WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity meters

  1. The student activity meter for awareness and self-reflection

    Govaerts, Sten; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik; Abelardo, Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of user actions can be used in Technology Enhanced Learning to increase awareness for learners and teachers and to support self-reflection. In this paper, we present our Student Activity Meter that visualizes learner actions. We present four design iterations and results of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation studies in real-world settings that assess the usability, use and usefulness of different visualizations. Results indicate that our tool is useful for a variety of...

  2. Activity meters permitting direct activity readings for food controls

    Instruments for total gamma activity measurements can only be used, if the calibration factor is known for the radionuclide mixture to be measured in each case. This is determined using spectroscopes calibrated on the basis of reference samples. Inaccuracies of measurement performed on equal volumes are caused by the fact that specific weights vary between foodstuffs and must therefore be made up for by adequate adjustments. As any radioactivity occurring naturally in the specimens cannot be distinguished from manmade radioactivity, it may be impossible to interpret results lower than some 100 Bq/kg for certain samples influenced by potassium (legume, dry milk) or uranium-radium (soil). The instruments incorporate annular receptacles for the samples and NaI(Tl) detectors for the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in liquids, plant materials and foodstuffs, which have a reading for such activities in Bq/l or Bq/kg (Becquerel monitors). (orig./DG)

  3. Instrument Qualification of Custom Fabricated Water Activity Meter for Hot Cell Use

    McCoskey, Jacob K.

    2014-01-22

    This report describes a custom fabricated water activity meter and the results of the qualification of this meter as described in the laboratory test plan LAB-PLN-11-00012, Testing and Validation of an Enhanced Acquisition and Control System. It was calibrated against several NaOH solutions of varying concentrations to quantify the accuracy and precision of the instrument at 20 °C and 60 °C. Also, a schematic and parts list of the equipment used to make the water activity meter will be presented in this report.

  4. Active fault creep variations at Chihshang, Taiwan, revealed by creep meter monitoring, 1998-2001

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Angelier, Jacques; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Jeng, Fu-Shu; Rau, Ruey-Juin

    2003-11-01

    The daily creep meter data recorded at Chihshang in 1998-2001 are presented. The Chihshang creep meter experiment was set up across the Chihshang thrust fault, the most active segment of the Longitudinal Valley Fault, which is the present-day plate suture between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates in eastern Taiwan. Near-continuous data recording at two sites revealed different surface fault motions yet similar annual shortening rates: 16.2 mm at the Tapo site (comprising two connected creep meters) and 15.0 mm at the Chinyuan site (three creep meters straddling parallel fault branches). Four of the five creep meters showed a seasonal variation, with the fault moving steadily during the rainy season from April to October, and remaining quiescent during the rest of the year. The only exception was recorded by the creep meter located on a mélange-composed hillslope, where local gravitational landsliding played an additional role other than tectonic faulting. Through comparison with daily precipitation data, we inferred that moderate rainfall suffices to trigger or facilitate slippage on the surface fault, during the transition period of the dry/wet season. During the observation period from 1998 to 2001, the subsurface seismicity exhibited clusters of microearthquakes on the Chihshang Fault at depths of 10-25 km. Recurrent earthquakes occurred regardless of whether the season was wet or dry, indicating that the stress relaxation associated with seismicity in the seismogenic zone did not transfer immediately up to the surface. The accumulated strain on the Chihshang Fault at shallow surface levels was released through creep during the wet season. In addition to these short-term seasonal variations, an apparent decrease in the annual slipping rate on the Chihshang Fault during the last few years deserves further investigation in order to mitigate against seismic hazard.

  5. Metering of Active Electric Power in Three-Phase Four-Wire System in Non - Symmetric Regime

    A. G. Harutunyan

    2014-01-01

    Node potential method has made it possible to justify that a three-phase meter of active energy is metering the whole consumed active energy at non-symmetric regimes of three-phase four-wire grid of 0,4 kV. The paper considers problems of non-balance in the readings of active energy meters installed , at different points of the 0,4 kV grid with non - symmetric regimes. In order to determine the rate of three-phase four-wire 0,4 kV grid non-symmetry it is suggested to introduce an additional c...

  6. Designing and operating experience on solid electrolyte activity meters for oxygen in lead-bismuth coolant

    The device for measuring the oxygen activity in the lead and bismuth meets within the range of 1-10-7 with the inertia up to 5 s is developed and tested on the basis of applying the ZrO2-Y2O3 solid-electrolytes in combination with the liquid-metal reference electrodes (Bi, In, Pb). The range of the working temperatures of the activity meter constitutes 280-600 deg C; the stability by thermoshocks up to 50 deg C/s is guaranteed. The device is recommended for application in the circulating systems with the lead and bismuth meets at the coolant pressures up to 60 atm

  7. Development of a modified diffusion type carbon activity meter for liquid sodium

    A high sensitivity automated carbon activity meter has been developed by combining elements of technology used in other instruments. The basic principle is the diffusion of carbon through an iron membrane driven by the concentration gradient between the sodium being measured and the sweep gas. The membrane used is similar to that used by Harwell workers, i.e., a coil of small diameter iron tubing with an oxide coating on the inner surface. A sweep gas of helium is used to pick up the carbon oxides generated by the reaction of carbon and iron oxide. The carbon oxides are converted to carbon dioxide in a copper oxide bed and measured with a gas chromatograph employing a helium ionization detector. This measuring system has an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and requires fewer gases than the flame ionization detector usually employed. The concentration of CO2 in the sweep gas was in the range of 0.2 to 2 ppM when measuring carbon activity in a stainless steel system

  8. Study of the influence of 200Tl in the activity determination of 201Tl using activity meters

    Full text: At the Ezeiza Atomic Center every week 201TI is produced, controlled and dispensed for medical use and distributed to most medical centers in Argentine. To determine exact activity before dispensing and expedition we have studied the response of a reference activity meter working as ionization chamber, in presence of its main impurity: 200Tl (Eg: 368 keV,1206 keV and others; T 1/2: 26,1 hs), to be found in approximately 4% concentration at the end of production process. It will decrease in function of the decay of 201Tl. According to the Argentine Farmacopea it must be less than 2% on distribution and use. This study was carried out simultaneously on two samples of the same origin. One was measured directly in activity meter on the 201Tl scale and the other, quantitatively diluted, in a high resolution gamma spectrometry system with a GeHP detector, and the relationship 200Tl / 201Tl was determined. This procedure was carried out several times during ten days in order to follow the activity meter response according to the decay of both isotopes of Thallium and their proportion. After several measurements when considering that 200Tl is absent, a line was drawn following the half-life of 201Tl . So were obtained readings without 200Tl impurities as well as the difference with experimental values. Series of measurements were carried out to assure sufficient precision and a curve of correction factor was determined for the proportion of 200Tl/201Tl . This curve is used for the calibration of 201Tl before dispensing . Eventually when up to 4%200Tl could be present at the moment of dispensing and it would create errors about 9% in excess; it will be necessary to correct . The limit of 1,8 % of 200Tl is given by the Control Group of National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) at the moment of dispensing, because it will mean an error by excess of less than 3%, accepted by nuclear medicine centers. Theoretical ideas are presented about ionization chamber response

  9. Active Vibration Isolation Control: Comparison of Feedback and Feedforward Control Strategies Applied to Coriolis Mass-Flow Meters (I)

    Ridder, de, J.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; van Dijk

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, implementation and results of multi degree of freedom (DOF) active vibration control for a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM). Without vibration control, environmental vibrational disturbances results in nanometre movement of the fluid-conveying tube which causes erroneous mass-flow measurements. In order to reduce the transmissibility from external vibrations to the internal tube displacement active vibration control is applied. A comparison of a feedback c...

  10. GIPL1.3 simulated maximum active layer thickness (ALT) in meters averaged for particular decade for the entire Alaskan permafrost domain. NAD83, Alaska Albers projection

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This raster, created in 2010, is output from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and represents simulated active layer thickness (ALT) in meters...

  11. The concept of minimum detectable activity of radionuclide activity meters and their suitability for routine quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. An experimental study.

    Zagni, F; Cesarini, F; Lucconi, G; Cicoria, G; Pancaldi, D; Infantino, A; Vichi, S; Marengo, M

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclide activity meters ("dose calibrators") are ionization chambers designed to measure relatively high amount of activities which are normally contained in radiopharmaceuticals. However, in the current radiopharmacy practice, these radiation detectors have been proposed to be used in measurements of samples with lower activity, such as in routine quality control (QC) tests. To check the feasibility of such measurements, in this work we assessed the performance of four different devices in the lower range of detectability, by means of experimental measurements of a radioactive sample. Accuracy and precision of each device was evaluated as a function of the activity contained in the sample in order to estimate a threshold value, or minimum detectable activity (MDA), which, according to our operational definition, may be used to express the concept of Limit of Quantification (LoQ). Moreover, a generalized procedure for the estimation of the MDA was established, which, being device- and radionuclide-independent, it may be adopted by every laboratory. Our results showed a significant variability in the MDA achieved by different activity meters. Hence a single QC test may result feasible with one specific instrument, and not with another one. Moreover, feasibility depends also on the confidence level required for each test. For these reasons, each activity meter should be qualified for its MDA or LoQ by each laboratory according to a procedure such as that described in this paper. PMID:27108071

  12. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach

    Lynch, BA; Jones, A; Biggs, BK; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8–14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. Methods This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Results Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) “very easy” or “easy” to use. Conclusion The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies. PMID:27042382

  13. Capacitance Meter

    1983-01-01

    Anders Precision Instrument Co.'s original meter could not measure dissipation leakage in capacitors. Seeking to add that capability, the company planned an advanced model. Before starting work, company president, Thomas Anderson, sought technical assistance from NASA's NERAC (New England Research Application Center). Anderson wanted a survey of the status and capabilities of NASA's electronic measuring devices. NERAC performed a search of six databases, including NASA's and provided a comprehensive report on state of the art worldwide.

  14. Measurement of carbon activity of sodium using nickel tabs and the Harwell Carbon Meter - Preliminary experience

    Carbon can have an important effect on the mechanical properties of certain constructional materials likely to be used in the LMFBRs. Transfer of carbon will occur between the metal and the sodium at any particular location to bring the chemical potential of carbon in both components to the sam: value. Thus, in a mixed system containing austenitic stainless steel and unstabilized ferritic steel, carbon could be transferred by the sodium from the high carbon activity ferritic to the lower activity austenitic steel. Loss of carbon from the unstabilized ferritic steel leads to a weaker, more ductile material, while carburization of the stainless steel could lead to its embrittlement. Similarly carbon entering the coolant in the form of oil from leaking mechanical pumps could have similar effects on the mechanical property of stainless steels. In the light of these possibilities it is essential to measure the carbon activity of the sodium so that its effect on materials properties can be predicted

  15. An Active Sensor Nitrogen Application Algorithm for Corn Using a Chlorophyll Meter Based Sufficiency Index Concept

    Traditional N fertilizer management schemes for U.S. corn production systems have resulted in low N use efficiency, reduced water quality, and considerable public debate regarding N use in crop production. We have built a prototype high clearance N applicator configured with active sensors, controll...

  16. Your Glucose Meter

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  17. Smart Meter and Turkey

    ATİÇ, Serdal; Parlakyıldız, Şakir; İlcihan, Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are developed measurement devices that provide much more information to the consumers and that provide the intervention opportunity compared to the conventional energy meters. A smart meter design is dependent on the requirements of the electricity distribution company and the customers. In this study, various features and technologies that can be integrated with the smart meters are explained. Summary information on various problems that can be encountered including design of sm...

  18. An evaluation of the active fracture concept with modeling unsaturated flow and transport in a fractured meter-sized block of rock

    Numerical simulation is an effective and economical tool for optimally designing laboratory experiments and deriving practical experimental conditions. We executed a detailed numerical simulation study to examine the active fracture concept (AFC, Liu et al., 1998) using a cubic meter-sized block model. The numerical simulations for this study were performed by applying various experimental conditions, including different bottom flow boundaries, varying injection rates, and different fracture-matrix interaction (by increasing absolute matrix permeability at the fracture matrix boundary) for a larger fracture interaction under transient or balanced-state flow regimes. Two conceptual block models were developed based on different numerical approaches: a two-dimensional discrete-fracture-network model (DFNM) and a one-dimensional dual continuum model (DCM). The DFNM was used as a surrogate for a natural block to produce synthetic breakthrough curves of water and tracer concentration under transient or balanced-state conditions. The DCM is the approach typically used for the Yucca Mountain Project because of its computational efficiency. The AFC was incorporated into the DCM to capture heterogeneous flow patterns that occur in unsaturated fractured rocks. The simulation results from the DCM were compared with the results from the DFNM to determine whether the DCM could predict the water flow and tracer transport observed in the DFNM at the scale of the experiment. It was found that implementing the AFC in the DCM improved the prediction of unsaturated flow and that the flow and transport experiments with low injection rates in the DFNM were compared better with the AFC implemented DCM at the meter scale. However, the estimated AFC parameter varied from 0.38 to 1.0 with different flow conditions, suggesting that the AFC parameter was not a sufficient to fully capture the complexity of the flow processes in a one meter sized discrete fracture network

  19. Optical cycle power meter

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  20. Integrated metering products

    During the last 10 years the U.K. in particular has become increasingly interested in the introduction of solid state products within the metering market. Whilst this trend has not been seen in the rest of Europe, the U.K. market has made great strides within the domestic single phase metering area. Of course polyphase precision meters have been with us for many years although it must be stated that the high manufacturing cost of these products have not made them attractive for general use. Today, the solid state domestic meter makes up some 40% of the total U.K. market and it is anticipated that this growth will continue for many years to come. Indeed some electricity companies will now only purchase solid state domestic metering products. It is clear that the major benefits which accrue from solid state metering and in particular from integrated metering products ensure that the trend outlined will continue. The two major benefits which are worth considering are cost and additional functionality. (author)

  1. DC attenuation meter

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  2. Peak flow meter (image)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  3. Computer Interfaced Gauss Meter

    Lo, Steven; Lai, Alan; Dao, Christine; Hung Vu, Hung

    2013-01-01

    Goal: Gauss Meter Model X01.  Gauss meter model X01 is the hand-held device designed to meet the needs of magnetic industry to measure magnetic fields accurately, provided high-end functionality and performance in an affordable laptop instrument. Magnet testing and sorting have never been easier. Additional features including calculating magnetic field intensity versus time and displaying magnetic field direction on a Graphical User Interface on Computer.  Introduction/Background:  Magnetic f...

  4. Specific activities and the relevant gamma ray dose rates at 1 meter from radioisotopes and isomers following thermal neutron capture reaction

    Calculations were performed for the specific activity of 245 gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes and isomers produced in 48, 72 and 96 hour irradiation periods of the natural isotopic mixture of their 77 elements with thermal neutron flux 1.0 E + 13 n/cm2 .5, at the core of the (ET-R R-1) reactor. The relevant gamma-ray dose rate at a point 1 meter apart from each radioisotope or isomer was evaluated whenever the specific gamma-ray dose rate constant is available. The irradiation time factor (ITF) for the irradiation periods 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours are reported for each of the 248 gamma-ray emitters. The average of (ITF) over these 248 radionuclides for each irradiation period is taken as a measure of the feasibility of the irradiation time. The results favour the increase of the irradiation period from the conventional 48 to 72 hours but not to 96 hours. A programme was established in the VAX computer to carry out the above mentioned calculations. Tables of the present work are very useful for isotope production and reactor safety. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Design of a Smart Meter for the Indian Energy Scenario

    Al-Saheer S. S; *, Mrs. Shimi S. L

    2014-01-01

    Accurate metering, detection of energy theft and implementation of proper tariff as well as billing system are vital in wise energy management. These objectives can be achieved by using Smart Meters. This article introduces a microcontroller based Smart Meter using wireless communication and LabVIEW suitable for the Indian Energy Scenario. The Smart Meter and Time Of Day (TOD) tariff pricing make the consumers an active part of energy management, thereby energy deficit during ...

  6. Transformer and Meter Tester

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  7. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Glaucia Nency Takara; Gualberto Ruas; Bruna Varanda Pessoa; Luciana Kawakami Jamami; Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo; Mauricio Jamami

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value record...

  8. Simple Schlieren Light Meter

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    Simple light-meter circuit used to position knife edge of schlieren optical system to block exactly half light. Enables operator to check quickly position of knife edge between tunnel runs to ascertain whether or not in alignment. Permanent measuring system made part of each schlieren system. If placed in unused area of image plane, or in monitoring beam from mirror knife edge, provides real-time assessment of alignment of schlieren system.

  9. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  10. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    2012-07-10

    ... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework; Request for Comments AGENCY: National... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework (Draft NISTIR 7823). This draft document... process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Smart Meters. The target audience for Draft...

  11. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  12. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  13. Good standards for smart meters

    R.A. Hoenkamp; G.B. Huitema

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental co

  14. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  15. Smart metering design and applications

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  16. Domain based metering

    Párhonyi, Robert; Beijnum, van, Bert-Jan

    2000-01-01

    In the last two years, there is a gaining interest in usage based accounting for the Internet. One of the driving forces for this growing interest is the progress being made in providing some form of quality assurance in IP packet forwarding. One of the key processes in an accounting system is metering, gathering of network usage parameters on which the accounting is or can be based. In this paper are addressed issues that are potentially of interest in Internet accounting. One of these issue...

  17. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  18. Revenue Recovery Through Meter Replacement

    Shields, Devan J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have identified water meter inaccuracy at low flow rates as a significant source of non-revenue flow for water systems; however a lack of available data makes it difficult to include low flow accuracy degradation in meter replacement plans. This thesis examines results from an extensive accuracy test program carried out at the Utah Water Research Laboratory on small water meters over a wide range of flow rates and at various levels of throughput. The study compares expected a...

  19. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  20. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits. PMID:23799502

  1. Design of a Smart Meter for the Indian Energy Scenario

    Al-Saheer S. S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate metering, detection of energy theft and implementation of proper tariff as well as billing system are vital in wise energy management. These objectives can be achieved by using Smart Meters. This article introduces a microcontroller based Smart Meter using wireless communication and LabVIEW suitable for the Indian Energy Scenario. The Smart Meter and Time Of Day (TOD tariff pricing make the consumers an active part of energy management, thereby energy deficit during peak hours can be alleviated indirectly.

  2. Digital reactivity meter

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  3. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system...

  4. Wireless MSEB Meter Reading Vehicle

    Pooja U.Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The electricity is very essential in day to day life. Most of industries are running with electricity. In commercial areas also electricity plays very vital role and hence electricity is backbone of any developing nation. To measure the consumed electricity and generate Electricity bill, the energy meters are provided to each and every consumer. This project is use to take meter reading wirelessly by using transceiver which provides accuracy and speed in MSEB meter reading. In this work, Micro controller plays the main role. This circuit contains the LCD, RF transmitter, RF receiver, Energy meter, switch, RS 232 etc. This project uses one Microcontroller, LCD, RF transceiver module, energy meter and relay for connecting load. Meter reading is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy meter and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This saves employee trips and means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy. The Transmitter is connected to the meter and it counts the pulses from it and displays it over the LCD. It transmits the data over radio frequency. This network technology overcome all the difficulties of earlier billing system and become more advantageous and accurate.

  5. The Portable Metal Detecting Meter

    2001-01-01

    Using backscatter principle of ray, one kind of the portable metal detecting meters, which comprises five parts, i.e., a ray-emitter, a ray acceptor, discriminating and forming pulse circuits, storing and processing data units, a light and sound alarm device, and a power supply, had been invented. It can judge existence of danger articles as weapons and daggers hided inside luggages, pracels, or clothing of passengers or persons without opening packing. The detecting distance between the meter and danger objects, at present, is about one meter, but can be extended adopting improvement for key parts. For comparison, up to now, in the whole world, known information

  6. Angular velocity and acceleration meter

    Melamed, L.

    1972-01-01

    Meter uses a liquid crystalline film which changes coloration due to shear-stresses produced by a rotating disk. Device is advantageous in that it is not subject to bearing failure or electrical burnouts as are conventional devices.

  7. Calibration of personnel dose meters

    Methods of calibrating both film and thermoluminescent dose meters (TLD) to photon and electron radiations are described. K fluorescent X-rays, heavily filtered X-ray beams, and isotope gamma rays are used at the Los Alamos calibration facility to measure the energy and angular response of radiation detectors over a photon energy range of 10 to 1000keV. Beam spectra, alignment, size and uniformity are discussed. The energy and angular response of dose meters to electrons is measured with beta-emitting isotopes varying in maximum energy from 770 to 2300keV. A free-air ionization chamber is the primary standard used in the measurement of photon radiation. Thimble-sized ionization chambers, calibrated to the free-air chamber, serve as secondary standards. Electron radiation is measured with an end-window ionization chamber having a 7mg/cm2 approximately tissue-equivalent plastic wall. Photon calibrations are performed with personnel dose meters in air, on a phantom, and in a phantom. If the personnel dose meter and secondary chamber are both in air, or both on or both in a phantom, the response of the LiF TLD chip, relative to the secondary chamber, is the same. However, the film dose meter shows a larger relative response on or in the phantom than in air. With beta sources, personnel dose meters are calibrated by exposing the dose meter either in air to a high-dose-rate 90Sr (90Y) source, or in contact with a low-dose-rate uranium source. The differences in personnel dose meter response observed between the two methods are discussed. The personnel dose meters are calibrated to determine penetrating doses by placing the secondary chamber 1cm deep in a phantom and the personnel dose meter on the surface, with a filter over the TLD to simulate 1cm depth. Non-penetrating dose calibrations are measured by placing both chamber and dose meter on the surface of the phantom. (author)

  8. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  9. Economic Evaluation of Multiphase Meters

    Samuel S. MOFUNLEWI; Joseph. A. AJIENKA

    2007-01-01

    When operators must decide between a traditional approach to the production facilities and one including multiphase flow meters (MPFM), they must compare the capital and operating expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) of each solution. In order to achieve this, CAPEX and OPEX for the same brand of test separator and multiphase flow meter were obtained.A deterministic economic model was developed for evaluating the economics of MPFM and Test Separators. Two cases were considered. Case A considered whe...

  10. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  11. Field proving liquid ultrasonic meters

    Antunes, Bernardo de Castro [Emerson Process Management, Houston, TX (United States). Daniel Measurement and Control Division

    2009-07-01

    Field proving liquid ultrasonic flowmeters is not a straightforward task since these meters are designed for large volumes and flowrates transfers and provers capacities are limited. Some techniques to overcome these issues are provided on API MPMS. Pulse interpolation, master metering, a large number of proving runs are some of these techniques. This works intents to present these procedures and practices in order to give the operators a briefly view of the techniques which will lead to better proving results. (author)

  12. Performance evaluation of the activity meters of nuclear medicine services of the hospitals Rafael Angel Calderon, San Juan de Dios and Mexico during the period from July 1, 2008 to December 31, 2008

    Nuclear medicine has used radioisotopes associated to drugs in order to get them to an organ of interest. The radioisotope has the quality to emit radiation, which passes through the body, after being admitted to it, and this is perceived by equipment such as a gamma camera to study the behavior of the organ under study. The radiation is a energy emission able to boot electrons from atoms and produce ions, thus the chemical composition may be altered, resulting in alterations in the cells. Conditions such as: a onreproductive of the cells, causing a tumor; or alterations in geminal cells, causing genetic alterations, which may occur in the offspring of an individual. For the above reason is that the use of radiopharmaceuticals should be as careful as possible, doing as little radiation exposure, without compromising the quality of the study, these should be applied with more important in more radiosensitive population such as children and older adults. The doses used in nuclear medicine are quantified using a device called activity meters and the proper functioning of the overexposures shall impose or low-quality studies doses outside the range of usefulness. The operation of these machines based on the quality control logs have been studied to discover if there are alterations in dosages of nuclear medicine departments of hospitals Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico. Tests of zero settings, display, physical monitoring, high voltage, linearity test, stability, background radiation, precision, accuracy and consistency have been performed as quality control. This research is classified as non-experimental longitudinal quantitative. The study population was the record set and the realization of quality control tests made to the hospital activity meters above. The collection of data was performed by two steps, the first taking records concerning quality control of the different hospitals, completed tabulation, gratification and analysis of the same. The

  13. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  14. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr−1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr−1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr

  15. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  16. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  17. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy...... suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power quality (PQ) disturbance can de detected and reported by some advanced metering systems. Thus, this paper...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results will be...

  18. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Da-Ming Zhu; Cheng, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes, buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basic concepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH, as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. The emergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with a conducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH bu...

  19. Sulfur meter speeds coal blending

    The sulfur content has become the most important criterion that industry looks at when purchasing coal. The exact amount of sulfur in coal being processed by a preparation plant must be known and, if possible, controlled by blending coal streams of various sulfur contents. Present techniques, however, of measuring the sulfur in coal involve laborious and time-consuming sampling and chemical analysis (12 to 24 hr), and the results usually are not available until the following day. By then, the coal barges or trains are already on the way to their destinations. A new nuclear sulfur meter is expected to overcome these difficulties and help lead to true automation in coal preparation plants. Initially developed by the Bureau of Mines' Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) at Morgantown, W. Va., and completed after reorganization of the center by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the meter can scan coal to produce a reading within 2 min to an accuracy of 0.04 percent sulfur. The meter is expected to soon result in an element-ash-moisture-Btu meter that would rapidly detect the sulfur, sodium, potassium, and overall mineral content of the coal, as well as its ash and Btu content

  20. FORMULATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    Ramteke K.H.; Gunjal S.S; Sharma Y.P

    2012-01-01

    The MDI is now established as the principal dosage form of inhalation drug therapy for bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are pharmaceutical delivery systems designed for oral or nasal use, which deliver discrete doses of aerosolized medicament to the respiratory tract. The MDI contains the active substance, dissolved or suspended in a liquefied propellant system held in a pressurized container that is sealed with a metering valve. ...

  1. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of recent Lake Tahoe fault activity: Combining Sub-Meter Resolution Seismic Imagery with AMS C-14 Dated Submerged Paleo-Surfaces.

    Dingler, J. A.; Kent, G. M.; Babcock, J. A.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Gayes, P. T.; Karlin, B.; Morgan, C. W.; Heyvaert, A.; Richards, B. C.

    2002-12-01

    Deformational strain within the Lake Tahoe Basin was mapped during previous campaigns using a combination of high resolution seismic CHIRP, multi-beam swath bathymetry, and airborne laser altimetry. These previous campaigns identified submerged paleo-shorelines of Pleistocene to early Holocene age, which act as a tectonic strain marker due to fault related disruptions of this once flat surface, as well as significantly offset fault scarps. Building upon this previous work, specific sites were selected for additional investigation with seismic CHIRP and AMS C-14 dated vibra and piston cores. The combination of these three techniques is ideally suited for quantifying recent fault activity through the correlation of paleo-surfaces and accurate age determinations. Initial analysis of seismic CHIRP and piston coring conducted in Emerald Bay shows a complex normal fault system with a sedimentation rate much higher than other parts of the lake. Seismic CHIRP conducted near Zephyr Cove was able to image multiple paleo-shorelines. Vibra coring of these same surfaces recovered sands of the same consistency as beach sand. Additional piston cores were collected at various lake locations below 400 m depth, including two cores taken across the Stateline Fault. Core analysis and AMS C-14 dating combined with site-specific seismic CHIRP, and previous mapping, will improve chronological control on the fault activity within the Lake Tahoe Basin.

  3. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Radiation meters for civil defence

    The technical requirements for the radiation meters used in civil defence are specified in the guide. The aim of the requirements is to quarantee sufficient measurement accuracy and reliable operation even in extreme environmental conditions. The guide is based on the following standards: (1) IEC 846 'Beta, X and gamma radiation dose equivalent and dose equivalent rate meters for use in radiation protection', (2) IEC 1017-1 'Portable, transportable of installed X or gamma radiation ratemeters for environmental monitoring, part 1: Ratemeters', and (3) IEC 45 B (Secretariat) 104 'Direct reading, personnel dose equivalent and/or dose equivalent rate monitors for X, gamma and high energy beta radiation'. (12 refs., 5 tabs.)

  5. A color sensor wavelength meter

    Durfee, Dallin; Jackson, Jarom; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Archibald, James

    2016-05-01

    We will discuss a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip consisting of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined with picometer-level precision and with picometer-scale calibration drift over a period longer than a month. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  6. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music. PMID:22367155

  7. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  9. Security Architecture of Smart Metering Systems

    Zivic, Natasa; Ruland, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The main goals of smart metering are the reduction of costs, energy and CO2 by the provision of actual metering information to the providers and the customer. They allow for flexible possibilities to influence the customers' energy consumption behavior and to adapt dynamically the power generation and distribution to the requested energy by smart grids. Metering devices are under control of governmental organizations, which are responsible for the permanent correct delivery of metering data. ...

  10. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

  11. Smart meter data: Balancing consumer privacy concerns with legitimate applications

    Smart meters are being rolled out in large numbers throughout the world, with proponents claiming they are a critical step in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Yet there are significant unresolved negative reactions to smart meters, principally based on the concern that smart meters might be used to infer the private activities that occur within a dwelling. Though smart meter data is classified as personal data, and as such protected under existing data protection frameworks in the EU, there are relevant exceptions, notably where the data is required for legitimate applications associated with the performance of 'regulated duties'. This paper contributes to this debate by examining the data requirements for some of the proposed applications of smart meter data within the electricity supply industry, and investigates whether the use of personal data can be minimized or even avoided. The discussion includes system balancing, demand reduction, demand response and distribution network operation and planning, and indicates that, for most of these applications, the requirements for personal data can indeed be minimized. 'Privacy friendly' alternatives are discussed. - Highlights: ▶ Current smart meter systems provide a strong indication of occupancy. ▶ This will have important implications for external and internal home privacy. ▶ Personal data requirements within legitimate applications are discussed. ▶ 'Privacy friendly' techniques are suggested that minimize the use of personal data. ▶ Distribution network operator has strongest claim for data from each household.

  12. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    Mol, de, M.J.; Andre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the milking parlour, e.g. in case of robotic milking. In the first case the model is based on a comparison per milking session of the average per stand with the overall average over all stands. The mode...

  13. Smart meter status report from Toronto

    An update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering program was presented. Electricity demand is expected to keep increasing, and there is presently insufficient generation to match supply needs in Ontario. The smart metering program was introduced to aid in the Ontario government's energy conservation strategy, as well as to address peak supply problems that have led to power outages. It is expected that the smart metering program will reduce provincial peak supply by 5 per cent, as the meters support both time-of-use rates and critical peak pricing. Over 800,000 smart meters will be supplied to customers by 2007, and all 4.3 million homes in Toronto will have a smart meter by 2010. In order to meet targets for 2010, the utility will continue to install more 15,000 meters each month for the next 4 years. While the Ontario government has planned and coordinated the rollout and developed smart metering specifications and standards, Toronto Hydro is responsible for the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of the meters. Advance testing of each meter is needed to ensure billing accuracy, and customer education on meter use is also. The complexity of the metering program has led the utility to establish a rigid project management process. Customer education pilot program are currently being conducted. Experience gained during the earlier phases of the program have enabled the utility to select appropriate metering systems based on density, topography and physical conditions. Project expenditures have been within budget due to improved project estimating and planning. The metering program has been conducted in tandem with the utility's peakSAVER program, a residential and small commercial load control program that has been successful in reducing summer peak demand by cycling air conditioners without causing discomfort. It was concluded that the utility will continue with its mass deployment of smart meters, and is currently preparing its call center to handled

  14. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  15. Too cheap to meter what?

    Full text: 50 years ago, at 17:30 hours, 26 June 1954, in the town of Obninsk, near Moscow, the first nuclear power plant sent electricity to residences and businesses. Atomic energy had crossed the divide from military uses to peaceful ones, demonstrating the potential to fuel civilian electric power plants. The milestone is being marked this year at an IAEA international nuclear power conference in Obninsk. Past experience will be reviewed, but the focus is on meeting future challenges. Though it has come a long way in 50 years, nuclear energy today finds itself in a struggle of the fittest to carve a niche over the next fifty - in the marketplace and in the public eye. Cliches and sound bites tell part of the nuclear story. Visionary talk by nuclear proponents in 1954 was about future energy sources that would be 'too cheap to meter', a phrase critics pounced upon. Today in 2004 the 'too cheap to meter' phrase occasionally haunts the atom, but pops up more often than not in promotional ads for anything from wind power to web sites. Talk of nuclear energy now is of a 'renaissance' and 'second wind.' New nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and resources are scarce, and where energy security, air pollution and greenhouse gases are priorities, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei points out. In cities, towns, and villages, reality is different, or too much the same, depending how you see and live it. Cheap or not, nuclear energy today supplies one-sixth of the world's electricity in some 30 countries. Still, it does not produce enough power. Neither does any other energy source. More than 1.5 billion people have no electricity to meter whatsoever - not from renewables, solar, nuclear, biomass, wind, coal, oil, gas, firewood, or hydrogen, the publicized promise of tomorrow. So what will it take? Maybe bigger blackouts or hotter days than the world has seen. Certainly needed are more attention, action, and money. In dollar terms

  16. Tohoku one meter bubble chamber

    At the request of Tohoku University and the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, IHI has developed a complete freon bubble chamber system successfully, which is used for photo analysis of elementary particles physics. This system will be delivered to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois (U.S.A.) and will be coupled with the superconducting accelerator (TEVATRON) for the study of elementary particles. The total system of the freon bubble chamber is composed of a stainless steel casting spherical bubble chamber with a diameter of about one meter, an expansion system for freon pressure control, hydraulic system for driving an expansion piston, a freon feed system, a temperature control system, an overall control system as well as camera and flashlight for photograph. (author)

  17. The reactivity meter and core reactivity

    The point kinetic equations and the characteristics of the point kinetic reactivity meter are discussed, particularly for large negative reactivities. From a given input signal representing the neutron flux seen by a detector, the meter computes a value of reactivity in dollars (ρ/β), based on inverse point kinetics. The prompt jump point of view is emphasised. A simple point model of the reactor and a local flux distortion factor are used to generate input signals into a simulated reactivity meter. The obtained results show how the reading of the reactivity meter will approach the reactivity of the core model, if the reactivity is lower than -1 dollars. However, for reactivity values higher than -1 dollars, the influence of the flux distortion on the reading of the reactivity meter persists. Reactivity meter measurements taken during typical rod drop experiments in VVER-440 reactors do not produce accurate indications of the (static) core reactivity. (author)

  18. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  19. Mass Flow Meter Analysis for Reliable Measuring

    Kupanovac, Tihomir; Špoljarić, Željko; Valter, Zdravko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how to analyze and correctly chose measuring device specially applied on mass flow meter based on Coriolis principle. In the beginning short description of Coriolis based mass flow meter is given. Furthermore, comparison analysis of two flow meters shows where are the problems of wrongly applied method in slurry fluid measurement in production of powder detergents plant. Analysis is made using RS Logix 500 program. In given diagrams which show causes of wrong ...

  20. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    Miller, M. R.; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow ge...

  1. Water metering in England and Wales

    David Zetland

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of water services that began with the privatisation of water companies in 1989 extended to households with the implementation of water metering. Meters 'privatised' water and the cost of provision by allocating to individual households costs that had previously been shared within the community. This (ongoing) conversion of common pool to private good has mostly improved economic, environmental and social impacts, but the potential burden of metering on poorer households has...

  2. Off-level corrections for gravity meters

    Niebauer, T. M.; Blitz, Thomas; Constantino, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Gravity meters must be aligned with the local gravity at any location on the surface of the earth in order to measure the full amplitude of the gravity vector. The gravitational force on the sensitive component of the gravity meter decreases by the cosine of the angle between the measurement axis and the local gravity vector. Most gravity meters incorporate two horizontal orthogonal levels to orient the gravity meter for a maximum gravity reading. In order to calculate a gravity correction it is often necessary to estimate the overall angular deviation between the gravity meter and the local gravity vector using two measured horizontal tilt meters. Typically this is done assuming that the two horizontal angles are independent and that the product of the cosines of the horizontal tilts is equivalent to the cosine of the overall deviation. These approximations, however, break down at large angles. This paper derives analytic formulae to transform angles measured by two orthogonal tilt meters into the vertical deviation of the third orthogonal axis. The equations can be used to calibrate the tilt sensors attached to the gravity meter or provide a correction for a gravity meter used in an off-of-level condition.

  3. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and eliminating human errors due to manual readings which would ultimately reduce labour costs, diagnosis and instantaneous fault detection. This allows for predictive maintenance resulting in a more efficient and reliable distribution network.

  4. Comparison of Selected Differential Producing, Ultrasonic, and Magnetic Flow Meters

    Prettyman, Johnny B.

    2014-01-01

    Flow meters are used to measure flow accurately. There are many different flow meters and it is necessary to know which will function best for specific situations. A wide variety of flow meters were selected for the study to assist in showing that each flow meter has its tradeoffs. The selected meters include: three types of Venturi meters, a wedge meter, a V-cone meter, an electromagnetic flow meter, and an ultrasonic flow meter. The characteristics researched in this study are discharge coe...

  5. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Downs, Janelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Sadie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  6. Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance.

    Deason, J; Powers, S K; Lawler, J; Ayers, D; Stuart, M K

    1991-12-01

    Much of the previous research efforts aimed at determining those physiological characteristics that contribute to distance running success have centered around distances greater than 1500 meters with little attention to events such as the 800 meter run. Therefore, this investigation examined the relationship between selected physiological and body composition, characteristics and performance in an 800 meter run. Measurements of body composition, VO2max, running economy, and performance times for 100 and 300 meter dashes were obtained on 11 male track athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using 800 meter race time as the dependent variable. Although the combination of 300 and 100 meter run times, percent body fat, running economy and VO2 max as independent variables accounted for the greatest amount of total variance (r2 = .89), the additional variance explained by the model did not increase significantly (p greater than 0.05), when VO2max, percent body fat, and running economy were added to a model which contained 300 and 100 meter run time (r2 = .85) as the explanatory variables. These data offer additional support for the notion that much of the intramuscular ATP produce and utilized during an 800 meter run comes from anaerobic metabolic pathway. PMID:1806725

  7. Hydro Ottawa achieves Smart Meter milestone

    As Ontario's second largest municipal electricity company, Hydro Ottawa serves more than 285,000 residential and business customers in the city of Ottawa and the village of Casselman. Since 2006, the utility has installed more than 230,000 Smart Meters throughout its service territory in an effort to provide better services to its customers. This initiative represents the largest operational advanced metering infrastructure network in Canada. This move was necessary before time-of-use rates can be implemented in Ottawa. The Smart Meters deliver data wirelessly to Hydro Ottawa's Customer Information System for billing and eliminating manual readings. The Smart Meters are designed to promote more efficient use of electricity. The Government of Ontario has passed legislation requiring the installation of Smart Meters throughout the province by the end of 2010

  8. Period meter output during startup transients

    The time response of a period meter whose input signal comes from an ionization chamber may be calculated using a Ferranti Mercury digital computer programme. Details of the programme are given. The type of period meter considered is the one for which the input time constant is determined by the input capacity and the logarithmic element. The input excitation is a terminated ramp of reactivity. Other reactivity inputs may be treated. In particular the step change of reactivity may be used as the input excitation. Allowance is taken of the power dependent time constant associated with the logarithmic element and of the differentiating and integrating time constants in the period meter. The programme may be used by period meter designers to assess the performance of their instruments and may also be used by those carrying out safety and operations studies on reactors which use this type of period meter. An example of the use of the programme is given. (author)

  9. Development of a contour meter

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  10. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Da-Ming Zhu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  11. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 10000F (427 and 5380C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  12. Which way through the metering maze?

    Already suffering from the unrelenting rise in electricity prices, some major energy users have found that the metering side of power purchasing offers no relief. Despite having paid out for metering equipment so that they can shop around in the second tier market for their power, those users with 1MW-plus loads have found, to their frustration, that they are unable to find out exactly what they are paying for when it comes to settling the electricity bill. Not only are they unhappy about the lack of information available, but these users are also disgruntled about the high, and unpredictable costs of metering. (author)

  13. Water metering in England and Wales

    David Zetland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of water services that began with the privatisation of water companies in 1989 extended to households with the implementation of water metering. Meters 'privatised' water and the cost of provision by allocating to individual households costs that had previously been shared within the community. This (ongoing conversion of common pool to private good has mostly improved economic, environmental and social impacts, but the potential burden of metering on poorer households has slowed the transition. Stronger anti-poverty programmes would be better at addressing this poverty barrier than existing coping mechanisms reliant on subsidies from other water consumers.

  14. Soft-sensing, non-intrusive multiphase flow meter

    Wrobel, K.; Schiferli, W.

    2009-01-01

    For single phase flow meters more and better non-intrusive or even clamp-on meters become available. This allows for a wider use of meters and for easier flow control. As the demand for multiphase meters is increasing, the current aim is to develop a non-intrusive multiphase flow meter. The non-intr

  15. USGS Digital Orthophoto Quad (DOQ) - 3 meter

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data files are a collection of the USGS standard DOQs that have been resampled to a 3-meter cell resolution and mosaiced into quad format vs quarter quad...

  16. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Daminov Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  17. Requirements for gamma radiation survey meter calibration

    This guide describes the minimum requirements for calibrating a portable analog gamma radiation survey meter by means of a beam calibrator, with a known calibration source. If an alternative method of calibration is to be used the licensee should make a written request to the Atomic Energy Control Board that describes the calibration method to be used, and request the Board's permission to use that method in place of the requirements contained in this guide. This guide explains: the responsibility for survey meter calibration if licensees calibrate their own survey meters, use the services of a Canadian calibration agency, and use the services of a non-Canadian calibration agency; the requirements for survey meter calibration and the supporting documentation; the requirements for record-keeping; and, a calibration certificate, a calibration sticker, and a notification of failure to calibrate form, with examples

  18. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  19. Informatics Solutions for Smart Metering Systems Integration

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects regarding smart metering systems integration have been depicted. Smart metering systems, renewable energy sources integration and advanced tariff systems implementation require informatics solution that could automatically collect and process data, forecast the behavior of electricity consumers, analyze trends regarding electricity prices, optimize the consumption of consumers, provide friendly interfaces, etc. They are advanced technologies that represent solutions for insufficient conventional primary energy sources, gas emissions, dependency on energy sources located outside European Union and issues related to energy efficiency. This paper mainly describes several informatics solutions correlated with operational requirements for smart metering system and our proposal for simplified architecture of smart metering systems, with three distinct levels (base level, middle level and top level and load profile calculation methods.

  20. Continuous flow measurements using fixed ultrasonic meters

    Oltmann, Rick

    1993-01-01

    USGS has or soon will be installing four continuous flow-monitoring stations in the delta that will use ultrasonic velocity meters (DVM). Funding for the stations has been provided by USGS, DWR, USBR, and Contra Costa Water District.

  1. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network to...... utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  2. Diagnostic flow metering using ultrasound tomography

    For an accurate flow metering without considering the influences of flow control devices such as valves and elbows in closed conduits, velocity distribution in the cross-sectional area must be integrated. However, most flow meters, including multi-path ultrasonic, electromagnetic or Coriolis mass flow meters, require assumptions on the fully-developed turbulent flows to calculate flow rates from physical quantities of their own concern. Therefore, a long straight pipe has been a necessary element for accurate flow metering because the straight pipe can reduce flow disturbances caused by flow control devices. To reduce costs due to the installation of long straight pipes, another flow metering technique is required. For example, flow rates can be estimated by integrating velocity distributions in the cross section of conduits. In the present study, ultrasound tomography was used to find the velocity distribution in the cross-section of a closed conduit where flow was disturbed by a Coriolis mass flow meter or a butterfly valve. A commercial multi-path ultrasonic flow meter was installed in the pipeline to measure the line-averaged velocity distribution in the pipe flow. The ultrasonic flow meter was rotated 180 .deg. at intervals of 10 .deg. to construct line-averaged velocity distributions in Radon space. Flow images were reconstructed by using a backprojection algorithm (inverse Radon transform). Flow diagnostic parameters were defined by calculating statistical moments, i.e., average, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis, based on the normalized velocity distribution. The flow diagnostic parameters were applied to flow images to find whether the parameters could discern flow disturbances in the reconstructed velocity distribution

  3. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  4. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans (comps.)

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  5. Privacy-Preserving Energy-Reading for Smart Meter

    Costantino, Gianpiero; Martinelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Smart Meters belong to the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and allow customers to monitor locally and remotely the current usage of energy. Providers query Smart Meters for billing purpose or to establish the amount of energy needed by houses. However, reading details sent from smart meters to the energy provider can be used to violate customers? privacy. In this paper, our contribution is two-fold: first, we present an architecture to turn traditional energy meters into Smart Meters, ...

  6. Metering practice and policy : an examination of battery electromagnetic meter calibration, performance and verification

    Thomas, Alun Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The last twenty years has seen the rise to dominance of electromagnetic flowmetering (EFM)technology within the UK water industry network. In the last ten years, the introduction of battery powered EFM designs, for both full bore and insertion meters has seen this technology deployed where before only mechanical meters were used. Nevertheless, despite the increasing use of battery meters, the literature contained little objective reporting of the performance, limitations, calibration or ver...

  7. Computation of flow through Venturi meters

    Sattery, J.A.; Reader-Harris, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) work on Venturi meters reported in this paper was part of a large project for Shell Exploration and Production to investigate the application of Venturi meters to gas flow measurement. The majority of the experimental findings were reported in 'Unpredicted behaviour of Venturi flowmeters in gas at high Reynolds numbers' presented in the 1996 North Sea Flow Metering Workshop. CFD has been used to model the flow through Venturi tubes and thereby gain understanding of how the discharge coefficient is affected by the vital parameters of diameter ratio, pipe Reynolds number and roughness. It has also been used to calculate the effect of manufacturing tolerance. The discharge coefficients obtained from the calibration of Venturi meters have been used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD results have also been compared with experimental results from the 1950s and 1960s with surprisingly good agreement. This work forms the basis of further possible research using CFD on the effect of upstream and Venturi surface roughness on the performance of these meters. The knowledge gained on the effect of surface roughness may also be applicable to ultrasonic flowmeters. (author)

  8. Anti-Theft Automatic Metering Interface

    Abhijeet Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need is increasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity. The purpose of this project is to provide automatic control and monitoring of the Domestic Energy Meter enabling the Electricity Department to read meter readings without anyone visiting each house and also prevent electricity theft .This can be achieved by the use of a Microcontroller Unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM module for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter with the help of an interfacing circuitry. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department after a count period or on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. The Substation will be the receiving end. The data received is fed to a microcontroller at the Substation which will automatically calculate the bill based on tariff provider and display it.

  9. Flow meters for the PAT loop

    The flow of coolant in the PAT loop at temperatures in the range 2000C to 6000C and a pressure of 40 bar must be measured accurately. It is not possible to provide good upstream flow conditions for a flow meter in the complicated pipework or to calibrate a flow meter in the loop itself. Two independent combined flow conditioner and orifice meter units for subsequent insertion into the loop were designed, built and independently calibrated. The discharge coefficient was determined over the working range of Reynolds number by comparison with a standard orifice plate in the WNL high pressure gas loop. Tests at atmospheric pressure have demonstrated that, to the accuracy of measurement, the discharge coefficients of the units are unaffected by disturbances to the upstream flow. (author)

  10. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  11. Field intercomparisons of electromagnetic current meters

    Guza, R. T.; Clifton, M. C.; Rezvani, F.

    1988-08-01

    In order to assess the performance of current meters within and near the surf zone, data from biaxial electromagnetic current meters with spherical and open frame probe geometries were intercompared. One bottom-mounted flow meter of each type was deployed in a mean depth of 7.0 m for 17 days, and two sensors of each type were deployed in a mean depth of 2.0 m for 5 days. Sensors in the shallow deployment were frequently in the surf zone. Hourly averaged mean flows measured by different sensor types are highly correlated, averaging above 0.98. The largest difference between measured mean flows is a constant bias, typically about 3.0 cm/s, which is roughly equal to the estimated accuracy of the sensor offset calibrations. Root-mean-square deviations from this constant bias are less than 2.0 cm/s, and are contributed to by errors in both gain calibration and sensor orientation. Comparisons of measured (surface gravity wave) oscillatory currents were made both between current meter types and with velocities inferred from the application of linear theory to pressure sensor data. Correlations between time series of UTrms (the rms total oscillatory velocity for a 1-hour record) were all above 0.99 in 7.0-m depth and averaged 0.95 for the shallow deployment. The average UTrms ratio (over all hour-long records) was within 1.0 ±0.07 for all current meter pairs in both deployments, which is consistent with the estimated 5% uncertainties in the flow meter gain calibration. Typical fluctuations of the UTrms ratio of any spherical and open frame sensor pair about its mean ratio, indicative of flow meter gain distortions probably associated with variations in the hydrodynamic environment, were less than 0.04 for any one deployment. Ratios of UTrms from both deployments taken together suggest that the open frame sensor overresponds, relative to the spherical probe, by about 5% at low (about 10.0 cm/s) total (mean + UTrms) speeds, and underresponds by about 5% at higher total

  12. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A. J. H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M. A. G.; den Toonder, J. M. J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes place. A proof-of-principle device of the digital flow meter was designed, fabricated, and tested. The device was built on foil-based technology. In the proof-of-principle experiments, good agreement was found between set flow rates and the evaporation rates estimated from reading the number of wetted pore structures. The measurement range of the digital flow meter can be tuned and extended in a straightforward manner by changing the pore structure of the device.

  13. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  14. Development of the impedance void meter

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs.

  15. DREAM: DiffeRentially privatE smArt Metering

    Acs, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new privacy-preserving smart metering system. Our scheme is private under the differential privacy model and therefore provides strong and provable guarantees. With our scheme, an (electricity) supplier can periodically collect data from smart meters and derive aggregated statistics while learning only limited information about the activities of individual households. For example, a supplier cannot tell from a user's trace when he watched TV or turned on heating. Our scheme is simple, efficient and practical. Processing cost is very limited: smart meters only have to add noise to their data and encrypt the results with an efficient stream cipher.

  16. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1065.205. This may include a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a...

  18. Wideband bioimpedance meter with the adaptive selection of frequency grid

    V. S. Mosiychuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the diagnosis of functional state and structure of biological objects with weakly expressed irregularities it is important quickly and accurately to determine the amplitude- and phase-frequency characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the article is a representation of the results of the development of biological objects high-speed impedance meter with the ability to select adaptive grid measuring frequencies in the extended band. Structure of the impedance meter. Developed instrument is designed to measure the impedance of the object on four-electrode method. The device uses a frequency synthesizer amplitude-phase detector integrally fabricated and active electrodes, by which the voltage controlled current source and the input buffer amplifiers with low input capacitance, are located in close proximity to the studied bioobject. This allowed to make measurements at frequencies up to 5 MHz. Instruments characteristics. To test the device characteristics the frequency characteristics of the test object (RC-chain impedance were measured. It is composed of 5 precision resistors and capacitors. Parameters of the elements were measured preliminarily by laboratory inductance, capacitance and resistance meter E7-12. The dependence of the measurement errors of the developed device in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 5 MHz is not more than 5% of the modulus of the impedance and not more than 2° of the phase.

  19. Study on the Calibration of Environmental Survey Meter

    Study on calibration of environmental survey meter using 60Co dan 137Cs standard gamma sources made in P3KRBiN had been done. Shadow-shield and free field calibration techniques were used to calibrate a variety of environmental survey meters, which are typically energy compensated GM counter, high-pressure ionization chamber and Na(I)Tl counter. The exposure rate from the gamma source was calculated based on its activities given by the manufacture. The shadow shield calibration technique was carried out in the calibration room with the size of 12 m x 6.6 m x 2.94 m with and without shadow shield at the source to detector distances of 100 cm, 150 cm and 200 cm and the height of the source from the floor was 110 cm. The calibration factor was determined by the ratio between the exposure rate of the gamma source and the reading with and without shadow shield. The free field calibration technique was carried out at free field with the size of 80 m x 70 m with and without the sources present at the source to detector distances of 100 cm, 150 cm and 200 cm and the height of the source from the floor was 100 cm. The calibration factor was determined by the ratio between the nominal exposure rate of the gamma source and the reading with and without the source present. Generally, the calibration results using shadow shield and free field calibration techniques for all survey meters were in the permitted range which was 0.8 ≤ CF ≤ 1.2 for 137Cs gamma source. So shadow shield calibration technique can be used for calibration the environmental survey meter. (author)

  20. Smart meters and economies in energy use

    A central theme promoted by the government for the energy transition, the mastering of energy consumption features notably the setting up of intelligent electricity networks and the installation of what are known as smart meters. Yet will consumers actually be in a position to become proponents of more sober use of energy? (author)

  1. Improvised Energy Meter Supporting Wireless Data Transfer

    E. Aravind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to design a prototype model of an energy meter which has the ability of wireless data transfer such as sending emails and SMS. In the current energy monitoring scenario, manual energy meter monitoring is a cumbersome and tedious process for the electricity boards. It involves huge manpower and higher expenditure for a simple task. Manual energy meter monitoring is highly erroneous and amounts to great losses for both the consumers and the electricity boards. In this conventional technique, losing the bills and delay in the arrival of the official to note down the reading are common affairs. Complete digitalization of bill delivery and transaction processes eliminates such uneventful circumstances. The manual reading method is inefficient to meet the raising power demands. The invention described here has the potential to wipe of manual energy meter reading from the scene and replace it with a sophisticated automated system facilitating remote monitoring of energy consumption. In this proposed system, the Raspberry Pi performs all the essential functions of a microcontroller and supports features like sending emails and SMS with the aid of Wi-Fi dongle and GSM modem. This automated system enables continuous monitoring of energy consumption.

  2. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  3. Measurement error analysis of taxi meter

    He, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Hang; Zhang, Da-Jian; Hou, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shi-pu

    2011-12-01

    The error test of the taximeter is divided into two aspects: (1) the test about time error of the taximeter (2) distance test about the usage error of the machine. The paper first gives the working principle of the meter and the principle of error verification device. Based on JJG517 - 2009 "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", the paper focuses on analyzing the machine error and test error of taxi meter. And the detect methods of time error and distance error are discussed as well. In the same conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class A) are evaluated, while in different conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class B) are also evaluated and measured repeatedly. By the comparison and analysis of the results, the meter accords with JJG517-2009, "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", thereby it improves the accuracy and efficiency largely. In actual situation, the meter not only makes up the lack of accuracy, but also makes sure the deal between drivers and passengers fair. Absolutely it enriches the value of the taxi as a way of transportation.

  4. KTH-1 tantalum and niobium concentration meter

    The KTH-1 tantalum and niobium concentration meter is intended for rapid analysis of technological samples in shop and works laboratories and for the automatic continuous determination of Ta or Nb concenration in flow technological solutions. The analysis time is less than 30 min, including sample preparation and processing of measurement results. The instrument is bases on absorption jump X-ray analysis

  5. Energy metering, management and accounting; Comptage, gestion, et comptabilite de l`energie

    Foucherand, P. [Agence de l`environnement et de la maitrise de l`energie, Rhone-Alpes (France)

    1996-12-31

    The activities of the French Energy Conservation Agency (ADEME) in the field of energy management and conservation through energy metering in industrial plants, and more especially in mechanical and metal industries, are presented. Audit and diagnostic procedures and information/awareness measures are presented and discussed with the example of a regional program, and two operations conducted in a mechanical industrial plant and a foundry where metering systems were installed

  6. Managing Highways for Better Reliability - Assessing Reliability Benefits of Ramp Metering

    BHOURI, N; Kauppila, J. (Joonas)

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of reliability, few countries monitor it or explicitly incorporate it into transport policy making. Nevertheless, a number of policy options are available to improve this aspect of transport management. Active management of the network through ramp metering is recognized as an efficient way to control motorway traffic and improve average travel time. Far less is said about the reliability benefits of ramp metering. This paper assesses reliability benefits of ramp meteri...

  7. Microcontroller Based Single Phase Digital Prepaid Energy Meter for Improved Metering and Billing System

    Md. Mejbaul Haque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase digital prepaid energy meter based on two microcontrollers and a single phase energy meter IC. This digital prepaid energy meter does not have any rotating parts. The energy consumption is calculated using the output pulses of the energy meter chip and the internal counter of microcontroller (ATmega32. A microcontroller (ATtiny13 is used as a smart card and the numbers of units recharged by the consumers are written in it. A relay system has been used which either isolates or establishes the connection between the electrical load and energy meter through the supply mains depending upon the units present in the smart card.Energy consumption (kWh, maximum demand (kW, total unit recharged (kWh and rest of the units (kWh are stored in the ATmega32 to ensure the accurate measurement even in the event of an electrical power outage that can be easily read from a 20×4 LCD. As soon as the supply is restored, energy meter restarts with the stored values. A single phase prepaid energy meter prototype has been implemented to provide measurement up to 40A load current and 230V line to neutral voltage.Necessary program for microcontrollers are written in c-language and compiled by Win-AVR libc compiler.

  8. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model number-sign 90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique

  9. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  10. Vibration isolation for Coriolis Mass-Flow meters

    Ridder, de, J.

    2015-01-01

    A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, with high accuracy, range-ability and repeatability. The working principle of a CMFM is as follows: a fluid conveying tube is actuated to oscillate at a low amplitude. A fluid-flow in the vibrating tube induces Coriolis forces, which are proportional to the mass-flow, and affect the tube motion. Measuring the tube displacement in such a way that the change of its mode...

  11. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  12. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  13. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  14. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  15. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  16. The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project

    Boroson, Todd A.

    1995-05-01

    The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project is an international partnership to build and operate two 8-meter telescopes, one on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and one on Cerro Pachon, Chile. The telescopes will be international facilities, open to the scientific communities of the six member countries, the United States (50%), the United Kingdom (25%), Canada (15%), Chile (5%), Argentina (2.5%), and Brazil (2.5%). The telescopes are designed to exploit the best atmospheric conditions at these excellent sites. Near diffraction limited performance will be delivered at 2.2 microns and longward, with minimal degradation of the best seeing conditions at shorter wavelengths. The telescopes and facilities are designed to achieve emissivity division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. NOAO is operated by AURA, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  17. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  18. On a radiochromic dye dose meter

    Radiochromic dye dose meters made of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) with hexa (hydroxyethyl) pararosaniline cyanide (HPR-CN) as the radiation-sensitive element are being developed and investigated at Risoe. This report summarizes the present results and outlines plans for further research on this dose meter. Currently the response is found to be almost stable after irradiation, but recalibration of a given batch is needed every 3-6 months because of changes in response chracteristics with age. Under typical laboratory conditions, the temperature coefficient is found to be about +1% per degree Celcius and the relative humidity coefficient +(0.4-0.5)% per percent change in relative humidity. The response drops approximately 15% when the dose rate is lowered from 1.1 Gy/sec to 0.2 Gy/sec. (author)

  19. Industry practices in metering and monitoring

    Salem, Anita; Gallenson, Ann; Aten, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information and understanding to assist the Marine Corps in implementing metering and information systems to support effective use of vehicle fuel. A research project, including the study described here, and also a thesis and MBA project (see Henton & Noack, 2015; Robinson, 2015) examined how industry organizations implemented vehicle telematics systems, with a particular focus on how the organizations aligned fuel usage metrics to business...

  20. Macromodel of Precise Signal-Phase Meter

    Matej Šalamon; Bojan Jarc

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a precise macromodel of a signal-phase meter, which allows continuous phase measurement during simulation. It has been developed as a support tool during the design process of a signal-conditioning circuit for incremental position encoders. The development of a signal conditioning circuit requires precise measurements of small signal phases, amplitudes and offsets using the analog/digital circuit simulator. The phase measurement cannot be performed directly with a simulato...

  1. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Skidmore, Warren; Dell'Antonio, Ian; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G. C; Dickinson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most dist...

  2. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  3. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and thos...

  4. Resonant speed meter for gravitational wave detection

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-aki

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational-wave detectors have been well developed and operated with high sensitivity. However, they still suffer from mirror displacement noise. In this paper, we propose a resonant speed meter, as a displacement noise-canceled configuration based on a ring-shaped synchronous recycling interferometer. The remarkable feature of this interferometer is that, at certain frequencies, gravitational-wave signals are amplified, while displacement noises are not.

  5. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  6. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa current meters are widely used for recording the current speed and such other 4 parameters by deploying them over extended period of time. Normally data are recorded on magnetic tape and after recovery of current meters, data are read...

  7. An Incentive Mechanism for Decentralized Water Metering Decisions

    Andrés Chambouleyron

    2002-01-01

    Metering water consumption has been long advocated by economists in developing countries as a way to curb waste and prevent resource depletion. However, very few of these economists have studied the inefficiencies brought about by universal metering or the conditions under which decentralized water metering decisions are optimal. The decision where to install water meters generally rests on either the consumer or the company providing the service. This paper shows that if left unregulated, bo...

  8. The Effects of Pipewall Offsets on Water Meter Accuracy

    Pope, Jesse M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate flow measurement is essential for the management of any type of fluid system. In order for a meter to accurately measure the flow, some installation requirements must be met. These installation requirements are meant to produce a condition where there are limited flow disturbances as the fluid enters the meter. If flow disturbances do occur, the meter may produce inaccurate measurements. This research investigated the effect on accuracy that different types of 12-inch flow meters ...

  9. State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, awareness of energy efficiency, new trends in electricity markets, the obsolescence of the actual electricity model, and the gradual conversion of consumers to prosumer profiles are the main agents of progressive change in electricity systems towards the Smart Grid paradigm. The introduction of multiple distributed generation and storage resources, with a strong involvement of renewable energies, exposes the necessity of advanced metering or Smart Metering systems, able to manage and control those distributed resources. Due to the heterogeneity of the Smart Metering systems and the specific features of each grid, it is easy to find in the related literature a wide range of solutions with different features. This work describes the key elements in a Smart Metering system and compiles the most employed technologies and standards as well as their main features. Since Smart Metering systems can perform jointly with other activities, these growing initiatives are also addressed. Finally, a revision of the main trends in Smart Metering uses and deployments worldwide is included.

  10. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating...

  11. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation....

  12. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  13. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  14. HJD-I record and analysis meter for nuclear information

    A low-cost, small-volume, multi-function and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter HJD-I Record and Analysis Meter are stated for Nuclear Information. It's hardware and software were detailed and the 137Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  15. A new electronic personal exposure meter for radon gas

    A new electronic meter for personal radon exposures was developed and several prototypes were built. The exposure meter is optimized with respect to short-term (days) and long-term (>1y) measurements of indoor radon concentrations and personal radon exposure. The exposure meter records measured concentration levels in adjustable time intervals allowing a time resolved analysis

  16. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    2010-07-01

    ... specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. This may involve using an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use measured raw exhaust flow, as follows: (1) Use the...

  17. Measurement of stray light and glare: comparison of Nyktotest, Mesotest, stray light meter, and computer implemented stray light meter

    van Rijn, L J; Nischler, C.; Gamer, D; Franssen, L.; de Wit, G; Kaper, R; Vonhoff, D; Grabner, G; Wilhelm, H.; Völker-Dieben, H.J.; van den Berg, T. J T P

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the properties of devices for measuring stray light and glare: the Nyktotest, Mesotest, “conventional” stray light meter and a new, computer implemented version of the stray light meter.

  18. Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters

    Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e(x) is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage. In terms of e(x), a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements.

  19. Radiation survey meter with integrated GPS

    A portable radiation survey meter has been designed, developed for in-situ radioactivity measurements in field areas to accomplish gamma ray surveys for geological, geochemical, and environmental mapping. The instrument measures radioactivity along with latitude, longitude, and ambient temperature. Additional significant features are variable audible alarm indications above threshold limit, in-built memory storage of the complete data, subsequent data retrieval through USB drive/PC and PC based software for data compilation. Automatic shutdown of the instrument in ideal state conserves the battery power. The acquired data along with the geographical coordinates can be integrated with geological mapping tools for data interpretation. (author)

  20. A new model for the V-Cone meter in low pressure wet gas metering

    Wet gas metering with differential pressure (DP) devices (e.g. the orifice plate, the Venturi and the V-Cone) has gained increasing interest in the oil and gas industry. Many investigations have been performed and several models have been proposed. Among the DP devices, the V-Cone flow meter has received increasing attention owing to its remarkable performance characteristics, including high accuracy, excellent repeatability, wide turndowns, shorter straight length and stable signals. In this work, we developed a new method for predicting the gas flow rate in low pressure wet gas flow using a V-Cone flow meter with the diameter ratio of 0.55. The experimental fluid was air and tap water. The test pressure ranged from 0.10 to 0.48 MPa, and the gas and liquid mass flow rates ranged from 100 to 500 N m3 h−1 and from 0.030 to 0.358 m3 h−1, respectively. Thus, the Lockhart–Martinelli parameter, XLM, was up to 0.158 and the gas volume fraction ranged from 98.94% to 100%. A dimensionless parameter, K, was proposed in this work and defined as the two-phase flow coefficient of the flow meter. The results indicated that the K linearly increased with the Lockhart–Martinelli parameter. In addition, the K increased with the gas densiometric Froude number and decreased with the operating pressure when other parameters were kept constant. On the basis of the two-phase flow coefficient, a new wet gas model was developed and compared with seven popular wet gas models. It was found that with the V-Cone flow meter and under the present experimental conditions the new model produced a more accurate prediction of the wet gas than other models. The research approach to obtaining the model can also be used in the studies on other DP devices and thus will benefit the design of wet gas meters. (paper)

  1. A new model for the V-Cone meter in low pressure wet gas metering

    He, Denghui; Bai, Bofeng; Xu, Yong; Li, Xing

    2012-12-01

    Wet gas metering with differential pressure (DP) devices (e.g. the orifice plate, the Venturi and the V-Cone) has gained increasing interest in the oil and gas industry. Many investigations have been performed and several models have been proposed. Among the DP devices, the V-Cone flow meter has received increasing attention owing to its remarkable performance characteristics, including high accuracy, excellent repeatability, wide turndowns, shorter straight length and stable signals. In this work, we developed a new method for predicting the gas flow rate in low pressure wet gas flow using a V-Cone flow meter with the diameter ratio of 0.55. The experimental fluid was air and tap water. The test pressure ranged from 0.10 to 0.48 MPa, and the gas and liquid mass flow rates ranged from 100 to 500 N m3 h-1 and from 0.030 to 0.358 m3 h-1, respectively. Thus, the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter, XLM, was up to 0.158 and the gas volume fraction ranged from 98.94% to 100%. A dimensionless parameter, K, was proposed in this work and defined as the two-phase flow coefficient of the flow meter. The results indicated that the K linearly increased with the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter. In addition, the K increased with the gas densiometric Froude number and decreased with the operating pressure when other parameters were kept constant. On the basis of the two-phase flow coefficient, a new wet gas model was developed and compared with seven popular wet gas models. It was found that with the V-Cone flow meter and under the present experimental conditions the new model produced a more accurate prediction of the wet gas than other models. The research approach to obtaining the model can also be used in the studies on other DP devices and thus will benefit the design of wet gas meters.

  2. Electronic meter with custom integrated circuit for electric energy measurement; Medidor eletronico de energia eletrica com circuito integrado dedicado

    Caldas, Roberto Pereira

    1990-04-01

    The design and implementation of an electrical energy electronic meter for operation at low voltages, according to two steps of development carried out in Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica - CEPEL is described. In the first step, an electronic meter with discrete commercial components has been developed, in order to demonstrate to the Brazilian power suppliers the feasibility of such a device for electrical energy metering and charging. The second step was constituted by the design of an integrated circuit, aiming the reduction of the cost of the meter as well as the enhancement of its reliability. Several techniques of electrical energy measurement are presented. The meter with discrete components makes use of a time division multiplier (TDM), in order to determine the active power in the load. Voltage and current levels have been reduced through the use of voltage and current sensors compatible with the TDM's inputs. A V-F converter employing continuos integration, has been used for the determination of the energy consumed by the load through the integration of the TDM's output signal. Most of the discrete components of the meter have been replaced by the dedicated integrated circuit. The TDM has remained essentially the same, but the V-F converter has been changed into a dual-slope one, which is more adequate for implementation in a single chip. The tests performed with the prototypes of the meter including both the meter with discrete components and the meter with the custom-made integrated circuit have presented measurement errors of less the 0,2 %. The initial goal, according to Brazilian specifications of electromechanical meters and international specifications for electronic meters, was 1 %. (author)

  3. Smart metering: strategy and implementation in Germany; Smart-Metering: Strategie und Umsetzung in Deutschland

    Dorn, Torsten [Logica Deutschland (Germany). Energy and Utilities; Energie-Service-Alliance (ENSEA e.V.) (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    While a number of publications and lectures on smart metering have already provided detailed coverage of the legal requirements, this is not the case for its implementation strategies. Coherent concepts for this task are still virtually inexistent. Any promising strategy to this end must take account of the fact that there are motives and interests involved which go far beyond the views currently prevailing in the sector. Despite the national differences, experiences gained in other European countries can offer important insights for the implementation of smart metering in Germany.

  4. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM) to have following objectives a) to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF) architecture for using both the sensors, b) improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c) detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved character...

  5. Calibration and maintenance of vertical-axis type current meters

    Smoot, George F.; Novak, Charles E.

    1968-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the procedures used in the manufacture and calibration of current meters and to present in detail information pertinent to their proper maintenance and repair. Recent intensive studies on the calibration of current meters and the effects of wear of the component parts on the performance of the meters have led to the adoption of new procedures for the manufacture, calibration, maintenance, and repair of meters. This chapter, therefore, updates the provisional manual 'Care and Rating of Current Meters' (1957) by including these new procedures.

  6. Void fraction measurement with capacitance meter

    The void fraction in an air-water system has been measured using the capacitance meter. Various flow regimes including bubbly, slug, churn, annular and drop-annular flow have been investigated. The superficial air and water velocity have been varied in the range of 0.145 less than or equal to j /SUB f/ less than or equal to 3.62 ft/sec and 0.183 less than or equal to j /SUB g/ less than or equal to 63.7 ft/sec respectively and the void fraction has been varied from 0.04 to 0.94. The capacitance meter is calibrated by both quick closing valve method and theoretical calculation based on drift-flux model. The sensitivity of void fraction measurement on sensor shape has been investigated with sensors of different width. Using the conventional theoretical curves of void fraction vs. relative susceptance, the results show that the sensor width has strong effect on void fraction measurement especially annular flow regime. The results also show that significant discrepancy exists between the theoretical curve and the experimental results. The reason for this discrepancy has been identified due to two dimensional edge effect of the circular sensor. A 2-D model has been developed taking into account of both sensor width and flow regime which gives good prediction of the experimental results

  7. FORMULATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    Ramteke K.H.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The MDI is now established as the principal dosage form of inhalation drug therapy for bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Metered dose inhalers (MDIs are pharmaceutical delivery systems designed for oral or nasal use, which deliver discrete doses of aerosolized medicament to the respiratory tract. The MDI contains the active substance, dissolved or suspended in a liquefied propellant system held in a pressurized container that is sealed with a metering valve. In general, MDI formulations can take the form of either suspensions or solutions. Traditionally the preferred route has been to formulate a suspension of the micronized drug substance in the liquid propellant (CFC or HFA. In some cases, additional excipients (e.g., surfactants and/or co- solvents have been added to improve the quality of the dispersion. Quality control testing of MDI batches is applied to the individual inhaler components prior to manufacture, as in-process controls during the manufacturing, and to the finished product. An exhaustive search for new propellants was made at the time of the switch away from CFCs, and it is unlikely that new ones will be found with the necessary physicochemical properties combined with an excellent safety profile.

  8. Smart metering in the gas sector. A field report; Smart Metering im Gassektor. Ein Erfahrungsbericht

    Smejkal, Gerhard [WIEN ENERGIE Gasnetz GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Smart metering is a much-discussed concept in the power industry. Although most of the discussions focus on electric power supply and smart grids, the WIEN ENERGIE Gasnetz GmbH has been investigating the technology for its gas grid for more than three years now. The positive results of a field test are reported. (orig.)

  9. Transforming the blood glucose meter into a general healthcare meter for in vitro diagnostics in mobile health.

    Lan, Tian; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile network and smartphones have provided an enormous opportunity for transforming in vitro diagnostics (IVD) from central labs to home or other points of care (POC). A major challenge to achieving the goal is a long time and high costs associated with developing POC IVD devices in mobile Health (mHealth). Instead of developing a new POC device for every new IVD target, we and others are taking advantage of decades of research, development, engineering and continuous improvement of the blood glucose meter (BGM), including those already integrated with smartphones, and transforming the BGM into a general healthcare meter for POC IVDs of a wide range of biomarkers, therapeutic drugs and other analytical targets. In this review, we summarize methods to transduce and amplify selective binding of targets by antibodies, DNA/RNA aptamers, DNAzyme/ribozymes and protein enzymes into signals such as glucose or NADH that can be measured by commercially available BGM, making it possible to adapt many clinical assays performed in central labs, such as immunoassays, aptamer/DNAzyme assays, molecular diagnostic assays, and enzymatic activity assays onto BGM platform for quantification of non-glucose targets for a wide variety of IVDs in mHealth. PMID:26946282

  10. Technical and governance considerations for advanced metering infrastructure/smart meters: Technology, security, uncertainty, costs, benefits, and risks

    The fundamental role of policymakers when considering Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), or ‘smart meters for energy and water infrastructure is to investigate a broad range of complex interrelated issues. These include alternative technical and non-technical options and deployment needs, the cost and benefits of the infrastructure (risks and mitigation measures), and the impact of a number of stakeholders: consumers, distributors, retailers, competitive market operators, competing technology companies, etc. The scale and number of potential variables in the AMI space is an almost unprecedented challenge to policymakers, with the anticipation of new ancillary products and services, associated market contestability, related regulatory and policy amendments, and the adequacy of consumer protection, education, and safety considerations requiring utmost due-diligence. Embarking on AMI investment entails significant technical, implementation, and strategic risk for governments and administering bodies, and an active effort is required to ensure AMI governance and planning maximises the potential benefits, and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks to stakeholders. This work seeks to clarify AMI fundamentals and discusses the technical and related governance considerations from a dispassionate perspective, yet acknowledges many stakeholders tend to dichotomise debate, and obfuscate both advantages and benefits, and the converse. - Highlights: • AMI presents an almost unprecedented technical and governance policy challenge. • AMI enables vertical integration of electricity, gas, water, IT, and telco entities • AMI investments involve major technical, implementation, and strategic decisions. • Adequacy of consumer education, safety, privacy, and protection is paramount. • Policy must maximise AMI benefits and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks

  11. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h−1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  12. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  13. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and those using hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs as propellants, which have been shown to be as safe and effective as CFC-containing inhalers and even offer interesting advantages over older inhalers. The transition to non-CFC MDIs requires a major effort to make the new products available and to ensure adequate comparision with the previous ones. It also requires a harmonization of actions taken by industry, government, licencing bodies and patients or health professional associations to ensure adequate information and education to the public and respiratory care providers.

  14. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing I: Overview

    Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Travouillon, T; Blum, R; Bustos, E; Chanan, G; Djorgovski, S G; Gillett, P; Gregory, B; Nelson, J; Otarola, A; Seguel, J; Vasquez, J; Walker, A; Walker, D; Wang, L

    2009-01-01

    As part of the conceptual and preliminary design processes of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the TMT site testing team has spent the last five years measuring the atmospheric properties of five candidate mountains in North and South America with an unprecedented array of instrumentation. The site testing period was preceded by several years of analyses selecting the five candidates, Cerros Tolar, Armazones and Tolonchar in northern Chile; San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico and the 13 North (13N) site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Site testing was concluded by the selection of two remaining sites for further consideration, Armazones and Mauna Kea 13N. It showed that all five candidates are excellent sites for an extremely large astronomical observatory and that none of the sites stands out as the obvious and only logical choice based on its combined properties. This is the first article in a series discussing the TMT site testing project.

  15. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  16. Educational electrical appliance power meter and logger

    Nunn, John

    2013-09-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power device such as an electric kettle. Typical power-versus-time profiles are shown for a kettle, a dishwasher and a fridge-freezer. The components are cheap and the cost may be recouped many times over from the resultant energy saving. Custom software will be made available free of charge to anyone who requests it. It is hoped that students attending poorly resourced schools will be able to make power loggers for educational use.

  17. The dynamic response of Coriolis mass flow meters

    Cheesewright, R.; Clark, C.; Belhadj, A.; Hou, Y. Y.

    2003-09-01

    The speed of response of commercial Coriolis meters to a step change in mass flow rate corresponds to a time constant which may range from 0.1s to several seconds. This response is a result both of the dynamic response of the physical components of the meter and of the electronics and the computational algorithms used to convert that dynamic response into an estimate of the mass flow rate. A comprehensive investigation of the dynamic response is presented with a view to establishing the ultimate limits of the overall meter response. Attention is initially concentrated on a simple straight tube meter and analytical solutions are presented for the response to a step change in flow rate both for an undamped meter and for a meter with internal damping. These results are compared with results from a finite element model of the same meter and then the finite element modelling is extended to geometries typical of commercial meters. Finally, representative results are presented from an experimental study of the response of commercial meters to step changes in flow rate. A study of the essential components of the algorithm used in a meter leads to the conclusion that the time constant cannot be less than the period of one cycle of the meter drive. The analytical, finite element and experimental results all combine to show that the meters all respond in the period of one drive cycle but that the flow step induces fluctuations in the meter output which decay under the influence of the flow tube damping. It is the additional damping introduced in the signal processing to overcome these fluctuations which is responsible for the large observed time constants. Possible alternative approaches are discussed.

  18. Proceedings of the 2006 smart metering conference and expo

    Ontario's smart metering program was launched as part of a general demand response management strategy to improve energy conservation in the province. Smart metering will help consumers to control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response, and will allow consumers to better manage their energy consumption and use it more effectively during cheaper, off-peak times of day. Smart metering systems measure how much electricity a customer uses on an hourly basis, and data is transferred daily to local electricity distributors. Toronto Hydro will have close to 200,000 smart meters installed by the end of 2006. By 2010, Toronto will be North America's largest urban centre to have made the full transition to smart metering technology across its entire base. This conference provided an update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering project, as well as details of their demand response program. Presentations were given by a variety of experts in information technology as well as electric power industry leaders North American demand and response metering strategies were reviewed, as well as various initiatives in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). Security risks associated with smart metering environments were reviewed. An evaluation of the current regulatory environment was presented along with a discussion of smart metering standards and compatibility issues. New metering technologies were presented as well as various associated demand side management tools. Smart metering pilot programs and initiatives were discussed, and best practices in smart metering were evaluated. Twenty-nine presentations were given at the conference, 13 of which have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  20. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  1. Feasibility of a 30-meter space based laser transmitter

    Berggren, R. R.; Lenertz, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the application of large expandable mirror structures in future space missions to establish the feasibility and define the potential of high power laser systems for such applications as propulsion and power transmission. Application of these concepts requires a 30-meter diameter, diffraction limited mirror for transmission of the laser energy. Three concepts for the transmitter are presented. These concepts include consideration of continuous as well as segmented mirror surfaces and the major stow-deployment categories of inflatable, variable geometry and assembled-in-space structures. The mirror surface for each concept would be actively monitored and controlled to maintain diffraction limited performance at 10.6 microns during operation. The proposed mirror configurations are based on existing aerospace state-of-the-art technology. The assembled-in-space concept appears to be the most feasible, at this time.

  2. A Field Exercise on Groundwater Flow Using Seepage Meters and Mini-Piezometers.

    Lee, David R.; Cherry, John A.

    1979-01-01

    Basic principles of physical hydrogeology and the nature of hydrologic interactions between groundwater and surface water can be demonstrated using two devices, the miniature piezometer and the seepage meter which can be cheaply constructed by the teacher and students. Use of the devices and learning activities are presented. (RE)

  3. Recursive Pyramid Algorithm-Based Discrete Wavelet Transform for Reactive Power Measurement in Smart Meters

    Atiq, Mahin K.; Waleed Ejaz; Najam ul Hasan; Hyung Seok Kim

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the active, reactive, and apparent power is one of the most fundamental tasks of smart meters in energy systems. Recently, a number of studies have employed the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for power measurement in smart meters. The most common way to implement DWT is the pyramid algorithm; however, this is not feasible for practical DWT computation because it requires either a log N cascaded filter or O (N) word size memory storage for an input signal of the N-point. Both ...

  4. Method of energy efficiency of residential house by implementing of automatic controlled heat metering system

    Taisiya Olegovna Zadvinskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The method of increasing the efficiency of heat energy describes in this article. The method is based on installation of heat metering system and automatic controlled domestic heating plant in residential building. An example of comparative calculation of the heat input and estimation for heat energy in a typical residential building, according to different methods which are used for the calculation of extra charge by the energy supplier, in the presence of the heat metering system and automatic controlled domestic heating plant and without. Payback period of the proposed activities was calculated.

  5. Design and Implementation of Intel ligent Water Meter Reading System

    XU Tao-tao

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of intelligent residential housing project and the implement of intelligent meter reading system, the four become the typical representative at the same time , they also become the short board of the old residential intelligent direction and constraints .As one of the four meter is an important measurement tool to save water resources .In the process of the development of society and technology , different types of meter reading methods have been derived , but there are still many problems , such as difficulty , time consuming , error copy , misreading .With the current mature image processing technology , the Internet technology and the rapid development of handheld intelligent terminal , the paper develop a meter reading system base on the Android system.The system can reduce the work intensity and the cost of meter reading , and it can make up the blank which old district and the mechanical meter reading can not be intelligent .

  6. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  7. Automatic Meter Reading and Theft Control System by Using GSM

    P. Rakesh Malhotra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system in energy meter. Current transformer is used to measure the total power consumption for house or industrial purpose. This recorded reading is transmitted to the electricity board for every 60 days once. For transmitting the reading of energy meter GSM module is used. To avoid theft, infrared sensor is placed in the screw portion of energy meter seal. If the screw is removed from the meter a message is sent to the electricity board. The measuring of energy meter and monitoring of IR sensor is done with a PIC microcontroller.The informative system will be helpful for the electricity board to monitor the entire supply and the correct billing accordingly without any mishap. This model reduces the manual manipulation work andtheft control.

  8. Advanced metering policy development and influence structures: The case of Norway

    Responding to a global trend of installing smart meters Norway has taken a route of full governmental and regulatory coordination. The article maps and analyses the main influences on the developments of Norwegian Advanced Metering policy. Based on 12 interviews and extensive document mapping the Norwegian policy developments are traced from about 1990 to 2014, divided into three phases: Before 2000, between 2000 and 2007, and after 2007. It finds that the main influence and push came from an increasingly united industry sector, fronted by the grid utilities with respective interest organizations. Policy change has been boosted by years of constrained supply, creating incentives for political action. Also developments at the EU level have been important for creating attention for smart meters, while consumer groups have been less influential. The national regulator NVE has adapted its policy process to include external expertise, in particular from the grid companies. The findings confirm that influence into policy processes is a matter of financial and organizational resources and expert knowledge. Of particular policy relevance is the weak organization of private consumer interests into these policy streams, which may be important for further policy development for distributed generation and regulation of private generation activities. -- Highlights: •Roll-out of smart meters is in Norway coordinated by national regulation. •Grid companies and related interest organizations has been most influential. •EU has provided informal pressure on smart meter policy. •Consumer interests have been less influential in the policy process

  9. An Agent Based Simulation Of Smart Metering Technology Adoption

    Zhang,Tao; Nuttall, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the classic behavioural theory ?the Theory of Planned Behaviour?, we develop an agent-based model to simulate the diffusion of smart metering technology in the electricity market. We simulate the emergent adoption of smart metering technology under different management strategies and economic regulations. Our research results show that in terms of boosting the take-off of smart meters in the electricity market, choosing the initial users on a random and geographically dispersed basis...

  10. Established Designs For Advanced Ground Based Astronomical Telescopes In The 1-meter To 4-meter Domain

    Hull, Anthony B.; Barentine, J.; Legters, S.

    2012-01-01

    The same technology and analytic approaches that led to cost-effective unmitigated successes for the spaceborne Kepler and WISE telescopes are now being applied to meter-class to 4-meter-class ground telescopes, providing affordable solutions to ground astronomy, with advanced features as needed for the application. The range of optical and mechanical performance standards and features that can be supplied for ground astronomy shall be described. Both classical RC designs, as well as unobscured designs are well represented in the IOS design library, allowing heritage designs for both night time and day time operations, the latter even in the proximity of the sun. In addition to discussing this library of mature features, we will also describe a process for working with astronomers early in the definition process to provide the best-value solution. Solutions can include remote operation and astronomical data acquisition and transmission.

  11. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  12. The measuring set: reactor power meter (type of SG-8), reactor energy meter (type of SG-11) and digital dose meter (type of SG-9) for reactor rigs operation

    A measuring set consisting of the Reactor Power Meter, Reactor Energy Meter and Digital Dose Meter is described. The gamma radiation of water in the reactor primary cooling circuit reaches the ionisation chamber and involves the output current, driving the Reactor Power Meter and Reactor Energy Meter. The Digital Dose Meter is controlled by the output current of the self-powered detector mounted inside the reactor rig. (author)

  13. Application of Intelligent Agents in Wireless Prepaid Energy Meter

    Suresh Sankaranarayanan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepaid meter (PM is getting very popular especially in developing countries. There are many advantages to use prepaid meter as opposed to postpaid meter both to the utility provider and to the consumer. Brunei has adopted PM but it is not intelligent and not wireless enabled. Reading meters and topping up balance are still done manually. Utility provider does not have information on the usage statistics and has only limited functionalities in the grid control. So accordingly an intelligent agent based wireless prepaid energy meter been developed using JADE-LEAP Agent development kit allowing agent from utility provider to query wireless energy meter for energy values for every household. These statistics can be used for statistical computation of the power consumed and for policy and future planning. Agent from consumers’ mobile devices can query the energy meter to study the power consumed and for topping up the balance. When the meter reaches the threshold, agent at energy meter would also send messages to alert consumers for topping up through mobile handset and failing to do so will lead to power being cut automatically

  14. Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current...

  15. Quantitative estimation of the influence of external vibrations on the measurement error of a coriolis mass-flow meter

    Ridder, de, J.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; van Dijk; Lötters, J.C.; Boer, de, J.W.; Dimitrovova, Z.; Almeida, De

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the quantitative influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter for low flows is investigated, with the eventual goal to reduce the influence of vibrations. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how external vibrations affect the measurement error. A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, independent of fluid pr...

  16. Humidity dependence in kerma area product meter used in diagnostic X ray examinations

    The air-kerma area product, PKA, is a dosimetric quantity that can be directly related to the patient dose and used for risk assessment associated with different x-ray examinations. PKA has the unit Gym2 and can be directly measured by use of a Kerma Area Product (KAP) meter placed in the radiation beam. PKA is the recommended quantity for use in the establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for conventional x-ray examinations and is also a good indicator for when threshold doses for deterministic effects are reached in interventional x-ray procedures. Most modern x-ray equipment provides the operator with the total PKA from the examination or procedure. This PKA is either obtained from PKA measurements from a built-in KAP meter or calculated from exposure parameters. To get a reliable estimate of DRLs and the patient dose, it is essential that the PKA measurement is correct. Thus all environmental influences on the KAP meter should be taken into account. These influences can either be corrected for or included in the measurement uncertainty. These have to be considered both in the calibration of the KAP-meters, in the use of the KAP meters and in the determination of DRLs. A KAP meter is an electrometer and a plane parallel ion chamber with an active area of typical 15 cm X 15 cm. The KAP meter usually consist of three plastic plates (PMMA) which is coated with a conducting layer made of indium oxide doped with tin (In2O3:Sn). This coating is used due to its transparency to light. The air layers between the plates (sensitive volume) are open to the air. Thus the readings from the KAP meter have to be corrected for air pressure and temperature as for other ion chambers. It has been assumed that the humidity dependence of the KAP meter is so small that no correction has been necessary. This work will show that KAP meter with PMMA plastic plates coated with In2O3:Sn shows a humidity dependence so large that corrections should be considered. The measurements

  17. Thirty meter telescope observatory software architecture

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be a ground-based, 30-m optical-IR telescope with a highly segmented primary mirror located on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The TMT Observatory Software (OSW) system will deliver the software applications and infrastructure necessary to integrate all TMT software into a single system and implement a minimal end-to-end science operations system. At the telescope, OSW is focused on the task of integrating and efficiently controlling and coordinating the telescope, adaptive optics, science instruments, and their subsystems during observation execution. From the software architecture viewpoint, the software system is viewed as a set of software components distributed across many machines that are integrated using a shared software base and a set of services that provide communications and other needed functionality. This paper describes the current state of the TMT Observatory Software focusing on its unique requirements, architecture, and the use of middle-ware technologies and solutions that enable the OSW design. (authors)

  18. Thirty meter telescope adaptive optics computing challenges

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be used with Adaptive Optics (AO) systems to allow near diffraction-limited performance in the near-infrared and achieve the main TMT science goals. Adaptive optics systems reduce the effect of the atmospheric distortions by dynamically measuring the distortions with wavefront sensors, performing wavefront reconstruction with a real time controller (RTC), and then compensating for the distortions with deformable mirrors. The requirements for the RTC subsystem of the TMT first light AO system will represent a significant advance over the current generation of astronomical AO control systems. Memory and processing requirements would be at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than the currently most powerful AO systems using conventional approaches, so that innovative wavefront reconstruction algorithms and new hardware approaches will be required. In this paper, we will first present the requirements and challenges for the RTC of the first light AO system, together with the algorithms that have been developed to reduce the memory and processing requirements, and then two possible hardware architectures based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). (authors)

  19. Development of a CONTOUR-METER

    Dose calculation in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments requires the knowledge of their anatomical geometry.Making reference to the specific case of breast cancer, one of the measurement that are made on the patients is the acquisition of the breast's contour, determined in an axial plane from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the thorax side under the armpit.This measurement is normally made with a mechanic contour-meter: a device formed by a series of plastic-covered wires designed to be applied on the patient's skin copying the breast contour after it deformation.The geometrical error associated with this procedure is ± 1 cm. The precision of the dose calculation could be increased acquiring a breast contour more accurate.This objective was achieved developing a method based on breast images from a digital camera.The algorithms to obtain an axial-plane image of the contour from digital photographs taken from arbitrary positions were developed.A geometric transformation is applied to the photograph to correct for perspective distortions, obtaining a frontal - undistorted image (axial-plane image).A software tool to make all the image processing was developed under MatLab.The maximum geometrical error detected during the validation of the process was 2 mm

  20. Coriolis-effect in mass flow metering

    Raszillier, H.; Durst, F.

    The physical background for the so-called Coriolis mass flow meter is described. The vibration modes of a fluid conveying straight pipe segment are analyzed. These modes deviate in shape from those appearing in the absence of fluid motion. The effect of fluid inertia may be exploited for the purpose of flow measurement. The analysis is performed under a simplifying approximation: the pipe is considered as a beam, the fluid as a moving string. The equations describing the vibrations are derived variationally, with the constraint of a common vibration amplitude of both fluid and pipe. The Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint gives the interaction force between pipe and fluid. The modes are determined by a perturbation procedure. The analysis shows how the time delay between the vibrations of two appropriately chosen points of the pipe may serve to determine the mass flow rate of the fluid. The precise role of the Coriolis force is considered. The improvements of the used approximation are discussed.

  1. Coriolis-effect in mass flow metering

    The paper aims at a detailed description of the physical background for the so called Coriolis mass flow meter. It presents essentially an analysis of the (free) vibration modes of a fluid conveying straight pipe segment. Due to the inertial effects of the flowing fluid, mainly the Coriolis force, these modes deviate in shape (and in frequency) from those appearing in the absence of fluid motion. The effect of fluid inertia may, therefore, be exploited for the purpose of flow measurement. The analysis is performed under a simplifying approximation: The pipe is considered as a beam, the fluid as a moving string. This approximation leaves the fluid with only one degree of freedom, connected with its mean velocity, and eliminates an infinity of degrees of freedom of the pipe. Yet it keeps the essential features of the phenomenon. The equations describing the vibrations are derived variationally, with the constraint of a common vibration amplitude of both fluid and pipe. The Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint gives the interaction force between pipe and fluid. The modes are determined by a perturbation procedure, wherein the small (perturbation) parameter is related to the fluid velocity. The analysis shows, as main result, how the time delay between the vibrations of two appropriately chosen points of the pipe may serve to determine the mass flow rate of the fluid. Other aspects of the problem, like the precise role of the Coriolis force, are considered. The possible improvement of the used approximation is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of MDA instant working level meters

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the Mine Safety and Health Administration have evaluated, for accuracy and reliability, a commercially available Instant Working Level Meter (IWLM) used by the mining industry to measure short-lived 222Rn-progeny concentrations. Six evaluation parameters were determined experimentally. These included two alpha and two beta detector efficiencies for the short-lived 222Rn progeny and two internal conversion factors. The experimental procedure detailing the evaluation technique is described in the paper. The measuring accuracy of 13 instruments is as follows: average inherent uncertainty (at least 68% confidence interval) is +/- 18%; for counting statistics and rounding at 0.10 WL (2.1 microJ m-3), coefficients of variation range from +/- 15% at low gamma flux backgrounds to +/- 50% at gamma flux backgrounds of 0.39 microC kg-1 h-1 (1.5 mR h-1). All parameters were derived theoretically and measured experimentally. All tests were conducted at a sample flow rate of 2.5 L min-1. A sample air flow rate of 7.5 L min-1 can lower the counting statistics to more acceptable levels at 0.1 WL (2.1 microJ m-3)

  3. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  4. Survey meter using novel inorganic scintillators

    Single crystal scintillator materials are widely used for detection of high-energy photons and particles. There is continuous demand for new scintillator materials with higher performance because of increasing number of medical, industrial, security and other applications. This article presents the recent development of three novel inorganic scintillators; Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG), Ce doped Gd3 (Al, Ga)5O12 (Ce:GAGG) and Ce or Eu-doped 6LiCaAlF6 (Ce:LiCAF, Eu:LiCAF). Pr:LuAG shows very interesting scintillation properties including very fast decay time, high light yield and excellent energy resolution. Taking the advantage of these properties, positron emission mammography (PEM) equipped with Pr:LuAG were developed. Ce:GAGG shows very high light yield, which is much higher than that of Ce:LYSO. Survey meter using Ce:GAGG is developed using this scintillator. Ce:LiCAF and Eu:LiCAF were developed for neutron detection. The advantage and disadvantage are discussed comparing with halide scintillators. Eu-doped LiCAF indicated five times higher light yield than that of existing Li-glass. It is expected to be used as the alternative of 3He. (author)

  5. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  6. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  7. Digital rate meters in radiological instruments for accident conditions

    Advantages of digital rate meter, when applied in radiological protection instruments for accident conditions, re discussed. Some requirements imposed by accident conditions on such instruments are indicated. The specific properties of digital rate meters are shown and some solutions which enable realisation of defined tasks are pointed out. The behaviour of one solution is illustrated by an example simulated on the computer. (author)

  8. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  9. Utilization of eddy current flow meter for sodium flow measurement in FBRs

    Highlights: • Design and development of eddy current flow meters for FBRs have been carried out. • The developed flow meter was tested and calibrated in sodium. • The developed flow meter was used in FBTR reactor, India and in Phenix reactor, France. • The performance of the eddy current flow meter is found to be excellent. -- Abstract: Liquid metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors form the second stage of Indian nuclear programme. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is 500MWe pool type reactor, which is under construction at Kalpakkam, India. Measurement of sodium flow in the reactor system is essential from both operational and safety point of view. Primary sodium pump discharge, secondary sodium circuit, safety grade decay heat removal circuit and auxiliary sodium circuits are the critical locations in an FBR, where sodium flow measurement is of importance. Apart from this, sodium flow measurement in subassemblies in the core facilitates the detection of flow blockage in the subassemblies. Permanent magnet flow meter is widely used for pipe flow measurement in sodium systems, however, it cannot be considered for applications like subassembly and pump discharge flow measurements. From the safety point of view, flow through the core should be ensured under all operating conditions in a FBR. Development of suitable flow sensors meeting the dimensional constraints and having accessibility for maintenance is a challenge. An eddy current flow meter was designed and developed for sodium flow measurement in PFBR and the developed probe was tested for its performance in a sodium test rig. The developed ECFM was also used for core flow measurements in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), India and in Phenix reactor, France, during its end of life test before decommissioning. This paper discusses the activities related to the development, calibration, testing of ECFM probe for PFBR and results of its utilization for flow measurement in FBTR and in Phenix reactor, France

  10. Application of a scattered-light radiometric power meter

    Caron, James N.; DiComo, Gregory P.; Ting, Antonio C.; Fischer, Richard P.

    2011-04-01

    The power measurement of high-power continuous-wave laser beams typically calls for the use of water-cooled thermopile power meters. Large thermopile meters have slow response times that can prove insufficient to conduct certain tests, such as determining the influence of atmospheric turbulence on transmitted beam power. To achieve faster response times, we calibrated a digital camera to measure the power level as the optical beam is projected onto a white surface. This scattered-light radiometric power meter saves the expense of purchasing a large area power meter and the required water cooling. In addition, the system can report the power distribution, changes in the position, and the spot size of the beam. This paper presents the theory of the scattered-light radiometric power meter and demonstrates its use during a field test at a 2.2 km optical range.

  11. Digital Phase Meter for a Laser Heterodyne Interferometer

    Loya, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Digital Phase Meter is based on a modified phase-locked loop. When phase alignment between the reference input and the phase-shifted metrological input is achieved, the loop locks and the phase shift of the digital phase shifter equals the phase difference that one seeks to measure. This digital phase meter is being developed for incorporation into a laser heterodyne interferometer in a metrological apparatus, but could also be adapted to other uses. Relative to prior phase meters of similar capability, including digital ones, this digital phase meter is smaller, less complex, and less expensive. The phase meter has been constructed and tested in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

  12. Combining smart metering with successful marketing; Smart Metering mit erfolgreichem Marketing verbinden

    Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Smart metering can be implemented in various ways. Apart from data transmission via powerline cables, also teletransmission via GPRS may be advantageous. A current project investigates both communication strategies which can also be used in parallel, especially by major utilities with the appropriate infrastructure. In the case of concrete implementation, it has been found that the communication with users must be clear in order to give them an idea of the advantages of the new technologies, and that an appropriate marketing strategy must be developed for successful rollout. (orig.)

  13. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  14. Note: Ultrasonic liquid flow meter for small pipes

    Yu, Yang; Zong, Guanghua

    2012-02-01

    An ultrasonic flow meter for small pipes is presented. For metal pipe diameter smaller than 10 mm, clamp-on ultrasonic contrapropagation flow meters may encounter difficulties if cross talk or the short acoustic path contributes to large uncertainty in transit time measurement. Axial inline flow meters can avoid these problems, but they may introduce other problems if the transducer port is not properly positioned. Three types of pipe connecting tees are compared using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. CFD shows the 45° tee has more uniform velocity distribution over the measuring section. A prototype flow meter using the 45° tee was designed and tested. The zero flow experiment shows the flow meter has a maximum of 0.002 m/s shift over 24 h. The flow meter is calibrated by only 1 meter factor. After calibration, inaccuracy lower than 0.1% of reading was achieved in the laboratory, for a measuring range from 15 to 150 g/s (0.29 to 2.99 m/s; Re = 2688 to 26 876).

  15. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  16. The Effect of Flow Pulsations on Coriolis Mass Flow Meters

    Cheesewright, R.; Clark, C.

    1998-11-01

    It has been reported that the accuracy of Coriolis mass flow meters can be adversely affected by the presence of pulsations (at particular frequencies) in the flow. A full analysis of the transient performance of a commercial Coriolis meter is only possible using finite element techniques. However, this is a transient, nonlinear problem in which the space and time variables are not (strictly) separable and the finite element techniques for tackling such problems make it desirable to have an analytical solution for a simplified meter, against which the finite element solution can be compared. This paper reports such a solution. The solution will also provide guidance for experiments. Existing analytical solutions for the performance of Coriolis meters in steady flow (a complex eigenvalue problem) are not easily extended to the transient flow case. The paper thus begins with the presentation of an alternative solution for steady flow through a simple, straight tube, Coriolis meter and it is notable that this solution gives a simple analytical expression for the experimentally observed small change in the resonant frequency of the meter, with flow rate, as well as an analytical expression for the meter sensitivity. The analysis is extended to the transient case, using classical, forced vibration, modal decomposition techniques. The solution shows that, unlike the steady flow case where the detector signals contain components at the drive frequency and the second mode frequency (Coriolis frequency), for pulsatile flow the detector signals will in general contain components involving at least four frequencies. It is demonstrated that the meter error depends on the algorithm used to estimate the phase difference from the detector signals. The particular flow pulsation frequencies which could possibly lead to large meter errors are identified.

  17. Embedded Control System for a High Precision Flow Meter

    Nilsson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This degree project has been conducted to study flow meters and develop firmware for EC Instrument’s Reciflow. Flow rate is the volume of a fluid or mass of a substance which passes through a surface per time unit. Conversion can be made between volumetric and mass flow rate if the gas density is known. A market survey showed that Coriolis and thermal mass flow meters and positive displacement (volumetric) flow meters, as the Reciflow, are the most common kinds. The Reciflow consist of a syst...

  18. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communication...... channels. AMI is also featuring to communicate control functions from utility to the smart meters. So, both the consumption data and control data needs to be securely transmitted to their ends. Any leak and tempering may produce the dire effects to both utility and consumers. Hence security of AMI is a...

  19. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  20. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    The chief aims in the Sphinx Project are research on super lepton physics and new detector experiments. In the second phase of the Sphinx Project, a hybrid TLC-pair meter was designed for measuring for high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV), and measuring muon groups (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of the pair meter has been already proposed. In this TLC pair meter, electromagnetic showers induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using thermoluminescene sheets with position counters

  1. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  2. Numerical study of impurity distribution in ultrasonic heat meter body

    石硕; 孙建亭; 杜广生; 张敏

    2015-01-01

    Based on a discrete phase model, the numerical simulation is carried out for the flow fields of different size calcium carbo- nate suspensions in the ultrasonic heat meter body. The flow characteristics and the impurity distribution in the ultrasonic heat meter body are analyzed. The errors of the ultrasonic heat meter in measuring calcium carbonate suspensions of particles of 10 micrometers and the causes are analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show the effects of the impurities on the value of the k coeffi- cient and the sound attenuation on the reflection path due to the particle distribution are the two main factors that influence the mea- surement accuracy.

  3. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

    Michael H. Thaut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus. Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas. These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  4. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  5. Recursive Pyramid Algorithm-Based Discrete Wavelet Transform for Reactive Power Measurement in Smart Meters

    Mahin K. Atiq

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the active, reactive, and apparent power is one of the most fundamental tasks of smart meters in energy systems. Recently, a number of studies have employed the discrete wavelet transform (DWT for power measurement in smart meters. The most common way to implement DWT is the pyramid algorithm; however, this is not feasible for practical DWT computation because it requires either a log N cascaded filter or O (N word size memory storage for an input signal of the N-point. Both solutions are too expensive for practical applications of smart meters. It is proposed that the recursive pyramid algorithm is more suitable for smart meter implementation because it requires only word size storage of L × Log (N-L, where L is the length of filter. We also investigated the effect of varying different system parameters, such as the sampling rate, dc offset, phase offset, linearity error in current and voltage sensors, analog to digital converter resolution, and number of harmonics in a non-sinusoidal system, on the reactive energy measurement using DWT. The error analysis is depicted in the form of the absolute difference between the measured and the true value of the reactive energy.

  6. Enhancing the value of information collected by advanced meters : customer and operational procedures

    Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) meters will have the ability to transform electric power utilities if data is utilized in an appropriate manner. This presentation provided an overview of the benefits of AMI. Case studies were used to present details of new meter data management (MDM) tools developed by Nexus Energy Software. The segmentation and loading aspects of AMI have the capacity to handle complex billing processes as well as increase distribution efficiency. AMI multi-dimensional aggregation can increase revenue protection and provide outage support. Customer bill integration and analytics can aid utilities in forecasting and load research activities. Demand and response, and customer AMI applications can lower customer service costs and leverage more effective pricing programs. A critical peak pricing support tool was used at a California utility to send monthly enhanced information electronic mail to increase customer understanding of behaviours on costs. The result was an amplified customer response to dynamic pricing. Day ahead notification is now regularly provided for peak periods. It was concluded that meter data has little value until it is aligned and synchronized with customer and asset data. Systems should be expandable over time to support new business processes and associated data elements without the need for customization. refs., tabs., figs

  7. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which...

  8. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  9. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically <1 %) whose value is crucial to assessing time-averaged exposure levels. This study is the first to characterise smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters. (authors)

  10. One meter holographic bubble chamber for TEVATRON neutrino experiments

    A one meter holographic bubble chamber was constructed for Fermilab TEVATRON neutrino experiments. Bubble chamber and optics are briefly outlined. Developments in holography for this bubble chamber and two types of reconstruction projectors are reported. (orig.)

  11. Chlorophyll meter for estimating nitrogen status of irrigated wheat

    Chlorophyll-meter readings, generated from the leaves of irrigated wheat at particular growth stages, were normalized to the data obtained with locally recommended rates of fertilizer N, in Chile China, India and Mexico. Normalizing permitted comparisons of crop-N status across growth stages, locations, cultivars, and years. Relative yields and meter readings at growth-stage Z-50 are presented; they revealed similar trends for India, China, and Chile, however, for Mexico, the combination of soil, wheat cultivar, and climate resulted in much less response to N fertilization in the meter data. The implications are discussed. The SPAD meter proved to be a good tool to monitor and evaluate the N status of irrigated wheat. (author)

  12. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  13. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  14. Color Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED...

  15. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  16. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  17. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  18. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  19. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  20. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  1. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  2. 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land cover data were derived...

  3. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  4. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  5. Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  6. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  7. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Kunicina, N.; Zabasta, A.; Kondratjevs, K.; Asmanis, G.

    2015-02-01

    The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS). The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker...

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker...

  10. Test results of the DOE/Sandia 17 meter VAWT

    Nellums, R. O.; Worstell, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of the test program of a 17 meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine VAWT. Performance test results are discussed including difficulties encountered during the VAWT operation along with ways of solving these problems.