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Sample records for actor network perspective

  1. Towards a new perspective of managing ideas in front-end innovation as actor networks

    Vagn, Anna Rose; Clausen, Christian; Gish, Liv

    2013-01-01

    been identified as front-end innovation processes. The front-end innovation is distinguished from linear product development and characterised as more informal, unstructured, and unpredictable. This paper presents the preliminary results of a PhD project concerning idea management in front......For decades the innovation process in R&D organisations has been discussed. Product development processes is well-established in R&D organisations and improvements has been implemented through theories as Lean product development and agile methods. In recent decades, more diffuse processes have......-end innovation of R&D organisations. Through theoretical and empirical investigations of managing activities of idea processes an indicative analysis in the perspective of actor network theory is performed. The analysis show how managers and employees navigate in a complex environment of organisational...

  2. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive...

  3. Technological change and users: An actor-network perspective on the digitalization of video surveillance

    Weaver, Benjamin; Lahtinen, Markus

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses aspects of technological change and the path towards institutionalization of new innovations, with a focus on how users matter and are part of the co-construction of such change. An empirical example from the security industry is used to illustrate how two distinct phases in the analog-to-digital shift in video surveillance technology have had very different outcomes with respect to the pace and nature of user adoption. The notions of actor- networks and communities of pr...

  4. Development Sociology. Actor Perspectives

    Long, N.E.

    2001-01-01

    Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, Development Sociology focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and social constructionist form of analysis. This style of analysis is opposed to the traditional structuralist/institutional

  5. Games as Actors - Interaction, Play, Design, and Actor Network Theory

    Jessen, Jari Due; Jessen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    When interacting with computer games, users are forced to follow the rules of the game in return for the excitement, joy, fun, or other pursued experiences. In this paper, we investigate how games a chieve these experiences in the perspective of Actor Network Theory (ANT). Based on a qualitative...... data from a study of board games , computer games, and exergames, we conclude that games are actors that produce experiences by exercising power over the user’ s abilities, for example their cognitive functions. Games are designed to take advantage of the characteristics of the human players......, and by doing so they create in humans what in modern play theory is known as a “state of play”...

  6. Transitions across place and space – Spatial transitions in an Actor Network perspective

    Kerndrup, Søren; Mosgaard, Mette

    2012-01-01

    a simple one dimensional framework based on geographical distance overlooking the social, economic and institutional dimensions. (Latour 2005, Boshma 2005, Knoben 2008) Therefore the aim of this paper is to combine the transitions framework with a relational geographic perspective influenced by the...

  7. Thinking Management and Leadership within Colleges and Schools Somewhat Differently: A Practice-Based, Actor-Network Theory Perspective

    Mulcahy, Dianne; Perillo, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the significance of materiality for management and leadership in education using resources provided by actor-network theory (ANT). Espousing the idea that human interactions are mediated by material objects and that these objects participate in the production of practices, ANT affords thinking management and leadership in a…

  8. Self-Recovering Sensor-Actor Networks

    Kamali, Maryam; Petre, Luigia; Sere, Kaisa; 10.4204/EPTCS.30.4

    2010-01-01

    Wireless sensor-actor networks are a recent development of wireless networks where both ordinary sensor nodes and more sophisticated and powerful nodes, called actors, are present. In this paper we formalize a recently introduced algorithm that recovers failed actor communication links via the existing sensor infrastructure. We prove via refinement that the recovery is terminating in a finite number of steps and is distributed, thus self-performed by the actors. Most importantly, we prove that the recovery can be done at different levels, via different types of links, such as direct actor links or indirect links between the actors, in the latter case reusing the wireless infrastructure of sensors. This leads to identifying coordination classes, e.g., for delegating the most security sensitive coordination to the direct actor-actor coordination links, the least real-time constrained coordination to indirect links, and the safety critical coordination to both direct actor links and indirect sensor paths between...

  9. The Adoption Of Tailor-made IT-based Accounting Systems Within Indonesian SMEs From Actor Network Theory Perspective

    Samiaji Sarosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the adoption process of computer-based accounting information systems within Indonesian SMEs. The analysis was conducted using theoretical framework proposed by Slappendel [1] which is interactive process. Interactive process argues that adoption of innovation (IT in particular should be viewed as an interactive process between individual member, organization, and its environment. One of the emerging theories within interactive process is Actor Network Theory (ANT proposed by Latour, Callon, and Law[2-7]. ANT classified adoption process as four stages process, namely problematisation, interrestment, enrolment, and mobilization. We used qualitative approach to gather data, analyze and draw conclusion. As the result we come up with factors that influencing the adoption process along with the failure and success of such endeavour. We argues that ANT is better in explaining the adoption of IT compared to other model due its ability to identified not only the factors but also the process of adoption and explaining the success or failure of the process.

  10. Discutindo a aprendizagem sob a perspectiva da teoria ator-rede Discussing learning under actor-network theory perspective

    Maria de Fátima Aranha de Queiroz e Melo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, discutimos as aprendizagens como um fenômeno dinâmico e multifacetado, produto de uma série de condições que emergem numa causalidade em redes, tomando o corpo enquanto uma instância mediadora que se afeta como um todo nas interações com o mundo. Apoiamo-nos no conceito de tradução defendido pela Teoria Ator-Rede, buscando seus desdobramentos no campo da Psicologia para entender a construção das identidades como apostas sempre provisórias das mesclas de materialidade e socialidade que vão se processando ao longo das biografias dos humanos. Valemo-nos dos princípios Stengers-Despret, atualizados por Latour, apontando para uma epistemologia política alternativa ao fazer uma reflexão sobre o ensinar, o aprender e construir conhecimento: enquanto um processo necessariamente vinculado e sintonizado com outros; enquanto uma empreitada de riscos que leva em conta, como estratégia de sobrevivência, as recalcitrâncias em humanos e não humanos; que oferece ocasiões para diferir num movimento em que todos os envolvidos se modificam pelos efeitos que causam reciprocamente uns nos outros; enquanto uma prática plural e inclusiva, tendo, finalmente, um mundo comum como o objetivo maior destas construções.In this paper, we pose learning as a dynamic and multifaceted phenomenon, which is the product of a series of conditions emerging from a networking causality, taking body as a mediating instance between subject and the world, affecting reciprocally each other. Based on concept of translation, defended by Actor-Network Theory, we searched their unfolding in Psychology field in order to understand the construction of identities as bets, always temporaries, of materiality and sociality processed mixtures, during human biography lifetime. We used Stengers-Despret principles, brought up to date for Latour, pointing to an alternative political epistemology reflecting on teaching, learning and knowledge construction: while a

  11. Diásporas y transiciones en la Teoría del Actor-Red Diasporas and transitions in Actor-Network Theory

    Blanca Callén

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Este texto es una presentación del monográfico Diásporas y transiciones en la teoría del actor-red. Sus páginas presentan las principales características de esta teoría, una manera de entender sus orígenes y una descripción de su presente estableciendo un paralelismo con la etnometodología. El texto finaliza con una valoración del estado de la teoría del actor-red en España y un comentario sobre un congreso que llevó el título de Presente y futuro de la teoría del actor-red y que constituye el embrión del presente monográfico. En el texto se defiende una tesis muy simple: la teoría del actor-red nace con cierta relevancia para el pensamiento social en el momento en que se difracta en una miríada de usos y aplicaciones diferentes. El principal corolario de este hecho también es muy sencillo: la gran diferencia entre la teoría del actor-red y otras propuestas del pensamiento social es su permanente estado de diáspora y transición.
    This paper is an introduction to the monograph titled Diasporas and Transitions in the Actor-Network Theory. Drawing a parallel with ethnomethodology, its pages present the main features of this theory, a way to figure out its origins and a description of its present. The text ends with a brief look at the state of art of actor-network theory in Spain and an appraisal of a meeting titled Present and Future of Actor-Network Theory, which is the origin of our monograph. In this paper we put forward a very simple idea: Actor-Network Theory was born with certain relevance in Social Sciences when it diffracted in a myriad of different uses and applications. The main corollary of such an idea is also straightforward: the very difference between Actor-Network Theory and other perspectives in Social Sciences resides in the permanent diaspora and transition of the former.

  12. Effective Location Management of Mobile Actors in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Nauman Aslam

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increasing availability of heterogeneous sensor networks that consist of a large number of resource constrained nodes (sensors and a small number of powerful resource rich nodes (actors. Such heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Actor Network (WSANs offer improvement of sensor networks' capacity/coverage, energy conservation and network lifetime. This paper investigates the case where sensors are organized into clusters and mobile actors are used for maintaining an energy efficient topology by periodically manipulating their geographical position. We present an elegant technique that allows actor nodes to find an optimal geographical location with respect to their associated cluster heads such that the overall energy consumed is minimized. The proposed technique includes a weighted cost function based on the residual energy levels of cluster heads that allows the mobile actor to optimally fine-tune its geographical location. We present simulation results that demonstrate a significant increase of network lifetime over the traditional cluster based WSN deployments.

  13. Multidimensionality of Actors in Business Networks: The Influence of Social Action in Pharmacy Networks in Finland

    Steinby, Camilla

    2009-01-01

    In the markets-as-networks approach business networks are conceived as dynamic actor structures, giving focus to exchange relationships and actors’ capabilities to control and co-ordinate activities and resources. Researchers have shared an understanding that actors’ actions are crucial for the development of business networks and for network dynamics. However, researchers have mainly studied firms as business actors and excluded individuals, although both firms and individuals can be see...

  14. Using Actor Network Theory to Understand Information Security Management

    Hedström, Karin; Dhillon, Gurpreet; Karlsson, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an Actor Network Theory (ANT) analysis of a computer hack at a large university. Computer hacks are usually addressed through technical means thus ensuring that perpetrators are unable to exploit system vulnerabilities. We however argue that a computer hack is a result of different events in a heterogeneous network embodying human and non-human actors. Hence a secure organizational environment is one that is characterized by 'stability' and 'social order', which is a resul...

  15. Effects of Actor-Network Theory in Accounting Research

    Justesen, Lise Nederland; Mouritsen, Jan

    2011-01-01

    of a critical literature review and discussion. Findings – Since the early 1990s, actor-network theory, particularly the work of Bruno Latour, has inspired accounting researchers and led to a number of innovative studies of accounting phenomena. In particular, Latour's book, Science in Action, has been......Purpose – This paper aims to discuss how Bruno Latour's version of actor-network theory has influenced accounting research. It also seeks to show that Latour's writings contain unexplored potential that may inspire future accounting research. Design/methodology/approach – The paper takes the form...... number of accounting papers that apply actor-network theory. A different sample might have given a somewhat different picture. Furthermore, it focuses on the influence of Latour's work and refrains from discussing how the writings of Michel Callon, John Law or other thinkers within the actor...

  16. The role of HR actors in knowledge networks

    Nada Zupan; Robert Kaše

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The paper aims to examine structural positions of individuals, especially HR actors (line managers and HR specialists) within relational networks for creating and sharing knowledge and to explore implications for designing and implementing HR practices in knowledge-intensive firms (KIF). Design/methodology/approach – This article used exploratory research design conducting a single case study of a KIF. Social network analysis (SNA) – network centrality measures and visualization too...

  17. Actor-networking ceta-sociality, or, what is sociological about contemporary whales?

    Blok, Anders

    2007-01-01

    to near-sacrosanct agent, is far from self-evident. This article advocates a change of theoretical perspective, inspired by the work of actor-network theorists Bruno Latour and Michel Callon. Rather than focussing solely on the ‘humanity' of human-animal relations, as does most of sociology, actor......-network theory (ANT) allows for the inclusion of non-human ‘actants' (like whales) into the fabric of sociality. In the ontology of ANT, sociality emerges as semiotic-material configurations of humans, animals and technologies. Starting from a critical review of the work by Adrian Franklin on growing...... ‘zoocentrism' in late modernity, the article proceeds by demonstrating how an ‘ecologised' ANT sociology contributes towards a better understanding of the emergence of whale ‘actor-hood' in global society. In broader terms, the article argues that as societies themselves ecologise by weaving ever...

  18. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with Watkins Q learning. They introduce deep Q networks (DQN) that learn to associate High dimensional inputs with Q values in order to produce discrete actions, allowing the system to learn complex strategi...

  19. Consolidated Deep Actor Critic Networks (DRAFT)

    Van der Laan, T.A.

    2015-01-01

    The works [Volodymyr et al. Playing atari with deep reinforcement learning. arXiv preprint arXiv:1312.5602, 2013.] and [Volodymyr et al. Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Nature, 518(7540):529–533, 2015.] have demonstrated the power of combining deep neural networks with Watki

  20. Actor-Network Theory and Tourism : Ordering, materiality and multiplicity

    Duim, van der V.R.; Ren, C.; Jóhannesson, G.T.

    2012-01-01

    The recent surfacing of actor-network theory (ANT) in tourism studies correlates to a rising interest in understanding tourism as emergent thorough relational practice connecting cultures, natures and technologies in multifarious ways. Despite the widespread application of ANT across the social scie

  1. Consumer culture theory (re)visits actor-network theory

    Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    The vocabulary and tactics developed by actor-network theory (ANT) can shed light on several ontological and epistemological challenges faced by consumer culture theory. Rather than providing ready-made theories or methods, our translation of ANT puts forward a series of questions and propositions...

  2. Actor-Network Theory as a sociotechnical lens to explore the relationship of nurses and technology in practice: methodological considerations for nursing research.

    Booth, Richard G; Andrusyszyn, Mary-Anne; Iwasiw, Carroll; Donelle, Lorie; Compeau, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Actor-Network Theory is a research lens that has gained popularity in the nursing and health sciences domains. The perspective allows a researcher to describe the interaction of actors (both human and non-human) within networked sociomaterial contexts, including complex practice environments where nurses and health technology operate. This study will describe Actor-Network Theory and provide methodological considerations for researchers who are interested in using this sociotechnical lens within nursing and informatics-related research. Considerations related to technology conceptualization, levels of analysis, and sampling procedures in Actor-Network Theory based research are addressed. Finally, implications for future nursing research within complex environments are highlighted. PMID:26531190

  3. Redes, atores e desenvolvimento rural: perspectivas na construção de uma abordagem relacional Networks, actors and rural development: perspectives in the construction of a relational approach

    Claudia Job Schmitt

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A construção de uma abordagem relacional, capaz de dar conta das complexas dinâmicas sociais que configuram o mundo rural contemporâneo, em sua diversidade, tem se constituído, sobretudo a partir da década de 80, como um desafio para as ciências sociais. Nessa direção, diferentes correntes interpretativas passaram a incorporar a noção de rede como ferramenta capaz de interligar atores, objetos, significados e práticas, no estudo dos processos de desenvolvimento rural. Este artigo busca explorar alguns dessas referências de análise, identificando elementos de convergência e pontos de descontinuidade entre diferentes perspectivas.The construction of a relational approach to the study of the complex social dynamics configuring the contemporary rural world stands, particularly after the 1980's, as a challenge for the social sciences. In this direction, different lines of interpretation incorporated the notion of network, as an analytical tool connecting actors, meanings, objects and practices, in the study of rural development processes. This article aims to explore some of these analytical frames of reference, identifying convergences and discontinuities among different perspectives.

  4. Getting to Know Your Job-A Social Actor Perspective on Using Information Technology

    Alf Westelius

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to develop an empirically grounded understanding of how newcomers learn to do their work and the role information systems play in this learning. Actor network theory views technology as an important actor. Information systems are built on and embody knowledge of the work and how to perform it. The influence of this actor depends on the other actors` ability to "translate" the capability of the technology into their own work setting. From a social constructionist perspective, it could be expected that the understanding and knowledge of the work is the result of mutual development of images in the group. However, this article builds on research showing that people working closely together can still hold radically different conceptions of their work. Three distinct understandings of work that are associated with different levels of competence and with different demands on the administrative information system are found. These different understandings of the work have implications both for training and for the development of information systems.

  5. Cognitively Central Actors and Their Personal Networks in an Energy Efficiency Training Program

    Hytönen, Kaisa; Palonen, Tuire; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to examine cognitively central actors and their personal networks in the emerging field of energy efficiency. Cognitively central actors are frequently sought for professional advice by other actors and, therefore, they are positioned in the middle of a social network. They often are important knowledge resources, especially in…

  6. Mining and Visualizing Research Networks using the Artefact-Actor-Network Approach

    Reinhardt, Wolfgang; Wilke, Adrian; Moi, Matthias; Drachsler, Hendrik; Sloep, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Reinhardt, W., Wilke, A., Moi, M., Drachsler, H., & Sloep, P. B. (2012). Mining and Visualizing Research Networks using the Artefact-Actor-Network Approach. In A. Abraham (Ed.), Computational Social Networks. Mining and Visualization (pp. 233-268). Springer. Also available at http://www.springer.com/computer/communication+networks/book/978-1-4471-4053-5

  7. Actor-Network Theory: sensitive terms and enduring tensions

    Mol, A.

    2010-01-01

    ANT is not a "theory", or, if it is, then a "theory" does not necessarily offer a coherent framework, but may as well be an adaptable, open repository. A list of terms. A set of sensitivities. If ANT is a theory, then a theory helps to tell cases, draw contrasts, articulate silent layers, turn questions upside down, focus on the unexpected, add to one’s sensitivities, propose new terms, and shift stories from one context to another. In this presentation of "Actor Network Theory" the terms "ac...

  8. AUTOMATIC RECOVERING NODE FAILURE IN WIRELESS SENSOR ACTOR NETWORKS

    C.A.Subasini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recovering node failure in wireless sensor actor network to identify the cutvertex and to meet to the node failure. The network consists of many nodes that are constructed into a tree structure. Once the tree has been constructed the shortest path is found by the Aodv protocol.If a node failure occurs in the shortest path then the cut-vertex could be recovered and the data can be securely passed on to the destination in an alternative route obtained from the routing table. Heartbeat messages acknowledge the node failure. The feasible path is not found by the protocol, and then the network is divided into two or many parts. The MLeDir algorithm is used to identify the network failure and disjoint block of the network. The disjoint block is identified by the MLeDir algorithm and to rectify the disjoint block of failure network nodes. MLeDir algorithm is moving only the respective nodes from source to destination.

  9. Ship Finds and Their Management as Actor Network

    Tuddenham, David Berg

    2012-12-01

    Ship finds in Norwegian waters that are more than 100 years old came under the jurisdiction of the Cultural Heritage Management (CHM) in 1963, when section 12a of the Norwegian Cultural Heritage Act was implemented. As a consequence, a functional division between land and sea was created where management objects receive different values depending on whether or not they belong to a ship. The objective of this paper is to review Norwegian CHM underwater policy, and discuss the creation of a new management object and its borders with the introduction of a section on ship finds specifically focusing on Actor Network Theory. It is argued that the understanding of the ship find and its belongings can not be understood as something based on inherent qualities to the management object. Instead this paper proposes to comprehend the ship find as a phenomenon held together within a heterogeneous network.

  10. Holding-based network of nations based on listed energy companies: An empirical study on two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors

    Li, Huajiao; Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Gao, Xiangyun; Yan, Lili

    2016-05-01

    Economic networks in the real world are not homogeneous; therefore, it is important to study economic networks with heterogeneous nodes and edges to simulate a real network more precisely. In this paper, we present an empirical study of the one-mode derivative holding-based network constructed by the two-mode affiliation network of two sets of actors using the data of worldwide listed energy companies and their shareholders. First, we identify the primitive relationship in the two-mode affiliation network of the two sets of actors. Then, we present the method used to construct the derivative network based on the shareholding relationship between two sets of actors and the affiliation relationship between actors and events. After constructing the derivative network, we analyze different topological features on the node level, edge level and entire network level and explain the meanings of the different values of the topological features combining the empirical data. This study is helpful for expanding the usage of complex networks to heterogeneous economic networks. For empirical research on the worldwide listed energy stock market, this study is useful for discovering the inner relationships between the nations and regions from a new perspective.

  11. The Interactive Constitution of Actors in Industrial Networks: The Case of the Norwegian City of Alesund

    Frans Prenkert

    2013-01-01

    The actor-dimension of the Activitiy-Resource-Actor (ARA)-model has not gained the same attention among Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) scholars as the resource and activity dimensions. However, the issue of what an actor actually is, in the sense of its interactive constitution, is important from an industrial marketing and purchasing perspective that emphasizes the interactive character of the business landscape. This is adressed in this paper. As a concequence of their interactiv...

  12. Reassembling the Social - An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory

    Latour, Bruno

    2005-09-01

    Reassembling the Social is a fundamental challenge from one of the world's leading social theorists to how we understand society and the 'social'. Bruno Latour's contention is that the world 'social' as used by Social Scientists has become laden with assumptions to the point where it has become misnomer. When the adjective is applied to a phenomenon, it is used to indicate a stabilized state of affairs, a bundle of ties that in due course may be used to account for another phenomenon. But Latour also finds the word used as if it described a type of material, in a comparable way to an adjective such as 'wooden' or 'steely'. Rather than simply indicating what is already assembled together, it is now used in a way that makes assumptions about the nature of what is assembled. It has become a word that designates two distinct things: a process of assembling: and a type of material, distinct from others. Latour shows why 'the social' cannot be thought of as a kind of material or domain, and disputes attempts to provide a 'social explanation' of other states of affairs. While these attempts have been productive (and probably necessary) in the past, the very success of the social sciences mean that they are largely no longer so. At the present stage it is no longer possible to inspect the precise constituents entering the social domain. Latour returns to the original meaning of 'the social' to redefine the notion and allow it to trace connections again. It will then be possible to resume the traditional goal of the social sciences, but using more refined tools. Drawing on his extensive work examining the 'assemblages' of nature, Latour finds it necessary to scrutinize thoroughly the exact content of what is assembled under the umbrella of Society. This approach, a 'sociology of associations' has become known as Actor-Network-Theory, and this book is an essential introduction both for those seeking to understand Actor-Network-Theory, or the ideas of one of its most

  13. Actor Network Theory Approach and its Application in Investigating Agricultural Climate Information System

    Maryam Sharifzadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Actor network theory as a qualitative approach to study complex social factors and process of socio-technical interaction provides new concepts and ideas to understand socio-technical nature of information systems. From the actor network theory viewpoint, agricultural climate information system is a network consisting of actors, actions and information related processes (production, transformation, storage, retrieval, integration, diffusion and utilization, control and management, and system mechanisms (interfaces and networks. Analysis of such systemsembody the identification of basic components and structure of the system (nodes –thedifferent sources of information production, extension, and users, and the understanding of how successfully the system works (interaction and links – in order to promote climate knowledge content and improve system performance to reach agricultural development. The present research attempted to introduce actor network theory as research framework based on network view of agricultural climate information system.

  14. Understanding Health Information Seeking from an Actor-Centric Perspective.

    Batchelor, Simon; Waldman, Linda; Bloom, Gerry; Rasheed, Sabrina; Scott, Nigel; Ahmed, Tanvir; Khan, Nazib Uz Zaman; Sharmin, Tamanna

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a conceptual approach for discussing health information seeking among poor households in Africa and Asia. This approach is part of a larger research endeavor aimed at understanding how health systems are adapting; with possibilities and constraints emerging. These health systems can be found in a context of the changing relationships between states, markets and civil society in low and middle income countries. The paper starts from an understanding of the health sector as a "health knowledge economy", organized to provide people with access to knowledge and advice. The use of the term "health knowledge economy" draws attention to the ways the health sector is part of a broader knowledge economy changing the way individuals and households obtain and use specialist information. The paper integrates an actor centric approach with the theory of planned behavior. It seeks to identify the actors engaged in the health knowledge economy as a precursor to longer term studies on the uptake of innovations integrating health services with mobile phones, commonly designated as mHealth, contributing to an understanding of the potential vulnerabilities of poor people, and highlighting possible dangers if providers of health information and advice are strongly influenced by interest groups. PMID:26184275

  15. Formal Specification and Validation of a Hybrid Connectivity Restoration Algorithm for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Nazir Ahmad Zafar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining inter-actor connectivity is extremely crucial in mission-critical applications of Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs, as actors have to quickly plan optimal coordinated responses to detected events. Failure of a critical actor partitions the inter-actor network into disjoint segments besides leaving a coverage hole, and thus hinders the network operation. This paper presents a Partitioning detection and Connectivity Restoration (PCR algorithm to tolerate critical actor failure. As part of pre-failure planning, PCR determines critical/non-critical actors based on localized information and designates each critical node with an appropriate backup (preferably non-critical. The pre-designated backup detects the failure of its primary actor and initiates a post-failure recovery process that may involve coordinated multi-actor relocation. To prove the correctness, we construct a formal specification of PCR using Z notation. We model WSAN topology as a dynamic graph and transform PCR to corresponding formal specification using Z notation. Formal specification is analyzed and validated using the Z Eves tool. Moreover, we simulate the specification to quantitatively analyze the efficiency of PCR. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of PCR and the results shown that it outperforms contemporary schemes found in the literature.

  16. A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Lee, Yunho; Lee, Soojin

    2009-01-01

    Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have bee...

  17. Clarifying the role of actor network theory (ANT) for the accounting of information system in Iran

    DEHKORDI, Bahareh Banitalebi; ROODPOSHTI, Fraydoon Rahnamay; NIKOMARAM, Hashem; TALEBNIA, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In this research is paid to clarify the role of actor network theory (ANT) for the accounting of information system in Iran with the aim of the determining of the human and non-human actors effective on the accounting information systems, the analysis of relationships between the human and non-human actors on the net and to determine the effective factors on the accounting information systems in terms of types of actors for the first time in Iran. In this research which is done in t...

  18. Trustful Relations : a Perspective on Trust in Actor Relations in Forestry

    Egestad, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    This work has proposed, exemplified and discussed an existential perspective on trust in actor relations in forestry. The background that has caused the inquiry into social relations is the changes that are taking place in forestry to

  19. Essays on actor models in exchange networks and social dilemmas

    Assen, Marcus Adrianus Leonardus Maria van

    2001-01-01

    A central problem in economics and sociology is that of explaining or predicting phenomena at the macro-level. One possible mode of explanation or prediction of macro-level phenomena entails examining processes internal to the system that involve actors at the micro-level. In this dissertation complexities were added to the model of the actor on the micro-level in order to better predict and understand two macro-level phenomena that receive a lot of attention in social science research in gen...

  20. Networks: An Economic Perspective

    Jackson, Matthew O; Zenou, Yves

    2016-01-01

    We discuss social network analysis from the perspective of economics. We organize the presentaion around the theme of externalities: the effects that one's behavior has on others' well-being. Externalities underlie the interdependencies that make networks interesting. We discuss network formation, as well as interactions between peoples' behaviors within a given network, and the implications in a variety of settings. Finally, we highlight some empirical challenges inherent in the statistical analysis of network-based data.

  1. A New Efficient Key Management Protocol for Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks

    Lee, Yunho

    2009-01-01

    Research on sensor networks has become much more active and is currently being applied to many different fields. However since sensor networks are limited to only collecting and reporting information regarding a certain event, and requires human intervention with that given information, it is often difficult to react to an event or situation immediately and proactively. To overcome this kind of limitation, Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks (WSANs) with immediate-response actor nodes have been proposed which adds greater mobility and activity to the existing sensor networks. Although WSANs share many common grounds with sensor networks, it is difficult to apply existing security technologies due to the fact that WSANs contain actor nodes that are resource-independent and mobile. Therefore, this research seeks to demonstrate ways to provide security, integrity, and authentication services for WSANs secure operation, by separating networks into hierarchical structure by each node's abilities and provides differ...

  2. Theorising big IT programmes in healthcare: strong structuration theory meets actor-network theory.

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Stones, Rob

    2010-05-01

    The UK National Health Service is grappling with various large and controversial IT programmes. We sought to develop a sharper theoretical perspective on the question "What happens - at macro-, meso- and micro-level - when government tries to modernise a health service with the help of big IT?" Using examples from data fragments at the micro-level of clinical work, we considered how structuration theory and actor-network theory (ANT) might be combined to inform empirical investigation. Giddens (1984) argued that social structures and human agency are recursively linked and co-evolve. ANT studies the relationships that link people and technologies in dynamic networks. It considers how discourses become inscribed in data structures and decision models of software, making certain network relations irreversible. Stones' (2005) strong structuration theory (SST) is a refinement of Giddens' work, systematically concerned with empirical research. It views human agents as linked in dynamic networks of position-practices. A quadripartite approcach considers [a] external social structures (conditions for action); [b] internal social structures (agents' capabilities and what they 'know' about the social world); [c] active agency and actions and [d] outcomes as they feed back on the position-practice network. In contrast to early structuration theory and ANT, SST insists on disciplined conceptual methodology and linking this with empirical evidence. In this paper, we adapt SST for the study of technology programmes, integrating elements from material interactionism and ANT. We argue, for example, that the position-practice network can be a socio-technical one in which technologies in conjunction with humans can be studied as 'actants'. Human agents, with their complex socio-cultural frames, are required to instantiate technology in social practices. Structurally relevant properties inscribed and embedded in technological artefacts constrain and enable human agency. The fortunes

  3. The Influence of the Actor Network on the Innovative Process of Transgenic Soybean in Rio Grande Do Sul, Brazil

    Doriana Daroit

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rio Grande do Sul was the first Brazilian state to plant genetically modified soybean. The sowing occurred in 1998 with Roundup Ready soybean seeds from Monsanto smuggled from Argentina. The aim of this study is to investigate how this innovative process of planting transgenic soybean came about in Rio Grande do Sul based on the actor network involved in the period 1998 to 2003. Although the innovative process has been discussed in the literature on innovation management since the work of Schumpeter, there is still no clear understanding of the issues of interests and power that involve the innovative process. Given this, from within the literature we have sought a perspective that would understand the innovative process as being political. We adopted Actor Network Theory as a base for the discussion of the primary and secondary data obtained regarding the controversy surrounding transgenic soybean in RS. The results point to the existence of two translation chains that contribute towards the formation of actor networks.

  4. Pessoas sem voz, redes indizíveis e grupos descartáveis: os limites da teoria do actor-rede Voiceless people, unnamable networks and disposable groups: the limits of actor-network theory

    José Manuel de Oliveira Mendes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo procede-se a uma reflexão crítica sobre a teoria do actor-rede de Michel Callon e Bruno Latour. Salienta-se a necessidade de incorporar no estudo do social as emoções e a imponderabilidade.Tendo como referência a análise de situações de catástrofe ou de acontecimentos extremos, propõe-se uma reflexão sobre o trabalho político que coloca fora das redes sociais, como irrecuperáveis e descartáveis, todos os que não criam ou não possuem valor na perspectiva hegemónica e que, por conseguinte, não são construídos como portadores de direitos sociais e políticos, tornando-se invisíveis e ausentes das análises convencionais propostas pela teoria do actor-rede.In this paper a critical analysis of Bruno Latour and Michel Callon’s actor-network theory is proposed. It is argued that studies about the social must incorporate emotions and imponderability. Focusing on the analysis of catastrophes and extreme events, a reflection on the political work that excludes from the social networks, as irretrievable and disposable, all those that do not create or do not carry value in the hegemonic perspective and, therefore, are not construed as having social and political rights is presented. These irretrievable and disposable persons and groups become invisible and absent in the conventional analyses proposed by actor-network theory.

  5. Hydraulic and marine energies. Market evolution and perspectives on the medium term for the sector actors

    In its first part, this report proposes an analysis of the hydraulic and marine energy sector and of its perspectives through the identification of its main activity determining factors, a presentation of the activity evolution until 2015, and a discussion of the process of concession renewal, and of the development of small hydroelectric projects. The second part presents and comments the financial performance of enterprises belonging to the sector, and the third part an overview of highlights and of development focuses of operators (increase of production capacities, concession renewals, international development, and diversification in other renewable energies). The third part reports an analysis of the sector context: structural brakes and drivers, hydraulic world market, hydraulic French market. The three last parts propose an analysis of the sector economic structure and of actors, data sheet for operators, equipment manufacturers and engineering companies, and economic and financial indicators for 192 operators which allow a comparative overview of these actors

  6. Illuminating the Dark Side of the Internet with Actor-Network Theory: An Integrative Review of Current Cybercrime Research

    Rocci Luppicini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime is a relatively new area of research within criminology and media studies. The purpose of this paper is to pull together current research scholarship at the intersection of Actor-Network Theory (ANT and cybercrime by addressing the following question: How does ANT apply to cybercrime research? A selective integrative review of cybercrime research utilizing ANT was conducted to examine recent developments and identify trends. The review draws on core research papers that span 2002 to 2013. Findings provided a strong indication of ANT’s role in key areas of current cybercrime, namely, cyber bullying, cyber theft, and cyber terrorism and cyber espionage. More specifically, ANT was applied within cyber criminology research to address complex problems involving human-technological interactions, advance alternative models and theoretical perspectives, compare ANT with existing models and theoretical perspectives, and leverage understanding of network influences on actors. Recommendations are provided to help optimize the application of ANT to cybercrime research and practice. This paper helps advance knowledge at the intersection of ANT and the study of cyber criminology.

  7. Using Actor-Network Theory to Understanding Virtual Community Networks of Older People Using the Internet

    Jerzy Lepa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Older people around the world are adopting the Internet at an increasing rate, and in the process are forming virtual community networks in a way that would not otherwise have been possible. Internet interactions by this group include e-mail, chat groups, community forums and discussion groups as well as the individual use of the Web for information purposes. Some of these virtual networks relate older people to other older people, while other networks span age groups as when, for instance, a grandmother communicates by e-mail with her grandchildren. But linking to the Internet is not always straightforward as family members, friends and the technology, along with other non-human actors, often intrude. This highlights the socio-technical nature of these networks and the need to investigate them in a way that allows this to be seen. To attempt an understanding of the formation and operation of virtual networks of older people, and the interactions involved, a socio-technical approach is required and this paper will attempt such an analysis based on research, in an Australian context, undertaken by the authors.

  8. Exchange Studies as Actor-Networks: Following Korean Exchange Students in Swedish Higher Education

    Ahn, Song-ee

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how Korean exchange students organized their studies during exchange programs in Swedish higher education. For most students, the programs became a disordered period in relation to their education. The value of exchange studies seems mainly to be extra-curricular. Drawing upon actor network theory, the article argues that the…

  9. Extended mind and after: socially extended mind and actor-network.

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2014-03-01

    The concept of extended mind has been impressively developed over the last 10 years by many philosophers and cognitive scientists. The extended mind thesis (EM) affirms that the mind is not simply ensconced inside the head, but extends to the whole system of brain-body-environment. Recently, some philosophers and psychologists try to adapt the idea of EM to the domain of social cognition research. Mind is socially extended (SEM). However, EM/SEM theory has problems to analyze the interactions among a subject and its surroundings with opposition, antagonism, or conflict; it also tends to think that the environment surrounding the subject is passive or static, and to neglect the power of non-human actants to direct and regulate the human subject. In these points, actor-network theory (ANT) proposed by Latour and Callon is more persuasive, while sharing some important ideas with EM/SEM theory. Actor-network is a hybrid community which is composed of a series of heterogeneous elements, animate and inanimate for a certain period of time. I shall conclude that EM/SEM could be best analyzed as a special case of actor-network. EM/SEM is a system which can be controlled by a human agent alone. In order to understand collective behavior, philosophy and psychology have to study the actor-network in which human individuals are situated. PMID:23975479

  10. Actor-critic models of the basal ganglia: new anatomical and computational perspectives.

    Joel, Daphna; Niv, Yael; Ruppin, Eytan

    2002-01-01

    A large number of computational models of information processing in the basal ganglia have been developed in recent years. Prominent in these are actor-critic models of basal ganglia functioning, which build on the strong resemblance between dopamine neuron activity and the temporal difference prediction error signal in the critic, and between dopamine-dependent long-term synaptic plasticity in the striatum and learning guided by a prediction error signal in the actor. We selectively review several actor-critic models of the basal ganglia with an emphasis on two important aspects: the way in which models of the critic reproduce the temporal dynamics of dopamine firing, and the extent to which models of the actor take into account known basal ganglia anatomy and physiology. To complement the efforts to relate basal ganglia mechanisms to reinforcement learning (RL), we introduce an alternative approach to modeling a critic network, which uses Evolutionary Computation techniques to 'evolve' an optimal RL mechanism, and relate the evolved mechanism to the basic model of the critic. We conclude our discussion of models of the critic by a critical discussion of the anatomical plausibility of implementations of a critic in basal ganglia circuitry, and conclude that such implementations build on assumptions that are inconsistent with the known anatomy of the basal ganglia. We return to the actor component of the actor-critic model, which is usually modeled at the striatal level with very little detail. We describe an alternative model of the basal ganglia which takes into account several important, and previously neglected, anatomical and physiological characteristics of basal ganglia-thalamocortical connectivity and suggests that the basal ganglia performs reinforcement-biased dimensionality reduction of cortical inputs. We further suggest that since such selective encoding may bias the representation at the level of the frontal cortex towards the selection of rewarded

  11. Management in Networks On multi-actor decision making

    de Bruijn, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Getting what you want - even if you are the boss - isn't always easy. Almost every organization, big or small, works among a network of competing interests. Whether it's governments pushing through policies, companies trying to increase profits, or even families deciding where to move house, rarely can decisions be made in isolation from competing interests both within the organization and outside it. In this accessible and straightforward account, Hans de Bruijn and Ernst ten Heuvelhof cast light on multi-stakeholder decision-making. Shunning simplistic model talk, they reveal the nuts and bo

  12. Editorial of the Special Issue on Human-Technology Interaction and Technology Adoption: Exploring Frameworks other than Actor-Network Theory

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Actor-network theory (ANT) has established itself as a valuable resource for the analysis of technology innovation and adoption. One of the main reasons for the success of the Innovation Translation Model (a specific instantiation of ANT) is the fact that it fits very well the emerging dominance of ecosystem or multiple stakeholder perspectives on technology development and technology adoption. At the same time the variety of technology adoption contexts would easily undermine the credibility...

  13. OUTDOOR RECREATION THROUGH THE PRISM OF ACTOR-NETWORK THEORY: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    Yohann Rech

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Actor-network theory (ANT shows how scientific and technical innovations may take the form of a socio-technical network, by the aggregation of humans and non-humans (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1989. This article reflects on the contributions and limits of ANT to examine a particular object of research presenting regular innovations: the outdoor recreation. Firstly, the integration of non-humans to the analysis (Latour, 2006 is relevant in the study of nature sports because physical entities transform the action and involve specific associations. Then it is a particular epistemological positioning that shakes the dichotomies up and givesimportance to the reflexive activity of actors. Finally, understanding the development of collectives is useful for the study of nature sports. The construction of a social coexistence between different activities (sports activities and other activities strongly questions the political transformation of contemporary democracy, including the establishment of a participatory management.

  14. American Long-Distance Locomobility and the Spaces of Actor-Network Theory

    Michael Minn

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Much of the discourse surrounding national intercity passenger rail service in the United States revolves around why it has lagged so far behind European and Asian counterparts. However, a more interesting question might be why it has survived despite competition from faster, more nimble transport modes, discriminatory public policy, and the ascension of neoliberal discourse hostile to public endeavor. This paper uses the concept of durability in actor-network theory to offer some insights into how the system has achieved a remarkable but problematic stability, and how that durability relates to an imagined role for national intercity passenger rail in a future of increasingly constrained material resources. This paper also demonstrates the application of actor-network theory (ANT in a way that can serve as a useful introduction to and template for the use of that methodology.

  15. Monitoring communication outbreaks among an unknown team of actors in dynamic networks

    Sparks, Ross

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the detection of communication outbreaks among a small team of actors in time-varying networks. We propose monitoring plans for known and unknown teams based on generalizations of the exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) statistic. For unknown teams, we propose an efficient neighborhood-based search to estimate a collection of candidate teams. This procedure dramatically reduces the computational complexity of an exhaustive search. Our procedure consists of two steps: communication counts between actors are first smoothed using a multivariate EWMA strategy. Densely connected teams are identified as candidates using a neighborhood search approach. These candidate teams are then monitored using a surveillance plan derived from a generalized EWMA statistic. Monitoring plans are established for collaborative teams, teams with a dominant leader, as well as for global outbreaks. We consider weighted heterogeneous dynamic networks, where the expected communication count between each p...

  16. Symmetrical twins: On the relationship between Actor-Network theory and the sociology of critical capacities

    Guggenheim, Michael; Pottast, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the elective affinities between Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and the sociology of critical capacities. It argues that these two research programmes can be understood as symmetrical twins. We show the extent to which the exchange between Bruno Latour and Luc Boltanski has influenced their respective theoretical developments. Three strong encounters between the twin research programmes may be distinguished. The first encounter concerns explanations for social change. The sec...

  17. Restructuring and territorial governance: the contribution of actor-network theory

    Antoine, Mélanie; Dalon, Gelica

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to shed light, in an exploratory manner, on the role of the choices made in terms of governance in reorganisation projects initiated on territories affected by companies' restructuring. Actor-network theory is used to analyse the dynamics present on three territories concerned by the restructuring of a same company. It allows to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the territorial reorganisation's modes of management and to highlight their decisive influence on th...

  18. Bruno Latour, actor-networks, and the critique of critical sociology

    Spasić Ivana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the theoretical opus of Bruno Latour and his treatment of the concept of critique. In the first section "actor-network theory" is presented through its key notions (actant, network, translation, associations together with Latour’s theory of modernity. In the second section various aspects of the relation between Latour and critique are discussed - first his own criticism of others (standard sociology and especially "critical", i.e. Bourdieu’s sociology, then the criticisms aimed at his work, to conclude with the political ambivalences of Latour’s attempt to develop an "acritical" social theory. .

  19. Reputation management in online social networks for governmental actors: opportunities and threats

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the role of social networks as factors of restoring and maintaining balance in a system of communication marked of conflicts and biased attitudes. Online social networks offer for governmental actors the possibility to interact in a two-way model with publics, transforming “politics” in “policies” by stimulating feed-back and participation. The data was collected from an empirical case, a project of reputation management for a minister in a former government in a South-Eas...

  20. Opening up the solar box: Cultural resource management and actor network theory in solar energy projects in the Mojave Desert

    Gorrie, Bryan F.

    This project considers the ways that Actor-Network Theory (ANT) can be brought to bear upon Cultural Resource Management (CRM) practices on renewable energy projects. ANT is a way of making inquiry into scientific knowledge practices and as CRM is intended to preserve environmental, historic, and prehistoric resources, it necessarily involves certain kinds of knowledge generation about regions in which projects are being developed. Because the practice of CRM is complex, involving a range of actors from developers to biologists, native peoples to academics, private landholders to environmental and cultural activists, it is imperative to account for the interests of all stakeholders and to resist devolving into the polemical relations of winners and losers, good and bad participants, or simple situations of right and wrong. This project intends to account for the "matters of concern" of various actors, both primary and secondary, by examining the case study of a single solar installation project in the Mojave Desert. A theoretical description of ANT is provided at the beginning and the concerns of this theory are brought to bear upon the case study project through describing the project, discussing the laws governing CRM on federal lands and in the state of California, and providing the points of view of various interviewees who worked directly or indirectly on various aspects of CRM for the solar project. The creators of ANT claim that it is not a methodology but it does speak to ethnomethodologies in that it insists that there is always something more to learn from inquiring into and describing any given situation. These descriptions avoid generalizations, providing instead various points of entry, from diverse perspectives to the project. There is an invitation to avoid assuming that one knows all there is to know about a given situation and to choose instead to continue investigating and thus give voice to the more obscure, often marginalized, voices in the

  1. Social Capital In Networks Of Software SME's: A Relationship Value Perspective

    Westerlund, M.; Svahn, S

    2005-01-01

    Utilizing theories on social capital, business networks and relationship value, we explore the aspects that provide value in relationships with different actors in the software industry. IVe take the focal perspective of a software vendor and classify its relationships with actors into three distinctive types bv the function in their valuecreating network. The study is guided bv the premise that some relationships related to supply, distribution or supporting the business are more important t...

  2. Worlds Apart: A Social Theoretical Exploration of Local Networks, Natural Actors, and Practitioners of Rural Development in Southern Honduras

    Brian J. Gareau

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the importance of incorporating the socioecological realities of alternative networks into analyses of rural development. Cultural theory is examined, which provides a base upon which rural development can identify difference in worldviews based on difference in sociological conditions and environmental phenomena. Actor-oriented theory problematizes the ideal types of cultural theory, providing a means of give-and-take between actors’ worldviews of different networks. Ac...

  3. Validation of networks derived from snowball sampling of municipal science education actors

    von der Fehr, Ane; Sølberg, Jan; Bruun, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) has been used in many educational studies in the past decade, but what these studies have in common is that the populations in question in most cases are defined and known to the researchers studying the networks. Snowball sampling is an SNA methodology most often used...... to study hidden populations, for example, groups of homosexual people, drug users or people with sexually transmitted diseases. By use of a snowball sampling approach, this study mapped municipal social networks of educational actors, who were otherwise hidden to the researchers. Subsequently, the...... populations in educational settings, but also that qualitative studies are needed in order to interpret the networks in real-life contexts....

  4. The social value of biodiversity and ecosystem services from the perspectives of different social actors

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast literature is now available on ecosystem services (ES, their potential as a tool for analyzing intertwined processes of ecological and social change, and their monetary valuation. Much less is known about the social value of different ES for different social actors (SA, and their links with specific components of biodiversity. We unpack the social aspects of an interdisciplinary and multi-SA methodology that allows us to assess how different SA perceive and value different ES, and how they associate them with different components of biodiversity, ecological attributes, and ecosystem types. We apply the methodology to a study area in the Gran Chaco region of South America, presenting original social-ecological information from the field. Being affected by the rapid and widespread expansion of agribusiness over the woody ecosystems of southern South America, this location provides a policy-relevant context in which to test our approach. We identified six major ecosystem types and five relevant SA. We carried out 163 individual in-depth interviews and ran seven single-actor focus groups. We identified 116 ES, which were then aggregated into 22 more general categories. Although all SA perceived all ecosystem types as multifunctional, they showed markedly different perceptions of and interests in the ES provided by them. Subsistence farmers and extension officers valued a large number of ES primarily provided by the most pristine ecosystems. Members of conservation agencies and policymakers also identified a wide range of ES, spanning all ecosystem types. However, large farmers and cattle ranchers recognized a dependency on only a small number of ES. Therefore, the rapid expansion of agribusiness occurring in this region is a threat to a large number of ES considered valuable by a wide range of SA. Without necessarily having to resort to monetary valuation, our methodology provides a rigorous quantitative-qualitative way to compare the

  5. A spiking neural network model of an actor-critic learning agent.

    Potjans, Wiebke; Morrison, Abigail; Diesmann, Markus

    2009-02-01

    The ability to adapt behavior to maximize reward as a result of interactions with the environment is crucial for the survival of any higher organism. In the framework of reinforcement learning, temporal-difference learning algorithms provide an effective strategy for such goal-directed adaptation, but it is unclear to what extent these algorithms are compatible with neural computation. In this article, we present a spiking neural network model that implements actor-critic temporal-difference learning by combining local plasticity rules with a global reward signal. The network is capable of solving a nontrivial gridworld task with sparse rewards. We derive a quantitative mapping of plasticity parameters and synaptic weights to the corresponding variables in the standard algorithmic formulation and demonstrate that the network learns with a similar speed to its discrete time counterpart and attains the same equilibrium performance. PMID:19196231

  6. Actors and networks in resource conflict resolution under climate change in rural Kenya

    Ngaruiya, Grace W.; Scheffran, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    The change from consensual decision-making arrangements into centralized hierarchical chieftaincy schemes through colonization disrupted many rural conflict resolution mechanisms in Africa. In addition, climate change impacts on land use have introduced additional socio-ecological factors that complicate rural conflict dynamics. Despite the current urgent need for conflict-sensitive adaptation, resolution efficiency of these fused rural institutions has hardly been documented. In this context, we analyse the Loitoktok network for implemented resource conflict resolution structures and identify potential actors to guide conflict-sensitive adaptation. This is based on social network data and processes that are collected using the saturation sampling technique to analyse mechanisms of brokerage. We find that there are three different forms of fused conflict resolution arrangements that integrate traditional institutions and private investors in the community. To effectively implement conflict-sensitive adaptation, we recommend the extension officers, the council of elders, local chiefs and private investors as potential conduits of knowledge in rural areas. In conclusion, efficiency of these fused conflict resolution institutions is aided by the presence of holistic resource management policies and diversification in conflict resolution actors and networks.

  7. Disconnection of the ‘organic’ food production from the ‘organic network’? - A Danish actor network case study

    Noe, Egon

    2002-01-01

    The Danish case of organic agriculture is generally regarded as a success story. But the enrolment of new actors and the growing economic interest may lead to a change of the ideological foundation of organic agriculture. The scope of this paper is to explore what happens to organic agriculture through the process of dissemination of the organic mode of farming and enrolment of conventional farmers into organic farming from an Actor Network Theory (ANT) approach. This is explored through an i...

  8. Reputation management in online social networks for governmental actors: opportunities and threats

    Diana-Maria CISMARU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of social networks as factors of restoring and maintaining balance in a system of communication marked of conflicts and biased attitudes. Online social networks offer for governmental actors the possibility to interact in a two-way model with publics, transforming “politics” in “policies” by stimulating feed-back and participation. The data was collected from an empirical case, a project of reputation management for a minister in a former government in a South-Eastern European country. Findings show that social networks’ communication might have a strong internal and external impact, but the extent of the impact depends on several independent factors, as the previous reputation or the media agenda.

  9. Complex networks an algorithmic perspective

    Erciyes, Kayhan

    2014-01-01

    Network science is a rapidly emerging field of study that encompasses mathematics, computer science, physics, and engineering. A key issue in the study of complex networks is to understand the collective behavior of the various elements of these networks.Although the results from graph theory have proven to be powerful in investigating the structures of complex networks, few books focus on the algorithmic aspects of complex network analysis. Filling this need, Complex Networks: An Algorithmic Perspective supplies the basic theoretical algorithmic and graph theoretic knowledge needed by every r

  10. Contracting private sector providers for public sector health services in Jalisco, Mexico: perspectives of system actors

    González Luz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Contracting out health services is a strategy that many health systems in the developing world are following, despite the lack of decisive evidence that this is the best way to improve quality, increase efficiency and expand coverage. A large body of literature has appeared in recent years focusing on the results of several contracting strategies, but very few papers have addressed aspects of the managerial process and how this can affect results. Case description This paper describes and analyses the perceptions and opinions of managers and workers about the benefits and challenges of the contracting model that has been in place for almost 10 years in the State of Jalisco, Mexico. Both qualitative and quantitative information was collected. An open-ended questionnaire was used to obtain information from a group of managers, while information provided by a self-selected group of workers was collected via a closed-ended questionnaire. The analysis contrasted the information obtained from each source. Discussion and Evaluation Findings show that perceptions of managers and workers vary for most of the items studied. For managers the model has been a success, as it has allowed for expansion of coverage based on a cost-effective strategy, while for workers the model also possesses positive elements but fails to provide fair labour relationships, which negatively affects their performance. Conclusion Perspectives of the two main groups of actors in Jalisco's contracting model are important in the design and adjustment of an adequate contracting model that includes managerial elements to give incentives to worker performance, a key element necessary to achieve the model's ultimate objectives. Lessons learnt from this study could be relevant for the experience of contracting models in other developing countries.

  11. Multirate parallel distributed compensation of a cluster in wireless sensor and actor networks

    Yang, Chun-xi; Huang, Ling-yun; Zhang, Hao; Hua, Wang

    2016-01-01

    The stabilisation problem for one of the clusters with bounded multiple random time delays and packet dropouts in wireless sensor and actor networks is investigated in this paper. A new multirate switching model is constructed to describe the feature of this single input multiple output linear system. According to the difficulty of controller design under multi-constraints in multirate switching model, this model can be converted to a Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. By designing a multirate parallel distributed compensation, a sufficient condition is established to ensure this closed-loop fuzzy control system to be globally exponentially stable. The solution of the multirate parallel distributed compensation gains can be obtained by solving an auxiliary convex optimisation problem. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show, compared with solving switching controller, multirate parallel distributed compensation can be obtained easily. Furthermore, it has stronger robust stability than arbitrary switching controller and single-rate parallel distributed compensation under the same conditions.

  12. Ethics in actor networks, or: what Latour could learn from Darwin and Dewey.

    Waelbers, Katinka; Dorstewitz, Philipp

    2014-03-01

    In contemporary Science, Technology and Society (STS) studies, Bruno Latour's Actor Network Theory (ANT) is often used to study how social change arises from interaction between people and technologies. Though Latour's approach is rich in the sense of enabling scholars to appreciate the complexity of many relevant technological, environmental, and social factors in their studies, the approach is poor from an ethical point of view: the doings of things and people are couched in one and the same behaviorist (third person) vocabulary without giving due recognition to the ethical relevance of human intelligence, sympathy and reflection in making responsible choices. This article argues that two other naturalist projects, the non-teleological virtue ethics of Charles Darwin and the pragmatist instrumentalism of John Dewey can enrich ANT-based STS studies, both, in a descriptive and in a normative sense. PMID:23371512

  13. On Efficient Link Recommendation in Social Networks Using Actor-Fact Matrices

    Michał Ciesielczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Link recommendation is a popular research subject in the field of social network analysis and mining. Often, the main emphasis is put on the development of new recommendation algorithms, semantic enhancements to existing solutions, design of new similarity measures, and so forth. However, relatively little scientific attention has been paid to the impact that various data representation models have on the performance of recommendation algorithms. And by performance we do not mean the time or memory efficiency of algorithms, but the precision and recall of recommender systems. Our recent findings unanimously show that the choice of network representation model has an important and measurable impact on the quality of recommendations. In this paper we argue that the computation quality of link recommendation algorithms depends significantly on the social network representation and we advocate the use of actor-fact matrix as the best alternative. We verify our findings using several state-of-the-art link recommendation algorithms, such as SVD, RSVD, and RRI using both single-relation and multirelation dataset.

  14. Modeling and Analyzing Gene Co-Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Actor-Semiotic Networks and Centrality Signatures

    David C.Y. Fung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is currently the fifth most common malignancy and the third most common cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Because of its high prevalence in developing nations, there have been numerous efforts made in the molecular characterization of primary HCC. However, a better understanding into the pathology of HCC required software-assisted network modeling and analysis. In this paper, the author presented his first attempt in exploring the biological implication of gene co-expression in HCC using actor-semiotic network modeling and analysis. The network was first constructed by integrating inter-actor relationships, e.g. gene co-expression, microRNA-to-gene, and protein interactions, with semiotic relationships, e.g. gene-to-Gene Ontology Process. Topological features that are highly discriminative of the HCC phenotype were identified by visual inspection. Finally, the author devised a graph signature- based analysis method to supplement the network exploration.

  15. Research Note: The consequences of different methods for handling missing network data in Stochastic Actor Based Models

    Hipp, John R.; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T.; Jose, Rupa; Lakon, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Although stochastic actor based models (e.g., as implemented in the SIENA software program) are growing in popularity as a technique for estimating longitudinal network data, a relatively understudied issue is the consequence of missing network data for longitudinal analysis. We explore this issue in our research note by utilizing data from four schools in an existing dataset (the AddHealth dataset) over three time points, assessing the substantive consequences of using four different strateg...

  16. Workplace bullying as sensemaking: An analysis of target and actor perspectives on initial hostile interactions

    Zábrodská, Kateřina; Ellwood, C.; Zaemdaar, S.; Mudrák, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2016), s. 136-157. ISSN 1475-9551 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP407/10/P146; GA ČR GA14-02098S Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : workplace bullying * workplace hostility * sensemaking * target * actor * collective biography * stories Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.167, year: 2014

  17. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  18. Illuminating the Dark Side of the Internet with Actor-Network Theory: An Integrative Review of Current Cybercrime Research

    Rocci Luppicini

    2014-01-01

    Cybercrime is a relatively new area of research within criminology and media studies. The purpose of this paper is to pull together current research scholarship at the intersection of Actor-Network Theory (ANT) and cybercrime by addressing the following question: How does ANT apply to cybercrime research? A selective integrative review of cybercrime research utilizing ANT was conducted to examine recent developments and identify trends. The review draws on core research papers that span 2002 ...

  19. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances’ in research on mobile learning

    Wright, Steve; Parchoma, Gale

    2011-01-01

    How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-network...

  20. Connecting to Global Production Networks: Challenges for Regional Actors in Northern Norway

    Trond Nilsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, Northern Norway has been perceived as a land of opportunity. Announcements of offshore oil and gas discoveries off the coast of Finnmark have contributed to increased market activity in related sectors like service and construction. However, regional firms continue to score at the bottom of innovation indexes and seldom compete on international markets. Based on in-depth interviews with representatives from key businesses in three sectors in Northern Norway, we examine the bottlenecks that have prevented these firms from gaining new market positions through the interplay of these regional firms and agencies with the Global Production Network (GPN. We adopt the concept of “strategic coupling” and explore whether an actor approach can contribute to an improved understanding of this relationship. The paper demonstrates that regional strategies and public policy differ between the sectors. Public policy is important for regional firms within the petroleum sector. However, the funds available for regional firms continue to be limited due to the size and relevance of the measures. In the construction sector, public policy instruments are important, but not sufficiently adapted to the challenges these firms face. While the petroleum sector receives support and backing from regional agencies in order to connect to GPN, the wind power sector is actively hindered by the same agencies. The former have the opportunity to take part in new regional path creation; the latter have experienced a lack of strategic cooperation and face the risk of reducing strategic couplings to GPN, leading to path dependent processes that lock these firms into traditional and low-tech sectors.

  1. Editorial of the Special Issue on Human-Technology Interaction and Technology Adoption: Exploring Frameworks other than Actor-Network Theory

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    Actor-network theory (ANT) has established itself as a valuable resource for the analysis of technology innovation and adoption. One of the main reasons for the success of the Innovation Translation Model (a specific instantiation of ANT) is the fact that it fits very well the emerging dominance of...... ecosystem or multiple stakeholder perspectives on technology development and technology adoption. At the same time the variety of technology adoption contexts would easily undermine the credibility of any methodology pretending to possess the ability to adequately address all possible contexts and research...... challenges. This is why in this special issue we have focused on exploring, in parallel to ANT, other approaches that have also proven valuable in studying technology adoption and human-technology interaction. Some of these approaches share significant common ground with ANT. They also diverge in some...

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility in Garment Sourcing Networks: Factory Management Perspectives on Ethical Trade in Sri Lanka

    Perry, P.; Wood, SM; Fernie, J

    2014-01-01

    With complex buyer-driven global production networks and a labour-intensive manufacturing process, the fashion industry has become a focal point for debates on the social responsibility of business. Utilising an interview methodology with influential actors from seven export garment manufacturers in Sri Lanka, we explore the situated knowledge at one nodal point of the production network. We conceptualise factory management perspectives on the implementation of corporate social responsibility...

  3. Network structures as a model of interaction between state and non-state actors in EU foreign policy

    Sinegubov Alexey Leonidovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the role of network structures in EU foreign policy. The role of networks in functioning of EU is analyzed as the model of interaction between state and non-state actors in contemporary world politics. Some studies, including the project of National Intelligence Council of USA, demonstrate that there is a tendency of growing influence of non-state actors. The model of interaction that has developed in EU can be considered as a model of the future. That’s why the type of force used by EU is called “post-modern”. This model is conductive to wide use of “soft power” and some of its variants including “normative” and “network” power. Quasi-federal character of EU’s structure, whiсh is characterized by many intersecting and delegated sovereign functions, is a reason of appearance of the analyzed model. Network practices and network technologies are widely used in the process of developing and realization of EU’s policy on three levels: 1 development and realization of EU’s general policy; 2 the policy of EU’s enlargement and deeper integration of the newcomers into Europe’s life; 3 the neighborhood policy and “Europeanization” of neighboring to EU states that cannot become EU members. The last dimension of EU policy causes a conflict with Russia, which makes this analysis politically relevant.

  4. Tourism Chains and Pro-Poor Tourism Development: An Actor-Network Analysis of a Pilot Project in Costa Rica

    Duim, van der, V.R.; Caalders, J.D.A.D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses a pilot project in Costa Rica aimed to examine and improve the market linkages of 24 small-scale tourism initiatives to tour operators in Costa Rica and the Netherlands. It links pro-poor tourism and the concept of tourism chain to actor-network theory. The analysis shows that the tangible results in terms of pro-poor tourism of the project itself were meagre, as, initially, only three and later only one out of 24 projects was included in the tourism chain. However, the an...

  5. Positive Development, Sense of Belonging, and Support of Peers among Early Adolescents: Perspectives of Different Actors

    Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Trusting relationships at school and within other social networks emerge as protective factors that are crucial to the positive development of early adolescents. School is one of the critical environments where they can develop a sense of belonging. This study involved 20 qualitative interviews with school staff and youth workers recruited from…

  6. Teachers' professional development in a community: A study of the central actors, their networks and web-based learning

    Jiri Lallimo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article was to study teachers' professional development related to web-based learning in the context of the teacher community. The object was to learn in what kind of networks teachers share the knowledge of web-based learning and what are the factors in the community that support or challenge teachers professional development of web-based learning. The findings of the study revealed that there are teachers who are especially active, called the central actors in this study, in the teacher community who collaborate and share knowledge of web-based learning. These central actors share both technical and pedagogical knowledge of web-based learning in networks that include both internal and external relations in the community and involve people, artefacts and a variety of media. Furthermore, the central actors appear to bridge different fields of teaching expertise in their community.According to the central actors' experiences the important factors that support teachers' professional development of web-based learning in the community are; the possibility to learn from colleagues and from everyday working practices, an emotionally safe atmosphere, the leader's personal support and community-level commitment. Also, the flexibility in work planning, challenging pupils, shared lessons with colleagues, training events in an authentic work environment and colleagues' professionalism are considered meaningful for professional development. As challenges, the knowledge sharing of web-based learning in the community needs mutual interests, transactive memory, time and facilities, peer support, a safe atmosphere and meaningful pedagogical practices.On the basis of the findings of the study it is suggested that by intensive collaboration related to web-based learning it may be possible to break the boundaries of individual teachership and create such sociocultural activities which support collaborative professional development in the teacher

  7. Network anomaly detection a machine learning perspective

    Bhattacharyya, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid rise in the ubiquity and sophistication of Internet technology and the accompanying growth in the number of network attacks, network intrusion detection has become increasingly important. Anomaly-based network intrusion detection refers to finding exceptional or nonconforming patterns in network traffic data compared to normal behavior. Finding these anomalies has extensive applications in areas such as cyber security, credit card and insurance fraud detection, and military surveillance for enemy activities. Network Anomaly Detection: A Machine Learning Perspective presents mach

  8. Learning about a fish from an ANT: actor network theory and science education in the postgenomic era

    Pierce, Clayton

    2015-03-01

    This article uses actor network theory (ANT) to develop a more appropriate model of scientific literacy for students, teachers, and citizens in a society increasingly populated with biotechnological and bioscientific nonhumans. In so doing, I take the recent debate surrounding the first genetically engineered animal food product under review by the FDA, AquaBounty Technologies' AquAdvantage® salmon, as a vehicle for exploring the ways in which the biosciences have fundamentally altered the boundary between nature and culture and thus the way the public understands both. In response to the new challenges of a postgenomic society, I outline three frameworks for using ANT literacies in classroom settings. Each frame, I argue, is foundational to the development of a scientific literacy that can trace and map actors involved in controversies such as the AquAdvantage® salmon. In examining these frames I follow the actor of a salmon through an environmental history lens, the technoscientific literacy operating in AquaBounty's FDA application and the National Academies new science education framework, and finally to a model of democracy rooted in an ethic of the common. The ultimate claim of this article is that until science education (and education in general) can begin to include nonhumans such as the AquAdvantage® salmon as part of a common political framework, students, educators, and community members will continue to be at the mercy of experts and corporate stakeholders for defining the terms in which people heal, feed, and educate themselves now and in the future.

  9. Networks in Action: New Actors and Practices in Education Policy in Brazil

    Shiroma, Eneida Oto

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of networks in the policy-making process in education and discusses the potential of network analysis as an analytical tool for education policy research. Drawing on publically available data from personal or institutional websites, this paper reports the findings from research carried out between 2005 and 2011.…

  10. Actor-network procedures: Modeling multi-factor authentication, device pairing, social interactions

    Pavlovic, Dusko

    2011-01-01

    As computation spreads from computers to networks of computers, and migrates into cyberspace, it ceases to be globally programmable, but it remains programmable indirectly: network computations cannot be controlled, but they can be steered by local constraints on network nodes. The tasks of "programming" global behaviors through local constraints belong to the area of security. The "program particles" that assure that a system of local interactions leads towards some desired global goals are called security protocols. As computation spreads beyond cyberspace, into physical and social spaces, new security tasks and problems arise. As networks are extended by physical sensors and controllers, including the humans, and interlaced with social networks, the engineering concepts and techniques of computer security blend with the social processes of security. These new connectors for computational and social software require a new "discipline of programming" of global behaviors through local constraints. Since the n...

  11. Collaboration and entanglement: An actor-network theory analysis of team-based intraprofessional care for patients with advanced heart failure.

    McDougall, A; Goldszmidt, M; Kinsella, E A; Smith, S; Lingard, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite calls for more interprofessional and intraprofessional team-based approaches in healthcare, we lack sufficient understanding of how this happens in the context of patient care teams. This multi-perspective, team-based interview study examined how medical teams negotiated collaborative tensions. From 2011 to 2013, 50 patients across five sites in three Canadian provinces were interviewed about their care experiences and were asked to identify members of their health care teams. Patient-identified team members were subsequently interviewed to form 50 "Team Sampling Units" (TSUs), consisting of 209 interviews with patients, caregivers and healthcare providers. Results are gathered from a focused analysis of 13 TSUs where intraprofessional collaborative tensions involved treating fluid overload, or edema, a common HF symptom. Drawing on actor-network theory (ANT), the analysis focused on intraprofessional collaboration between specialty care teams in cardiology and nephrology. The study found that despite a shared narrative of common purpose between cardiology teams and nephrology teams, fluid management tools and techniques formed sites of collaborative tension. In particular, care activities involved asynchronous clinical interpretations, geographically distributed specialist care, fragmented forms of communication, and uncertainty due to clinical complexity. Teams 'disentangled' fluid in order to focus on its physiological function and mobilisation. Teams also used distinct 'framings' of fluid management that created perceived collaborative tensions. This study advances collaborative entanglement as a conceptual framework for understanding, teaching, and potentially ameliorating some of the tensions that manifest during intraprofessional care for patients with complex, chronic disease. PMID:27490299

  12. Representing humans in system security models: An actor-network approach

    Pieters, Wolter

    2011-01-01

    System models to assess the vulnerability of information systems to security threats typically represent a physical infrastructure (buildings) and a digital infrastructure (computers and networks), in combination with an attacker traversing the system while acquiring credentials. Other humans are ge

  13. Visualization of Evolving Social Networks using Actor-Level and Community-Level Trajectories

    Márcia Oliveira; João Gama

    2012-01-01

    In recent years we witnessed an impressive advance in the social networks field, which became a "hot" topic and a focus of considerable attention. Also, the development of methods that focus on the analysis and understanding of the evolution of data are gaining momentum. In this paper we present an approach to visualize the evolution of dynamic social networks by using Tucker decomposition and the concept of temporal trajectory. Our visualization strategy is based on the definition of traject...

  14. Networks and Networking - A Statistical Physics Perspective

    Yeung, Chi Ho

    2013-01-01

    Efficient networking in communication systems, both wired and wireless, has a substantial economic and societal impact. While communication networks become increasingly more complex, the ever increasing demand for higher transmission volume, quality of service, robustness and reduced energy consumption require new tools and methods to meet these conflicting pressures. The new methodology should serve for gaining better understanding of the properties of these networks at the macroscopic level, as well as for the development of new principled optimization and management algorithms at the microscopic level. Methods of statistical physics seem the best place to start the search for new approaches as they have been developed specifically to deal with non-linear large scale systems. This review aims at presenting an overview of tools that have been developed within the statistical physics community and that can be readily applied to address the emerging problems in networking. As network properties are at the hear...

  15. The use of social network analysis in innovation studies: Mapping actors and technologies

    Valk, T. van der; Gijsbers, G.

    2010-01-01

    The utilization of social network analysis (SNA) in policy development and evaluation is still very limited. The aim of this paper is to identify research themes in innovation that may benefit from the application of SNA, and to examine implications for management and policy that are derived from th

  16. Simposio Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions"

    Rosa Borge

    2008-01-01

    Participación en el Simposio Internacional "Changing Politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions", que tuvo lugar en la Universidad de Florencia los días 5 y 6 de octubre del 2007.

  17. An actor-based model of social network influence on adolescent body size, screen time, and playing sports.

    David A Shoham

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that obesity may be "contagious" between individuals in social networks. Social contagion (influence, however, may not be identifiable using traditional statistical approaches because they cannot distinguish contagion from homophily (the propensity for individuals to select friends who are similar to themselves or from shared environmental influences. In this paper, we apply the stochastic actor-based model (SABM framework developed by Snijders and colleagues to data on adolescent body mass index (BMI, screen time, and playing active sports. Our primary hypothesis was that social influences on adolescent body size and related behaviors are independent of friend selection. Employing the SABM, we simultaneously modeled network dynamics (friendship selection based on homophily and structural characteristics of the network and social influence. We focused on the 2 largest schools in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health and held the school environment constant by examining the 2 school networks separately (N = 624 and 1151. Results show support in both schools for homophily on BMI, but also for social influence on BMI. There was no evidence of homophily on screen time in either school, while only one of the schools showed homophily on playing active sports. There was, however, evidence of social influence on screen time in one of the schools, and playing active sports in both schools. These results suggest that both homophily and social influence are important in understanding patterns of adolescent obesity. Intervention efforts should take into consideration peers' influence on one another, rather than treating "high risk" adolescents in isolation.

  18. Actors and arenas in hybrid networks: implications for environmental policymaking in the Baltic Sea region.

    Joas, Marko; Kern, Kristine; Sandberg, Siv

    2007-04-01

    Policymaking within and among states is under pressure for change. One feature of this change is empirically observed as an activation of different network structures in the Baltic Sea Region, especially since the collapse of the Iron Curtain, the initiation of the Rio process, and the enlargement of the European Union. The contemporary theoretical debates about governance highlight the changing conditions for policymaking and implementation on all societal levels. This process of change, especially evident concerning environmental policies, includes new types of networks crossing state borders both at the supranational and the subnational levels. This article illuminates this process of change with empirical data from the project "Governing a Common Sea" (GOVCOM) within the Baltic Sea Research Program (BIREME). PMID:17520939

  19. Understanding Responsible Innovation in Small Producers’ Clusters in Vietnam through Actor-Network Theory

    Jaap Voeten; Job de Haan; Gerard de Groot; Nigel Roome

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is increasingly recognised as an alternative for poverty alleviation in developing countries. However, cases of innovation in small producers’ clusters in Vietnam imply negative externalities that conflict with today’s notions of sustainable and inclusive development. This article analyses how small producers innovate while taking environmental and social considerations into account through an interactive societal process towards a community network, conceptualised as responsible i...

  20. Psychology and social networks: a dynamic network theory perspective.

    Westaby, James D; Pfaff, Danielle L; Redding, Nicholas

    2014-04-01

    Research on social networks has grown exponentially in recent years. However, despite its relevance, the field of psychology has been relatively slow to explain the underlying goal pursuit and resistance processes influencing social networks in the first place. In this vein, this article aims to demonstrate how a dynamic network theory perspective explains the way in which social networks influence these processes and related outcomes, such as goal achievement, performance, learning, and emotional contagion at the interpersonal level of analysis. The theory integrates goal pursuit, motivation, and conflict conceptualizations from psychology with social network concepts from sociology and organizational science to provide a taxonomy of social network role behaviors, such as goal striving, system supporting, goal preventing, system negating, and observing. This theoretical perspective provides psychologists with new tools to map social networks (e.g., dynamic network charts), which can help inform the development of change interventions. Implications for social, industrial-organizational, and counseling psychology as well as conflict resolution are discussed, and new opportunities for research are highlighted, such as those related to dynamic network intelligence (also known as cognitive accuracy), levels of analysis, methodological/ethical issues, and the need to theoretically broaden the study of social networking and social media behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24750076

  1. The market of solar and photovoltaic energies. Grid parity, new support mechanisms, and innovations in financing modes: perspectives by 2018 and overview of actors

    This study first proposes an analysis and a discussion of perspectives for the sector of solar and photovoltaic energies. It identifies the main determining factors of the sector activity, proposes an overview of the sector activity between 2006 and 2015 (evolution of determining factors, installed power, production of photovoltaic electricity, installations on private dwellings, electricity price, foreign trade of photovoltaic arrays, turnover for the solar thermal and photovoltaic sector), discusses perspectives by 2018 in terms of installed power, of turnover, and of opportunities and threats. The second part proposes a description of the sector context: analysis of structural brakes and drivers, overview of the world market, installed power and photovoltaic electricity production in Europe, and overview of the French context of photovoltaic solar energy (energy policy, commitment of public authorities, electricity purchase tariff, and competitiveness of photovoltaic electricity). The third part evokes highlights of the sector and discusses the offer evolution: emergence of new financing modes, technological innovations, diversification of activity, international activity of French actors, and takeovers and optimisation of organisations. The fourth part reports an analysis of the competition context: competition pressure on array manufacturers, pressure on solar plant operators, and analysis of substitutes to solar energy. The fifth part proposes an overview of the economic structure and existing competing forces of the sector in France, and provides sheets of data for the main French actors. The last part proposes economic and financial indicators to assess and compare the performance of 200 enterprises belonging to this sector

  2. Application of actor level social characteristic indicator selection for the precursory detection of bullies in online social networks

    White, Holly M.; Fields, Jeremy; Hall, Robert T.; White, Joshua S.

    2016-05-01

    Bullying is a national problem for families, courts, schools, and the economy. Social, educational, and professional lives of victims are affected. Early detection of bullies mitigates destructive effects of bullying. Our previous research found, given specific characteristics of an actor, actor logics can be developed utilizing input from natural language processing and graph analysis. Given similar characteristics of cyberbullies, in this paper, we create specific actor logics and apply these to a select social media dataset for the purpose of rapid identification of cyberbullying.

  3. Evidential Networks from a Different Perspective

    Vejnarová, Jiřina

    Heidelberg : Springer, 2012 - (Kruse, R.; Berthold, M.; Moewes, C.; Gil, M.; Grzegorzewski, P.; Hryniewicz, O.), s. 429-436 ISBN 978-3-642-33041-4. - (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. 190). [Soft Methods In Probability and Statistics. Konstanz (DE), 04.10.2012-06.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : evidence theory * conditioning * conditional independence * evidential networks Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/vejnarova-evidential networks from a different perspective.pdf

  4. A network perspective on metabolic inconsistency

    Sonnenschein Nikolaus

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integrating gene expression profiles and metabolic pathways under different experimental conditions is essential for understanding the coherence of these two layers of cellular organization. The network character of metabolic systems can be instrumental in developing concepts of agreement between expression data and pathways. A network-driven interpretation of gene expression data has the potential of suggesting novel classifiers for pathological cellular states and of contributing to a general theoretical understanding of gene regulation. Results Here, we analyze the coherence of gene expression patterns and a reconstruction of human metabolism, using consistency scores obtained from network and constraint-based analysis methods. We find a surprisingly strong correlation between the two measures, demonstrating that a substantial part of inconsistencies between metabolic processes and gene expression can be understood from a network perspective alone. Prompted by this finding, we investigate the topological context of the individual biochemical reactions responsible for the observed inconsistencies. On this basis, we are able to separate the differential contributions that bear physiological information about the system, from the unspecific contributions that unravel gaps in the metabolic reconstruction. We demonstrate the biological potential of our network-driven approach by analyzing transcriptome profiles of aldosterone producing adenomas that have been obtained from a cohort of Primary Aldosteronism patients. We unravel systematics in the data that could not have been resolved by conventional microarray data analysis. In particular, we discover two distinct metabolic states in the adenoma expression patterns. Conclusions The methodology presented here can help understand metabolic inconsistencies from a network perspective. It thus serves as a mediator between the topology of metabolic systems and their dynamical

  5. Blowing against the wind-An exploratory application of actor network theory to the analysis of local controversies and participation processes in wind energy

    This paper analyses the deployment of wind power and the related local controversies using actor-network theory (ANT). ANT provides conceptual instruments for a fine-tuned analysis of the contingencies that condition a project's success or failure by focusing on the micro-decisions that intertwine the material aspects of the technology, the site where it is implemented, the participation process, and the social relations in which they are embedded. By considering controversies as alternative efforts of competing networks of actors to 'frame' the reality and enroll others, ANT sheds light on the complex and political nature of planning a wind farm project, insofar as it consist in aligning material and human behaviours into a predictable scenario. 'Overflows' occur when actors do not conform to expectations, adopt conflicting positions and develop their own interpretations of the project, thus obliging designers to adapt their frames and change their plans. To demonstrate this framework, we apply it to the case of a wind farm project in the South of France, near Albi. Our analysis suggests a new approach to examining wind power projects in terms of the interaction between globally circulating technologies, unique characteristics of the site, the participation process and the social dynamics that emerge when these are combined.

  6. Tracing Cultural Memory:Holiday snapshots at sites of memory in an actor-network perspective

    Wiegand, Frauke Katharina

    2016-01-01

    We encounter, relate to and make use of our past and that of others in multifarious and increasingly mobile ways. Tourism is one of the main paths for encountering sites of memory. This thesis examines tourists’ creative appropriations of sites of memory – the objects and future memories inspired by their encounters – to address a question that thirty years of ground - breaking research into memory has not yet sufficiently answered: What can we learn about the dynamics of cultural memory by e...

  7. From Classroom Learning to E-learning: An Actor-Network Perspective

    Hustad, Eli; Arntzen, Aurilla Aurelie Bechina

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of a learning management system (LMS) to support education of Norwegian athletic judges. The association that represents these judges (FDU) is the highest authority as regards authorization and control of sport judgers, and their operation is mainly based upon voluntary work. The athletic sport is getting increasingly popular, and there is a need to recruit more judges to be able to carry out athletics meetings. By offering courses online, the FDU hopes ...

  8. Consequences of Strategic Choices within an e-Procurement Implementation Process -From an Actor Network Perspective

    Krag, Lotte; Thomsen, Mette; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, many companies have changed their IT strategy from developing systems in-house to implementing integrated software solutions. Along with the implementation of large Management Information Systems (MIS) such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems, several strategic choices...... implementing an e-Procurement system - more specifically, an Enterprise Buyer Professional (EBP) module in SAP R/3 for commercial purchasing. These strategic choices are (1) outsourcing the electronic catalogue of the EBP system to an electronic market place, (2) constituting a change management group for the...... have to be made in order to ensure the success of the implementation in terms of the technical aspects, the business model and the organisation. This article deals with three strategic choices made by the management in the case company, a large European medical company, regarding the process of...

  9. Analysis of the text of a textbook of biology oriented by actor-network theory: a study on the theme “biological evolution”

    Francisco Ângelo Coutinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a strategy for analyzing the text of the textbook based on principles of Actor-Network Theory. This theory seeks to understand central claims about knowledge, subjectivity, society and nature, as effects of an interaction network. By analyzing the argumentative strategies employed by the authors of the text analyzed, we found that there is a process of strengthening the scientific explanation that construct a conception of science and which leaves religious conceptions isolated. In this process, the authors establish a network that exclude religious explanation of the field of rationality and interdict the rationality of religion. We wondered whether this is the best attitude when considering the diversity present in school.

  10. Fractal actors and infrastructures

    Bøge, Ask Risom

    2011-01-01

    -network-theory (ANT) into surveillance studies (Ball 2002, Adey 2004, Gad & Lauritsen 2009). In this paper, I further explore the potential of this connection by experimenting with Marilyn Strathern’s concept of the fractal (1991), which has been discussed in newer ANT literature (Law 2002; Law 2004; Jensen 2007). I...... under surveillance. Based on fieldwork conducted in 2008 and 2011 in relation to my Master’s thesis and PhD respectively, I illustrate fractal concepts by describing the acts, actors and infrastructure that make up the ‘DNA surveillance’ conducted by the Danish police....

  11. Evidence for Informing Health Policy Development in Low- Income Countries (LICS: Perspectives of Policy Actors in Uganda

    Juliet Nabyonga-Orem

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Although there is a general agreement on the benefits of evidence informed health policy development given resource constraints especially in Low-Income Countries (LICs, the definition of what evidence is, and what evidence is suitable to guide decision-making is still unclear. Our study is contributing to filling this knowledge gap. We aimed to explore health policy actors’ views regarding what evidence they deemed appropriate to guide health policy development. Methods Using exploratory qualitative methods, we conducted interviews with 51 key informants using an indepth interview guide. We interviewed a diverse group of stakeholders in health policy development and knowledge translation in the Uganda health sector. Data were analyzed using inductive content analysis techniques. Results Different stakeholders lay emphasis on different kinds of evidence. While donors preferred international evidence and Ministry of Health (MoH officials looked to local evidence, district health managers preferred local evidence, evidence from routine monitoring and evaluation, and reports from service providers. Service providers on the other hand preferred local evidence and routine monitoring and evaluation reports whilst researchers preferred systematic reviews and clinical trials. Stakeholders preferred evidence covering several aspects impacting on decision-making highlighting the fact that although policy actors look for factual information, they also require evidence on context and implementation feasibility of a policy decision. Conclusion What LICslike Uganda categorize as evidence suitable for informing policy encompasses several types with no consensus on what is deemed as most appropriate. Evidence must be of high quality, applicable, acceptable to the users, and informing different aspects of decision-making.

  12. The sun also rises in Norway: Solar scientists as transition actors

    Åm, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    This study contributes to transition studies through an empirical analysis of scientists at the Norwegian Research Center for Solar Cell Technology. From a policy perspective, this research center is a concrete undertaking within transitions politics. How do solar energy scientists make sense of this mission and what strategies do they adopt? The analysis adopts a bottom-up perspective focusing on the politics involved in actor-networks constructing and empowering sustainable innovations. I s...

  13. Networks and Fault Lines: Understanding the role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration: a network governance perspective

    Gerard van Bortel

    2016-03-01

    economic objectives. They have largely similar tasks and responsibilities, but work in very divergent contexts. This study devotes careful attention to the contingencies of time and place of decisionmaking in order to regenerate insights that are also relevant outside the case-study areas. Therefore, this study places Dutch and English housing associations in their respective political economies, welfare regimes and rental housing systems. The study also highlights the ambiguous position—between state, market, and society—of housing associations.Neighbourhood regeneration evolved from slum clearance and complete area redevelopment in the 1950s and 1960s, towards more integral place-based approaches—in the 1970s and 1980s—with a stronger emphasis on improving the existing housing stock and involving local communities. The nature of the involvement of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration has changed over time in response to government policies, public opinion, their own strategies, and the strategies of their umbrella organisations. In both England and the Netherlands, their increasingly prominent role —especially after the start of the new millennium—was driven by pressures on housing associations to take a leading role in neighbourhood regeneration.A governance network perspective on neighbourhood regenerationThe emergence of the ‘network society’ has led to a fragmentation of power and resources. This fragmentation has led to increased interdependence of actors; public, private and community actors need to collaborate to solve problems. This study uses a governance network approach to explore the complexity and uncertainties involved in neighbourhood regeneration decision-making. The study explores five interrelated questions [see Chapter 1, §1.2], each related to a component of a theoretical framework on decision-making in a network setting. These questions involve context, networks, actors, processes and outcomes.In order to answer the

  14. Linking the levels: network and relational perspectives for community psychology.

    Neal, Jennifer Watling; Christens, Brian D

    2014-06-01

    In this article, we assert that relationships and networks are of paramount importance for understanding and improving settings, neighborhoods, communities, and larger social systems. Despite previous acknowledgements of their relevance, relational and social network perspectives and analyses remain underrepresented in community psychological research and action. Here, we claim that network and relational perspectives can provide conceptual and empirical 'links' between levels of analysis, more fully reflecting a transactional view. We also describe some of the sophisticated methodologies that can be employed in empirical studies drawing on these perspectives. Additionally, we contend that core concepts in community psychology such as health promotion, empowerment, coalition building, and dissemination and implementation can be better understood when employing relational and network perspectives. As an introduction to this special issue of American Journal of Community Psychology, we draw out themes and key points from the articles in the issue, and offer recommendations for future advancement of these perspectives in the field. PMID:24752731

  15. Bullying in classrooms : Participant roles from a social network perspective

    Huitsing, Gijs; Veenstra, René

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate if and how the group process of bullying can be examined using a social network perspective. In two studies, bullying was investigated using a social network version of the participant-role questionnaire. Study 1 explored the social network structure of on

  16. Technologies for learning? An actor-network theory critique of ‘affordances' in research on mobile learning

    Gale Parchoma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available How is the link between learner and technology made in mobile learning? Whatis the value of the concept of ‘affordances'? And how does research articulatingthis concept act to position mobile devices as ‘technologies for learning'? Thisliterature review used both unstructured and structured search samples of publishedresearch on mobile learning to critically evaluate the prevalence and influenceof the concept of the affordances of mobile technologies. Actor-networktheory is drawn on as a theoretical lens through which to critically considerhow this concept is articulated, and in particular to explore the way it positionsand controls mobile devices as technologies for learning. Parallels in contemporaryaccounts of mobile learning are drawn with classifications of previous discoursesaround the introduction of computers into schools. An alternativeagenda for mobile learning research is suggested with a focus on authentic andinformal contexts rather than controlled experiments.

  17. Performing Sociology Through Actor-Network Theory: From Impressionist Cartography to the Dirtiness of Mediations Hacer sociología a través de la teoría del actor-red: de la cartografía impresionista a la suciedad de las mediaciones

    Daniel Muriel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I try to outline the existence of certain problems I have found during my research work, within sociology discipline, when it comes to follow some of the main threads of the complex fabric that constitutes the Actor-Network Theory (ANT. In the same way, I suggest some possible subterfuges to go around those problems. Two are the problems and two are the subterfuges as well destined to tackle them. On the one hand, I face the problem of the magnitude and fidelity that ANT's descriptions demand, thoroughly detailed and local, which clashes with the requirements of sociological theory that seeks abstractions and regularities. The subterfuge I propose is the one called "impressionist cartography". On the other hand, I bump into the difficulty of the irreversibility of mediations and the sanitized representations carried out, sometimes, by ANT. In order to fight this, I use the subterfuge oriented to adopt the premise of the "inevitable dirtiness of mediations". En este artículo intento proponer un esbozo de ciertos problemas que me he encontrado en el transcurro de mi investigación, dentro de la disciplina de la sociología, cuando he intentado seguir algunas de las principales tramas del complejo entramado de la teoría del actor-red (ANT, así como de los subterfugios que planteo para bordearlos. Dos son los problemas y dos los posibles subterfugios para abordarlos. Por un lado, me encuentro con el problema de la envergadura y fidelidad de las descripciones que exige la ANT, muy localizadas y minuciosas, que choca con los requerimientos de la teoría sociológica que busca regularidades y abstracciones. El subterfugio que planteo es el de la "cartografía impresionista". Por otro lado, me topo con la dificultad de la

  18. Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena.

    Deas, L; Mattu, L; Gnich, W

    2013-11-01

    Increased political enthusiasm for evidence-based policy and action has re-ignited interest in the use of evidence within political and practitioner networks. Theories of evidence-based policy making and practice are being re-considered in an attempt to better understand the processes through which knowledge translation occurs. Understanding how policy develops, and practice results, has the potential to facilitate effective evidence use. Further knowledge of the factors which shape healthcare delivery and their influence in different contexts is needed. This paper explores the processes involved in the development of a complex intervention in Scotland's National Health Service (NHS). It uses a national oral health programme for children (Childsmile) as a case study, drawing upon key actors' perceptions of the influence of different drivers (research evidence, practitioner knowledge and values, policy, and political and local context) to programme development. Framework analysis is used to analyse stakeholder accounts from in-depth interviews. Documentary review is also undertaken. Findings suggest that Childsmile can be described as an 'evidence-informed' intervention, blending available research evidence with knowledge from practitioner experience and continual learning through evaluation, to plan delivery. The importance of context was underscored, in terms of the need to align with prevailing political ideology and in the facilitative strength of networks within the relatively small public health community in Scotland. Respondents' perceptions support several existing theoretical models of translation, however no single theory offered a comprehensive framework covering all aspects of the complex processes reported. Childsmile's use of best available evidence and on-going contribution to knowledge suggest that the programme is an example of intelligent policy making with international relevance. PMID:24034945

  19. Special Issue on ActorNetwork Theory, Value CoCreation and Design in Open Innovation Environments

    Tanev, Stoyan; Storni, Cristiano; Stuedahl, Dagny

    2015-01-01

    The present special issue focuses on the application of ANT to the articulation of a cocreative perspective on design in open innovation environments. The Editors invited submissions by authors using ANT to explore and discuss the link between value co-creation, design and innovation and especially...... those focusing on some aspects of technological innovation. The editorial process concluded with four articles which address the topic in different and somewhat complementary ways....

  20. Determinants of Actor Rationality

    Ellegaard, Chris

    Industrial companies must exercise influence on their suppliers (or supplier actors). Actor rationality is a central theme connected to this management task. In this article, relevant literature is studied with the purpose of shedding light on determinants of actor rationality. Two buyer......-supplier relations are investigated in a multiple case study, leading to the proposal of various additional factors that determine and shape actor rationality. Moreover a conceptual model of rationality determinants in the buyer-supplier relation is proposed, a model that may help supply managers analyse and...... understand actor rationalities. Finally managerial implications are discussed....

  1. Some Quantum Information Inequalities from a Quantum Bayesian Networks Perspective

    Tucci, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This is primarily a pedagogical paper. The paper re-visits some well-known quantum information theory inequalities. It does this from a quantum Bayesian networks perspective. The paper illustrates some of the benefits of using quantum Bayesian networks to discuss quantum SIT (Shannon Information Theory).

  2. A Directory Service for Perspective Access Networks

    Goodell, Geoffrey Lewis; Roussopoulos, Mema; Bradner, Scott O.

    2006-01-01

    Network fragmentation occurs when the accessibility of a network-based resource to an observer is a function of how the observer is connected to the network. In the context of the Internet, network fragmentation is well-known and occurs in many situations, including an increasing preponderance of network address translation, firewalls, and virtual private networks. Recently, however, new threats to Internet consistency have received media attention. Alternative namespaces have emerged as the ...

  3. A Complex-Network Perspective on Alexander's Wholeness

    Jiang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The wholeness, conceived and developed by Christopher Alexander, is what exists to some degree or other in space and matter, and can be described by precise mathematical language. However, it remains mysterious and hard to grasp. This paper develops a complex network perspective on the wholeness to better understand the nature of order or beauty, and apply it into sustainable design. I bring together a set of complexity-science subjects such as complex networks, fractal geometry, and in particular underlying scaling hierarchy derived by head/tail breaks, in order to make Alexander's profound thoughts more accessible to design practitioners and complexity-science researchers. Through several case studies (some of which Alexander studied), I demonstrate that the complex-network perspective helps reduce the mystery of wholeness and brings new insights to Alexander's thoughts on the concept of wholeness or objective beauty in fine structures. The complex-network perspective enables us to see things in their whole...

  4. DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE IN ORGANIZATION FROM CULTURAL AND NETWORK PERSPECTIVE

    Agnieszka Marek; Kalina Grzesiuk

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion of knowledge is recognized as one of the key factors that determines organizational success in the knowledge-based economy. The research problem concerns the way social networks and organizational culture may influence knowledge sharing among the agents in general. This article presents the review and critical analysis of literature on the diffusion of knowledge from network and cultural perspective. The results of the research show that both social networks and organizational cultu...

  5. Complexities of social networks: A Physicist's perspective

    Sen, Parongama

    2006-01-01

    The review is a survey of the present status of research in social networks highlighting the topics of small world property, degree distributions, community structure, assortativity, modelling, dynamics and searching in social networks.

  6. Information theory perspective on network robustness

    Schieber, Tiago A.; Carpi, Laura; Frery, Alejandro C.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Pardalos, Panos M.; Ravetti, Martín G.

    2016-01-01

    A crucial challenge in network theory is the study of the robustness of a network when facing a sequence of failures. In this work, we propose a dynamical definition of network robustness based on Information Theory, that considers measurements of the structural changes caused by failures of the network's components. Failures are defined here as a temporal process defined in a sequence. Robustness is then evaluated by measuring dissimilarities between topologies after each time step of the sequence, providing a dynamical information about the topological damage. We thoroughly analyze the efficiency of the method in capturing small perturbations by considering different probability distributions on networks. In particular, we find that distributions based on distances are more consistent in capturing network structural deviations, as better reflect the consequences of the failures. Theoretical examples and real networks are used to study the performance of this methodology.

  7. The political history of biofuels in the European Union - Actors, Networks and Strategies; Den politiska historien om biodrivmedel i den Europeiska Unionen - Aktoerer, naetverk och strategier

    Nordangaard, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    The story of biofuels in the European Union is about much more than simply replace petroleum in the transport sector. It is rather a complex story accompanied by an overall desire to change the world's political architecture. This change has been made in order to address global environmental problems such as climate change while creating frameworks and certifications for the global trade in commodities such as palm oil and soy. The process has been full of contradictions in what biofuels can solve and given rise to exaggerated rhetoric about the fuel's environmental benefits versus its harmful impact on the environment and food prices. Doomsday reeking arguments about climate disasters, oil shortages and the destruction of the world's rain forests have been used alternately in diverse contexts. In this process, various market interests have come to stand against each other in the battle for the raw materials used in biofuel production. Good intentions to protect the priceless nature from industrial exploitation has been used as a way to disadvantage certain raw materials as an energy crop. This has given rise to the unholy alliances between environmentalists and corporations to create broad support for positions while individual nations have assisted with capital and resources to promote various self-interests. In the end it has been a matter of building so powerful network as possible, and present a hard hitting problem requiring a solution for success. Out of chaos, it has been born order. This thesis describes the process and the main actors and networks that have driven this.

  8. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand

    Russell Steve

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Results Twenty six out of 36 (72% respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17% whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. Conclusion This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  9. 10041 Executive Summary -- Perspectives Workshop: Digital Social Networks

    Bry, Francois; Cap, Clemens; Dahm, Ingo; Maintz, Julia; Schaffert, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The Perspective Workshop on “Digital Social Networks” held in between January 25th and 29th, 2010 at the research centre Schloss Dagstuhl focused on technological, socio-economical, and political aspects of digital social networks, and, more generally, digital social media. Digital social media give rise to users and communities to collaboratively generate and exchange content and to interact. They enable social computation, i.e. computations that involve both software and groups of people. ...

  10. Computational social networks tools, perspectives and applications

    Abraham, Ajith

    2012-01-01

    Provides the latest advances in computational social networks, and illustrates how organizations can gain a competitive advantage by applying these ideas in real-world scenarios Presents a specific focus on practical tools and applications Provides experience reports, survey articles, and intelligence techniques and theories relating to specific problems in network technology

  11. A User Perspective on Social Networking Sites

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Porras, Jari; Hajikhani, Arash;

    2014-01-01

    For years, social media have been a part of daily life. Within the last 5-10 years, the use of social media (and in particular social networking sites) has expanded to almost all sides of life: private people, businesses and public institutions. This paper presents an overview of different uses of...... social networks to give a picture of the variety in use. The paper describes differences in private persons’ use of social networking sites, different business purposes, and how social networking sites can challenge public administrations. Throughout the paper there are provided small cases and...... situations where the social networking sites have been used in a remarkable way. The paper is made in collaboration between partners in the World Wide Research Forum....

  12. Viewing Attractiveness Socialization from a Social Network Perspective.

    Downs, A. Chris

    Providing a framework for a symposium exploring the influence of physical attractiveness on the socialization process, this paper (1) offers a working definition of physical attractiveness, (2) reviews stereotypes associated with attractiveness, and (3) discusses a social network perspective on the influence of attractiveness. Physical…

  13. The Corporation as a Political Actor

    Rasche, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    . On the other hand, European scholars have recently promoted an understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) emphasizing that firms often assume a political role because they increasingly provide public goods and become involved in multi-actor governance processes. This article contrasts...... perspectives share a number of commonalities and complement each other....

  14. Computer systems and networks: Status and perspectives

    The properties of computers are discussed, both as separate units and in inter-coupled systems. The main elements of modern processor thechnology are reviewed and the associated peripheral components are disscussed in the light of the prevailling rapid pace of developments. Particular emphais is given to the impact of very large scale integrated circuitry in these developments. Computer networks, and considered in some detail, including comon-carrier and local-area networks and the problem of inter-working is included in the discussion. Components of network systems and the associated technology are also among the topics treated. (orig.)

  15. Networked learning in higher education: practitioners' perspectives

    Chris Jones

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper arises from the work of the JISC Committee on Awareness, Liaison and Training (CALT-funded 'Networked Learning in Higher Education' project. Networked learning is a term that has had a currency for some years now and can be seen as part of the development of a new paradigm in education (Harasim, Hiltz, Teles and Turoff, 1995; Koschmann 1996; Romiszowski and Ravitz, 1997. We have defined networked learning as learning in which C&.IT is used to promote connections: between one learner and other learners; between learners and tutors; between a learning community and its learning resources.

  16. Network design management and technical perspectives

    Piliouras, Teresa C

    2004-01-01

    MAKING THE BUSINESS CASE FOR THE NETWORKManagement Overview of Network DesignDefine the Business ObjectivesDetermine Potential Risks, Dependencies, Costs andBenefitsIdentify Project RequirementsDevelop Project Implementation ApproachStrategic Positioning Using NetworksCase StudiesCalculation of Technology's Strategic ValueDealing with Major Design ChallengesOrganizational Concerns and RecommendationsTechnology Concerns and RecommendationsSimilarities and Differences between Voice and DataNetwork Design and PlanningMajor Trends and Technology EnablersSocietal TrendsService Provider TrendsMajor

  17. Plant Evolution: A Manufacturing Network Perspective

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    2009-01-01

    Viewing them as portfolios of products and processes, we aim to address how plants evolve in the context of a manufacturing network and how the evolution of one plant impacts other plants in the same manufacturing network. Based on discussions of ten plants from three Danish companies, we identify...... two different trajectories. Together, these trajectories determine the evolution of a manufacturing network. Factors appearing to affect the two trajectories include competencies built up, transferred or acquired locally, market potential, performance considerations, local, situational factors and...

  18. The performance of public corporate actors: Essays on effects of institutional and network embeddedness in supranational, national, and local collaborative contexts

    Schalk, J.

    2012-01-01

    Public corporate actors – governments, government bureaucracies, and nongovernmental organizations strongly involved in the delivery of public services – address key social problems in society. They permeate many dimensions of our personal lives. They impact our health care, education, and social security. Yet, instances of policy failure and organizational mismanagement are numerous, and the global economic and financial crisis places pressure on public corporate actors to deliver services m...

  19. Networks and Fault Lines: Understanding the role of housing associations in neighbourhood regeneration: a network governance perspective

    Gerard van Bortel

    2016-01-01

    The changing role of housing associations in neighbourhood regenerationThis study aims to increase our understanding of the role of social housing organisations in neighbourhood regeneration governance networks, in order to enhance the performance and outcomes of these networks. Our understanding of how governance networks work is still limited, especially concerning the role of non-state actors like housing associations. Hierarchical government steering is increasingly mixed with market mech...

  20. A Game Theoretic Perspective on Network Topologies

    Lichter, Shaun; Friesz, Terry

    2011-01-01

    As an alternative view to the graph formation models in the statistical physics community, we introduce graph formation models using \\textit{network formation} through selfish competition as an approach to modeling graphs with particular topologies. We further investigate a specific application of our results to collaborative oligopolies. We extend the results of Goyal and Joshi (S. Goyal and S. Joshi. Networks of collaboration in oligopoly. Games and Economic behavior, 43(1):57-85, 2003), who first considered the problem of collaboration networks of oligopolies and showed that under certain linear assumptions network collaboration produced a stable complete graph through selfish competition. We show with nonlinear cost functions and player payoff alteration that stable collaboration graphs with an arbitrary degree sequence can result.

  1. Animal welfare: a social networks perspective.

    Kleinhappel, Tanja K; John, Elizabeth A; Pike, Thomas W; Wilkinson, Anna; Burman, Oliver H P

    2016-01-01

    Social network theory provides a useful tool to study complex social relationships in animals. The possibility to look beyond dyadic interactions by considering whole networks of social relationships allows researchers the opportunity to study social groups in more natural ways. As such, network-based analyses provide an informative way to investigate the factors influencing the social environment of group-living animals, and so has direct application to animal welfare. For example, animal groups in captivity are frequently disrupted by separations, reintroductions and/or mixing with unfamiliar individuals and this can lead to social stress and associated aggression. Social network analysis ofanimal groups can help identify the underlying causes of these socially-derived animal welfare concerns. In this review we discuss how this approach can be applied, and how it could be used to identify potential interventions and solutions in the area of animal welfare. PMID:27120815

  2. Actor/Character Dualism

    Riis, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Our perception of agency may be inherently fallible, and this may explain not only our general awareness of actors when engaged in fictional characters but also the specific case of paradoxical characters...

  3. Maneiras de pesquisar no cotidiano: contribuição da teoria do ator-rede Ways of researching everyday life: the actor-network theory contribution

    Ronald João Jacques Arendt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir da temática geral do XI Simpósio da ANPEPP"Maneiras de pesquisar no cotidiano: contribuições para a formação em pesquisa em Psicologia", e tendo em vista a participação do autor no GT "Cotidiano e Práticas Sociais" da ANPEPP, este texto busca descrever a prática de formação em pesquisa a partir da teoria do ator-rede. Após efetuar a recensão de um texto de Bruno Latour, um diálogo entre um professor e um aluno em que são expostas as principais características da prática de pesquisa no âmbito desta abordagem, o autor busca precisar o posicionamento epistemológico-metodológico da referida teoria assim como suas raízes fundadas na filosofia pragmática, descrevendo sucintamente algumas proposições de William James e John Dewey.Using the actor-network theory, this paper describes the practices of becoming educated in research, based on the general subject of the XI ANPPEP Symposium "Ways of searching in everyday life: contributions to the formation of research in Psychology", considering that the author was a participant in the ANPEPP work group "Everyday life and Social Practices". After summarizing a paper of Bruno Latour, a dialogue between a professor and a student in which the main characteristics of the research practice in this approach are outlined, the author exposes in a more accurate manner the epistemological and methodological positioning of the referred theory and its pragmatic philosophical roots, describing briefly some propositions of William James and John Dewey.

  4. Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria: Opiniones y expectativas sobre estrategias de prevención y tratamiento desde la perspectiva de diferentes actores sociales Dietary behavior disorders: Opinions and expectancies on prevention and treatment strategies from the perspective of the several social actors

    J.C. March

    2006-02-01

    circuito asistencial, así como el seguimiento posthospitalario se identifican como cuestiones abiertas a futuras investigaciones.AIMS: The prevalence increase of Eating Disorders in the last decades emphasizes the necessity to develop strategies from the public healthcare system which include the perspective of the principal implicated social actors. The present study aims to know their opinions and expectations regarding the prevention and treatment of Eating Disorders. METHODS: Realization of 5 focus groups (with relatives, adolescents, professionals from the health and educational sector, representatives from institutions and support groups and 14 semi-structured interviews (with Eating Disorder patients and relatives about strengths and weaknesses of actual prevention and treatment programs, expectations of change and suggestions for improvement. Analysis of contents and triangulation of results. RESULTS: The absence of resources and knowledge about Eating Disorders, the scarcity of transversal programs and insufficient coordination were named as the main weaknesses whereas interdisciplinary pilot programs were positively valued. As principal demands, major endowment of human and material resources, increased coverage of specialized services, promotion of specific training and improvement of coordination was asked for. Regarding prevention, preference toward an unspecific approach to the subject in order to hinder imitation between young people was highlighted. The care in Day Hospitals was considered one of the most appropriate treatment modalities for the characteristics of this disease being valued the potentially therapeutic effect of contact between Eating Disorder patients. The support network, the education field and the family were named as other important pillars in a multidisciplinary approach to the disease. There was also a demand for the development of combined programs. CONLCUSIONS: The discussion of different psychotherapeutic approaches, the role of

  5. Viewing engineering offshoring in a network perspective

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Zhang, Yufeng; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2013-01-01

    of how to effectively manage engineering offshoring activities in a context of global engineering networks. The main research question, therefore, is: “Can offshoring of engineering tasks be explained and managed using the concept of Global Engineering Networks (GEN)?” Effective approaches to handling...... of large multinational corporations in Denmark were carried out. Data gathering was mainly documentary studies and interviews. The main data analysis approaches were coding (Strauss and Corbin) and pattern-matching (Yin). The dataset was analysed using the GEN framework suggested by Zhang et al. and Zhang...... by extending the GEN framework to address complications within engineering offshoring. This strengthens both academic fields, and will be able to help engineering managers to develop appropriate engineering network configurations for offshore engineering operations....

  6. User-centric networking future perspectives

    Aldini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This work represents a milestone for the? 'ULOOP User-centric Wireless Local Loop' project funded by the EU IST Seventh Framework Programme.ULOOP is focused on the robust, secure, and autonomic deployment of user-centric wireless networks. Contributions by ULOOP partners as well as invited tutorials by international experts in the field. The expected impact is to increase awareness to user-centric networking in terms, e.g., of business opportunities and quality of experience, and to present adequate technology to sustain the growth of user-friendly wireless architectures.Throughout the last 3

  7. A Network of Networks Perspective on Global Trade.

    Julian Maluck

    Full Text Available Mutually intertwined supply chains in contemporary economy result in a complex network of trade relationships with a highly non-trivial topology that varies with time. In order to understand the complex interrelationships among different countries and economic sectors, as well as their dynamics, a holistic view on the underlying structural properties of this network is necessary. This study employs multi-regional input-output data to decompose 186 national economies into 26 industry sectors and utilizes the approach of interdependent networks to analyze the substructure of the resulting international trade network for the years 1990-2011. The partition of the network into national economies is observed to be compatible with the notion of communities in the sense of complex network theory. By studying internal versus cross-subgraph contributions to established complex network metrics, new insights into the architecture of global trade are obtained, which allow to identify key elements of global economy. Specifically, financial services and business activities dominate domestic trade whereas electrical and machinery industries dominate foreign trade. In order to further specify each national sector's role individually, (cross-clustering coefficients and cross-betweenness are obtained for different pairs of subgraphs. The corresponding analysis reveals that specific industrial sectors tend to favor distinct directionality patterns and that the cross-clustering coefficient for geographically close country pairs is remarkably high, indicating that spatial factors are still of paramount importance for the organization of trade patterns in modern economy. Regarding the evolution of the trade network's substructure, globalization is well-expressed by trends of several structural characteristics (e.g., link density and node strength in the interacting network framework. Extreme events, such as the financial crisis 2008/2009, are manifested as anomalies

  8. Industrial Networks

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...... the focus of operations management from managing the own organization to continuously developing and managing a network of external and internal resources forming a production system. This perspective may be called managing an “extraprise” rather than an “enterprise.” It should be noted that “an industrial...... network” should not be seen as an organizational form but as a perspective that can be used to enrich one's understanding of organizations. The industrial network perspective has three basic building blocks: actors, resources, and activities. The three building blocks and their relations constitute...

  9. The business incubator in a network perspective

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...

  10. Correlation in mobile call networks from structure perspective

    Bin WU; Deyong HU; Qi YE; Bai WANG

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have done considerable work on the structure of social network recently, but mostly neglected the correlation between two connected nodes. In this pa-per, our primary goal is to acquire users' structural proper-ties in mobile call networks. We take a novel perspective-structure correlation between two connected users perspec-tive to study the structural properties. To investigate the structural properties in static and dynamic mobile call net-works, we define some metrics which are based on the clique size vectors of mobile call users. By exploring several real-world mobile call networks, which contain hundreds of thou-sands of mobile call users respectively, we find that people tend to communicate with the one who has a similar struc-ture in static mobile call networks. Moreover, It is found that the connected people have similar structural changes on the whole in dynamic mobile call networks, and the structures of some two connected persons both have growing or shrinking trends. We use a visualization toolkit to give a view of the growing or shrinking scenarios temporally.

  11. Youth, friendship, and gaming: a network perspective.

    De Grove, Frederik

    2014-09-01

    With digital games being part of the leisure of a multitude of young people, it is important to understand to what extent gaming-related practices such as talking about games or playing games together are associated with the quality of friendship relations with players and nonplayers. Based on 100 friendship networks, this study explored to what extent those practices permeated the everyday life of youngsters and whether they could be considered as a part of doing friendship. Results indicated that gaming as a conversational topic was widespread within and between networks. Furthermore, regardless of gender, this was significantly associated with friendship quality in almost all of the networks. When considering playing games together, a somewhat different picture emerged. In contrast to conversational practices, playing together was less widespread. Moreover, both the occurrence and the effect of co-play and friendship quality was gendered. The findings of this study show that a focus on gaming-related practices yields a fruitful starting point when considering the role of digital games in a social context that is not limited to people playing (online) games. Furthermore, they also feed into the ongoing debate of possible effects of digital games in that it shows that the way in which games influence the lives of young people goes beyond a direct effects approach. PMID:25127060

  12. Minimal CDS motion-based connectivity recovery algorithm in wireless sensor and actor networks%基于最小连通支配集移动的WSANs连接恢复算法

    周杰; 姚雷; 杜景林

    2014-01-01

    In the mission-critical application of WSANs, one or multiple actors failure might lead to partitioning the inter-actor networks, and thus autonomous detection and connectivity restoration were highly desirable to maintain inter-actor connectivity. In this paper, we presented a minimal CDS motion-based connectivity recovery algorithm MCDSR which proactively identified actors whether were cut-vertices or not to the network connectivity , and designated minimal CDS backup nodes. If the nodes suddenly failed, the minimal block backup nodes moved and initiated a recovery process until the network was reconnected. Through simulated experiments, the results showed that the algorithm was more effective than present algorithms in terms of total number of relocated nodes, total travel distance,cover reduction.%在无线传感器与执行器网络( wireless sensor-actor networks,简称WSANs)关键任务应用中,单个或多个节点的失效可能造成内执行器节点产生网络分隔,自动检测和快速恢复来保持内执行器网络的连接性显得非常重要。论文提出了一种基于最小连通支配集移动的连接性恢复算法( minmal CDS motion-based connectivity recovery,简称 MCDSR),该算法主动探测影响网络连通的割点,并为其指定最小的连通支配集。一旦检测到节点失效,备份的支配集初始化恢复进程直到网络连接恢复。并通过实验与现有的恢复算法进行比较,发现MCDSR算法在移动的节点数目、总的移动距离、覆盖度减少等方面有更好性能。

  13. Edge anisotropy and the geometric perspective on flow networks

    Molkenthin, Nora; Tupikina, Liubov; Marwan, Norbert; Donges, Jonathan F; Feudel, Ulrike; Kurths, Jürgen; Donner, Reik V

    2016-01-01

    Spatial networks have recently attracted great interest in various fields of research. While the traditional network-theoretic viewpoint is commonly restricted to their topological characteristics (often disregarding existing spatial constraints), this work takes a geometric perspective, which considers vertices and edges as objects in a metric space and quantifies the corresponding spatial distribution and alignment. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of edge anisotropy and define a class of measures characterizing the spatial directedness of connections. Specifically, we demonstrate that the local anisotropy of edges incident to a given vertex provides useful information about the local geometry of geophysical flows based on networks constructed from spatio-temporal data, which is complementary to topological characteristics of the same flow networks. Taken both structural and geometric viewpoints together can thus assist the identification of underlying flow structures from observations of scalar v...

  14. Exploring the Relations, Bargaining Forms and Dynamics of the EU Food Supply Chain under the Perspective of the Key Actors: Evidence from Greece and Denmark

    Konstantinos Galanopoulos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available  The objective of this paper is to offer qualitative and quantitative insights on the perceptions of the actors in the EU food supply chain on a broad spectrum of topics that characterise its operation and conduct, highlighting also potential differences in North and South European countries. Issues explored pertained to actors’ relations with up- and downstream partners, the future dynamic and challenges of the food sector, the influence of policy intervention and attitudes towards genetically modified products (GMPs and organic production. For this purpose, a total of 34 food supply chain actors in Denmark and Greece were interviewed using a semi-structured interview process. A comparative analysis of the interviews pinpointed many similarities in the behaviour and the perceptions of the Greek and Danish farmers, cooperatives, processors and retailers alike. Still, while it is evident that companies and farmers of both countries struggle with a lot of the same problems, several differences in perceptions are also identified. These refer mainly to attitudes towards mergers and acquisitions, innovations, GMPs and the effects and limitations of EU policy intervention.

  15. Network robustness assessed within a dual connectivity perspective

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Zaliapin, Ilya; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2014-01-01

    Network robustness against attacks has been widely studied in fields as diverse as the Internet, power grids and human societies. Typically, in these studies, robustness is assessed only in terms of the connectivity of the nodes unaffected by the attack (the harder it is to destroy the connectivity of the 'healthy' nodes, the more robust the network is considered). However, in many systems, the connectivity of the affected nodes too may play a significant role in evaluating the overall network robustness. Here, we propose a dual perspective approach, wherein at any instant in the network evolution under attack, two distinct networks are defined: (i) the Active Network (AN) composed of the unaffected nodes and (ii) the Idle Network (IN) composed of the affected nodes. The proposed robustness metric considers both the efficiency of destroying the AN and the efficiency of building-up the IN. We show that trade-offs between the efficiency of Active and Idle network dynamics give rise to surprising crossovers and ...

  16. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  17. 10041 Abstracts Collection -- Perspectives Workshop: Digital Social Networks

    Bry, Francois; Cap, Clemens; Dahm, Ingo; Maintz, Julia; Schaffert, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    From 24.01.2010 to 29.01.2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10041 ``Perspectives Workshop: Digital Social Networks'' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl ~--~ Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar top...

  18. Uncovering Influence through Social Network Analysis: The Role of Schools in Education for Sustainable Development

    Kolleck, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) in Germany and explores the possibilities of Social Network Analysis (SNA) for uncovering influential actors in educational policy innovation processes. From the theoretical perspective, an actor's influence is inferred from its relative position within…

  19. Multi-Agent Based Simulation of Organizational Routines on Complex Networks

    Dehua Gao; Xiuquan Deng; Qiuhong Zhao; Hong Zhou; Bing Bai

    2015-01-01

    Organizational routines are collective phenomena involving multiple individual actors. They are crucial in helping to understand how organizations behave and change in a certain period. In this paper, by regarding the individual habits of multiple actors involved as fundamental building blocks, we consider organizational routines from an ‘emergence-based’ perspective. We emphasise the impacts of connections or network topologies among individual actors in the formation of organizational r...

  20. Network planning from telecom provider's perspective

    Zhou, Minli; Chen, Ziqing

    2005-11-01

    The network planner of the incumbent telecom service provider faces a series of challenges following technology developments, riding demand changes and utilizing existing resources. It is believed that the telecom planning that was started from the early time for PSTN deployment has been contributed to the foundation for the telecom planning but does not provide enough methodologies to help today's planning activities. The planning work for the provider must make innovation for adapting to the dynamic environment and supporting business development. In this paper, the situations and trends faced by the telecom service provider are first reviewed, the planning system restructure and planning methodologies innovation for meeting present situations are then presented, and the issues and directions are finally summarized.

  1. The Contrivance of Mobile Learning: An Actor-Network Perspective on the Emergence of a Research Field

    Decuypere, Mathias; Simons, Maarten; Masschelein, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The ongoing development of mobile devices like cell phones, iPods, PDAs, and so on is seen by an increasing number of educationalists as a chance to focus on a new kind of learning. This mobile learning, as it is called, should enable students to learn while on the move. Rather than giving a genealogy of the use of mobile equipment in education,…

  2. Tacos, Tiendas and Mezcal: An actor-network perspective on small-scale entrepreneurial projects in Western Mexico.

    Verschoor, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The role of small firms in developing countries is a subject of continuous interest in both academic and policy circles. Small firms account for a large part of economic activity, and their employment share is remarkable. Yet, although considerable knowledge about them exists, some of the key issues

  3. The rising influence of urban actors

    Nijman, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    It is time to recognize cities as global actors. City networks are reaching across the globe and local city governments are collaborating on crucial environmental issues. Coordinating policy at a local level, they are increasingly taking the lead in tackling global problems such as climate change.

  4. AN EVALUATION OF THE USEFULNESS OF ACTOR NETWORK THEORY IN UNDERSTANDING THE COMPLEXITIES OF VULNERABILITY AND RESILIENCE IN POST-DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION

    Graham Brewer; Aiobheann McVeigh; Jason von Meding

    2013-01-01

    The literature is replete with accounts of the struggle to effectively target and deploy postdisaster aid so as to achieve maximum benefit to recipients, both direct and indirect, over the short- and longer-term. Generally these stories balance success with lessons learned from failure, in order to inform practice in future recovery and reconstruction events. They are often derived from the heroic accounts of key actors in case studies, on the understandable basis that these carefully selecte...

  5. Social Network Perspective: Model of Student Knowledge Sharing On Social Network Media

    Bentar Priyopradono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the role and development of information technology especially the internet, gives impact and influence in social relationship especially for social network site services users. The impact and influence the use of Internet which is related to exchange information and knowledge sharing still become one of the interesting topics to be researched. Now, the use of social media network by students are the best way to them to increase their knowledge as communication media such as, exchange the information or sharing about something. This research describes about knowledge sharing model of students by using social network perspective analysis in social network media. Based on this model, it can be seen if the students can be participated in social network media.

  6. Public-Private Partnerships for the Provision of Port Infrastructure: An Explorative Multi-Actor Perspective on Critical Success Factors1

    Geoffrey Aerts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-private cooperation on the level of project finance, and provision of large-scale infrastructure projects, is increasing on the global level. This paper uses a multi-actor analysis, in order to explore the critical success factors (CSFs for sound implementation of public-private partnerships (PPPs in the port context, and to determine the diverging opinions of stakeholders with regard to the importance of these CSFs. The results indicate that eight CSFs are of superior importance in port PPPs: the concreteness and preciseness of the concession agreement, the ability to appropriately allocate and share risk, the technical feasibility of the project, the commitment made by partners, the attractiveness of the financial package, a clear definition of responsibilities, the presence of a strong private consortium and a realistic cost/benefit assessment. The reason for their importance is their deal-breaking character, which can lead to a total failure of PPP projects during the early stages of project conception.

  7. Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations: Current status and perspective

    Yatskiv, Y.; Bolotin, S.; Bolotina, O.; Khoda, O.; Medvedsky, M.; Sydorenko, G.; Stopkhay, Y.; Volvach, O.

    Current status and perspective of establishing the Ukrainian network of permanent geodynamic stations (UKRGEONETWORK) is reviewed in connection with Integrated Space Geodetic Systems project. The UKRGEONETWORK consists of several stations which form GPS, SLR, and VLBI subnetworks as well as Gravimetry subsystem. Some information concerned with current activity of the UKRGEONETWORK in particular precise orbit determination in software complex Kiev-Geodynamic, ionospheric modelling in Klio program, and EOP determination on SteelBreeze software is given. Plan for upgrading the hardware of stations and for increasing the number of collocation sites is considered.

  8. Industrial Marketing in a Network Perspective : A Qualitative study of ABB Crane Systems and its Sales Network

    Strömberg, Peter; Jain, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Research question: How is the sales network of ABB Crane system related to industrial marketing in anetwork perspective? Purpose of the research:The main task is to investigate if the sales network of ABB Crane Systems is related toestablished theory of industrial marketing in a network perspective. Method: The research strategy has been formed from a deductive approach and the empiricaldata has been gathered with a qualitative approach. Both primary and secondary data hasbeen used in order t...

  9. Organic Design of Massively Distributed Systems: A Complex Networks Perspective

    Scholtes, Ingo

    2012-01-01

    The vision of Organic Computing addresses challenges that arise in the design of future information systems that are comprised of numerous, heterogeneous, resource-constrained and error-prone components or devices. Here, the notion organic particularly highlights the idea that, in order to be manageable, such systems should exhibit self-organization, self-adaptation and self-healing characteristics similar to those of biological systems. In recent years, the principles underlying many of the interesting characteristics of natural systems have been investigated from the perspective of complex systems science, particularly using the conceptual framework of statistical physics and statistical mechanics. In this article, we review some of the interesting relations between statistical physics and networked systems and discuss applications in the engineering of organic networked computing systems with predictable, quantifiable and controllable self-* properties.

  10. Competence network University and Research 'perspective nuclear technology in Germany'

    With a fresh concept, the competence network University and Research revived the tradition of network meetings between research, universities and the nuclear industry on 23 and 24 September 2013. The DAtF (Deutsches Atomforum e.V.) (German Nuclear Forum, registered association) in cooperation with AREVA GmbH and VGB PowerTech e.V., invited those concerned to meet in Erlangen under the motto 'Perspective nuclear technology in Germany'. Around 50 representatives from education and research institutes followed the invitation, as did experts and decision-makers from the nuclear industry. The objective of this series of events is to broach the issue of the conservation of competence in nuclear technology in Germany and internationally, and make the related issues the subject of discussion as well as promote a regular exchange of information and experience between industry, research and educational institutions. (orig.)

  11. Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions and their actors

    Osvaldo Omar Ron

    2006-01-01

    The work exposed here seeks to display, as a synthesis, the general characteristics and some conclusions of the investigation project "Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions through actors' perspective", developed between 2003 and 2005. It is through it that we sought to recognize the ideas and concepts that coexist in everyday institutional life, by recovering the voice of sport institutions' actors - parents, leaders, trainers and teachers, practising and players-, and also by...

  12. Social Networks in Natural Resource Management: What Is There to Learn from a Structural Perspective?

    Henrik Ernstson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Social networks among actors and stakeholders are gaining attention in studies of natural resource management, particularly those of adaptive management based on different forms of participation and co-management. In this sense, social networks have primarily been envisioned as enabling different actors to collaborate and coordinate management efforts. Here, we continue the discussion initiated by Newman and Dale (2005, which highlighted the fact that not all social networks are created equal. We discuss the relation between some structural characteristics and functions of social networks with respect to natural resource management, thus focusing on structural implications that are often overlooked when studying social networks within the context of natural resource management. We present several network measures used to quantify structural characteristics of social networks and link them to a number of features such as learning, leadership, and trust, which are identified as important in natural resource management. We show schematically that there may be inherent juxtapositions among different structural characteristics that need to be balanced in what we envision as social network structures conducive to adaptive co-management of natural resources. We argue that it is essential to develop an understanding of the effects that different structural characteristics of social networks have on natural resource management.

  13. The biogas market. Which perspectives for the methanation market by 2017? Who are the best positioned actors to take advantage of opportunities?

    As biogas is the most promising but also disregarded segment of renewable energies, this report first proposes an analysis of this market and its perspectives by discussing the determining factors of activity, by analysing the evolution of the activity between 2010 and 2014 in France (final consumption, consumption per segment, number of installations, number of installations per segment), and by applying three forecast scenarios to the market evolution by 2020. The second part proposes an analysis of the main consumer sectors. The next part discusses business models implemented by operators, and the competition structure. Highlights and supply evolution are then presented and discussed in terms of prospect diversification, supply safety, and improvement of installation efficiency. Synthetic sheets of 158 operators are then provided, containing management, economic and financial data for the 2008-2012 period, and proposing comparisons through 5 main indicators

  14. Collaboration on technological innovation in Danish fashion chains: A network perspective

    Tambo, Torben

    2014-01-01

    and departments stores, technology and service providers, ownership structures and local level supply chain facilities. This paper analyses theoretical and empirical views of innovation in international retail networks using lead actors in the (Danish) fashion industry as a case to highlight how this industry...... maintains branded stores as primary retail channels better than other industries. In order to approach the retail network as an important organisational innovation system in relation to brand owners, the aim of this paper is to characterise key elements of innovation in retail networks. The approach...

  15. The World Trade Web: A Multiple-Network Perspective

    Sgrignoli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    International Trade (IT) plays a fundamental role in today's economy: by connecting world countries production and consumption processes, it radically contributes in shaping their economy and development path. Although its evolving structure and determinants have been widely analyzed in the literature, much less has been done to understand its interplay with other complex phenomena. The aim of this work is, precisely in this direction, to study the relations of IT with International Migration (IM) and Foreign Direct Investments (FDI). In both cases the procedure used is to first approach the problem in a multiple-networks perspective and than deepen the analysis by using ad hoc econometrics techniques. With respect to IM, a general positive correlation with IT is highlighted and product categories for which this effect is stronger are identified and cross-checked with previous classifications. Next, employing spatial econometric techniques and proposing a new way to define country neighbors based on the most ...

  16. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. PMID:27102810

  17. Actors: From Audience to Provider

    Charlier, Bernadette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes actors' experiences of distance learning systems in a wide variety of cultural and organizational contexts. In line with the project of this special series of issues, results of research, much of which is longitudinal, allow us to suggest answers to the following questions: Who are the actors of distance…

  18. Variance Adjusted Actor Critic Algorithms

    Tamar, Aviv; Mannor, Shie

    2013-01-01

    We present an actor-critic framework for MDPs where the objective is the variance-adjusted expected return. Our critic uses linear function approximation, and we extend the concept of compatible features to the variance-adjusted setting. We present an episodic actor-critic algorithm and show that it converges almost surely to a locally optimal point of the objective function.

  19. Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions and their actors

    Osvaldo Omar Ron

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The work exposed here seeks to display, as a synthesis, the general characteristics and some conclusions of the investigation project "Physical Education and sports: sportive institutions through actors' perspective", developed between 2003 and 2005. It is through it that we sought to recognize the ideas and concepts that coexist in everyday institutional life, by recovering the voice of sport institutions' actors - parents, leaders, trainers and teachers, practising and players-, and also by analyzing speeches and practices; those institutions' distinguishing forms of organization; the ways that diverse actors relate and the social forms acting on them. We investigated sport institutions with the purpose of tracking the senses and meaning that actors grant them, their organization and dynamics, the reasons for their behaviour, the principles and logics that shape them. We also analyzed the joints that link them to external macroinstitutions, their autonomy or dependency with regard to the latter, and their incidence on sport institutions' logics

  20. Les institutions et les acteurs en santé au travail au Québec et en France : regard croisé Occupational health institutions and actors in Québec and in France: new comparative perspective Las instituciones y los actores en salud laboral en Quebec y en Francia : una mirada cruzada

    Nathalie Ferré

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Au Québec comme en France, l’environnement institutionnel dans le domaine de la santé et de la sécurité au travail présente une grande densité. La loi québécoise du 21 décembre 1979, orchestrant l’ensemble du dispositif, a placé en son cœur la Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail. Elle cumule toutes les fonctions constitutionnelles en matière de prévention et de réparation. Elle est assistée par un corps d’inspection et s’appuie sur le réseau public de santé. En France, le paysage est plus éclaté. Il n’existe pas d’organisme équivalent. L’inspection du travail intervient pour s’assurer du respect des normes. Les organismes de sécurité sociale, qui prennent en charge les lésions professionnelles, incitent les employeurs à faire de la prévention. Les médecins du travail sont des travailleurs subordonnés, liés aux entreprises dans lesquelles ils interviennent. Dans les établissements, plusieurs acteurs héritent de missions diverses. L’étendue de la responsabilité de l’employeur est plus importante en France.In Québec, as in France, the institutional environment in the occupational health and safety field is extremely important. The Québec law of December 21, 1979, orchestrating its entire organization, placed the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail (workers’ compensation board at its centre. It encompasses all the constitutional prevention and repair functions. It is assisted by an inspection body and is supported by the public health network. In France, the landscape is more dispersed. There is no equivalent organization. Work inspection comes into play to ensure compliance with standards. Social security organizations, which take charge of occupational injuries, encourage employers to do prevention. Occupational health physicians are subordinate workers, linked to the companies in which they work. In establishments, several actors inherit various missions

  1. The Path From Passivity Toward Entrepreneurship: Public Sector Actors in Brownfield Regeneration Processes in Central Eastern Europe

    Alexandrescu, F.; Martinat, S.; Klusa ek, P.; Bartke, S.

    2014-01-01

    Europeanization research dealing with the environmental transition in Eastern Europe has focused on the roles of state actors in adopting European regulations. Less well understood are the framings and roles of public administration actors when European Union regulations do not prescribe specific institutional changes. This article offers a micro perspective on the framings and roles of such actors in several cases of brownfield regeneration. Actors can play a proactive role, thereby fosterin...

  2. An actor manages: Actor training and managerial ideology

    Chow, BDV

    2014-01-01

    This article reads the development of psychologically based actor training against larger changes in the organisation of work in North America and Europe in the twentieth century. Konstantin Stanislavky's System and later adaptations including the American Method are wrapped into a larger ideology of individual self-management and discipline – mental, physical, and emotional – that accompanies the emergent managerial class of the post-war era. An actor is an ideal manager, and therefore prefi...

  3. Hacia un entrenamiento del actor

    Urieta Lago, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    Esta investigación está basada en la intención de crear una guía de entrenamiento para el actor, que busca asumir un compromiso con su cuerpo, como instrumento para la creación escénica. El trabajo del actor-actriz está irremediablemente vinculado a su cuerpo, todo lo humano se enmarca en un cuerpo vivido, en el espacio y en el tiempo, no es algo neutral. Sabemos que cada actor-actriz, tiene una noción de su esquema corporal, entendiendo por esquema corporal la representación en imágenes de l...

  4. Technology strategy as macro-actor

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    third case account for how the strategic technology and the strategic collective emerge and co-produce each other as a macro-actor, only to become transformed in unexpected ways - as common technology and reflective human subjects.In the concluding section, it is argued that the humanity of the......-human entities to the explanatory repertoire of strategy research, another line of inquiry is pursued. The performative perspective thus proposed, is inspired by the classical work of Von Clausewitz and the recent anthropology of science, technology and organizational identities. In the proposed perspective, the...... outcomes.Three cases are presented, each of them with a particular bearing on how materials participate in the making of emerging strategic identities and outcomes:The first case account for strategies transforming plans into anti-plans. This is a case of how a strategic plan is betrayed (or rejected) by...

  5. Molecular signatures of ovarian diseases: Insights from network medicine perspective.

    Kori, Medi; Gov, Esra; Arga, Kazim Yalcin

    2016-08-01

    Dysfunctions and disorders in the ovary lead to a host of diseases including ovarian cancer, ovarian endometriosis, and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Understanding the molecular mechanisms behind ovarian diseases is a great challenge. In the present study, we performed a meta-analysis of transcriptome data for ovarian cancer, ovarian endometriosis, and PCOS, and integrated the information gained from statistical analysis with genome-scale biological networks (protein-protein interaction, transcriptional regulatory, and metabolic). Comparative and integrative analyses yielded reporter biomolecules (genes, proteins, metabolites, transcription factors, and micro-RNAs), and unique or common signatures at protein, metabolism, and transcription regulation levels, which might be beneficial to uncovering the underlying biological mechanisms behind the diseases. These signatures were mostly associated with formation or initiation of cancer development, and pointed out the potential tendency of PCOS and endometriosis to tumorigenesis. Molecules and pathways related to MAPK signaling, cell cycle, and apoptosis were the mutual determinants in the pathogenesis of all three diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first report that screens these diseases from a network medicine perspective. This study provides signatures which could be considered as potential therapeutic targets and/or as medical prognostic biomarkers in further experimental and clinical studies. Abbreviations DAVID: Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery; DEGs: differentially expressed genes; GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus; KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; LIMMA: Linear Models for Microarray Data; MBRole: Metabolite Biological Role; miRNA: micro-RNA; PCOS: polycystic ovarian syndrome; PPI: protein-protein interaction; RMA: Robust Multi-Array Average; TF: transcription factor. PMID:27341345

  6. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    McEwan, Bree

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance. PMID:23962125

  7. Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Aggregated Computational Toxicology Resource (ACTOR) is a database on environmental chemicals that is searchable by chemical name and other identifiers, and by...

  8. A Graph Minor Perspective to Multicast Network Coding

    Yin, Xunrui; Wang, Yan; Li, Zongpeng; Wang, Xin; Xue, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    Network Coding encourages information coding across a communication network. While the necessity, benefit and complexity of network coding are sensitive to the underlying graph structure of a network, existing theory on network coding often treats the network topology as a black box, focusing on algebraic or information theoretic aspects of the problem. This work aims at an in-depth examination of the relation between algebraic coding and network topologies. We mathematically establish a seri...

  9. Sport, Media and Sponsor: the Shifting Balance of Power in the Sports Network

    Wolfe, Rosita; Meenaghan, Tony; O'Sullivan, Paul

    1997-01-01

    As sport has become an important social and economic activity it is increasingly the subject of management analysis. This article adopts a network perspective to examine developments in the sports network. In particular, it examines relationships between network "actors" such as corporate sponsors, media and the owners of sport and analyses the changing balance of power in the sports network. Key media drivers of change in the network such as cable and satellite television, pay-per-view and d...

  10. The issue network of zero carbon built environments: a quantitative and qualitative analysis

    Rydin, Y. J.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental politics research frequently centres on the analysis of networks but predominantly from a qualitative perspective. The case is made for combining quantitative analysis of policy networks alongside qualitative research. This enables the structure and form of the network to be considered and focused attention then paid to how actors operationalise the network and give agency to the position of central nodes. This is explored through an empirical analysis of the issue network surro...

  11. Sociología del desarrollo: una perspectiva centrada en el actor

    Long, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    This is a translation of : Development sociology : actor perspectives / London [etc.] : Routledge, 2001. - 294 p. ISBN 0415235359 Using case studies and empirical material from Africa and Latin America, this book focuses on the theoretical and methodological foundations of an actor-oriented and soci

  12. You're a What? Voice Actor

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    This article talks about voice actors and features Tony Oliver, a professional voice actor. Voice actors help to bring one's favorite cartoon and video game characters to life. They also do voice-overs for radio and television commercials and movie trailers. These actors use the sound of their voice to sell a character's emotions--or an advertised…

  13. Cognitive Energy Harvesting and Transmission from a Network Perspective

    Lee, Seunghyun; Huang, Kaibin; Zhang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Wireless networks can be self-sustaining by harvesting energy from radio-frequency (RF) signals. Building on classic cognitive radio networks, we propose a novel method for network coexisting where mobiles from a secondary network, called secondary transmitters (STs), either harvest energy from transmissions by nearby transmitters from a primary network, called primary transmitters (PTs), or transmit information if PTs are sufficiently far away; STs store harvested energy in rechargeable batt...

  14. Actors in land and building cadastre procedures

    Rakovec, Jana

    2012-01-01

    In this graduation thesis I discuss the role of actors in land and building cadastre procedures. Individual surveying services are presented, as well as the role of actors in these individual surveying services. Individual actors are described in great detail, namely with referring to rules and regulations on the basis of which the actors are entering the land and building cadastre procedures. Further on, I offer a description of various manners on how to gain information on actors and also t...

  15. Framing by Actors in the Human Rights Debate: the Kony 2012 Campaign

    Meriläinen, Niina; Vos, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Human rights actors form networks and debate in issue arenas to find solutions to violations. Framing can be used to create and increase issue salience as well as organisational importance, thus influencing power relations and the human rights debate. Not all the actors are equally powerful, meaning that the more dominant actors function as gatekeepers, controlling the debate and the subsequent decision-making process. The campaign Kony 2012 by Invisible Children (IC) is u...

  16. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    P. Lafata

    2012-01-01

    Passive optical networks (PONs) represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passi...

  17. Random Graphs and Social Networks: An Economics Perspective

    Yannis M. Ioannides

    2005-01-01

    This review of current research on networks emphasizes three strands of the literature on social networks. The first strand is composed of models of endogenous network formation from both the economics and the computer science literature. The review highlights the sen- sitive dependence of the topology of endogenous networks on parameters of the behavioral models employed. The second strand draws from the recent econophysics literature in order to review the recent revival of interest in the ...

  18. Ecological networks in Europe; strategies, criteria and perspectives

    Jongman, R.H.G.; Lipsky, Z.; Aarsen, van den L.F.M.

    1995-01-01

    Ecological networks have been developed all over Europe within nature conservation planning and integrated planning. In the Netherlands the national ecological network is worked out in provincial conservation plans. In the Czech Republic the establishment of the ecological network is part of the nat

  19. Design Management in the Textile Industry - A Network Perspective

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Bang, Anne Louise

    2013-01-01

    in larger networks of suppliers, customers and other relations. Comparing the organisational networks we discuss how design activities unfold under different organisational settings. We also demonstrate that it is crucial for the companies who rely on external production facilities to have a strong design...... management in order to maintain the relationships in their network of customers and suppliers....

  20. Unfolding Perspectives on Networked Professional Learning: Exploring Ties and Time

    de Laat, Maarten; Strijbos, Jan-Willem

    2014-01-01

    Networked learning and learning networks are commonplace concepts in most contemporary discourse on learning in the 21st century. This special issue provides a collection of studies that address the need for a growing body of empirical work to extent the limited understanding of the use and benefits of networks in relation to learning and…

  1. Public utilities in networks: competition perspectives and new regulations; Services publics en reseau: perspectives de concurrence et nouvelles regulations

    Bergougnoux, J

    2000-07-01

    This report makes first a status about the historical specificities, the present day situation and the perspectives of evolution of public utilities in networks with respect to the European directive of 1996 and to the 4 sectors of electricity, gas, railway transport and postal service. Then, it wonders about the new institutions and regulation procedures to implement to conciliate the public utility mission with the honest competition. (J.S.)

  2. Virtual learning networks for sustainable development

    de Kraker, Joop; Cörvers, Ron

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable development is a participatory, multi-actor process. In this process, learning plays a major role as participants have to exchange and integrate a diversity of perspectives and types of knowledge and expertise in order to arrive at innovative, jointly supported solutions. Virtual learning networks can support these processes in at least two important ways. In higher education, virtual mobility networks can provide effective learning environments for the development of the competen...

  3. Perspective Application of Passive Optical Network with Optimized Bus Topology

    P. Lafata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive optical networks (PONs represent a promising solution for modern access telecommunication networks.These networks are able to meet the increasing demands on transmission rate for demanding multimedia services,while they can offer typical shared transmission speed of 1.25 or 2.5 Gbps. The major role in deploying opticaldistribution networks ODNs plays the maximum attenuable loss, which is caused mainly by passive optical splitters.This paper proposes an innovative application of passive optical networks with optimized bus topology especially forlocal backbone data networks. Due to using only passive components, it is necessary to optimize certain parameters,especially an overall attenuation balance. Considering the possibility of such optimization, the passive optical networkwith optimized bus topology provides several interesting opportunities for specific applications. This paper will presentselected aspects of passive optical networks and splitters with asymmetric splitting ratio. The essential part is focusedon the practical demonstration of their use to optimize the passive optical network with bus topology, which acts as alocal backbone network for structured cabling systems, and for local data networks in large buildings.

  4. Balancing Renewable Electricity Energy Storage, Demand Side Management, and Network Extension from an Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Droste-Franke, Bert; Rehtanz, Christian; Sauer, Dirk Uwe; Schneider, Jens-Peter; Schreurs, Miranda; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A significant problem of integrating renewable energies into the electricity system is the temporally fluctuating energy production by wind and solar power plants. Thus, in order to meet the ambitious long-term targets on CO2 emission reduction, long-term viable low-carbon options for balancing electricity will be needed. This interdisciplinary study analyses published future energy scenarios in order to get an impression of the required balancing capacities and shows which framework conditions should be modified to support their realisation. The authors combine their perspectives from energy engineering, technology assessment, political science, economical science and jurisprudence and address science, politics, actors in the energy sector and the interested public. Respectively, requirements for the balancing systems are analysed, considering the case of Germany as a large country with high ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, an approach to investigate the optimal design of the techn...

  5. Local stakeholder involvement in the perspective of nuclear waste management: lessons form the Cowam network

    The management of high level radioactive waste is nowadays recognised as a complex decision-making process entailing technical, environmental, ethical, social, political and economic dimensions where no solution can be reached solely on the basis of technical considerations. While this issue is acknowledged as a problem for the community as a whole, waste management remains a global problem looking for a local solution. Starting from this view, COWAM network (Community Waste Management), developed under the Fifth Framework Programme of the European Commission, addressed the following objectives: 1) To empower local actors through a networking process; 2) To gather and discuss the available experiences of decision-making processes at the local level within their national context in Europe; 3) To set up an arena for balanced exchanges between local actors, NGOs, regulators and implementers; 4) To promote new approaches to decision-making in national contexts in Europe. COWAM network comprises 230 delegates from 10 European countries, involving in priority local communities and NGOs. The emphasis put on the local participation enabled members of COWAM network to overcome distrust and to build common lessons and views beyond usual stakeholder positions. Through the analysis of case studies different issues were identified, among them two relate more specifically to: 1) Expertise what is the purpose of expertise on environmental impact in the decision-making process? How is this expertise linked with other scientific and non scientific issues? What is the role of stakeholders in expertise? 2) Environmental quality in the long term and sustainable development how is the impact of radioactive waste management facilities on the environment in the long term taken into account? how is this associated with the sustainable development of the hosting community? How are local stakeholders involved in these issues and what is the expected benefit from their participation? (author)

  6. Picture this: Managed change and resistance in business network settings

    Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses change management in networks. The literature on business networks tends to downplay the role of managerial initiative in network change. The change management literature addresses such initiative, but with its single-firm perspective it overlooks the interdependence of network...... actors. In exploring the void between these two streams of literature, we deploy the concept of network pictures to discuss managed change in network settings. We analyze a change project from the furniture industry and address the consequences of attempting to manage change activities in a network...... context characterized by limited managerial authority over these activities. Our analysis suggests that change efforts unfold as a negotiated process during which the change project is re-negotiated to fit the multiple actor constituencies. The degree of overlap in the co-existing network pictures of the...

  7. Deep vs. shallow networks : An approximation theory perspective

    Mhaskar, Hrushikesh; Poggio, Tomaso

    2016-01-01

    The paper briefy reviews several recent results on hierarchical architectures for learning from examples, that may formally explain the conditions under which Deep Convolutional Neural Networks perform much better in function approximation problems than shallow, one-hidden layer architectures. The paper announces new results for a non-smooth activation function - the ReLU function - used in present-day neural networks, as well as for the Gaussian networks. We propose a new definition of relat...

  8. A social network perspective of lead users and creativity

    Kratzer, Jan; Lettl, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    closely correlates to individual creativity, and both, in turn, to the provision of information in social networks. This study, guided by lead user theory, creativity research and network theory, investigates 16 school-groups of children examining the relationship between the children's social networks...... and their resulting creativity and lead userness. In addition, the interplay between lead userness and creativity is discussed and empirically tested. The main result of this study is that children who are positioned as bridging links between different groups in social networks reveal both a high...

  9. National networks of corporate power : an Irish perspective

    Mac Canna, Leo; Brennan, Niamh; O'Higgins, Eleanor

    1999-01-01

    This paper maps the network of interlocking directorships formed by the boards of the top 50 financial and 200 non-financial companies in Ireland. The Irish network is compared with those in ten countries, based on the same sample size and selection criteria as used in this paper, using the methods and theory of Social Network Analysis (SNA). Fundamental to the paper is the idea that the network of interlocking directorates is in some way structured, and not the result of random processes. ...

  10. An Actor-Critic Algorithm for Sequence Prediction

    Bahdanau, Dzmitry; Brakel, Philemon; Xu, Kelvin; Goyal, Anirudh; Lowe, Ryan; Pineau, Joelle; Courville, Aaron; Bengio, Yoshua

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach to training neural networks to generate sequences using actor-critic methods from reinforcement learning (RL). Current log-likelihood training methods are limited by the discrepancy between their training and testing modes, as models must generate tokens conditioned on their previous guesses rather than the ground-truth tokens. We address this problem by introducing a \\textit{critic} network that is trained to predict the value of an output token, given the policy of an...

  11. Broadcast Networks and the Outsiders: Legal Responsibility from Two Perspectives.

    Deming, Caren J.

    This paper examines the legal responsibility of networks to fairly represent outsiders in network employment and programming. The outsiders--women, racial and ethnic minorities, homosexuals, older people, members of minor political parties--have been using legal avenues provided by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and the Equal…

  12. Evolution based on chromosome affinity from a network perspective

    Monteiro, R. L. S.; Fontoura, J. R. A.; Carneiro, T. K. G.; Moret, M. A.; Pereira, H. B. B.

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have focused on models to simulate the complex phenomenon of evolution of species. Several studies have been performed with theoretical models based on Darwin's theories to associate them with the actual evolution of species. However, none of the existing models include the affinity between individuals using network properties. In this paper, we present a new model based on the concept of affinity. The model is used to simulate the evolution of species in an ecosystem composed of individuals and their relationships. We propose an evolutive algorithm that incorporates the degree centrality and efficiency network properties to perform the crossover process and to obtain the network topology objective, respectively. Using a real network as a starting point, we simulate its evolution and compare its results with the results of 5788 computer-generated networks.

  13. Modularity in Complex Multilayer Networks with Multiple Aspects: A Static Perspective

    Zhang, Han; Lai, Jian-Huang; Yu, Philip S

    2016-01-01

    Complex systems are usually illustrated by networks which captures the topology of the interactions between the entities. To better understand the roles played by the entities in the system one needs to uncover the underlying community structure of the system. In recent years, systems with interactions that have various types or can change over time between the entities have attracted an increasing research attention. However, algorithms aiming to solve the key problem - community detection - in multilayer networks are still limited. In this work, we first introduce the multilayer network model representation with multiple aspects, which is flexible to a variety of networks. Then based on this model, we naturally derive the multilayer modularity - a widely adopted objective function of community detection in networks - from a static perspective as an evaluation metric to evaluate the quality of the communities detected in multilayer networks. It enables us to better understand the essence of the modularity by...

  14. Special COP 21 - Stakes and actors

    A first set of article comments and discusses the various stakes and challenges of the 21. Conference of Parties (COP 21): the negotiation process which resulted in a synthesis which is to be signed by 95 States in Paris, the elaboration of an Agenda of solutions with the commitment of enterprises and local authorities, the issue of international financing as some promises remained not kept for the support to adaptation of developing countries. A second set of articles addresses the involved actors and their technological or economic challenges: the needed evolution of energy (electricity, heat, gas, fuel) producers away from fossil energies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the strategy of the French company Engie in the field of photovoltaic, wind and more generally renewable energies, innovating trends of decentralisation of energy production (offshore wind energy, hydrogen, plasma torch, flexible photovoltaic arrays, the wind tree, the floating wind turbine, new technologies for solar arrays), the perspectives for industrial sectors concerned by energy transition (with the example of Schneider Electric), emerging technologies (oil lamp, new boilers, desalination equipment, storage of wind energy, co-generation), developments and perspectives in the transport sector (example of Renault, new technologies for hybrid propulsion, bio-refineries, reduction of fuel consumption, hybrid aircraft, and heat management in railways) and in the building sector (new standards and applications, new building materials). A last article outlines the threat that climate can be for profitability and the taking of the carbon risk into account by the insurance and financial sectors

  15. Transnational corporations as 'keystone actors' in marine ecosystems.

    Henrik Österblom

    Full Text Available Keystone species have a disproportionate influence on the structure and function of ecosystems. Here we analyze whether a keystone-like pattern can be observed in the relationship between transnational corporations and marine ecosystems globally. We show how thirteen corporations control 11-16% of the global marine catch (9-13 million tons and 19-40% of the largest and most valuable stocks, including species that play important roles in their respective ecosystem. They dominate all segments of seafood production, operate through an extensive global network of subsidiaries and are profoundly involved in fisheries and aquaculture decision-making. Based on our findings, we define these companies as keystone actors of the Anthropocene. The phenomenon of keystone actors represents an increasingly important feature of the human-dominated world. Sustainable leadership by keystone actors could result in cascading effects throughout the entire seafood industry and enable a critical transition towards improved management of marine living resources and ecosystems.

  16. Engaging Actors in Co-Designing Heterogeneous Innovations

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lindegaard, Hanne; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    In this paper we share and analyze our experiences staging a co-design process in which we through different interventions engage important actors in designing. Our experiences are taking from an innovation and research project about user-involvement in textile design processes. As the project...... related to translating and transporting the results of these different events due to the institutional and professional framing of projects and design processes. We are analyzing these through an actor network approach and use the translation term to describe how the participants slowly became engaged in...... our project’s agenda by going through the different stages of translation. The paper is finalized with reflections on the difficulties in engaging actors in a co-design process and transporting results into the existing framed context of design and architectural work....

  17. Social Network Perspectives Reveal Strength of Academic Developers as Weak Ties

    Matthews, Kelly E.; Crampton, Andrea; Hill, Matthew; Johnson, Elizabeth D.; Sharma, Manjula D.; Varsavsky, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Social network perspectives acknowledge the influence of disciplinary cultures on academics' teaching beliefs and practices with implications for academic developers. The contribution of academic developers in 18 scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) projects situated in the sciences are explored by drawing on data from a two-year national…

  18. In search of a network theory of innovations: relations, positions, and perspectives

    L. Leydesdorff; P. Ahrweiler

    2014-01-01

    As a complement to Nelson and Winter's (1977) article titled "In Search of a Useful Theory of Innovation," a sociological perspective on innovation networks can be elaborated using Luhmann's social systems theory, on the one hand, and Latour's "sociology of translations," on the other. Because of a

  19. Privileged Emotion Managers: The Case of Actors

    Orzechowicz, David

    2008-01-01

    Theatre provides a unique set of conditions for the management of emotions. Drawing on participant observation from one repertory theater, three university productions, and interviews with stage actors, directors, and acting instructors, I conceptualize actors as privileged emotion managers. Actors access structural resources that enable their…

  20. Complex network perspective on structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus metabolic network

    L Ying; D W Ding

    2013-02-01

    With remarkable advances in reconstruction of genome-scale metabolic networks, uncovering complex network structure and function from these networks is becoming one of the most important topics in system biology. This work aims at studying the structure and function of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) metabolic network by complex network methods. We first generated a metabolite graph from the recently reconstructed high-quality S. aureus metabolic network model. Then, based on `bow tie' structure character, we explain and discuss the global structure of S. aureus metabolic network. The functional significance, global structural properties, modularity and centrality analysis of giant strong component in S. aureus metabolic networks are studied.

  1. Women in formal corporate networks: an organisational citizenship perspective.

    Singh, Val; Vinnicombe, Susan; Kumra, Savita

    2006-01-01

    To investigate women's corporate networks, and the reported benefits for the women and their employers. To gain insight into the motivation for these voluntary activities, by drawing on organisational citizenship theory.

  2. Swedish Cleantech Opportunities in China : From a Business Network Perspective

    Liu, Dan; Fu, Yanwei

    2011-01-01

    The emerging cleantech market in China will bring new business opportunities for Swedish cleantech SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises). In such an internationalization process, business network building is an important approach that Swedish entrepreneurs should consider about. Guanxi is a culture pattern in China and plays important role in business of Chinese context. The purpose of the thesis is to find how business network and guanxi affect on Swedish SMEs’ internationalization, especially...

  3. Structural properties of network revenue management models: an economic perspective

    Morton, Alec

    2006-01-01

    Many revenue management problems have a network aspect. In this paper, we argue that a network can be thought of as a system of substitutable and complementary products, and the value of a revenue management model should be supermodular or submodular in the availability of two resources as the resources are economic substitutes or complements. We demonstrate that this is true in the case of a two-resource dynamic stochastic revenue management model, and show how this applies for multi-resourc...

  4. A Network Perspective on Individual-Level Ambidexterity in Organizations

    Rogan, Michelle; Mors, Marie Louise

    2014-01-01

    Addressing the call for a deeper understanding of ambidexterity at the individual level, we propose that managers’ networks are an important yet understudied factor in the ability to balance the trade-off between exploring for new business and exploiting existing business. Analyses of 1,449 ties ...... predominately explored or exploited. The findings suggest that managers’ networks are important levers for their ability to behave ambidextrously and offer insights into the microfoundations of organizational ambidexterity....

  5. Mimicking Nature´s way of organizing in industry: a network learning perspective

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Madsen, Henning

    The purpose of this paper is to further advance existing theory on industrial ecology, organisational network and organisational learning in order to speed up the development towards increased environmental awareness and behavior. It is argued that such a perspective offers a unique opportunity to...... reconsider organisational learning as being both an internal as well as an external phenomenon. By bringing network learning into an existing interorganisational setting (such as industrial ecology) new potentials for increased learning emerge for the participating companies. The concept of network learning...

  6. The network perspective: an integration of attachment and family systems theories.

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Hanney, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    In this article we discuss the network paradigm as a useful base from which to integrate attachment and family systems theories. The network perspective refers to the application of general systems theory to living systems, and provides a framework that conceptualizes the dyadic and family systems as simultaneously distinct and interconnected. Network thinking requires that the clinician holds multiple perspectives in mind, considers each system level as both a part and a whole, and shifts the focus of attention between levels as required. Key epistemological issues that have hindered the integration of the theories are discussed. These include inconsistencies within attachment theory itself and confusion surrounding the theoretical conceptualizations of the relationship between attachment and family systems theories. Detailed information about attachment categories is provided using the Dynamic Maturational model. Case vignettes illustrating work with young children and their families explore the clinical implications of integrating attachment data into family therapy practice. PMID:12395561

  7. El entrenamiento como base de la formación actoral

    Carlos Araque Osorio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The text presents a reflection on the actor’s training and its implications, virtues and contributions to the professional formation of actors. It starts from the experience that the author has assimilated as teacher and director, but mainly as an active actor, that appeals to his body as a work tool. From this perspective, the relationships between exercise, system and rehearsal are analyzed. Performance is not an esoteric and mystic act propitiated by the gods, it is a work that requires preparation, dedication and conscious inquiry. The actor or the actress that are unable to train in solitude, cannot contribute to a group, perhaps, this should be done without losing the perspective that theater is a collective act, in which communication plays an important role. For this reason, is fundamental to know how it is expressed, how it is signified and how a communication is begun between the actor and the spectator.

  8. A financial network perspective of financial institutions' systemic risk contributions

    Huang, Wei-Qiang; Zhuang, Xin-Tian; Yao, Shuang; Uryasev, Stan

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the effects of the financial institutions' local topology structure in the financial network on their systemic risk contribution using data from the Chinese stock market. We first measure the systemic risk contribution with the Conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) which is estimated by applying dynamic conditional correlation multivariate GARCH model (DCC-MVGARCH). Financial networks are constructed from dynamic conditional correlations (DCC) with graph filtering method of minimum spanning trees (MSTs). Then we investigate dynamics of systemic risk contributions of financial institution. Also we study dynamics of financial institution's local topology structure in the financial network. Finally, we analyze the quantitative relationships between the local topology structure and systemic risk contribution with panel data regression analysis. We find that financial institutions with greater node strength, larger node betweenness centrality, larger node closeness centrality and larger node clustering coefficient tend to be associated with larger systemic risk contributions.

  9. Interleukin-7 Receptor Signaling Network: An Integrated Systems Perspective

    Megan J. Palmer; Vinay S. Mahajan; Lily C. Trajman; Darrell J. Irvine; Douglas A.Lauffenburger; Jianzhu Chen

    2008-01-01

    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential cytokine for the development and homeostatic maintenance of T and B lymphocytes. Binding of IL-7 to its cognate receptor, the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R), activates multiple pathways that regulate lymphocyte survival, glucose uptake, proliferation and differentiation. There has been much interest in understanding how IL-7 receptor signaling is modulated at multiple interconnected network levels. This review examines how the strength of the signal through the IL-7 receptor is modulated in T and B cells, including the use of shared receptor components, signaling crosstaik, shared interaction domains, feedback loops, integrated gene regulation, muitimerization and ligand competition. We discuss how these network control mechanisms could integrate to govern the properties of IL-7R signaling in lymphocytes in health and disease. Analysis of IL-7receptor signaling at a network level in a systematic manner will allow for a comprehensive approach to understanding the impact of multiple signaling pathways on lymphocyte biology.

  10. Mixed Transportation Network Design under a Sustainable Development Perspective

    Jin Qin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed transportation network design problem considering sustainable development was studied in this paper. Based on the discretization of continuous link-grade decision variables, a bilevel programming model was proposed to describe the problem, in which sustainability factors, including vehicle exhaust emissions, land-use scale, link load, and financial budget, are considered. The objective of the model is to minimize the total amount of resources exploited under the premise of meeting all the construction goals. A heuristic algorithm, which combined the simulated annealing and path-based gradient projection algorithm, was developed to solve the model. The numerical example shows that the transportation network optimized with the method above not only significantly alleviates the congestion on the link, but also reduces vehicle exhaust emissions within the network by up to 41.56%.

  11. Two years of real progress in European HEP networking: A CERN perspective

    The last two years have been marked by real progress in networking in HEP. Home-made developments, studies and plans have given way to the use of real networks involving hundreds of HEP and other computers and based on externally produced software and hardware. Within the last year, the first generation of industrial software products following some of the international standards for networking have become available. Related developments are taking place in networking for on-line systems and indeed the LEP experiments are distinguished by their heavy and crucial reliance on both local and wide-area networks. This paper describes the progress made at CERN since the last two years and looks at perspectives for the future. (orig.)

  12. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature of the ...... actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  13. Three perspectives on the evolving electric vehicles innovation network of Finland

    Rasanen, R.-S.; Temmes, A.; Lovio, R.

    2013-06-01

    This report compiles the electric vehicle related work done in 2012 in the project: Future innovation and technology policy for sustainable system-level transitions: the case of transport (FIP-Trans). The project focuses on researching alternative and complementary socio-technical pathways and related policy options for sustainable transition in the Finnish transport sector. The project is financed by Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation. Analysis is continued in 2013. In this paper we study the evolving electric vehicle innovation network of Finland. The analysis is built on combining the theoretical aspects of Strategic Niche Management and Technology Innovation Systems. Based on the literature we develop a framework for analyzing the development of innovation networks. The framework contains four steps. The first step is the identification and analysis of the main actors and their activities. The second step is the identification and analysis of the main events affecting the development of the industry. This step is based on the use of event structure analysis. The third step consists of the analysis of development of the architecture of the system while the fourth step deals with the description and analysis of the niche and innovation system development processes in a combined manner. The data consists of interviews, policy and consultation papers, newspaper articles, press releases and other enterprise publications and of private databases containing financial information of the enterprises. Based on the theoretical framework, the four separate, but complementing qualitative analyses were made. The electric vehicle niche has evolved through the interaction of private and public sector actors. The involvement of public sector affected strongly on the evolution of the system arenas and was an important event for the resource mobilization of the industry. As with other Finnish industries, the importance of the international dimension

  14. Perspectives on next-generation technology for environmental sensor networks

    Benson, Barbara J; Bond, Barbara J; Hamilton, Michael P; Monson, Russell K.; Han, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Sensor networks promise to transform and expand environmental science. However, many technological dif- ficulties must be overcome to achieve this potential. Partnerships of ecologists with computer scientists and engineers are critical in meeting these challenges. Technological issues include promoting innovation in new sensor design, incorporating power optimization schemes, integrating appropriate communication protocols, streamlining data management and access, using innovative graphic an...

  15. The CE3R Network: current status and future perspectives

    Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Pesaresi, Damiano; Živčić, Mladen; Costa, Giovanni; Kuk, Kresimir; Bondár, István; Duni, Llambro; Spacek, Petr

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve the monitoring of seismic activities in the border regions and to enhance the collaboration between countries and seismological institutions in Central Europe, the Environment Agency of the Slovenian Republic (ARSO), the Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics (OGS), the University of Trieste (UniTS) and the Austrian Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) established in 2001 the "South Eastern Alps Transfrontier Seismological Network". In May 2014 ARSO, OGS, UniTS and ZAMG agreed to formalize the transfrontier network, to name it "Central and East European Earthquake Research Network", (CE3RN or CE3R Network) in order to locate it geographically since cross-border networks can be established in other areas of the world and to expand their cooperation, including institutions in other countries. The University of Zagreb (UniZG) joined CE3RN in October 2014. The Kövesligethy Radó Seismological Observatory (KRSZO) of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences joined CE3RN in October 2015. The Institute of Geosciences, Energy, Water and Environment (IGEWE) of the Polytechnic University of Tirana joined CE3RN in November 2015. The Institute of Physics of the Earth (IPE) of the Masaryk University in Brno joined CE3RN in November 2015. CE3RN Parties intend to formalize and possibly extend their ongoing cooperation in the field of seismological data acquisition, exchange and use for seismological and earthquake engineering and civil protection purposes. The purpose of this cooperation is to retain and expand the existing cross-border network, specify the rules of conduct in the network management, improvements, extensions and enlargements, enhance seismological research in the region, and support civil protection activities. Since the formal establishment of CE3RN, several common projects have been completed, like the SeismoSAT project for the seismic data center connection over satellite funded by the Interreg

  16. Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems

    Ryan R. J. McAllister

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Formal models used to study the resilience of social-ecological systems have not explicitly included important structural characteristics of this type of system. In this paper, we propose a network perspective for social-ecological systems that enables us to better focus on the structure of interactions between identifiable components of the system. This network perspective might be useful for developing formal models and comparing case studies of social-ecological systems. Based on an analysis of the case studies in this special issue, we identify three types of social-ecological networks: (1 ecosystems that are connected by people through flows of information or materials, (2 ecosystem networks that are disconnected and fragmented by the actions of people, and (3 artificial ecological networks created by people, such as irrigation systems. Each of these three archytypal social-ecological networks faces different problems that influence its resilience as it responds to the addition or removal of connections that affect its coordination or the diffusion of system attributes such as information or disease.

  17. INDICADORES ESTRUCTURALES Y CONGLOMERADOS DE ACTORES EN LA RED SOCIAL DE UNA SUBCULTURA URBANA/STRUCTURAL INDICATORS AND CLUSTERS OF ACTORS IN THE SOCIAL NETWORK OF AN URBAN SUBCULTURE/ INDICADORES ESTRUTURAIS E CONGLOMERADOS DE ATORES NA REDE SOCIAL DE UMA SUBCULTURA URBANA

    José Hernando Ávila-Toscano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio buscó identificar la estructura de socialización de una subcultura urbana con la medición de indicadores estructurales de su red social e identificación de subagrupaciones. Se empleó el instrumento Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule (ISSIS con 11 miembros de la subcultura roqueros. Se procesaron los datos mediante el análisis de redes sociales (ARS con el software Ucinet, para detectar conjuntos de actores con el procedimiento de conglomerados jerárquicos; y los gráficos de la red se crearon con NetDraw. Se identificaron niveles moderados de indicadores estructurales y las agrupaciones presentaron un número amplio de actores según el criterio de atracción por similaridad. Los subgrupos en la red fueron escasos, lo que muestra a la subcultura como una unidad social cuya integración se da por vinculaciones estrechas entre sus miembros.

  18. tradicional: Conflictos y actores laborales

    Héctor Lucena

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo forma parte de una línea de investigación más general que se ocupa de analizar las transformaciones en las Relaciones de Trabajo. El presente documento centra su atención en los cambios que experimenta la Organización del Trabajo y como ellos repercuten en la conflictividad laboral. Se parte de reconocer que la relación capital-trabajo es de naturaleza conflictiva, pero que los mecanismos de convivencia entre las partes y todo el marco regulatorio, permiten y facilitan el desenvolvimiento y la convivencia productiva. Sin embargo, los cambios en la Organización del Trabajo que reducen la fuerza de trabajo y lesionan conquistas históricas de los trabajadores, estimulan el desarrollo de conflictos colectivos, los que materializan en tanto existan constituidos los actores laborales. En el proceso de investigación seguido en esta línea, se revisa la literatura pertinente, se analizan casos de la realidad laboral venezolana reciente vía hemeroteca y entrevistas, privilegiándose la huelga de Sidor en el 2004. Se concluye, destacando que los cambios que paulatinamente se emprenden desde la empresa para modificar la Organización del Trabajo, erosionan la capacidad de respuesta de los actores laborales representativos de los trabajadores.

  19. Relational correlates of interpersonal citizenship behavior: a social network perspective.

    Bowler, Wm Matthew; Brass, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the role of social network ties in the performance and receipt of interpersonal citizenship behavior (ICB), one form of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). A field study involving 141 employees of a manufacturing firm provided evidence that social network ties are related to the performance and receipt of ICB. Results support hypothesized relationships, which are based on social exchange theory, suggesting strength of friendship is related to performance and receipt of ICB. Support was also found for impression management-based hypotheses suggesting that asymmetric influence and 3rd-party influence are related to the performance and receipt of ICB. These relationships were significant when controlling for job satisfaction, commitment, procedural justice, hierarchical level, demographic similarity, and job similarity. Implications and directions for future research are addressed. PMID:16435939

  20. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  1. Overview of HEP wide area networking: Producer perspective

    The prime role of HEP network producers is to understand user requirements and to translate them into policies and solutions; the next stage is to manage in a collaborative way the resulting services. Close coordination is essential, and concrete steps have been taken by HEP in Europe and the USA to set up the appropriate management structures. External constraints also exist (PTTs, policies on standards, ...) and the HEP network provider has to accomodate all these components in the planning of future services. This paper mainly discusses what has been achieved worldwide by HEP in this context - a set of coordinated conventional services using multivendor and proprietary protocols and mainly based on leased lines - and what can be expected in the coming years: advanced services consistent with the Supercomputer-Workstation era, based on high (megabit) to very high (hundred megabit) links. This is required to actually achieve collaborative and distributed processing of HEP data. (orig.)

  2. Wireless sensor networks: state of the art and future perspective

    Tuyl, van, J.M.; Os, van, H.; Henten, van, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    To reduce labour costs, the responsibilities of greenhouse production managers are ever increasing. This makes the decision-making process more complex and more information from the greenhouse work floor is needed. There is a tendency towards monitoring and managing crop production at plant level instead of monitoring the whole greenhouse, and as such there is an increasing amount of information coming from smaller individual sub-systems. To gather this information, Wireless Sensor Networks (...

  3. Inter-generational Contact From a Network Perspective

    Marcum, Christopher Steven; Koehly, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Pathways for resource—or other—exchanges within families have long been known to be dependent on the structure of relations between generations (Silverstein, 2011; Fuller-Thomson et al., 1997; Agree et al., 2005; Treas and Marcum, 2011). Much life course research has theorized models of inter-generational exchange— including, the ‘sandwich generation’ (Miller, 1981) and the ‘skipped generation’ pathways (Chalfie, 1994)—but there is little work relating these theories to relevant network mecha...

  4. MANAGING WATER QUALITY IN AHETEROGENEOUS LANDSCAPE : A SOCIAL NETWORK PERSPECTIVE

    Rathwell, Kaitlyn

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how humans and ecosystems interact across landscapes is an importantchallenge for the development of sustainable societies. Human dominated landscapes arefrequently heterogeneous in their distribution of ecosystems and the associated goods andservices. It can be difficult to create management strategies that cater to diverse demandsfrom different resource managers, while at the same time promoting healthy functioningof ecosystems held in common. I use a social network perspectiv...

  5. The entrepreneurial proces in a dynamic network perspective

    V. Christensen, Patrizia; P. Ulhøi, John; Madsen, Henning

    2010-01-01

    The main focus of this paper is on individuals and/or groups of individuals who create or seize a new technology-based or knowledge-intensive entrepreneurial opportunity. For this purpose, a theoretical framework for studying entrepreneurship, using financial, social and human capital, including social ties and networks, has been developed. Research themes or questions concerning how social ties and entrepreneurs’ background affect the funding, launching and subsequent developm...

  6. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes: comparative genomics and network perspectives

    Zhu, Kevin; Liu, Qi; Zhou, Yubo; Tao, Cui; Zhao, Zhongming; Sun, Jingchun; Xu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Background Defective tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and hyperactive oncogenes (OCGs) heavily contribute to cell proliferation and apoptosis during cancer development through genetic variations such as somatic mutations and deletions. Moreover, they usually do not perform their cellular functions individually but rather execute jointly. Therefore, a comprehensive comparison of their mutation patterns and network properties may provide a deeper understanding of their roles in the cancer developm...

  7. Quality of Experience on Smartphones : Network, Application, and Energy Perspectives

    Ickin, Selim

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones have become crucial enablers for users to exploit online services such as learning, leisure, communicating, and socializing. The user-perceived quality of applications and services is an important factor to consider, in order to achieve lean resource management, to prevent user churn and revenue depletion of service or network providers. This is often studied within the scope of Quality of Experience (QoE), which has attracted researchers both in academia and industry. The objecti...

  8. Automatic Fire Detection: A Survey from Wireless Sensor Network Perspective

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, N; Havinga, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Automatic fire detection is important for early detection and promptly extinguishing fire. There are ample studies investigating the best sensor combinations and appropriate techniques for early fire detection. In the previous studies fire detection has either been considered as an application of a certain field (e.g., event detection for wireless sensor networks) or the main concern for which techniques have been specifically designed (e.g., fire detection using remote sensing techniques). T...

  9. Traffic Convexity Aware Cellular Networks: A Vehicular Heavy User Perspective

    Shim, Taehyoung; Park, Jihong; Ko, Seung-Woo; Kim, Seong-Lyun; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin Gu

    2015-01-01

    Rampant mobile traffic increase in modern cellular networks is mostly caused by large-sized multimedia contents. Recent advancements in smart devices as well as radio access technologies promote the consumption of bulky content, even for people in moving vehicles, referred to as vehicular heavy users. In this article the emergence of vehicular heavy user traffic is observed by field experiments conducted in 2012 and 2015 in Seoul, Korea. The experiments reveal that such traffic is becoming do...

  10. Idea Management: Perspectives from Leadership, Learning, and Network Theory

    Deichmann, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn this dissertation, we focus on how leadership styles, individual learning behaviors, and social network structures drive or inhibit organizational members to repeatedly generate and develop innovative ideas. Taking the idea management programs of three multinational companies as the research setting, we investigate, in four empirical papers using different sources and methods, how innovative behavior can be supported, influenced, or changed. Within this context, we concentrate ...