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Sample records for activity-related injury prevention

  1. Process evaluation of a school based physical activity related injury prevention programme using the RE-AIM framework

    van Mechelen Willem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, only information regarding the effectiveness of an intervention programme is ever published. However, in recent years evaluating the translatability and feasibility of an intervention programme has become more important. Therefore, this paper presents the results of the evaluation of the iPlay programme aimed at preventing physical activity related injuries in primary school children. Methods The iPlay programme targeted injuries gained through physical activity, and consisted of a teacher's manual, informative newsletters and posters, a website, and set exercises to be carried out during physical education (PE classes. In order to evaluate the iPlay programme for translatability and feasibility, teachers, children and parents who participated in the iPlay programme filled out a questionnaire The objective of this study is to describe the results of the process-evaluation of the iPlay programme based on the five dimensions of the RE-AIM framework. Results The results showed that the participation rate of the children was 100% (reach. Nine percent of the schools who were invited to take part were willing to participate in the study (adoption rate. Teachers stated that they implemented the different elements of the programme partly as intended (implementation. The percentage of children and parents who followed the programme was less than expected. In addition, 52% of the teachers indicated that the current iPlay programme could become standard practice in their teaching routine (maintenance. Conclusion The iPlay programme is a first start in the prevention of physical activity related injuries in children, but further improvements need to be made to the programme on the basis of this process evaluation. Trial registration ISRCTN78846684; http://www.controlled-trials.com

  2. Effectiveness of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Bakker Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the effects of a school-based physical activity-related injury prevention program, called 'iPlay', on risk behavior and neuromotor fitness. Methods In this cluster randomized controlled trial 40 primary schools throughout the Netherlands were randomly assigned in an intervention (n = 20 or control group (n = 20. The study includes 2,210 children aged 10-12 years. The iPlay-intervention takes one school year and consists of a teacher manual, informative newsletters and posters, a website, and simple exercises to be carried out during physical education classes. Outcomes measures were self-reported injury preventing behavior, self-reported behavioral determinants (knowledge, attitude, social-influence, self-efficacy, and intention, and neuromotor fitness. Results The iPlay-program was not able to significantly improve injury-preventing behavior. The program did significantly improve knowledge and attitude, two determinants of behavior. The effect of the intervention-program on behavior appeared to be significantly mediated by knowledge and attitude. Improved scores on attitude, social norm, self-efficacy and intention were significantly related to changes in injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, iPlay resulted in small non-significant improvements in neuromotor fitness in favor of the intervention group. Conclusion This cluster randomized controlled trial showed that the iPlay-program did significantly improved behavioral determinants. However, this effect on knowledge and attitude was not strong enough to improve injury preventing behavior. Furthermore, the results confirm the hypothetical model that injury preventing behavior is determined by intention, attitude, social norm and self-efficacy. Trial number ISRCTN78846684

  3. Preventing Eye Injuries

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  4. Injury Prevention

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury School sports Injuries can land students in the ER. Text Messaging: Emergency Physicians ... For You American College of Emergency Phycisians Copyright © American College of Emergency ...

  5. Prevention of Football Injuries

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “cl...

  6. Preventing Children's Sports Injuries

    ... to stretch their limits and learn sportsmanship and discipline. But any sport also carries the potential for injury. By knowing the causes of sports injuries and how to prevent them, you can help make athletics a positive experience for your child. Kids can be particularly ...

  7. Injury Prevention Research

    2009-09-01

    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  8. Prevention of cold injuries

    Tipton, Mike

    2006-01-01

    On the 19th and 20th May 2005, civilian and military scientists, medical officers, engineers and other personnel from NATO and Partners for Peace countries met in Amsterdam, The Netherlands for a Human Factors and Medicine Panel Specialist's meeting (HFM-126/RSM) on the "Prevention of Cold Injuries". The meeting was organized by the Human Factors and Medicine Panel in close collaboration with TNO Human Factors, The Netherlands and the Royal Netherlands Navy (RLN). The meeting comprised two 45...

  9. Injury prevention and public health

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  10. Preventing Knee Injuries

    ... to tearing. Growth Plate Injuries, Fractures, and Dislocations Knee fractures rarely occur in childhood sports, but with any ... is the bump on the front of the knee where the patellar tendon attaches. Fractures to the growth plate in this area often ...

  11. Core Stability Training for Injury Prevention

    Huxel Bliven, Kellie C.; Anderson, Barton E.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Enhancing core stability through exercise is common to musculoskeletal injury prevention programs. Definitive evidence demonstrating an association between core instability and injury is lacking; however, multifaceted prevention programs including core stabilization exercises appear to be effective at reducing lower extremity injury rates. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanic, and clinical studies of core stability for injury prevention (keywords: ...

  12. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Russell JA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health

  13. Marine injuries. Prevention and treatment.

    Frey, C

    1994-08-01

    Penetrating wounds, stings, and inoculation of venom are common marine injuries to unwary walkers during the summer season. In many circumstances, foreign bodies such as wood splinters or small shards of glass can be removed readily with fine-pointed forceps. Other times, objects may not be noticed until radiographic examination of the injured area. With deeply penetrated foreign bodies, attempts at removal must often be weighed against the likelihood of continued symptoms and damage should the object be left in the foot. This review presents methods of prevention and treatment for common sources of marine foot injuries. PMID:7997347

  14. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention

    ... this? Submit Button Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir There are ... More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/or not supported in ...

  15. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    Dehran Swart

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ‎discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ‎multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ‎and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ‎successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ‎initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.‎

  16. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Russell, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1) screening; (2) physical training; (3) nutrition and rest; (4) specialized dance health care; and (5) becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. PMID:24379726

  17. Epidemiology and prevention of football injuries

    Hägglund, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to study the incidence, severity and pattern of injury in male and female elite football players; to study time trends in injury risk; to identify risk factors for injury; and to test the effectiveness of an intervention programme aimed at preventing re-injury. All studies followed a prospective design using standardised definitions and data collection forms. Individual training and match exposure was registered for all players participating. Time loss injuries we...

  18. Current trends and update on injury prevention.

    Curry, Parichat; Ramaiah, Ramesh; Vavilala, Monica S

    2011-01-01

    Injuries are a major and growing public health problem, a leading cause of death and disabilities among people aged 1-44 years around the world. Each year, 5.8 million people die from injuries, accounting for 10% of the world's deaths. Road traffic injuries (RTIs), self-inflicted injuries and violence are the top three leading causes of all injury deaths, while RTIs, falls and drowning are the top three leading causes of unintentional injury death. In many high-income countries, trends of injury death have been decreasing as a result of prevention measures. In contrast, trends in low- and middle-income countries have been rising. In this article, we review the prevention strategies for RTIs, violence, falls and drowning developed over decades to disseminate the knowledge and inform health care providers, especially acute care physicians, about the importance of injury prevention. PMID:22096775

  19. Cheerleading Injuries. Patterns, Prevention, Case Reports.

    Hutchinson, Mark R.

    1997-01-01

    Although cheerleading carries a relatively low injury risk, injuries that do occur can be severe, commonly affecting the ankle, head, and neck. Two case reports are presented that illustrate acute injuries typical of cheerleading. Prevention recommendations are offered related to supervising, screening, limiting stunts, optimizing the environment…

  20. Prevention of groin injuries in sports

    Esteve, E; Rathleff, M S; Bagur-Calafat, C;

    2015-01-01

    performed in Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS: Seven trials were included: six on football players (four male and two female populations) and one on male handball players. In total there were 4191 participants with a total of 157 injuries. The primary analysis, including all participants, did not show a......BACKGROUND/AIM: Groin injuries are common in football and ice hockey, and previous groin injury is a strong risk factor for future groin injuries, which calls for primary prevention. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of specific groin-injury prevention programmes in...

  1. Motor learning in ACL injury prevention

    Benjaminse, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Motor learning in ACL injury prevention
Anne Benjaminse

The physical and psychosocial consequences of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are large, for example limitations in daily life, reduction of sports participation, development of osteoarthritis in the knee and increased risk for re-rupture. The importance of prevention is clear, however we have not been able yet to reduce the ACL injury incidence. The aim of this dissertation was therefore to examine how current ACL injury pre...

  2. Eye Injury Prevention for the Pediatric Population.

    Hoskin, Annette K; Philip, Swetha S; Yardley, Anne-Marie E; Mackey, David A

    2016-05-01

    Each year an estimated 3.3 to 5.7 million pediatric eye injuries occur worldwide. It is widely reported that 90% of ocular injuries are preventable. Our aim was to identify legislation and policies, education, and mandatory eye protection strategies that have successfully contributed to reducing rates of children's eye injuries. A literature search was conducted using the terms "pediatric" or "children" or "adolescent" and "ocular" or "eye" and "protection" or "injury prevention." Articles were retrieved based on titles and abstracts and assessed in the context of our research question. Strategies identified aimed at reducing ocular trauma fell into 3 broad categories: legislation and policies, education, and personal eye protection. Policies including restrictions on the sale and supply of certain consumer products, mandatory vehicle seatbelts, and laminated windscreens in vehicles have assisted in reducing children's eye injuries. Educational tools aimed at children and their caregivers have been effective in changing attitudes to eye health and safety. Effective pediatric eye injury prevention systems require a multifactorial approach combining legislation, policies, standards, education, and personal eye protection to limit exposure to ocular hazards. A paucity of standardized measurement and lack of funding have limited advances in the field of children's eye injury prevention. Improved eye injury surveillance and research funding along with collaboration with health care providers are important components for strategies to prevent pediatric ocular trauma. PMID:27183290

  3. Prevention and rehabilitation of sports injuries

    Bing; Yu

    2012-01-01

    <正>Regularly playing sports or exercising is becoming an important part of a healthy life style.As the population playing sports and exercising is increasing,incidents of sports injuries are also increasing.Sports injuries result in devastating physical,psychological,and financial consequences and significantly impact the level of activity and quality of life of patients,which have not been fully recognized by our society. Preventing sports injuries and improving rehabilitation of

  4. Ways to Prevent Percussion Overuse Injuries

    Fidyk, Steve

    2009-01-01

    It is a proven fact that the repetitive nature of percussion playing can cause carpal tunnel syndrome, bursitis, and tendinitis. This paper offers ways to prevent percussion overuse injuries, particularly by developing a healthy warmup routine.

  5. Knee Braces to Prevent Injuries in Football.

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Five physicians discuss the use of knee braces to prevent injuries in football players. Questions are raised regarding the strength and design of the braces, whether they prestress the knee in some cases, and whether they actually reduce injuries. More clinical and biomechanical research is called for. (MT)

  6. Occupational injury insurance - A strategy for prevention?

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1993-01-01

    Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French.......Can compulsory occupational injury insurance be used as a strategy for prevention in the work place? This is discussed on the basis of two different insurance systems - the Danish and the French....

  7. Preventing equestrian injuries. Locking the stable door.

    Watt, G M; Finch, C F

    1996-09-01

    The medical and sports literature databases were searched for equestrian sports-related injury published in English since 1980, together with conference abstracts and discussions with equestrian sporting bodies. This literature was critically reviewed, with emphasis on measures to prevent or control injury i.e. countermeasures. While there is considerable literature available on the epidemiology of injury incurred in most equestrian sports, there is little on the prevention of these injuries. Case-control or other studies evaluating the effectiveness of the countermeasures suggested by authors do not seem to exist. There is a good body of epidemiology that supports the proper use of approved helmets as a means of preventing injury in these sports. However, protective helmets do not always prevent injury as expected, and many riders do not choose to wear them because of perceived poor design. The search for the ideal equestrian helmet should continue. Ideally the effectiveness of helmets should be assessed scientifically. Among the other countermeasures discussed are the use of rules and regulations for conduct of events, knowledge of horse behaviour, well-conducted lessons, contraindicated medical conditions, public education, rider education, appropriate equipment and clothing, the riding environment, rider experience, safety stirrups, body protectors, falling techniques, and first aid measures. Even though the injury rate for equestrians is relatively low when compared with other sports, the injuries that are incurred are usually severe. prevention is often difficult because the behaviour of the horse is unpredictable. Countermeasures used for prevention should be evaluated for the effectiveness to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries to equestrians. PMID:8883215

  8. [Prevention of injuries associated with horseback riding].

    ten Kate, Chantal A; de Kooter, Tabitha A; Kramer, William L M

    2015-01-01

    Each year 9,900 equestrians present at Accident and Emergency Departments, 40% of them 10-19 year old females. The most common horse-riding injuries are to the head, brain, neck and face, torso and extremities. Because of the relatively larger head, children more often fall on their head. Wearing a helmet gives considerable protection. Despite the common use of a helmet by horseback riders, serious head injury still occurs regularly. Further research into improvement of the protective function of the helmet is indicated. The current safety vest (body protector) does not significantly reduce the risk of torso injury. Improvement of its protective function is necessary. Injury to the lower extremities is caused when they become trapped in the stirrup in a fall from or with the horse. Safety stirrups and sturdy footwear are possible preventive measures. Investment in the quality and promotion of preventive measures could reduce the frequency and severity of equestrian injuries. PMID:25923496

  9. Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention.

    Judkins, Daniel G

    2009-01-01

    Fifteen tips for success in injury prevention include the following: (1) make a plan; (2) understand injury epidemiology; (3) read, learn, and get educated; (4) show me the data; (5) select prevention strategies thoughtfully; (6) define risk factors and understand risk taking; (7) evaluate; (8) schedule a lunch meeting; (9) use principles of health behavior change, adult education theory, and communication theory; (10) be friends with the marketing and public affairs people; (11) recognize the fact that people are more emotional about injury in children than in adults; (12) understand cost-benefits and payoffs; (13) get stuff; (14) report your results; and (15) be patient. Several useful tables for basic references to resources in injury prevention are included. PMID:20029280

  10. Preventing gun injuries in children.

    Crossen, Eric J; Lewis, Brenna; Hoffman, Benjamin D

    2015-02-01

    Firearms are involved in the injury and death of a large number of children each year from both intentional and unintentional causes. Gun ownership in homes with children is common, and pediatricians should incorporate evidence-based means to discuss firearms and protect children from gun-related injuries and violence. Safe storage of guns, including unloaded guns locked and stored separately from ammunition, can decrease risks to children, and effective tools are available that pediatricians can use in clinical settings to help decrease children's access to firearms. Furthermore, several community-based interventions led by pediatricians have effectively reduced firearm-related injury risks to children. Educational programs that focus on children's behavior around guns have not proven effective. PMID:25646308

  11. Preventing head injuries in children

    ... 2012:chap 50B. US Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Heads up. Facts for ... repair - discharge Epilepsy - children - discharge Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - ...

  12. GPS and Injury Prevention in Professional Soccer.

    Ehrmann, Fabian E; Duncan, Craig S; Sindhusake, Doungkamol; Franzsen, William N; Greene, David A

    2016-02-01

    Ehrmann, FE, Duncan, CS, Sindhusake, D, Franzsen, WN, and Greene, DA. GPS and injury prevention in professional soccer. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 360-367, 2016-This study investigated the relationship between GPS variables measured in training and gameplay and injury occurrences in professional soccer. Nineteen professional soccer players competing in the Australian Hyundai A-League were monitored for 1 entire season using 5 Hz Global Positioning System (GPS) units (SPI-Pro GPSports) in training sessions and preseason games. The measurements obtained were total distance, high-intensity running distance, very-high-intensity running distance, new body load, and meters per minute. Noncontact soft tissue injuries were documented throughout the season. Players' seasons were averaged over 1- and 4-week blocks according to when injuries occurred. These blocks were compared with each other and with players' seasonal averages. Players performed significantly higher meters per minute in the weeks preceding an injury compared with their seasonal averages (+9.6 and +7.4% for 1- and 4-week blocks, respectively) (p training and gameplay intensity leading up to injuries. Furthermore, injury blocks showed significantly lower average new body load compared with seasonal averages (-15.4 and -9.0% for 1- and 4-week blocks, respectively) (p injuries for coaches and sports scientists to consider when planning and monitoring training. PMID:26200191

  13. National programme for prevention of burn injuries

    Gupta J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The estimated annual burn incidence in India is approximately 6-7 million per year. The high incidence is attributed to illiteracy, poverty and low level safety consciousness in the population. The situation becomes further grim due to the absence of organized burn care at primary and secondary health care level. But the silver lining is that 90% of burn injuries are preventable. An initiative at national level is need of the hour to reduce incidence so as to galvanize the available resources for more effective and standardized treatment delivery. The National Programme for Prevention of Burn Injuries is the endeavor in this line. The goal of National programme for prevention of burn injuries (NPPBI would be to ensure prevention and capacity building of infrastructure and manpower at all levels of health care delivery system in order to reduce incidence, provide timely and adequate treatment to burn patients to reduce mortality, complications and provide effective rehabilitation to the survivors. Another objective of the programme will be to establish a central burn registry. The programme will be launched in the current Five Year Plan in Medical colleges and their adjoining district hospitals in few states. Subsequently, in the next five year plan it will be rolled out in all the medical colleges and districts hospitals of the country so that burn care is provided as close to the site of accident as possible and patients need not to travel to big cities for burn care. The programme would essentially have three components i.e. Preventive programme, Burn injury management programme and Burn injury rehabilitation programme.

  14. Unusual Birth Trauma Involving Face: A Completely Preventable Iatrogenic Injury

    Sharmila, Vijayan; Babu, Thirunavukkarasu Arun

    2014-01-01

    Birth injuries involving face are easily recognizable, but are often under-reported. Most of these injuries are associated with face presentation. We report an iatrogenic, but potentially preventable facial birth injury sustained by an unborn child in institutional setup.

  15. Preventing heat injury: military versus civilian perspective.

    Cooper, J K

    1997-01-01

    Guidelines for preventing heat injury (HI) among military personnel are not directly applicable to civilian personnel. Military guidelines call for relatively large volumes of prophylactic water consumption and physical activity limitations depending on the wet bulb globe temperature. However, in civilian populations, there is an increased prevalence of HI risk factors: older age, medication use, especially anticholinergic and psychotropic medications, obesity, previous HI, and skin disorders. Although dehydration is a major contributor to HI in military situations, it is unlikely in classical heat stroke among civilians. Civilian guidelines are based on the heat index. Activity levels must be restricted more for civilians, and prophylactic water consumption (beyond replacing loss from sweat) is not necessary. This review discusses the pathophysiology of heat injury, contrasts the military and civilian approach to prevention of HI, and describes appropriate field intervention for HI. PMID:9002705

  16. Injury prevention in an urban setting: challenges and successes.

    Laraque, D.; Barlow, B; Durkin, M.; Heagarty, M.

    1995-01-01

    The Harlem Hospital Injury Prevention Program (HHIPP) was established in 1988 with the goal of reducing injuries to children in central Harlem by providing safe play areas, supervised activities, and injury prevention education. To achieve this goal, a broad-based coalition was formed with state and local governmental agencies interested in injury prevention and with community groups, schools, parents, and hospital staff. An evaluation of the program in terms of both process and outcome forme...

  17. Interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers (Review)

    Van der Molen, H.F.; Lethola, M.M.; Lappalainen, J.; Hoonakker, P.L.T.; Hsiao, H.; Haslam, R.; Hale, A.R.; Verbeek, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. A number of injury prevention interventions have been proposed, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers. Sea

  18. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Training in Female Athletes

    Noyes, Frank R.; Barber Westin, Sue D.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Objective: To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. Data sources: In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995–August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Study sel...

  19. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    Johnston CA; Taunton JE; Lloyd-Smith DR; McKenzie DC

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalign...

  20. Brain injury biomechanics in closed-head impact : Studies on injury epidemiology, tolerance criteria, biomechanics and traffic injury prevention

    Viano, David

    1997-01-01

    Permanent disability from traumatic brain injury is a devastating consequence of traffic crashes. Injury prevention is a fruitful approach to reduce the incidence and severity of disabling brain injury. However, the development of effective prevention techniques requires better knowledge on the mechanisms and biomechanics of brain injury in closed-head impact. The overall aim of this study is focused on brain injury mechanisms, biomechanics, and tolerances in closed-head ...

  1. Activities related to the prevention of climatic change in some major urban areas of North America

    After a perspective on the need for action to prevent and prepare for global warming, and the potential consequences of inaction on North American communities, local and regional government perspectives are presented on the response to global warming in Chicago, Los Angeles, Montreal, New York, and Toronto. It is seen that local government and its agencies in these urban areas are little touched by the profound dangers to human existence posed by the continued release into the atmosphere of greenhouse gases. Explanations are offered for the apparent unwillingness to act, including ignorance and confusion about the greenhouse effect and global warming, unpalatable socio-economic and political costs of remedial action, a perception that global warming is not the responsibility of local governments, and a perception that cities are sources of environmental degradation rather than solutions to it. It is suggested that city living results in less overall atmospheric degradation than a suburban sprawl scenario, notably with regard to transportation. 25 refs., 3 tabs

  2. 75 FR 39544 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Preparedness and Emergency Response Learning Centers (PERLC)...

  3. Preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries

    The risk of sepsis development increases when thermal burns and other trauma occur in combination with exposure to radiation. Only surgical correction of the life-threatening state recommends within 48 hours after irradiation. All other arrangements have to carry out when hemopoiesis recovery will complete. However exposed patients with combined injuries (CI) die during the first two or three weeks mainly due to sepsis. Therefore prophylaxis and preventive therapy of infectious complications are need early. Actual difficulties in choice of valid treatment procedure for acute radiation syndrome (ARS) exhibit additional aggravation under CI. The available facts prove decreasing early therapy efficiency for rather high dose exposure and wound trauma occurrence. The own results showed that bacterial polysaccharide pyrogenal, glycopin (synthetic analogue of muramil-dipeptide), thymus preparations (thymozin, thymotropin, thymogen), tuftsin, heterologic human and bovine immunoglobulins did not modify the low values of 30-day survival under CI (irradiation + thermal burn). Single injection of prodigiozan, zymozan and some other yeast polysaccharides in 1 hr after CI resulted at moderate increasing of survival. The main purpose of this study, which bases upon our understanding of CI pathogenesis, was search more effective means for preventive treatment of combined radiation injuries. Two groups of remedies were under study. The first group included so called 'biological response modifiers' (BRM). These agents may increase host defences to infection, macrophage's activity and hemopoietic growth factor's secretion. The second group included antibiotics that should be directed against the potential gram-negative as well as gram-positive pathogens and simultaneously be useful for selective decontamination of gastrointestinal tract. (author)

  4. CDC School Health Guidelines to Prevent Unintentional Injuries and Violence

    Barrios, Lisa C.; Sleet, David A.; Mercy, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of all deaths among children and adolescents aged five to 19 years results from injury-related causes: motor-vehicle crashes, all other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Schools have a responsibility to prevent injuries from occurring on school property and at school-sponsored events. In addition, schools can…

  5. The Harstad injury prevention study: the epidemiology of sports injuries. An 8 year study.

    Ytterstad, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To describe the epidemiology of sports injuries occurring in a community during 8 years and to evaluate the outcome of an intervention implemented against injuries occurring in downhill skiing. METHODS--Hospital treated sports injuries occurring in Harstad, Norway (population 22 600) were recorded prospectively during an 8 year period. A prevention programme targeting downhill skiing injuries was evaluated. RESULTS--2234 sports injuries accounted for 17.2% of recorded unintentional...

  6. Solar Injury and Heat Illness. Treatment and Prevention in Children.

    Gutierrez, Greg

    1995-01-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to solar injury and heat illness. Physicians can lower children's risk through education about short-term and long-term sequelae and through various prevention efforts. The paper discusses how to screen for risk factors and how to prevent and treat heat illness and solar injury. (SM)

  7. The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries

    Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.......Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems....

  8. Injuries in female youth football : prevention, performance and risk factors

    Steffen, Kathrin

    2008-01-01

    Female football has experienced an enormous increase in popularity and in the number of active players worldwide. Previous research in female football has shown that the overall injury rate for female players is nearly as high as that for male players. As a consequence, effective injury prevention methods are needed for both genders at all age and skill levels. Especially for women, little is known about risk factors and mechanisms for injury which makes it difficult to develop injury p...

  9. Strategies for the prevention of volleyball related injuries

    Reeser, J C; E. VERHAGEN; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R

    2006-01-01

    Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuri...

  10. Injuries in youth female football: risk factors, prevention and compliance

    Soligard, Torbjørn

    2011-01-01

    Football is one of the most popular team sports worldwide. Although the positive health benefits of regular physical activity are well-documented, being active also entails a certain risk of injury. In football, studies on female players have reported overall injury rates nearly as high as for their male counterparts. However, identification of injury risk factors and mechanisms can help us implement tailored injury prevention measures for both sexes at all age and skill levels. A...

  11. Hamstring Strain Injuries: Recommendations for Diagnosis, Rehabilitation and Injury Prevention

    Heiderscheit, Bryan C.; Sherry, Marc A.; Silder, Amy; Chumanov, Elizabeth S.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2010-01-01

    Hamstring strain injuries remain a challenge for both athletes and clinicians given the high incidence rate, slow healing, and persistent symptoms. Moreover, nearly one-third of these injuries recur within the first year following a return to sport, with subsequent injuries often being more severe than the original. This high reinjury rate suggests that commonly utilized rehabilitation programs may be inadequate at resolving possible muscular weakness, reduced tissue extensibility, and/or alt...

  12. Sport Injuries for Females: Incidence and Prevention.

    Kindig, Louise E.

    Comparisons between sport-related injuries for male and female athletes are discussed in relation to statistics gathered by the National Athletic Injury/Illness Reporting System (NAIRS) and other sources. Tables display data on: (1) athletic injuries and fatalities in colleges and universities by sport, l975-76; (2) average annual frequency of…

  13. Prevention of Neurologic Injuries in Equestrian Sports.

    Brooks, William H.; Bixby-Hammett, Doris M.

    1988-01-01

    Risk of neurological injuries accompanies horseback riding, especially for children and adolescents. This article describes the mechanisms of craniospinal injuries and suggests measures to lessen risks. Measures include: identifying individuals who should not ride, developing criteria for resumption of riding after injury, developing protective…

  14. Preventing Running Injuries through Barefoot Activity

    Hart, Priscilla M.; Smith, Darla R.

    2008-01-01

    Running has become a very popular lifetime physical activity even though there are numerous reports of running injuries. Although common theories have pointed to impact forces and overpronation as the main contributors to chronic running injuries, the increased use of cushioning and orthotics has done little to decrease running injuries. A new…

  15. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention reduces injury incidence in Physical Education Teacher Education students.

    Goossens, L; Cardon, G; Witvrouw, E; Steyaert, A; De Clercq, D

    2016-01-01

    Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) students are at considerable risk for non-contact sports injuries of the lower extremities. Multifactorial injury prevention interventions including exercises have been successful in sports populations, but no such study has ever been performed in PETE students. This study investigated the efficacy of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention on injury incidence reduction in PETE students. PETE students in the intervention group (n = 154) and in the control group (n = 189) registered sports injuries prospectively. The intervention lasted one academic year and consisted of an injury awareness programme and preventive strategies, implemented by the PETE sports lecturers. Differences in injury incidence between the intervention and control group were tested by Poisson regression Wald tests. There was a trend towards significantly lower incidence rate (2.18 vs. 2.73; p = 0.061) in the intervention group compared with the control group. Students in the intervention group had significantly less acute, first-time and extracurricular injuries. The largest reduction was observed for injuries during unsupervised practice sessions. A multifactorial injury prevention intervention embedded into a regular PETE programme is a promising and feasible strategy to prevent injuries in PETE students. Further research is needed to investigate whether the results may be generalised to other PETE programmes. PMID:25768808

  16. Baseball pitching kinematics,joint loads,and injury prevention

    Sakiko; Oyama

    2012-01-01

    <正>There is a need for the prevention of upper extremity injuries that affect a large number of competitive baseball players.Currently available evidence alludes to three possible ways to prevent these injuries:1) regulation of unsafe participation factors,2) implementation of exercise intervention to modify suboptimal physical characteristics,and 3) instructional intervention to correct improper pitching techniques.Of these three strategies,instruction of proper pitching technique is under-explored as a method of injury prevention.Therefore,the purpose of this review was to explore the utility of pitching technique instruction in prevention of pitching-related upper extremity injuries by presenting evidence linking pitching technique and pitching-related upper extremity injuries,as well as identifying considerations and potential barriers in pursuing this approach to prevent injuries.Various kinematic parameters measured using laboratory-based motion capture system have been linked to excessive joint loading,and thus pitching-related upper extremity injuries.As we gain more knowledge about the influence of pitching kinematics on joint loading and injury risk,it is important to start exploring ways to modify pitching technique through instruction and feedback while considering the specific skill components to address,mode of instruction,target population,duration of program,and ways to effectively collaborate with coaches and parents.

  17. 75 FR 30041 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and... Disease Registry. Dated: May 20, 2010. Elaine L. Baker, Director, Management Analysis and Services...

  18. 75 FR 7606 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    2010-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease and Health Promotion, Office of the Director,...

  19. 76 FR 10371 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  20. 75 FR 30040 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    2010-05-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1:30... committee management activities, for both CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease...

  1. 75 FR 34750 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    2010-06-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8... management activities for both CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: June...

  2. 76 FR 9018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    2011-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  3. 77 FR 74695 - Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities

    2012-12-17

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Administration RIN 1218-AC51 Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities AGENCY...: OSHA invites interested parties to participate in informal stakeholder meetings on preventing backover... risks across various industries, whether or how backovers may be prevented by new technology or...

  4. The prevention of spinal injuries in rugby football.

    Silver, J R; Stewart, D

    1994-07-01

    The incidence of injuries to the spinal cord sustained at rugby in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia is reviewed. Ninety-seven injuries seen at Stoke Mandeville Hospital at the National Spinal Injuries Centre (NSIC) between 1956 and 1993 are analysed in detail. There were 93 accidents at rugby union, two at American football and two at rugby league. The injuries were of the cervical spine apart from four hysterics and one thoracic injury. The thoracic injury occurred after the game when the player fell downstairs. The injuries were analysed according to the mechanism of injury, the neurological condition, the causation, the standard of the player and the position in the field. The injuries caused were the result of force being applied to the skull which was transmitted to the cervical spine resulting in injury to the cervical cord. As a result of this research, representations were made to the appropriate authorities and changes in the laws were made. As a result of these law changes there has been a dramatic reduction in the overall number of injuries and the elimination of the injury from the loose scrum. This paper discusses the historical sequence of how these preventative measures came about to reduce the incidence of injuries and the legal implications whereby the authors took part in two law suits. The legal consequences are analysed in detail. PMID:7970845

  5. Racquetball. A game with preventable injuries.

    Soderstrom, C A; Doxanas, M T

    1982-01-01

    One hundred fifty-seven racquetball injuries were identified. Eighty-two involved the face, but ocular injuries were probably underrepresented as a result of patient triage protocols. Facial trauma occurred more frequently among novice players. Only 9.9% of the players wore protective facial equipment and 23.1% had taken lessons before being injured. We propose that injuries could be reduced with proper player education, including the wearing of protective facial equipment. A modification in the design of conventional facial equipment is suggested to further reduce injury. PMID:7114354

  6. The spectrum of prevention: developing a comprehensive approach to injury prevention

    Cohen, L.; Swift, S

    1999-01-01

    Objective—The purpose of this paper is to describe the "spectrum of prevention", a framework for developing multifaceted approaches to injury prevention. The value of the tool is that it can help practitioners develop and structure comprehensive initiatives.

  7. Preventing Dance Injuries: An Interdisciplinary Perspective.

    Solomon, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    This book on the interdisciplinary nature of dance medicine as an emerging field of inquiry contains the following chapters: (1) "A Comparison of Patterns of Injury in Ballet, Modern, and Aerobic Dance" (Marie Schafle, And Others); (2) "Pronation as a Predisposing Factor in Overuse Injuries" (Steven R. Kravitz); (3) "Some Common Foot and Ankle…

  8. Can child injury prevention include healthy risk promotion?

    Brussoni, Mariana; Brunelle, Sara; Pike, Ian; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Herrington, Susan; Turner, Heather; Belair, Scott; Logan, Louise; Fuselli, Pamela; Ball, David J

    2015-10-01

    To reflect on the role of risk-taking and risky play in child development and consider recommendations for the injury prevention field, a symposium was held prior to the November 2013 Canadian Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion Conference. Delegates heard from Canadian and international researchers, practitioners and play safety experts on child development, play space design and playground safety, provision of recreation, and legal and societal perceptions of risk and hazard. The presenters provided multidisciplinary evidence and perspectives indicating the potential negative effect on children's development of approaches to injury prevention that prioritise safety and limit children's opportunities for risky play. Delegates considered the state of the field of injury prevention and whether alternative approaches were warranted. Each presenter prepared a discussion paper to provide the opportunity for dialogue beyond attendees at the symposium. The resulting discussion papers provide a unique opportunity to consider and learn from multiple perspectives in order to develop a path forward. PMID:25535208

  9. Injury Prevention in Physical Education: Scenarios and Solutions

    Merrie, Michael D.; Shewmake, Cole; Calleja, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide physical educators with practical strategies that can assist in preventing injuries in the classroom. The dynamic nature of physical education and the numerous tasks physical educators must complete daily can be challenging. Embedded in these challenges is the constant risk of student injury. Fortunately,…

  10. Contralateral Metabolic Activation Related to Plastic Changes in the Spinal Cord after Peripheral Nerve Injury in Rats

    Ran Won; Bae Hwan Lee

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported the crossed-withdrawal reflex in which the rats with nerve injury developed behavioral pain responses of the injured paw to stimuli applied to the contralateral uninjured paw. This reflex indicates that contralateral plastic changes may occur in the spinal cord after unilateral nerve injury. The present study was performed to elucidate the mechanisms and morphological correlates underlying the crossed-withdrawal reflex by using quantitative 14C-2-deoxyglucose (2-DG...

  11. 75 FR 18848 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Prevention...

    2010-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health...

  12. Possibilities of preventing traumatic dental injuries: A prospective study

    Blagojević Duška

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the most important etiological factors related to traumatic dental injuries, type of required treatment, period from injury to initial treatment and Frequency of recall appointments. Material and methods The sample consisted of 283 children with dental injuries managed at the Department of Dentistry of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad. during the last 7 years. Retrospective data relied on trauma protocols of this department, whereas collected data referred to etiological factors, type of initial treatment, period from injury to initial treatment, recall appointments and complications of traumatic dental injuries. These results were compared with other similar national and international studies, in order to promote implementation of preventive strategies that would reduce the increasing frequency of dental trauma. Results Fall accidents were the most common cause of dental trauma. Injuries were most frequent in autumn, in the street, and in the afternoon hours. Single tooth injury was predominant, while the injured mostly denied previous injuries. Almost half of the injured patients did not seek professional help in the first 24 hours after the injury. 40% of treated patients missed their recall appointment. Conclusion Knowledge of the etiology is important for planning preventive, measures, but because of the complexity of etiological factors, it is difficult to prevent traumatic dental injuries. It is also important to underline the importance of immediate initial treatment of traumatized patients, and significance of their regular professional supervision. Generally speaking, almost all treatment procedures in management of traumatic dental injuries include preventive component.

  13. Preventing unintentional injury in children and adolescents--the importance of local injury data collection.

    O'Carroll, C

    2012-02-01

    We sought to prospectively study all injuries in children and adolescents up to 16 years of age presenting to a regional Emergency Department (ED), to ascertain detailed injury patterns and to use this data to recommend injury prevention priorities. Electronic injury surveillance was prospectively collected over a 10 year period (1997-2007) in a hospital with a paediatric catchment population of 75,000 in a region with pockets of high social deprivation. All fatalities were obtained from data provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO). Over a 10 year period, there were 31 fatalities, 5,408 admissions and 40,817 new attendances due to injury. Males outnumbered females in a 3:2 ratio. Of all injuries 24,317 (60%) occurred at home. Peak injury presentation time was in the evening between 18:00 and 20:00. Minor injuries (bruises, minor head injuries, lacerations and sprains) accounted for 32,456 (80%) of total. Fractures resulting from high falls (n=1,194) tended to result from bunk beds, staircases, horses, walls and playground equipment. Burns (n=630) involved hot liquids (tea, coffee), hot bath water, hot cooking oil and hot cooking plates. Pedestrian injuries (n=251) were predominantly \\'dart outs\\' in urban areas. Car passenger injuries (n=869) showed low rates of documented car restraint use. Poisonings (n= 1,153) were predominantly medicinal products. Cyclist injuries (n=477) indicated low documented use of appropriate helmet wear. Prevention priorities should focus on home injuries, hot liquid burn and scald injuries and high falls from walls, beds and playground equipment. To prevent road-related injuries and deaths, further legislation, urban planning and greater police enforcement is required.

  14. ThinkFirst National Injury Prevention Foundation

    ... the leading cause of death and disability among children, teens and young adults. The most frequent causes of these injuries are motor vehicle crashes, violence, falls, sports and recreation. What might surprise you ...

  15. Prevention, Evaluation, and Rehabilitation of Cycling-Related Injury.

    Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg

    2016-01-01

    The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit. PMID:27172085

  16. Preventing running injuries. Practical approach for family doctors.

    Johnston CA

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To present a practical approach for preventing running injuries. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Much of the research on running injuries is in the form of expert opinion and comparison trials. Recent systematic reviews have summarized research in orthotics, stretching before running, and interventions to prevent soft tissue injuries. MAIN MESSAGE: The most common factors implicated in running injuries are errors in training methods, inappropriate training surfaces and running shoes, malalignment of the leg, and muscle weakness and inflexibility. Runners can reduce risk of injury by using established training programs that gradually increase distance or time of running and provide appropriate rest. Orthoses and heel lifts can correct malalignments of the leg. Running shoes appropriate for runners' foot types should be selected. Lower-extremity strength and flexibility programs should be added to training. Select appropriate surfaces for training and introduce changes gradually. CONCLUSION: Prevention addresses factors proven to cause running injuries. Unfortunately, injury is often the first sign of fault in running programs, so patients should be taught to recognize early symptoms of injury.

  17. 75 FR 27797 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control

    2010-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and... committee management activities for both CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry....

  18. Lateral Knee Braces in Football: Do They Prevent Injury?

    Paulos, Lonnie E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The results of three recently presented clinical studies and a biomechanical study of the use of lateral knee braces to prevent knee injuries are reviewed. The results raise serious doubts about the efficacy of the preventive knee braces which are currently available. (Author/MT)

  19. Preventing Workplace Injuries Among Perinatal Nurses.

    Harolds, Laura; Hurst, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Many aspects of perinatal nursing put nurses at risk for injuries, including frequent repetitive bending, lifting of clients, and exposure to potentially large amounts of body fluids such as blood and amniotic fluid. Violence is also a potential risk with stressful family situations that may arise around childbirth. Workplace injuries put a health care facility at risk for staff turnover, decreases in the number of skilled nurses, client dissatisfaction, workers' compensation payouts, and employee lawsuits. Through the use of safety equipment, improved safety and violence training programs, "no manual lift" policies, reinforcement of personal protective equipment usage, and diligent staff training to improve awareness, these risks can be minimized. PMID:26902445

  20. An Injury Prevention Strategy for Teen Restaurant Workers

    Ward, Julie A.; de Castro, A. B.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Linker, Darren; Hildahl, Lyle; Miller, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    High levels of youth employment, workplace hazards, and characteristics unique to adolescents contribute to a relatively high incidence of injuries among teens in the restaurant industry. This article discusses the ProSafety model of injury prevention among teen restaurant workers. Through integration with an existing career and technical education program, the ProSafety project seeks to prevent occupational injuries among the teen worker population through classroom safety education and internship skills reinforcement. ProSafety is the product of an innovative collaboration with occupational health nurses, business professionals, educators, and government. Its approach is derived from Social Cognitive Theory, is consistent with key values and strategies of occupational health nurses, and provides lessons for practitioners seeking to reduce occupational injuries in food service or among other populations of adolescent workers. PMID:20180503

  1. 76 FR 4911 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational...

    2011-01-27

    ... recommendations to the Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Occupational Safety and Health Educational Research Centers,...

  2. Core strength: A new model for injury prediction and prevention

    Francis Smitha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Many work in injury prone awkward positions that require adequate flexibility and strength in trunk stabilizer muscle groups. Performance on a functional movement screen (FMS that assessed those factors was conducted and an intervention was designed. Methods A battery of FMS tests were performed on 433 firefighters. We analyzed the correlation between FMS performance and injuries and other selected parameters. An intervention to improve flexibility and strength in trunk stabilizer or core muscle groups through a training program was evaluated. Results The intervention reduced lost time due to injuries by 62% and the number of injuries by 42% over a twelve month period as compared to a historical control group. Conclusion These findings suggest that core strength and functional movement enhancement programs to prevent injuries in workers whose work involves awkward positions is warranted.

  3. [Biomechanics and injury prevention in road traffic].

    Walz, E

    1997-05-01

    The main predicting factor for the injury severity is "speed". This fact is predominantly important with regard to the protection of pedestrians and two wheelers. Today's safety features such as new steering and breaking systems, car body construction, seat belts, head restraints and crash helmets etc. let us sometimes overlook the hazards on the road. However, further improvements can be expected from advanced restraint system combinations, reinforced frontal and lateral car structures and padding, perhaps side air bags and automatically adjusted head restraint systems. Collision reconstruction and assessment of causality are needed, e.g., in cases of soft tissue neck injuries, questionable overrunning, walking direction of impacted pedestrians, uncertain belt or helmet wearing etc. Considerable legal problems arise if the causality is judged only from clinical point of view while the important criterion of collision mechanics is not taken into account in acceptable quantitative detail. Therefore it is recommended that determining the causality of a mechanical event should be left to specially trained professionals. PMID:9244993

  4. Profiling Young Children's Participation in Track and Field, Injuries Sustained and Prevention Methods Employed.

    Coulon, Lyn; Mok, Magadalena

    1999-01-01

    Explored nature and extent of track and field injuries of 8- and 9-year-olds and their injury prevention methods. Found that about one-third had at least one injury. About one-fourth considered their injuries serious. Most serious injuries occurred during track and field events. There were no age or gender differences in injury rates. Injury…

  5. On the road to prevention: road injury and health promotion.

    Stevenson, Mark; Thompson, Jason

    2014-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are already the leading cause of injury mortality and morbidity globally and by 2030 are predicted to be the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world. Australia has seen a dramatic reduction in road deaths and serious injuries since the 1970s and holds an international reputation for road traffic injury prevention due, in part, to its success in pioneering the multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach needed to address this significant issue and by applying an evidence-led approach to policy development. The paper will discuss Australia's early success in road traffic injury prevention (road safety), particularly the achievements following the implementation of targeted programs that focussed on road user behaviours for which health promotion played a role. The most successful of these programs was the introduction of comprehensive seat belt laws, random breath testing and more recently, strategic speed enforcement programs. Amid an array of significant challenges faced by the transport system in the future, the rapid development in information and communication technologies applied to transport is likely to provide the next generation of road safety benefits. The potential for a semi-autonomous transport system is likely to provide the next significant decline in road fatalities and serious injuries over the next 2 decades and the role of health promotion in relation to raising community engagement and building coalitions to increase uptake of new technologies will be discussed. PMID:24739772

  6. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 ...

  7. Preventing Death and Serious Injury from Falling Trees and Branches

    Brookes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Of 128 outdoor education related deaths examined since 1960, 14 have been due to falling trees or branches. This article examines the grounds on which death or serious injury due to falling trees or branches can be regarded as an inherent risk in outdoor education, and the extent to which such incidents can be regarded as preventable. It compares…

  8. Optimization of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Prevention Paradigm : Novel Feedback Techniques to Enhance Motor Learning and Reduce Injury Risk

    Benjaminse, Anne; Gokeler, Alli; Dowling, Ariel V.; Faigenbaum, Avery; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Onate, James A.; Otten, Bert; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS: Primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs effectively reduce ACL injury risk in the short term. Despite these programs, ACL injury incidence-is still high, making it imperative to continue to improve current prevention strategies. A potential limitation of current

  9. Photoreceptor IRBP prevents light induced injury.

    Sun, Zhongcui; Zhang, Meng; Liu, Wei; Tian, Jie; Xu, Gezhi

    2016-01-01

    Interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (IRBP) is a classic inducer of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Although IRBP causes neuronal loss in susceptible animals, resistant animals such as Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rats can benefit from the evoked protective autoimmune responses. The aim of the present study was to analyze the neuroprotective effects of IRBP against light-induced photoreceptor degeneration. We immunized 75 male SPD rats with IRBP and the rats were then exposed to blue light for 24 hours (IRBP group). Seventy five rats were included in the control group. We found that the number of apoptotic cells in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) peaked on 1 day after light exposure, and the ONL thickness decreased significantly on day 3. OX42-positive cells appeared in the ONL immediately after light exposure, and their number peaked on day 3, and changed from resting ramified cells to activated amoeboid cells. Compared with the control group (n=75), the IRBP group showed less apoptotic cells, a thicker ONL, and reduced expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These outcomes indicate the IRPB might protect retinal photoreceptors against light-induced injury. PMID:27100484

  10. Optimization of injury prevention outreach for helmet safety.

    Adams, Christy; Drake, Christiana; Dang, Michelle; Le-Hinds, Nho

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention initiatives are an effective strategy to reduce pediatric morbidity and mortality, but resource constraints can limit hospital-based prevention programs' capacity for carrying out such initiatives. Partnerships that leverage hospital leadership roles and promote collaborative outreach may provide a less resource-intensive means to expand prevention program capacity. One hospital piloted a collaborative helmet safety initiative, partnering with a nursing school and a local school district. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the resulting student nurse-administered school helmet safety program in improving use, knowledge, and attitudes toward helmets among school-age children. PMID:24828777

  11. 77 FR 4048 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-01-26

    ... Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research Sites in Puerto Rico... to ``Evaluation of Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  12. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program.

    Ejnisman, Benno; Barbosa, Gisele; Andreoli, Carlos V; de Castro Pochini, A; Lobo, Thiago; Zogaib, Rodrigo; Cohen, Moises; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. PMID:27563262

  13. Shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers: review and development of a FIFA 11+ shoulder injury prevention program

    Ejnisman B

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Benno Ejnisman,1 Gisele Barbosa,1 Carlos V Andreoli,1 A de Castro Pochini,1 Thiago Lobo,2 Rodrigo Zogaib,2 Moises Cohen,1 Mario Bizzini,3 Jiri Dvorak3 1Department of Orthopaedics, Federal University of São Paulo, 2Sports Medicine Department, Santos FC, São Paulo, Brazil; 3FIFA-Medical Assessment and Research Centre, Schulthess Clinic, Zurich, Switzerland Abstract: In the last years, shoulder injuries have represented an increasing health problem in soccer players. The goalkeepers are more exposed to shoulder disorders than other field players. Injury prevention exercises for upper limbs were cited in few studies involving throwing athletes, but we know that goalkeepers need a specific program. The purpose of this study is to describe the development of an adapted Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA 11+ program, namely the FIFA 11+ shoulder, which targets the prevention of shoulder injuries in soccer goalkeepers. The FIFA 11+ shoulder program is structured into three parts: general warming-up exercises, exercises to improve strength and balance of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and finger muscles, and advanced exercises for core stability and muscle control. The exercises were selected based on recommendations from studies demonstrating high electromyographic activity. Keywords: goalkeeper, shoulder, injury prevention, prevention program

  14. A Guide To The Prevention Of Running Injuries

    Clement, D. B.; Taunton, J E

    1980-01-01

    In North America, estimates of recreational runners have grown from two million in 1970 to 30 million in 1979. In Canada increased interest in running has been sparked by Participaction. Habituation to running is attributed to a sense of wellbeing and increased energy levels, as well as the possibility of reducing the threat of cardiovascular disease. Musculoskeletal injury is common to runners and can be prevented by carefully planned training programs, proper selection of training surface, ...

  15. Hazards of Farming: Injury statistics suggest methods of prevention

    Guilfoyle, John

    1992-01-01

    Farming is the most dangerous occupation in the industrialized world. Children, in particular, are at high risk for injury and disability. There is ample scope to improve this situation. Parents are the most important group to be educated. Emergency response services in rural areas are sometimes unable to provide optimum care for victims. Better surveillance methods need to be in place, both to gather information and to evaluate strategies aimed at prevention. Farm safety needs to be higher o...

  16. Victimologic Prevention of Causing Injury in the Republic of Kazakhstan

    Gauhar Rustembekovna Rustemova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article considers issues related to victimologic prevention of injury, and its importance in the system of criminological prevention. The work generalizes the experience of foreign countries in this area. The attention is focused on the necessity of the state, including internal affairs bodies, to pay special attention to this prevention way. The authors specify a number of factors that exist in the Republic of Kazakhstan and contribute to the mentioned crimes and rest on the subjects that carry out victimologic prevention.The authors point out that the lack of distinctly formulated state policy of victimologic impact on criminality in the Republic of Kazakhstan leads to difficulties in the practice of applying the above measures of victimologic character. The article makes a conclusion about the necessity to form and pursue state victimologic policy in the Republic of Kazakhstan and displays its top-priority areas.

  17. Assessment of caregiver responsibility in unintentional child injury deaths: challenges for injury prevention.

    Schnitzer, Patricia G; Covington, Theresa M; Kruse, Robin L

    2011-02-01

    Most unintentional injury deaths among young children result from inadequate supervision or failure by caregivers to protect the child from potential hazards. Determining whether inadequate supervision or failure to protect could be classified as child neglect is a component of child death review (CDR) in most states. However, establishing that an unintentional injury death was neglect related can be challenging as differing definitions, lack of standards regarding supervision, and changing norms make consensus difficult. The purpose of this study was to assess CDR team members' categorisation of the extent to which unintentional injury deaths were neglect related. CDR team members were surveyed and asked to classify 20 vignettes-presented in 10 pairs-that described the circumstances of unintentional injury deaths among children. Vignette pairs differed by an attribute that might affect classification, such as poverty or intent. Categories for classifying vignettes were: (1) caregiver not responsible/not neglect related; (2) some caregiver responsibility/somewhat neglect related; (3) caregiver responsible /definitely neglect related. CDR team members from five states (287) completed surveys. Respondents assigned the child's caregiver at least some responsibility for the death in 18 vignettes (90%). A majority of respondents classified the caregiver as definitely responsible for the child's death in eight vignettes (40%). This study documents attributes that influence CDR team members' decisions when assessing caregiver responsibility in unintentional injury deaths, including supervision, intent, failure to use safety devices, and a pattern of previous neglectful behaviour. The findings offer insight for incorporating injury prevention into CDR more effectively. PMID:21278098

  18. [Hand injuries and occupational accidents. Statistics and prevention].

    Marty, J; Porcher, B; Autissier, R

    1983-01-01

    Hand injuries count for a 1/3 of all injuries at work, 1/3 of chronic injuries, 1/4 of lost working time, 1/5 of permanent disability. This varies from activity to activity and with the material element involved. An average of 22 working days are lost, but this varies according to lesion. The average permanent rate is 5.8% against 10% for accidents in generally. High rates are not very frequent (2% above 10%). The average cost is between 12,000 F and 15,000 F (at 1980 rates) of which more than 2/3 can be attributed to daily compensations. In 1980, the number of finger amputations can be estimated at 11,000 (3300 fo which were accidents at work) whose overall cost was 140,000,000 F, the daily compensations being 2/3 of this figure. The cost of insuring this risk is subscribed by employers, and the contributions are based on the nature of the risk. To prevent accidents and the after effects certain points must obviously be stressed. The return of patients into working life is vital, even before complete recovery from their injuries. PMID:9382655

  19. Preventing Musculoskeletal Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents

    ... Basketball Common injuries and locations: sprains, strains, bruises, fractures, scrapes, dislocations, cuts, injuries to teeth, ankles, and knees. (Injury rates are higher in girls, especially for ...

  20. 78 FR 37542 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns NIOSH...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time...

  1. 77 FR 2548 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Grants for...

    2012-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Grants for Injury Control Research Centers (Panel 2... to ``Grants for Injury Control Research Centers, Panel 2, FOA CE12-001''. Contact Person for...

  2. Pharmacological Strategies to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    Pattharawin Pattharanitima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI is the most common iatrogenic cause of acute kidney injury after intravenous contrast media administration. In general, the incidence of CI-AKI is low in patients with normal renal function. However, the rate is remarkably elevated in patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, old age, high volume of contrast agent, congestive heart failure, hypotension, anemia, use of nephrotoxic drug, and volume depletion. Consequently, CI-AKI particularly in high risk patients contributes to extended hospitalizations and increases long-term morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of CI-AKI involves at least three mechanisms; contrast agents induce renal vasoconstriction, increase of oxygen free radicals through oxidative stress, and direct tubular toxicity. Several strategies to prevent CI-AKI have been evaluated in experimental studies and clinical trials. At present, intravascular volume expansion with either isotonic saline or sodium bicarbonate solutions has provided more consistent positive results and was recommended in the prevention of CI-AKI. However, the proportion of patients with risk still develops CI-AKI. This review critically evaluated the current evidence for pharmacological strategies to prevent CI-AKI in patients with a risk of developing CI-AKI.

  3. Prevention of common bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Zhi-Bing Ou; Jian-Ping Gong; Sheng-Wei Li; Chang-An Liu; Bing Tu; Chuan-Xin Wu; Xiong Ding; Zuo-Jin Liu; Ke Sun; Hu-Yi Feng

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the widespread adoption of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in the late 1980s, a rise in common bile duct (CBD) injury has been reported. We analyzed the factors contributing to a record of zero CBD injuries in 10 000 consecutive LCs. METHODS: The retrospective investigation included 10 000 patients who underwent LC from July 1992 to June 2007. LC was performed by 4 teams of surgeons. The chief main surgeon of each team has had over 10 years of experience in hepatobiliary surgery. Calot's triangle was carefully dissected, and the relationship of the cystic duct to the CBD and common hepatic duct was clearly identiifed. A clip was applied to the cystic duct at the neck of the gallbladder and the duct was incised with scissors proximal to the clip. The cystic artery was dissected by the same method. Then, the gallbladder was dissected from its liver bed. A drain was routinely left at the gallbladder bed for 1-2 days postoperatively. RESULTS: No CBD injuries occurred in 10 000 consecutive LCs, and there were 16 duct leaks (0.16%). Among these, there were 10 Luschka duct leaks (0.1%) and 6 cystic duct leaks (0.06%). Four hundred thirty cases were converted to open cholecystectomy (OC), giving a conversion rate of 4.3%. After a mean follow-up of 17.5 months (range 6-24 months), no postoperative death due to LC occurred, and good results were observed in 95% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: In our 10 000 LCs with zero CBD injuries, the techniques used and practices at our department have been successful. Surgeon's expertise in biliary surgery,preoperative imaging, precise operative procedures, and conversion from LC to OC when needed are important measures to prevent CBD injuries.

  4. Prediction and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury after Cardiac Surgery

    Su Rin Shin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery (CS-AKI ranges from 33% to 94% and is associated with a high incidence of morbidity and mortality. The etiology is suggested to be multifactorial and related to almost all aspects of perioperative management. Numerous studies have reported the risk factors and risk scores and novel biomarkers of AKI have been investigated to facilitate the subclinical diagnosis of AKI. Based on the known independent risk factors, many preventive interventions to reduce the risk of CS-AKI have been tested. However, any single preventive intervention did not show a definite and persistent benefit to reduce the incidence of CS-AKI. Goal-directed therapy has been considered to be a preventive strategy with a substantial level of efficacy. Many pharmacologic agents were tested for any benefit to treat or prevent CS-AKI but the results were conflicting and evidences are still lacking. The present review will summarize the current updated evidences about the risk factors and preventive strategies for CS-AKI.

  5. Injury prevention and risk communication: a mental models approach.

    Austin, Laurel C; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-04-01

    Individuals' decisions and behaviour can play a critical role in determining both the probability and severity of injury. Behavioural decision research studies peoples' decision-making processes in terms comparable to scientific models of optimal choices, providing a basis for focusing interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the 'mental models' that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people fail to see risks, do not make use of available protective interventions or misjudge the effectiveness of protective measures. If these misunderstandings can be reduced through context-appropriate risk communications, then their improved mental models may help people to engage more effectively in behaviours that they judge to be in their own best interest. If that proves impossible, then people may need specific instructions, not trusting to intuition or even paternalistic protection against situations that they cannot sufficiently control. The method entails working with domain specialists to elicit and create an expert model of the risk situation, interviewing lay people to elicit their comparable mental models, and developing and evaluating communication interventions designed to close the gaps between lay people and experts. This paper reviews the theory and method behind this research stream and uses examples to discuss how the approach can be used to develop scientifically validated context-sensitive injury risk communications. PMID:22088928

  6. 76 FR 13621 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel; Teleconference Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot for State-specific Cross-Sectional Surveillance of Persons with...

  7. Epidemiological characteristics and preventive strategies for fall injury

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the epidemiological characteristics and to define some preventive strategies for fall injury (FI). Methods: The medical records of patients admitted following a fall from a certain height between August 1996and July 1997 were analyzed retrospectively. Results: A total of 138 patients were assessed, with a mortality of 31.2%. The male-to-female ratio was 3.5: 1.The persons between 20 and 59 years old were the main victims (81.8%), of which 52.2% were related with their work altitude. The remaining adults fall because of,accidents in daily life, suicide attempts, drug abuse,alcohol, or criminal behavior. There were significant differences between the death group and the survival group in the Revised Trauma Score (RTS) and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) value (P <0.05 and P <0.01, respectively).Six children fall from balconies, open windows or roofs.There were significant differences for the height of fall and RTS value in aged group than those in children,adolescents, and adults (P <0.001, 0.005, 0.05; and P <0.05, 0.01, 0.05, respectively). The mortality of FI was significantiy correlated to the height of fall (r = 0.897, P <0.005). Conclusions: Male adults are the main victims,especially the workers at high altitudes. The mortality of FI is significantly correlated to the height of fall. The preventive strategies developed through analyzing the risk factors of fall in different age groups might reduce the injuries and deaths following fall.

  8. Preventing Workplace Injuries and Illnesses through Ergonomics. Listening to Our Pain.

    Rosskam, Ellen; Baichoo, Pavan

    1997-01-01

    Ergonomics focuses on the prevention of injuries through proper design of equipment, workstations, and products. The adoption of an ergonomic philosophy in the workplace has demonstrable benefits. (JOW)

  9. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    Tressie McMillan-Cottom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  10. Coronectomy - A viable alternative to prevent inferior alveolar nerve injury

    Alok Sagtani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Coronectomy is a relatively new method to prevent the risk of Inferior Alveolar Nerve (IAN injury during removal of lower third molars with limited scientific literature among Nepalese patients. Thus, a study was designed to evaluate coronectomy regarding its use, outcomes and complications.Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted from December 2012 to December 2013 among patients attending Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, College of Dental Sciences, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal for removal of mandibular third molars. After reviewing the radiograph for proximity of third molar to the IAN, coronectomy was advised. A written informed consent was obtained from the patients and coronectomy was performed. Patients were recalled after one week. The outcome measures in the follow-up visit were primary healing, pain, infection, dry socket, root exposure and IAN injury. The prevalence of IAN proximity of lower third molars and incidence of complications were calculated.Results: A total 300 mandibular third molars were extracted in 278 patients during the study period. Out of 300 impacted mandibular third molar, 41 (13.7% showed close proximity to inferior alveolar nerve . The incidence of complications and failed procedure was 7.4% among the patients who underwent coronectomy. During the follow up visit, persistent pain and root exposure was reported while other complications like inferior alveolar nerve injury, dry socket and infection was not experienced by the study patients.Conclusion: With a success rate of 92.6% among the 41 patients, coronectomy is a viable alternative to conventional total extraction for mandibular third molars who have a higher risk for damage to the inferior alveolar nerve.JCMS Nepal. 2015;11(3:1-5.

  11. Injury prevention risk communication: A mental models approach

    Austin, Laurel Cecelia; Fischhoff, Baruch

    2012-01-01

    interventions on the most critical opportunities to reduce risks. That research often seeks to identify the ‘mental models’ that underlie individuals' interpretations of their circumstances and the outcomes of possible actions. In the context of injury prevention, a mental models approach would ask why people...... fail to see risks, do not make use of available protective interventions or misjudge the effectiveness of protective measures. If these misunderstandings can be reduced through context-appropriate risk communications, then their improved mental models may help people to engage more effectively in...... and create an expert model of the risk situation, interviewing lay people to elicit their comparable mental models, and developing and evaluating communication interventions designed to close the gaps between lay people and experts. This paper reviews the theory and method behind this research stream...

  12. 78 FR 19490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Towards Cognitive Health, Cognitive Impairment, and Caregiving--Identifying Attitude Questions and... ``Attitudes Towards Cognitive Health, Cognitive Impairment, and Caregiving--Identifying Attitude Questions...

  13. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    2012-05-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  14. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    2011-05-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  15. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    2012-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  16. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strengthening the Monitoring and Evaluation of Programs for the Elimination and Control of Neglected...

  17. Spironolactone in preventing hypokalemia following traumatic brain injury

    Saeid Abrishamkar; Mehdi Shafiei; Mohammad Shafiei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Hypokalemia is a frequent complication observed after traumatic brain injury (TBI).We evaluated the effect of spironolactone on preventing hypokalemia following moderate to severe TBI.Methods: Patients with moderate to severe TBI, whose Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 9-12 and <9,respectively, were equally randomized into intervention and control groups, matching with severity of trauma and baseline serum level of potassium. For the intervention group, we administrated spironolactone (1 mg/kg per day)on the second day of admission or the first day of gavage tolerance and continued it for seven days. No additional intervention was done for controls. Hypokalemia (mild: 3-3.5 mg/L, moderate: 2.5-3 mg/L, and severe: <2.5 mg/L serum K+) and other electrolyte abnormalities were compared between the two groups at the end of the intervention.Results: Sixty-eight patients (58 males and 10 females)were included with mean age=(33.1±11.8) years, and GCS=7.6±2.8. The two groups were similar in baseline characteristics.Patients who received spironolactone were significantly less likely to experience mild, moderate, or severe hypokalemia (8.8%, 2.9%, and 0) compared with controls (29.4%, 11.7%,and 2.9%, respectively, P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in the occurrence of other electrolyte abnormalities, hyperglycemia or oliguria.Conclusion: Spironolactone within the first week of head injury could prevent the occurrence of late hypokalemia with no severe side effects.

  18. Injuries among Children and Young Adults in Uganda : Epidemiology and Prevention

    Mutto, Milton

    2011-01-01

    Background Injuries are a major morbidity and mortality cause among children and young adults worldwide. Previous Ugandan studies were limited in scope and biased towards severe adulthood injuries in referral care. Aims and Objectives This study explored the epidemiology of childhood and young adulthood injuries in Uganda: specifically their extent, pattern, distribution, risk and determinants, and stakeholder perceptions their regarding prevention and control. Methods ...

  19. A systematic literature review of the relationship between stretching and athletic injury prevention.

    Lewis, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Athletic-related injuries are a major cause for healthcare visits and financial burden for an otherwise healthy population of adults. The purpose of this article was to investigate the effects of stretching on injury prevention and to determine whether current stretching guidelines are beneficial for athletes. A systematic review of the literature was conducted through searching MEDLINE and CINAHL on topics related to stretching and injury prevention. Current belief is that stretching reduces injury incidence and that it should be performed prior to athletic activities. An examination of 11 articles provided inconclusive outcomes regarding the positive effect of stretching on injury prevention. A sport or activity-specific tailored stretch and warm-up program yielded the best outcomes in relation to preventing injuries. Direct negative effects of stretching were not identified; therefore, the application of stretching should be performed on an individual basis. PMID:25401202

  20. 77 FR 2549 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Grants for...

    2012-01-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Grants for Injury Control Research Centers (Panel 3), Funding... Control Research Centers, Panel 3, FOA CE12-001.'' Contact Person for More Information: Donald...

  1. Toppled television sets and head injuries in the pediatric population: a framework for prevention.

    Cusimano, Michael D; Parker, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to children caused by falling televisions have become more frequent during the last decade. These injuries can be severe and even fatal and are likely to become even more common in the future as TVs increase in size and become more affordable. To formulate guidelines for the prevention of these injuries, the authors systematically reviewed the literature on injuries related to toppling televisions. The authors searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar according to the Cochrane guidelines for all studies involving children 0-18 years of age who were injured by toppled TVs. Factors contributing to injury were categorized using Haddon's Matrix, and the public health approach was used as a framework for developing strategies to prevent these injuries. The vast majority (84%) of the injuries occurred in homes and more than three-fourths were unwitnessed by adult caregivers. The TVs were most commonly large and elevated off the ground. Dressers and other furniture not designed to support TVs were commonly involved in the TV-toppling incident. The case fatality rate varies widely, but almost all deaths reported (96%) were due to brain injuries. Toddlers between the ages of 1 and 3 years most frequently suffer injuries to the head and neck, and they are most likely to suffer severe injuries. Many of these injuries require brain imaging and neurosurgical intervention. Prevention of these injuries will require changes in TV design and legislation as well as increases in public education and awareness. Television-toppling injuries can be easily prevented; however, the rates of injury do not reflect a sufficient level of awareness, nor do they reflect an acceptable effort from an injury prevention perspective. PMID:26416669

  2. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury preven...

  3. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). Objective: To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. Data Sources: The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 an...

  4. Nursing Role on Prevention of Injury/Accident to People with Mental Disability

    Çelik, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    Injury and accident risks are higher in people with mental disability than healthy people. The mechanism of injury on these people is similar with pre-school children. Emotional, physical, behavioural problems, not suitable for individuals in life environments and unsupervised in the living environment are major risk factors for injury to people with mental disability. The priority task for nurses working in primary care is to determine strategies for the prevention of accidents and injuries

  5. Influence of a Prevention Program on Arm Injury Risk: An RCT in Adolescent Pitchers

    Shanley, Ellen; Bailey, Lane Brooks; Rauh, Mitchell; Kissenberth, Michael; Noonan, Thomas J.; Hawkins, Richard J.; Thigpen, Charles A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: High school pitchers are at three times greater risk of an upper extremity (UE) injury compared to position players, with most (69%) injuries occurring during the first month of the season. Therefore, a prevention program for pitchers targeting known risk factors may reduce their injury risk, particularly early in the season. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a preseason training program in decreasing the injury rate and altering the pattern of UE inj...

  6. 76 FR 13619 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    2011-03-14

    ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Malaria and Vector-Borne Diseases Funding Opportunity... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Malaria and Vector-Borne Diseases, FOA GH11-003, and... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  7. 76 FR 3909 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date 11 a... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  8. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review.

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and... Research Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC,...

  9. 75 FR 78999 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Centers for...

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated:...

  10. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-04-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...; Strengthening Disease Prevention Research Capacity for Public Health Action in Guatemala and the Central.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  11. 76 FR 19996 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting... management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for...

  12. 76 FR 20355 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    2011-04-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the... Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE., Mailstop K-92,...

  13. 76 FR 3908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): The...

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned... Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the...

  14. 75 FR 29561 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    2010-05-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Information: Donald Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention..., Management Analysis and Services Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. BILLING CODE 4163-18-P...

  15. 76 FR 12122 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): The...

    2011-03-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office... and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: February 25,...

  16. 78 FR 22268 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-04-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and...; Strengthening Disease Prevention Research Capacity for Public Health Action in Guatemala and the Central...; Strengthening Disease Prevention Research Capacity for Public Health Action in Guatemala and the...

  17. 76 FR 19995 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    2011-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned... Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 1600 Clifton Road, NE., Mailstop...

  18. 76 FR 13621 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Family...

    2011-03-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of the Director... and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  19. 76 FR 24490 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    2011-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Program Office, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 1600 Clifton... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: April...

  20. 76 FR 13414 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot...

    2011-03-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Blackman, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health... Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Dated: March...

  1. 75 FR 78997 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pilot...

    2010-12-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., Scientific Review Officer, CDC, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion,...

  2. 76 FR 49771 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-08-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway,...

  3. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H2DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice were

  4. Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced acute liver injury

    Wu, Kai C. [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Liu, Jie J. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in cadmium-induced liver injury. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that up-regulates cytoprotective genes in response to oxidative stress. To investigate the role of Nrf2 in cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity, Nrf2-null mice, wild-type mice, kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1-knockdown (Keap1-KD) mice with enhanced Nrf2, and Keap1-hepatocyte knockout (Keap1-HKO) mice with maximum Nrf2 activation were treated with cadmium chloride (3.5 mg Cd/kg, i.p.). Blood and liver samples were collected 8 h thereafter. Cadmium increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, and caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in the Nrf2-null mice. In contrast, Nrf2-enhanced mice had lower serum ALT and LDH activities and less morphological alternations in the livers than wild-type mice. H{sub 2}DCFDA (2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluoresein diacetate) staining of primary hepatocytes isolated from the four genotypes of mice indicated that oxidative stress was higher in Nrf2-null cells, and lower in Nrf2-enhanced cells than in wild-type cells. To further investigate the mechanism of the protective effect of Nrf2, mRNA of metallothionein (MT) and other cytoprotective genes were determined. Cadmium markedly induced MT-1 and MT-2 in livers of all four genotypes of mice. In contrast, genes involved in glutathione synthesis and reducing reactive oxygen species, including glutamate-cysteine ligase (Gclc), glutathione peroxidase-2 (Gpx2), and sulfiredoxin-1 (Srxn-1) were only induced in Nrf2-enhanced mice, but not in Nrf2-null mice. In conclusion, the present study shows that Nrf2 activation prevents cadmium-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through induction of genes involved in antioxidant defense rather than genes that scavenge Cd. -- Highlights: ► Cadmium caused extensive hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis in Nrf2-null mice. ► Keap1-KD and Keap1-HKO mice

  5. Windsurfing Injuries: Added Awareness for Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention.

    Rosenbaum, Daryl A.; Dietz, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    With proper training and safety precautions, windsurfing is relatively safe, but its unique equipment and unpredictable environmental conditions can produce serious injuries. Clinicians may see fall-related ankle injuries, tarsometatarsal injuries, or anterior shoulder dislocations; chronic low-back pain from torso stress; skin lacerations; and…

  6. The health profile of professional soccer players: future opportunities for injury prevention.

    Volpi, Piero; Taioli, Emanuela

    2012-12-01

    Injuries are a major adverse event during a soccer player's career; they require medical and surgical treatment and rehabilitation and thus may interrupt the player's activity, often with severe physical and psychological sequel. Specialists have tried to identify the risk factors for injuries, in an attempt to discover predictors that could be prevented and or eliminated before the injury occurs, but the results are scarce. This article reviews the epidemiology of the frequency and occurrence of injuries in Italian soccer players, reports a list of preventable risk factors that are associated with injuries, and identifies preventable risk factors. We have identified personal factors (age, previous traumatic events, physical and biological characteristics of the player, life style habits such as smoking, alcohol, and diet, changes in physical-athletic aspects of the players, such as increased muscle strength, and use of medications) as possible risk factors for injuries. However, environmental factors such as changes in training techniques, field composition, and shoes structure may also have a major influence. This summary indicates that appropriate preventive measures can be undertaken to prevent injuries in professional soccer players. Professionals who are in close contacts with the players should be informed of the predictors of injuries and should be trained to intervene and plan appropriate preventive measures. PMID:22344052

  7. The science of fencing: implications for performance and injury prevention.

    Roi, Giulio S; Bianchedi, Diana

    2008-01-01

    In this review we analyse the data from the literature on fencing with the aim of creating a psychobiological and multi-factorial model of fencing performance. Fencing is an open-skilled combat sport that was admitted to the first modern Olympic Games in Athens (1896). It is mainly practised indoors, with three different weapons: the foil, the sabre and the épée, each contested with different rules. A fencing international tournament may last between 9 and 11 hours. Bouts represent only 18% of total competition time, with an effective fight time of between 17 and 48 minutes. The physical demands of fencing competitions are high, involving the aerobic and anaerobic alactic and lactic metabolisms, and are also affected by age, sex, level of training and technical and tactical models utilized in relation to the adversary. The anthropometrical characteristics of fencers show a typical asymmetry of the limbs as a result of the practice of an asymmetrical sport activity. Fencing produces typical functional asymmetries that emphasize the very high level of specific function, strength and control required in this sport. Moreover, the physical demands of fencing are closely linked to the perceptual and psychological ones, and all are subjected to a continuous succession of changes during the bouts based on the behaviour of the opponent. For this reason it is difficult to identify a significant relationship between any one physiological characteristic and performance, and performance is more likely to be influenced by perceptual and neuro-physiological characteristics. Fencers need to anticipate the opponent and to mask their true intentions with a game of feints and counter-feints, which must be supported by an adequate psycho-physical condition to prevent central and peripheral fatigue. Fencing is not particularly dangerous; however, there is a fine line between a fatal lesion and a simple wound from a broken blade. The suggestions for injury prevention fall into three

  8. Public Health Models for Preventing Child Maltreatment: Applications From the Field of Injury Prevention.

    Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment. PMID:27580666

  9. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    2012-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Center for the Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Prevention Research Centers Network, SIP12-056, and Managing Epilepsy Well (MEW) Collaborating Center for Epilepsy Self-Management Intervention Research,...

  10. 76 FR 33305 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Program to.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  11. 78 FR 57391 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-09-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Capacity...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Times and...

  12. 76 FR 18555 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-04-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Virologic... (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  13. 77 FR 30015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Characterizing... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  14. 76 FR 13413 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Meeting

    2011-03-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Meeting Studies at the Animal-Human Interface of Influenza and Other... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 8 a.m.-5 p. m., May...

  15. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting... (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  16. 76 FR 33304 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to... activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances...

  17. 77 FR 27460 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-05-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Conducting... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  18. 77 FR 25485 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research Grants...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: DATES:...

  19. 78 FR 20319 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review.

    2013-04-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review. The meeting announced below concerns Research Grants...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and...

  20. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  1. 78 FR 1212 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-01-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Natural History.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  2. 76 FR 78263 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-12-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 8 a.m.-5 p.m.,...

  3. 78 FR 78964 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-12-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns The Cooperative... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date:...

  4. 77 FR 48986 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-08-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  5. 78 FR 35035 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    2013-06-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response Research to Aid Recovery...

  6. 76 FR 27327 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Meeting

    2011-05-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Meeting Studies at the Animal-Human Interface of Influenza and Other... committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency...

  7. 76 FR 29756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-05-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  8. 76 FR 67458 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-11-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Emerging..., for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances...

  9. 77 FR 291 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National HIV... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  10. 78 FR 75923 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Clinical... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time And Date: 1:00 p.m.-3:00...

  11. 78 FR 60878 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Health Promotion... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates 8...

  12. 78 FR 28221 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Youth Violence... Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned SEP: Time and Date: 12:30 p.m.-5:00...

  13. 76 FR 5379 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    2011-01-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panels... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  14. 75 FR 77645 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    2010-12-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panel.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  15. 76 FR 52330 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-08-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  16. 78 FR 62636 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-10-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time and Date: 1:00 p.m.-4:00...

  17. 77 FR 34045 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review

    2012-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Cooperative Research... Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Times and Dates: 8 a.m.-5 p.m., July...

  18. 75 FR 28810 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Conducting...

    2010-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Conducting Public Health Research in Kenya (Panel C), Funding... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  19. 78 FR 60879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns National Center.... 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  20. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Detecting..., for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances...

  1. 75 FR 28622 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Conducting...

    2010-05-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Conducting Public Health Research in Kenya (U01)(Panel A), Funding... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces...

  2. 78 FR 36785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-06-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Public Health Preparedness and Response Research to Aid Recovery...

  3. 77 FR 28392 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Alcohol-related... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  4. 76 FR 28790 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-05-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  5. 77 FR 25181 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-04-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...

  6. 76 FR 45575 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men and Young...

  7. 76 FR 9785 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human...

    2011-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who Have Sex With Men and...

  8. 76 FR 39879 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-07-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Prevention Projects for Young Men of Color Who Have Sex with Men and Young Transgender... Sex with Men and Young Transgender Persons of Color, FOA PS11- 1113.'' This subsequent meeting to...

  9. 77 FR 25180 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-04-27

    ... Dengue Epidemiology, Outcomes, and Prevention in Sentinel Surveillance and Research Sites in Puerto Rico... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  10. 76 FR 51985 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-08-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and..., National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway, NE... meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease Control and...

  11. 76 FR 67192 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC)

    2011-10-31

    ... relating to the causes, diagnosis, treatment, control, and prevention of physical and mental diseases, and... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Board of Scientific Counselors, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (BSC, NCIPC) In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...

  12. ACL Injury prevention in female athletes: review of the literature and practical considerations in implementing an ACL prevention program

    Voskanian, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Female athletes are at 3.5 times risk of sustaining a non-contact ACL injury compared with males. Research has shown that this gender discrepancy results from differences in neuromuscular adaptations and biomechanics related to landing techniques. Studies have examined the preventative effect of ACL prevention programs, which have been designed to address these risky neuromuscular and biomechanical patterns. We review the key studies on ACL prevention in female athletes and summarize the crit...

  13. Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the female athlete

    Silvers, Holly Jacinda; Mandelbaum, Bert R.

    2007-01-01

    The relationships of gender, age and training to the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury are pivotal to developing a comprehensive neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programme to decrease ACL injuries in female athletes. A prophylactic neuromuscular and proprioceptive training programme may have direct benefit in decreasing the number of ACL injuries in female athletes. This research foundation endorses further epidemiological and biomechanical studies to determine the...

  14. Possibilities of preventing traumatic dental injuries: A prospective study

    Blagojević Duška; Petrović Bojan; Marković Dejan

    2005-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the most important etiological factors related to traumatic dental injuries, type of required treatment, period from injury to initial treatment and Frequency of recall appointments. Material and methods The sample consisted of 283 children with dental injuries managed at the Department of Dentistry of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad. during the last 7 years. Retrospective data relied on trauma protocols of this department, whereas col...

  15. Injury prevalence of netball players in South Africa: The need for in jury prevention

    T. Pillay

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish baseline data for injury prevalence,mechanism of injury, injury severity and management of injuries in netball playersin South Africa. A cross sectional descriptive design was employed to collect databy means of a questionnaire in 2010. Participants consisted of 254 netball playerswho participated in a netball tournament. Permission was obtained from all therelevant organizations and informed consent obtained from the participants. Thegeneral injury rate was 61.8% with an injury rate of 1.9 injuries per player forthe past season. The most commonly injured structures were the ankle 37.5 % andthe knee 28.6% with the most common mechanism of injury being landing, 19% and 29% respectively. Of those whosustained injuries, 86 (44% of the injured athletes’ sustained severe injuries, 31(16% sustained moderate injuriesand 78 (40% sustained mild injuries. 67% of players reported they were able to continue with the game and 33%received medical assistance losing game and training time. The most common form of management accessed wasphysiotherapy, which accounted for 31%. It is evident that the ankle and knee injury rates amongst South Africannetball players are high in comparison to other netball playing nations. Injury surveillance is an integral part ofdeveloping preventative measures. The article lays a platform for developing these strategies against the backdrop ofits findings and comparison with other authors.

  16. Lung injury in acute pancreatitis: mechanisms, prevention, and therapy.

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    Lung injury is the most pertinent manifestation of extra-abdominal organ dysfunction in pancreatitis. The propensity of this retroperitoneal inflammatory condition to engender a diffuse and life-threatening lung injury is significant. Approximately one third of patients will develop acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, which account for 60% of all deaths within the first week. The variability in the clinical course of pancreatitis renders it a vexing entity and makes demonstration of the efficacy of any specific intervention difficult. The distinct pathologic entity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury is reviewed with a focus on etiology and potential therapeutic maneuvers.

  17. Effects of an osteoporosis prevention training program on physical activity-related stages of change and self-efficacy among university students, Shiraz, Iran: a randomized clinical trial

    MOHAMMAD HOSSIEN KAVEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis is a major problem in today's world, being characterized by decreased bone mass and bone change. Due to deficiency of theory-based studies in young population, especially in students, there are significant knowledge gaps of effective planning. The present study was performed in response to this need. The present study investigated the effect of an empowerment program on physical activity related stages of change and self-efficacy in preventing osteoporosis among university students Methods: In this randomized controlled trial (IRCT: IRCT201212016261N2, 152 female students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences were selected through multi-stages cluster sampling and were randomly assigned to an experimental (n=76 and a control (n=76 group. The pre-and post-intervention data were collected using the Stages of Exercise Change Questionnaire (SECQ of Marcos with Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.89 and also the self-efficacy scale with a Cronbach's alpha reliability of 0.88 and Test-Retest Correlation Coefficient of 0.80. The educational intervention for the experimental group took place through problem-based learning method, small group discussion, and training manuals. In addition, training CDs and brochures were given to the subjects and short SMSs were sent to them. The data were analyzed through SPSS, version 14, using Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square test, Wilcoxon and regression tests. Results: Pre-intervention findings showed that participants had behavioral constructs below the expected levels. The results showed that the experimental group received significant statistical increase after the intervention in stage of change. Before the intervention, the mean scores of stages of changes in the experimental groups was 2.28±0.86 but this rose to 3±0.84 in the first post-test and 3.22±0.84 in the second post-test. The control group showed a significant increase in stage of change without intervention (pre-test 2.04±0

  18. Prevention of iatrogenic inferior alveolar nerve injuries in relation to dental procedures.

    Renton, T

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to review current hypotheses on the aetiology and prevention of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injuries in relation to dental procedures. The inferior alveolar nerve can be damaged during many dental procedures, including administration of local anaesthetic, implant bed preparation and placement, endodontics, third molar surgery and other surgical interventions. Damage to sensory nerves can result in anaesthesia, paraesthesia, pain, or a combination of the three. Pain is common in inferior alveolar nerve injuries, resulting in significant functional problems. The significant disability associated with these nerve injuries may also result in increasing numbers of medico-legal claims. Many of these iatrogenic nerve injuries can be avoided with careful patient assessment and planning. Furthermore, if the injury occurs there are emerging strategies that may facilitate recovery. The emphasis of this review is on how we may prevent these injuries and facilitate resolution in the early post surgical phase. PMID:21133047

  19. Strategies to prevent intraoperative lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Siminelakis Stavros N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During open heart surgery the influence of a series of factors such as cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, hypothermia, operation and anaesthesia, as well as medication and transfusion can cause a diffuse trauma in the lungs. This injury leads mostly to a postoperative interstitial pulmonary oedema and abnormal gas exchange. Substantial improvements in all of the above mentioned factors may lead to a better lung function postoperatively. By avoiding CPB, reducing its time, or by minimizing the extracorporeal surface area with the use of miniaturized circuits of CPB, beneficial effects on lung function are reported. In addition, replacement of circuit surface with biocompatible surfaces like heparin-coated, and material-independent sources of blood activation, a better postoperative lung function is observed. Meticulous myocardial protection by using hypothermia and cardioplegia methods during ischemia and reperfusion remain one of the cornerstones of postoperative lung function. The partial restoration of pulmonary artery perfusion during CPB possibly contributes to prevent pulmonary ischemia and lung dysfunction. Using medication such as corticosteroids and aprotinin, which protect the lungs during CPB, and leukocyte depletion filters for operations expected to exceed 90 minutes in CPB-time appear to be protective against the toxic impact of CPB in the lungs. The newer methods of ultrafiltration used to scavenge pro-inflammatory factors seem to be protective for the lung function. In a similar way, reducing the use of cardiotomy suction device, as well as the contact-time between free blood and pericardium, it is expected that the postoperative lung function will be improved.

  20. Experience of prevention of radiation injuries of rectum and urinary bladder in cervical carcinoma patients

    Methods of preventing radiation injuries of rectum and urinary bladder in cervical carcinoma patients after concomitant radiotherapy are developed; they are based on the bond application of dimenthylsulphoxide (DMSO) and metronidazole (MZ) solved in DMSO. It is show that the application of DMSO in radiotherapy significantly decreases the rate and severity of radiation injuries of rectum and urinary bladder. MZ application entrances radiation injurious effect on the tumor

  1. The progress in research on the mechanism, prevention and treatment of radiation-induced lung injury

    During radiotherapy of chest tumor,many patients often develop radiation-induced lung injury (including radiation induced interstitial pneumonia or pulmonary fibrosis), which significantly affects their quality of life. Therefore, it is very important to study the mechanism, prevention, and treatment of radiation-induced lung injury. Herein a review of recent research advances in radiation-induced lung injury is made, in order to provide theoretical basis for further research. (authors)

  2. A practical approach for applying best practices in behavioural interventions to injury prevention

    Winston, Flaura K.; Jacobsohn, Lela

    2010-01-01

    Behavioural science when combined with engineering, epidemiology and other disciplines creates a full picture of the often fragmented injury puzzle and informs comprehensive solutions. To assist efforts to include behavioural science in injury prevention strategies, this paper presents a methodological tutorial that aims to introduce best practices in behavioural intervention development and testing to injury professionals new to behavioural science. This tutorial attempts to bridge research ...

  3. 75 FR 21307 - Injury Prevention Program; Announcement Type: Cooperative Agreement

    2010-04-23

    ... (IPP) for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/AN). This program is described at 93.284 in the... and disability for AI/AN communities. Injuries cause more deaths among AI/AN ages 1-44 than all other.../injury . Purpose The IHS will accept CA applications for two categories that support AI/AN: Part I...

  4. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players – design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595

    Waldén Markus; Hägglund Martin; Atroshi Isam

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods: In this...

  5. Injury incidence, risk factors and prevention in Australian rules football.

    Hrysomallis, Con

    2013-05-01

    Along with the enjoyment and the other positive benefits of sport participation, there is also the risk of injury that is elevated in contact sport. This review provides a summary of injury incidence in Australian rules football (ARF), identifies injury risk factors, assesses the efficacy of interventions to reduce injury risk and makes recommendations for future research. The most common injuries were found to be muscle strains, particularly hamstrings; joint ligament sprains, especially ankle; haematomas and concussion. The most severe joint injury was anterior cruciate ligament rupture. Mouthguards are commonly worn and have been shown to reduce orofacial injury. There is evidence that thigh pads can reduce the incidence of thigh haematomas. There is a reluctance to wear padded headgear and an attempt to assess its effectiveness was unsuccessful due to low compliance. The most readily identified risk factor was a history of that injury. There were conflicting findings as to the influence strength imbalances or deficit has on hamstring injury risk in ARF. Static hamstring flexibility was not related to risk but low hip flexor/quadriceps flexibility increased hamstring injury risk. High lower-limb and high hamstring stiffness were associated with an elevated risk of hamstring injury. Since stiffness can be modulated through strength or flexibility training, this provides an area for future intervention studies. Low postural balance ability was related to a greater risk of ankle injury in ARF, players with poor balance should be targeted for balance training. There are preliminary data signifying a link between deficiencies in hip range of motion and hip adductor strength with groin pain or injury. This provides support for future investigation into the effectiveness of an intervention for high-risk players on groin injury rate. Low cross-sectional area of core-region muscle has been associated with more severe injuries and a motor control exercise intervention

  6. Injury prevention practices as depicted in G and PG rated movies: the sequel

    Ramsey, L; Ballesteros, M.; Pelletier, A; Wolf, J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the depiction of injury prevention practices in children's movies released during 1998–2002 is different from an earlier study, which found that characters were infrequently depicted practicing recommended safety behaviors.

  7. Back Facts: A Training Workbook to Prevent Back Injuries in Nursing Homes

    ... A training workbook to prevent back injuries in nursing homes SEIU Education and Support Fund 1313 L ... short and to the point. Activity 1 - Can nursing home work be hazardous to your health? Purpose: ...

  8. Epidemiology, Treatment, and Prevention of Lumbar Spine Injuries in Major League Baseball Players.

    Camp, Christopher L; Conti, Matthew S; Sgroi, Terrance; Cammisa, Frank P; Dines, Joshua S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are another common reason for time out of play. Back and core injuries may represent as many as 12% of all injuries that result in time out of play from MLB. This high rate of injury is likely related to the critical role that the spine plays in every major baseball-related movement. Linking the upper extremities to the hips and lower extremities, a healthy, strong, and stable spine and core is a prerequisite for performance in all levels of baseball. It has been well documented that baseball players with poor spinal control and stabilization are at increased risk for future injury. Common etiologies of lumbar injuries include stress fractures, muscle injury, annular tears with or without disc herniation, facet joint pain, sacroiliac joint pain, and stenosis. This review discusses the epidemiology of spinal injuries in baseball. Special attention is paid to the role of the spine in baseball-related activities, common injuries, tips for making the correct diagnosis, treatment options, outcomes, rehabilitation, and injury prevention. PMID:26991566

  9. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Linda Rothman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%, cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%, booster seats (28, 49%, ski helmets (24, 42%, and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%. The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action.

  10. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada’s children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver’s licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action. PMID:27399745

  11. Barriers and Enablers to Enacting Child and Youth Related Injury Prevention Legislation in Canada.

    Rothman, Linda; Pike, Ian; Belton, Kathy; Olsen, Lise; Fuselli, Pam; Macpherson, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Injury prevention policy is crucial for the safety of Canada's children; however legislation is not adopted uniformly across the country. This study aimed to identify key barriers and enablers to enacting injury prevention legislation. Purposive snowball sampling identified individuals involved in injury prevention throughout Canada. An online survey asked respondents to identify policies that were relevant to them, and whether legislation existed in their province. Respondents rated the importance of barriers or enablers using a 5-point Likert type scale and included open-ended comments. Fifty-seven respondents identified the most common injury topics: bicycle helmets (44, 77%), cell phone-distracted driving (36, 63%), booster seats (28, 49%), ski helmets (24, 42%), and graduated driver's licensing (21, 37%). The top enablers were research/surveillance, managerial/political support and professional group consultation, with much variability between injury topics. Open-ended comments emphasized the importance of a united opinion as an enabler and barriers included costs of protective equipment and inadequate enforcement of legislation. The results highlighted the importance of strategies that include research, management and community collaboration and that injury prevention topics should be addressed individually as information may be lost if topics are considered together. Findings can inform the process of turning injury prevention evidence into action. PMID:27399745

  12. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-01-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants.Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationshipmanagement. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerablepopulations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. Thisvariability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injuryprevention ...

  13. The Importance of Physical Fitness for Injury Prevention: Part 2.

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This report examines associations between injuries and flexibility, stretching, warm-up, and body composition. Military studies show that either too much or too little flexibility increases injury risk. Static stretching prior to exercise does not appear to reduce the overall injury incidence, although further research is needed on some types of injuries. Static stretching also appears to reduce strength and power (explosive strength). Warm-up (low intensity activity prior to exercise or sports) appears to reduce injury risk. Body mass index (BMI; weight in kg/ height in m²) is a surrogate measure of body fat because it is highly related to laboratory measures of body fat. However, Soldiers can also have a high BMI because of higher muscle mass. If high BMI reflects a larger percentage of body fat relative to height, injury risk might be increased because the additional fat would increase the intensity of physical activity, leading to more rapid fatigue and repetitive stress on the musculoskeletal system. Low BMI could reflect a paucity of fat or muscle/ bone, or both. Low BMI may make Soldiers more susceptible to injury if they lack the muscle mass or strength in the supportive structures (ligaments, bones) required to perform certain physical tasks, and if they overexert or overuse the available muscle mass or supportive structures. Studies in basic combat training show that both high and low BMI increases injury risk. However, studies among active duty Soldiers only show that injury risk increases as BMI increases, possibly because very few active duty Soldiers have very low BMI (i.e., less than 18 kg/m²). PMID:26125174

  14. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  15. Prevention of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Within Women's Football - An Exercise Package

    Hyde, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to create an exercise package containing evidence based, research proven exercises for the prevention of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in women’s football that can be used by both players and coaches. Injury prevention programs have been shown to reduce the risk of injury in women’s football and by combining the exercises into one package it will make them more accessible to the players and coaches. The thesis was carried out in collaboration with the...

  16. Resistance training for performance and injury prevention in golf

    Lehman, Gregory J

    2006-01-01

    This introductory resistance training program is designed to minimize injury risk, improve golf swing speed and the overall fitness of recreational golfers. This article aims to introduce to the Chiropractor the basic concepts sport specific resistance training, periodization models of resistance training and proposes a year round conditioning resistance training program specific to golf. The exercises have been chosen based on the best biomechanical evidence to minimize injury risk and on th...

  17. Core strength: A new model for injury prediction and prevention

    Francis Smitha; Lunda Karen; Bates Gerry; Peate WF; Bellamy Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Objective Many work in injury prone awkward positions that require adequate flexibility and strength in trunk stabilizer muscle groups. Performance on a functional movement screen (FMS) that assessed those factors was conducted and an intervention was designed. Methods A battery of FMS tests were performed on 433 firefighters. We analyzed the correlation between FMS performance and injuries and other selected parameters. An intervention to improve flexibility and strength in trunk st...

  18. SHIN SPRAIN- MOST COMMON SPORTS INJURY, ITS CAUSES AND PREVENTION

    Sandeep Dhull

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Causes: "Shin splints" is a generic term for shin pain (usually on the inside of the shin but is correctly termed 'Medial Tibial Stress syndrome or MTTS. It is mostly caused by inflammation of the muscles and their attachments to the shin bone (Tibia Shin splints may occur when the intensity of working out is increased from normal level, wearing worn-out shoes or by jumping or running on hard ground. Normally has a biomechanical trigger. Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS, tibial periostitis or shin splints is a common injury that affects athletes who engage in running sports or physical activity. This condition is characterized by pain in the lower part of the leg between the knee and the ankle. MTSS injuries are caused by repeated trauma to the connective muscle tissue surrounding the tibia. Ignoring this injury may result in a more serious condition such as a stress fracture or breakage of the bones. Methods: Analytical methods was used for this article by reviewing relevant publications, primarily based on the online sports medicine journals available on Internet, Wikipedia, Elsevier, PubMed, Google Scholar and National Sports Injury Center Safdarjang Hospital. Conclusion: This review will provide an overview of Shin Splint and their immediate management on playfield. By this sports personals i.e. coach, trainer and player itself would be able to identify this injury. And will give a better understanding about the sign and symptoms of this injury. Approaches should be used to help in sports training and to avoid injury. Good understanding of the injury and their management may be used in the sports to establish safe and effective training guidelines for sportsman.

  19. Prevention of Elbow Injuries in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Fleisig, Glenn S.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Although baseball is a relatively safe sport, numerous reports suggest a rapid rise in elbow injury rate among youth baseball pitchers. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed was searched for epidemiologic, biomechanical, and clinical studies of elbow injuries in baseball (keywords: “youth OR adolescent” AND baseball AND pitching AND “ulnar collateral ligament OR elbow”; published January 2000 – April 2012). Studies with relevance to youth baseball pitchers were reviewed. Relevant references f...

  20. Training on a knife's edge: how to balance triathlon training to prevent overuse injuries.

    Bales, James; Bales, Karrn

    2012-12-01

    The sport of triathlon offers athletes the chance to build and/or maintain cardiovascular fitness across 3 endurance disciplines. Swimming, biking, and running each have a host of overuse injuries that can occur as a result of overtraining. High running mileage, a history of previous injury, inadequate warm up or cool down, and an increase in the years of triathlon experience are a few of the factors that have been linked to triathlon overuse injuries. Early identification of overtraining symptoms and a corresponding reallocation of balance between each discipline, perhaps with an emphasis on increasing swimming, may help prevent many overuse injuries. PMID:23147091

  1. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    Cools, Ann M.; Johansson, Fredrik R; Dorien Borms; Annelies Maenhout

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variab...

  2. Equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable: the imperative for improved safety awareness.

    Guyton, Kristina; Houchen-Wise, Emily; Peck, Ellen; Mayberry, John

    2013-01-01

    Horse-related injury can be severe and disabling. We investigated the causes, severity, and costs of equestrian injury with the goal of injury prevention. A retrospective review of horse-related injuries from 2001 to 2008 identified 231 patients with a mean age of 38 years and a mean Injury Severity Score of 11 (range, 1 to 45). Mean length of stay was 5.5 days. Fifty-nine patients (25%) required 84 surgeries. Helmet use was 20 per cent and of the 172 patients not wearing a helmet while mounted, 38 per cent received potentially preventable head injuries. There were three deaths of which two were the result of intracranial hemorrhage in riders not wearing a helmet. Mean hospital charge was $29,800 for a total of $6.9 million. Ninety-one patients completed a survey regarding causation and disability. Thirty-four per cent reported wearing a helmet at the time of injury. Forty per cent reported that poor environmental factors contributed, 30 per cent reported poor horse and rider pairing, and 9 per cent reported equipment failure. Fifty-nine per cent reported long-term disabilities. Compared with the general population, respondents had diminution in their ability to perform usual daily activities associated with physical problems, diminution in social function, and higher bodily pain. We conclude that equestrian injury is costly, disabling, and frequently preventable. PMID:23317616

  3. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach.

    Cools, Ann M; Johansson, Fredrik R; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies

    2015-01-01

    The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength. PMID:26537804

  4. Prevention of shoulder injuries in overhead athletes: a science-based approach

    Ann M. Cools

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1 risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2 established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3 these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4 preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD; rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.

  5. Effects of a multifactorial injury prevention intervention in physical education teachers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Vercruysse, Sien; Haerens, Leen; Verhagen, Evert; Goossens, Lennert; De Clercq, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    Physical education (PE) teachers are at a high risk of musculoskeletal sports or work-related injuries because of the physical activity as inherent part of their profession. Such injuries have a negative impact on work and leisure time activities, and effective injury prevention interventions are needed. The present study aimed at testing the effectiveness of an injury prevention intervention that was developed and optimized according to PE teachers' wishes and values. Fifty-five PE teachers were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. Intervention group teachers engaged in two days of training during which they familiarized with eight injury prevention strategies (seven intrinsic and one extrinsic). A special feature of the intervention was that the way of delivery was based on the self-determination theory in order to stimulate participants' motivation to adhere to the proposed strategies. Prospective registrations during one school year were conducted concerning injuries and preventive behaviours. Results showed that the intervention group teachers had a lower number of injuries per 1000 h time of exposure (TOE) than the controls (INT: 0.49, CON: 1.14 injuries/1000 h TOE, OR: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.06-5.07), and applied a broader variety of strategies including dynamic and static stretching, core stability, balance and strength training, when compared to the controls who mainly engaged in warming-up. In conclusion, with the same amount of time, an injury reduction was found in PE teachers through a more balanced use of provided preventive strategies. PMID:26848872

  6. Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention

    Jose Tellez-Zenteno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Seizures occurring in precarious situations and resulting in injuries are still an important concern for patients with epilepsy, their employers and their caregivers. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the most feared epilepsy-related injuries. These concerns seem valid because the hallmark of epilepsy, episodic impairment of consciousness and motor control, may occur during interictal EEG epileptiform discharges, even in the absence of a clinical seizure. In addition, psychomotor comorbidity and side effects of antiepileptic drugs may contribute to the risk of injuries in patients with epilepsy. Published risk factors for injuries include the number of antiepileptic drugs, history of generalized seizures, and seizure frequency. In general, epidemiological information about incidence of injuries has been conflicting and sparse. In general, studies focusing on populations with more severe forms of epilepsy tend to report substantially higher risks of injuries than those involving less selected populations. On the other hand, studies based on non-selected populations of people with epilepsy have not shown an increased frequency of injuries in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Some studies have shown that patients with epilepsy are more frequently admitted to the hospital following an injury. Possible explanations include: more cautious attitude of clinicians toward injuries occurring in the setting of seizures; hospitalization required because of seizures and not to the injuries themselves; and hospitalization driven by other issues, such as comorbidities, which are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy. Potentially the high rate of

  7. Cost-effectiveness of injury prevention - a systematic review of municipality based interventions

    Gyllensvärd Harald

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries are a major cause of mortality and morbidity which together result in avoidable societal costs. Due to limited resources, injury prevention interventions need to demonstrate cost-effectiveness to justify their implementation. However, the existing knowledge in this area is limited. Consequently, a systematic review is needed to support decision-making and to assist in the targeting of future research. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the published economic evidence of injury prevention interventions at the municipal level. Methods A search strategy was developed to focus a literature search in PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and NHS EED. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were economic evaluations of injury prevention interventions that could be implemented by municipalities; had a relevant comparison group; did not include any form of medication or drug use; and were assessed as having at least an acceptable quality from an economic point of view. Articles were screened in three steps. In the final step, studies were critically appraised using a check-list based on Drummond's check-list for assessing economic evaluations. Results Of 791 potential articles 20 were accepted for inclusion. Seven studies showed net savings; four showed a cost per health score gained; six showed both savings and a cost per health score gained but for different time horizons and populations; and three showed no effect. The interventions targeted a range of areas such as traffic safety, fire safety, hip fractures, and sport injuries. One studied a multi-targeted community-based program. Only six articles used effectiveness data generated within the study. Conclusions The results indicate that there are injury prevention interventions that offer good use of societal resources. However, there is a lack of economic evidence surrounding injury prevention interventions. This lack of evidence needs to be met by further research

  8. 76 FR 10908 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal...

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Maternal Vitamin D Status and Preterm Birth, DP11-002,...

  9. 75 FR 41872 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance...

    2010-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Surveillance, Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of..., Natural History, Quality of Care and Outcomes of Diabetes Mellitus with Onset in Childhood and...

  10. 76 FR 18766 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Research and Surveillance in Epilepsy, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DP11- 003, initial review. In... received in response to ``Epidemiologic Research and Surveillance in Epilepsy FOA DP11-003, initial...

  11. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs...

    2010-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Chronic Conditions SIP 10-037 and Epidemiologic Follow- Up Study of Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy SIP 10-039... Epidemiologic Follow-up Study of Newly Diagnosed Epilepsy SIP 10-039.'' Contact Person for More...

  12. Prevention of acute kidney injury and protection of renal function in the intensive care unit

    Joannidis, Michael; Druml, Wilfred; Forni, Lui G.; Groeneveld, A. B. Johan; Honore, Patrick; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M.; Ronco, Claudio; Schetz, Marie R. C.; Woittiez, Arend Jan

    2010-01-01

    Acute renal failure on the intensive care unit is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. To determine recommendations for the prevention of acute kidney injury (AKI), focusing on the role of potential preventative maneuvers including volume expansion, diuretics, use of inotropes, vasop

  13. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research...

  14. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``Case...

  15. 78 FR 17411 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Monitoring and Evaluation of Malaria Control and Elimination Activities, FOA GH13-005, initial review. In accordance...

  16. 78 FR 9926 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-02-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Medicaid... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  17. 78 FR 60875 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  18. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-02-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  19. 76 FR 59133 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  20. 76 FR 28438 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``Affordable Care Act (ACA): Childhood Obesity Research Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) DP11- 007, Panel...

  1. 77 FR 61756 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational...) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  2. 76 FR 24031 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Strategies to... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  3. 78 FR 23768 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-04-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Developing...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  4. 78 FR 66937 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice concerns..., initial review, published in the Federal Register on October 2, 2013 (FR Volume 78, Number 191, Page...

  5. 78 FR 17410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epi-Centers for...(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  6. 77 FR 31018 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-05-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Member Conflict... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  7. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-01-04

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Identification, Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, Funding...

  8. 78 FR 19269 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This document corrects a notice that was published in the Federal Register on March 21, 2013 (78 FR 06434), announcing...

  9. 76 FR 4703 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy...

    2011-01-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), DP11-001 Panel... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  10. 77 FR 44618 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-07-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns the World Trade... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  11. 78 FR 66938 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-11-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review Notice of Cancellation: This notice concerns... review, published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2013 (FR Volume 78, Number 181, Page...

  12. 78 FR 17412 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    2013-03-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting... that was published in the Federal Register on February 28, 2013 (78 FR 13677). The meeting...

  13. 77 FR 73662 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-12-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  14. 78 FR 13677 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding...

    2013-02-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Funding Opportunity Announcement, Initial Review The meeting... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  15. 78 FR 60877 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-10-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control...

  16. 77 FR 28393 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-05-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Research to... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  17. 76 FR 32213 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review

    2011-06-03

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP); Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Human... announcements of meetings and other committee management activities, for both the Centers for Disease...

  18. 76 FR 71568 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2011-11-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Behavioral Surveillance For Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), PS11... Young Men Who Have Sex With Men, FOA PS11-0010201SUPP12.'' Contact Person for More Information: Amy...

  19. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Reducing...

    2012-03-02

    ... among People with Intellectual Disabilities, FOA DD12-003, initial review.'' Contact Person for More... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Reducing Health Disparities Among People With...

  20. Mechanical injuries of the eyeball: Frequency, structure, and possibility of the prevention

    Jovanović Miloš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Some factors significant for development of mechanical injuries of the eyeball have been analyzed in the study. Objective. Basic objective of such analysis was prevention and reduction of these injuries. Method. Mechanical injuries of the eyeball in patients hospitalized at the Institute of Eye Disease, CCS in Belgrade, in five year period have been analyzed. Only patients with severe eye injuries were hospitalized. The following parameters were analyzed: sex, age, occupation of patients, residence, time of the inflicted injury, i.e. by months in a year, days in a week and hours in a day, place and way of inflicting the injury as well as visual acuity on admission. In addition, the type of injury was analyzed, i.e. contusion or penetrating with all resulting complications. Finally, the timing of primary surgical management of the eye injury was specified, if required. Results. A total number of hospitalized patients with mechanical eye injuries was 1642 during the last five years, meaning that one injury occurred daily. There were 1381 males and 261 females, meaning that males were 5.3 times more the victims of mechanical eye injuries. Out of all the injured, 861 (52.4% were from rural environment, while 781 (47.6% were urban population. The proportion of injuries of the right or the left eye was nearly equal, while both eyes were simultaneously injured in 21 (1.3% cases. The injuries were inflicted in all ages, but most frequently in working population ranging from 16 to 55 years, accounting for 60.8%. Unfortunately, a lot of the injured were children up to 15 years of age - 19.4%. The most commonly injured were workers - 39.8%, followed by students - 17.5%. A piece of wood was the cause of injury in 21.8%, sharp and pointed objects in 17.2%, hammer and metal in 14.2%, glass in 11.6%, and other different causes in varying percentage. There were also rare causes of injuries, such as those caused by zip, dog bite, rooster’s bill

  1. Football and injuries : Screening, risk factors and prevention

    2010-01-01

    Background: Football (soccer) is one of the most popular sports in Norway as well as in the rest of the world, and the injury risk is considerable and high compared to most other team sports. Studies have shown that the majority of football injuries occur in the lower extremities, especially affecting the ankle, knee, hamstrings and groin. Ankle and knee sprains and hamstring and groin strains may leave athletes out of play for several weeks, and in many cases full recovery takes much longer....

  2. Evaluation of Parameter Related to Preventative Measures on the Child Injuries at Home

    Hatamabadi HR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The harms resulted from home injuries are a major factor in child mortality. The current study aims to evaluate the factors associated with the knowledge and performance level of mothers in terms of adopting preventive behaviors to avoid home injuries. Materials and Methods: The target population of this descriptive - analytical study is all mothers of preschool children suffering from home injuries referring to Imam Hossein and Haft-E-Tir hospitals. Mothers’ data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire. After dividing the knowledge level and the status of mothers’ preventive behaviors into two groups, the relationship between factors was assessed by using Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression and the status of mothers preventive behaviors were studied as well. Results: Finally, 230 mothers (mean age 5.2 ± 29.4 were studied. 75.0 of them had good awareness, and 56.0 % also had a good performance. Mother's absence for at least 8 hours per day (0.12 = OR, increase of the number of preschool children (0.03 = OR and employed mother (0.01 = OR are the things that hinder preventive behaviors in home injuries. While the history of home injuries during the past 3 weeks (13.3 = OR, mother’s appropriate awareness of preventive behaviors (28.9 = OR and high-income families (2.4 = OR lead to the adoption of preventive behaviors by mothers. Conclusion: Awareness is the only modifiable factor and it can be improved by educational interventions. Support of assistance and social welfare agencies for employed mothers can improve the current status of preventive behaviors in home injuries. Keywords: Preventive Behaviors, Awareness, Effective Factors

  3. Orthopedic Injuries: Protocols to Prevent and Manage Patient Falls.

    Parsons, Lynn C; Revell, Maria A

    2015-12-01

    Health care organizations must adopt a culture of safety and implement effective fall prevention protocols. The teach-back method is a useful strategy for health providers to determine patient understanding of information taught to maintain a safe environment and prevent falls. Purposeful rounding is a proactive approach to ensure that patient assessments are accurate and research supports that patients use the call light less when nurses participate in hourly rounding. This article provides the reader with evidence-based fall prevention interventions, tips for using the teach-back method, and fall prevention tools to safely care for patients of all ages. PMID:26596654

  4. Pediatric transport related injuries in Tehran: the necessity of implementation of injury prevention protocols.

    Zargar, Moosa; Sayyar Roudsari, Bahman; Shadman, Mazyar; Kaviani, Ahmad; Tarighi, Payam

    2003-11-01

    Prehospital and hospital data was prospectively gathered on all hospitalized trauma patients admitted to six major trauma hospitals in Tehran from August 1999 to September 2000. Data from patients of under 19 years of age was analyzed for this article. From 8000 hospitalized trauma patients, 2354 cases (29%) belonged to this age group. Fall and transport related injuries (TRIs) with 1074 (46%) and 921 (39%) cases respectively, were the most common mechanism of injury. In TRIs, boys were affected 3.5 times as often as girls. Younger children were more prone to pedestrian-related injuries while teenagers were more prone to motorcycle related injuries. Head trauma was the most common cause of death and 28 out of 32 trauma deaths were attributed to this kind of injury. Lower extremity (513) and head injuries (322) were the most common injuries. Only a few of motorcyclists and car passengers used safety devices (helmet and seat belt respectively) at the time of accident. PMID:14580813

  5. High adherence to a neuromuscular injury prevention programme (FIFA 11+) improves functional balance and reduces injury risk in Canadian youth female football players: A cluster randomised trial

    Steffen, Kathrin; Emery, Carolyn; Romiti, Maria; Kang, Jian; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri; Finch, Caroline; Meeuwisse, Willem

    2013-01-01

    A protective effect on injury risk in youth sports through neuromuscular warm-up training routines has consistently been demonstrated. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the quantity and quality of coach-led injury prevention programmes and its impact on the physical performance of players. The aim of this cluster-randomised controlled trial was to assess whether different delivery methods of an injury prevention programme (FIFA 11+) to coaches could improve player performan...

  6. [Recreational and competitive alpine skiing. Typical injury patterns and possibilities for prevention].

    Brucker, P U; Katzmaier, P; Olvermann, M; Huber, A; Waibel, K; Imhoff, A B; Spitzenpfeil, P

    2014-01-01

    Alpine skiing is the most popular winter sport discipline in Germany and is performed by more than 4 million recreational sportsmen and ski racing athletes. Compared to other sports, however, the injury rate in alpine skiing is quite high. Especially the knee joint is the most commonly injured area of the musculoskeletal system. Knee injuries are classified as severe in a high percentage of cases. In this review article, epidemiologic data and typical injury patterns in recreational alpine skiing and in competitive alpine ski racing are compared. In addition, the potentials of preventive methods in alpine skiing are presented and evaluated with a special focus on orthotic devices and protection wear as injury prevention equipment. PMID:24445993

  7. Automation of Workplace Lifting Hazard Assessment for Musculoskeletal Injury Prevention

    Spector, June T.; Lieblich, Max; Bao, Stephen; McQuade, Kevin; Hughes, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Existing methods for practically evaluating musculoskeletal exposures such as posture and repetition in workplace settings have limitations. We aimed to automate the estimation of parameters in the revised United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) lifting equation, a standard manual observational tool used to evaluate back injury risk related to lifting in workplace settings, using depth camera (Microsoft Kinect) and skeleton algorithm technology. ...

  8. Prevention of injury by early socialization of aggressive behavior

    Tremblay, R

    2002-01-01

    Frequent use of physical aggression by humans appears to reach its peak between 2 and 3 years of age. In the following years most children learn alternatives to physical aggression. Approximately 4% of children have high levels of physical aggression from early childhood to late adolescence. These children can be considered to show chronic physical aggression. They are at high risk of causing injuries to others and to themselves. They are also at high risk of many other co-morbid mental healt...

  9. The Effect of Child Access Prevention Laws on Non-Fatal Gun Injuries

    Jeff DeSimone; Sara Markowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many states have passed child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold the gun owner responsible if a child gains access to a gun that is not securely stored. Previous CAP law research has focused exclusively on gun-related deaths even though most gun injuries are not fatal. We use annual hospital discharge data from 1988-2001 to investigate whether CAP laws decrease non-fatal gun injuries. Results from Poisson regressions that control for various hospital, county and state characteristics, i...

  10. Translating an Evidence-Based Injury Prevention Program for Implementation in a Home Visitation Setting.

    Nicks, Shannon E; Weaver, Nancy L; Recktenwald, Angela; Jupka, Keri A; Elkana, Maia; Tompkins, Ron

    2016-07-01

    Safe N' Sound (SNS), a computer-based childhood injury prevention program, provides individually tailored information to parents about their child's injury risks with specific behavioral recommendations. We translated SNS for implementation in a home visitation organization in order to increase its capacity to effectively address injury prevention and decrease the burden of injury experienced by high-need families. The aim of this study was to identify behavioral and organizational barriers and facilitators to translating and implementing SNS in a home visitation setting. Nurse home visitors (NHVs) participated in semistructured interviews that examined perceptions of program implementation, intervention characteristics, individual characteristics of NHVs, and recommendations for improving implementation. The utility of the program for promoting injury prevention systematically and its alignment with the organization's mission were facilitators of successful implementation. Barriers included NHVs' concerns about overburdening clients and missed educational opportunities related to injury risks not addressed by the program and delayed delivery of educational reports. Findings illustrate the dynamic interactions of intervention characteristics with organizational and individual factors and suggest that customizing implementation to organizational capacity and specific needs may better support successful program implementation in home visitation settings. PMID:26826110

  11. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique. PMID:18356104

  12. Injury Prevention Practices as Depicted in G- and PG-Rated Movies, 2008-2012.

    Pelletier, Andrew R; Tongren, J Eric; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-08-01

    Unintentional injuries are the leading cause of death among children in the United States. The use of recommended safety practices can reduce injuries. Children often learn behaviors from media exposure. Children's movies released in 1995-2007 infrequently depicted appropriate injury prevention practices. The aim of this study was to determine if injury prevention practices in children's movies have improved. The top grossing 25 G- and PG-rated movies in the United States per year for 2008-2012 were eligible for inclusion in the study. Movies or scenes were excluded if they were animated, not set in the present day, fantasy, documentary, or not in English. Injury prevention practices involving riding in a motor vehicle, walking, boating, bicycling, and four other activities were recorded for characters with speaking roles. Fifty-six (45%) of the 125 movies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 603 person-scenes were examined involving 175 (29%) children and 428 (71%) adults. Thirty-eight person-scenes involved crashes or falls, resulting in four injuries and no deaths. Overall, 59% (353/603) of person-scenes showed appropriate injury prevention practices. This included 313 (70%) of 445 motor-vehicle passengers who were belted; 15 (30%) of 50 pedestrians who used a crosswalk, 2 (7%) of 30 boaters who wore personal flotation devices, and 8 (29%) of 28 bicyclists who wore helmets. In comparison with previous studies, there were significant increases in usage of seat belts, crosswalks, personal flotation devices, and bicycle helmets. However, 41% of person-scenes still showed unsafe practices and the consequences of those behaviors were infrequently depicted. PMID:25476034

  13. A cost-outcome approach to pre and post-implementation of national sports injury prevention programmes.

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-12-01

    In New Zealand (NZ), the Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) has developed a pre and post-implementation cost-outcome formulae for sport injury prevention to provide information regarding the success of a prevention programme. The ACC provides for the cost of all personal injuries in NZ and invests in prevention programmes to offset 1.6 million annual claims that cost $NZD 1.9 billion. The ACC invests in nine national community sport injury prevention programmes that represent 40% of sport claims and costs. Pre-implementation is used to determine the decision whether to invest in implementation and to determine the level of such investment for the injury prevention programme. Post-implementation is calculated two ways: unadjusted, assuming ceteris paribus; and adjusted assuming no prevention programme was in place. Post-implementation formulae provide a return on investment (ROI) for each dollar invested in the programme and cost-savings. The cost-outcome formulae approach allows ACC to manage expectations of the prevention programme as well as when it will provide a ROI, allowing it to take a long-term view for investment in sport injury prevention. Originally developed for its sport injury prevention programmes, the cost-outcome formulae have now been applied to the other prevention programmes ACC invests in such as home, road and workplace injury prevention. PMID:17353149

  14. Effectiveness of Knee Injury and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis.

    Laurel A Donnell-Fink

    Full Text Available Individuals frequently involved in jumping, pivoting or cutting are at increased risk of knee injury, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL tears. We sought to use meta-analytic techniques to establish whether neuromuscular and proprioceptive training is efficacious in preventing knee and ACL injury and to identify factors related to greater efficacy of such programs.We performed a systematic literature search of studies published in English between 1996 and 2014. Intervention efficacy was ascertained from incidence rate ratios (IRRs weighted by their precision (1/variance using a random effects model. Separate analyses were performed for knee and ACL injury. We examined whether year of publication, study quality, or specific components of the intervention were associated with efficacy of the intervention in a meta-regression analysis.Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were used in the meta-analysis. The mean study sample was 1,093 subjects. Twenty studies reported data on knee injury in general terms and 16 on ACL injury. Maximum Jadad score was 3 (on a 0-5 scale. The summary incidence rate ratio was estimated at 0.731 (95% CI: 0.614, 0.871 for knee injury and 0.493 (95% CI: 0.285, 0.854 for ACL injury, indicating a protective effect of intervention. Meta-regression analysis did not identify specific intervention components associated with greater efficacy but established that later year of publication was associated with more conservative estimates of intervention efficacy.The current meta-analysis provides evidence that neuromuscular and proprioceptive training reduces knee injury in general and ACL injury in particular. Later publication date was associated with higher quality studies and more conservative efficacy estimates. As study quality was generally low, these data suggest that higher quality studies should be implemented to confirm the preventive efficacy of such programs.

  15. Effectiveness of Knee Injury and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    Collins, Jamie E.; Yang, Heidi Y.; Goczalk, Melissa G.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Losina, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Objective Individuals frequently involved in jumping, pivoting or cutting are at increased risk of knee injury, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. We sought to use meta-analytic techniques to establish whether neuromuscular and proprioceptive training is efficacious in preventing knee and ACL injury and to identify factors related to greater efficacy of such programs. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of studies published in English between 1996 and 2014. Intervention efficacy was ascertained from incidence rate ratios (IRRs) weighted by their precision (1/variance) using a random effects model. Separate analyses were performed for knee and ACL injury. We examined whether year of publication, study quality, or specific components of the intervention were associated with efficacy of the intervention in a meta-regression analysis. Results Twenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria and were used in the meta-analysis. The mean study sample was 1,093 subjects. Twenty studies reported data on knee injury in general terms and 16 on ACL injury. Maximum Jadad score was 3 (on a 0–5 scale). The summary incidence rate ratio was estimated at 0.731 (95% CI: 0.614, 0.871) for knee injury and 0.493 (95% CI: 0.285, 0.854) for ACL injury, indicating a protective effect of intervention. Meta-regression analysis did not identify specific intervention components associated with greater efficacy but established that later year of publication was associated with more conservative estimates of intervention efficacy. Conclusion The current meta-analysis provides evidence that neuromuscular and proprioceptive training reduces knee injury in general and ACL injury in particular. Later publication date was associated with higher quality studies and more conservative efficacy estimates. As study quality was generally low, these data suggest that higher quality studies should be implemented to confirm the preventive efficacy of such programs. PMID:26637173

  16. Mechanical injuries of the eye: Incidence, structure and possibilities for prevention

    Jovanović Miloš

    2010-01-01

    .2% occurred while doing some work out of professional working place, while only 25.4% injuries occurred at the working place. Most of the patients (30.3% had visual acuity L+P+ (light perception with correct projection only, on attendance, but it varied from complete blindness to 1.0. There were 1 282 blunt injuries (contusion (47.5% and 1 373 penetrating eyeball injuries (50.8%, while the rest (1.7% were injuries of ocular adnexa. Most of the primary surgical treatments (63.7% were done in the first 24 hours from the moment of the injury. At dismiss, visual acuity was normal in 53.2%, the eye was blind in 19.1% injured patients. Conclusion. The results of this study showed that the injuries occurred most frequently in actively working people and pupils, that men were injured five times more often than women; that wood, sharp objects and glass were the most common means, that there was an equal number of blunt injuries and penetrating wounds, and that it was very important to treat injury promptly, preferably within the first 24 hours. By further analysis, it might be concluded that many injuries could have been prevented, avoiding long medical treatment and accompanying costs, and what is most important - permanent invalidity caused by reduced visual function or blindness of the injured eye is avoidable.

  17. The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    Lauersen, Jeppe Bo; Bertelsen, Ditte Marie; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether physical activity exercises can reduce sports injuries and perform stratified analyses of strength training, stretching, proprioception and combinations of these, and provide separate acute and overuse injury estimates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Scienc...

  18. [Anatomical rationale for lingual nerve injury prevention during mandibular block].

    Semkin, V A; Dydikin, S S; Kuzin, A V; Sogacheva, V V

    2015-01-01

    The topographic and anatomical study of lingual nerve structural features was done. It was revealed that during mandibular anesthesia possible lingual nerve injury can occur if puncture needle is lower than 1 cm. of molars occlusal surface level. The position of the lingual nerve varies withmandible movements. At the maximum open mouth lingual nerve is not mobile and is pressed against the inner surface of the mandibular ramus by the medial pterygoid muscle and the temporal muscle tendon. When closing the mouth to 1.25±0.2 cmfrom the physiological maximum, lingual nerve is displaced posteriorly from the internal oblique line of the mandible and gets mobile. On the basis of topographic and anatomic features of the lingual nervestructure the authors recommend the re-do of inferior alveolar nerve block, a semi-closed mouth position or the use the "high block techniques" (Torus anesthesia, Gow-Gates, Vazirani-Akinozi). PMID:26271698

  19. Injury prevention in male veteran football players - a randomised controlled trial using "FIFA 11+".

    Hammes, Daniel; Aus der Fünten, Karen; Kaiser, Stephanie; Frisen, Eugen; Bizzini, Mario; Meyer, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The warm-up programme "FIFA 11+" has been shown to reduce football injuries in different populations, but so far veteran players have not been investigated. Due to differences in age, skill level and gender, a simple transfer of these results to veteran football is not recommended. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of the "FIFA 11+" in veteran football players. Twenty veteran football teams were recruited for a prospective 9-month (1 season) cluster-randomised trial. The intervention group (INT, n = 146; 45 ± 8 years) performed the "FIFA 11+" at the beginning of each training session, while the control group (CON, n = 119; 43 ± 6 years) followed its regular training routine. Player exposure hours and injuries were recorded according to an international consensus statement. No significant difference was found between INT and CON in overall injury incidence (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.91 [0.64-1.48]; P = 0.89). Only severe injuries reached statistical significance with higher incidence in CON (IRR: 0.46 [0.21-0.97], P = 0.04). Regular conduction (i.e. once a week) of the "FIFA 11+" did not prevent injuries in veteran footballers under real training and competition circumstances. The lack of preventive effects is likely due to the too low overall frequency of training sessions. PMID:25370591

  20. Preventing Kidney Injury in Children with Neurogenic Bladder Dysfunction

    Faezeh Javadi Larijani; Mastaneh Moghtaderi; Nilofar Hajizadeh; Farahnak Assadi

    2013-01-01

    The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD), which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newbor...

  1. Common injuries and ailments of the female athlete; pathophysiology, treatment and prevention.

    Hilibrand, Miryl J; Hammoud, Sommer; Bishop, Meghan; Woods, Daniel; Fredrick, Robert W; Dodson, Christopher C

    2015-11-01

    With increasing numbers of women competing in high school and collegiate athletics, it is important that physicians become familiar with injury patterns and medical conditions unique to the female athlete. Observations and clinical data have elucidated unique biomechanical, anatomic and hormonal factors that predispose skeletally mature female athletes to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, patellofemoral disorders and lower extremity stress fractures. Additionally, younger female athletes are particularly at risk of developing components of the "Female Athlete Triad" (more recently included under the syndrome of "Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport" [RED-S]): disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis. An understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions has led to the development of programs that can treat their underlying causes, decrease susceptibility to injury, and improve the long-term health of the female athlete. This paper is intended to provide physicians with a review of the sex-specific etiology, prevention and treatment of injuries common to the female athlete. PMID:26458108

  2. Isokinetic strength effects of FIFA'a "The 11+" injury prevention training programme

    Brito, João; Figueiredo, Pedro; Fernandes, Luís;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC) injury prevention programme, "The 11+", improves isokinetic strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles in sub-elite soccer players. Twenty players aged 22.3 ± 4.2 yr performed "The 11+" 3...

  3. Airway Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Prevents Arrested Alveolar Growth in Neonatal Lung Injury in Rats

    van Haaften, Timothy; Byrne, Roisin; Bonnet, Sebastien; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Akabutu, John; Bouchentouf, Manaf; Rey-Parra, Gloria J.; Galipeau, Jacques; Haromy, Alois; Eaton, Farah; Chen, Ming; Hashimoto, Kyoko; Abley, Doris; Korbutt, Greg; Archer, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and emphysema are characterized by arrested alveolar development or loss of alveoli; both are significant global health problems and currently lack effective therapy. Bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) prevent adult lung injury, but their therapeutic potential in neonatal lung disease is unknown.

  4. Early preventive treatment for severe acute pancreatitis combined with lung injury

    刘学民; 刘青光; 潘承恩

    2002-01-01

    @@ Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),which leads to injury or failure of the internal organs and systems.1 Among them,acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)is a severe or fatal complication.In this article,the early preventive treatment for SAP combined with lung injure is studied.

  5. Prevention Practice Differences Among Persons With Spinal Cord Injuries Who Rarely Versus Frequently Sustain Pressure Ulcers

    Jones, Michael L.; Marini, Irmo; Slate, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are common among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and not only are costly to treat but also affect the quality of life of those affected by them. Despite a plethora of literature on prevention, there are few wellness studies focusing on the practices of people who do not develop pressure ulcers. This preliminary study sought to…

  6. Status report - The Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program: a dynamic and innovative injury surveillance system.

    Crain, J; McFaull, S; Thompson, W; Skinner, R; Do, M T; Fréchette, M; Mukhi, S

    2016-06-01

    This status report on the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), an emergency department-based injury and poisoning surveillance system, describes the result of migrating from a centralized data entry and coding process to a decentralized process, the web-based eCHIRPP system, in 2011. This secure system is improving the CHIRPP's overall flexibility and timeliness, which are key attributes of an effective surveillance system. The integrated eCHIRPP platform enables near real-time data entry and access, has user-friendly data management and analysis tools, and allows for easier communication and connectivity across the CHIRPP network through an online collaboration centre. Current pilot testing of automated data monitoring and trend analysis tools-designed to monitor and flag incoming data according to predefined criteria (for example, a new consumer product)-is revealing eCHIRPP's potential for providing early warnings of new hazards, issues and trends. PMID:27284703

  7. 团队运动中的伤害预防研究%Injury Prevention Applied to Team Sports

    Grethe Myklebust

    2008-01-01

    @@ Soccer and handball are two of the most popular team sports in the world.These are sports with a relatively high number of injuries,especially to the lower extremities and this is reflected in several studies designed to prevent these iniuries.This presentation will use the information obtained from the injury prevention literature and the results of research conducted in our own Centre,to examine injuries in team sports such as soccer and handball.

  8. Contrast medium extravasation injury: guidelines for prevention and management

    Extravasation of contrast material is a well-recognized complication of contrast-enhanced imaging studies. The management of this complication is contentious; therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and issue guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was carried out. The resulting report was discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy. Automated power injection may result in extravasation of large volumes and may or can lead to severe tissue damage. Infants, young children and unconscious and debilitated patients are particularly at risk of extravasation during contrast media injection. Fortunately, most extravasations result in minimal swelling or erythema, with no long-term sequelae; however, severe skin necrosis and ulceration may occur. Large volumes of high osmolar contrast media are known to induce significant tissue damage. Compartment syndrome may be seen associated with extravasation of large volumes. Conservative management is often adequate, but in serious cases the advice of a plastic surgeon is recommended. Based on the review simple guidelines for prophylaxis and management of contrast medium extravasation injuries are proposed. (orig.)

  9. Contrast medium extravasation injury: guidelines for prevention and management

    Bellin, Marie-France; Tomassin, Isabelle [Department of Radiology, University Hospital P. Brousse, AP-HP, University of Paris 11, 14 Avenue Paul Vaillant-Couturier, 94804 Villejuif Cedex (France); Jakobsen, Jarl Aa. [Department of Radiology, Rikshospitalet, 0017 Oslo (Norway); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology 54E2, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, Herlev Ringvej 75, 2730 Herlev (Denmark); Morcos, Sameh K. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Northern General Hospital, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield S5 7AU (United Kingdom)

    2002-11-01

    Extravasation of contrast material is a well-recognized complication of contrast-enhanced imaging studies. The management of this complication is contentious; therefore, the Contrast Media Safety Committee of The European Society of Urogenital Radiology decided to review the literature and issue guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was carried out. The resulting report was discussed at the 8th European Symposium on Urogenital Radiology in Genoa, Italy. Automated power injection may result in extravasation of large volumes and may or can lead to severe tissue damage. Infants, young children and unconscious and debilitated patients are particularly at risk of extravasation during contrast media injection. Fortunately, most extravasations result in minimal swelling or erythema, with no long-term sequelae; however, severe skin necrosis and ulceration may occur. Large volumes of high osmolar contrast media are known to induce significant tissue damage. Compartment syndrome may be seen associated with extravasation of large volumes. Conservative management is often adequate, but in serious cases the advice of a plastic surgeon is recommended. Based on the review simple guidelines for prophylaxis and management of contrast medium extravasation injuries are proposed. (orig.)

  10. Risk factors and injury prevention in elite athletes: a descriptive study of the opinions of physical therapists, doctors and trainers

    Bruno T. Saragiotto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal injuries occur frequently in elite athletes. Understanding what professionals who work with patients with sports injuries think about prevention has been suggested as an important aspect to improve the effectiveness of programs to prevent sports injuries. Objectives: To describe and characterize the opinions of physical therapists, physicians and trainers on 'risk factors' and 'prevention of injury' in elite athletes. Method: This is a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews with members of the medical and technical department of the Brazilian delegation who participated in the Pan American Games of Guadalajara 2011. The interview was conducted using two questions: 1 "What do you think can cause injuries in athletes participating in your sport?" 2 "What do you do to prevent injuries in your sport?" The interviews were analyzed in two stages, the identification of thematic units, followed by the categorization and grouping of thematic units. Results: We interviewed a total of 30 professionals. Regarding question 1, the main factors attributed as responsible for injury were over-training and incorrect sports techniques. Regarding question 2, the main reported strategies used to prevent injuries were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance. Conclusions: The main factors affecting the appearance of lesions were over-training, incorrect sports technique, inadequate nutrition and factors related to the athlete's behavior. The main injury prevention strategies were muscle strengthening, nutritional counseling and guidance.

  11. Preventing kidney injury in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction.

    Larijani, Faezeh Javadi; Moghtaderi, Mastaneh; Hajizadeh, Nilofar; Assadi, Farahnak

    2013-12-01

    The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD) in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD), which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newborn infant includes a renal and bladder ultrasound, measurement of urine residual, determination of serum creatinine level, and urodynamics study. Voiding cystogram is indicated when either hydronephrosis or DSD is present. The main goal of treatment is prevention of urinary tract deterioration and achievement of continuance at an appropriate age. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) in combination with anticholinergic (oxybutynin) and antibiotics are instituted in those with high filling and voiding pressures, DSD and/or high grade reflux immediately after the myelomeningocele is repaired. Botulium toxin-A injection into detrusor is a safe alternative in patients with insufficient response or significant side effects to anticholinergic (oral or intravesical instillation) therapy. Surgery is an effective alternative in patients with persistent detrusor hyperactivity and/or dyssynergic detrusor sphincter despites of the CIC and maximum dosage of anticholinergic therapy. Children with NBD require care from a multidisciplinary team approach consisting of pediatricians, neurosurgeon, urologist, nephrologists, orthopedic surgeon, and other allied medical specialists. PMID:24498490

  12. Preventing kidney injury in children with neurogenic bladder dysfunction

    Faezeh Javadi Larijani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common cause of neurogenic bladder dysfunction (NBD in newborn infants is myelomeningocele. The pathophysiology almost always involves the bladder detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (DSD, which if untreated can cause severe and irreversible damage to the upper and lower urinary tracts. Early diagnosis and adequate management of NBD is critical to prevent both renal damage and bladder dysfunction and to reduce chances for the future surgeries. Initial investigation of the affected newborn infant includes a renal and bladder ultrasound, measurement of urine residual, determination of serum creatinine level, and urodynamics study. Voiding cystogram is indicated when either hydronephrosis or DSD is present. The main goal of treatment is prevention of urinary tract deterioration and achievement of continuance at an appropriate age. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC in combination with anticholinergic (oxybutynin and antibiotics are instituted in those with high filling and voiding pressures, DSD and/or high grade reflux immediately after the myelomeningocele is repaired. Botulium toxin-A injection into detrusor is a safe alternative in patients with insufficient response or significant side effects to anticholinergic (oral or intravesical instillation therapy. Surgery is an effective alternative in patients with persistent detrusor hyperactivity and/or dyssynergic detrusor sphincter despites of the CIC and maximum dosage of anticholinergic therapy. Children with NBD require care from a multidisciplinary team approach consisting of pediatricians, neurosurgeon, urologist, nephrologists, orthopedic surgeon, and other allied medical specialists.

  13. Nonpharmacological Strategies to Prevent Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury

    Paweena Susantitaphong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-induced AKI (CI-AKI has been one of the leading causes for hospital-acquired AKI and is associated with independent risk for adverse clinical outcomes including morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of the studies that focus on nonpharmacological strategies to prevent CI-AKI, including routine identification of at-risk patients, use of appropriate hydration regimens, withdrawal of nephrotoxic drugs, selection of low-osmolar contrast media or isoosmolar contrast media, and using the minimum volume of contrast media as possible. There is no need to schedule dialysis in relation to injection of contrast media or injection of contrast agent in relation to dialysis program. Hemodialysis cannot protect the poorly functioning kidney against CI-AKI.

  14. Prevention of radiation injuries of the urinary bladder and rectum using locally applied dimethylsulfoxide

    A method for the preventi.on of radiation injuries of the urinary bladder and rectum for cervical cancer patients was worked out. It was based on the iocal application of the radioprotective agent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) before a session of interstitial irradiation with the AGAT-B apparatus. Concomitant radiation therapy with DMSO was provided to 22 cervical cancer patients. The control group included 59 patients who received similar treatment without DMSO. The experession of early reactions and late injuries of the rectum and urinary bladder were signifncantly lower in the DMSO group. A radioprotective DMSO effect with relation to tumor was not found

  15. Groin injuries in athletes--development of clinical entities, treatment, and prevention.

    Hölmich, Per

    2015-12-01

    The doctoral thesis is based on eight papers published in peer-reviewed journals and a review of the literature. The papers are published between 1997 and 2013 in cooperation with Sankt Elisabeth Hospital, Herlev Hospital, Glostrup Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre Hospital, Amager Hospital, Copenhagen Trial Unit, and Institute of Preventive Medicine, Copenhagen. Groin injuries in sport are very common and in football they are among the most common and most time-consuming injuries. These injuries are treated very differently around the world. There is no consensus in the literature regarding definitions, examination methods, diagnosis or treatment and in general the level of evidence is very low. There is a need for identification of the painful anatomical structures, how to examine them and how to define clinical entities to develop effective treatment and prevention. The aim of these studies were: - To review the literature to create an overview of the ideas and the knowledge in order to plan future studies in this field. - Develop and test clinical examination techniques of the relevant tendons and muscles in the region. - Since no evidence-based diagnosis exist; to develop a set of clinical entities to identify the different groups of patients. - To test the effect of a dedicated exercise program developed for treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain in athletes in a randomised clinical trial comparing it to the treatment modalities used at that time. - To examine the long-term effect of the above mentioned training program for treatment of long-standing adductor-related groin pain. - To develop a training program for prevention of groin injuries in soccer and test it in a randomised clinical trial. - To describe the occurrence and presentation in clinical entities of groin injuries in male football and to examine the characteristics of these injuries. - Evaluate if radiological signs of femuro-acetabular impingement (FAI) or dysplasia affect the

  16. Curcumin and dexmedetomidine prevents oxidative stress and renal injury in hind limb ischemia/reperfusion injury in a rat model.

    Karahan, M A; Yalcin, S; Aydogan, H; Büyükfirat, E; Kücük, A; Kocarslan, S; Yüce, H H; Taskın, A; Aksoy, N

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin and dexmedetomidine have been shown to have protective effects in ischemia-reperfusion injury on various organs. However, their protective effects on kidney tissue against ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. We aimed to determine whether curcumin or dexmedetomidine prevents renal tissue from injury that was induced by hind limb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Fifty rats were divided into five groups: sham, control, curcumin (CUR) group (200 mg/kg curcumin, n = 10), dexmedetomidine (DEX) group (25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, n = 10), and curcumin-dexmedetomidine (CUR-DEX) group (200 mg/kg curcumin and 25 μg/kg dexmedetomidine). Curcumin and dexmedetomidine were administered intraperitoneally immediately after the end of 4 h ischemia, just 5 min before reperfusion. The extremity re-perfused for 2 h and then blood samples were taken and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidative status (TOS) levels, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were measured, and renal tissue samples were histopathologically examined. The TAC activity levels in blood samples were significantly lower in the control than the other groups (p OSI were found to be significantly increased in the control group compared to others groups (p model. PMID:26983591

  17. Asteroseismic stellar activity relations

    Bonanno, A; Karoff, C

    2014-01-01

    In asteroseismology an important diagnostic of the evolutionary status of a star is the small frequency separation which is sensitive to the gradient of the mean molecular weight in the stellar interior. It is thus interesting to discuss the classical age-activity relations in terms of this quantity. Moreover, as the photospheric magnetic field tends to suppress the amplitudes of acoustic oscillations, it is important to quantify the importance of this effect by considering various activity indicators. We propose a new class of age-activity relations that connects the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the average scatter in the light curve with the small frequency separation and the amplitude of the p-mode oscillations. We used a Bayesian inference to compute the posterior probability of various empirical laws for a sample of 19 solar-like active stars observed by the Kepler telescope. We demonstrate the presence of a clear correlation between the Mt. Wilson $S$ index and the relative age of the stars as indicated by ...

  18. Before and after the trauma bay: the prevention of violent injury among youth.

    Cunningham, Rebecca; Knox, Lynda; Fein, Joel; Harrison, Stephanie; Frisch, Keri; Walton, Maureen; Dicker, Rochelle; Calhoun, Deane; Becker, Marla; Hargarten, Stephen W

    2009-04-01

    Despite a decline in the incidence of homicide in recent years, the United States retains the highest youth homicide rate among the 26 wealthiest nations. Homicide is the second leading cause of death overall and the leading cause of death for male blacks aged 15 to 24 years. High rates of health care recidivism for violent injury, along with increasing research that demonstrates the effectiveness of violence prevention strategies in other arenas, dictate that physicians recognize violence as a complex preventable health problem and implement violence prevention activities into current practice rather than relegating violence prevention to the criminal justice arena. The emergency department (ED) and trauma center settings in many ways are uniquely positioned for this role. Exposure to firearm violence doubles the probability that a youth will commit violence within 2 years, and research shows that retaliatory injury risk among violent youth victims is 88 times higher than among those who were never exposed to violence. This article reviews the potential role of the ED in the prevention of youth violence, as well as the growing number of ED- and hospital-based violence prevention programs already in place. PMID:19162376

  19. Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu extract prevents radiation-induced small intestinal injury in mice

    Objective: to investigate the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu Extract on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice. Methods: Proliferation improvement of irradiated intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) was tested by MTT assay in vitro. The preventive effect of the prescription was also tested in vivo. Mice were treated with Shenlingbaizhu by intragastric administration immediately after receiving local irradiation to the abdomen at a dose of 10 Gy (60Co γ-ray). The body mass, diarrhea and survival were recorded. The pathological changes in the jejunum of mice were stained by HE and observed. Results: Shenlingbaizhu Extract could significantly promote the proliferation of irradiated intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. Shenlingbaizhu Extract treatment reduced the diarrhea of irradiated mice, improved the intestinal structural recovery and increased the mice survival. Conclusion: Traditional Chinese prescription Shenlingbaizhu Extract shows significant protective effect on radiation-induced intestinal injury in mice, providing data for clinical treatment of radiation-induced intestinal injury. (authors)

  20. Combining epidemiology and biomechanics in sports injury prevention research: a new approach for selecting suitable controls.

    Finch, Caroline F; Ullah, Shahid; McIntosh, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Several important methodological issues need to be considered when designing sports injury case-control studies. Major design goals for case-control studies include the accounting for prior injury risk exposure, and optimal definitions of both cases and suitable controls are needed to ensure this. This article reviews methodological aspects of published sports injury case-control studies, particularly with regard to the selection of controls. It argues for a new approach towards selecting controls for case-control studies that draws on an interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts. A review was conducted to identify sport injury case-control studies published in the peer-review literature during 1985-2008. Overall, 32 articles were identified, of which the majority related to upper or lower extremity injuries. Matching considerations were used for control selection in 16 studies. Specific mention of application of biomechanical principles in the selection of appropriate controls was absent from all studies, including those purporting to evaluate the benefits of personal protective equipment to protect against impact injury. This is a problem because it could lead to biased conclusions, as cases and controls are not fully comparable in terms of similar biomechanical impact profiles relating to the injury incident, such as site of the impact on the body. The strength of the conclusions drawn from case-control studies, and the extent to which results can be generalized, is directly influenced by the definition and recruitment of cases and appropriate controls. Future studies should consider the interface between epidemiological and biomechanical concepts when choosing appropriate controls to ensure that proper adjustment of prior exposure to injury risk is made. To provide necessary guidance for the optimal selection of controls in case-control studies of interventions to prevent sports-related impact injury, this review outlines a new case

  1. Strategies for optimizing military physical readiness and preventing musculoskeletal injuries in the 21st century.

    Nindl, Bradley C; Williams, Thomas J; Deuster, Patricia A; Butler, Nikki L; Jones, Bruce H

    2013-01-01

    With downsizing of the military services and significant budget cuts, it will be more important than ever to optimize the health and performance of individual service members. Musculoskeletal injuries (MSIs) represent a major threat to the health and fitness of Soldiers and other service members that degrade our nation's ability to project military power. This affects both financial (such as the economic burden from medical, healthcare, and disability costs) and human manpower resources (Soldiers medically unable to optimally perform their duties and to deploy). For example, in 2012, MSIs represented the leading cause of medical care visits across the military services resulting in almost 2,200,000 medical encounters. They also result in more disability discharges than any other health condition. Nonbattle injuries (NBIs) have caused more medical evacuations (34%) from recent theaters of operation than any other cause including combat injuries. Physical training and sports are the main cause of these NBIs. The majority (56%) of these injuries are the direct result of physical training. Higher levels of physical fitness protect against such injuries; however, more physical training to improve fitness also causes higher injury rates. Thus, military physical training programs must balance the need for fitness with the risks of injuries. The Army has launched several initiatives that may potentially improve military physical readiness and reduce injuries. These include the US Army Training and Doctrine Command's Baseline Soldier Physical Readiness Requirements and Gender Neutral Physical Performance Standards studies, as well as the reimplementation of the Master Fitness Trainer program and the Army Medical Command's Soldier Medical Readiness and Performance Triad Campaigns. It is imperative for military leaders to understand that military physical readiness can be enhanced at the same time that MSIs are prevented. A strategic paradigm shift in the military's approach

  2. Kinetic energy management in road traffic injury prevention: a call for action

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: By virtue of their variability, mass and speed have important roles in transferring energies during a crash incidence (kinetic energy. The sum of kinetic energy is important in determining an injury severity and that is equal to one half of the vehicle mass multiplied by the square of the vehicle speed. To meet the Vision Zero policy (a traffic safety policy prevention activities should be focused on vehicle speed management. Understanding the role of kinetic energy will help to develop measures to reduce the generation, distribution, and effects of this energy during a road traffic crash. Road traffic injury preventive activities necessitate Kinetic energy management to improve road user safety.

  3. Pretreatment with scutellaria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid prevents cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Shumin Zhao; Wei Kong; Shufeng Zhang; Meng Chen; Xiaoying Zheng; Xiangyu Kong

    2013-01-01

    Pretreatment with scutel aria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid has protective effects against ischemia and attenuates myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, rats were given scu-tel aria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid intragastrical y at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg per day for 7 days before focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury models were established using the suture method. We then determined the protective effects of scutel aria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavo-noid pretreatment on focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Results showed that neurological deficit scores increased, infarct volumes enlarged, apoptosis increased and Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression were upregulated at 24 hours after reperfusion. Pretreatment with scutel aria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid at any dose lowered the neurological deficit scores, reduced the infarct volume, prevented apoptosis in hippocampal cells, attenuated neuronal and blood-brain barrier damage and upregulated Bcl-2 protein expression but inhibited Bax protein expression. Doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg were the most efficacious. Our findings indicate that pretreatment with scutel a-ria baicalensis stem-leaf total flavonoid at 100 and 200 mg/kg can improve the neurological func-tions and have preventive and protective roles after focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  4. Prevention and Treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Rapid-Onset Natural Disasters

    Regens, James L.; Mould, Nick

    2014-01-01

    The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate, or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spati...

  5. Effect of Plyometric Training on Prevention of ACL Injuries in Females Volleyball Players

    Enginsu, Müjdat; Lokmaoğlu, Recep; Korkmaz, Erol; Arıbaş, İlker; Selimoğlu, Şafak

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To verify the effects of plyometric training on prevention of ACL injuries with lower limp kinematics,eccentric hip and knee torques,and functional performance. Methods: 36 females volleyball players were divided into a training group (TG no:18) that carried out the plyometric training for 12 weeks,and a control group (CG no:18)that carried out no physical training.24 plyometric trainin sessions during approximately 12 weeks with 3 sessions ,30 minutes per week on alternate days. ...

  6. The role of the health services in the prevention of alcohol-related facial injury.

    McHugh, E E

    2009-10-01

    This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.

  7. Pathophysiology of repetitive head injury in sports. Prevention against catastrophic brain damage

    The most common head injury in sports is concussion and experiencing multiple concussions in a short period of time sometimes can cause severe brain damage. In this paper, we investigate severe brain damage due to repeated head injury in sports and discuss the pathophysiology of repeated sports injury. The majority of these severe cases are usually male adolescents or young adults that suffer a second head injury before they have recovered from the first head injury. All cases that could be confirmed by brain CT scan after the second injury revealed brain swelling associated with a thin subdural hematoma. We suggested that the existence of subdural hematoma is one of the major causes of brain swelling after repeated head injury in sports. Since repeated concussions occurring within a short period may have a risk for severe brain damage, the diagnosis for initial cerebral concussion should be done appropriately. To prevent catastrophic brain damage, the player who suffered from concussion should not engage in any sports before recovery. The american Academy of Neurology and Colorado Medical Society set a guideline to return to play after cerebral concussion. An international conference on concussion in sports was held at Prague in 2004. The summary and agreement of this meeting was published and the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) was introduced to treat sports-related concussion. In addition, a number of computerized cognitive assessment tests and test batteries have been developed to allow athletes to return to play. It is important that coaches, as well as players and trainers, understand the medical issues involved in concussion. (author)

  8. Needle stick injuries among dental students: risk factors and recommendations for prevention

    Kamis Gaballah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King's College London (KCL Dental Institute. Materials and methods: A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surface or during disposal. Results: This report showed that students are at the highest risk of NSIs at the fourth year of their 5-year BDS course. About one-third of injuries were reported among this group of students followed by year 5 students (25%. Oral surgery clinics were the major source of incident reporting when compared with other specialised dental clinics within the institute. The left hands of the students were the most frequently affected by such injuries and then the right hands of student dental nurses. The attempt of needle recapping of conventional syringes was the least reported mechanism of injuries and constituted only 15% of the total injuries and mainly occurred in third year students. The most frequent injuries among student nurses were during disposal of the needle. Conclusion: Less NSIs occur when using safety syringes. A non-recapping policy with immediate disposal of either the conventional or safety syringe systems after injection would prevent all clearance-related NSIs sustained by nurses. To avoid NSIs, education plays a vital role particularly with effective implementation of the change to safety syringes with appropriate training.

  9. Effects of evidence-based prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical risk factors for ACL injury in adolescent female athletes

    Zebis, Mette K.; Andersen, Lars L.; Brandt, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent female football and handball players are among the athletes with the highest risk of sustaining anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. AIM: This study evaluated the effects of evidence-based lower extremity injury prevention training on neuromuscular and biomechanical...... risk factors for non-contact ACL injury. METHODS: 40 adolescent female football and handball players (15-16 years) were randomly allocated to a control group (CON, n=20) or neuromuscular training group (NMT, n=20). The NMT group performed an injury prevention programme as a warm-up before their usual....... CONCLUSIONS: A 12-week injury prevention programme in addition to training and match play in adolescent females altered the pattern of agonist-antagonist muscle preactivity during side cutting. This may represent a more ACL-protective motor strategy....

  10. Efficacy of preoperative trimetazidine for preventing myocardial injury in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting

    Tamer Turk; Yusuf Ata; Ufuk Aydin; Hasan Ari; Kagan Ahmet As; Senol Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with median sternotomy have been shown to be beneficial and associated with reduced myocardial injury. However, there is still a risk for ischemic myocardial injury that results from the normothermic  and metabolically active myocardium during the occlusion of the target coronary artery. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine in prevention of myocardial tissue injury in patients undergoing off-pump CABG by measuring serum ...

  11. Clinical Effects of Lianbai Liquid in Prevention and Treatment of Dermal Injury Caused by Radiotherapy

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Lianbai liquid (连柏液) in prevention and treatment of acute radiation dermal injury. Method: From May 2000 to December 2005, 126 cancer patients were randomly divided into a prevention group of 75 cases given externally topical application of Lianbai liquid since the first radiotherapy, and a control group Ⅰ of 51 cases given only advice after radiotherapy; while the other 92 cancer patients who had already had grade Ⅲ acute radiation-induced dermal injury were randomly divided into a treatment group of 54 cases treated by externally topical use of Lianbai liquid, and a control group Ⅱ of 38 cases treated by topical use of norfloxacin. Clinical evaluation was carried out according to the CTC.V2.0 standard stipulated by NCI for classifying acute radiation dermal injury. Results: The incidence of skin reaction was 32.0% in the prevention group and 92.2% in the control group Ⅰ, with an obvious difference between the two groups (χ2=54.163, P<0.01). Mild radioactive reaction (grade Ⅰ and Ⅱ) was 28.0% (21/75) in the prevention group and 70.6% (36/51) in the control group Ⅰ, with a remarkable difference between the two groups (χ2=22.226, P<0.01). The effective rate for grade Ⅲ dermal injury was 92.6% (50/54) in the treatment group and 65.9% (25/38) in the control group Ⅱ, with a remarkable difference between the two groups (χ2=6.018, P=0.024). The wound-healing time was 11.07±2.21 days in the treatment group and 18.08±1.76 days in the control group Ⅱ, with a remarkable difference between the two groups (u=16.932, P<0.01). Conclusion: Lianbai liquid can effectively prevent the radiation dermatitis, and treat grade Ⅲ acute radiation dermal injury with obvious curative effect.

  12. The effectiveness of a preconditioning programme on preventing running-related injuries in novice runners : a randomised controlled trial

    Bredeweg, Steef W.; Zijlstra, Sjouke; Bessem, Bram; Buist, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Objectives There is no consensus on the aetiology and prevention of running-related injuries in runners. Preconditioning studies among different athlete populations show positive effects on the incidence of sports injuries. Hypothesis A 4-week preconditioning programme in novice runners will reduce

  13. Determination of future prevention strategies in elite track and field: analysis of Daegu 2011 IAAF Championships injuries and illnesses surveillance

    Alonso, Juan-Manuel; Edouard, Pascal; Fischetto, Giuseppe; Adams, Bob; Depiesse, Frédéric; Mountjoy, Margo

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and characteristics of newly incurred injuries and illnesses during international Athletics Championships, by improving the medical surveillance coverage, in order to determine future prevention strategies. Design Prospective recording of newly occurred injuries and illnesses. Setting 13th International Association of Athletics Federations World Championships in Athletics 2011 in Daegu, Korea. Participants National team and Local Organising Committee physi...

  14. Neuromuscular training with injury prevention counselling to decrease the risk of acute musculoskeletal injury in young men during military service: a population-based, randomised study

    Suni Jaana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapidly increasing number of activity-induced musculoskeletal injuries among adolescents and young adults is currently a true public health burden. The objective of this study was to investigate whether a neuromuscular training programme with injury prevention counselling is effective in preventing acute musculoskeletal injuries in young men during military service. Methods The trial design was a population-based, randomised study. Two successive cohorts of male conscripts in four companies of one brigade in the Finnish Defence Forces were first followed prospectively for one 6-month term to determine the baseline incidence of injury. After this period, two new successive cohorts in the same four companies were randomised into two groups and followed prospectively for 6 months. Military service is compulsory for about 90% of 19-year-old Finnish men annually, who comprised the cohort in this study. This randomised, controlled trial included 968 conscripts comprising 501 conscripts in the intervention group and 467 conscripts in the control group. A neuromuscular training programme was used to enhance conscripts' motor skills and body control, and an educational injury prevention programme was used to increase knowledge and awareness of acute musculoskeletal injuries. The main outcome measures were acute injuries of the lower and upper limbs. Results In the intervention groups, the risk for acute ankle injury decreased significantly compared to control groups (adjusted hazards ratio (HR = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.15 to 0.78, P = 0.011. This risk decline was observed in conscripts with low as well as moderate to high baseline fitness levels. In the latter group of conscripts, the risk of upper-extremity injuries also decreased significantly (adjusted HR = 0.37, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.99, P = 0.047. In addition, the intervention groups tended to have less time loss due to injuries (adjusted HR = 0.55, 95% CI 0

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  16. Suburban Poverty: Barriers to Services and Injury Prevention among Marginalized Women Who Use Methamphetamine

    Boeri, Miriam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aims to identify the needed healthcare and social services barriers for women living in suburban communities who are using or have used methamphetamine. Drug users are vulnerable to injury, violence and transmission of infectious diseases, and having access to healthcare has been shown to positively influence prevention and intervention among this population. Yet little is known regarding the social context of suburban drug users, their risks behaviors, and their access to healthcare.Methods: The data collection involved participant observation in the field, face-to-face interviews and focus groups. Audio-recorded in-depth life histories, drug use histories, and resource needs were collected from 31 suburban women who were former or current users of methamphetamine. The majority was drawn from marginalized communities and highly vulnerable to risk for injury and violence. We provided these women with healthcare and social service information and conducted follow-up interviews to identify barriers to these services.Results: Barriers included (1 restrictions imposed by the services and (2 limitations inherent in the women’s social, economic, or legal situations. We found that the barriers increased the women’s risk for further injury, violence and transmission of infectious diseases. Women who could not access needed healthcare and social resources typically used street drugs that were accessible and affordable to self-medicate their untreated emotional and physical pain.Conclusion: Our findings add to the literatureon how healthcare and social services are related to injury prevention. Social service providers in the suburbs were often indifferent to the needs of drug-using women. For these women, health services were accessed primarily at emergency departments (ED. To break the cycle of continued drug use, violence and injury, we suggest that ED staff be trained to perform substance abuse assessments and provide

  17. Rib stress fractures among rowers: definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, risk factors and effectiveness of injury prevention strategies.

    McDonnell, Lisa K; Hume, Patria A; Nolte, Volker

    2011-11-01

    Rib stress fractures (RSFs) can have serious effects on rowing training and performance and accordingly represent an important topic for sports medicine practitioners. Therefore, the aim of this review is to outline the definition, epidemiology, mechanisms, intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors, injury management and injury prevention strategies for RSF in rowers. To this end, nine relevant books, 140 journal articles, the proceedings of five conferences and two unpublished presentations were reviewed after searches of electronic databases using the keywords 'rowing', 'rib', 'stress fracture', 'injury', 'mechanics' and 'kinetics'. The review showed that RSF is an incomplete fracture occurring from an imbalance between the rate of bone resorption and the rate of bone formation. RSF occurs in 8.1-16.4% of elite rowers, 2% of university rowers and 1% of junior elite rowers. Approximately 86% of rowing RSF cases with known locations occur in ribs four to eight, mostly along the anterolateral/lateral rib cage. Elite rowers are more likely to experience RSF than nonelite rowers. Injury occurrence is equal among sweep rowers and scullers, but the regional location of the injury differs. The mechanism of injury is multifactorial with numerous intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors contributing. Posterior-directed resultant forces arising from the forward directed force vector through the arms to the oar handle in combination with the force vector induced by the scapula retractors during mid-drive, or repetitive stress from the external obliques and rectus abdominis in the 'finish' position, may be responsible for RSF. Joint hypomobility, vertebral malalignment or low bone mineral density may be associated with RSF. Case studies have shown increased risk associated with amenorrhoea, low bone density or poor technique, in combination with increases in training volume. Training volume alone may have less effect on injury than other factors. Large differences in seat and handle

  18. A life course approach to injury prevention: a "lens and telescope" conceptual model

    Morton Susan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although life course epidemiology is increasingly employed to conceptualize the determinants of health, the implications of this approach for strategies to reduce the burden of injuries have received little recognition to date. Methods The authors reviewed core injury concepts and the principles of the life course approach. Based on this understanding, a conceptual model was developed, to provide a holistic view of the mechanisms that underlie the accumulation of injury risk and their consequences over the life course. Results A "lens and telescope" model is proposed that particularly draws on (a the extended temporal dimension inherent in the life course approach, with links between exposures and outcomes that span many years, or even generations, and (b an ecological perspective, according to which the contexts in which individuals live are critical, as are changes in those contexts over time. Conclusions By explicitly examining longer-term, intergenerational and ecological perspectives, life course concepts can inform and strengthen traditional approaches to injury prevention and control that have a strong focus on proximal factors. The model proposed also serves as a tool to identify intervention strategies that have co-benefits for other areas of health.

  19. Quercetin prevents pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine-induced liver injury in mice by elevating body defense capacity.

    Lili Ji

    Full Text Available Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid that is widely distributed in nature. The present study is designed to analyze the underlying mechanism in the protection of quercetin against pyrrolizidine alkaloid clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo. Serum transaminases, total bilirubin analysis, and liver histological evaluation demonstrated the protection of quercetin against clivorine-induced liver injury. Terminal dUTP nick end-labeling assay demonstrated that quercetin reduced the increased amount of liver apoptotic cells induced by clivorine. Western-blot analysis of caspase-3 showed that quercetin inhibited the cleaved activation of caspase-3 induced by clivorine. Results also showed that quercetin reduced the increase in liver glutathione and lipid peroxidative product malondialdehyde induced by clivorine. Quercetin reduced the enhanced liver immunohistochemical staining for 4-hydroxynonenal induced by clivorine. Results of the Mouse Stress and Toxicity PathwayFinder RT2 Profiler PCR Array demonstrated that the expression of genes related with oxidative or metabolic stress and heat shock was obviously altered after quercetin treatment. Some of the alterations were confirmed by real-time PCR. Our results demonstrated that quercetin prevents clivorine-induced acute liver injury in vivo by inhibiting apoptotic cell death and ameliorating oxidative stress injury. This protection may be caused by the elevation of the body defense capacity induced by quercetin.

  20. Unintentional injuries in the rural population of Twiserkan, Iran: A cross-sectional study on their incidence, characteristics and preventability

    Naghavi Mohsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge is sparse concerning injuries affecting rural populations in low and middle-income countries in general and in Iran in particular. This study documents the incidence and characteristics of severe injuries affecting rural people in the Iranian district of Twiserkan and it investigates these people's suggestions for injury prevention and control. Methods An interview-based investigation was undertaken that comprised all unintentional injuries leading to hospitalization (more than 6 hours or death that had occurred within a twelve month period and that were identified in the files of the 62 "health houses" of the Twiserkan district. For each case, semi-structured interviews were conducted at the households of the injured people (134 injuries affecting 117 households were identified. Results The incidence rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries were respectively 4.1 and 17.2 per 10 000 person-years and, as expected, men were more affected than women (77.6% of all injury cases. Traffic injuries (in particular among motorcyclists were as common as home-related injuries but they were far more fatal. Among common suggestions for prevention, people mentioned that the authorities could work on the design and engineering of the infrastructure in and around the village, that the rural health workers could contribute more with local information and education and that the people themselves could consider behaving in a safer manner. Conclusion Not only domestic injuries but also those in traffic are an important cause of severe and fatal injury among rural people. Health workers may play an important role in injury surveillance and in identifying context-relevant means of prevention that they or other actors may then implement.

  1. New developments in osteoarthritis. Prevention of injury-related knee osteoarthritis: opportunities for the primary and secondary prevention of knee osteoarthritis

    Ratzlaff, Charles R.; Liang, Matthew H.

    2010-01-01

    Where risk factors have been identified in knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA), with few exceptions, no prevention strategies have proven beneficial. The major risk factors for knee OA are advanced age, injury and obesity. However, there is limited or no evidence that they are modifiable or to what degree modifying them is effective in preventing development of knee OA or in preventing symptoms and progressive disease in persons with early OA. The notable exception is the growing epidemic of (sp...

  2. Ethyl Pyruvate Prevents Methyglyoxal-Induced Retinal Vascular Injury in Rats

    Junghyun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyruvate is an endogenous antioxidant substance. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP on retinal vascular injury in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the protective effect of EP on vascular cell apoptosis and blood-retinal barrier (BRB breakage, we have used intravitreally methylglyoxal-(MGO- injected rat eyes. Apoptosis of the retinal vascular cell that was stimulated by the intravitreal injection of MGO was evidently attenuated by the EP treatment. EP exerts inhibitory effect on MGO-induced vascular cell apoptosis by blocking oxidative injury. In addition, EP treatment prevented MGO-induced BRB breakage and the degradation of occludin, an important tight junction protein. These observations suggest that EP acts through an antioxidant mechanism to protect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in retinal vessels.

  3. 'I fell off and landed badly': Children's experiences of forearm fracture and injury prevention.

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Race, Douglas; Hamilton, Lynsey; MacDonald, Heather; Mulpuri, Kishore; McKay, Heather

    2016-03-01

    Forearm fractures are one of the most common injuries sustained by children. Our descriptive study addressed, from the perspective of a child, the following research objectives: (1) to describe their fracture experience and (2) to describe how fractures might be prevented. Photovoice is a unique research strategy by which people create and discuss photographs. This technique has been used to elicit the perspectives of those whose voices are often 'not heard' in research, like children. Participants were recruited from a larger three-year prospective trial and included 10 boys (12.3 ± 1.6 years) and 7 girls (11.3 ± 1.6 years). We asked participants to take pictures to explain where their injury occurred (place), what they were doing at the time (context) and how the fracture had happened (mechanism). We also used semi-structured interview techniques. The following key themes emerged from our interviews: (1) the built environment as a key factor that 'caused' their fracture, (2) the fracture experienced as a journey not an event and (3) strategies to prevent fractures. A simple clinical step to potentially reduce subsequent fractures will be for clinicians to have a brief conversation with their young patients and to listen to the child's personal preventive strategies. PMID:25326540

  4. Preventing ACL injuries in team-sport athletes: a systematic review of training interventions.

    Stojanovic, Marko D; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of training interventions aimed to prevent and to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACLI) rates in team sport players. We searched MEDLINE from January 1991 to July 2011 using the terms knee, ACL, anterior cruciate ligament, injury, prevention, training, exercise, and intervention. Nine out of 708 articles met the inclusion criteria and were independently rated by two reviewers using the McMaster Occupational Therapy Evidence-Based Practice Research Group scale. Consensus scores ranged from 3 to 8 out of 10. Seven out of nine studies demonstrated that training interventions have a preventive effect on ACLI. Collectively, the studies indicate there is moderate evidence to support the use of multifaceted training interventions, which consisted of stretching, proprioception, strength, plyometric and agility drills with additional verbal and/or visual feedback on proper landing technique to decrease the rate of ACLIs in team sport female athletes, while the paucity of data preclude any conclusions for male athletes. PMID:22742077

  5. Assessing Injury and Violence Prevention in North Carolina’s Local Health Departments

    Mouw, Mary S.; Counts, Jennifer; Fordham, Corinne; Francis, Molly Merrill; Bach, Laura E.; Maman, Suzanne; Proescholdbell, Scott K.

    2016-01-01

    Context Injury and violence-related morbidity and mortality present a major public health problem in North Carolina. However, the extent to which local health departments (LHDs) engage in injury and violence prevention (IVP) is not well described. Objectives 1) Provide a baseline assessment of IVP in the state’s LHDs, describing capacity, priorities, challenges, and the degree to which programs are data-driven and evidence-based. 2) Describe a replicable, cost-effective method for systematic assessment of regional IVP. Design An observational, cross-sectional study, through a survey of NC’s 85 LHDs. Results Representatives from 77 LHDs (91%) responded. Nearly a third (n=23, 30%) reported no staff were familiar with evidence-based interventions in IVP; over a third (n=29, 38%) reported their LHD did not train staff in IVP. Almost half (n=37, 46%) had no dedicated funding. On average, respondents said about half of their programs were evidence-based; however, there was marked variation (mean 52%, SD = 41). Many collaborated with diverse partners including law enforcement, hospitals, and community-based organizations. There was discordance between injury and violence burden and programming. Overall, 53% of issues listed as top local problems were not targeted in their LHDs’ programs. Conclusions Despite funding constraints, NC’s LHDs are engaged in a broad range of IVP activities. Programming did not uniformly address state injury and violence priorities, however, nor local injury and violence burden. Staff need training in evidence-based strategies targeting priority areas. Multi-sector partnerships were common and increased LHDs’ capacity. These findings are actionable at the state and local-level. PMID:27621337

  6. Factors related to main preventable perinatal injuries of public hospital in the Brazilian Federal District.

    Pamella Padilha BRITO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The quality of prenatal care, childbirth and newborn are determinants of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The realization of a adequate prenatal care and skilled birth assistance would reduce the incidence of injuries and perinatal deaths that are largely preventable. Method: Descriptive and exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative nature.  Interview and review of medical records of thirty mothers and newborns were made. The results were chart using the SPSS software, version 20.0, for processing and statistical analysis. We performed thematic analysis of interviews, and tabulated according to their frequencies, identifying the differences and similarities between data. Results: The most frequent perinatal injuries were prematurity (74.2%, Respiratory Distress (71%, Underweight (51.6%, Infection or Sepsis (41.9%, Perinatal Asphyxia (19.4%  and Oligohydramnio (19.4%. These injuries were related to several factors such as inadequate prenatal care, with fewer than six prenatal consultations (70% and late onset (50%, and presence of maternal health problems such as: changes in amniotic fluid (50% and preterm labor (50%. The interviewees added other factors such as failures in the care professional (43%, failures in care and service (33%, difficulty of access (19% and breast self-care failures (16.6%. Conclusion: Stood out in this study the occurrence of perinatal injuries in children of mothers with stable socio-demographic profile and in term newborns as also the percentage of deaths (16.1%. The perinatal injuries and deaths could have been avoided with qualified prenatal care, childbirth and newborn care.

  7. The requirements and challenges in preventing of road traffic injury in Iran. A qualitative study

    Laflamme Lucie

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Among middle-income countries, Iran has one of the highest mortality rates from RTIs. Action is critical to combat this major public health problem. Stakeholders involved in RTI control are of key importance and their perceptions of barriers and facilitators are a vital source of knowledge. The aim of this study was to explore barriers to the prevention of RTIs and provide appropriate suggestions for prevention, based on the perceptions of stakeholders, victims and road-users as regards RTIs. Methods Thirty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted with informants in the field of RTI prevention including: police officers; public health professionals; experts from the road administrators; representatives from the General Governor, the car industry, firefighters; experts from Emergency Medical Service and the Red Crescent; and some motorcyclists and car drivers as well as victims of RTIs. A qualitative approach using grounded theory method was employed to analyze the material gathered. Results The core variable was identified as "The lack of a system approach to road-user safety". The following barriers in relation to RTI prevention were identified as: human factors; transportation system; and organizational coordination. Suggestions for improvement included education (for the general public and targeted group training, more effective legislation, more rigorous law enforcement, improved engineering in road infrastructure, and an integrated organization to supervise and coordinate preventive activities. Conclusion The major barriers identified in this study were human factors and efforts to change human behaviour were suggested by means of public education campaigns and stricter law enforcement. However, the lack of a system approach to RTI prevention was also an important concern. There is an urgent need for both

  8. The Efficacy Of The Fifa 11+ Injury Prevention Program In The Collegiate Male Soccer Player

    Silvers, Holly J.; Mandelbaum, Bert R.; Adeniji, Ola; Insler, Stephanie; Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the efficacy of the FIFA 11+ injury prevention program in Men’s NCAA collegiate soccer. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in Division I and Division II NCAA men’s soccer teams during the Fall, 2012 season. Every athletic director, head soccer coach and head athletic trainer from each Divion I and Division II member institution with a men’s collegiate soccer program (N=411) was contacted via a formal letter, email and phone call. Sixty-one ...

  9. THE EFFECTS OF INJURY PREVENTION WARM-UP PROGRAMMES ON KNEE STRENGTH IN MALE SOCCER PLAYERS

    Daneshjoo, A.; Mokhtar, AH.; Rahnama, N.; Yusof, A.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates the effects of the 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programmes on knee strength in male soccer players. Under-21-year-old players (n=36) were divided equally into: the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programmes were performed for 24 sessions (20-25 min each). The hamstrings and quadriceps strength were measured bilaterally at 60°·s-1, 180°·s-1 and 300°·s-1. The concentric quadriceps peak torque (PT) of the 11+ increased by 27.7% at 300°·s-1 in the dominant leg...

  10. Machine guarding handbook a practical guide to OSHA compliance and injury prevention

    Spellman, Frank R

    1999-01-01

    Machine Guarding Handbook is a must-have reading for safety engineers and managers in manufacturing and other industrial settings who need to incorporate an effective machine guarding safety program, meet OSHA requirements, and protect workers. It provides a basic overview of OSHA's requirements, making compliance easier to achieve, thus preventing the risk of worker injury or mutilation and reducing the occurrence of costly penalties and OSHA audits. This 106-page book explores and discusses the hazards of unguarded machines, common safeguarding methods, the safeguarding of

  11. Preventing knee injuries in adolescent female football players – design of a cluster randomized controlled trial [NCT00894595

    Waldén Markus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knee injuries in football are common regardless of age, gender or playing level, but adolescent females seem to have the highest risk. The consequences after severe knee injury, for example anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury, are well-known, but less is known about knee injury prevention. We have designed a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT to evaluate the effect of a warm-up program aimed at preventing acute knee injury in adolescent female football. Methods In this cluster randomized trial 516 teams (309 clusters in eight regional football districts in Sweden with female players aged 13–17 years were randomized into an intervention group (260 teams or a control group (256 teams. The teams in the intervention group were instructed to do a structured warm-up program at two training sessions per week throughout the 2009 competitive season (April to October and those in the control group were informed to train and play as usual. Sixty-eight sports physical therapists are assigned to the clubs to assist both groups in data collection and to examine the players' acute knee injuries during the study period. Three different forms are used in the trial: (1 baseline player data form collected at the start of the trial, (2 computer-based registration form collected every month, on which one of the coaches/team leaders documents individual player exposure, and (3 injury report form on which the study therapists report acute knee injuries resulting in time loss from training or match play. The primary outcome is the incidence of ACL injury and the secondary outcomes are the incidence of any acute knee injury (except contusion and incidence of severe knee injury (defined as injury resulting in absence of more than 4 weeks. Outcome measures are assessed after the end of the 2009 season. Discussion Prevention of knee injury is beneficial for players, clubs, insurance companies, and society. If the warm-up program is proven to

  12. Assistive technologies for self-managed pressure ulcer prevention in spinal cord injury: A scoping review

    James Y. Tung, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pressure ulcers (PUs in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI present a persistent and costly problem. Continuing effort in developing new technologies that support self-managed care is an important prevention strategy. Specifically, the aims of this scoping review are to review the key concepts and factors related to self-managed prevention of PUs in individuals with SCI and appraise the technologies available to assist patients in self-management of PU prevention practices. There is broad consensus that sustaining long-term adherence to prevention regimens is a major concern. Recent literature highlights the interactions between behavioral and physiological risk factors. We identify four technology categories that support self-management: computer-based educational technologies demonstrated improved short-term gains in knowledge (2 studies, interface pressure mapping technologies demonstrated improved adherence to pressure-relief schedules up to 3 mo (5 studies, electrical stimulation confirmed improvements in tissue tolerance after 8 wk of training (3 studies, and telemedicine programs demonstrated improvements in independence and reduced hospital visits over 6 mo (2 studies. Overall, self-management technologies demonstrated low-to-moderate effectiveness in addressing a subset of risk factors. However, the effectiveness of technologies in preventing PUs is limited due to a lack of incidence reporting. In light of the key findings, we recommend developing integrated technologies that address multiple risk factors.

  13. A retrospective study of spinal cord injuries in Cape Province rugby players, 1963-1989. Incidence, mechanisms and prevention.

    Kew, T; Noakes, T D; Kettles, A N; Goedeke, R E; Newton, D A; Scher, A T

    1991-08-01

    A retrospective study was undertaken to determine aetiological factors for 117 catastrophic neck injuries in rugby players admitted to the Spinal Cord Unit, Conradie Hospital, Cape Town, between 1963 and 1989. Nineteen of these players were known to be dead; the files of another 10 were missing. Questionnaires were sent to the remaining 88 players and 52 responded (59%). Their data were supplemented with information obtained from the medical records of the patients who did not respond. The annual number of admissions increased dramatically after 1976 with 83% of all injuries occurring after that date. A further increase since 1984 contrasts with a falling incidence of these injuries in Britain, Australia and New Zealand. Increased risk of injury was related to the following factors: 98% of injuries occurred in matches and 81% were incurred by adults; 69% of injuries occurred in age-group A team or senior first team players; and 57% of injuries occurred in the tackle situation and 39% in scrums, rucks and mauls. Hooker, centre and flyhalf were the playing positions at greatest risk. Injuries were more common in early season matches and again after the mid-season break. This study confirmed that spinal cord injuries occur under predictable circumstances and are therefore foreseeable and preventable. The high incidence of these injuries in the Cape Province is as unacceptable today as it was when first reported in 1977. PMID:1862445

  14. FIFA 11+: an effective programme to prevent football injuries in various player groups worldwide-a narrative review.

    Bizzini, Mario; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-05-01

    In 2009, FIFA promoted and disseminated the FIFA 11+ injury prevention programme worldwide. Developed and studied by the FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre (F-MARC), the programme was based on a randomised controlled study and one countrywide campaign in amateur football that significantly reduced injuries and healthcare costs. Since the FIFA 11+ launch, key publications have confirmed the preventive effects of the programme and have evaluated its performance effects in female as well as male amateur football players. Furthermore, implementation strategies of this prevention programme have also been studied. The goal of this narrative review was to summarise the available scientific evidence about the FIFA 11+ programme. While FIFA continues to disseminate and implement FIFA 11+ among its Member Associations, adaptations of the injury prevention programme for children and referees have been developed and are currently being evaluated. PMID:25878073

  15. Prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury due to rapid-onset natural disasters

    James L. Regens

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevention and treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI attributable to rapid-onset natural disasters is a major challenge confronting disaster preparedness planners and emergency medical personnel responding to those incidents. The kinetic energy released by rapid-onset natural disasters such as earthquakes, hurricanes or typhoons, and tornadoes can cause mild, moderate or severe TBIs. As a result, neurotrauma is a major risk factor for mortality and morbidity outcomes within the spatial domain impacted by a rapid-onset natural disaster. This review article elucidates major challenges associated with immediate emergency medical response, long-term care, and prevention of post-event increases in pediatric TBIs because of child abuse when rapid-onset natural disasters occur.

  16. E-mentoring for violence and injury prevention: early lessons from a global programme.

    Wadhwaniya, Shirin; Meddings, David; Gururaj, Gopalkrishna; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Hyder, Adnan A

    2015-01-01

    To address the growing burden of violence and injuries, especially in low- and middle-income countries, in 2007 the World Health Organization launched MENTOR-VIP, a global violence and injury prevention (VIP)-mentoring programme. The programme aims to develop human resource capacity through 12-month mentoring arrangements between individual VIP experts (mentors) and less-experienced injury practitioners (mentees). In this paper, we review the first five years of the programme (2007-2011) using a systems analysis and SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats) frameworks, discuss programme findings and make recommendations. A well-defined programme with clear instructions, successful matching of mentorship pairs with similar interests and language, a formal accord agreement, institutional support and effective communication were identified as programme strengths. Overambitious projects, lack of funds and difficulties with communications were identified as programme weaknesses. Mentorship projects that require institutional permissions or resources could be potential threats to the success of mentorship. The study resulted in the four following recommendations to strengthen the programme: (1) institute additional steps in selection and matching mentor-mentee pair; (2) train mentors on e-mentoring; (3) conduct special orientation for mentees to the programme; and (4) maintain effective and open communication throughout the programme. PMID:25672216

  17. Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Warm-up for Unit Physical Training: A Case Series of Two Flying Squadrons.

    Shumway, Joshua D; Anderson, Danielle N; Bishop, Brett

    2016-05-01

    Injury prevention has been assessed and studied in professional and collegiate athletic populations, but application to the military setting has been limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an injury prevention warm-up in two flying squadrons. At the commanders' request, two Air Force flying squadrons (276 individuals) were provided an injury prevention warm-up of evidence-based exercises, which focused on functional range of motion and dynamic core stability. The routine was performed before unit physical training twice a week. The number of injuries did not significantly decrease after the injury prevention warm-up compared to 12 months before the intervention. However, the amount of time a subject was "grounded," duty not involving flying, because of a musculoskeletal injury decreased significantly from 146 days per month to 73 days per month (p = 0.02). A quick, generic warm-up of evidence-based exercises may decrease the number of limited duty days in a flying population. PMID:27168558

  18. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme for adult male amateur soccer players: design of a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    van Beijsterveldt, Anna M C; Krist, Mark R; Schmikli, Sandor L; Stubbe, Janine H; de Wit, G. Ardine; Inklaar, Han; van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Backx, Frank J G

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Approximately 16% of all sports injuries in the Netherlands are caused by outdoor soccer. A cluster-randomised controlled trial has been designed to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an injury prevention programme (‘The11’) for male amateur soccer players. The injury prevention programme The11, developed with the support of the World Football Association FIFA, aims to reduce the impact of intrinsic injury risk factors in soccer. Methods Teams playing ...

  19. HACCP-Based Programs for Preventing Disease and Injury from Premise Plumbing: A Building Consensus

    William F. McCoy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of preventable injuries and deaths are annually caused by microbial, chemical and physical hazards from building water systems. Water is processed in buildings before use; this can degrade the quality of the water. Processing steps undertaken on-site in buildings often include conditioning, filtering, storing, heating, cooling, pressure regulation and distribution through fixtures that restrict flow and temperature. Therefore, prevention of disease and injury requires process management. A process management framework for buildings is the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP adaptation of failure mode effects analysis (FMEA. It has been proven effective for building water system management. Validation is proof that hazards have been controlled under operating conditions and may include many kinds of evidence including cultures of building water samples to detect and enumerate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. However, results from culture tests are often inappropriately used because the accuracy and precision are not sufficient to support specifications for control limit or action triggers. A reliable negative screen is based on genus-level Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for Legionella in building water systems; however, building water samples with positive results from this test require further analysis by culture methods.

  20. Assessing Community-Based Injury Prevention Services in U.S. Children's Hospitals

    Nancy L. Weaver

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Not-for-profit hospitals are required to meet federal reporting requirements detailing their community benefit activities, which support their tax-exempt status. Children's hospitals have long provided community injury prevention (IP programming and thus can inform public health outreach work in other areas. This work describes IP programming as a community service offered by children's hospitals in the U.S. Methods: The IP specialist at 232 US-based member institutions of the Children's Hospital Association were invited to complete an assessment of their hospital's IP outreach programming. Results: 47.7 percent of hospitals request financial data from IP programming for tax reporting purposes. Almost all offer injury prevention (IP services; the majority are in the community (60.3% and 34.5% are hospital-based. Most IP units are independent (60.3% and 71.8% are responsible for their own budgets. Conclusions: By integrating dissemination and implementation sciences and community health needs assessments, these findings can help advance community services provided by hospitals to impact public health.

  1. HACCP-Based Programs for Preventing Disease and Injury from Premise Plumbing: A Building Consensus.

    McCoy, William F; Rosenblatt, Aaron A

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of preventable injuries and deaths are annually caused by microbial, chemical and physical hazards from building water systems. Water is processed in buildings before use; this can degrade the quality of the water. Processing steps undertaken on-site in buildings often include conditioning, filtering, storing, heating, cooling, pressure regulation and distribution through fixtures that restrict flow and temperature. Therefore, prevention of disease and injury requires process management. A process management framework for buildings is the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) adaptation of failure mode effects analysis (FMEA). It has been proven effective for building water system management. Validation is proof that hazards have been controlled under operating conditions and may include many kinds of evidence including cultures of building water samples to detect and enumerate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. However, results from culture tests are often inappropriately used because the accuracy and precision are not sufficient to support specifications for control limit or action triggers. A reliable negative screen is based on genus-level Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for Legionella in building water systems; however, building water samples with positive results from this test require further analysis by culture methods. PMID:26184325

  2. Myths and Misconceptions Revisited - What are the (Statistically Significant) methods to prevent employee injuries

    A company's overall safety program becomes an important consideration to continue performing work and for procuring future contract awards. When injuries or accidents occur, the employer ultimately loses on two counts - increased medical costs and employee absences. This paper summarizes the human and organizational components that contributed to successful safety programs implemented by WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health Departments located in Paducah, Kentucky, and Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The philosophy of 'safety, compliance, and then production' and programmatic components implemented at the start of the contracts were qualitatively identified as contributing factors resulting in a significant accumulation of safe work hours and an Experience Modification Rate (EMR) of <1.0. Furthermore, a study by the Associated General Contractors of America quantitatively validated components, already found in the WESKEM, LLC programs, as contributing factors to prevent employee accidents and injuries. Therefore, an investment in the human and organizational components now can pay dividends later by reducing the EMR, which is the key to reducing Workers' Compensation premiums. Also, knowing your employees' demographics and taking an active approach to evaluate and prevent fatigue may help employees balance work and non-work responsibilities. In turn, this approach can assist employers in maintaining a healthy and productive workforce. For these reasons, it is essential that safety needs be considered as the starting point when performing work. (authors)

  3. Colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.

    Otani, Koji; Watanabe, Toshio; Shimada, Sunao; Takeda, Shogo; Itani, Shigehiro; Higashimori, Akira; Nadatani, Yuji; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasome is a large, multiprotein complex that consists of a nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor (NLR), an apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain, and pro-caspase-1. Activation of the inflammasome results in cleavage of pro-caspase-1 into cleaved caspase-1, which promotes the processing of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β into mature IL-1β. We investigated the effects of colchicine on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced small intestinal injury and activation of the NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. Colchicine treatment inhibited indomethacin-induced small intestinal injury by 86% (1 mg/kg) and 94% (3 mg/kg) as indicated by the lesion index 24 h after indomethacin administration. Colchicine inhibited the protein expression of cleaved caspase-1 and mature IL-1β, without affecting the mRNA expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β. Although treatment with recombinant IL-1β (0.1 μg/kg) did not change the severity of small intestinal damage, the preventive effects of colchicine were abolished by supplementation with the same dose of recombinant IL-1β. Indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage was reduced by 77%, as determined by the lesion index in NLRP3(-/-) mice, and colchicine treatment failed to inhibit small intestinal damage in NLRP3(-/-) mice. These results demonstrate that colchicine prevents NSAID-induced small intestinal injury by inhibiting activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27585971

  4. "Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).

    Foley, E C; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating. PMID:23417345

  5. The information-seeking behaviors of professionals and information sources in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion.

    Lawrence, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Injuries are a serious public health problem worldwide. Despite the ubiquity of the World Wide Web and the resources of many different literature databases, the search for information concerning Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion (IPSP) topics is still complicated by several major barriers. IPSP is a multi-disciplinary field, making use of literature from at least 30 widely disparate professions. Each profession uses technical language that may not be fully understood by...

  6. Effect of the improving teaching method on the prevention of needle stick injuries in the department of infectious disease

    Yi CHEN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discuss the effect of improving teaching method and strengthening the training of occupational protection on the prevention of needle stick injuries in the department of infectious disease. Methods: Collect 17 cases of needle stick injuries that occurred in 2012 among 178 nurses in department of infectious disease. The same cases occurred in 2013 when the nurses had received the occupational protection training and targeted countermeasures were also collected. Results: The incidence of needle stick injuries was 9.55% in infectious department in 2012, and it is down to 3.4% in 2013. Conclusion: Nursing students are more likely to cause needle stick injuries. Training of occupational protection together with nursing technical operation specification can effectively control the occurrence of needle stick injuries.

  7. Ergometer training volume and previous injury predict back pain in rowing; strategies for injury prevention and rehabilitation

    Wilson, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly reported injury site in rowers is the lower back. Research in recent years has focused on epidemiology and biomechanical analyses to try and understand mechanisms that contribute to this injury's onset. Injury surveillance mainly comprises retrospective questionnaires and reviews of medical records with a lack of prospective data. Of studies that reported 12-month data, the incidence of low back pain ranged from 31.8 to 51% of the cohort. Of the limited studies that specific...

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition from ...

  9. Inflatable external leg compression prevents orthostatic hypotension in a patient with a traumatic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Helmi, Mochamat; Lima, Alexandre; Gommers, Diederik; van Bommel, Jasper; Bakker, Jan

    2013-09-01

    High thoracic spine or cervical injury may cause long-term orthostatic hypotension (OH). To stabilize hemodynamics and prevent presyncope symptoms in these patients, noninvasive management is preferable. We describe a case of a 61-year-old man who experienced presyncope symptoms as a result of severe OH due to spinal cord injury, after 60° head-up tilt position. The patient was referred to the intensive care unit where he was successfully managed with an inflatable external leg compression (ELC). Accordingly, inflatable ELC succeeded not only in improving presyncope symptoms, but also in preventing orthostatic hypotension for several hours. ELC may be an alternative way to stabilize hemodynamics and prevent presyncope symptoms in patients with OH following spinal cord injury. PMID:24020666

  10. The Impact of the FIFA 11+ Training Program on Injury Prevention in Football Players: A Systematic Review

    Barengo, Noël C; José Francisco Meneses-Echávez; Robinson Ramírez-Vélez; Daniel Dylan Cohen; Gustavo Tovar; Jorge Enrique Correa Bautista

    2014-01-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms “FIFA 11+”, “football”, “soccer”, “injury prevention”, and “The 11”. The titles and abstracts were screened by two in...

  11. Head Injuries

    ... Aid: Falls First Aid: Head Injuries Preventing Children's Sports Injuries Getting Help: Know the Numbers Concussions Stay Safe: ... Tips: Inline Skating Safety Tips: Skateboarding Dealing With Sports Injuries Concussions: What to Do Contact Us Print Resources ...

  12. Eye Injuries

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  13. Effectiveness of Injury Prevention Programs on Developing Quadriceps and Hamstrings Strength of Young Male Professional Soccer Players

    Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

    2013-01-01

    Muscular strength is an important factor which is crucial for performance and injury prevention in most sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the FIFA’s Medical Assessment and Research Centre 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programs on knee strength of young professional male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) were divided equally into three groups; the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programs were performed for 24 sessions....

  14. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    Lee, Ye-Ji [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seung-Hae [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Young-So; Choi, Ji-Yeon [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Keung-Sub [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Min-Sun [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Jihee Lee, E-mail: jihee@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Tissue Injury Defense Research Center, School of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ►Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  15. Preventing cleavage of Mer promotes efferocytosis and suppresses acute lung injury in bleomycin treated mice

    Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mer) regulates macrophage activation and promotes apoptotic cell clearance. Mer activation is regulated through proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular domain. To determine if membrane-bound Mer is cleaved during bleomycin-induced lung injury, and, if so, how preventing the cleavage of Mer enhances apoptotic cell uptake and down-regulates pulmonary immune responses. During bleomycin-induced acute lung injury in mice, membrane-bound Mer expression decreased, but production of soluble Mer and activity as well as expression of disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) were enhanced . Treatment with the ADAM inhibitor TAPI-0 restored Mer expression and diminished soluble Mer production. Furthermore, TAPI-0 increased Mer activation in alveolar macrophages and lung tissue resulting in enhanced apoptotic cell clearance in vivo and ex vivo by alveolar macrophages. Suppression of bleomycin-induced pro-inflammatory mediators, but enhancement of hepatocyte growth factor induction were seen after TAPI-0 treatment. Additional bleomycin-induced inflammatory responses reduced by TAPI-0 treatment included inflammatory cell recruitment into the lungs, levels of total protein and lactate dehydrogenase activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, as well as caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity and alveolar epithelial cell apoptosis in lung tissue. Importantly, the effects of TAPI-0 on bleomycin-induced inflammation and apoptosis were reversed by coadministration of specific Mer-neutralizing antibodies. These findings suggest that restored membrane-bound Mer expression by TAPI-0 treatment may help resolve lung inflammation and apoptosis after bleomycin treatment. -- Highlights: ►Mer expression is restored by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►Mer signaling is enhanced by TAPI-0 treatment in bleomycin-stimulated lung. ►TAPI-0 enhances efferocytosis and promotes resolution of lung injury.

  16. The effects of injury prevention warm-up programmes on knee strength in male soccer players.

    Daneshjoo, A; Mokhtar, Ah; Rahnama, N; Yusof, A

    2013-12-01

    The study investigates the effects of the 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programmes on knee strength in male soccer players. Under-21-year-old players (n=36) were divided equally into: the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programmes were performed for 24 sessions (20-25 min each). The hamstrings and quadriceps strength were measured bilaterally at 60°·s(-1), 180°·s(-1) and 300°·s(-1). The concentric quadriceps peak torque (PT) of the 11+ increased by 27.7% at 300°·s(-1) in the dominant leg (pwarm-up protocols for improving concentric hamstring strength in young professional male soccer players. The 11+ programme is more advantageous for its greater concentric hamstring strength improvement compared to the HarmoKnee programme. PMID:24795499

  17. Children in pickup trucks. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Injury and Poison Prevention.

    2000-10-01

    Pickup trucks have become increasingly popular in the United States. A recent study found that in crashes involving fatalities, cargo area passengers were 3 times more likely to die than were occupants in the cab. Compared with restrained cab occupants, the risk of death for those in the cargo area was 8 times higher. Furthermore, the increased use of extended-cab pickup trucks and air bag-equipped front passenger compartments creates concerns about the safe transport of children. The most effective preventive strategies are the legislative prohibition of travel in the cargo area and requirements for age-appropriate restraint use and seat selection in the cab. Parents should select vehicles that are appropriate for the safe transportation needs of the family. Physicians have an important role in counseling families and advocating public policy measures to reduce the number of deaths and injuries to occupants of pickup trucks. PMID:11015537

  18. Experimental optimization of iodine prophylaxis for prevention of radiation injury from accidental intake of radioiodine

    As is proved by nuclear disaster in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), iodine prophylaxis may be respected as one of the most urgent and effective methods of prevention of radiation injury of the thyroid gland in the population affected. On the basis of experiments in rats, analytical ways of determination of the dietary iodine intake (iodine supply) of people living around NPP Paks (Hyngary) as well as compartment modelling, experiments it is shown, that for optimization of iodine prophylaxis in masses it is very important to increase the iodine supply upto the recommended values. Combined use of decreased doses of potassium iodide and perchlorate was found to be the optimal way for removal of radioiodine from pregnant organisms and their offsprings following accidental intake of radioiodine

  19. Cardioplegia does not prevent reperfusion injury induced by intracoronary platelet deposition

    Rosenbaum, D.; Levitsky, S.; Silverman, N.; Kohler, J.; Lipowski, J.; LeBreton, G.; Feinberg, H.

    1983-09-01

    We have shown that after global myocardial ischemia, reperfusion injury may be related to platelet deposition in the coronary microcirculation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether multidose hypothermic potassium cardioplegia suppresses platelet deposition during postischemic reperfusion. Platelets labeled with /sup 111/In and erythrocytes labeled with /sup 51/Cr were injected into dogs subjected to either 120 min of continuous cardiopulmonary bypass (control, n . 4), 60 min of global normothermic myocardial ischemia followed by 50 min of reperfusion (n . 6), or global ischemia with cardioplegia (n . 5). Intracoronary platelet deposition was determined by comparing the double-labeled isotope activity of myocardial biopsy specimens to peripheral blood. Reperfusion after global myocardial ischemia resulted in substantial deposition of platelets within the coronary vasculature in both the cardioplegia-treated (215 +/- 40 platelets/mg) and untreated (269 +/- 95 platelets/mg) groups. These increases were significantly greater than those measured during continuous bypass (48 +/- 2 platelets/mg; p less than .01). Cardioplegia, despite apparent washout of the microcirculation, does not alter platelet deposition. Thus other platelet-stabilizing measures must be used to prevent platelet deposition-induced reperfusion injury after surgical global ischemia.

  20. Acute intestinal injury induced by acetic acid and casein: prevention by intraluminal misoprostol

    Acute injury was established in anesthetized rabbits by intraluminal administration of acetic acid with and without bovine casein, into loops of distal small intestine. Damage was quantified after 45 minutes by the blood-to-lumen movement of 51Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and fluorescein isothiocyanate-tagged bovine serum albumin as well as luminal fluid histamine levels. The amount of titratable acetic acid used to lower the pH of the treatment solutions to pH 4.0 was increased by the addition of calcium gluconate. Luminal acetic acid caused a 19-fold increase in 51Cr-EDTA accumulation over saline controls; casein did not modify this effect. In saline controls, loop fluid histamine levels bordered on the limits of detection (1 ng/g) but were elevated 19-fold by acetic acid exposure and markedly increased (118-fold) by the combination of acid and casein. Intraluminal misoprostol (3 or 30 micrograms/mL), administered 30 minutes before acetic acid, significantly attenuated the increase in epithelial permeability (luminal 51Cr-EDTA, fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine serum albumin accumulation) and histamine release (P less than 0.05). Diphenhydramine, alone or in combination with cimetidine, and indomethacin (5 mg/kg IV) were not protective. It is concluded that exposure of the epithelium to acetic acid promotes the transepithelial movement of casein leading to enhanced mast cell activation and mucosal injury. Damage to the epithelial barrier can be prevented by misoprostol

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition ...

  2. Eye Injuries at Work

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  3. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    and chest injury measures recorded on driver and front-seat test dummies. NHTSA later added side crash tests and rollover ratings to the U.S. NCAP. Consumer crash testing spread worldwide in the 1990s. In 1995, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) began using frontal offset crash tests to rate and compare frontal crashworthiness and later added side and rear crash assessments. Shortly after, Europe launched EuroNCAP to assesses new car performance including front, side, and front-end pedestrian tests. The influence of these consumer-oriented crash test programs on vehicle designs has been major. From the beginning, U.S. NCAP results prompted manufacturers to improve seat belt performance. Frontal offset tests from IIHS and EuroNCAP resulted in greatly improved front-end crumple zones and occupant compartments. Side impact tests have similarly resulted in improved side structures and accelerated the introduction of side impact airbags, especially those designed to protect occupant's heads. Vehicle safety designs, initially driven by regulations and later by consumer demand because of crash testing, have proven to be very successful public health measures. Since they were first introduced in the late 1960s, vehicle safety designs have saved hundreds of thousands of lives and prevented countless injuries worldwide. The designs that improved vehicle crashworthiness have been particularly effective. Some newer crash avoidance designs also have the potential to be effective-e.g., electronic stability control is already saving many lives in single-vehicle crashes. However, determining the actual effectiveness of these new technologies is a slow process and needs real-world crash experience because there are no assessment equivalent of crash tests for crash avoidance designs. PMID:19333823

  4. Occupational injuries and illnesses in rubber factory: Profile, Potential Hazards and possible prevention

    Tri Hari Irfani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber is one of the important commodities in the world. Globally, workers are facing so many problems of hazards that produce by rubber process. In Indonesia, there are several data of occupational problems such as respiratory diseases, muscle and skeletal diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, diseases of the teeth and oral cavity, skin diseases and skin tissue. In Iranian rubber factory, Iran, workers had suffered from some kind of musculoskeletal symptoms. Stomach and liver cancers in workers are having in Shanghai tire factory. In addition, Germany has cancer problem of their workers who work in rubber factory. Most of the rubber process in the factory can cause some hazards of the workers. In unloading area and area that operator is taking the dirt manually, workers are facing ergonomic problems. The possible control is reduce weight of load, team lift the object with two or more workers and Use mechanical assist. Machine safeguarding is essential for protecting from Cutting process that can make workers amputation organs such as hands, and fingers. In bale process, the workers need to cut raw rubber into bale in bale cutting. Furthermore, workers are facing with amputation problem. To manage that, It must be designed as a standard which has interlocking guards to prevent access to the cutting area. When wrapped using plastic, workers use a heated iron and sticked in plastic so that it blends neatly. The risks are fingers can cut accidently and then the workers also get contamination from polyvinyl chloride (PVC. The possible preventions are use an automatic plastic wrapping machine with palletized product sitting on a turntable and respirator. Another problem is contact dermatitis that has been reported frequently among rubber workers. The prevention for that problem is using Gloves. The aim of researcher is to provide the profile of occupational injuries and illnesses, potential hazards in rubber factory to prevent the workers.

  5. Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Emril, Dessy R; Wibowo, Samekto; Meliala, Lucas; Susilowati, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine (citicoline) has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury. Methods Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold) were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT) tests were used to assess motoric function. Results The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17) compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, Pnerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume. Conclusion In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery, evaluated by EPT test, 4 weeks after sciatic nerve injury. PMID:27284264

  6. Biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics of male athletes: implications for the development of anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs.

    Sugimoto, Dai; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Mendiguchía, Jurdan; Samuelsson, Kristian; Karlsson, Jon; Myer, Gregory D

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is likely the most effective strategy to reduce undesired health consequences including reconstruction surgery, long-term rehabilitation, and pre-mature osteoarthritis occurrence. A thorough understanding of mechanisms and risk factors of ACL injury is crucial to develop effective prevention programs, especially for biomechanical and neuromuscular modifiable risk factors. Historically, the available evidence regarding ACL risk factors has mainly involved female athletes or has compared male and female athletes without an intra-group comparison for male athletes. Therefore, the principal purpose of this article was to review existing evidence regarding the investigation of biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics that may imply aberrant knee kinematics and kinetics that would place the male athlete at risk of ACL injury. Biomechanical evidence related to knee kinematics and kinetics was reviewed by different planes (sagittal and frontal/coronal), tasks (single-leg landing and cutting), situation (anticipated and unanticipated), foot positioning, playing surface, and fatigued status. Neuromuscular evidence potentially related to ACL injury was reviewed. Recommendations for prevention programs for ACL injuries in male athletes were developed based on the synthesis of the biomechanical and neuromuscular characteristics. The recommendations suggest performing exercises with multi-plane biomechanical components including single-leg maneuvers in dynamic movements, reaction to and decision making in unexpected situations, appropriate foot positioning, and consideration of playing surface condition, as well as enhancing neuromuscular aspects such as fatigue, proprioception, muscle activation, and inter-joint coordination. PMID:25663251

  7. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Gill PS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Preetinder S Gill,1 Tejkaran S Gill,2 Ashwini Kamath,3 Billy Whisnant41College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI; 2College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; 3School of Information, University of Texas, Austin, TX; 4College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USAAbstract: Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving

  8. Aerosolized human extracellular superoxide dismutase prevents hyperoxia-induced lung injury.

    Chih-Ching Yen

    Full Text Available An important issue in critical care medicine is the identification of ways to protect the lungs from oxygen toxicity and reduce systemic oxidative stress in conditions requiring mechanical ventilation and high levels of oxygen. One way to prevent oxygen toxicity is to augment antioxidant enzyme activity in the respiratory system. The current study investigated the ability of aerosolized extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD to protect the lungs from hyperoxic injury. Recombinant human EC-SOD (rhEC-SOD was produced from a synthetic cassette constructed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Female CD-1 mice were exposed in hyperoxia (FiO2>95% to induce lung injury. The therapeutic effects of EC-SOD and copper-zinc SOD (CuZn-SOD via an aerosol delivery system for lung injury and systemic oxidative stress at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of hyperoxia were measured by bronchoalveolar lavage, wet/dry ratio, lung histology, and 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG in lung and liver tissues. After exposure to hyperoxia, the wet/dry weight ratio remained stable before day 2 but increased significantly after day 3. The levels of oxidative biomarker 8-oxo-dG in the lung and liver were significantly decreased on day 2 (P<0.01 but the marker in the liver increased abruptly after day 3 of hyperoxia when the mortality increased. Treatment with aerosolized rhEC-SOD increased the survival rate at day 3 under hyperoxia to 95.8%, which was significantly higher than that of the control group (57.1%, albumin treated group (33.3%, and CuZn-SOD treated group (75%. The protective effects of EC-SOD against hyperoxia were further confirmed by reduced lung edema and systemic oxidative stress. Aerosolized EC-SOD protected mice against oxygen toxicity and reduced mortality in a hyperoxic model. The results encourage the use of an aerosol therapy with EC-SOD in intensive care units to reduce oxidative injury in patients with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, including

  9. System versus traditional approach in road traffic injury prevention. A call for action

    Davoud Khorasani-Zavareh

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic injuries (RTIs are a major public health problem worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICsand require concerted efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. A variety of measures need to be considered when planning activities. This is particularly true in LMICs. Iran, for example, despite its enormous efforts in recent years in both pre-crash and post crash measures as well as social policy changes, continues to be challenged by the sheer magnitude of this major public health problem. Accordingly, stakeholders’ perceptions, the approach and the kind of preventive activities are crucial. On the whole, there are two different approaches in RTI prevention: the individual approach and the system approach.In the individual approach, there is a tendency for researchers and particularly practitioners to identify only one or a few elements, which usually can be found in many LMICs. Traditionally, in such countries many studies have focused on factors relating to driver errors, poor vehicles and the road environment instead of finding the reason for injury outcome. In many LMICs, the majority of preventive activities target road-user behaviors, which are usually tackled by means of education and enforcement. Hence the primary responsibility is assigned to the road user. However, while safe road-user behavior is one important component, changing such behavior should not simply be focused on education and enforcement. When WHO launched its call to action, it invited members of the public to be part of the solution. The initiative focused on five important courses of action for the general public including: not speeding; wearing a seat-belt; being visible on the road; wearing a helmet; and never drinking and driving. Studies on public education efficiency have revealed that a decrease in crashes due to such campaigns can occur only if they clearly target specific forms of behavior, like seat belt use or helmet

  10. Glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition prevents intestinal ischemia- reperfusion injury in rats

    Guo-Hao Wu; Hao Wang; Yan-Wei Zhang; Zhao-Han Wu; Zhao-Guang Wu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether glutamine prevents the injury to the intestinal mucosa after intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) in rats.METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: a standard parenteral nutrition (PN)group (n = 10); an I/R-PN group (n = 10); an I/R-glutamine enriched PN (I/R-Gln) group (n = 10). The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) was clamped. After 60 min of ischemia, reperfusion was initiated and infusion was started. All rats received isocaloric and isonitrogenous nutritional support for 48 h. Spleen, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), and intestinal segments were removed for morphological and biochemical analyses, and blood samples were collected for bacterial culture and measurement of endotoxin levels.The permeability of intestinnal mucosa was assayed by measurement of D-(-)-lactate levels in plasma.RESULTS: In I/R-PN group, extensive epithelial atrophy was observed, mucosal thickness, villous height, crypt depth and villous surface area were decreased significantly compared with PN group, whereas these findings did not occur in the I/R-Gln group. The incidence of intestinal bacterial translocation to spleen, liver, MLN, and blood was significantly higher in I/R-PN group than that in other groups.Plasma endotoxin levels significantly increased in the I/R-PN group compared with the I/R-Gln group. Remarkably higher values of D-(-)-lactate were also detected in PN group compared with that in I/R-Gln group.CONCLUSION: Glutamine protects the morphology and function of intestinal mucosa from injury after I/R in rats.

  11. Preventive effect of eccentric training on acute hamstring injuries in men's soccer

    Petersen, Jesper; Thorborg, Kristian; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann;

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football.......The incidence of acute hamstring injuries is high in several sports, including the different forms of football....

  12. Exercise in preventing falls and fall related injuries in older people: a review of randomised controlled trials

    Gardner, M.; Robertson, M; Campbell, A

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To assess the effectiveness of exercise programmes in preventing falls (and/or lowering the risk of falls and fall related injuries) in older people. Design—A review of controlled clinical trials designed with the aim of lowering the risk of falling and/or fall injuries through an exercise only intervention or an intervention that included an exercise component Main outcome measures—Falls, fall related injuries, time between falls, costs, cost effectiveness. Subjects—A total of 4933 men and women aged 60 years and older. Results—Eleven trials meeting the criteria for inclusion were reviewed. Eight of these trials had separate exercise interventions, and three used interventions with an exercise programme component. Five trials showed a significant reduction in the rate of falls or the risk of falling in the intervention group. Conclusions—Exercise is effective in lowering falls risk in selected groups and should form part of falls prevention programmes. Lowering fall related injuries will reduce health care costs but there is little available information on the costs associated with programme replication or the cost effectiveness of exercise programmes aimed at preventing falls in older people. Key Words: exercise; elderly; falls; cost effectiveness PMID:10690444

  13. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements

    George Sapkas; Andreas Panagopoulos; Ioannis Triantafyllopoulos

    2013-01-01

    We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was u...

  14. Safety and Feasibility of Intermittent Electrical Stimulation for the Prevention of Deep Tissue Injury

    Ahmetović, Alisa; Mushahwar, Vivian K.; Sommer, Ryan; Schnepf, Dana; Kawasaki, Lisa; Warwaruk-Rogers, Robyn; Barlott, Tim; Chong, Su Ling; Isaacson, Glen; Kim, Seoyoung; Ferguson-Pell, Martin; Stein, Richard B.; Ho, Chester; Dukelow, Sean; Chan, K. Ming

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel treatment, intermittent electrical stimulation (IES), for preventing deep tissue injury (DTI) in different healthcare settings. Approach: Testing was conducted in an acute rehabilitation unit of a general hospital, a tertiary rehabilitation hospital, a long-term care facility, and homecare (HC). IES was delivered through surface electrodes placed either directly on the gluteal muscles or through mesh panels inside a specialized garment. Study participants at risk for DTI used the system for an average of 4 weeks. Outcome measures included skin reaction to long-term stimulation, demands on the caregiver, stability of induced muscle contraction, and acceptability as part of the users' daily routine. Results: A total of 48 study participants used the IES system. The system proved to be safe and feasible in all four clinical settings. No pressure ulcers were observed in any of the participants. There was no difference between the clinical settings in patient positioning, ease of finding optimal stimulation site, and patient acceptance. Although donning and doffing time was longer in the long-term care and HC settings than the acute rehabilitation unit and tertiary rehabilitation facility, time required to apply the IES system was <18 min (including data collection). The patients and caregivers did not find the application disruptive and indicated that the stimulation was acceptable as part of their daily routine in over 97% of the time. Innovation and Conclusion: We demonstrated the safety, feasibility, and acceptability of a novel method of IES to prevent DTI in a continuum of healthcare settings. PMID:25785240

  15. Poor awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal injury with combined protective medications

    Ling-Ling Zhu; Ling-Cheng Xu; Yan Chen; Quan Zhou; Su Zeng

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate prescribing pattern in low-dose aspirin users and physician awareness of preventing aspirin-induced gastrointestinal (GI) injury with combined protective medications.METHODS:A retrospective drug utilization study was conducted in the 2nd Affiliated Hospital,School of Medicine,Zhejiang University.The hospital has 2300 beds and 2.5 million outpatient visits annually.Data mining was performed on all aspirin prescriptions for outpatients and emergency patients admitted in 2011.Concomitant use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs),histamine 2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) and mucoprotective drugs (MPs) were analyzed.A defined daily dose (DDD) methodology was applied to each MP.A further investigation was performed in aspirin users on combination use of GI injurious medicines [non-steoid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),corticosteroids and clopidogrel and warfarin] or intestinal protective drugs (misoprostol,rebamipide,teprenone and gefarnate).Data of major bleeding episodes were derived from medical records and adverse drug reaction monitoring records.The annual incidence of major GI bleeding due to low-dose aspirin was estimated for outpatients.RESULTS:Prescriptions for aspirin users receiving PPIs,H2RA and MPs (n =1039) accounted for only 3.46%of total aspirin prescriptions (n =30 015).The ratios of coadministration of aspirin/PPI,aspirin/H2RA,aspirin/MP and aspirin/PPI/MP to the total aspirin prescriptions were 2.82%,0.12%,0.40% and 0.12%,respectively.No statistically significant difference was observed in age between patients not receiving any GI protective medications and patients receiving PPIs,H2RA or MPs.The combined medication of aspirin and PPI was used more frequently than that of aspirin and MPs (2.82% vs 0.40%,P < 0.05) and aspirin/H2RA (2.82% vs 0.12%,P < 0.05).The values of DDDs of MPs in descending order were as follows:gefarnate,hydrotalcite > teprenone > sucralfate oral suspension > L-glutamine and sodium

  16. Understanding sharps injuries in home healthcare: The Safe Home Care qualitative methods study to identify pathways for injury prevention

    Markkanen, Pia; Galligan, Catherine; Laramie, Angela; Fisher, June; Sama, Susan; Quinn, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Home healthcare is one of the fastest growing sectors in the United States. Percutaneous injuries from sharp medical devices (sharps) are a source of bloodborne pathogen infections among home healthcare workers and community members. Sharps use and disposal practices in the home are highly variable and there is no comprehensive analysis of the system of sharps procurement, use and disposal in home healthcare. This gap is a barrier to effective public health interventions. The objec...

  17. The impact of the FIFA 11+ training program on injury prevention in football players: a systematic review.

    Barengo, Noël C; Meneses-Echávez, José Francisco; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Cohen, Daniel Dylan; Tovar, Gustavo; Bautista, Jorge Enrique Correa

    2014-11-01

    The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms "FIFA 11+", "football", "soccer", "injury prevention", and "The 11". The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits. PMID:25415209

  18. Proprioceptive Training and Injury Prevention in a Professional Men's Basketball Team: A Six-Year Prospective Study.

    Riva, Dario; Bianchi, Roberto; Rocca, Flavio; Mamo, Carlo

    2016-02-01

    Riva, D, Bianchi, R, Rocca, F, and Mamo, C. Proprioceptive training and injury prevention in a professional men's basketball team: A six-year prospective study. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 461-475, 2016-Single limb stance instability is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. Therefore, the development of proprioception may play an important role in injury prevention. This investigation considered a professional basketball team for 6 years, integrating systematic proprioceptive activity in the training routine. The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of proprioceptive training programs based on quantifiable instability, to reduce ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain through developing refined and long-lasting proprioceptive control. Fifty-five subjects were studied. In the first biennium (2004-2006), the preventive program consisted of classic proprioceptive exercises. In the second biennium (2006-2008), the proprioceptive training became quantifiable and interactive by means of electronic proprioceptive stations. In the third biennium (2008-2010), the intensity and the training volume increased while the session duration became shorter. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in proprioceptive control between groups, years, and bienniums. Injury rates and rate ratios of injury during practices and games were estimated. The results showed a statistically significant reduction in the occurrence of ankle sprains by 81% from the first to the third biennium (p < 0.001). Low back pain showed similar results with a reduction of 77.8% (p < 0.005). The reduction in knee sprains was 64.5% (not significant). Comparing the third biennium with the level of all new entry players, proprioceptive control improved significantly by 72.2% (p < 0.001). These findings indicate that improvements in proprioceptive control in single stance may be a key factor for an effective reduction in ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain. PMID:26203850

  19. Proprioceptive Training and Injury Prevention in a Professional Men's Basketball Team: A Six-Year Prospective Study

    Bianchi, Roberto; Rocca, Flavio; Mamo, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Riva, D, Bianchi, R, Rocca, F, and Mamo, C. Proprioceptive training and injury prevention in a professional men's basketball team: A six-year prospective study. J Strength Cond Res 30(2): 461–475, 2016—Single limb stance instability is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. Therefore, the development of proprioception may play an important role in injury prevention. This investigation considered a professional basketball team for 6 years, integrating systematic proprioceptive activity in the training routine. The purpose was to assess the effectiveness of proprioceptive training programs based on quantifiable instability, to reduce ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain through developing refined and long-lasting proprioceptive control. Fifty-five subjects were studied. In the first biennium (2004–2006), the preventive program consisted of classic proprioceptive exercises. In the second biennium (2006–2008), the proprioceptive training became quantifiable and interactive by means of electronic proprioceptive stations. In the third biennium (2008–2010), the intensity and the training volume increased while the session duration became shorter. Analysis of variance was used to analyze the differences in proprioceptive control between groups, years, and bienniums. Injury rates and rate ratios of injury during practices and games were estimated. The results showed a statistically significant reduction in the occurrence of ankle sprains by 81% from the first to the third biennium (p sprains was 64.5% (not significant). Comparing the third biennium with the level of all new entry players, proprioceptive control improved significantly by 72.2% (p ankle sprains, knee sprains, and low back pain. PMID:26203850

  20. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury 101 Spinal Cord Injury 101 The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation The Basics of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Preventing Pressure Sores Preventing Pressure Sores Transition ...

  1. Minocycline prevents retinal inflammation and vascular permeability following ischemia-reperfusion injury

    2013-01-01

    Background Many retinal diseases are associated with vascular dysfunction accompanied by neuroinflammation. We examined the ability of minocycline (Mino), a tetracycline derivative with anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, to prevent vascular permeability and inflammation following retinal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury, a model of retinal neurodegeneration with breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to 45 min of pressure-induced retinal ischemia, with the contralateral eye serving as control. Rats were treated with Mino prior to and following IR. At 48 h after reperfusion, retinal gene expression, cellular inflammation, Evan’s blue dye leakage, tight junction protein organization, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation were measured. Cellular inflammation was quantified by flow-cytometric evaluation of retinal tissue using the myeloid marker CD11b and leukocyte common antigen CD45 to differentiate and quantify CD11b+/CD45low microglia, CD11b+/CD45hi myeloid leukocytes and CD11bneg/CD45hi lymphocytes. Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) immunoreactivity was used to determine the inflammatory state of these cells. Results Mino treatment significantly inhibited IR-induced retinal vascular permeability and disruption of tight junction organization. Retinal IR injury significantly altered mRNA expression for 21 of 25 inflammation- and gliosis-related genes examined. Of these, Mino treatment effectively attenuated IR-induced expression of lipocalin 2 (LCN2), serpin peptidase inhibitor clade A member 3 N (SERPINA3N), TNF receptor superfamily member 12A (TNFRSF12A), monocyte chemoattractant-1 (MCP-1, CCL2) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). A marked increase in leukostasis of both myeloid leukocytes and lymphocytes was observed following IR. Mino treatment significantly reduced retinal leukocyte numbers following IR and was particularly effective in decreasing the

  2. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

    Santaweesuk S; Chapman RS; Siriwong W

    2014-01-01

    Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP) program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province,...

  3. Social marketing for injury prevention : changing risk perceptions and safety-related behaviors among New York farmers

    Sorensen, Julie

    2009-01-01

    In the U.S., work-related death is an all too familiar occurrence on farms. Tractor overturns continue to be the most frequent cause of these fatalities. Efforts to alter farming’s ranking as one of the most deadly occupations in the country must provide proven strategies for the elimination of these preventable deaths. In the past, efforts to decrease the rate of overturn fatalities and injuries have largely focused onincreasing the proportion of tractors with a rollover protective structure...

  4. Prevention of deep venous thrombosis in patients with acute spinal cord injuries: use of rotating treatment tables

    A randomized clinical trial of 15 patients with acute spinal cord injuries was performed to test the hypothesis that rotating treatment tables prevent deep venous thrombosis in this population. Four of 5 control (nonrotated) patients developed distal and proximal thrombi, assessed by 125I fibrinogen leg scans and impedance plethysmography. In comparison, only 1 of 10 treated (rotated) patients developed both distal and proximal thrombosis. These results suggest but do not prove that rotating treatment tables prevent the development of proximal deep venous thrombosis in spinal cord-injured patients. Larger clinical trials are needed to confirm this heretofore undocumented benefit of rotating treatment tables

  5. Mechanical injuries of the eye: Incidence, structure and possibilities for prevention

    Jovanović Miloš; Stefanović Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim. Despite technological advances used in everyday clinical practice, injuries of the eye caused by various agents still produce blindness and poor vision in a significant number of people. The aim of this study was to analyze factors leading to occurrence of mechanical injuries of the eye. Methods. Mechanic injuries of the eye in patients treated at the Institute for Eye Diseases of the Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade, in an eight-year period were analyzed. Investiga...

  6. Perceptions of Chandigarh sports coaches regarding oro-facial injuries and their prevention

    Lehl G

    2005-01-01

    Enthusiastic participation by the younger generation in sports exposes them to a high risk of injuries. In the present study, the perceptions of sports coaches regarding their knowledge and experience of such injuries is evaluated. The coaches considered helmet as the most common protective device followed by mouth guard and facemask. About 58% observed that boxing was associated with oro-facial injuries and protective devices were deemed mandatory by 68% in this event. About 45...

  7. The role of ankle bracing for prevention of ankle sprain injuries.

    Gross, Michael T; Liu, Hsin-Yi

    2003-10-01

    Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries incurred in recreational and competitive athletics. These injuries have a significant impact in terms of cost, athletic participation, and activities of daily living. Prophylactic ankle braces are often used to reduce the risk of injury recurrence when individuals return to athletic participation. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the literature and provide our own experience relative to the use of prophylactic ankle bracing. Relatively high incidence rates of ankle sprain injury have been reported for basketball and soccer athletes, military trainees, and individuals with a previous history of ankle sprain injury. Semirigid and laced ankle braces have significantly reduced the incidence of initial and recurrent ankle sprain injuries in athletic and military samples. With few exceptions, these braces do not appear to affect functional performance adversely. The prophylactic use of semirigid ankle braces appears warranted to reduce the incidence of initial and, in particular, recurrent ankle sprain injuries for individuals who participate in activities that have the highest risk for these injuries. Additional research is needed to evaluate the many new braces that are available and in use and their influence on the incidence of ankle sprain injury and functional performance. PMID:14620786

  8. Intermittent warming of 'Tahiti' lime to prevent chilling injury during cold storage

    Kluge Ricardo Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of 'Tahiti' limes (Citrus latifolia at low temperature allows the marketing period to be extended. However, the loss of the green skin color and the occurrence of chilling injury (CI prevent this extension. The purpose of this work was to verify the efficiency of intermittent warming (IW in 'Tahiti' lime quality maintenance during cold storage. Fruit were submitted to IW (20ºC for 48 hours every 7 or 14 days or 38ºC for 24 hours every 14 days during cold storage at 5ºC. Fruit were also stored at 5 and 10ºC continuously. The evaluations were carried out after 30 and 60 days of storage (+ 3 days of simulated marketing at 20ºC. CI occurrence on fruit was not verified after 30 days of storage. However, after 60 days of storage 60% of the fruit kept continuously at 5ºC presented CI, while fruit intermittently warmed had 10 to 12.5% CI. Fruit stored at 10ºC did not present CI, but they showed high degreening after 30 days of storage. Fruit warmed at 38ºC for 24 hours every 14 days developed rot, loss of green skin color and vitamin C, high respiratory rates, as well as high levels of ethanol and acetaldehyde in the juice. Fruit can be stored at 5ºC during 30 days, without risk of CI, while IW can be used to reduce CI after 60 days of storage.

  9. Angiopoietin-1 treatment reduces inflammation but does not prevent ventilator-induced lung injury.

    Maria A Hegeman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loss of integrity of the epithelial and endothelial barriers is thought to be a prominent feature of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. Based on its function in vascular integrity, we hypothesize that the angiopoietin (Ang-Tie2 system plays a role in the development of VILI. The present study was designed to examine the effects of mechanical ventilation on the Ang-Tie2 system in lung tissue. Moreover, we evaluated whether treatment with Ang-1, a Tie2 receptor agonist, protects against inflammation, vascular leakage and impaired gas exchange induced by mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Mice were anesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated for 5 hours with either an inspiratory pressure of 10 cmH2O ('low' tidal volume ∼7.5 ml/kg; LVT or 18 cmH2O ('high' tidal volume ∼15 ml/kg; HVT. At initiation of HVT-ventilation, recombinant human Ang-1 was intravenously administered (1 or 4 µg per animal. Non-ventilated mice served as controls. RESULTS: HVT-ventilation influenced the Ang-Tie2 system in lungs of healthy mice since Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie2 mRNA were decreased. Treatment with Ang-1 increased Akt-phosphorylation indicating Tie2 signaling. Ang-1 treatment reduced infiltration of granulocytes and expression of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1 and interleukin (IL-1β caused by HVT-ventilation. Importantly, Ang-1 treatment did not prevent vascular leakage and impaired gas exchange in HVT-ventilated mice despite inhibition of inflammation, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Ang-2 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Ang-1 treatment downregulates pulmonary inflammation, VEGF and Ang-2 expression but does not protect against vascular leakage and impaired gas exchange induced by HVT-ventilation.

  10. Lithium prevents early cytosolic calcium increase and secondary injurious calcium overload in glycolytically inhibited endothelial cells

    Highlights: •We investigate free calcium as a central signalling element in endothelial cells. •Inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxy-D-glucose reduces cellular ATP. •This manoeuvre leads to a biphasic increase and overload of free calcium. •Pre-treatment with lithium for 24 h abolishes both phases of the calcium increase. •This provides a new strategy to protect endothelial calcium homeostasis and barrier function. -- Abstract: Cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a central signalling element for the maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Under physiological conditions, it is controlled within narrow limits. Metabolic inhibition during ischemia/reperfusion, however, induces [Ca2+]i overload, which results in barrier failure. In a model of cultured porcine aortic endothelial monolayers (EC), we addressed the question of whether [Ca2+]i overload can be prevented by lithium treatment. [Ca2+]i and ATP were analysed using Fura-2 and HPLC, respectively. The combined inhibition of glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP synthesis by 2-desoxy-D-glucose (5 mM; 2-DG) plus sodium cyanide (5 mM; NaCN) caused a significant decrease in cellular ATP content (14 ± 1 nmol/mg protein vs. 18 ± 1 nmol/mg protein in the control, n = 6 culture dishes, P 2+]i (278 ± 24 nM vs. 71 ± 2 nM in the control, n = 60 cells, P 2+]i response of EC was biphasic with a peak after 1 min (183 ± 6 nM vs. 71 ± 1 nM, n = 60 cells, P 2+]i. A 24-h pre-treatment with 10 mM of lithium chloride before the inhibition of ATP synthesis abolished both phases of the 2-DG-induced [Ca2+]i increase. This effect was not observed when lithium chloride was added simultaneously with 2-DG. We conclude that lithium chloride abolishes the injurious [Ca2+]i overload in EC and that this most likely occurs by preventing inositol 3-phosphate-sensitive Ca2+-release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Though further research is needed, these findings provide a novel option for therapeutic strategies to

  11. The GRONORUN study: is a graded training program for novice runners effective in preventing running related injuries? Design of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Pepping Gert-Jan; Lemmink Koen APM; Bredeweg Steef W; Buist Ida; Zwerver Johannes; van Mechelen Willem; Diercks Ron L

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Running is a popular form of recreational exercise. Beside the positive effects of running on health and fitness, the risk of a running related injury has to be considered. The incidence of injuries in runners is high and varies from 30–79%. However, few intervention studies on prevention of running related injuries have been performed and none of these studies involved novice runners. Methods GRONORUN (Groningen Novice Running) is a two armed randomized controlled trial, ...

  12. Heat shock protein 70 prevents secretagogue-induced cell injury in the pancreas by preventing intracellular trypsinogen activation

    Bhagat, Lakshmi; Singh, Vijay P.; Hietaranta, Antti J.; Agrawal, Sudhir; Steer, Michael L; Saluja, Ashok K

    2000-01-01

    Rodents given a supramaximally stimulating dose of cholecystokinin or its analogue cerulein develop acute pancreatitis with acinar cell injury, pancreatic inflammation, and intrapancreatic digestive enzyme (i.e., trypsinogen) activation. Prior thermal stress is associated with heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression and protection against cerulein-induced pancreatitis. However, thermal stress can also induce expression of other HSPs. The current studies were performed using an in vitro syste...

  13. Eye Injuries at Home

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  14. A quasi experimental study to assess the effectiveness of standard operating procedures on prevention and management of needle stick injury in a teaching hospital of Haryana, India

    Annu Kaushik

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: Training of nurses is vital in prevention of needle stick injuries however continuous reinforcement is required for the sustainability of knowledge. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(11.000: 3069-3073

  15. Facial Sports Injuries

    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  16. Teaching Safety Skills to Children: Prevention of Firearm Injury as an Exemplar of Best Practice in Assessment, Training, and Generalization of Safety Skills

    Miltenberger, Raymond G

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on teaching safety skills to children with an emphasis on recent research on behavioral skills training for the prevention of firearm injury. Following a discussion of safety skills and methods for assessing these skills, the paper reviews recent research on behavioral skills training and in situ training for teaching safety skills to prevent firearm injury. Strategies for promoting generalization and increasing the efficiency of training are then discussed, along w...

  17. Injury prevention strategies at the FIFA 2014 World Cup: perceptions and practices of the physicians from the 32 participating national teams

    McCall, Alan; Davison, Michael; Andersen, Thor Einar; Beasley, Ian; Bizzini, Mario; Dupont, Gregory; Duffield, Rob; Carling, Chris; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The available scientific research regarding injury prevention practices in international football is sparse. The purpose of this study was to quantify current practice with regard to (1) injury prevention of top-level footballers competing in an international tournament, and (2) determine the main challenges and issues faced by practitioners in these national teams. Methods A survey was administered to physicians of the 32 competing national teams at the FIFA 2014 World Cup. The surve...

  18. Injury prevention strategies at the FIFA 2014 World Cup: perceptions and practices of the physicians from the 32 participating national teams

    McCall, Alan; Davison, Michael; Andersen, Thor Einar; Beasley, Ian; Bizzini, Mario; Dupont, Gregory; Duffield, Rob; Carling, Chris; Dvorak, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The available scientific research regarding injury prevention practices in international football is sparse. The purpose of this study was to quantify current practice with regard to (1) injury prevention of top-level footballers competing in an international tournament, and (2) determine the main challenges and issues faced by practitioners in these national teams. Methods: A survey was administered to physicians of the 32 competing national teams at the FIFA 2014 World Cup. The...

  19. The Impact of the FIFA 11+ Training Program on Injury Prevention in Football Players: A Systematic Review

    Noël C. Barengo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The FIFA 11+ is a simple, and easy to implement, sports injury prevention program comprising a warm up of 10 conditioning exercises. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of the FIFA 11+ on injury incidence, compliance and cost effectiveness when implemented among football players. MEDLINE, EMBASE and Scopus databases were searched using the search terms “FIFA 11+”, “football”, “soccer”, “injury prevention”, and “The 11”. The titles and abstracts were screened by two independent reviewers and the data were filtered by one reviewer using a standardized extraction form and thereafter checked by another one. The risk of bias and the methodological quality of the studies were evaluated through the PEDro score and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP. A total of 911 studies were identified, of which 12 met the inclusion criteria of the review. The FIFA 11+ has demonstrated how a simple exercise program completed as part of warm-up can decrease the incidence of injuries in amateur football players. In general, considerable reductions in the number of injured players, ranging between 30% and 70%, have been observed among the teams that implemented the FIFA 11+. In addition, players with high compliance to the FIFA 11+ program had an estimated risk reduction of all injuries by 35% and show significant improvements in components of neuromuscular and motor performance when participating in structured warm-up sessions at least 1.5 times/week. Most studies had high methodological quality and a low risk of bias. Given the large number of people who play football at amateur level and the detrimental impact of sports injuries on a personal and societal level, the FIFA 11+ can be considered as a fundamental tool to minimize the risks of participation in a sport with substantial health benefits.

  20. Kinesio taping in treatment and prevention of sports injuries: a meta-analysis of the evidence for its effectiveness.

    Williams, Sean; Whatman, Chris; Hume, Patria A; Sheerin, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    Kinesio tape (KT) is an elastic therapeutic tape used for treating sports injuries and a variety of other disorders. Chiropractor, Dr Kenso Kase, developed KT taping techniques in the 1970s. It is claimed that KT supports injured muscles and joints and helps relieve pain by lifting the skin and allowing improved blood and lymph flow. The profile of KT rose after the tape was donated to 58 countries for use during the 2008 Olympic Games, and was seen on high-profile athletes. Practitioners are asking whether they should use KT over other elastic adhesive tapes. The aim of this review was to evaluate, using meta-analysis, the effectiveness of KT in the treatment and prevention of sports injuries. Electronic databases including SPORTDiscus, Scopus, MEDLINE, ScienceDirect and sports medicine websites were searched using keywords 'kinesio taping/tape'. From 97 articles, ten met the inclusion criteria (article reported data for effect of KT on a musculoskeletal outcome and had a control group) and were retained for meta-analyses. Magnitude-based inferences were used to assess clinical worth of positive outcomes reported in studies. Only two studies investigated sports-related injuries (shoulder impingement), and just one of these involved injured athletes. Studies attending to musculoskeletal outcomes in healthy participants were included on the basis that these outcomes may have implications for the prevention of sporting injuries. The efficacy of KT in pain relief was trivial given there were no clinically important results. There were inconsistent range-of-motion outcome results, with at least small beneficial results seen in two studies, but trivial results in two other studies across numerous joint measurements. There was a likely beneficial effect for proprioception regarding grip force sense error, but no positive outcome for ankle proprioception. Seven outcomes relating to strength were beneficial, although there were numerous trivial findings for quadriceps and

  1. Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine administration prevents peripheral neuropathic pain after sciatic nerve crush injury in rats

    Emril DR

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Dessy R Emril,1 Samekto Wibowo,2 Lucas Meliala,2 Rina Susilowati3 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Histology and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta, IndonesiaBackground: Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine (citicoline has been shown to have beneficial effects in central nervous system injury as well as in motoric functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury. This study aimed to examine the effect of citicoline on prevention of neuropathic pain in a rat model of sciatic nerve crush injury.Methods: Forty experimental rats were divided into four groups. In three groups, the right sciatic nerves were crushed in the mid-thigh region, and a gelatin sponge moistened with 0.4 or 0.8 mL of 100 µmol/L citicoline, or saline 0.4 mL in the control group, was applied. The fourth group of rats was sham-operated, ie the sciatic nerve was exposed with no crush. Functional assessments were performed 4 weeks after crush injury. von Frey filaments (100 g threshold were used to assess neuropathic pain. In addition, the sciatic functional index and extensor postural thrust (EPT tests were used to assess motoric function.Results: The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group had a lower percentage of pain (23.53%, n=17 compared with the crush/saline group (53.33%, n=15, P<0.005. The crush/citicoline 0.4 mL group also showed better motoric recovery, as seen in stronger EPT results (P<0.001. However, the sciatic functional index analysis did not show significant differences between groups (P=0.35. The crush/citicoline 0.8 mL group showed a higher percentage of pain (66.67%, n=18 and less EPT recovery. These results may be explained by more severe nerve injury due to compression with a larger administered volume.Conclusion: In situ administration of 0.4 mL of 100 μmol/L citicoline prevents the occurrence of neuropathic pain and induces motoric recovery

  2. The us of low-energy laser for prevention and treatment of local radiation injuries

    Possibilities for usage of laser biostimulation therapy in medicine were considered. Laser radiation stimulates activity of enzymatic systems. Nucleic acid synthesis increases under the action of laser radiation (LR). Stimulation of LR was observed at tissue level. Low-energy laser therapy was used to cut short early skin radiation injuries during photon radiotherapy of tumors. Efficiency of laser radiation methods for treatment of early and delayed radiation injuries was shown. Lasers of unimpaired intensity are used for prophylaxis of radiation injuries during radiotherapy of malignant tumors

  3. A Commentary on Real-Time Biofeedback to Augment Neuromuscular Training for ACL Injury Prevention in Adolescent Athletes

    Adam W. Kiefer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament injury and the associated long-term sequelae, such as immediate reductions in physical inactivity, increased adiposity and increased risk of osteoarthritis throughout adulthood, are a major health concern for adolescent athletes. Current interventions for injury prevention may have limited effectiveness, are susceptible to issues of compliance and have not achieved the widespread acceptance necessary to promote full adoption. Neuromuscular training (NMT is a well-established training intervention introduced to affect change in modifiable biomechanical risk factors to reduce the risk of injury in these athletes. Despite moderate success, neuromuscular training is still limited by its reliance on subjective feedback and after the fact (i.e., offline objective feedback techniques. The purpose of this commentary is to discuss technological tools that could be used to enhance and objectify targeted biofeedback interventions to complement NMT. Electromyography, force plates, motion sensors, and camera-based motion capture systems are innovative tools that may have realistic feasibility for integration as biofeedback into NMT programs to improve training outcomes. Improved functional deficit identification and corrective analysis may further improve and optimize athletic performance, and decrease the risk of sports-related injury during sport performance.

  4. Mid-Thoracic Spinal Injuries during Horse Racing: Report of 3 Cases and Review of Causative Factors and Prevention Measurements.

    Triantafyllopoulos, Ioannis; Panagopoulos, Andreas; Sapkas, George

    2013-01-01

    We report three cases of a rare pattern of mid-thoracic spine injuries after horse racing falls and discuss possible causative factors and prevention measurements to reduce injury rates in professional riding and racing. Three patients, 2 male and 1 female with a mean age of 28 years old, underwent surgical treatment for mid-thoracic fractures after professional equestrian activities. The ASIA scale was E in one patient, B in the other one and A in the third. Multilevel posterior fusion was used in two patients and somatectomy plus fusion in the other. Follow up evaluation included changing of the ASIA scale, functional outcome and participation in equestrian activities. One patient fully recovered after surgery. Two patients remained paraplegic despite early surgical treatment and prolonged rehabilitation therapy. All patients had ended their professional equestrian career. This report analyzes possible mechanisms of injury and the pattern of mid-thoracic spine fractures after professional horse riding injuries. Despite skill improvements and continued safety education for horse riding, prophylactic measures for both the head and the spine should be refined. According to our study, additional mid-thoracic spinal protection should be added. PMID:23841001

  5. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load: a randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    Brushøj, Christoffer; Larsen, Klaus; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. HYPOTHESIS: A preventive training program based....... METHODS: A total of 1020 soldiers aged 20.9 years (range, 19-26 years) undergoing 3 months of basic military training consecutively enrolled from December 2004 to December 2005. The prevention program consisted of an exercise program of 15 minutes' duration 3 times a week, including 5 exercises for....... There were no significant differences in incidence of injury between the prevention group and the placebo group (incidence, 0.22 vs 0.19; P = .162; relative risk = 1.05 [range, 0.98-1.11]). The soldiers in the prevention group had the greater improvement in running distance in 12-minute run tests (82 vs...

  6. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load - A randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    Brushoj, C.; Larsen, K.; Albrecht-Beste, E.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. Hypothesis: A preventive training program based....... Methods: A total of 1020 soldiers aged 20.9 years ( range, 19-26 years) undergoing 3 months of basic military training consecutively enrolled from December 2004 to December 2005. The prevention program consisted of an exercise program of 15 minutes' duration 3 times a week, including 5 exercises for....... There were no significant differences in incidence of injury between the prevention group and the placebo group ( incidence, 0.22 vs 0.19; P = .162; relative risk = 1.05 [ range, 0.98-1.11]). The soldiers in the prevention group had the greater improvement in running distance in 12-minute run tests ( 82...

  7. Child Pedestrian Injury: A Review of Behavioral Risks and Preventive Strategies

    Schwebel, David C.; Davis, Aaron L.; O’Neal, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    Pedestrian injury is among the leading causes of pediatric death in the United States and much of the world. This paper is divided into two sections. First, we review the literature on behavioral risk factors for child injury. Cognitive and perceptual development risks are discussed. The roles of distraction, temperament and personality, and social influences from parents and peers are presented. We conclude the first section with brief reviews of environmental risks, pedestrian safety among ...

  8. Needle stick injuries among dental students: risk factors and recommendations for prevention

    Gaballah, Kamis; Warbuton, Dorothy; Sihmbly, Kamal; Renton, Tara

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the risk factors of needle stick injuries (NSIs) sustained by undergraduate dental students and nurse students at the King’s College London (KCL) Dental Institute. Materials and methods: A retrospective study evaluated the incident reports relating to NSIs reported over a period of 2 years. Factors including the dental department, study year, and when the injury took place during administration of local anaesthesia (LA) and recapping conventional syringe or clearing work surf...

  9. 5-Lipoxygenase Deficiency Prevents Respiratory Failure during Ventilator-induced Lung Injury

    Caironi, Pietro; Ichinose, Fumito; Liu, Rong; Jones, Rosemary C; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Mechanical ventilation with high VT (HVT) progressively leads to lung injury and decreased efficiency of gas exchange. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) directs blood flow to well-ventilated lung regions, preserving systemic oxygenation during pulmonary injury. Recent experimental studies have revealed an important role for leukotriene (LT) biosynthesis by 5-lipoxygenase (5LO) in the impairment of HPV by endotoxin. Objectives: To investigate whether or not impairment of HPV ...

  10. Data visualisation in surveillance for injury prevention and control: conceptual bases and case studies

    Martinez, Ramon; Ordunez, Pedro; Soliz, Patricia N; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2016-01-01

    Background The complexity of current injury-related health issues demands the usage of diverse and massive data sets for comprehensive analyses, and application of novel methods to communicate data effectively to the public health community, decision-makers and the public. Recent advances in information visualisation, availability of new visual analytic methods and tools, and progress on information technology provide an opportunity for shaping the next generation of injury surveillance. Obje...

  11. Success of microvascular surgery; repair mesenteric injury and prevent short bowel syndrome: a case report

    Yazici Pinar; Unalp Omer V; Aydin Unal; Guler Adem

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Superior mesenteric injury is a rare entity but when it occurs, short bowel syndrome is one of the uninvited results of the emergency surgical procedures. Case presentation We present a 19-year-old boy with blunt abdominal trauma which caused serious mesenteric injury. Because ultrasound revealed free intraabdominal fluid, he underwent emergency laparotomy. Adequate vascularization of approximately 20 cm of proximal jejunal segment and approximately 20 cm of terminal ileum...

  12. Mechanical eye injuries in children aged 0-15 years treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade: Frequency, causes and preventive measures

    Jovanović Miloš

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Eye injuries represent a significant problem in children. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and causes of the eye injury and to propose measures of the eye injury prevention in children up to 15 years of age. Methods. This was a retrospective study of 552 children with the eye injuries treated at the Clinic of Eye Diseases in Belgrade during the period March 1999 to February 2010. Gender and age of the children, time of injury, the type and site of injuries, visual acuity upon admission and at discharge, as well as the time of surgery in relation to time of injury were analyzed. Results. The ratio between the injured boys and girls was 3.6:1. The highest percentage of injured children was in the group 6-10 years old (39.7%; the injuries were almost evenly distributed according to months during the year and days during the week. The percentages of severe closed and open injuries of the eyeball were almost equal. Visual acuity upon discharge and subsequent follow-up examinations were significantly improved after the applied treatment in comparison with the visual acuity upon admission. Conclusion. Eye injuries in children still represent a severe health problem. Regarding the youngest age group of children, adults are mainly responsible for these injuries due to their lack of attention, while in older children these injuries are the result of the production and distribution of inappropriate toys and a failure to implement the legal traffic regulations applicable to children. The prevention of eye injuries is essential.

  13. Recent progress in defining mechanisms and potential targets for prevention of normal tissue injury after radiation therapy

    The ability to optimize treatments for cancer on the basis of relative risks for normal tissue injury has important implications in oncology, because higher doses of radiation might, in some diseases, improve both local control and survival. To achieve this goal, a thorough understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for radiation-induced toxicity will be essential. Recent research has demonstrated that ionizing radiation triggers a series of genetic and molecular events, which might lead to chronic persistent alterations in the microenvironment and an aberrant wound-healing response. Disrupted epithelial-stromal cell communication might also be important. With the application of a better understanding of fundamental biology to clinical practice, new approaches to treating and preventing normal tissue injury can focus on correcting these disturbed molecular processes

  14. Lithium prevents early cytosolic calcium increase and secondary injurious calcium overload in glycolytically inhibited endothelial cells

    Bosche, Bert, E-mail: bert.bosche@uk-essen.de [Department of Neurology, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Schäfer, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.schaefer@sanofi.com [Institute of Physiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen (Germany); Graf, Rudolf, E-mail: rudolf.graf@nf.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Neurological Research with Klaus-Joachim-Zülch Laboratories of the Max Planck Society and the Medical Faculty of the University of Cologne (Germany); Härtel, Frauke V., E-mail: frauke.haertel@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany); Schäfer, Ute, E-mail: ute.schaefer@medunigraz.at [Research Unit for Experimental Neurotraumatology, Medical University of Graz (Austria); Noll, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.noll@tu-dresden.de [Institute of Physiology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical University Dresden (Germany)

    2013-05-03

    chloride before the inhibition of ATP synthesis abolished both phases of the 2-DG-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} increase. This effect was not observed when lithium chloride was added simultaneously with 2-DG. We conclude that lithium chloride abolishes the injurious [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} overload in EC and that this most likely occurs by preventing inositol 3-phosphate-sensitive Ca{sup 2+}-release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Though further research is needed, these findings provide a novel option for therapeutic strategies to protect the endothelium against imminent barrier failure.

  15. Vertebral artery injury associated with cervical spine fracture-dislocation. Prevention of distal embolism using coil embolization

    This study investigated the efficacy of coil embolization of the injured vertebral artery associated with fracture-dislocation of the cervical spine for the prevention of embolic stroke. Between 2001 and 2010, 27 patients underwent reduction of the dislocation fracture of the cervical spine. In 4 cases, preoperative MRI revealed disappearance of the flow-void signal of the unilateral vertebral artery in the foramen transversarium, and we performed further investigation of the injury of the vertebral artery with digital subtraction angiography. In all 4 cases, digital subtraction angiography revealed occlusion of the unilateral vertebral artery. After conviction of the existence of colateral cerebral blood flow from the contra-lateral vertebral arteries or external carotid arteries, we embolized the proximal part of the occluded vertebral arteries in endovascular procedures with detachable coils for the prevention of the embolic stroke associated with orthopedical procedures. All patients underwent reduction of the cervical dislocation after coil embolization, and the operations were performed uneventfully. During the follow-up period (66.8 months on the average), there were no episodes of vertebrobasilar infarction. Perioperative and postoperative antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapies were not necessary. Dislocation fracture of the cervical spine is frequently associated with injuries of vertebral artery, and the management of the risk for cerebral infarction remains controversial. Preoperative embolization of the injured vertebral artery can be an effective procedure in preventing the embolic stroke caused by orthopedical procedures. (author)

  16. 78 FR 9055 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review

    2013-02-07

    ... received in response to ``Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and other Respiratory... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and other Respiratory Infections in Panama and Central America...

  17. 77 FR 39498 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-07-03

    ... Project (SIP): Assessing the Pregnancy Prevention Needs of HIV-Infected Young Women of Reproductive Age... to ``Assessing the Pregnancy Prevention Needs of HIV- Infected Young Women of Reproductive Age...

  18. [Prevention of intraoperative incidental injuries during sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer and management of postoperative complication].

    Han, Fanghai; Li, Hongming

    2016-06-25

    Prevention of intraoperative incidental injuries during radical operation for rectal cancer and management of postoperative complication are associated with successful operation and prognosis of patients. This paper discusses how to prevent such intraoperative incidental injuries and how to manage postoperative complication. (1) Accurate clinical evaluation should be performed before operation and reasonable treatment decision should be made, including determination of the distance from transection to lower margin of the tumor, T and M staging evaluated by MRI, fascia invasion of mesorectum, metastasis of lateral lymph nodes, metastatic station of mesentery lymph node, association between levator ani muscle and anal sphincter, course and length of sigmoid observed by Barium enema, length assessment of pull-through bowel. Meanwhile individual factors of patients and tumors must be realized accurately. (2) Injury of pelvic visceral fascia should be avoided during operation. Negative low and circumference cutting edge must be ensured. Blood supply and adequate length of pull-down bowel must be also ensured. Urinary system injury, pelvic bleeding and intestinal damage should be avoided. Team cooperation and anesthesia procedure should be emphasized. Capacity of handling accident events should be cultivated for the team. (3) intraoperative incidental injuries during operation by instruments should be avoided, such as poor clarity of camera due to spray and smog, ineffective instruments resulted from repeated usage. (4) As to the prevention and management of postoperative complication of rectal cancer operation, prophylactic stoma should be regularly performed for rectal cancer patients undergoing anterior resection, while drainage tube placement does not decrease the morbidities of anastomosis and other complications. After sphincter-preserving surgery for rectal cancer, attentions must be paid to the occurrence of anastomotic bleeding, pelvic bleeding, anastomotic

  19. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

    Herman Katherine

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up strategies and injury prevention. The quality of each included study was evaluated using a modified version of the van Tulder scale. Data were extracted from each study and used to calculate the risk of injury following application of each evaluated strategy. Results Nine studies were identified including six randomized controlled trials (RCT and three controlled clinical trials (CCT. Heterogeneity in study design and warm-up strategies prevented pooling of results. Two studies investigated male and female participants, while the remaining seven investigated women only. Risk Ratio (RR statistics indicated 'The 11+' prevention strategy significantly reduces overall (RR 0.67, confidence interval (CI 0.54 to 0.84 and overuse (RR 0.45, CI 0.28 to 0.71 lower limb injuries as well as knee (RR 0.48, CI 0.32 to 0.72 injuries among young amateur female footballers. The 'Knee Injury Prevention Program' (KIPP significantly reduced the risk of noncontact lower limb (RR 0.5, CI 0.33 to 0.76 and overuse (RR 0.44, CI 0.22 to 0.86 injuries in young amateur female football and basketball players. The 'Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance' (PEP strategy reduces the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries (RR 0.18, CI 0.08 to 0.42. The 'HarmoKnee' programme reduces the risk of knee injuries (RR 0.22, CI 0.06 to 0.76 in teenage female footballers. The 'Anterior Knee Pain Prevention Training Programme' (AKP PTP significantly reduces the incidence of anterior

  20. Pattern of injury mortality by age-group in children aged 0–14 years in Scotland, 2002–2006, and its implications for prevention

    Stone David H

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of the epidemiology of injuries in children is essential for the planning, implementation and evaluation of preventive measures but recent epidemiological information on injuries in children both in general and by age-group in Scotland is scarce. This study examines the recent pattern of childhood mortality from injury by age-group in Scotland and considers its implications for prevention. Methods Routine mortality data for the period 2002–2006 were obtained from the General Register Office for Scotland and were analysed in terms of number of deaths, mean annual mortality rates per 100,000 population, leading causes of death, and causes of injury death. Mid-year population estimates were used as the denominator. Chi-square tests were used to determine statistical significance. Results 186 children aged 0–14 died from an injury in Scotland during 2002–06 (MR 4.3 per 100,000. Injuries were the leading cause of death in 1–14, 5–9 and 10–14 year-olds (causing 25%, 29% and 32% of all deaths respectively. The leading individual causes of injury death (0–14 years were pedestrian and non-pedestrian road-traffic injuries and assault/homicide but there was variation by age-group. Assault/homicide, fire and suffocation caused most injury deaths in young children; road-traffic injuries in older ones. Collectively, intentional injuries were a bigger threat to the lives of under-15s than any single cause of unintentional injury. The mortality rate from assault/homicide was highest in infants ( Conclusion Injuries continue to be a leading cause of death in childhood in Scotland. Variation in causes of injury death by age-group is important when targeting preventive efforts. In particular, the threats of assault/homicide in infants, fire in 1–4 year-olds, pedestrian injury in 5–14 year-olds, and suicide in 10–14 year-olds need urgent consideration for preventive action.

  1. Prevention and Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Tanshinone IIA Sodium Sulfonate on Acute Liver Injury Mice Model

    Lunjie Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSS is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, which is the main pharmacologically active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza. This study aimed to verify the preventive and therapeutic effects of TSS and its combined therapeutic effects with magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MI in D-galactosamine- (D-Gal- induced acute liver injury (ALI in mice. The potential regulatory mechanisms of TSS on ALI were also examined. Our results may provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutics for ALI.

  2. Prevention and Therapeutic Effects and Mechanisms of Tanshinone IIA Sodium Sulfonate on Acute Liver Injury Mice Model

    Lu, Lunjie; Zhou, Jun; Zhang, Jingying; Che, Jun; Jiao, Yang; Zhang, Yusong

    2016-01-01

    Tanshinone IIA sodium sulfonate (TSS) is a water-soluble derivative of tanshinone IIA, which is the main pharmacologically active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza. This study aimed to verify the preventive and therapeutic effects of TSS and its combined therapeutic effects with magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MI) in D-galactosamine- (D-Gal-) induced acute liver injury (ALI) in mice. The potential regulatory mechanisms of TSS on ALI were also examined. Our results may provide a basis for the development of novel therapeutics for ALI. PMID:27274751

  3. Prevention of LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice by mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing angiopoietin 1.

    Mei, Shirley H. J; McCarter, Sarah D.; Yupu Deng; Parker, Colleen H; Conrad Liles, W.; Duncan J Stewart

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Critically ill people who have had an injury to their lungs, for example through pneumonia, trauma, or an immune response to infection, may end up developing a serious complication in the lung termed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In ARDS, inflammation develops in the lung, and fluid builds up in the alveoli (the air sacs resembling “bunches of grapes” at the ends of the network of tubes in the lung). This buildup of fluid prevents oxygen from being c...

  4. Prevention of iodinated contrast induced acute kidney injury (ICI--AKI - what have we learnt so far?

    Asim Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of imaging modalities and endovascular procedures has escalated phenol-menally in the last two decades. In view of increasing number of elderly patients, rising incidence of chronic kidney disease and diabetes along with the complication of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis with gadolinium, a large patient population will be at risk of developing iodinated contrast induced acute kidney injury (ICI-AKI which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality and increased health care costs. Hence a search for more effective ways to prevent ICI-AKI continues to be a focus within the medical community.

  5. Physical therapy resources in prevention of bone mineral density loss in patients with spinal cord injury – literature review

    Daniele Rodrigues

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper comprises a literature review on physical therapytreatment on prevention, stabilization or slowing down the processof bone mineral density loss in patients with spinal cord injury.There are few studies in the literature on the efficiency of physicaltherapy treatment for bone demineralization. There are reports offour types of treatment for demineralization: functional electricalstimulation, functional electrical stimulation-induced cycling,standing and ambulation. These treatments are rather questionableand controversial in relation to efficacy and there is no consensuson their methodologies.

  6. A feasible strategy for preventing blood clots in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (FBI)

    Robinson, Sian; Zincuk, Aleksander; Larsen, Ulla Lei;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous pharmacokinetic trials suggested that 40 mg subcutaneous enoxaparin once daily provided inadequate thromboprophylaxis for intensive care unit patients. Critically ill patients with acute kidney injury are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism and yet are often excluded...... from these trials. We hypothesized that for critically ill patients with acute kidney injury receiving continuous renal replacement therapy, a dose of 1 mg/kg enoxaparin subcutaneously once daily would improve thromboprophylaxis without increasing the risk of bleeding. In addition, we seek to utilize...... assign eligible critically ill adults with acute kidney injury into a treatment (1 mg/kg enoxaparin subcutaneously once daily) or control arm (40 mg enoxaparin subcutaneously once daily) upon commencement of continuous renal replacement therapy.We calculated that with 133 patients in each group, the...

  7. SODIUM BICARBONATE INFUSION: TO PREVENT CARDIAC SURGERY - ASSOCIATED ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY

    Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The incidence of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury is 50% of patients and is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine if perioperative urinary and plasma alkalization with sodium bicarbonate infusion re duces the incidence of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury. SETTING AND DESIGN: This study is double blind randomized control trial conducted at U N Mehta Institute of Cardiology and Research Center , India. METHOD S AND RESULT: A total of 140 pat ients scheduled to undergo elective cardiac surgery , who were at increased risk of development of cardiac surgery – associated acute kidney injury using recognized risk factors. Patients were randomly allocated to receive either sodium bicarbonate (n = 70 o r sodium chloride (n = 70 infusion , commencing at the start of anesthesia , in a dose of 4 mmol/kg over 24 hour. The primary outcome measure was the number of patients with development of CSA - AKI , defined as an increase in creatinine greater than 25% from baseline to peak value within the first three postoperative days. Significant differences among the groups in both plasma and urinary pH were achieved 6 hours after commencement of the infusion , and these changes persisted for more than 24 hours. A total o f 7 out of 70(10% patients in the sodium bicarbonate group and 16 out of 70(22.85% patients in the sodium chloride group developed acute kidney injury within the first three postoperative days with p value of 0.06 which is statistically not significant . There were also no significant differences in ventilation hours , ICU or hospital length of stay , or mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Perioperative alkalization of blood and urine using an infusion of sodium bicarbonate did not result in a decrease in the incidence of acute kidney injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. KEYWORDS: Acute kidney injury; Cardiac surgery; Cardiopulmonary bypass; Creatinine

  8. Adenosine preconditioning attenuates hepatic reperfusion injury in the rat by preventing the down-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand; Virlos, Ioannis T; Habib, Nagy A; Williamson, Robin CN; Mathie, Robert T

    2002-01-01

    Background Previous work has suggested that in the liver, adenosine preconditioning is mediated by nitric oxide. Whether the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase plays a part in this mechanism has however not yet been investigated. Methods Wistar rats were used (6 in each group) – Groups: (1) sham, (2) ischemia-reperfusion, (3) adenosine + ischemia-reperfusion, (4) endothelial isoform inhibitor + adenosine + ischemia-reperfusion. Results Using immunohistochemistry, this study has revealed a decrease in the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase following hepatic ischemia-reperfusion. This was prevented by adenosine pre-treatment. When an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase was administered prior to adenosine pre-treatment, pre-conditioning did not occur despite normal expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Conclusions These findings suggest that adenosine attenuates hepatic injury by preventing the downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase that occurs during ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:12241560

  9. New strategies for the prevention of radiation injury. Possible implications for countering radiation hazards of long-term space travel

    Seed, T.; Kumar, S.; Whitnall, M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States). Radiation Casualty Management] [and others

    2002-12-01

    New strategies for the prevention of radiation injuries are currently being explored with the ultimate aim of developing globally radioprotective, nontoxic pharmacologics. The prophylactic treatments under review encompass such diverse pharmacologic classes as novel immunomodulators, nutritional antioxidants, and cytokines. An immunomodulator that shows promise is 5-androstenediol (AED), a well-tolerated, long-acting and rostene steroid with broad-spectrum radioprotective attributes that include not only protection against acute tissue injury, but also reduced susceptibility to infectious agents, as well as reduced rates of neoplastic transformation. Other potentially useful radioprotectants currently under study include the nutraceutical vitamin E and analogs, a chemically-engineered cytokine, interleukin-1{beta}, and a sustained-release formulation of an aminothiol, amifostine. Results suggest that a new paradigm is evolving for the prophylaxes of radiation injuries, based on use of newly identified, nontoxic, broad-spectrum prophylactic agents whose protective action may be leveraged by subsequent postexposure use of cytokines with organ-specific reparative functions. (author)

  10. A prospective evaluation of a pressure ulcer prevention and management E-Learning Program for adults with spinal cord injury.

    Brace, Jacalyn A; Schubart, Jane R

    2010-08-01

    Pressure ulcers are a common complication of spinal cord injury (SCI). Pressure ulcer education programs for spinal cord injured individuals have been found to have a positive effect on care protocol adherence. A prospective study was conducted among hospitalized spinal cord-injured men and women to determine if viewing the Pressure Ulcer Prevention and Management Education for Adults with Spinal Cord Injury: E-Learning Program affects their knowledge scores. A 20-question multiple-choice pre-/post learning test was developed and validated by 12 rehabilitation nurses. Twenty (20) patients (13 men, seven women; mean age 49 years, [SD: 18.26] with injuries to the cervical [seven], thoracic [six], and lumbar [six] regions) volunteered. Most (42%) had completed high school and time since SCI ranged from 2 weeks to 27 years. Eighteen (18) participants completed both the pre- and post test. Of those, 16 showed improvement in pressure ulcer knowledge scores. The median scores improved from 65 (range 25 to 100) pre-program to 92.5 (range 75 to 100) post-program. Descriptive statistics, Student's t-test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to analyze the data. The results suggest that a single viewing of this e-learning program could improve pressure ulcer knowledge of hospitalized adults with SCI. Research to ascertain the effects of this and other educational programs on pressure ulcer rates is needed. PMID:20729562

  11. New strategies for the prevention of radiation injury. Possible implications for countering radiation hazards of long-term space travel

    New strategies for the prevention of radiation injuries are currently being explored with the ultimate aim of developing globally radioprotective, nontoxic pharmacologics. The prophylactic treatments under review encompass such diverse pharmacologic classes as novel immunomodulators, nutritional antioxidants, and cytokines. An immunomodulator that shows promise is 5-androstenediol (AED), a well-tolerated, long-acting and rostene steroid with broad-spectrum radioprotective attributes that include not only protection against acute tissue injury, but also reduced susceptibility to infectious agents, as well as reduced rates of neoplastic transformation. Other potentially useful radioprotectants currently under study include the nutraceutical vitamin E and analogs, a chemically-engineered cytokine, interleukin-1β, and a sustained-release formulation of an aminothiol, amifostine. Results suggest that a new paradigm is evolving for the prophylaxes of radiation injuries, based on use of newly identified, nontoxic, broad-spectrum prophylactic agents whose protective action may be leveraged by subsequent postexposure use of cytokines with organ-specific reparative functions. (author)

  12. Shoulder 3D range of motion and humerus rotation in two volleyball spike techniques: injury prevention and performance.

    Seminati, Elena; Marzari, Alessandra; Vacondio, Oreste; Minetti, Alberto E

    2015-06-01

    Repetitive stresses and movements on the shoulder in the volleyball spike expose this joint to overuse injuries, bringing athletes to a career threatening injury. Assuming that specific spike techniques play an important role in injury risk, we compared the kinematic of the traditional (TT) and the alternative (AT) techniques in 21 elite athletes, evaluating their safety with respect to performance. Glenohumeral joint was set as the centre of an imaginary sphere, intersected by the distal end of the humerus at different angles. Shoulder range of motion and angular velocities were calculated and compared to the joint limits. Ball speed and jump height were also assessed. Results indicated the trajectory of the humerus to be different for the TT, with maximal flexion of the shoulder reduced by 10 degrees, and horizontal abduction 15 degrees higher. No difference was found for external rotation angles, while axial rotation velocities were significantly higher in AT, with a 5% higher ball speed. Results suggest AT as a potential preventive solution to shoulder chronic pathologies, reducing shoulder flexion during spiking. The proposed method allows visualisation of risks associated with different overhead manoeuvres, by depicting humerus angles and velocities with respect to joint limits in the same 3D space. PMID:26151344

  13. Improving Population Health by Incorporating Chronic Disease and Injury Prevention Into Value-Based Care Models.

    Petersen, Ruth; Rushing, Jill; Nelson, Sharon; Rhyne, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Today's health system transformation provides a prime opportunity to leverage the capacity of public health to reduce the burden of chronic disease and injury, improve population health, and contain health care costs. Health care settings and organizations should support public health capacity as a key investment in population health. PMID:27422946

  14. Preventing ACL Injuries in Females: What Physical Educators Need to Know

    Toscano, Lisa; Carroll, Brianne

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries happen at a frequent rate, especially in girls and women. While there are many factors that contribute to ACL tears, teaching proper landing techniques and strengthening certain muscles can decrease the incidence of ACL tears, especially in women. This article reviews some of the high-risk factors that…

  15. Running from Iliotibial Band Syndrome: A Guide for Preventing Overuse Injuries

    Ramsey, Codi A.

    2016-01-01

    Iliotbial band syndrome (ITBS) is an overuse injury that affects distance runners and produces a large amount of frustration (and pain) to the runner, coaches and trainers. Treatments for ITBS vary widely and no known cures exist. Many running experts and physicians have prescribed several variations of training programs designed to help runners…

  16. Toward an effective long-term strategy for preventing motor vehicle crashes and injuries.

    Mawson, Anthony R; Walley, E Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians. PMID:25116634

  17. Toward an Effective Long-Term Strategy for Preventing Motor Vehicle Crashes and Injuries

    Anthony R. Mawson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Casualties due to motor vehicle crashes (MVCs include some 40,000 deaths each year in the United States and one million deaths worldwide. One strategy that has been recommended for improving automobile safety is to lower speed limits and enforce them with speed cameras. However, motor vehicles can be hazardous even at low speeds whereas properly protected human beings can survive high-speed crashes without injury. Emphasis on changing driver behavior as the focus for road safety improvements has been largely unsuccessful; moreover, drivers today are increasingly distracted by secondary tasks such as cell phone use and texting. Indeed, the true limiting factor in vehicular safety is the capacity of human beings to sense and process information and to make rapid decisions. Given that dramatic reductions in injuries and deaths from MVCs have occurred over the past century due to improvements in safety technology, despite increases in the number of vehicles on the road and miles driven per vehicle, we propose that an effective long-term strategy for reducing MVC-related injury would be continued technological innovation in vehicle design, aimed at progressively removing the driver from routine operational decision-making. Once this is achieved, high rates of speed could be achieved on open highways, with minimal risk of crashes and injury to occupants and pedestrians.

  18. 77 FR 18973 - Reinforced Concrete in Construction, and Preventing Backover Injuries and Fatalities

    2012-03-29

    ... in reinforced concrete operations speaks languages other than English? What training methods have you..., of the 639 fatal workplace injuries on road construction sites between 2003 and 2007, 101 (15.8... Frank Meilinger, Director, OSHA Office of Communications, Room N-3647, U.S. Department of Labor,...

  19. Angiopoietin-1 Treatment Reduces Inflammation but Does Not Prevent Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury

    M.A. Hegeman; M.P. Hennus; M. van Meurs; P.M. Cobelens; A. Kavelaars; N.J. Jansen; M.J. Schultz; A.J. van Vught; G. Molema; C.J. Heijnen

    2010-01-01

    Background: Loss of integrity of the epithelial and endothelial barriers is thought to be a prominent feature of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Based on its function in vascular integrity, we hypothesize that the angiopoietin (Ang)-Tie2 system plays a role in the development of VILI. The pre

  20. Effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning in preventing early radiation-induced lung injury in rats

    Ionizing radiation causes its biological effects mainly through oxidative damage induced by reactive oxygen species. Previous studies showed that ozone oxidative preconditioning attenuated pathophysiological events mediated by reactive oxygen species. As inhalation of ozone induces lung injury, the aim of this study was to examine whether ozone oxidative preconditioning potentiates or attenuates the effects of irradiation on the lung. Rats were subjected to total body irradiation, with or without treatment with ozone oxidative preconditioning (0.72 mg/kg). Serum proinflammatory cytokine levels, oxidative damage markers, and histopathological analysis were compared at 6 and 72 h after total body irradiation. Irradiation significantly increased lung malondialdehyde levels as an end-product of lipoperoxidation. Irradiation also significantly decreased lung superoxide dismutase activity, which is an indicator of the generation of oxidative stress and an early protective response to oxidative damage. Ozone oxidative preconditioning plus irradiation significantly decreased malondialdehyde levels and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase, which might indicate protection of the lung from radiation-induced lung injury. Serum tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels, which increased significantly following total body irradiation, were decreased with ozone oxidative preconditioning. Moreover, ozone oxidative preconditioning was able to ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury assessed by histopathological evaluation. In conclusion, ozone oxidative preconditioning, repeated low-dose intraperitoneal administration of ozone, did not exacerbate radiation-induced lung injury, and, on the contrary, it provided protection against radiation-induced lung damage

  1. Evaluating web-based static, animated and interactive maps for injury prevention

    Jonathan Cinnamon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Public health planning can benefit from visual exploration and analysis of geospatial data. Maps and geovisualization tools must be developed with the user-group in mind. User-needs assessment and usability testing are crucial elements in the iterative process of map design and implementation. This study presents the results of a usability test of static, animated and interactive maps of injury rates and socio-demographic determinants of injury by a sample of potential end-users in Toronto, Canada. The results of the user-testing suggest that different map types are useful for different purposes and for satisfying the varying skill level of the individual user. The static maps were deemed to be easy to use and versatile, while the animated maps could be made more useful if animation controls were provided. The split-screen concept of the interactive maps was highlighted as particularly effective for map comparison. Overall, interactive maps were identified as the preferred map type for comparing patterns of injury and related socio-demographic risk factors. Information collected from the user-tests is being used to expand and refine the injury web maps for Toronto, and could inform other public health-related geo-visualization projects.

  2. 78 FR 78966 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-12-27

    ... applications received in response to ``Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in a Malaria- Endemic Area of...

  3. 77 FR 14806 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-03-13

    ... Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in the United States, and Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in Ghana, Studies at the...

  4. 77 FR 62240 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel: Notice of Charter...

    2012-10-12

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel: Notice of Charter Renewal This gives notice under the Federal Advisory... Control Special Emphasis Panel, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human... Emphasis Panel, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Department of Health and Human Services,...

  5. 75 FR 7284 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP...

    2010-02-18

    ... Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Malaria, Funding Opportunity Announcement... between Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on Malaria, FOA CK10-002.'' Contact Person for More Information: Gregory Anderson, M.S., M.P.H.,...

  6. Local cooling does not prevent hyperalgesia following burn injury in humans

    Werner, Mads U; Lassen, Birgit Vibeke; Pedersen, Juri L;

    2002-01-01

    -inflammatory or anti-hyperalgesic potential of early cooling after thermal injury. Twenty-four healthy volunteers participated in this randomized, single-blinded study. Following baseline measurements, which included inflammatory variables (skin temperature, erythema index) and sensory variables (thermal and...... the burns. One of the thermodes cooled the burn (8 degrees C for 30 min) whereas the other thermode was a non-active dummy on the control burn. Inflammatory and sensory variables were followed for 160 min after end of the cooling procedure. The burn injury induced significant increases in skin...... temperature (P<0.0005), erythema index (P<0.0001), thermal pain responses (P<0.0005), mechanical pain responses (P<0.005) and secondary hyperalgesia, and significant decreases in heat pain threshold (P<0.0005) and mechanical pain threshold (P<0.0005). There were no post-cooling effects on skin temperature (P...

  7. Depletion of resident alveolar macrophages does not prevent Fas-mediated lung injury in mice

    Bem, R. A.; Farnand, A. W.; Wong, V; Koski, A; Rosenfeld, M. E.; Van Rooijen, N.; C. W. Frevert; Martin, T R; Matute-Bello, G.

    2008-01-01

    Activation of the Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) system in the lungs results in a form of injury characterized by alveolar epithelial apoptosis and neutrophilic inflammation. Studies in vitro show that Fas activation induces apoptosis in alveolar epithelial cells and cytokine production in alveolar macrophages. The main goal of this study was to determine the contribution of alveolar macrophages to Fas-induced lung inflammation in mice, by depleting alveolar macrophages using clodronate-containing lip...

  8. Prevention of acute knee injuries in adolescent female football players: cluster randomised controlled trial

    Walden, Markus; Atroshi, Isam; Magnusson, Henrik; Wagner, Philippe; Hagglund, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of neuromuscular training in reducing the rate of acute knee injury in adolescent female football players. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign Stratified cluster randomised controlled trial with clubs as the unit of randomisation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanSetting 230 Swedish football clubs (121 in the intervention group, 109 in the control group) were followed for one season (2009, seven months). less thanbrgreate...

  9. Expert tibia nail for subtrochanteric femoral fracture to prevent thermal injury

    Kyung-Jae Lee; Byung-Woo Min; Jae-Hoon Jung; Mi-Kyung Kang; Min-Ji Kim

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Subtrochanteric femoral fractures are relatively uncommon, accounting for 7–15% of all hip fractures and treatment of these fractures are considered challenge for orthopaedic surgeons. Although several treatment options are reported with up to 90% of satisfactory results, the choice of the appropriate implant is still a matter of debate. Some authors reported thermal injury after reaming for intramedullary nail fixation in patients with narrow medullary canal. Presentation of...

  10. Real-time assessment and neuromuscular training feedback techniques to prevent ACL injury in female athletes

    Myer, Gregory D.; BRENT, JENSEN L.; Ford, Kevin R.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    Some athletes may be more susceptible to at-risk knee positions during sports activities, but the underlying causes are not clearly defined. This manuscripts synthesizes in vivo, in vitro and in-silica (computer simulated) data to delineate likely risk factors to the mechanism(s) of non-contact ACL injuries. From these identified risk factors, we will discuss newly developed real-time screening techniques that can be used in training sessions to identify modifiable risk factors. Techniques pr...

  11. The utility of clinical predictors of acute lung injury: towards prevention and earlier recognition

    Levitt, Joseph E.; Matthay, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute lung injury, a lung-protective strategy of mechanical ventilation remains the only therapy with a proven survival advantage. Numerous pharmacologic therapies have failed to show benefit in multicenter clinical trials. The paradigm of early, goal-directed therapy of sepsis suggests greater clinical benefit may derive from initiating therapy prior to the onset of respiratory failure that requires mechanical ventil...

  12. Downregulation of MicroRNA-30 Facilitates Podocyte Injury and Is Prevented by Glucocorticoids

    Wu, Junnan; Zheng, Chunxia; Fan, Yun; Zeng, Caihong; Chen, Zhaohong; Qin, Weisong; Zhang, Changming; Zhang, Wanfen; Wang, Xiao; Zhu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Mingchao; Zen, Ke

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential for podocyte homeostasis, and the miR-30 family may be responsible for this action. However, the exact roles and clinical relevance of miR-30s remain unknown. In this study, we examined the expression of the miR-30 family in the podocytes of patients with FSGS and found that all members are downregulated. Treating cultured human podocytes with TGF-β, LPS, or puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) also downregulated the miR-30 family. Podocyte cytoskeletal damage and apoptosis caused by treatment with TGF-β or PAN were ameliorated by exogenous miR-30 expression and aggravated by miR-30 knockdown. Moreover, we found that miR-30s exert their protective roles by direct inhibition of Notch1 and p53, which mediate podocyte injury. In rats, treatment with PAN substantially downregulated podocyte miR-30s and induced proteinuria and podocyte injury; however, transfer of exogenous miR-30a to podocytes of PAN-treated rats ameliorated proteinuria and podocyte injury and reduced Notch1 activation. Finally, we demonstrated that glucocorticoid treatment maintains miR-30 expression in cultured podocytes treated with TGF-β, LPS, or PAN and in the podocytes of PAN-treated rats. Glucocorticoid-sustained miR-30 expression associated with reduced Notch1 activation and alleviated podocyte damage. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that miR-30s protect podocytes by targeting Notch1 and p53 and that the loss of miR-30s facilitates podocyte injury. In addition, sustained miR-30 expression may be a novel mechanism underlying the therapeutic effectiveness of glucocorticoids in treating podocytopathy. PMID:24029422

  13. Depletion of endogenous noradrenaline does not prevent spinal cord plasticity following peripheral nerve injury

    Hayashida, Ken-ichiro; Peters, Christopher M.; Gutierrez, Silvia; Eisenach, James C.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the role of endogenous noradrenaline on glial and neuronal plasticity in the spinal cord in rats after peripheral nerve injury. An intrathecal injection of dopamine-β-hydroxylase antibody conjugated to saporin (DβH-saporin) completely depleted noradrenergic axons in the spinal cord and also reduced noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (A6) and A5 noradrenergic nucleus in the brainstem and noradrenergic axons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus...

  14. Effect of excipients on acetaminophen metabolism and its implications for prevention of liver injury

    Ganetsky, Michael; Böhlke, Mark; Pereira, Luis; Williams, David; LeDuc, Barbara; Guatam, Shiva

    2013-01-01

    Acetaminophen poisoning is the most frequent cause of acute hepatic failure in the US. Toxicity requires reductive metabolism of acetaminophen, primarily via CYP2E1. Liquid acetaminophen preparations contain propylene glycol, a common excipient that has been shown to reduce hepatocellular injury in vitro and in rodents. Children are less susceptible to acetaminophen toxicity for unclear reasons. We conducted a pharmacokinetic single-blinded crossover study of 15 healthy adult volunteers compa...

  15. Prevention of Venous Thrombotic Events in Brain Injury: Review of Current Practices

    Stuart Glassner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Venous thromboembolic event after traumatic brain injury represents a unique clinical challenge. Physicians must balance appropriate timing of chemoprophylaxis with risk of increased cerebral hemorrhage. Despite an increase in the literature since the 1990s, there are clear disparities in treatment strategies. This review discusses the prominent studies and subsequent findings regarding the topic with an attempt to establish recommendations using the existing evidence-based literature.

  16. Renal Podocyte Injury in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes Is Prevented by Metformin

    Junghyun Kim; Eunjin Shon; Chan-Sik Kim; Jin Sook Kim

    2012-01-01

    Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress and hence generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug, possesses antioxidant effects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the protective effects of metformin on the injury of renal podocytes in spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT) rats, a new model for nonobese type 2 diabetes. Metformin (350 mg/kg/day) was given to SDT rats for 17 ...

  17. The effectiveness of neuromuscular warm-up strategies, that require no additional equipment, for preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation: a systematic review

    Herman Katherine; Barton Christian; Malliaras Peter; Morrissey Dylan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Lower limb injuries in sport are increasingly prevalent and responsible for large economic as well as personal burdens. In this review we seek to determine which easily implemented functional neuromuscular warm-up strategies are effective in preventing lower limb injuries during sports participation and in which sporting groups they are effective. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2012 for studies investigating neuromuscular warm-up...

  18. Amateur Sports Training in Sports Injury Prevention Research%业余体育训练中运动损伤的预防研究

    高峰

    2013-01-01

    目的:分析业余体育训练中造成运动损伤的原因、预防方法和治疗方法.方法:整理1000例参加业余体育训练人员的相关资料,对这些人员的运动损伤情况进行统计,分析造成运动损伤的主要原因,如何预防这些运动损伤以及损伤后的治疗方法.结果:获取了业余体育训练运动损伤的原因、预防措施和治疗方式.结论:在业余体育训练过程中,非常容易发生运动损伤,应该加强运动损伤的预防,从而保证训练人员的身体健康.%Objective: Analysis of amateur sports training in sports injury caused by the causes, prevention and treatment methods. Methods: Finishing 1000 cases of part in amateur sports training personnel related material, to the researchers' sports injury statistics, analysis of sports injury caused by the main reason, how to prevent these sports injury after injury and treatment methods. Results: For the amateur sports training sports injury reason, prevention measures and treatment. Conclusion: In amateur sports training process, very easy to happen sports injury, we should strengthen sports injury prevention, so as to ensure the quality of personnel training body.

  19. The effects of isolated ankle strengthening and functional balance training on strength, running mechanics, postural control and injury prevention in novice runners: design of a randomized controlled trial

    Baltich, Jennifer; Emery, Carolyn A.; Stefanyshyn, Darren; Nigg, Benno M

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk factors have been proposed for running injuries including (a) reduced muscular strength, (b) excessive joint movements and (c) excessive joint moments in the frontal and transverse planes. To date, many running injury prevention programs have focused on a “top down” approach to strengthen the hip musculature in the attempt to reduce movements and moments at the hip, knee, and/or ankle joints. However, running mechanics did not change when hip muscle strength increased. It coul...

  20. Preventive administration of cromakalim reduces aquaporin-4 expression and blood-brain barrier permeability in a rat model of cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Shilei Wang; Yanting Wang; Yan Jiang; Qingxian Chang; Peng Wang; Shiduan Wang

    2011-01-01

    Cromakalim, an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener, exhibits protective effects on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, there is controversy as to whether this effect is associated with aquaporin-4 and blood-brain barrier permeability. Immunohistochemistry results show that preventive administration of cromakalim decreased aquaporin-4 and IgG protein expression in rats with ischemia/reperfusion injury; it also reduced blood-brain barrier permeability, and alleviated brain edema, ultimately providing neuroprotection.

  1. Children's Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury.

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Cox, Amanda; Scott, Rachel; Sutey, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined children's understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving), why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom), and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization). They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences. PMID:27399739

  2. Children’s Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury

    Barbara A. Morrongiello

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined children’s understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving, why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom, and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization. They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences.

  3. Early administration of IL-6RA does not prevent radiation-induced lung injury in mice

    Radiation pneumonia and subsequent radiation lung fibrosis are major dose-limiting complications for patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine and plays important roles in the regulation of immune response and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether anti-IL-6 monoclonal receptor antibody (IL-6RA) could ameliorate radiation-induced lung injury in mice. BALB/cAnNCrj mice having received thoracic irradiation of 21 Gy were injected intraperitoneally with IL-6RA (MR16-1) or control rat IgG twice, immediately and seven days after irradiation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to examine the plasma level of IL-6 and serum amyloid A (SAA). Lung injury was assessed by histological staining with haematoxylin and eosin or Azan, measuring lung weight, and hydroxyproline. The mice treated with IL-6RA did not survive significantly longer than the rat IgG control. We observed marked up-regulation of IL-6 in mice treated with IL-6RA 150 days after irradiation, whereas IL-6RA temporarily suppressed early radiation-induced increase in the IL-6 release level. Histopathologic assessment showed no differences in lung section or lung weight between mice treated with IL-6RA and control. Our findings suggest that early treatment with IL-6RA after irradiation alone does not protect against radiation-induced lung injury

  4. The importance of proper shoe gear and safety stirrups in the prevention of equestrian foot injuries.

    Ceroni, Dimitri; De Rosa, Vicenzo; De Coulon, Geraldo; Kaelin, André

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compile specific foot injuries occurring in pediatric patients that result from equestrian sports and to highlight the importance of wearing adequate riding boots to protect the feet. During a 12-year period, 258 children were admitted to Children's Hospital of Geneva for injuries resulting from horseback riding. Amongst these children, 8 sustained foot lesions that required hospital admission. Four children had compression-type fractures of the cuboid (nutcracker fracture of the cuboid) associated with other complex midfoot fractures, 2 had Lisfranc fracture dislocations, 1 had a fracture of the talus with associated intern malleolar fracture, and the last had a fracture of the 5 metatarsals with lateral displacement. All the noted lesions complied with the same traumatic mechanisms. The horse fell on the patient, and the child's foot, entrapped in the stirrup, was caught in between the animal and the ground. The forefoot was bent by indirect violence in abduction by the stirrup, which acted as a fulcrum. Serious foot injuries may occur in children during equestrian activities. These lesions may be very disabling. Therefore, it is important for doctors, instructors, and parents to promote the use of appropriate safety equipment, including strengthened riding boots and safety stirrups. PMID:17198951

  5. THE ROLE OF SHOULDER MAXIMUM EXTERNAL ROTATION DURING THROWING FOR ELBOW INJURY PREVENTION IN BASEBALL PLAYERS

    Kunio Ida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to examine whether the passive range of shoulder external rotation (ER, the maximum shoulder external rotation angle (MER during throwing, and the ratio of MER to ER are related to the incidence of the elbow injury. A mixed design with one between-factor (a history of the elbow injury and two within-factors (ER and MER was used to analyze the difference between baseball players with and without a history of medial elbow pain. Twenty high school baseball players who had experienced the medial elbow pain within the previous month but who were not experiencing the pain on the day of the experiment were recruited (elbow-injured group. Another twenty baseball players who had never experienced the medial elbow pain were also used for testing (control group. MER during throwing, ER, and the ratio of MER to ER were obtained in both of the group. A Mann-Whitney test was used for the group comparison (p < 0.05. The ratio of MER to ER was significantly greater in the elbow-injured group (1.52 ± 0.19 than that in the control group (1.33 ± 0.23 (p = 0.008. On the other hand, there was no statistical significance in MER and ER between two groups. The findings of the study indicate that MER/ER relation could be associated with the incidence of the elbow injury in baseball players

  6. Children’s Understanding of No Diving Warning Signs: Implications for Preventing Childhood Injury

    Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Cox, Amanda; Scott, Rachel; Sutey, Sarah E.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined children’s understanding of No Diving warning signs. Normally-developing 7 to 10 year olds were asked questions to assess their understanding of text, images, and main messages on No Diving warning signs. These structured interviews were audio recorded and responses were later coded. Results revealed that children understood the behavior advised against (diving), why it is prohibited (can hit head on the bottom), and what can happen (serious injury including hospitalization). They understood that breaking your neck results in limitations in mobility and can occur from diving, but they did not anticipate that such an injury is likely to occur. There were no gender and few age differences, but diving experience was associated with children significantly downplaying their risk of injury. The findings suggest that having No Diving warning signs explicitly mention a broken neck, may serve to remind children of this potential consequence at the time of decision making. Active adult supervision is particularly important for children who have prior positive diving experiences. PMID:27399739

  7. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    2012-05-25

    ... Resident Knowledge and Practice in Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary... Activity, Nutrition, and Obesity Counseling for Primary Prevention of Cancer, SIP12-053, Panel C,...

  8. Education and Training of Athletes' Self-Prevention Ability of Sports Injury%运动员自我运动损伤防范及教育

    陈香仙; 崇玉萍; 赵芳; 王运良; 何章明

    2012-01-01

    体育运动中运动员的自我损伤防范能力与损伤发生密切相关.对运动员开展自我损伤防范意识的教育与培养,可以有效降低运动损伤的发生风险,为损伤愈合创造了良好的条件.运动损伤防范能力的教育和培养内容包括运动人体科学基本知识、体育道德与行为、竞赛规则、训练原则、科学的训练方法与专项技术、运动损伤发生规律和营养对机体损伤与康复的影响.%Sport athletes' injury prevention capability is closely related to the injury occurred. To carry out the education and training of the athletes self-injury awareness can reduce the risk of sports injuries effectively, and it' s also creating good conditions for wound healing. The education and training of sports injury prevention ability including: Basic knowledge of human movement science, sports ethics and behavior, competition principles, training principles, scientific training method and special technology, sports injury occurrence and nutrition on body injury and influence for rehabilitation.

  9. The effects of injury preventive warm-up programs on knee strength ratio in young male professional soccer players.

    Abdolhamid Daneshjoo

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We aimed to investigate the effect of FIFA 11+ (11+ and HarmoKnee injury preventive warm-up programs on conventional strength ratio (CSR, dynamic control ratio (DCR and fast/slow speed ratio (FSR in young male professional soccer players. These ratios are related to the risk of injury to the knee in soccer players. METHODS: Thirty-six players were divided into 3 groups; FIFA 11+, HarmoKnee and control (n = 12 per group. These exercises were performed 3 times per week for 2 months (24 sessions. The CSR, DCR and FSR were measured before and after the intervention. RESULTS: After training, the CSR and DCR of knee muscles in both groups were found to be lower than the published normal values (0.61, 0.72, and 0.78 during 60°.s(-1, 180°.s(-1 and 300°.s(-1, respectively. The CSR (60°.s(-1 increased by 8% and FSR in the quadriceps of the non-dominant leg by 8% in the 11+. Meanwhile, the DCR in the dominant and non-dominant legs were reduced by 40% and 30% respectively in the 11+. The CSR (60°.s(-1 in the non-dominant leg showed significant differences between the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups (p = 0.02. As for the DCR analysis between groups, there were significant differences in the non-dominant leg between both programs with the control group (p = 0.04. For FSR no significant changes were found between groups. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the 11+ improved CSR and FSR, but the HarmoKnee program did not demonstrate improvement. We suggest adding more training elements to the HarmoKnee program that aimed to enhance hamstring strength (CSR, DCR and FSR. Professional soccer players have higher predisposition of getting knee injuries because hamstring to quadriceps ratio were found to be lower than the average values. It seems that the 11+ have potentials to improve CSR and FSR as well as prevent knee injuries in soccer players.

  10. Research on prevention of bilirubin-induced brain injury and kernicterus: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development conference executive summary. 2003.

    Blackmon, Lillian R; Fanaroff, Avroy A; Raju, Tonse N K

    2004-07-01

    In July 2003, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development convened a conference, "Research on Prevention of Bilirubin-Induced Brain Injury and Kernicterus: Bench-to-Bedside." This article will provide a summary of presentations and discussions from this conference. The summary will focus on the identified knowledge gaps in 5 areas related to bilirubin-induced brain injury and kernicterus: 1) neurobiology and neuroimaging; 2) epidemiology and issues of clinical management; 3) methodologies for assessing clinical jaundice and direct and noninvasive measurement of serum bilirubin and hemolysis; 4) therapies for management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia; and 5) public health surveillance and systems-based approaches to prevention. PMID:15231933

  11. The immunology of traumatic brain injury: a prime target for Alzheimer’s disease prevention

    Giunta Brian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A global health problem, traumatic brain injury (TBI is especially prevalent in the current era of ongoing world military conflicts. Its pathological hallmark is one or more primary injury foci, followed by a spread to initially normal brain areas via cascades of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines resulting in an amplification of the original tissue injury by microglia and other central nervous system immune cells. In some cases this may predispose individuals to later development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. The inflammatory-based progression of TBI has been shown to be active in humans for up to 17 years post TBI. Unfortunately, all neuroprotective drug trials have failed, and specific treatments remain less than efficacious. These poor results might be explained by too much of a scientific focus on neurons without addressing the functions of microglia in the brain, which are at the center of proinflammatory cytokine generation. To address this issue, we provide a survey of the TBI-related brain immunological mechanisms that may promote progression to AD. We discuss these immune and microglia-based inflammatory mechanisms involved in the progression of post-trauma brain damage to AD. Flavonoid-based strategies to oppose the antigen-presenting cell-like inflammatory phenotype of microglia will also be reviewed. The goal is to provide a rationale for investigations of inflammatory response following TBI which may represent a pathological link to AD. In the end, a better understanding of neuroinflammation could open therapeutic avenues for abrogation of secondary cell death and behavioral symptoms that may mediate the progression of TBI to later AD.

  12. Injury Prevention for Ski-Area Employees: A Physiological Assessment of Lift Operators, Instructors, and Patrollers

    Delia Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Momentary lapses in concentration contribute to workplace accidents. Given that blood glucose (BG and hydration levels have been shown to affect vigilance, this study proposed to investigate these parameters and functional movement patterns of ski-resort workers and to determine whether an educational program to stabilize BG and hydration and encourage joint stability had an effect in decreasing occupational injuries. Methods. Seventy-five instructors, patrollers and, lift-operators at five snowsport resorts were evaluated for BG, vigilance, workload, dietary/hydration practices, and functional-movement patterns. Injury rates were tabulated before and after an educational program for nutrition and functional-movement awareness and compared to other resorts. Results. Workers showed poor stability at the lumbar spine, knee, and shoulder. BG levels were normal but variable (%CV = 14±6. Diets were high in sugar and fat and low in water and many nutrients. Medical Aid and Lost Time claims declined significantly by 65.1±20.0% (confidence interval −90.0% ≤μ≤−40.2% in resorts that used the educational program whereas four control resorts not using the program experienced increases of 33.4±42.9% (confidence interval −19.7% ≤μ≤−86.7%; F[2,12] = 21.35, P<0.0001 over the same season. Conclusion. Provision of snowsport resort workers with educational programs encouraging hydration, diet to stabilize BG, and functional-movement awareness was effective in reducing worksite injuries in this population.

  13. FOXF1 maintains endothelial barrier function and prevents edema after lung injury.

    Cai, Yuqi; Bolte, Craig; Le, Tien; Goda, Chinmayee; Xu, Yan; Kalin, Tanya V; Kalinichenko, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Multiple signaling pathways, structural proteins, and transcription factors are involved in the regulation of endothelial barrier function. The forkhead protein FOXF1 is a key transcriptional regulator of embryonic lung development, and we used a conditional knockout approach to examine the role of FOXF1 in adult lung homeostasis, injury, and repair. Tamoxifen-regulated deletion of bothFoxf1alleles in endothelial cells of adult mice (Pdgfb-iCreER/Foxf1(-/-)) caused lung inflammation and edema, leading to respiratory insufficiency and death. Deletion of a singleFoxf1allele made heterozygousPdgfb-iCreER/Foxf1(+/-)mice more susceptible to acute lung injury. FOXF1 abundance was decreased in pulmonary endothelial cells of human patients with acute lung injury. Gene expression analysis of pulmonary endothelial cells with homozygous FOXF1 deletion indicated reduced expression of genes critical for maintenance and regulation of adherens junctions. FOXF1 knockdown in vitro and in vivo disrupted adherens junctions, enhanced lung endothelial permeability, and increased the abundance of the mRNA and protein for sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1), a key regulator of endothelial barrier function. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that FOXF1 directly bound to and induced the transcriptional activity of theS1pr1promoter. Pharmacological administration of S1P to injuredPdgfb-iCreER/Foxf1(+/-)mice restored endothelial barrier function, decreased lung edema, and improved survival. Thus, FOXF1 promotes normal lung homeostasis and repair, in part, by enhancing endothelial barrier function through activation of the S1P/S1PR1 signaling pathway. PMID:27095594

  14. Epidermal growth factor improves survival and prevents intestinal injury in a murine model of pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Dominguez, Jessica A; Vithayathil, Paul J; Khailova, Ludmila; Lawrance, Christopher P; Samocha, Alexandr J; Jung, Enjae; Leathersich, Ann M; Dunne, W Michael; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2011-10-01

    Mortality from pneumonia is mediated, in part, through extrapulmonary causes. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has broad cytoprotective effects, including potent restorative properties in the injured intestine. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of EGF treatment following Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. FVB/N mice underwent intratracheal injection of either P. aeruginosa or saline and were then randomized to receive either systemic EGF or vehicle beginning immediately or 24 h after the onset of pneumonia. Systemic EGF decreased 7-day mortality from 65% to 10% when initiated immediately after the onset of pneumonia and to 27% when initiated 24 h after the onset of pneumonia. Even though injury in pneumonia is initiated in the lungs, the survival advantage conferred by EGF was not associated with improvements in pulmonary pathology. In contrast, EGF prevented intestinal injury by reversing pneumonia-induced increases in intestinal epithelial apoptosis and decreases in intestinal proliferation and villus length. Systemic cytokines and kidney and liver function were unaffected by EGF therapy, although EGF decreased pneumonia-induced splenocyte apoptosis. To determine whether the intestine was sufficient to account for extrapulmonary effects induced by EGF, a separate set of experiments was done using transgenic mice with enterocyte-specific overexpression of EGF (IFABP-EGF [intestinal fatty acid-binding protein linked to mouse EGF] mice), which were compared with wild-type mice subjected to pneumonia. IFABP-EGF mice had improved survival compared with wild-type mice following pneumonia (50% vs. 28%, respectively, P < 0.05) and were protected from pneumonia-induced intestinal injury. Thus, EGF may be a potential adjunctive therapy for pneumonia, mediated in part by its effects on the intestine. PMID:21701422

  15. Spinal Cord Injury and Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Using Functional Activity in Pressure Relief

    May Stinson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. People with spinal cord injury (SCI are at increased risk of pressure ulcers due to prolonged periods of sitting. Concordance with pressure relieving movements is poor amongst this population, and one potential alternative to improve this would be to integrate pressure relieving movements into everyday functional activities. Objectives. To investigate both the current pressure relieving behaviours of SCI individuals during computer use and the application of an ergonomically adapted computer-based activity to reduce interface pressure. Design. Observational and repeated measures design. Setting. Regional Spinal Cord Injury Unit. Participants. Fourteen subjects diagnosed with SCI (12 male, 2 female. Intervention.Comparing normal sitting to seated movements and induced forward reaching positions. Main Outcome Measures. Interface pressure measurements: dispersion index (DI, peak pressure index (PPI, and total contact area (CA. The angle of trunk tilt was also measured. Results. The majority of movements yielded less than 25% reduction in interface pressure compared to normal sitting. Reaching forward by 150% of arm length during an adapted computer activity significantly reduced DI (P<0.05, angle of trunk tilt (p<0.05, and PPI for both ischial tuberosity regions (P<0.001 compared to normal sitting. Conclusion. Reaching forward significantly redistributed pressure at the seating interface, as evidenced by the change in interface pressures compared to upright sitting.

  16. Dynamic trunk stabilization: a conceptual back injury prevention program for volleyball athletes.

    Smith, Chad E; Nyland, John; Caudill, Paul; Brosky, Joseph; Caborn, David N M

    2008-11-01

    The sport of volleyball creates considerable dynamic trunk stability demands. Back injury occurs all too frequently in volleyball, particularly among female athletes. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to review functional anatomy, muscle coactivation strategies, assessment of trunk muscle performance, and the characteristics of effective exercises for the trunk or core. From this information, a conceptual progressive 3-phase volleyball-specific training program is presented to improve dynamic trunk stability and to potentially reduce the incidence of back injury among volleyball athletes. Phase 1 addresses low-velocity motor control, kinesthetic awareness, and endurance, with the clinician providing cues to teach achievement of biomechanically neutral spine alignment. Phase 2 focuses on progressively higher velocity dynamic multiplanar endurance, coordination, and strength-power challenges integrating upper and lower extremity movements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Phase 3 integrates volleyball-specific skill simulations by breaking down composite movement patterns into their component parts, with differing dynamic trunk stability requirements, while maintaining neutral spine alignment. Prospective research is needed to validate the efficacy of this program. PMID:18978452

  17. Polyethylene Glycol Preconditioning: An Effective Strategy to Prevent Liver Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Pantazi, Eirini; Calvo, Maria; Folch-Puy, Emma; Serafín, Anna; Panisello, Arnau; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is an inevitable clinical problem for liver surgery. Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are water soluble nontoxic polymers that have proven their effectiveness in various in vivo and in vitro models of tissue injury. The present study aims to investigate whether the intravenous administration of a high molecular weight PEG of 35 kDa (PEG 35) could be an effective strategy for rat liver preconditioning against IRI. PEG 35 was intravenously administered at 2 and 10 mg/kg to male Sprague Dawley rats. Then, rats were subjected to one hour of partial ischemia (70%) followed by two hours of reperfusion. The results demonstrated that PEG 35 injected intravenously at 10 mg/kg protected efficiently rat liver against the deleterious effects of IRI. This was evidenced by the significant decrease in transaminases levels and the better preservation of mitochondrial membrane polarization. Also, PEG 35 preserved hepatocyte morphology as reflected by an increased F-actin/G-actin ratio and confocal microscopy findings. In addition, PEG 35 protective mechanisms were correlated with the activation of the prosurvival kinase Akt and the cytoprotective factor AMPK and the inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, PEG may become a suitable agent to attempt pharmacological preconditioning against hepatic IRI. PMID:26981166

  18. Success of microvascular surgery; repair mesenteric injury and prevent short bowel syndrome: a case report

    Yazici Pinar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Superior mesenteric injury is a rare entity but when it occurs, short bowel syndrome is one of the uninvited results of the emergency surgical procedures. Case presentation We present a 19-year-old boy with blunt abdominal trauma which caused serious mesenteric injury. Because ultrasound revealed free intraabdominal fluid, he underwent emergency laparotomy. Adequate vascularization of approximately 20 cm of proximal jejunal segment and approximately 20 cm of terminal ileum was observed. Nevertheless, the mesentery of the rest of the small intestine segments was ruptured completely. We performed an end-to-end anastomosis between a distal branch of the superior mesenteric artery in the mesentery of the ileal segment and a branch of the superior mesenteric artery using separate sutures of 7.0 monofilament polypropylene. The patient's gastrointestinal passage returned to normal on the postoperative day 2. He recovered without any complication and was discharged from hospital on the postoperative day seven. Discussion In this case report, we emphasize the importance of preservation of injured mesenteric artery due to abdominal trauma which could have resulted in short bowel syndrome.

  19. Renal Podocyte Injury in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes Is Prevented by Metformin

    Junghyun Kim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperglycemia promotes oxidative stress and hence generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which is known to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Metformin, an oral hypoglycemic drug, possesses antioxidant effects. The aim of this paper is to investigate the protective effects of metformin on the injury of renal podocytes in spontaneously diabetic Torii (SDT rats, a new model for nonobese type 2 diabetes. Metformin (350 mg/kg/day was given to SDT rats for 17 weeks. Blood glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and albuminuria were examined. Kidney histopathology, renal 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels and apoptosis were examined. In 43-week-old SDT rats, severe hyperglycemia was developed, and albuminuria was markedly increased. Diabetes induced significant alterations in renal glomerular structure. In addition, urinary and renal 8-OHdG levels were highly increased, and podocyte loss was shown through application of the TUNEL and synaptopodin staining. However, treatment of SDT rats with metformin restored all these renal changes. Our data suggested that diabetes-induced podocyte loss in diabetic nephropathy could be suppressed by the antidiabetes drug, metformin, through the repression of oxidative injury.

  20. Prevention and Application of Hypoxic Injury%缺氧损伤、预防和应用

    潘哲浩; 陈福刁

    2012-01-01

    The hypoxia can be divided into pathology hypoxia, physiology hypoxia, exercise hypoxia and environ- mental hypoxia, and they are related with free radical, and reduced injury. Hypoxic preconditioning and drug may prevent the injury caused by hypoxic, moreover altitude training is the application of principle of hypoxic precondi- tioning, which can significantly improve athletic performance and has been widely used.%缺氧可以分为病理性缺氧、生理性缺氧、运动性缺氧和环境性缺氧,各种类型的缺氧发生发展与自由基密切相关,可引起不同程度的损伤。应用预适应原理和药物均可预防或减轻缺氧带来的损伤,而高原训练则是预适应原理的具体应用,它可以明显提高运动员成绩而被广泛应用。

  1. Using evidence on violence and injury prevention for policy development and decision making in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico.

    Gutiérrez, Luis Alberto; Pacheco, Sergio; Juárez, Alethia Yurithzi; Palacios, Luis Alexandro; Cerqueira, Maria Teresa

    2012-05-01

    This report describes the implementation process and functional structure of the Observatory of Security and Citizen Conviviality of the Juarez Municipality (Observatorio de Seguridad y Convivencia Ciudadanas del Municipio de Juárez) in Chihuahua, Mexico, and discusses the most relevant lessons learned and main challenges in the near future. The Observatory, created in 2008, is a joint effort of the Juarez Municipal Government, Autonomous University of Ciudad Juarez (Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez), and the Pan American Health Organization. The Observatory's main objective is to propose strategies and public policy recommendations to prevent and control violence and injuries in the Juarez Municipality. Most key federal, state, and local agencies have joined this independent autonomous citizen-based initiative, feed the databases, and benefit from the information produced by a multisectoral, multidisciplinary approach. The Observatory contributes far more than the technical data provided and its facilitating functions. The clear results obtained in such a short time-as seen in the preliminary results of the case study on road injuries from January 2009 to July 2011-demonstrate the appropriateness of this course of action and should stimulate the creation of new observatories whenever and wherever needed. Lessons learned, as discussed here, can open the way to new endeavors, and current challenges show how much work remains to be done. PMID:22767036

  2. Effectiveness of injury prevention programs on developing quadriceps and hamstrings strength of young male professional soccer players.

    Daneshjoo, Abdolhamid; Rahnama, Nader; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Yusof, Ashril

    2013-12-18

    Muscular strength is an important factor which is crucial for performance and injury prevention in most sports. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the FIFA's Medical Assessment and Research Centre 11+ and HarmoKnee injury prevention programs on knee strength of young professional male soccer players. Thirty-six soccer players (age: 18.9 ± 1.4 years) were divided equally into three groups; the 11+, HarmoKnee and control groups. The programs were performed for 24 sessions. Hamstring and quadriceps strength was measured using the Biodex System 3 at 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The 11+ increased quadriceps strength in the dominant leg by 19.7% and 47.8% at 60°and 90° knee flexion, respectively, and in the non-dominant leg by 16%, 35.3% and 78.1 % at 30°, 60° and 90° knee flexion, respectively. The HarmoKnee group, however, showed increased quadriceps strength only at 90° i.e., by 85.7% in the dominant leg and 73.8% in the non-dominant leg. As for hamstring strength, only the 11+ group demonstrated an increment by 24.8% and 19.8% at 30° and 60° knee flexion in the dominant leg, and in the non-dominant leg, by 28.7% and 13.7% at 30° and 60° knee flexion, respectively. In conclusion, both warm-up programs improve quadriceps strength. The 11+ demonstrated improvement in hamstring strength while the HarmoKnee program did not indicate any improvement. We suggest adding eccentric hamstring components such as Nordic hamstring exercise to the HarmoKnee program in order to enhance hamstring strength. PMID:24511347

  3. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

    Santaweesuk S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1 health education, 2 safety inspection, 3 safety communication, and 4 health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up. We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some

  4. Comparative adaptations of lower limb biomechanics during unilateral and bilateral landings after different neuromuscular-based ACL injury prevention protocols.

    Brown, Tyler N; Palmieri-Smith, Riann M; McLean, Scott G

    2014-10-01

    Potentially valuable anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention strategies are lengthy, limiting training success. Shorter protocols that achieve beneficial biomechanical adaptations may improve training effectiveness. This study examined whether core stability/balance and plyometric training can modify female landing biomechanics compared with the standard neuromuscular and no training models. Forty-three females had lower limb biomechanics analyzed during unilateral and bilateral landings immediately before and after a 6-week neuromuscular or no training programs. Sagittal and frontal plane hip and knee kinematics and kinetics were submitted to 3-way repeated-measures analyses of variance to test for the main and interaction effects of training group, landing type, and testing time. Greater peak knee flexion was evident in the standard neuromuscular group following training, during both bilateral (p = 0.027) and unilateral landings (p = 0.076 and d = 0.633). The plyometric group demonstrated reduced hip adduction (p = 0.010) and greater knee flexion (p = 0.065 and d = 0.564) during bilateral landings following training. The control group had significant reduction in peak stance knee abduction moment (p = 0.003) posttraining as compared with pretraining. The current outcomes suggest that significant biomechanical changes are possible by an isolated plyometric training component. The benefits, however, may not be evident across all landing types, seemingly limited to simplistic, bilateral landings. Integrated training protocols may still be the most effective training model, currently improving knee flexion posture during both bilateral and unilateral landings following training. Future prevention efforts should implement integrated training protocols that include plyometric exercises to reduce ACL injury risk of female athletes. PMID:24714537

  5. Key Injury and Violence Data

    ... Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention Key Injury and Violence Data Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Injuries ... of death among persons 1-44. Injury- and violence-related deaths are only part of the problem ...

  6. 77 FR 4047 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    2012-01-26

    ... Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in Panama and Central... Associated Influenza and Other Respiratory Infections in the United States, FOA IP12-003; and Epidemiology... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns...

  7. 78 FR 15015 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review

    2013-03-08

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panels (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Epidemiology, Prevention and Treatment of Influenza and other Respiratory Infections in Panama and Central America Region... Activities for Avian Influenza and other Zoonotic Diseases, FOA CK13-002, initial review. Correction:...

  8. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    2011-05-17

    ... Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns ``Systematic... Sustainability and Scalability, SIP 11-046, Panel D,'' initial review. In accordance with Section 10(a)(2) of the...- Component Interventions to Prevent Older Adult Falls and Assessing Sustainability and Scalability, SIP...

  9. Activation of nicotinic cholinergic receptors prevents ventilator-induced lung injury in rats.

    Fabienne Brégeon

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome is responsible for 40 to 60 percent mortality. An over mortality of about 10 percent could result from additional lung injury and inflammation due to the life-support mechanical ventilation, which stretches the lung. It has been recently demonstrated, in vitro, that pharmacological activation of the alpha 7 nicotinic receptors (α7-nAChR could down regulate intracellular mediators involved in lung cell inflammatory response to stretch. Our aim was to test in vivo the protective effect of the pharmacological activation of the α7-nAChR against ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI. Anesthetized rats were ventilated for two hours with a high stretch ventilation mode delivering a stroke volume large enough to generate 25-cmH(2O airway pressure, and randomly assigned to four groups: pretreated with parenteral injection of saline or specific agonist of the α7-nAChR (PNU-282987, or submitted to bilateral vagus nerve electrostimulation while pre-treated or not with the α7-nAChR antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA. Controls ventilated with a conventional stroke volume of 10 mL/kg gave reference data. Physiological indices (compliance of the respiratory system, lung weight, blood oxygenation, arterial blood pressure and lung contents of inflammatory mediators (IL-6 measured by ELISA, substance P assessed using HPLC were severely impaired after two hours of high stretch ventilation (sham group. Vagal stimulation was able to maintain the respiratory parameters close to those obtained in Controls and reduced lung inflammation except when associated to nicotinic receptor blockade (MLA, suggesting the involvement of α7-nAChR in vagally-mediated protection against VILI. Pharmacological pre-treatment with PNU-282987 strongly decreased lung injury and lung IL-6 and substance P contents, and nearly abolished the increase in plasmatic IL-6 levels. Pathological examination of the lungs confirmed the physiological differences observed

  10. CB1 receptor antagonism prevents long-term hyperexcitability after head injury by regulation of dynorphin-KOR system and mGluR5 in rat hippocampus.

    Wang, Xiu; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Chao; Liu, Chang; Zhao, Baotian; Wei, Naili; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Both endocannabinoids and dynorphin are feedback messengers in nervous system that act at the presynaptic nerve terminal to inhibit transmitter release. Many studies showed the cannabinoid-opioid cross-modulation in antinociception, hypothermia, sedation and reward. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of early application of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonism SR141716A after brain injury on dynorphin-κ opioid receptor (KOR) system and the expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in a rat model of fluid percussion injury (FPI). Firstly, seizure latency induced by pentylenetetrazole was significantly prolonged 6 weeks after brain injury in group of SR141716A treatment. Then, PCR and western blot showed that SR141716A inhibited the long-term up-regulation of CB1 receptors in hippocampus. However, SR141716A resulted in long-term potentiation of dynorphin release and did not influence the up-regulation of KOR in hippocampus after brain injury. Furthermore, SR141716A reverse the overexpression of mGluR5 in the late stage of brain injury. We propose that during the induction of epileptogenesis after brain injury, early application of CB1 receptor antagonism could prevent long-term hyperexcitability by up-regulation of dynorphin-KOR system and prevention of mGluR5 induced epileptogenesis in hippocampus. PMID:27262683

  11. Dimethylacetamide-induced Hepatic Injury in Vitro: Mechanism and Potential Preventive Strategy.

    Liu, Xin; Gong, Wei; Xu, Yan Qiong; Zhu, Bao Li

    2016-02-01

    N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMAc) is a widely used organic solvent in modern chemical industry with low to moderate hepatotoxicity to occupational health of employees. But so far, there are fewer and less conclusive data concerning its pathogenic mechanism in detail. In current study, the toxicity of DMAc was firstly investigated on human normal hepatocytes (LO-2), using a series of molecular biology measurements to ananlyze the effect and mechanism of DMAc-induced hepatic cell injury and explore effective prophylactic measures. We found that DMAc triggered LO-2 apoptosis in a obviously dose-dependent manner, caused by increased ROS generation and activation of Bcl-2 pathway. Significantly, glutathione (GSH) rather than vitamin C (Vit C) could partially inhibit DMAc-induced apoptosis thus showing potential as a effective precaution for workers. PMID:27003174

  12. Antibody-mediated transfusion-related acute lung injury; from discovery to prevention.

    Peters, Anna L; Van Stein, Danielle; Vlaar, Alexander P J

    2015-09-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), a syndrome of respiratory distress caused by blood transfusion, is the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality. The majority of TRALI cases have been related to passive infusion of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) and human neutrophil antigen (HNA) antibodies in donor blood. In vitro, ex vivo and in vivo animal models have provided insight in TRALI pathogenesis. The various classes of antibodies implicated in TRALI appear to have different pathophysiological mechanisms for the induction of TRALI involving endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes and, as very recently has been discovered, lymphocytes. The HLA and HNA-antibodies are found mainly in blood from multiparous women as they have become sensitized during pregnancy. The incidence of TRALI has decreased rapidly following the introduction of a male-only strategy for plasma donation. This review focuses on pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the pathophysiology of antibody-mediated TRALI. PMID:25921271

  13. On the prevention of cutaneous injuries caused by radiotherapy of carcinomas of the breast

    A longitudinal, randomised study was carried out to assess the efficacy of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside (HR), when used as a radioprotective substance in radiotherapy of carcinomas of the breast. A total of 62 patients were included in the study and randomly assigned to one treatment group and one control group, each of which consisted of 31 patients. Except for the use of HR, the therapeutic strategies followed in the two study groups were identical. The protective effect against radiation-induced cutaneous injuries seen under treatment with Venoruton attained statistical significance as proven by the Chi-square test. Undesirable manifestations attributable to the test substance could not be observed, the only exception being one allergic reaction. It is reasonably safe to assume that there are no further protective influences of the substance on the tumour tissue. (orig.)

  14. Hydrogen sulphide and mild hypothermia activate the CREB signaling pathway and prevent ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Dai, Hai-bin; Ji, Xiangjun; Zhu, Si-Hai; Hu, Yi-min; Zhang, Li-dong; Miao, Xiao-lei; Ma, Ru-Meng; Duan, Man-lin; Li, Wei-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Both hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and mild hypothermia have been reported to prevent brain damage caused by reperfusion assault through regulating the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). However, the relationship between the two treatments and how they exert neuro-protective effects through NMDARs remain to be elucidated. Methods Transient cerebral ischemia was induced using the Pulsinelli four-vessel occlusion method. We used sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) as the H2S donor. We randomly...

  15. 羽毛球运动常见运动损伤的原因及预防%Badmintons common sports injury cause and prevention

    章山忙

    2014-01-01

    通过调查羽毛球运动爱好者的运动损伤情况,总结羽毛球运动参与者常见伤病,以期找出最佳预防方法,为预防羽毛球爱好者的运动损伤提供意见,使羽毛球运动爱好者在运动过程中能享受到安全有效的健身效果。%By investigating the amateur badminton lovers of sports injuries, summarize the amateur badminton enthusiasts common injuries, with a view to identifying the best treatment and prevention methods for prevention and intervention amateur badminton fan sports injury proactive to enable amateur in motion can realy gain health to be happy.

  16. Aspirin-induced small bowel injuries and the preventive effect of rebamipide

    Kazuhiro Mizukami; Kazunari Murakami; Takashi Abe; Kunimitsu Inoue; Masahiro Uchida; Tadayoshi Okimoto; Masaaki Kodama; Toshio Fujioka

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk on small intestinal complications and to examine the preventive effect of rebamipide. METHODS: This study was conducted as a singlecenter, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebocontrolled study. Eleven healthy male subjects were enrolled. Each subject underwent video capsule endoscopy after 1 and 4 wk of taking aspirin and omeprazole, along with either rebamipide or placebo therapy. The primary endpoint was to evaluate small bowel damage in healthy subjects before and after taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk. RESULTS: The number of subjects with mucosal breaks (defined as multiple erosions and/or ulcers) were 1 at 1 wk and 1 at 4 wk on the jejunum, and 6 at 1 wk (P = 0.0061) and 7 at 4 wk on the ileum (P = 0.0019). Rebamipide significantly prevented mucosal breaks on the ileum compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0173 at 1 wk and P = 0.0266 at 4 wk). CONCLUSION: Longer-term, low-dose aspirin administration induced damage in the small bowel. Rebamipide prevented this damage, and may be a candidate drug for treating aspirin-induced small bowel complications.

  17. Performance enhancement effects of Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention training program in youth futsal players

    Reis, Ivan; Rebelo, António; Krustrup, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate if Fédération Internationale de Football Association's "The 11+" injury prevention program improves physical fitness and technical performance in youth futsal players. DESIGN:: Randomized cohort study. SETTING:: Futsal club. PARTICIPANTS:: Thirty-six futsal players (17.3 ± 0...

  18. Comparative evaluation between ascorbic acid and N-acetyl cysteine for preventing tourniquet induced ischaemic reperfusion injury during lower limb surgery, a randomized controlled trial

    Mahmoud Hassan Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Both N-acetyl cysteine and ascorbic acid reduce post-deflation increase in blood levels of markers of oxidative stress and markers of systemic inflammation and thus both are beneficial in preventing post-tourniquet deflation ischemic reperfusion injury in lower limb surgery.

  19. Current and future directions in the treatment and prevention of drug-induced liver injury: a systematic review.

    Stine, Jonathan G; Lewis, James H

    2016-04-01

    While the pace of discovery of new agents, mechanisms and risk factors involved in drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains brisk, advances in the treatment of acute DILI seems slow by comparison. In general, the key to treating suspected DILI is to stop using the drug prior to developing irreversible liver failure. However, predicting when to stop is an inexact science, and commonly used ALT monitoring is an ineffective strategy outside of clinical trials. The only specific antidote for acute DILI remains N-acetylcysteine (NAC) for acetaminophen poisoning, although NAC is proving to be beneficial in some cases of non-acetaminophen DILI in adults. Corticosteroids can be effective for DILI associated with autoimmune or systemic hypersensitivity features. Ursodeoxycholic acid, silymarin and glycyrrhizin have been used to treat DILI for decades, but success remains anecdotal. Bile acid washout regimens using cholestyramine appear to be more evidenced based, in particular for leflunomide toxicity. For drug-induced acute liver failure, the use of liver support systems is still investigational in the United States and emergency liver transplant remains limited by its availability. Primary prevention appears to be the key to avoiding DILI and the need for acute treatment. Pharmacogenomics, including human leukocyte antigen genotyping and the discovery of specific DILI biomarkers offers significant promise for the future. This article describes and summarizes the numerous and diverse treatment and prevention modalities that are currently available to manage DILI. PMID:26633044

  20. Perivenous application of fibrin glue prevents the early injury of jugular vein graft to arterial circulation in rabbits

    WAN Li; LI Dian-yuan; YANG Bing; WU Qing-yu

    2006-01-01

    Background Placement of an external support has been reported to prevent intimal hyperplasia of vein grafts. However, it is limited by potential complications. In the present study, we investigated the effect of fibrin glue on preventing vein graft failure as perivenous application. Methods Twenty-four rabbits were divided into non-supported group (n=12) and fibrin glue group (n=12). All animals underwent unilateral jugular vein into common carotid artery interposition grafting and then fibrin glue was applied as perivenous support. Samples of tissues were harvested after 4 weeks. Results The vein grafts with fibrin glue demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in proliferating cell nuclear antigen in the medial/intimal region [13.38% (11.26%-15.11%)] compared with non-supported vein grafts [31.22% (27.15%-35.98%)] (P<0.001). Light microscopy showed remarkable attenuation of endothelial cell loss and numerous microvessels in neoadventitia in the fibrin glue group compared with the non-supported group. The smooth muscle cells migrated into adventitia significantly in fibrin glue group, whereas the smooth muscle cells migrated into intima in non-supported group.Conclusion Perivenous support of vein graft with fibrin glue in vivo can attenuate the severe injury encountered in the non-supported vein grafts exposed to artery.