuguese sexology and its principal historical milestones, institutions, and actors. Finally, the article discusses some implications of this process for the role of sexology as a science and profession. The study reveals the dynamics of national and international processes in the field, in the transition from a holistic perspective of sexology to the hegemony of sexual medicine, and sheds light on its mechanisms of legitimation as a transdisciplinary science of sexuality, suggesting future perspectives. PMID:27598015

  4. Student Evaluation of Teaching from the Actors' Perspective

    Hanken, Ingrid Maria


    This article discusses obstacles that higher education institutions may need to surmount when introducing quality assurance measures such as student evaluation of teaching. It is based on a research study of how student evaluation of one-to-one instrumental tuition is perceived, experienced and practiced by instrumental teachers and their students…

  5. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective

    Simon Batchelor; Linda Waldman; Gerry Bloom; Sabrina Rasheed; Nigel Scott; Tanvir Ahmed; Nazib Uz Zaman Khan; Tamanna Sharmin


    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as...

  6. The understanding of school violence by the social actors of an educational institution

    Verônica Borges Kappel; Daniela Tavares Gontijo; Marcelo Medeiros; Luciane Soares Lima


    This study set out to understand school violence from the perspective of different agents of an educational institution, using qualitative research with data obtained through interviews with 27 actors in a public school and submitted to thematic content analysis. The categories Manifestations of School Violence and School Violence Causes and Consequences emerged from the conversation. Participants highlighted situations in which they portrayed themselves as victims, pointed out manifestations...

  7. Colorectal cancer prevention: Perspectives of key players from social networks in a low-income rural US region

    Schoenberg, Nancy E.; Eddens, Kathryn; Jonas, Adam; Snell-Rood, Claire; Studts, Christina R.; Broder-Oldach, Benjamin; Katz, Mira L.


    Social networks influence health behavior and health status. Within social networks, “key players” often influence those around them, particularly in traditionally underserved areas like the Appalachian region in the USA. From a total sample of 787 Appalachian residents, we identified and interviewed 10 key players in complex networks, asking them what comprises a key player, their role in their network and community, and ideas to overcome and increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Key players emphasized their communication skills, resourcefulness, and special occupational and educational status in the community. Barriers to CRC screening included negative perceptions of the colonoscopy screening procedure, discomfort with the medical system, and misinformed perspectives on screening. Ideas to improve screening focused on increasing awareness of women's susceptibility to CRC, providing information on different screening tests, improving access, and the key role of health-care providers and key players themselves. We provide recommendations to leverage these vital community resources. PMID:26905402

  8. The moral problem of worse actors

    Wisor, Scott


    Individuals and institutions sometimes have morally stringent reasons to not do a given action. For example, an oil company might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing revenue to a genocidal regime, or an engineer might have morally stringent reasons to refrain from providing her expertise in the development of weapons of mass destruction. But in some cases, if the agent does not do the action, another actor will do it with much worse consequences. For example, the oil comp...

  9. Test Case Generation of Actor Systems

    Albert Albiol, Elvira; Arenas Sánchez, Purificación; Gómez Zamalloa, Miguel


    Testing is a vital part of the software development process. It is even more so in the context of concurrent languages, since due to undesired task interleavings and to unexpected behaviours of the underlying task scheduler, errors can go easily undetected. Test case generation (TCG) is the process of automatically generating test inputs for interesting coverage criteria, which are then applied to the system under test. This paper presents a TCG framework for actor systems, which consists of...

  10. The simulation and optimization research on manufacturing enterprise’s supply chain process from the perspective of social network

    Fu, Chun; Shuai, Zhenzhen


    Purpose: By studying the case of a Changsha engineering machinery manufacturing firm, this paper aims to find out the optimization tactics to reduce enterprise’s logistics operational cost. Design/methodology/approach: This paper builds the structure model of manufacturing enterprise’s logistics operational costs from the perspective of social firm network and simulates the model based on system dynamics. Findings: It concludes that applying system dynamics in the research o...

  11. Towards feature selection in actor-critic algorithms

    Rohanimanesh, Khashayar; Roy, Nicholas; Tedrake, Russell Louis


    Choosing features for the critic in actor-critic algorithms with function approximation is known to be a challenge. Too few critic features can lead to degeneracy of the actor gradient, and too many features may lead to slower convergence of the learner. In this paper, we show that a wellstudied class of actor policies satisfy the known requirements for convergence when the actor features are selected carefully. We demonstrate that two popular representations for va...

  12. Application of the Actor-Critic Architecture to Functional Electrical Stimulation Control of a Human Arm.

    Thomas, Philip; Branicky, Michael; van den Bogert, Antonie; Jagodnik, Kathleen


    Clinical tests have shown that the dynamics of a human arm, controlled using Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES), can vary significantly between and during trials. In this paper, we study the application of the actor-critic architecture, with neural networks for the both the actor and the critic, as a controller that can adapt to these changing dynamics of a human arm. Development and tests were done in simulation using a planar arm model and Hill-based muscle dynamics. We begin by training it using a Proportional Derivative (PD) controller as a supervisor. We then make clinically relevant changes to the dynamics of the arm and test the actor-critic's ability to adapt without supervision in a reasonable number of episodes. Finally, we devise methods for achieving both rapid learning and long-term stability. PMID:20689654

  13. Investigation of rotated PCA from the perspective of network communities applied to climate data

    Hartman, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Vejmelka, Martin; Palus, Milan


    , seasonality, and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns. Monthly Weather Review 115:1083-1126. Feldstein, SB (2000) The timescale, power spectra, and climate noise properties of teleconnection patterns. Journal of Climate 13(24), 4430-4440. Fortunato, S (2010) Community detection in graphs. Physics Report-Review Section of Physics Letters 486(3-5), 75-174. Kistler, R and Coauthors (2001) The NCEP-NCAR 50-Year Reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bulletin of American Meteorological Society 82, 247-267. Hlinka J, Hartman D, Vejmelka M, Novotna D and Palus M. Non-linear dependence and teleconnections in climate data: sources, relevance, nonstationarity. Submitted preprint, available at arXiv:1211.6688. Girvan, M ; Newman, MEJ (2002) Community structure in social and biological networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United State of America 99(12), 7821-7826. Newman, MEJ and Girvan N (2004) Finding and evaluating community structure in networks. Physical Review E 69(2), 026113. Tsonis, AA; Swanson, KL (2012) On the origins of decadal climate variability: a network perspective. Nonlinear Processes in Geophysics 19(5), 559-568. Tsonis, AA; Wang, G; Swanson, KL ; Rodrigues, FA; Costa, LD (2011) Community structure and dynamics in climate networks. Climate Dynamics 37(5-6), 933-940.

  14. Field Study of all GSM and WiFi Networks in Amman City from Geospatial Perspective

    Hawarey, Mosab; Alibrahim, Mustafa; Jetto, Hamza; Salah Mahmoud, Firas


    A thorough field study over multiple months has been conducted in the streets of Amman, the capital city of Jordan, in order to collect massive amounts of GSM and WiFi data and analyze them from geospatial perspective. Some interesting realities have been detected; e.g. the North and West of Amman are much better served by GSM operators than the East, South, and Center. Also, the security measures taken to protect WiFi networks in the North and West are much better than those in the East, South, and Center. This has led to the recognition of an interesting pattern that groups the North and West together, while the East, South, and Center constitute another group. Extremely interesting finding was found; the GSM signals are so strong at certain locations that they constitute direct lethal threat to human health; it is scientifically documented that such strengths would lead to certain human cell mutations and cancer. The exact locations and contributors of such hazards will be disclosed in this paper for the first time. Many tabular and graphical presentations of the data will be presented.

  15. The establishment of heterogeneous networks in performative spaces

    Suenson, Valinka; Harder, Henrik


    This paper presents an empirical research combining the Actor Network Theory with a development of RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) technology for tracking indoor movement behavior. The aim of the paper is to disucss the value of RFID technology as a method for observing heterogeneous networks...... and architecture through this theoretical perspective, it highlights the importance of the user involvement in the performative spaces where materiality becomes an actant on equal terms with the users. This paper discusses the use of RFID technology for tracking indoor movenment behavior as a method for examining...

  16. Social networks in supervision

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    is constituted by the relationality of the actors, not by the actors themselves. In other words, no one acts in a vacuum but rather always under the influence of a wide range of surrounding and interconnected factors. Actors are actors because they are in a networked relationship. Thus, focusing on social...... in a network Consequently, by conceptualizing supervision using conceptual and analytical resources provided by ANT we can begin to understand supervision as an example of social life/as ordered network. Supervision may be considered a complex relational field of actor-networks where participants...... and practice have focused on conceptual frameworks and practical techniques of promoting reflection through conversation in general and questioning in particular. However, in recent years, supervision research has started to focus on the social and technological aspects of supervision. This calls...

  17. Revisiting topological properties and models of protein-protein interaction networks from the perspective of dataset evolution.

    Shao, Mingyu; Zhou, Shuigeng; Guan, Jihong


    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks are crucial for organisms. Many research efforts have thus been devoted to the study on the topological properties and models of PPI networks. However, existing studies did not always report consistent results on the topological properties of PPI networks. Although a number of PPI network models have been introduced, yet in the literature there is no convincing conclusion on which model is best for describing PPI networks. This situation is primarily caused by the incompleteness of current PPI datasets. To solve this problem, in this study, the authors propose to revisit the topological properties and models of PPI networks from the perspective of PPI dataset evolution. Concretely, they used 12 PPI datasets of Arabidopsis thaliana and 10 PPI datasets of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from different Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets (BioGRID) database versions, and compared the topological properties of these datasets and the fitting capabilities of five typical PPI network models over these datasets. PMID:26243826

  18. Assessment of energy security in China based on ecological network analysis: A perspective from the security of crude oil supply

    Energy security usually considers both the stability of energy supply and security of energy use and it is receiving increasing attention globally. Considering the strategic importance and sensitivity to international change of the crude oil supply, we decided to examine China’s energy security. An original network model was established based on ecological network analysis to holistically evaluate the security of the crude oil supply in China. Using this model, we found that the security of the crude oil supply in China generally increased from 2001 to 2010. The contribution of different compartments in the network to the overall energy security resembled a pyramid structure, with supply sources at the bottom, the consumption sector at the top, and the refining and transfer sectors in the middle. North and South America made the largest contribution to the security of the crude oil supply in China. We provide suggestions to improve the security of the crude oil supply in China based on our results and further scenario analysis. The original network model provides a new perspective for energy security assessment, which can be used as a baseline to develop other models and policy. - Highlights: • Ecological network analysis (ENA) is introduced into energy security assessment. • A model of crude oil supply network in China is established based on ENA. • A pyramid structure of the contributions of different compartments to energy security was found. • Suggestions for forming a stable network are given to improve energy security

  19. Social Communication from the Perspective of Network Field%论网络场域下的社会交往

    李忠艳; 黄刚


    Network field is a term derived from Social Science. It is the important basis for social science theory. This essay establishes the standards of network field education through the application of communication medium, based on Bourdieu's network field theory and current network construction. Analyzing and evaluating the network field defects, exploring social communication education from the perspective of network field and finally applying the scientific network field communication mode to the practice of management may improve the effectiveness of network education, the innovation of research methods in network education and way of thinking in resource management to realize final rationality and authenticity of social communication in network field.%场域理论是社会学术语,是社会学理论中的重要支撑力量,文章以布迪厄的场域理论研究为手段。以当前网络建设为基点,通过交往媒介的应用,建构网络场域教育规范。分析、评定网络场域弊端,并探索网络场域下的交往教育,最终把科学的网络场域交往模式运用于社会实践的管理当中,以切实提高网络教育的实效性,创新网络教育的研究方法和资源管理的思维方式,最终实现网络场域下社会交往的合理性和真实性。

  20. Policy analysis of multi-actor systems

    Enserink, Bert; Kwakkel, Jan; Thissen, Wil; Koppenjan, Joop; Bots, Pieter


    Policy analysts love solving complex problems. Their favorite problems are not just technically complex but also characterized by the presence of many different social actors that hold conflicting interests, objectives, and perceptions and act strategically to get the best out of a problem situation. This book offers guidance for policy analysts who want to assess if and how their analysis could be of help, based on the premise that problem formulation is the cornerstone in addressing complex problems. This book positions policy analysis within the theories on processes of policy making, and f

  1. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Eduardo Gudynas


    Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresaliente...

  2. Perspective of Consumers Network Positions on Information Searching Behaviour of Experts and Novices

    Fakhraddin Maroofi; Sahel Aazami


    Results from two studies depending on consumers’ network positions (outer or central), experts and novices behave when searching information about their networks or commodity’s related to those networks. Experts in central network positions (vs. outer) search for more network-related information, while novices in the same positions search for more commodity-related information. In comparison, experts in outer network positions (vs. central) search for more commodity-related information, while...

  3. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A.


    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such “intrinsic” brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to “mind”. However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the “classical” definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and “free-energy” (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm

  4. Influence Activation Model: A New Perspective in Social Influence Analysis and Social Network Evolution

    Yang, Yang; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N; Dong, Yuxiao


    What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's). To that end, we develop a novel model of network evolution where the dynamics of network follow the mechanism of influence propagation, which are not captured by the existing network evolution models. Our experiments confirm the predictions of our model and demonstrate the important role that social influence can play in the process of network evolution. As well exploring the reason of social network evolution, different genres of social influence have been spotted having different effects on the network dynamics. These findings and ...

  5. Prospect Theory: Contributions to Understanding Actors, Causes and Consequences of Conflict in Africa

    Wendy Trott


    Full Text Available Despite many recognized shortcomings, Rational Choice Theory remains the dominant perspective on decision-making in the literature on African conflict, whether overtly acknowledged or not. Prospect Theory, originally derived from the field of behavioural economics, can complement and advance this perspective not only by explaining the behaviour of actors, but also by allowing for predictions and the devising of strategies to avoid or end on-going conflicts based on a set of systematic biases that influence how actors make decisions. After a brief definition of Prospect Theory, this work will begin with an overview of the existing literature on decision-making as it relates to conflict, examine how Rational Choice is inadequate in explaining much human behaviour and thus how Prospect Theory can fill this gap. It will then move on to give a fuller definition of the various hypotheses derived from Prospect Theory that pertain to the study of conflict. An example of the application of Prospect Theory to a related field in which thorough research has been conducted, Deterrence Theory, will be used to demonstrate the model’s potential for study in other areas. This will be followed by a more in-depth analysis of the ways in which Prospect Theory can contribute to understanding the behaviour of actors in war, the causes of conflict, and the consequences in the African context. It will conclude with a summary and proposition for further research that can advance this analysis.

  6. Humanoids Learning to Walk: A Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture.

    Li, Cai; Lowe, Robert; Ziemke, Tom


    The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much research for some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST) offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL) has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system. In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO) robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model, a simplified central pattern generator (CPG) architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic). In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient learning and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified) reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator that adapts to the environment. The results obtained are analyzed using a novel DST-based embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating levels of sensorimotor activity and value. PMID:23675345

  7. Humanoids Learning to Walk: a Natural CPG-Actor-Critic Architecture

    CAI eLI


    Full Text Available The identification of learning mechanisms for locomotion has been the subject of much researchfor some time but many challenges remain. Dynamic systems theory (DST offers a novel approach to humanoid learning through environmental interaction. Reinforcement learning (RL has offered a promising method to adaptively link the dynamic system to the environment it interacts with via a reward-based value system.In this paper, we propose a model that integrates the above perspectives and applies it to the case of a humanoid (NAO robot learning to walk the ability of which emerges from its value-based interaction with the environment. In the model,a simplified central pattern generator (CPG architecture inspired by neuroscientific research and DST is integrated with an actor-critic approach to RL (cpg-actor-critic. In the cpg-actor-critic architecture, least-square-temporal-difference (LSTD based learning converges to the optimal solution quickly by using natural gradient and balancing exploration and exploitation. Futhermore, rather than using a traditional (designer-specified reward it uses a dynamic value function as a stability indicator (SI that adapts to the environment.The results obtained are analyzed and explained by using a novel DST embodied cognition approach. Learning to walk, from this perspective, is a process of integrating sensorimotor levels and value.

  8. Influence Activation Model: A New Perspective in Social Influence Analysis and Social Network Evolution

    Yang, Yang; Chawla, Nitesh V.; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N.; Dong, Yuxiao


    What drives the propensity for the social network dynamics? Social influence is believed to drive both off-line and on-line human behavior, however it has not been considered as a driver of social network evolution. Our analysis suggest that, while the network structure affects the spread of influence in social networks, the network is in turn shaped by social influence activity (i.e., the process of social influence wherein one person's attitudes and behaviors affect another's). To that end,...

  9. Environmental Activism, Social Networks and the Internet

    Sullivan, J.; Xie Lei


    Social networks and the internet both have a substantial individual effect on environmental activism in China. In this article, we speculate that social linking patterns between environmental actors, which often facilitate activism on the ground, may also exist in cyberspace in the form of an online network. The article addresses the following empirical questions. Does such an online network exist? If so, who are the constituent actors? Are these the same actors observed on the ground? In add...

  10. Legislation perspectives about social assistance programs for electricity distribution networks extensions. Considerations from ELETROPAULO case study, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. The aim of the work was to present legislation perspectives about social assistance programs for electricity distribution networks extensions considering a Brazilian electric utility case study

  11. Innovation in Multi-Actor Partnerships

    Christensen, David


    innovative sustainable technological solutions and business models through partnerships. In this paper, an action research study is presented involving the early stage development of a commercial venture addressing waste problems in Vietnam involving CARE International and Danish companies in the waste......Access2innovation is an initiative based in Denmark that develops and tests innovative new ways to build and implement strategic partnerships between civil society, business and academia. The objective is to meet perceived market opportunities and challenges in developing countries by developing...... to success lie in providing actors with a sound base for decision-making as well as active bi- and multilateral negotiations. As a novel experiment, the study shows that access2innovation can provide a platform conducive for partnership-based innovation for development....

  12. Games Real Actors Could Play: The Problem of Connectedness

    Scharpf, Fritz W.


    This paper continues the examination, begun in MPIFG Discussion Paper 89/9, of the validity of game-theoretic explanations in empirical social science research. Assuming that real actors with bounded rationality would be unable to cope with the explosive complexity of n-person games, discussion focuses first on the conditions under which corporate actors and coalitions, as well as collective and even aggregate actors can be legitimately treated as unitary players. In addition, the importance ...

  13. Games Real Actors Could Play: The Challenge of Complexity

    Scharpf, F.


    This paper continues the examination of the validity of game-theoretic explanations in empirical social science and policy research. Assuming that real actors with bounded rationality would be unable to cope with the explosive complexity of n-person games, discussion focuses on the conditions under which corporate actors and coalitions, as well as collective and even aggregate actors, may be legitimately treated as unitary players. In addition, the importance of functional differentiation and...

  14. Developing virtual actors inspired by real actors’ practice

    Silva, Rogério E. da; Santos, Manuel Filipe; Iurgel, Ido


    Autonomous Digital Actors represent the next step in animating 3D characters. How to create such virtual actors remains an open question. This work presents and discusses an agent architecture derived from how real actors learn their art from acting schools. The knowledge base relies on a rule-based system where each rule encodes explicit knowledge into a classification vector which allows agents to suggest performances even for unforeseen situations, and to adjust their ...

  15. Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual childrens literacy development

    Holm, Lars

    Literacy testing objects as co-actors in framing bilingual children´s literacy development Based on Latour´s theoretical perspective that human beings delegate roles and responsibility to artifacts, it becomes important to track and research the objects that circulate within and between “sites of...... perspectives is needed. The object in this presentation is literacy testing and the focus is on the function of literacy testing objects in framing bilingual children’s´ literacy development. Based on interviews and observations from three primary schools in Denmark the central research interest is to reveal...... the meaning that is delegated to the literacy testing objects in regard to bilingual children´s literacy development and to explore the narratives that are constructed about the children´s literacy. Based on Latour´s theoretical perspective that human beings delegate roles and responsibility to...

  16. Scheduling of CAL actor networks based on dynamic code analysis

    Boutellier, Jani; Silven, Olli; Raulet, Mickaël


    International audience CAL is a dataflow oriented language for writing high-level specifications of signal processing applications. The language has recently been standardized and selected for the new MPEG Reconfigurable Video Coding standard. Application specifications written in CAL can be transformed into executable implementations through development tools. Unfortunately, the present tools provide no way to schedule the CAL entities efficiently at run-time. This paper proposes an autom...

  17. A history of regression: actors, networks, machines, and numbers

    T J Barnes


    In this paper the history of correlation andregression analyses, both in the discipline of statistics generally and in human geography particularly, is examined. It is argued that correlation and regression analysis emerged from a particular social and cultural context, and that this context entered into the very nature of those techniques. The paper is divided into three sections. First, to counter the idea that mathematics and statistics are somehow outside the social, the arguments put for...

  18. Towards a New Framework of Idea Management as Actor Networks

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn


    Management of innovation idea development in front-end innovation of R&D organizations has shown to be a challenging task. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front-end innovation of R&D organizations. Through theoretical and empirical...

  19. Agglomeration and networks in spatial economies

    Johansson, Börje; Quigley, John M.


    We consider the parallel developments in the economics of agglomeration and the economics of networks. We explore the complementarities between the productivity benefits of agglomeration and those of network linkages, arguing that networks of actors dispersed over space may substitute for agglomerations of actors at a single point.

  20. The Dynamics of Friendships and Victimization in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Social Network Perspective

    Sentse, M.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Salmivalli, C.; Cillessen, A.H.N.


    This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects) an

  1. Actores sociales y ambitos de construccion de politicas ambientales Social actors and scenarios in the generation of environmental politics

    Eduardo Gudynas


    Full Text Available Se analiza el concepto de "actores claves" en la generación de políticas ambientales. Independientemente de la definición de actor social que se maneje, el asumir la existencia de actores claves ofrece limitaciones conceptuales y prácticas, ya que éstos son coyunturales a cada situación específica. Todos pueden ser actores claves en generar políticas ambientales cumpliendo papeles diferenciales. Como alternativa se utiliza el término de "actores destacados" y se revisan aspectos sobresalientes de varios de ellos en América Latina. Seguidamente se postula que el análisis se debe centrar en los escenarios sociales donde esos actores se pueden manifestar. Se ofrece una distinción preliminar de escenarios que permite integrar a nuevos y viejos movimientos sociales y establecer relaciones de articulación y equivalencia.The concept of "key actors" in the field of environmental politics is analyzed. Beyond the definition of social actor, the assumption of the existence of key actors implies conceptual and practical limitations, as it depends of each specific situation. Everyone could be a key actor under differential roles in the generation of environmental politics. As an alternative, the term "noteworthy actors" is used and a brief review of them in Latin America is presented. The relevant question should address the social scenarios from where these actors can express themselves. A preliminary distinction of scenarios is presented, in which old and new social movements could be integrated and relationships of articulation and equivalence could be established.

  2. Private Actors on the Rise? The Role of Non-State Actors in Compliance with International Institutions

    Börzel, Tanja


    (Transnational) private actors have a significant role in ‘global governance’. But their influence varies significantly, both across time and issues. The major challenge for theorizing about non-state actors in world politics is not only to demonstrate that they matter but explain where, when, and how they matter. This paper takes issue with these challenges by looking at the role of private actors in compliance with international institutions. The first part of the paper clarifies the concep...

  3. Between authority and media actor. The municipality as a news actor on the Internet

    Signe Bock Segaard


    Full Text Available

    The article illuminates how local authorities as news actors fill their websites with content. This is done through a study of how active the local authorities are as news actors on the Internet, what kinds of electronic news dissemination they do in practice, and to what degree they experience dilemmas in electronic news dissemination. The analytic point of departure is the tension between a journalistic ideal of news mediation relates to democratic values and a strategic ideal of communication related to branding. Empirically the analysis is based on data from several Danish and Norwegian municipalities which are considered as particularly active on the Internet. Finally the article discusses municipal news mediation on the Internet in the light of the municipality as a public authority as well as a market actor, a service provider, and as a democratic actor. The question is in what way municipal news dissemination on the Internet is a democratic gain. The article shows that the work with news dissemination on the Internet to some degree is characterized by professionalization, centralization, and bureaucratization. The democratic gain of municipal news dissemination is an empirical question and related to the criteria of news selection (in practice. Furthermore the article shows that some municipalities have a more strategic focus while others have a more journalistic focus but one focus does not rule out the other.

  4. A network analysis of Sibiu County, Romania

    Grama, Cristina-Nicol


    Network science methods have proved to be able to provide useful insights from both a theoretical and a practical point of view in that they can better inform governance policies in complex dynamic environments. The tourism research community has provided an increasing number of works that analyse destinations from a network science perspective. However, most of the studies refer to relatively small samples of actors and linkages. With this note we provide a full network study, although at a preliminary stage, that reports a complete analysis of a Romanian destination (Sibiu). Our intention is to increase the set of similar studies with the aim of supporting the investigations in structural and dynamical characteristics of tourism destinations.

  5. International Political Actorness of the European Union: Evaluation Criteria



    Full Text Available The European Union is a completely new international entity which is hard to evaluate using traditional criteria of political actorness. Its active international presence stimulates the modeling of international actor features beyond the scope of “state-international organization” scheme. The concept of international actorness serves as a starting point for the development of appropriate analytical model. Unlike the traditional state-centered approaches which define an international actor through its affiliation witch the international system, this concept operates at the internal level of international entity and at the international structure level. Furthermore, both of these levels are treated as ontologically neutral and mutually constitutive. This basic theoretical scheme is used for elaboration of evaluation criteria of political actorness. The proposed system of criteria is based on drawing, synthesizing and developing the main writings on “new international actors” since the times of classic work by Carol A. Cosgrove and Kenneth J. Twitchett. The key elements of actorness assessed in this article include defining of capacity to act on the global scene as well as the acceptance by other actors and by international system as a whole. At the internal level, the EU’s actor capacity is measured by assessing its core elements ranging from core aspects, such as autonomy, authority, actor capability, coherence and cohesion to identity aspects. On the external level, the decisive criteria are recognition and acceptance by others which reflect expectations and perceptions of the EU. The proposed approach of evaluating the international actorness enables us to consider the political activity of the EU on the basis of coordinated system of interaction between the variables of international and domestic levels of the analysis. Furthermore, this contributes to the development of cumulative, coherent, and comprehensive theory of international

  6. Perspective of Consumers Network Positions on Information Searching Behaviour of Experts and Novices

    Fakhraddin Maroofi


    Full Text Available Results from two studies depending on consumers’ network positions (outer or central, experts and novices behave when searching information about their networks or commodity’s related to those networks. Experts in central network positions (vs. outer search for more network-related information, while novices in the same positions search for more commodity-related information. In comparison, experts in outer network positions (vs. central search for more commodity-related information, while outer novices search for more network-related information. These findings are useful for companies to better access to their brand communities. Since, central experts and outer novices search for network-related information, marketers should facilitate ways to improve their receptivity to this type of information. Similarly, since outer experts and central novices search for commodity-related information. Marketers should devise methods to deliver commodity-specific information to these consumers. Therefore, marketers should consider both consumer’s level of expertise and their network positions to better predict consumer’s information searching behaviors. Regarding to the importance of social networks in consumer decision making, this research indicates the effect and importance of consumer's network position on information searching for behavior of experts and novices.

  7. Teaching, Learning, and Leading: Preparing Teachers as Educational Policy Actors

    Heineke, Amy J.; Ryan, Ann Marie; Tocci, Charles


    Within the current federal, state, and local contexts of educational reform, teachers must be recognized as central actors in policy work, but rarely do we explicitly consider preparing teachers to become policy actors. Understanding these implications for teacher education, we investigate teacher candidates' learning of the complexity and…


    Marian MIHAILA


    Full Text Available International law, taken by globalization, helps emerge “private actors at an international level” by generating “a removal from territories of problems and solutions”. The question of NGO accessing international jurisdictions is situated at this intersection, which is a dangerous one for jurists. The ways of national laws intersect, in fact, with those of international law. More over, private international law, more specifically, the private judicial nature of NGOs that enter into contact with public international law, an intersection that will imprint a plural-disciplinary character that marks this study. Thus, we must follow this rocky road and try a private approach of a question disputed by public law, which is also a part of international law. The risks of maladroitness are numerous, but must be assumed according to their importance and of the rarity of clarification attempts. NGOs, legal persons from private law exercising their activities in international context contain, in fact, elements of foreign origin that result in specific problems of international law. And if “international law can not be the domain of perfect solutions” it can allow however the adoption of others which, that can seem less perfect to some, will possess the aptitude of “creating the laws of a state”. Thus, only by allying public international law to private law, the question of NGOs access to international jurisdictions can receive an answer.


    Francisco Rojas-Martín; J. Ignacio Criado


    Digital social networks dissemination among public administrations as a tool to promote their relation with the society has been unstoppably produced in the last fifteen years. This article, from the Enacting Electronic Government Success (EEGS) approach, proposes an analysis model that serves as a framework for future research in the field of social networks in public administration. Specifically, through an adaptation of EEGS in social networks, the results of the interaction between public...

  10. Understanding informal networks in higher education institutions: Theoretical concepts from a Russian and Norwegian perspective

    Goes Sander


    This article discusses theoretical concepts with regard to informal networks in the Russian and Norwegian society and higher education institutions (HEI) in particular. Informal networks are operative in both public and private organizations criss-crossing social and job-related networks within these organizations. Formal and informal contacts between representatives of HEIs in the Barents region are often the result of years of close cooperation on student exchange, research projects and ...

  11. Research on Conflict Behavior of Top Management Team in Family Enterprises: A Complex Network Perspective

    Mengyun Wu; Huimin Wu; Tao Xie; Jie Lu


    At present time, methods of research about top management team’s conflict become more and more prosperous with the help of complex system theory and evolutionary game. Taking family enterprise as an example, this paper makes an attempt on exploring complex network modeling to study data processing method and abstraction method of complex network of TMT conflict. And the paper will consider the attribute and relational mapping of top management team as nodes and edges in complex network to dis...

  12. Incorporating network effects in a competitive electricity industry. An Australian perspective

    The role of an electricity network in a competitive electricity industry is reviewed, the nation's experience with transmission pricing is discussed, and a 'Nodal Auction Model' for incorporating network effects in a competitive electricity industry is proposed. The model uses a computer-based auction procedure to address both the spatial issues associated with an electricity network and the temporal issues associated with operation scheduling. The objective is to provide a market framework that addresses both network effects and operation scheduling in a coordinated implementation of spot pricing theory. 12 refs

  13. Segmentation and Classification of Human Actions and Actor Characteristics with 3d Motion Data

    S. Ali Etemad


    Full Text Available In this paper we have used 3D motion capture data with the aim of detecting and classifying specifichuman actions. In addition to recognition of basic action classes, actor styles and characteristics such asgender, age, and energy level have also been subject to classification. We have applied and compared threemain methods: nearest neighbour search, hidden Markov models, and artificial neural networks. Usingthese techniques, we have proposed exhaustive algorithms for detection of actions in a motion piece andsubsequently classifying the segmented actions and respective characteristics of the actors. We have testedthe methods for various sequences and compared the results for a comprehensive evaluation of each of theproposed techniques. Our findings can be largely used for general classification of human motion data formultimedia applications as well as sorting and classifying data sets of human motion data especially thoseacquired using visual marker-based motion capture systems such as the one employed in this research.

  14. New actors in environmental management: The case of the civil society in Ensenada

    Nain Martínez


    Full Text Available The environment is a complex space where multiple interests converge, so the traditional government has been insufficient to respond to the new demands of the environmental management. In this sense, the theory governance suggests a bigger role for social actors in decision-making for a more effective resolution of environmental problems. This article focuses on the Civil Society Organizations (cso’s of Ensenada, due to its relevance in the public sphere and the ecological value of the area. Twenty two csos, its participants and the network of actors were characterized through a survey. It was found that three types of csos are focusing on the conservation agenda and urban sustainability.

  15. Repetitive Behaviors in Autism and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: New Perspectives from a Network Analysis

    Ruzzano, Laura; Borsboom, Denny; Geurts, Hilde M.


    The association between autism and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) seems largely dependent upon observed similarities in the repetitive behaviors that manifest in both disorders. The aim of this study was to use a network approach to explore the interactions between these behaviors. We constructed a network based on clinician's…

  16. Productive Tensions in a Cross-Cultural Peer Mentoring Women's Network: A Social Capital Perspective

    Esnard, Talia; Cobb-Roberts, Deirdre; Agosto, Vonzell; Karanxha, Zorka; Beck, Makini; Wu, Ke; Unterreiner, Ann


    A growing body of researchers documents the unique barriers women face in their academic career progression and the significance of mentoring networks for advancement of their academic trajectories as faculty. However, few researchers explore the embedded tensions and conflicts in the social processes and relations of mentoring networks, and the…

  17. Efficacy of Online Social Networks on Language Teaching: A Bangladeshi Perspective

    Shams, Shaila


    It is now an established fact that the use of technology facilitates teaching and learning in language classrooms. With the advancement of technology, social networking websites have emerged too. Social networking sites have been quite popular among various age group users particularly the young users since their invention. Also, they are…

  18. A Social Network Perspective on Teacher Collaboration in Schools: Theory, Methodology, and Applications

    Moolenaar, Nienke M.


    An emerging trend in educational research is the use of social network theory and methodology to understand how teacher collaboration can support or constrain teaching, learning, and educational change. This article provides a critical synthesis of educational literature on school social networks among educators to advance our understanding of the…

  19. Home-Based Peer Social Networks of Young Children with Down Syndrome: A Developmental Perspective

    Guralnick, Michael J.; Connor, Robert T.; Johnson, L. Clark


    Numerous dimensions of the peer social networks of children with Down syndrome were examined within a developmental framework. Results revealed that for many key measures, particularly involvement in play, linkages to other settings, and control of play, children with Down syndrome have less well-developed peer networks even in comparison to a…

  20. Research on Conflict Behavior of Top Management Team in Family Enterprises: A Complex Network Perspective

    Mengyun Wu


    Full Text Available At present time, methods of research about top management team’s conflict become more and more prosperous with the help of complex system theory and evolutionary game. Taking family enterprise as an example, this paper makes an attempt on exploring complex network modeling to study data processing method and abstraction method of complex network of TMT conflict. And the paper will consider the attribute and relational mapping of top management team as nodes and edges in complex network to discuss the direct correspondence between complex network structure and management team characteristics. Besides that, according to the multiple attribute decision making, the method to dig into core members of the top management team will be created on the basis of the degree, closeness, cluster coefficient, and betweenness. And then the article will devote to studying the impact of attributes to the inner mechanism of TMT conflict and team cohesion through the network characteristic analysis.

  1. Durability of Kinase-Directed Therapies--A Network Perspective on Response and Resistance.

    Murray, Brion W; Miller, Nichol


    Protein kinase-directed cancer therapies yield impressive initial clinical responses, but the benefits are typically transient. Enhancing the durability of clinical response is dependent upon patient selection, using drugs with more effective pharmacology, anticipating mechanisms of drug resistance, and applying concerted drug combinations. Achieving these tenets requires an understanding of the targeted kinase's role in signaling networks, how the network responds to drug perturbation, and patient-to-patient network variations. Protein kinases create sophisticated, malleable signaling networks with fidelity coded into the processes that regulate their presence and function. Robust and reliable signaling is facilitated through network processes (e.g., feedback regulation, and compensatory signaling). The routine use of kinase-directed therapies and advancements in both genomic analysis and tumor cell biology are illuminating the complexity of tumor network biology and its capacity to respond to perturbations. Drug efficacy is attenuated by alterations of the drug target (e.g., steric interference, compensatory activity, and conformational changes), compensatory signaling (bypass mechanisms and phenotype switching), and engagement of other oncogenic capabilities (polygenic disease). Factors influencing anticancer drug response and resistance are examined to define the behavior of kinases in network signaling, mechanisms of drug resistance, drug combinations necessary for durable clinical responses, and strategies to identify mechanisms of drug resistance. PMID:26264276

  2. Device-Relaying in Cellular D2D Networks: A Fairness Perspective

    Chaaban, Anas; Sezgin, Aydin


    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is envisioned to be an integral component of 5G networks, and a technique for meeting the demand for high data rates. In a cellular network, D2D allows not only direct communication between users, but also device relaying. In this paper, a simple instance of device-relaying is investigated, and the impact of D2D on fairness among users is studied. Namely, a cellular network consisting of two D2D-enabled users and a base-station (BS) is considered. Thus, th...

  3. EU-Hamas actors in a state of permanent liminality

    Pace, Michelle; Pallister-Wilkins, Polly


    This article contributes to the debate on liminality within International Relations (IR) Theory by focusing on the actorness of the European Union (EU) and Hamas. The concept of liminality as a transitional process is applied to frame the situation of both the EU and Hamas as political actors in......-between socially established categories. This article explores how the liminal identity of these two actors impacts on the one hand on their relations with each Other and equally on the other hand on their relations of Self. In exploring the procedural relations of the EU and Hamas it argues for the necessity of...

  4. Actor-Q Based Active Perception Learning System

    Shibata, Katsunari; Nishino, Tetsuo; Okabe, Yoichi


    An active perception learning system based on reinforcement learning is proposed. A novel reinforcement###architecture, called Actor-Q, is employed in which Q-###learning and Actor-Critic are combined. The system###decides its actions according to Q-values. One of the###actions is to move its sensor, and the others are to###make an answer of its recognition result, each of which###corresponds to each pattern. When the sensor motion###is selected, the sensor moves according to the actor's###ou...

  5. The understanding of school violence by the social actors of an educational institution

    Verônica Borges Kappel


    Full Text Available This study set out to understand school violence from the perspective of different agents of an educational institution, using qualitative research with data obtained through interviews with 27 actors in a public school and submitted to thematic content analysis. The categories Manifestations of School Violence and School Violence Causes and Consequences emerged from the conversation. Participants highlighted situations in which they portrayed themselves as victims, pointed out manifestations of violence “in,” “from,” and “towards” school. They related the genesis of violence to relational/social aspects, and the consequences to offenders, victims, and the school itself. The understanding of school violence from the perspective of different stakeholders enabled us to understand the complexity of the phenomenon and the importance of developing actions not only from education professionals, but from multidisciplinary and intrasectoral teams aiming to prevent and work against school violence.

  6. Analysis of the Network of Protected Areas in China Based on a Geographic Perspective: Current Status, Issues and Integration

    Mengtian Cao


    Full Text Available With the continued growth of protected areas (PAs in China in terms of the number, coverage and varieties of protected objects, how to efficiently manage the protected areas to ensure both resource protection and environmental protection has become a crucial research question. By applying a geographic perspective in an analysis of the development and evolution of protected areas in China, this paper presents the results of an analysis focused on the status and the types of current approaches to the management of natural protected areas to reveal the problems that exist in their management and to further explore an integration strategy for the protected area network. It proposes that the future management of protected areas should prioritize their legal status, the sustainable livelihood of individuals living in close proximity to them, and the establishment of a unified database to achieve grid and information management of the protected areas.

  7. Brain Functional Effects of Psychopharmacological Treatments in Schizophrenia: A Network-based Functional Perspective Beyond Neurotransmitter Systems.

    De Rossi, Pietro; Chiapponi, Chiara; Spalletta, Gianfranco


    Psychopharmacological treatments for schizophrenia have always been a matter of debate and a very important issue in public health given the chronic, relapsing and disabling nature of the disorder. A thorough understanding of the pros and cons of currently available pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia is critical to better capture the features of treatment-refractory clinical pictures and plan the developing of new treatment strategies. This review focuses on brain functional changes induced by antipsychotic drugs as assessed by modern functional neuroimaging techniques (i.e. fMRI, PET, SPECT, MRI spectroscopy). The most important papers on this topic are reviewed in order to draw an ideal map of the main functional changes occurring in the brain during antipsychotic treatment. This supports the hypothesis that a network-based perspective and a functional connectivity approach are needed to fill the currently existing gap of knowledge in the field of psychotropic drugs and their mechanisms of action beyond neurotransmitter systems. PMID:26412063

  8. What does biologically meaningful mean? A perspective on gene regulatory network validation

    Walhout, Albertha JM


    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) are rapidly being delineated, but their quality and biological meaning are often questioned. Here, I argue that biological meaning is challenging to define and discuss reasons why GRN validation should be interpreted cautiously.

  9. The Geography and Structure of Global Innovation Networks: A Knowledge Base Perspective

    Liu, Ju; Chaminade , Cristina; Asheim, Bjørn


    This paper explores the geography and structure of global innovation networks (GINs) of two multinational companies belonging to industries with different knowledge bases. It contributes to existing literature on knowledge bases, by studying both intra-firm and inter-firm GINs. By means of social network analysis based on primary data, we identify two different forms of GINs, namely the globallyorganised model and the locally-organised model. The paper finds that, in addition to influencing t...

  10. Architecture and biological applications of artificial neural networks: a tuberculosis perspective.

    Darsey, Jerry A; Griffin, William O; Joginipelli, Sravanthi; Melapu, Venkata Kiran


    Advancement of science and technology has prompted researchers to develop new intelligent systems that can solve a variety of problems such as pattern recognition, prediction, and optimization. The ability of the human brain to learn in a fashion that tolerates noise and error has attracted many researchers and provided the starting point for the development of artificial neural networks: the intelligent systems. Intelligent systems can acclimatize to the environment or data and can maximize the chances of success or improve the efficiency of a search. Due to massive parallelism with large numbers of interconnected processers and their ability to learn from the data, neural networks can solve a variety of challenging computational problems. Neural networks have the ability to derive meaning from complicated and imprecise data; they are used in detecting patterns, and trends that are too complex for humans, or other computer systems. Solutions to the toughest problems will not be found through one narrow specialization; therefore we need to combine interdisciplinary approaches to discover the solutions to a variety of problems. Many researchers in different disciplines such as medicine, bioinformatics, molecular biology, and pharmacology have successfully applied artificial neural networks. This chapter helps the reader in understanding the basics of artificial neural networks, their applications, and methodology; it also outlines the network learning process and architecture. We present a brief outline of the application of neural networks to medical diagnosis, drug discovery, gene identification, and protein structure prediction. We conclude with a summary of the results from our study on tuberculosis data using neural networks, in diagnosing active tuberculosis, and predicting chronic vs. infiltrative forms of tuberculosis. PMID:25502388

  11. Multi-Radio Cooperative ARQ in wireless cellular networks: a MAC layer perspective

    Alonso Zárate, Jesús; Kartsakli, Elli; Katz, Marcos; Alonso Zárate, Luis Gonzaga; Verikoukis, Christos


    Multi-Radio Cooperative Automatic Retransmission Request (MCARQ) schemes are introduced in this paper within the context of hybrid networks which combine long-range and short-range communications. Since the number of wireless devices is incessantly increasing, it is frequently possible to establish a spontaneous cooperative cluster in the close proximity of any wireless device. These devices forming the cluster are connected to both a cellular-based network such as WiMAX, 3G...

  12. Cancer attractors: A systems view of tumors from a gene network dynamics and developmental perspective

    Huang, Sui; Ernberg, Ingemar; Kauffman, Stuart


    Cell lineage commitment and differentiation are governed by a complex gene regulatory network. Disruption of these processes by inappropriate regulatory signals and by mutational rewiring of the network can lead to tumorigenesis. Cancer cells often exhibit immature or embryonic traits and dysregulated developmental genes can act as oncogenes. However, the prevailing paradigm of somatic evolution and multi-step tumorigenesis, while useful in many instances, offers no logically coherent reason ...

  13. Systemic aspects of innovation and design the perspective of collaborative networks

    Mortati, Marzia


    The book provides a snapshot of a hot topic – the systemic nature of innovation and its relevance to design – with a trifold perspective: the academic level – the literature on innovation studies and design is often neglected and a clear connection between the two topics taken for granted; the research level – collaborative models are currently considered great opportunities for transforming consumption, production and distribution of goods, but a clear scholarly discourse is still forming; the political level – the European Commission and the OECD are devoting much effort to understanding and measuring the impact of design in innovation processes and firms and a clear contribution would greatly support this path. Thus the book provides an informed, historical and nuanced perspective to the relationship between design and innovation to contribute to all three levels and to propose a point of view that goes beyond aesthetics and meanings.

  14. Creating Structures for Network-Centric Warfare: Perspectives from Organization Theory

    Sengupta, Kishore; Carl R. Jones


    1999 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (CCRTS), June 29 - July 1, 1999, U.S. Naval War College, Rhode Island Combat organizations are increasingly faced with the challenge to adapt to new and diverse engagements. The pace of change is being accelerated by advances in information technology. This article offers perspectives from organization theory that can serve as design principles for enabling combat organizations to adopt flexible structures to cope with cha...

  15. An Artistic Perspective on Distributed Computer Networks. Creativity in Human-Machine Systems

    Gapsevicius, Mindaugas


    This thesis is written from an artistic perspective as a reflection on currently significant discussions in media theory, with a focus on the impact of technology on society. While mapping boundaries of contemporary art, post-digital art is considered the best for describing current discourses in media theory in the context of this research. Bringing into the discussion artworks by Martin Howse & Jonathan Kemp (2001-2008), Maurizio Bolognini (Bolognini 1988-present), and myself...

  16. Research on virtual actor action editing and movement control

    Wenhu QIN; Yuhui WU; Zhengxu ZHAO


    To directly use a virtual surface model for action editing and movement control, a general method for creating virtual actor skeleton models and controlling movement is presented. The method includes judging borderlines of the block virtual surface model, calculat-ing the joints, confirming the above block, and using the block hierarchical layout to create the skeleton model. Then, according to the virtual actor model and move-ment restriction, the study focuses on the generation of movement animation using the key frame technique and smoothing movement technique by automatically adding animation and adjusting the actor's pose by different weights on movement amplitude. Finally, movement control of the actor in the virtual environment is implemented by real-time control and path point control, which achieve a good result.

  17. Efficient model learning methods for actor-critic control.

    Grondman, Ivo; Vaandrager, Maarten; Buşoniu, Lucian; Babuska, Robert; Schuitema, Erik


    We propose two new actor-critic algorithms for reinforcement learning. Both algorithms use local linear regression (LLR) to learn approximations of the functions involved. A crucial feature of the algorithms is that they also learn a process model, and this, in combination with LLR, provides an efficient policy update for faster learning. The first algorithm uses a novel model-based update rule for the actor parameters. The second algorithm does not use an explicit actor but learns a reference model which represents a desired behavior, from which desired control actions can be calculated using the inverse of the learned process model. The two novel methods and a standard actor-critic algorithm are applied to the pendulum swing-up problem, in which the novel methods achieve faster learning than the standard algorithm. PMID:22156998

  18. Whose Journey Is It? A Critic's Plea to Actors.

    Lasser, Michael


    Laments the narcissism that the author sees in too many contemporary approaches to acting and directing. Argues that actors must focus on the world outside themselves, where the play and the audience most need them to be. (SR)

  19. Engaging armed non-state actors in mechanisms for protection

    Pauline Lacroix


    Full Text Available Experience of engagement with armed non-state actors on the landmine ban may point the way to innovative approaches to preventing forced displacement and other abuses of human rights....

  20. Actors with Multi-Headed Message Receive Patterns

    Sulzmann, Martin; Lam, Edmund Soon Lee; Van Weert, Peter

    The actor model provides high-level concurrency abstractions to coordinate simultaneous computations by message passing. Languages implementing the actor model such as Erlang commonly only support single-headed pattern matching over received messages. We propose and design an extension of Erlang...... style actors with receive clauses containing multi-headed message patterns. Patterns may be non-linear and constrained by guards. We provide a number of examples to show the usefulness of the extension. We also explore the design space for multi-headed message matching semantics, for example first......-match and rule priority-match semantics. The various semantics are inspired by the multi-set constraint matching semantics found in Constraint Handling Rules. This provides us with a formal model to study actors with multi-headed message receive patterns. The system can be implemented efficiently and we...

  1. Global spatio-temporal patterns in human migration: a complex network perspective.

    Davis, Kyle F; D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca


    Migration is a powerful adaptive strategy for humans to navigate hardship and pursue a better quality of life. As a universal vehicle facilitating exchanges of ideas, culture, money and goods, international migration is a major contributor to globalization. Consisting of countries linked by multiple connections of human movements, global migration constitutes a network. Despite the important role of human migration in connecting various communities in different parts of the world, the topology and behavior of the international migration network and its changes through time remain poorly understood. Here we show that the global human migration network became more interconnected during the latter half of the twentieth century and that migrant destination choice partly reflects colonial and postcolonial histories, language, religion, and distances. From 1960 to 2000 we found a steady increase in network transitivity (i.e. connectivity between nodes connected to the same node), a decrease in average path length and an upward shift in degree distribution, all of which strengthened the 'small-world' behavior of the migration network. Furthermore, we found that distinct groups of countries preferentially interact to form migration communities based largely on historical, cultural and economic factors. PMID:23372664

  2. Shareholding relationships in the Euro Area banking market: A network perspective

    Pecora, Nicolò; Spelta, Alessandro


    In this paper we analyze the topological properties of the network of the Euro Area banking market network, with the primary aim of assessing the importance of a bank in the financial system with respect to ownership and control of other credit institutions. The network displays power law distributions in both binary and weighted degree metrics indicating a robust yet fragile structure and a direct link between an increase of control diversification and a rise in the market power. Therefore while in good time the network is seemingly robust, in bad times many banks can simultaneously go into distress. This behavior paves the way for Central bank's actions. In particular we investigate whether the Single Supervisory Mechanism introduced by the European Central Banks and based on banks' total asset is a good proxy to quantify their systemic importance. Results indicate that not all the financial institutions with high valued total assets are systemically important but only few of them. Moreover the network structure reveals that control is highly concentrated, with few important shareholders approximately controlling a separate subset of banks.

  3. A Convergent Online Single Time Scale Actor Critic Algorithm

    Di Castro, D.; Meir, R.


    Actor-Critic based approaches were among the first to address reinforcement learning in a general setting. Recently, these algorithms have gained renewed interest due to their generality, good convergence properties, and possible biological relevance. In this paper, we introduce an online temporal difference based actor-critic algorithm which is proved to converge to a neighborhood of a local maximum of the average reward. Linear function approximation is used by the critic in order estimate ...

  4. A Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM)

    M. Weber


    The interactions between climate and the socio-economic system are investigated with a Multi-Actor Dynamic Integrated Assessment Model (MADIAM) obtained by coupling a nonlinear impulse response model of the climate sub-system (NICCS) to a multi-actor dynamic economic model (MADEM). The main goal is to initiate a model development that is able to treat the dynamics of the coupled climate socio-economic system, including endogenous technological change, in a non-equilibrium situation, thereby o...

  5. Climate change impacts on urban wildfire and flooding policy in Idaho: a comparative policy network perspective

    Lindquist, E.; Pierce, J. L.


    Numerous frameworks and models exist for understanding the dynamics of the public policy process. A policy network approach considers how and why stakeholders and interests pay attention to and engage in policy problems, such as flood control or developing resilient and fire resistant landscapes. Variables considered in this approach include what the relationships are between these stakeholders, how they influence the process and outcomes, communication patterns within and between policy networks, and how networks change as a result of new information, science, or public interest and involvement with the problem. This approach is useful in understanding the creation of natural hazards policy as new information or situations, such as projected climate change impacts, influence and disrupt the policy process and networks. Two significant natural hazard policy networks exist in the semi-arid Treasure Valley region of Southwest Idaho, which includes the capitol city of Boise and the surrounding metropolitan area. Boise is situated along the Boise River and adjacent to steep foothills; this physiographic setting makes Boise vulnerable to both wildfires at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and flooding. Both of these natural hazards have devastated the community in the past and floods and fires are projected to occur with more frequency in the future as a result of projected climate change impacts in the region. While both hazards are fairly well defined problems, there are stark differences lending themselves to comparisons across their respective networks. The WUI wildfire network is large and well developed, includes stakeholders from all levels of government, the private sector and property owner organizations, has well defined objectives, and conducts promotional and educational activities as part of its interaction with the public in order to increase awareness and garner support for its policies. The flood control policy network, however, is less defined

  6. A dynamic evolutionary clustering perspective: Community detection in signed networks by reconstructing neighbor sets

    Chen, Jianrui; Wang, Hua; Wang, Lina; Liu, Weiwei


    Community detection in social networks has been intensively studied in recent years. In this paper, a novel similarity measurement is defined according to social balance theory for signed networks. Inter-community positive links are found and deleted due to their low similarity. The positive neighbor sets are reconstructed by this method. Then, differential equations are proposed to imitate the constantly changing states of nodes. Each node will update its state based on the difference between its state and average state of its positive neighbors. Nodes in the same community will evolve together with time and nodes in the different communities will evolve far away. Communities are detected ultimately when states of nodes are stable. Experiments on real world and synthetic networks are implemented to verify detection performance. The thorough comparisons demonstrate the presented method is more efficient than two acknowledged better algorithms.

  7. How people make friends in social networking sites - A microscopic perspective

    Hu, Haibo


    We study the detailed growth of a social networking site with full temporal information by examining the creation process of each friendship relation that can collectively lead to the macroscopic properties of the network. We first study the reciprocal behavior of users, and find that link requests are quickly responded to and that the distribution of reciprocation intervals decays in an exponential form. The degrees of inviters/accepters are slightly negatively correlative with reciprocation time. In addition, the temporal feature of the online community shows that the distributions of intervals of user behaviors, such as sending or accepting link requests, follow a power law with a universal exponent, and peaks emerge for intervals of an integral day. We finally study the preferential selection and linking phenomena of the social networking site and find that, for the former, a linear preference holds for preferential sending and reception, and for the latter, a linear preference also holds for preferential...

  8. A Topic Space Oriented User Group Discovering Scheme in Social Network: A Trust Chain Based Interest Measuring Perspective

    Wang Dong


    Full Text Available Currently, user group has become an effective platform for information sharing and communicating among users in social network sites. In present work, we propose a single topic user group discovering scheme, which includes three phases: topic impact evaluation, interest degree measurement, and trust chain based discovering, to enable selecting influential topic and discovering users into a topic oriented group. Our main works include (1 an overview of proposed scheme and its related definitions; (2 topic space construction method based on topic relatedness clustering and its impact (influence degree and popularity degree evaluation; (3 a trust chain model to take user relation network topological information into account with a strength classification perspective; (4 an interest degree (user explicit and implicit interest degree evaluation method based on trust chain among users; and (5 a topic space oriented user group discovering method to group core users according to their explicit interest degrees and to predict ordinary users under implicit interest and user trust chain. Finally, experimental results are given to explain effectiveness and feasibility of our scheme.

  9. Symmetric angular momentum coupling, the quantum volume operator and the 7-spin network: a computational perspective

    Marinelli, Dimitri; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Anderson, Roger W; Bitencourt, Ana Carla P; Ragni, Mirco


    A unified vision of the symmetric coupling of angular momenta and of the quantum mechanical volume operator is illustrated. The focus is on the quantum mechanical angular momentum theory of Wigner's 6j symbols and on the volume operator of the symmetric coupling in spin network approaches: here, crucial to our presentation are an appreciation of the role of the Racah sum rule and the simplification arising from the use of Regge symmetry. The projective geometry approach permits the introduction of a symmetric representation of a network of seven spins or angular momenta. Results of extensive computational investigations are summarized, presented and briefly discussed.

  10. Young People's Use of Online Social Networking Sites :a Uses and Gratifications Perspective

    Dunne, Aine; Lawlor, Margaret-Anne; Rowley, Jennifer


    Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore why young people use and participate in social networking sites (SNS) with specific reference to Bebo. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative approach is employed in this study with a view to exploring the uses and gratifications that girls aged 12 to 14 years, both seek and obtain from the Bebo social networking site. The research was conducted in a school setting in Ireland. Findings – The findings indicate that the participant...

  11. Structures and Infrastructures of International R&D Networks: A Capability Maturity Perspective

    Niang, Mohamed; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    present a capability maturity model. Furthermore, understanding the interaction between new structures and infrastructures of the dispersed networks is viewed as a key requirement for developing organizational capabilities and formulating adequate strategies that leverage dispersed R&D. Organizational and...... been discussed, dispersed development is less understood. This paper offers a model that describes the phenomenon in relation to already globalized production. Practical implications: The model facilitates the assessment of the firm’s network level capabilities and may provide a basis for firm...

  12. La prueba PISA: una mirada alternativa desde la Teoría del Actor-Red

    Paola Paredes Suzarte


    Full Text Available En el marco de la proliferación de las evaluaciones estandarizadas, inscritas en lo que ha sido conceptualizado por la literatura como políticas de accountability o de rendición de cuentas, se ofrece por medio de este artículo una línea de pensamiento y discusión alternativa sobre la prueba PISA. Utilizando como enfoque la Teoría del Actor-Red (TAR de Bruno Latour, se presentan ejercicios de traslación epistémica de la prueba PISA desde un modelo de pensamiento positivista moderno, a uno materialista pragmático en el que se privilegia una descripción constructivista y analítica de los componentes que la constituyen. En base al seguimiento y análisis de noticias sobre la prueba PISA desplegadas en diarios electrónicos en Chile y Argentina, más la revisión de fuentes secundarias, se exponen algunas de las controversias suscitadas en torno a la evaluación y se discute sobre su posible impacto en nuestras percepciones sobre educación y calidad. También se problematiza el carácter neutral y objetivo de la prueba, y se levanta la pregunta acerca de su posible agencia en la cristalización de las relaciones de centro-periferia entre países que, en el marco del enfoque de la TAR, tiene sentido explorar. 

  13. Investigation of rotated PCA from the perspective of network communities applied to climate data

    Hartman, David; Hlinka, Jaroslav; Vejmelka, Martin; Paluš, Milan


    Roč. 15, - (2013), s. 13124. ISSN 1607-7962. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2013. 07.04.2013-12.04.2013, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP103/11/J068 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : complex networks * graph theory * climate dynamics Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  14. Relational Networks, Social Trust, and Norms: A Social Capital Perspective on Students' Chances of Academic Success.

    Goddard, Roger D.


    Elaborated a theoretical rationale for relational networks, norms, and trust as structural and functional norms of social capital that facilitate student achievement. Results of hierarchical generalized linear modeling show that the odds of fourth graders passing state-mandated assessments are modestly increased in urban schools (n=49)…

  15. Tutorial on neural network applications in high energy physics: A 1992 perspective

    Feed forward and recurrent neural networks are introduced and related to standard data analysis tools. Tips are given on applications of neural nets to various areas of high energy physics. A review of applications within high energy physics and a summary of neural net hardware status are given

  16. Networking and the Role of the Academic Systems Librarian: An Evolutionary Perspective.

    Lavagnino, Merri Beth


    This paper examines the role of academic systems librarians, focusing on the effect of networking technologies. Outlines stages in the evolution of the field derived from the literature and surveys, discusses new administrative and professional tasks and trends resulting from technological change, and speculates about the future of academic…

  17. Principal Perspectives on Social Networking and the Disruptive Effects of Cyberbullying

    Welker, Heidi Stevenson


    Cyberbullying on social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook has had negative effects on children at school. Cyberbullying disruption during the school day adds to the complexity of maintaining school operations, safety, and academic achievement. With the advancement of technology, there is a gap in the literature on the disruption in…

  18. The Flow of International Students from a Macro Perspective: A Network Analysis

    Barnett, George A.; Lee, Moosung; Jiang, Ke; Park, Han Woo


    This paper provides a network analysis of the international flow of students among 210 countries and the factors determining the structure of this flow. Among these factors, bilateral hyperlink connections between countries and the number of telephone minutes (communication variables) are the most important predictors of the flow's structure,…

  19. A diffusion perspective on temporal networks: A case study on a supermarket

    Deng, Shiguo; Qiu, Lu; Yang, Yue; Yang, Huijie


    From a large amount of records, one can extract behavioral characteristics of a social system at different scales. Theoretically, it can help us to know how the global behavior of a social system is formed from individual activities. Practically, it can be used to optimize and even to control the social system. Complicated relationships between the individuals form a network, which evolves with time. The behavior of the system can be accordingly understood in the framework of temporal network. In the present paper, instead of focusing on microscopic structures, we develop a framework to investigate temporal networks from the viewpoint of diffusion process, in which each snapshot network is divided into groups and the ID number of the group a node belongs to is used to measure its state. By this way trajectories of the nodes form an ensemble of realizations of a stochastic process. As an illustration, we investigate the diffusion behavior of a supermarket. One can find that with the increase of time the customers cluster and separate into different groups. Meanwhile, the system evolves in a significant order way, instead of a complete random one.

  20. Critical Adult Learning of Asian Immigrant Workers: A Social Network Perspective

    Lee, Mosung; Madyun, Na'im


    This study reveals how the social networks of immigrant workers play a key role in mediating critical learning towards a particular political attitude. Theoretical relationships between critical learning and political attitudes were set up and four types of political attitudes were identified. A "resistant political attitude" was conceptually…

  1. Dynamics of Air Transport Networks: A Review from a Complex Systems Perspective

    Rocha, Luis Enrique Correa


    Air transport systems are highly dynamic at temporal scales from minutes to years. This dynamic behavior not only characterizes the evolution of the system but also affect the system's functioning. Understanding the evolutionary mechanisms is thus fundamental in order to better design optimal air transport networks that benefits companies, passengers and the environment. In this review, we briefly present and discuss the state-of-art on time-evolving air transport networks. We distinguish the structural analysis of sequences of network snapshots, ideal for long-term network evolution (e.g. annual evolution), and temporal paths, preferred for short-term dynamics (e.g. hourly evolution). We emphasize that most previous research focused on the first modeling approach (i.e. long-term) whereas only a few studies look at high-resolution temporal paths. We conclude the review highlighting that much research remains to be done, both to apply already available methods and to develop new measures for temporal paths on ...

  2. From Feature Selection to Building of Bayesian Classifiers: A Network Intrusion Detection Perspective

    Kok-Chin Khor


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Implementing a single or multiple classifiers that involve a Bayesian Network (BN is a rising research interest in network intrusion detection domain. Approach: However, little attention has been given to evaluate the performance of BN classifiers before they could be implemented in a real system. In this research, we proposed a novel approach to select important features by utilizing two selected feature selection algorithms utilizing filter approach. Results: The selected features were further validated by domain experts where extra features were added into the final proposed feature set. We then constructed three types of BN namely, Naive Bayes Classifiers (NBC, Learned BN and Expert-elicited BN by utilizing a standard network intrusion dataset. The performance of each classifier was recorded. We found that there was no difference in overall performance of the BNs and therefore, concluded that the BNs performed equivalently well in detecting network attacks. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results of the study indicated that the BN built using the proposed feature set has less features but the performance was comparable to BNs built using other feature sets generated by the two algorithms.

  3. Networking for Promoting Resilience in Social Risk Children: Intergerational and intersectional perspectives

    Ruiz-Román, Cristóbal


    This paper shows the focus and methodological design about The Networking and Promoting Resilience in Social Risk Children, Project. Project funded by the Ministry of Innovation, Science and Employment of the Government of Andalusia (SEJ 1366) Universidad de Málaga. Campus de Excelencia Internacional Andalucía Tech

  4. Foregrounding the Role of Relationships in Reform: A Social Network Perspective on Leadership and Change

    Liou, Yi-Hwa; Daly, Alan J.; Brown, Chris; del Fresno, Miguel


    Purpose: The role of relationships in the process of leadership and change is central, yet the social aspect of the work of reform is often background in favor of more technical approaches to improvement. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to argue that social network theory and analysis provides a useful theory and set of tools to unpack the…

  5. Infotainment and road safety service support in vehicular networking: From a communication perspective

    Cheng, Ho Ting; Shan, Hangguan; Zhuang, Weihua


    Vehicular ad hoc networking is an emerging technology for future on-the-road communications. Due to the virtue of vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communications, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are expected to enable a plethora of communication-based automotive applications including diverse in-vehicle infotainment applications and road safety services. Even though vehicles are organized mostly in an ad hoc manner in the network topology, directly applying the existing communication approaches designed for traditional mobile ad hoc networks to large-scale VANETs with fast-moving vehicles can be ineffective and inefficient. To achieve success in a vehicular environment, VANET-specific communication solutions are imperative. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of various radio channel access protocols and resource management approaches, and discuss their suitability for infotainment and safety service support in VANETs. Further, we present recent research activities and related projects on vehicular communications. Potential challenges and open research issues are also discussed.

  6. Culture, Role and Group Work: A Social Network Analysis Perspective on an Online Collaborative Course

    Stepanyan, Karen; Mather, Richard; Dalrymple, Roger


    This paper discusses the patterns of network dynamics within a multicultural online collaborative learning environment. It analyses the interaction of participants (both students and facilitators) within a discussion board that was established as part of a 3-month online collaborative course. The study employs longitudinal probabilistic social…

  7. Social Networks and Workplace Risk: Classroom Scenarios from a U.S. and EU Perspective

    Binder, Perry; Mansfield, Nancy R.


    The explosion of social networks and the growing concern over privacy in the digital age--both in the United States and Europe--have provided an opportunity to introduce students to the legal risks of using social media in the workplace. This article builds on the authors' classroom experiences and provides social media scenarios and projects that…

  8. Taking perspective: Personal pronouns affect experiential aspects of literary reading

    Hartung, F.C.; Burke, M.; Hagoort, P.; Willems, R.M.


    Personal pronouns have been shown to influence cognitive perspective taking during comprehension. Studies using single sentences found that 3rd person pronouns facilitate the construction of a mental model from an observer's perspective, whereas 2nd person pronouns support an actor's perspective. Th

  9. How does noise affect the structure of a chaotic attractor: A recurrence network perspective

    Jacob, Rinku; Misra, R; Ambika, G


    We undertake a preliminary numerical investigation to understand how the addition of white and colored noise to a time series affects the topology and structure of the underlying chaotic attractor. We use the methods and measures of recurrence networks generated from the time series for this analysis. We explicitly show that the addition of noise destroys the recurrence of trajectory points in the phase space. By using the results obtained from this analysis, we go on to analyse the light curves from a dominant black hole system and show that the recurrence network measures are effective in the analysis of real world data involving noise and are capable of identifying the nature of noise contamination in a time series.

  10. Physical states in the canonical tensor model from the perspective of random tensor networks

    Narain, Gaurav; Sato, Yuki


    Tensor models, generalization of matrix models, are studied aiming for quantum gravity in dimensions larger than two. Among them, the canonical tensor model is formulated as a totally constrained system with first-class constraints, the algebra of which resembles the Dirac algebra of general relativity. When quantized, the physical states are defined to be vanished by the quantized constraints. In explicit representations, the constraint equations are a set of partial differential equations for physical wave-functions, which do not seem straightforward to solve due to their non-linear character. In this paper, after providing some explicit solutions for N = 2,3, we show that certain scale-free integration of partition functions of statistical systems on random networks, or random tensor networks more generally, provides a series of solutions for general N. Then, by generalizing this form, we also obtain various solutions for general N. Moreover, we show that the solutions for the cases with a cosmological con...

  11. Building new Knowledge Networks: A Europe–China Perspective on R&D Offshoring

    Harryson, Sigvald; Søberg, Peder Veng; Åkerman, Niklas


    improve their innovation performance within distribution equipment. Two other Scandinavia originated companies – now global leaders within robotics and diabetes treatment – did on the other hand not co-operate as closely with local universities when they transferred R&D to China – and captured less......This paper explores how offshoring of R&D affects innovation performance based on three recent cases of R&D transfer from Scandinavia to China. One globally leading packaging company moved R&D to China and immediately arranged innovation competitions between three selected universities in order to...... innovation performance. By combining theories on ambidexterity, knowledge transfer and networking, a theoretical framework is developed to analyze the different strategies for local knowledge network interaction that are deployed by the case companies. The analysis suggests that close interaction and cross...

  12. Interprofessional Student Perspectives of Online Social Networks in Health and Business Education.

    Doyle, Glynda; Jones, Cyri; Currie, Leanne


    The education sector is experiencing unprecedented change with the increasing use by students of mobile devices, social networks and e-portfolios as they prepare for future positions in the workforce. The purpose of this study was to examine student's preferences around these technologies. A mixed methods research strategy was used with an initial online survey using 29 Likert scale style questions to students from the School of Health Sciences and the School of Business at the British Columbia Institute of Technology (BCIT). Descriptive statistics and ANOVAs were performed to examine if there were any differences between groups regarding their overall responses to the survey questions. Content analysis was used for qualitative focus group data. Overall, students (n = 260) were enthusiastic about technology but wary of cost, lack of choice, increased workload and faculty involvement in their online social networks. Of note, students see significant value in face-to-face classroom time. PMID:27332207

  13. Building a new energy network in North East Asia. A perspective from post-Fukushima Japan

    The accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (NPS) has accelerated Japan's drive for less dependence on nuclear and fossil energy and more green renewables, which inevitably require a new energy strategy. In this paper, a new strategic scenario for moving 'beyond a single economy' is proposed to incorporate Japan with the North East Asian (NEA) energy market in regards to its electricity grid and natural gas pipeline network while preserving nuclear power by strengthening safety. Suggestions are also made that Japan should open more doors for new comers in a manner of open-access towards member economies of NEA. However, there are persistent geopolitical constraints and risks in NEA. The connection of Japan's energy network to its regional neighbors would avoid the tendrils and tentacles of geopolitics that wrap around NEA, and subsequently provide opportunities to build on common energy interests. (author)

  14. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective

    Krings, Gautier M; Delvenne, Jean-Charles


    We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect) counterparts to traditional (or direct) measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product) and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i) a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii) the commute-time distance for trade integration,which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify ...

  15. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Convex Optimization Perspective

    Zhang, Rui; Cui, Shuguang


    This article provides an overview of the state-of-art results on communication resource allocation over space, time, and frequency for emerging cognitive radio (CR) wireless networks. Focusing on the interference-power/interference-temperature (IT) constraint approach for CRs to protect primary radio transmissions, many new and challenging problems regarding the design of CR systems are formulated, and some of the corresponding solutions are shown to be obtainable by restructuring some classic results known for traditional (non-CR) wireless networks. It is demonstrated that convex optimization plays an essential role in solving these problems, in a both rigorous and efficient way. Promising research directions on interference management for CR and other related multiuser communication systems are discussed.

  16. Network configuration, customer centricity, and performance of open business models : A solution provider perspective

    Frankenberger, Karolin; Weiblen, Tobias; Gassmann, Oliver


    While research has shown a positive impact of open business models on value creation, it has remained silent on the configuration of the corresponding partner networks and their effect on performance. Studying three cases of solution providers which involve external service partners for solution delivery, we find that solution customer centricity - the degree to which the focal firm focuses on solution customers in the joint delivery of solutions - moderates the relationship between partner n...

  17. Eutrophication and overfishing in temperate nearshore pelagic food webs: a network perspective

    Vasas, V.; C. Lancelot; Rousseau, V.; F. Jordán


    We investigated the effects of human activities on the pelagic food web structure of nearshore marine ecosystems. Their generic structure was established on the basis of literature review and analyzed by qualitative structural network analysis. Two main issues were addressed: (1) the role of species capable of forming harmful algal blooms (HABs) and red tides (Noctiluca spp.), as well as the role of jellyfish, in eutrophicated systems; (2) the contribution of human influences on food webs, fo...

  18. Patterns of social influence in social networking sites – a design perspective

    Iosub, Daniela; Andreia Gabriela ANDREI; Iacob, Amalasunta


    Social networking sites (SNSs) are quickly becoming the main venues for social interaction of Internet users. As the competition between these online services is growing ever stronger, the success of SNSs derives from persuasive core application designs that influence users in taking specific actions, such as joining the community or recruiting new users. Therefore there is a need to identify relevant, value-adding features that facilitate social interaction and that are integrated in the gro...

  19. Influences of Social Networks on Food Choices: A Comparison of Local, Regional, and National Perspectives

    Liang, Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen); Pescatore, Matthew


    There has been a growing interest in the U.S. to study local and regional food systems with respect to economic, social, and enterprise development. This paper discusses a series of on-going projects funded by the USDA focusing on two aspects of the relationships between social network and food choices – producers, and interactions between producers and consumers (buyers). Preliminary results showed distribution and opportunities for agricultural producers to exploit and implement new strateg...

  20. Global spatio-temporal patterns in human migration: a complex network perspective

    Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca


    Migration is a powerful adaptive strategy for humans to navigate hardship and pursue a better quality of life. As a universal vehicle facilitating exchanges of ideas, culture, money and goods, international migration is a major contributor to globalization. Consisting of countries linked by multiple connections of human movements, global migration constitutes a network. Despite the important role of human migration in connecting various communities in different parts of the world, the topolog...

  1. Global Spatio-Temporal Patterns in Human Migration: A Complex Network Perspective

    Davis, Kyle F.; D'Odorico, Paolo; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca


    Migration is a powerful adaptive strategy for humans to navigate hardship and pursue a better quality of life. As a universal vehicle facilitating exchanges of ideas, culture, money and goods, international migration is a major contributor to globalization. Consisting of countries linked by multiple connections of human movements, global migration constitutes a network. Despite the important role of human migration in connecting various communities in different parts of the world, the topolog...

  2. Coarse-Grained Models Reveal Functional Dynamics - I. Elastic Network Models – Theories, Comparisons and Perspectives

    Choon-Peng Chng; Lee-Wei Yang


    Abstract: In this review, we summarize the progress on coarse-grained elastic network models (CG-ENMs) in the past decade. Theories were formulated to allow study of conformational dynamics in time/space frames of biological interest. Several highlighted models and their underlined hypotheses are introduced in physical depth. Important ENM offshoots, motivated to reproduce experimental data as well as to address the slow-mode-encoded configurational transitions, are also introduced. With the ...

  3. Dynamic Resource Allocation in Cognitive Radio Networks: A Convex Optimization Perspective

    Zhang, Rui; Liang, Ying-Chang; Cui, Shuguang


    This article provides an overview of the state-of-art results on communication resource allocation over space, time, and frequency for emerging cognitive radio (CR) wireless networks. Focusing on the interference-power/interference-temperature (IT) constraint approach for CRs to protect primary radio transmissions, many new and challenging problems regarding the design of CR systems are formulated, and some of the corresponding solutions are shown to be obtainable by restructuring some classi...

  4. Innovation networks

    Ahrweiler, Petra


    This paper advances a framework for modeling the component interactions between cognitive and social aspects of scientific creativity and technological innovation. Specifically, it aims to characterize Innovation Networks; those networks that involve the interplay of people, ideas and organizations to create new, technologically feasible, commercially-realizable products, processes and organizational structures. The tri-partite framework captures networks of ideas (Concept Level), people (Individual Level) and social structures (Social-Organizational Level) and the interactions between these levels. At the concept level, new ideas are the nodes that are created and linked, kept open for further investigation or closed if solved by actors at the individual or organizational levels. At the individual level, the nodes are actors linked by shared worldviews (based on shared professional, educational, experiential backgrounds) who are the builders of the concept level. At the social-organizational level, the nodes...

  5. Words analysis of online Chinese news headlines about trending events: a complex network perspective.

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Huang, Xuan


    Because the volume of information available online is growing at breakneck speed, keeping up with meaning and information communicated by the media and netizens is a new challenge both for scholars and for companies who must address public relations crises. Most current theories and tools are directed at identifying one website or one piece of online news and do not attempt to develop a rapid understanding of all websites and all news covering one topic. This paper represents an effort to integrate statistics, word segmentation, complex networks and visualization to analyze headlines' keywords and words relationships in online Chinese news using two samples: the 2011 Bohai Bay oil spill and the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. We gathered all the news headlines concerning the two trending events in the search results from Baidu, the most popular Chinese search engine. We used Simple Chinese Word Segmentation to segment all the headlines into words and then took words as nodes and considered adjacent relations as edges to construct word networks both using the whole sample and at the monthly level. Finally, we develop an integrated mechanism to analyze the features of words' networks based on news headlines that can account for all the keywords in the news about a particular event and therefore track the evolution of news deeply and rapidly. PMID:25807376

  6. Words analysis of online Chinese news headlines about trending events: a complex network perspective.

    Huajiao Li

    Full Text Available Because the volume of information available online is growing at breakneck speed, keeping up with meaning and information communicated by the media and netizens is a new challenge both for scholars and for companies who must address public relations crises. Most current theories and tools are directed at identifying one website or one piece of online news and do not attempt to develop a rapid understanding of all websites and all news covering one topic. This paper represents an effort to integrate statistics, word segmentation, complex networks and visualization to analyze headlines' keywords and words relationships in online Chinese news using two samples: the 2011 Bohai Bay oil spill and the 2010 Gulf of Mexico oil spill. We gathered all the news headlines concerning the two trending events in the search results from Baidu, the most popular Chinese search engine. We used Simple Chinese Word Segmentation to segment all the headlines into words and then took words as nodes and considered adjacent relations as edges to construct word networks both using the whole sample and at the monthly level. Finally, we develop an integrated mechanism to analyze the features of words' networks based on news headlines that can account for all the keywords in the news about a particular event and therefore track the evolution of news deeply and rapidly.

  7. Trade integration and trade imbalances in the European Union: a network perspective.

    Gautier M Krings

    Full Text Available We study the ever more integrated and ever more unbalanced trade relationships between European countries. To better capture the complexity of economic networks, we propose two global measures that assess the trade integration and the trade imbalances of the European countries. These measures are the network (or indirect counterparts to traditional (or direct measures such as the trade-to-GDP (Gross Domestic Product and trade deficit-to-GDP ratios. Our indirect tools account for the European inter-country trade structure and follow (i a decomposition of the global trade flow into elementary flows that highlight the long-range dependencies between exporting and importing economies and (ii the commute-time distance for trade integration, which measures the impact of a perturbation in the economy of a country on another country, possibly through intermediate partners by domino effect. Our application addresses the impact of the launch of the Euro. We find that the indirect imbalance measures better identify the countries ultimately bearing deficits and surpluses, by neutralizing the impact of trade transit countries, such as the Netherlands. Among others, we find that ultimate surpluses of Germany are quite concentrated in only three partners. We also show that for some countries, the direct and indirect measures of trade integration diverge, thereby revealing that these countries (e.g. Greece and Portugal trade to a smaller extent with countries considered as central in the European Union network.

  8. Device-Relaying in Cellular D2D Networks: A Fairness Perspective

    Chaaban, Anas


    Device-to-Device (D2D) communication is envisioned to play a key role in 5G networks as a technique for meeting the demand for high data rates. In a cellular network, D2D allows not only direct communication between users, but also device relaying. In this paper, a simple instance of device-relaying is investigated, and its impact on fairness among users is studied. Namely, a cellular network consisting of two D2D-enabled users and a base-station (BS) is considered. Thus, the users who want to establish communication with the BS can act as relays for each other’s signals. While this problem is traditionally considered in the literature as a multiple-access channel with cooperation in the uplink, and a broadcast channel with cooperation in the downlink, we propose a different treatment of the problem as a multi-way channel. A simple communication scheme is proposed, and is shown to achieve significant gain in terms of fairness (measured by the symmetric rate supported) in comparison to the aforementioned traditional treatment.

  9. The Implementation of a Quality Management Standard in a Food SME: A Network Learning Perspective

    Zam-Zam Abdirahman


    Full Text Available In the modern agrifood economies, the development of quality management standards is crucial, and food small and medium enterprises (SMEs usually face difficulties in implementing them. In this context, the aim of the article is two‐fold. Firstly it is to craft an original analytical framework in line with the literature on innovation networks and related learning effects specifically devoted to the study of quality management standards implementation. Secondly the objective of the article is to apply this framework to a specific food SME case in order to test it and to identify the key network learningeffects that occur during the implementation of a quality management standard, namely the ISO 22000 standard for food safety. From this research, the practical output will be to propose tools to enhance food SMEs’ innovative capacity, through an improvement of their insertion in active formal and/or informal innovation networks. These specific tools will be especially targeted towards the strengthening of learning processes between the SME and the partners involved in the implementation.

  10. Open innovation in networks

    Hu, Yimei

    Open innovation in networks has been a popular topic for long, this paper rethinks the concepts of innovation network and network organization, and clarifies the differences between them based on the network perspective. Network perspective means that: network is the context of firms; market...... and hierarchy can be analyzed from a network approach. Within a network perspective, there are different levels of network, and a firm may not always has the power to “manage” innovation networks due to different levels of power. Based on the strength of a firm’s power, its role may varies from manager...

  11. The Role of Geoethics in Geohazards Mitigation: A YES Network Perspective

    wang, Meng; Barich, Amel; Peppoloni, Silvia


    The YES Network is an international group of early career geoscientists from universities, geosciences organizations and companies, with over 3000 members from 121 countries. It has been founded in 2008 during the International Year of Planet Earth with the vision of "Promoting the Geosciences for Society". Until now, 42 National Chapters have been set up. The YES Network aims to build communication bridges between geologists, Policy makers, and Society in order to develop Geological Projects for sustainable development, international scientific collaborations, to bridge the ages between the geoscientists' generations, promote equity in the professional development of young and early career earth-scientists, etc. Concerning the Geoethics field, recently introduced into the Geosciences domain, the YES Network would like to raise the following ideas: The L'Aquila trial is a case for geoscientists to think about their freedom on research, their responsibility toward the society and their relationship with the public policy and medias. These points are crucial for the professional development of the young and early-career earth-scientists around the world. The YES Network is, therefore, setting up an open forum to collect ideas from all young and early-career scientists around the world on this topic in order to spread awareness among this growing part of the scientific community and help them act like an efficient part of it. There have been for a long time many debates about natural hazards both at regional and global level. It is the duty of the scientific community with the collaboration of policy makers to help mitigate the consequences of the natural disasters around the world. The YES Network is currently developing projects about these issues notably about in coastal Countries including geological mapping, Geohazards Reduction Scenarios, teaching programs for local populations. Earth sciences Education is slowing down in developed countries and growing very

  12. A Convergent Online Single Time Scale Actor Critic Algorithm

    Di Castro, D


    Actor-Critic based approaches were among the first to address reinforcement learning in a general setting. Recently, these algorithms have gained renewed interest due to their generality, good convergence properties, and possible biological relevance. In this paper, we introduce an online temporal difference based actor-critic algorithm which is proved to converge to a neighborhood of a local maximum of the average reward. Linear function approximation is used by the critic in order estimate the value function, and the temporal difference signal, which is passed from the critic to the actor. The main distinguishing feature of the present convergence proof is that both the actor and the critic operate on a similar time scale, while in most current convergence proofs they are required to have very different time scales in order to converge. Moreover, the same temporal difference signal is used to update the parameters of both the actor and the critic. A limitation of the proposed approach, compared to results a...

  13. An Australian Perspective On The Challenges For Computer And Network Security For Novice End-Users

    Patryk Szewczyk


    Full Text Available It is common for end-users to have difficulty in using computer or network security appropriately and thus have often been ridiculed when misinterpreting instructions or procedures. This discussion paper details the outcomes of research undertaken over the past six years on why security is overly complex for end-users. The results indicate that multiple issues may render end-users vulnerable to security threats and that there is no single solution to address these problems. Studies on a small group of senior citizens has shown that educational seminars can be beneficial in ensuring that simple security aspects are understood and used appropriately.

  14. Cosmetic surgery intent among generation Y consumers: a social network perspective.

    Voelker, Troy A; Pentina, Iryna


    This article details research examining attitudes towards, and utilization of, cosmetic augmentation procedures among Generation Y individuals. Cosmetic augmentation is defined as the utilization of advanced technologies to augment the appearance of otherwise healthy individuals. Examples of cosmetic augmentation include plastic surgery and laser surgical procedures. A social exchange framework is advanced, suggesting that an individual's access to others who have utilized cosmetic augmentation increases the positive attitude towards cosmetic procedures. Findings support a social exchange model for intention to utilize laser cosmetic procedures as well as a positive relationship between the diversity of a subject's ego network and access to others who have utilized some form of cosmetic augmentation. PMID:21347941

  15. Wireless Broadband Network on TVWS for Rural Areas: an Indian Perspective

    Deshmukh, Madhukar; Patil, Kishor P.; Frederiksen, Flemming Bjerge;


    market domains. The current global move to switch from analogue to digital TV has opened up an opportunity for the re-allocation of this valuable resource. In one way, spectrum bands once used for analogue TV broadcasting will be completely cleared, leaving a space for deploying new licensed wireless...... services, and in another way, digital television technology geographically interleaves spectrum bands to avoid interference between neighboring stations-leaving a space for deploying new unlicensed wireless services. The focus of the paper is to assess the availability of geographically interleaved...... spectrum, also known as television spectrum white spaces (TVWS) and proposing the wireless network scenarios for rural broadband connectivity....

  16. Intermediaries as Innovating Actors in the Transition to a Sustainable Energy System

    Julia Backhaus


    Full Text Available In transitions of large sociotechnical systems, intermediary organisations can emerge as mediators in between several actor groups and facilitate communication and collaboration towards common goals. They can support the establishment of new actor networks and the articulation and alignment of interests to bring about desired changes. In this article, current efforts towards a more sustainable energy system serve as an exemplary context of intermediary work. The field under scrutiny, demand side management, aims to decrease energy consumption. Unfortunately, the role and work of intermediaries as implementers of demand side management projects often remains underappreciated.
    Research into the reasons of successes and failures of intermediary work and a theoretical corroboration for their practical work can help intermediaries to improve their programme designs and implementation strategies. The EC FP7-funded Changing Behaviour project aims to support intermediaries with strategic activities to improve demand side management programmes and bring about lasting behavioural changes. Paying more attention to context, stakeholders, monitoring, evaluation and learning enables the development of tailor-made, widely supported projects with higher chances of success.
    In addition to practical support for their work, intermediaries can benefit from stronger policy support. Understanding and appreciation of their work as contribution to policy implementation, e.g. towards energy saving targets, could motivate such support. A stable policy and financial environment with long-term implementation plans and funding schemes provides a fertile ground for intermediary activities. Active participation of policy actors in demand side management programmes can create networks sustaining longer-lasting change.

  17. A Customer Ecosystem Perspective on Service

    Voima, PÀivi; Heinonen, Kristina; Strandvik, Tore; Mickelsson, Karl-Jacob; Arantola-Hattab, Leena Johanna


    This paper conceptualises customer ecosystems, which are defined as systems of actors related to the customer that are relevant concerning a specific service. Moving from provider-driven dyads and service systems to customer ecosystems, the paper uncovers multiple implications for service marketers regarding the definition of the customer, configurations of value units, scope of value formation, as well as relevant actor systems. The paper extends the perspective on service and suggests impli...

  18. The story about theater organizations, the public's approval, and the actors' identity formation in Nordic disability theater.

    Gjærum, Rikke Gürgens; Ineland, Jens; Sauer, Lennart


    Nordic disability theater is a relatively new and interesting field of disability research. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the field of disability theater in a Nordic context. The article is based on a comparative analysis from 3 research projects conducted in Sweden and Norway. The projects used qualitative methods and were analyzed from different theoretical perspectives. Interviews were conducted at 4 different disability theaters involving actors with hearing impairments, intellectual disabilities, physical disabilities, and mental disabilities. The aim of this article is to illustrate how the organizational settings reflect different goals and aims at the political and artistic levels. The authors will also address the relationship between the theaters and the public opinion and media. Finally, they will illustrate in what way organization, recognition, and public approval play an important role for the actors' identity formation and sense of belonging. PMID:21104515

  19. Putting the Pieces Together: High-performance LC-MS/MS Provides Network-, Pathway-, and Protein-level Perspectives in Populus*

    Abraham, Paul; Giannone, Richard J.; Adams, Rachel M.; Kalluri, Udaya; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Hettich, Robert L.


    High-performance mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics enabled the construction of a detailed proteome atlas for Populus, a woody perennial plant model organism. Optimization of experimental procedures and implementation of current state-of-the-art instrumentation afforded the most detailed look into the predicted proteome space of Populus, offering varying proteome perspectives: (1) network-wide, (2) pathway-specific, and (3) protein-level viewpoints. Together, enhanced protein retrieval t...

  20. Extracted Social Network Mining

    Nasution, Mahyuddin K. M.


    In this paper we study the relationship between the resources of social networks by exploring the Web as big data based on a simple search engine. We have used set theory by utilizing the occurrence and co-occurrence for defining the singleton or doubleton spaces of event in a search engine model, and then provided them as representation of social actors and their relationship in clusters. Thus, there are behaviors of social actors and their relation based on Web.

  1. A Social Network Perspective on Peer Supported Learning in MOOCs for Educators

    Shaun Kellogg


    Full Text Available A recent phenomenon in the MOOC space has been the development of courses tailored to educators serving in K-12 settings. MOOCs, particularly as a form of educator professional development, face a number of challenges. Academics, as well as pundits from traditional and new media, have raised a number of concerns about MOOCs, including the lack of instructional and social supports. It is an assumption of this study that challenges arising form this problem of scale can be addressed by leveraging these massive numbers to develop robust online learning communities. This mixed-methods case study addresses critical gaps in the literature and issues of peer support in MOOCs through an examination of the characteristics, mechanisms, and outcomes of peer networks. Findings from this study demonstrate that even with technology as basic as a discussion forum, MOOCs can be leveraged to foster these networks and facilitate peer-supported learning. Although this study was limited to two unique cases along the wide spectrum of MOOCs, the methods applied provide other researchers with an approach for better understanding the dynamic process of peer supported learning in MOOCs.

  2. The dynamics of friendships and victimization in adolescence: a longitudinal social network perspective.

    Sentse, Miranda; Dijkstra, Jan Kornelis; Salmivalli, Christina; Cillessen, Antonius H N


    This study investigated the development of relational and physical victimization in adolescent friendship networks over time. Using longitudinal social network analysis (SIENA) it was simultaneously tested whether similarity in victimization contributed to friendship formation (selection effects) and whether victimization of friends contributed to changes in victimization (influence effects). This was done for peer-reported relational and physical victimization separately in two middle schools (total N = 480; N = 220, 47% girls, in School 1; N = 260, 52% girls, in School 2) across three time points (Grades 6 through 8; M ages 11.5-13.5). Gender, ethnicity, and baseline aggression were controlled as individual predictors of victimization. Similarity in physical victimization predicted friendship formation, whereas physical victimization was not influenced by friends' victimization but rather by adolescents' own physical aggression. Peer influence effects existed for relational victimization, in that adolescents with victimized friends were more likely to increase in victimization over time as well, over and above the effect of adolescents' own relational aggression. These selection and influence effects were not further qualified by gender. The results suggested that both selection and influence processes as well as individual characteristics play a role in the co-evolution of friendships and victimization, but that these processes are specific for different types of victimization. PMID:23446945

  3. Eco-Polycentric Urban Systems: An Ecological Region Perspective for Network Cities

    André Botequilha-Leitão


    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper is a work in progress. It provides linkages between the author’s earlier research under the sustainable land planning framework (SLP and emergent ideas and planning and design strategies, centered on the (landscape ecological dimension of cities’ sustainability. It reviews several concepts, paradigms, and metaphors that have been emerging during the last decade, which can contribute to expand our vision on city planning and design. Among other issues, city form—monocentric, polycentric, and diffused—is discussed. The hypothesis set forth is that cities can improve the pathway to sustainability by adopting intermediate, network urban forms such as polycentric urban systems (PUS under a broader vision (as compared to the current paradigm, to make way to urban ecological regions. It discusses how both the principles of SLP and those emergent ideas can contribute to integrate PUS with their functional hinterland, adopting an ecosystemic viewpoint of cities. It proposes to redirect the current dominant economic focus of PUS to include all of the other functions that are essential to urbanites, such as production (including the 3Rs, recreation, and ecology in a balanced way. Landscape ecology principles are combined with complexity science in order to deal with uncertainty to improve regional systems’ resilience. Cooperation in its multiple forms is seen as a fundamental social, but also economic process contributing to the urban network functioning, including its evolving capabilities for self-organization and adaptation.

  4. Learners' Perspectives on Networked Collaborative Interaction With Native Speakers of Spanish in the US

    Lina Lee


    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss a network-based collaborative project that focused on the learning conditions non-native speakers (NNSs of Spanish perceived to be necessary to satisfactoraly communicate with native speakers (NSs. Data from online discussions, end-of-semester surveys, and final oral interviews are presented and discussed. The results of this study demonstrated that the NNS and NS online collaboration promoted the scaffolding by which the NSs assisted the NNSs in composing meaning (ideas and form (grammar. In addition, the NNSs praised the unique learning condition of being exposed to a wide range of functional language discourse produced by the NSs. Students perceived that open-ended questions for two-way exchange were meaningful for them because they were encouraged to use specific vocabulary and structures during the discussions. In spite of the positive conditions and benefits created by networked collaborative interaction (NCI, it was found that there were some major issues that are crucial for NCI. This study demonstrates that learners' language proficiency, computer skills, and age differences are important factors to be considered when incorporating institutional NCI as these may linguistically and socially affect the quality of online negotiation and students' motivation toward NCI. Practical ideas for further research are suggested.

  5. Two-actor conflict with time delay: A dynamical model

    Qubbaj, Murad R.; Muneepeerakul, Rachata


    Recent mathematical dynamical models of the conflict between two different actors, be they nations, groups, or individuals, have been developed that are capable of predicting various outcomes depending on the chosen feedback strategies, initial conditions, and the previous states of the actors. In addition to these factors, this paper examines the effect of time delayed feedback on the conflict dynamics. Our analysis shows that under certain initial and feedback conditions, a stable neutral equilibrium of conflict may destabilize for some critical values of time delay, and the two actors may evolve to new emotional states. We investigate the results by constructing critical delay surfaces for different sets of parameters and analyzing results from numerical simulations. These results provide new insights regarding conflict and conflict resolution and may help planners in adjusting and assessing their strategic decisions.

  6. An adaptive actor-critic algorithm with multi-step simulated experiences for controlling nonholonomic mobile robots

    Syam, Rafiuddin


    In this paper, we propose a new algorithm of an adaptive actor-critic method with multi-step simulated experiences, as a kind of temporal difference (TD) method. In our approach, the TD-error is composed of two valuefunctions and m utility functions, where m denotes the number ofmulti-steps inwhich the experience should be simulated. The value-function is constructed from the critic formulated by a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN), which has a simulated exp...

  7. Network regularizability

    Franceschet, Massimo


    A network is regularizable if it is possible to assign weights to its edges so that all nodes have the same degree. We define a hierarchy of four network classes in terms of their regularization properties. For the classes of the hierarchy, we investigate structural conditions on both the network and the corresponding adjacency matrix that are necessary and sufficient for the inclusion of a network in the class. Moreover, we provide an algorithmic solution for the problem of positioning a network in the hierarchy. We argue that the regularization solution is useful to build an egalitarian, friction-free network in which all actors of the network has the same centrality (and power).

  8. Social movements and the construction of crisis actors

    Bourne, Angela; Chatzopoulou, Sevasti


    This article examines the Europeanization of social movements following the European sovereign debt crisis. It develops a theoretical framework to measure degrees of social movement Europeanization, incorporating targets, participants, and issue frame dimensions of mobilization. Europeanization of...... social movements occurs when they collaborate with similar movements in other countries, claim a European identity, invoke Europe-wide solidarity, contest authorities beyond the state and ascribe responsibility for solving the crisis to European Union (EU). By targeting EU authorities, social movements...... may contribute to the construction of the EU as a crisis actor and through deliberative processes define the roles and identities of such actors....

  9. La red del Comercio Justo y sus principales actores

    Brisa Ceccon Rocha


    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de una descripción concisa del fenómeno del comercio justo y su participación en el comercio mundial. Al mismo tiempo, examina el papel de los diferentes actores que participan en la red del comercio justo, desde los productores hasta los consumidores. Finalmente, evalúa las relaciones entre estos actores y los retos que enfrentan para perfeccionar el sistema y mejorar las condiciones de participación de los productores, elementos fundamentales de esta red.

  10. Survey on eInclusion actors in EU27

    RISSOLA Gabriel; Garrido, María


    This report present the results of an online survey that collect relevant data from almost 3,000 organisations working on eInclusion in 27 European countries, which is the first attempt in Europe to collect primary data from those actors. This research constitutes a building block of a larger project ‘Measuring the Impact of eInclusion Actors on Digital Literacy, Skills and Inclusion goals of the Digital Agenda for Europe’ (MIREIA) , a policy-oriented research project which aims to better und...

  11. Perspectives on Advanced Learning Technologies and Learning Networks and Future Aerospace Workforce Environments

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)


    An overview of the advanced learning technologies is given in this presentation along with a brief description of their impact on future aerospace workforce development. The presentation is divided into five parts (see Figure 1). In the first part, a brief historical account of the evolution of learning technologies is given. The second part describes the current learning activities. The third part describes some of the future aerospace systems, as examples of high-tech engineering systems, and lists their enabling technologies. The fourth part focuses on future aerospace research, learning and design environments. The fifth part lists the objectives of the workshop and some of the sources of information on learning technologies and learning networks.

  12. Double network hydrogel with high mechanical strength:Performance, progress and future perspective

    CHEN YongMei; DONG Kun; LIU ZhenQi; XU Feng


    With high water content (~90 wt%) and significantly improved mechanical strength (~MPa),double network (DN) hydrogels have emerged as promising biomaterials with widespread applications in biomedicine.In recent years,DN hydrogels with extremely high mechanical strength have achieved great advance,and scientists have designed a series of natural and biomimetic DN hydrogels with novel functions including low friction,low wear,mechanical anisotropy and cell compatibility.These advances have also led to new design of biocompatible DN hydrogels for regeneration of tissues such as cartilage.In this paper,we reviewed the strategies of designing high-strength DN hydrogel and analyzed the factors that affect DN hydrogel properties.We also discussed the challenges and future development of the DN hydrogel in view of its potential as biomaterials for their biomedical applications.

  13. How does competition structure affect industry merger waves? A network analysis perspective

    Hou, Rui; Yang, Jianmei; Yao, Canzhong; McKelvey, Bill


    By taking China's beer industry as an example, this paper establishes a series of industrial competition-pressure networks and examines the correlation between competition structure and merger actions. We present a cascade dynamic-merger agent-based computational model driven by competition pressure diffusion to describe the forming process of industry merger wave. The empirical analyses and agent-based computational simulation results show that the competition structure among rivals has a strong effect on the scale, the duration time, and the stability of industry merger wave. We also give explanations on why there are different simulation results between in single market competition environment and in multi-market competition environment, as well as discuss the management implications for the industry-merger policy makers and the merger-tactics decision makers that are involved in merger wave.

  14. Research on Collective Learning Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Industrial Cluster Innovation Network

    Lan Wang


    Full Text Available This study attempts to contribute to the cluster innovation literature by adding the collective learning perspective and propose an analytical framework on collective learning of cluster. Industrial cluster is viewed as a prevalent mode for technology innovation in knowledge-based economy. Collective learning outlines how local innovation network and spatial proximity between actors influence the sharing and creation of skills and knowledge in cluster. Firstly, this study discusses the structure and character of innovation network within industrial cluster. Secondly, it analyzes the collective learning mechanism of industrial cluster, which is involves in three dimensions: horizontal learning, vertical learning and multi-angle learning. Then, it focuses on some influencing factors of collective learning within innovation network. Finally, this study analyzes the role of global-local linkages in the dynamic capability of cluster innovation network.

  15. Civilising globalism: Transnational norm-building networks. A research programme

    Mückenberger, Ulrich


    Decentralised, self-organised cross-border activities are increasingly shaping global policymaking. While state actors have lost ground, policy and economic networks have emerged as key actors, transforming international relations as well as national spheres. Academic discourse is following their activity, often focusing on 'advocacy networks' and on the role of transnational actors within the transformation of the world economy and world polity. In contrast to these research activities, the ...

  16. International cooperation, networking and application of IAEA safety standards - Perspectives of the IAEA

    The fundamental objective of safety is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation arising from the operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and the utilization of radiation in general. This protection rests on the availability and international acceptance and use of a complete set of safety standards, strong management for safety of all licensees, effective regulatory bodies and a sustainable infrastructure with professionals trained in the application of the safety standards. The nuclear safety community is faced with many new challenges in the nuclear installations safety and radiation safety areas. The potential for accidents will increase as more and more countries turn to wider application of nuclear power and radiation sources, and if ageing of technology is not managed properly. The complexity of these issues requires the enhancement of the exchange of knowledge and cooperation among all nuclear and radiation professionals. Operators and regulators need to base their decisions on a robust knowledge base supported by institutions where high quality R and D activities are carried out. Institutions tracking new scientific information, new technologies and new challenges in a proactive manner play an important role in this context. The technical, scientific and safety support to operators and regulators differs significantly among countries, but whatever organizational framework has been chosen, international cooperation, networking and technical and scientific information sharing are essential. This conference deals with the challenges faced by technical and scientific support organizations (TSOs) in dealing with the important task of enhancing nuclear and radiation safety. This is indeed a challenge, not only to the TSOs themselves, but also to both the nuclear and the radiation communities. High quality technical and scientific information coming from well recognized, authoritative sources is of prime importance to

  17. Discrete Opinion Dynamics on Online Social Networks

    This paper focuses on the dynamics of binary opinions {+1, −1} on online social networks consisting of heterogeneous actors. In our model, actors update their opinions under the interplay of social influence and self- affirmation, which leads to rich dynamical behaviors on online social networks. We find that the opinion leading to the consensus features an advantage of the initially weighted fraction based on actors' strength over the other, instead of the population. For the role of specific actors, the consensus converges towards the opinion that a small fraction of high-strength actors hold, and individual diversity of self-affirmation slows down the ordering process of consensus. These indicate that high-strength actors play an essential role in opinion formation with strong social influence as well as high persistence. Further investigations show that the initial fraction of high-strength actors to dominate the evolution depends on the heterogeneity of the strength distribution, and less high-strength actors are needed in the case of a smaller exponent of power-law distribution of actors' strength. Our study provides deep insights into the role of social influence and self-affirmation on opinion formation on online social networks. (general)

  18. Using Digital Stethoscopes in Remote Patient Assessment via Wireless Networks: the User’s Perspective

    Raj Gururajan


    Full Text Available Digital stethoscopes assume an important role in telehealth and mobile (m- health for capturing sounds over a communication infrastructure. However, few studies have explored the users’ experiences and views on using the current models of digital stethoscopes on a telehealth network. The authors were provided with an Australian Research Council grant to explore the possibilities of developing a suitable digital stethoscope that would function at acceptable levels with Queensland State-wide Telehealth Services. A major Indian university is collaborating in this research. As an initial step, users’ views and feedback were sought for using a digital stethoscope on a telehealth platform and these were reported in this paper in a consolidated manner. The issues identified in the multiple-case study cover the aspects of sound quality, signal transmission, hardware/software design, functionality, and cost considerations. The finding of this study can assist researchers and practitioners in making informed decisions for procuring digital stethoscopes, as well as providing useful information to the manufacturers in designing future digital stethoscopes.

  19. Network environ perspective for urban metabolism and carbon emissions: a case study of Vienna, Austria.

    Chen, Shaoqing; Chen, Bin


    Cities are considered major contributors to global warming, where carbon emissions are highly embedded in the overall urban metabolism. To examine urban metabolic processes and emission trajectories we developed a carbon flux model based on Network Environ Analysis (NEA). The mutual interactions and control situation within the urban ecosystem of Vienna were examined, and the system-level properties of the city's carbon metabolism were assessed. Regulatory strategies to minimize carbon emissions were identified through the tracking of the possible pathways that affect these emission trajectories. Our findings suggest that indirect flows have a strong bearing on the mutual and control relationships between urban sectors. The metabolism of a city is considered self-mutualistic and sustainable only when the local and distal environments are embraced. Energy production and construction were found to be two factors with a major impact on carbon emissions, and whose regulation is only effective via ad-hoc pathways. In comparison with the original life-cycle tracking, the application of NEA was better at revealing details from a mechanistic aspect, which is crucial for informed sustainable urban management. PMID:22424579

  20. Broadband local service offerings using free-space optical links: a network business perspective

    Britz, David M.; Dodley, J. P.; Barnickel, D. J.


    12 This paper describes a promising optical wireless broadband technology that will provide low cost broadband services to the local access `last mile' market. This paper examines the application, advantages and limitations of utilizing Free Space Optical Communications (FSOC) systems for broadband access markets. The service markets that would fully utilize FSOC technologies include metropolitan areas, BLECs (multi- tenant dwellings/business apartments), campuses, industrial parks and `pole-to-hole' neighborhood deployments. This paper will identify weather dependent link availability as being the primary consideration in defining and selecting suitable locations for FSOC-based systems. Link availability in turn determines link range, type of service, and the need for transmission diversity. This paper will describe the implications of telecom `five nines' last-mile access availability and its effect on the transparent integration of FSOC technologies into the existing fiber optic networks. This paper will also describe propagation losses and link budget requirements for broadband FSOC-based local service. During adverse weather conditions, stand-alone, FSOC-based optical wireless links typically offer path lengths of less than 200 meters while still meeting the `five nines' availability criteria. This paper will also consider `availability limited' services. These services may prove to be attractive to customers who are willing to accept broadband service on an `as available basis'. The use of availability-enhancing transmission diversity and the use of intelligent `roof-top' routing and optical wireless cross connects between buildings will also be discussed.

  1. Reconceptualizing anhedonia: novel perspectives on balancing the pleasure networks in the human brain

    Kristine eRømer Thomsen


    Full Text Available Anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, has been shown to be a critical feature of a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous, objective scientific analysis. New insights from affective neuroscience hold considerable promise in improving our understanding of anhedonia and for providing useful objective behavioral measures to complement self-report measures, potentially leading to better diagnoses and novel treatments. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning. Based on this framework we propose to conceptualize anhedonia as impairments in some or all of these processes, thereby departing from the longstanding view of anhedonia as solely reduced subjective experience of pleasure. We discuss how deficits in each of the reward components can lead to different expressions, or subtypes, of anhedonia affording novel ways of measurement. Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of subjective liking seem surprisingly intact. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that anhedonia is heterogeneous across psychiatric disorders, depending on which parts of the pleasure networks are mostly affected. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment of anhedonia.

  2. Reconceptualizing anhedonia: novel perspectives on balancing the pleasure networks in the human brain.

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Whybrow, Peter C; Kringelbach, Morten L


    Anhedonia, the lack of pleasure, has been shown to be a critical feature of a range of psychiatric disorders. Yet, it is currently measured primarily through subjective self-reports and as such has been difficult to submit to rigorous scientific analysis. New insights from affective neuroscience hold considerable promise in improving our understanding of anhedonia and for providing useful objective behavioral measures to complement traditional self-report measures, potentially leading to better diagnoses and novel treatments. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of hedonia research and specifically the established mechanisms of wanting, liking, and learning. Based on this framework we propose to conceptualize anhedonia as impairments in some or all of these processes, thereby departing from the longstanding view of anhedonia as solely reduced subjective experience of pleasure. We discuss how deficits in each of the reward components can lead to different expressions, or subtypes, of anhedonia affording novel ways of measurement. Specifically, we review evidence suggesting that patients suffering from depression and schizophrenia show impairments in wanting and learning, while some aspects of conscious liking seem surprisingly intact. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that anhedonia is heterogeneous across psychiatric disorders, depending on which parts of the pleasure networks are most affected. This in turn has implications for diagnosis and treatment of anhedonia. PMID:25814941

  3. The Informatics Challenges Facing Biobanks: A Perspective from a United Kingdom Biobanking Network.

    Quinlan, Philip R; Groves, Martin; Jordan, Lee B; Stobart, Hilary; Purdie, Colin A; Thompson, Alastair M


    The challenges facing biobanks are changing from simple collections of materials to quality-assured fit-for-purpose clinically annotated samples. As a result, informatics awareness and capabilities of a biobank are now intrinsically related to quality. A biobank may be considered a data repository, in the form of raw data (the unprocessed samples), data surrounding the samples (processing and storage conditions), supplementary data (such as clinical annotations), and an increasing ethical requirement for biobanks to have a mechanism for researchers to return their data. The informatics capabilities of a biobank are no longer simply knowing sample locations; instead the capabilities will become a distinguishing factor in the ability of a biobank to provide appropriate samples. There is an increasing requirement for biobanking systems (whether in-house or commercially sourced) to ensure the informatics systems stay apace with the changes being experienced by the biobanking community. In turn, there is a requirement for the biobanks to have a clear informatics policy and directive that is embedded into the wider decision making process. As an example, the Breast Cancer Campaign Tissue Bank in the UK was a collaboration between four individual and diverse biobanks in the UK, and an informatics platform has been developed to address the challenges of running a distributed network. From developing such a system there are key observations about what can or cannot be achieved by informatics in isolation. This article will highlight some of the lessons learned during this development process. PMID:26418270

  4. Can We Recognize an Innovation? Perspective from an Evolving Network Model

    Jain, Sanjay; Krishna, Sandeep

    "Innovations" are central to the evolution of societies and the evolution of life. But what constitutes an innovation? We can often agree after the event, when its consequences and impact over a long term are known, whether something was an innovation, and whether it was a "big" innovation or a "minor" one. But can we recognize an innovation "on the fly" as it appears? Successful entrepreneurs often can. Is it possible to formalize that intuition? We discuss this question in the setting of a mathematical model of evolving networks. The model exhibits self-organization , growth, stasis, and collapse of a complex system with many interacting components, reminiscent of real-world phenomena. A notion of "innovation" is formulated in terms of graph-theoretic constructs and other dynamical variables of the model. A new node in the graph gives rise to an innovation, provided it links up "appropriately" with existing nodes; in this view innovation necessarily depends upon the existing context. We show that innovations, as defined by us, play a major role in the birth, growth, and destruction of organizational structures. Furthermore, innovations can be categorized in terms of their graph-theoretic structure as they appear. Different structural classes of innovation have potentially different qualitative consequences for the future evolution of the system, some minor and some major. Possible general lessons from this specific model are briefly discussed.

  5. A new perspective of constructal networks cooling a finite-size volume generating heat

    Constructal theory has been used in several scientific fields since it has been established a decade ago. It mainly treats of the 'area to point' flow problem, which has been first-written in the frame of the cooling of a finite-size volume generating heat. This problem, widely discussed in literature, has been optimized thanks to constructal theory formulated by Bejan, with a deterministic approach. However, some of the physical and mathematical assumptions made to simplify the problem are questionable, especially the ones regarding the high-conductivity material constituting the tree-shaped structure. In this paper, the performances of constructal designs are evaluated using a finite volume method, which allows making a comparison between different constructal geometries. An algorithm has been developed which has the ability for restraining constructal networks inside a finite-size area, without overconstraining the structure. All things considered, this paper examines constructal theory from a new point of view thanks to analytical and numerical investigations, in the frame of a finite-size volume generating heat.

  6. Coarse-Grained Models Reveal Functional Dynamics - I. Elastic Network Models – Theories, Comparisons and Perspectives

    Choon-Peng Chng


    Full Text Available Abstract: In this review, we summarize the progress on coarse-grained elastic network models (CG-ENMs in the past decade. Theories were formulated to allow study of conformational dynamics in time/space frames of biological interest. Several highlighted models and their underlined hypotheses are introduced in physical depth. Important ENM offshoots, motivated to reproduce experimental data as well as to address the slow-mode-encoded configurational transitions, are also introduced. With the theoretical developments, computational cost is significantly reduced due to simplified potentials and coarse-grained schemes. Accumulating wealth of data suggest that ENMs agree equally well with experiment in describing equilibrium dynamics despite their distinct potentials and levels of coarse-graining. They however do differ in the slowest motional components that are essential to address large conformational changes of functional significance. The difference stems from the dissimilar curvatures of the harmonic energy wells described for each model. We also provide our views on the predictability of ‘open to close’ (open→close transitions of biomolecules on the basis of conformational selection theory. Lastly, we address the limitations of the ENM formalism which are partially alleviated by the complementary CGMD approach, to be introduced in the second paper of this two-part series.

  7. Coarse-Grained Models Reveal Functional Dynamics - I. Elastic Network Models – Theories, Comparisons and Perspectives

    Yang, Lee-Wei; Chng, Choon-Peng


    In this review, we summarize the progress on coarse-grained elastic network models (CG-ENMs) in the past decade. Theories were formulated to allow study of conformational dynamics in time/space frames of biological interest. Several highlighted models and their underlined hypotheses are introduced in physical depth. Important ENM offshoots, motivated to reproduce experimental data as well as to address the slow-mode-encoded configurational transitions, are also introduced. With the theoretical developments, computational cost is significantly reduced due to simplified potentials and coarse-grained schemes. Accumulating wealth of data suggest that ENMs agree equally well with experiment in describing equilibrium dynamics despite their distinct potentials and levels of coarse-graining. They however do differ in the slowest motional components that are essential to address large conformational changes of functional significance. The difference stems from the dissimilar curvatures of the harmonic energy wells described for each model. We also provide our views on the predictability of ‘open to close’ (open→close) transitions of biomolecules on the basis of conformational selection theory. Lastly, we address the limitations of the ENM formalism which are partially alleviated by the complementary CG-MD approach, to be introduced in the second paper of this two-part series. PMID:19812764

  8. Local energy governance in vermont: an analysis of energy system transition strategies and actor capacity

    Rowse, Tarah

    and financial stimulus are essential if Vermont hopes to increase strategic energy planning alignment and spur whole-scale energy system change. Study 2 examined local energy actors to assess their ability to develop and sustain energy action on the local level. A survey of 120 municipalities collected statewide baseline data covering the structures, processes, and activities of local energy actors. The analysis examined the role that various forms of capacity play in local energy activity. The results show that towns with higher incomes are more likely to have local energy actors and towns with higher populations have higher aggregate energy activity levels. Structurally, energy actors that had both an energy coordinator and an energy committee were more active, and municipal committees were more active than independent committees. Access to a budget and volunteer engagement were both associated with higher activity levels. The network of local energy actors in Vermont consists of committed and knowledgeable volunteers. Yet, the capacity of these local energy actors to implement sustainable energy change is limited due to resource constraints of time and money. In most cases, the scope of municipal energy planning strategy is modest. Prioritization of strategy and action at the central and local levels, along with increased interaction and coordination, is necessary to increase the regional compatibility and pace of energy system transformation.

  9. New Actors in Health Financing: Implications for a Donor Darling

    Denis Drechsler; Felix Zimmermann


    With concern about how to finance the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) widespread, recent donor pledges to raise aid volumes are welcome. However, aid alone will not suffice – bringing in new actors and sources of development finance will be essential. In many developing countries, this is already happening, creating new opportunities and challenges for their governments and donors....

  10. Demystifying Facilitation of Multi-Actor Learning Processes

    Groot, A.E.


     This thesis aims to demystify the facilitation of participatory processes in order to improve the performance of the facilitation professional. As our society is increasingly recognised as pluralistic, characterised by multiple actors with different interests, values and perception

  11. Researching the Habitus of Global Policy Actors in Education

    Lingard, Bob; Sellar, Sam; Baroutsis, Aspa


    This paper reprises the argument for the emergence of a global education policy field and then focuses on the shared habitus of global and national policy actors and technicians. It is argued that this shared habitus is constituted as a reflection of and a contribution to the creation of the global education policy field. Bourdieu's approach…

  12. Comparative analysis of collaboration networks

    In this paper we carry out a comparative analysis of the word network as the collaboration network based on the novel by M. Bulgakov 'Master and Margarita', the synonym network of the Russian language as well as the Russian movie actor network. We have constructed one-mode projections of these networks, defined degree distributions for them and have calculated main characteristics. In the paper a generation algorithm of collaboration networks has been offered which allows one to generate networks statistically equivalent to the studied ones. It lets us reveal a structural correlation between word network, synonym network and movie actor network. We show that the degree distributions of all analyzable networks are described by the distribution of q-type.

  13. Progress and perspectives of ASTEC applications in the European Network SARNET

    The ASTEC integral code is jointly developed by IRSN (France) and GRS (Germany) for LWR source term Severe Accident (SA) evaluation, PSA level 2 studies and SA management evaluation. ASTEC constitutes now the reference European integral code through its role in the Network SARNET (Severe Accident Network of Excellence) in the EC 6. Framework Program. The models of next version V1.3, released before end of 2006, represent the current State of the Art, its validation is very extensive (in particular on Phebus FP) and, after next implementation of a model for reflooding of degraded cores, it will cover all needs for SA evaluation in PWR and VVER. It will be the reference code for the IRSN PSA level 2 (Probabilistic Safety Analysis) on French PWR 1300 MWe that starts in 2006. In the frame of SARNET, IRSN coordinates the ASTEC Topic gathering 30 partners that assess the code through validation against experiments and benchmarks with reference codes like CATHARE or RELAP5 for the reactor coolant circuit and COCOSYS for the containment. Plant application calculations are compared with MELCOR and MAAP4 results for a series of different SA sequences. Besides, the knowledge generated by SARNET Topics (Corium, Source Term and Containment) will be progressively integrated into the code through improved or new models. The 2. Users' Club organized at Aix-en-Provence in June 06, with 45 participants from 27 organizations, allowed fruitful discussions with the Maintenance Team. After 2 years of work, code validation shows good overall results, often close to results of reference codes. Some results reach the limits of present knowledge, for instance on Molten-Corium-Concrete-Interaction (MCCI) and Direct Containment Heating (DCH). Benchmarks on plant applications have been performed on diverse reactor types: PWR 900, Konvoi 1300, Westinghouse 1000, VVER-1000 and VVER-440. The main trends of results are similar to MELCOR or MAAP4 results. The objective of the quantitative

  14. VR/IS Lab Virtual Actor research overview

    Shawver, D.M.; Stansfield, S.


    This overview presents current research at Sandia National Laboratories in the Virtual Reality and Intelligent Simulation Lab. Into an existing distributed VR environment which we have been developing, and which provides shared immersion for multiple users, we are adding virtual actor support. The virtual actor support we are adding to this environment is intended to provide semi-autonomous actors, with oversight and high-level guiding control by a director/user, and to allow the overall action to be driven by a scenario. We present an overview of the environment into which our virtual actors will be added in Section 3, and discuss the direction of the Virtual Actor research itself in Section 4. We will briefly review related work in Section 2. First however we need to place the research in the context of what motivates it. The motivation for our construction of this environment, and the line of research associated with it, is based on a long-term program of providing support, through simulation, for situational training, by which we mean a type of training in which students learn to handle multiple situations or scenarios. In these situations, the student may encounter events ranging from the routine occurance to the rare emergency. Indeed, the appeal of such training systems is that they could allow the student to experience and develop effective responses for situations they would otherwise have no opportunity to practice, until they happened to encounter an actual occurance. Examples of the type of students for this kind of training would be security forces or emergency response forces. An example of the type of training scenario we would like to support is given in Section 4.2.

  15. Effects of missing data in social networks

    Kossinets, Gueorgi


    We perform sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of missing data on the structural properties of social networks. The social network is conceived of as being generated by a bipartite graph, in which actors are linked together via multiple interaction contexts or affiliations. We discuss three principal missing data mechanisms: network boundary specification (non-inclusion of actors or affiliations), survey non-response, and censoring by vertex degree (fixed choice design), examining their...

  16. Exploring the underlying structure of mental disorders : cross-diagnostic differences and similarities from a network perspective using both a top-down and a bottom-up approach

    Wigman, J. T. W.; van Os, J.; Borsboom, D.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Epskamp, S.; Klippel, A.; Viechtbauer, W.; Myin-Germeys, I.; Wichers, M.


    Background. It has been suggested that the structure of psychopathology is best described as a complex network of components that interact in dynamic ways. The goal of the present paper was to examine the concept of psychopathology from a network perspective, combining complementary top-down and bot

  17. Exploring the underlying structure of mental disorders: cross-diagnostic differences and similarities from a network perspective using both a top-down and a bottom-up approach

    J.T.W. Wigman; J. van Os; D. Borsboom; K.J. Wardenaar; S. Epskamp; A. Klippel; W. Viechtbauer; I. Myin-Germeys; M. Wichers


    Background: It has been suggested that the structure of psychopathology is best described as a complex network of components that interact in dynamic ways. The goal of the present paper was to examine the concept of psychopathology from a network perspective, combining complementary top-down and bot

  18. Multiple actor-critic structures for continuous-time optimal control using input-output data.

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Hua-Guang; Jiang, Zhong-Ping; Levine, Dan


    In industrial process control, there may be multiple performance objectives, depending on salient features of the input-output data. Aiming at this situation, this paper proposes multiple actor-critic structures to obtain the optimal control via input-output data for unknown nonlinear systems. The shunting inhibitory artificial neural network (SIANN) is used to classify the input-output data into one of several categories. Different performance measure functions may be defined for disparate categories. The approximate dynamic programming algorithm, which contains model module, critic network, and action network, is used to establish the optimal control in each category. A recurrent neural network (RNN) model is used to reconstruct the unknown system dynamics using input-output data. NNs are used to approximate the critic and action networks, respectively. It is proven that the model error and the closed unknown system are uniformly ultimately bounded. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the proposed optimal control scheme for the unknown nonlinear system. PMID:25730830

  19. Eruptions and ruptures - a social network perspective on vulnerability and impact of the Laacher See eruption (c. 13,000 BP) on Late Glacial hunter-gatherers in northern Europe

    Riede, Felix


    arguably adaptive technology has, in this and other case studies, been explained through formal demographic modelling, where parameters such as population size, density and connectedness play a critical role. This paper extends these efforts by taking an explicit social network perspective, and by......-eruption regionalization in northern Europe can be seen as a critical rupture along the periphery of these networks. In turn, this conclusion is set into a broader perspective by drawing on anthropological and sociological studies of recent disasters that also highlight the importance of social networks in mediating - in...... a mitigating or aggravating way - the social effects of calamities....

  20. Knowledge Management in the Network Mode: The Case of Private Equity

    Britta Klagge


    Full Text Available There has been an ongoing debate on the changing geographical organization of the financial sector and the decreasing importance of regional financial centres. Our contribution explores a fresh perspective on this issue by looking at knowledge and risk management in different parts of the financial sector with an empirical focus on private equity in Germany. The argument we put forward is that the ways in which providers of finance manage knowledge and risk shape their organizational and geographical structure. In our analytical framework we distinguish between three ideal-type modes of knowledge management: the relationship, the data and the network mode. These modes differ in the types of knowledge exchanged, the actors involved and in the role and nature of relevant contacts and relationships. The shift from relationship to data mode in credit provision in Germany serves an example of how a new mode of knowledge management is associated with changes in the geographical organization of financial actors and activities. To illustrate the network mode we then focus on knowledge management in private equity in Germany, which involves a variety of different actors and links both regional and interregional networks. Our empirical research shows that the resulting organizational and geographical struc¬tures are rather complex and have nodes in regional financial centres. While these centres benefit from private equity activities, their chances for re-vitalization and a re-regionalization of financial expertise on the basis of private equity are nonetheless limited. So far, Munich seems to be the (only one location where private equity – cross-fertilized by other local financial actors – has initiated a self-supported development which strengthens Munich as a financial centre.