WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity meters

  1. The student activity meter for awareness and self-reflection

    Govaerts, Sten; Verbert, Katrien; Duval, Erik; Abelardo, Pardo

    2012-01-01

    Visualization of user actions can be used in Technology Enhanced Learning to increase awareness for learners and teachers and to support self-reflection. In this paper, we present our Student Activity Meter that visualizes learner actions. We present four design iterations and results of both quantitative and qualitative evaluation studies in real-world settings that assess the usability, use and usefulness of different visualizations. Results indicate that our tool is useful for a variety of...

  2. Activity meters permitting direct activity readings for food controls

    Instruments for total gamma activity measurements can only be used, if the calibration factor is known for the radionuclide mixture to be measured in each case. This is determined using spectroscopes calibrated on the basis of reference samples. Inaccuracies of measurement performed on equal volumes are caused by the fact that specific weights vary between foodstuffs and must therefore be made up for by adequate adjustments. As any radioactivity occurring naturally in the specimens cannot be distinguished from manmade radioactivity, it may be impossible to interpret results lower than some 100 Bq/kg for certain samples influenced by potassium (legume, dry milk) or uranium-radium (soil). The instruments incorporate annular receptacles for the samples and NaI(Tl) detectors for the measurement of gamma-emitting radionuclides in liquids, plant materials and foodstuffs, which have a reading for such activities in Bq/l or Bq/kg (Becquerel monitors). (orig./DG)

  3. Instrument Qualification of Custom Fabricated Water Activity Meter for Hot Cell Use

    McCoskey, Jacob K.

    2014-01-22

    This report describes a custom fabricated water activity meter and the results of the qualification of this meter as described in the laboratory test plan LAB-PLN-11-00012, Testing and Validation of an Enhanced Acquisition and Control System. It was calibrated against several NaOH solutions of varying concentrations to quantify the accuracy and precision of the instrument at 20 °C and 60 °C. Also, a schematic and parts list of the equipment used to make the water activity meter will be presented in this report.

  4. Active fault creep variations at Chihshang, Taiwan, revealed by creep meter monitoring, 1998-2001

    Lee, Jian-Cheng; Angelier, Jacques; Chu, Hao-Tsu; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Jeng, Fu-Shu; Rau, Ruey-Juin

    2003-11-01

    The daily creep meter data recorded at Chihshang in 1998-2001 are presented. The Chihshang creep meter experiment was set up across the Chihshang thrust fault, the most active segment of the Longitudinal Valley Fault, which is the present-day plate suture between the Eurasian and the Philippine Sea plates in eastern Taiwan. Near-continuous data recording at two sites revealed different surface fault motions yet similar annual shortening rates: 16.2 mm at the Tapo site (comprising two connected creep meters) and 15.0 mm at the Chinyuan site (three creep meters straddling parallel fault branches). Four of the five creep meters showed a seasonal variation, with the fault moving steadily during the rainy season from April to October, and remaining quiescent during the rest of the year. The only exception was recorded by the creep meter located on a mélange-composed hillslope, where local gravitational landsliding played an additional role other than tectonic faulting. Through comparison with daily precipitation data, we inferred that moderate rainfall suffices to trigger or facilitate slippage on the surface fault, during the transition period of the dry/wet season. During the observation period from 1998 to 2001, the subsurface seismicity exhibited clusters of microearthquakes on the Chihshang Fault at depths of 10-25 km. Recurrent earthquakes occurred regardless of whether the season was wet or dry, indicating that the stress relaxation associated with seismicity in the seismogenic zone did not transfer immediately up to the surface. The accumulated strain on the Chihshang Fault at shallow surface levels was released through creep during the wet season. In addition to these short-term seasonal variations, an apparent decrease in the annual slipping rate on the Chihshang Fault during the last few years deserves further investigation in order to mitigate against seismic hazard.

  5. Metering of Active Electric Power in Three-Phase Four-Wire System in Non - Symmetric Regime

    A. G. Harutunyan

    2014-01-01

    Node potential method has made it possible to justify that a three-phase meter of active energy is metering the whole consumed active energy at non-symmetric regimes of three-phase four-wire grid of 0,4 kV. The paper considers problems of non-balance in the readings of active energy meters installed , at different points of the 0,4 kV grid with non - symmetric regimes. In order to determine the rate of three-phase four-wire 0,4 kV grid non-symmetry it is suggested to introduce an additional c...

  6. Designing and operating experience on solid electrolyte activity meters for oxygen in lead-bismuth coolant

    The device for measuring the oxygen activity in the lead and bismuth meets within the range of 1-10-7 with the inertia up to 5 s is developed and tested on the basis of applying the ZrO2-Y2O3 solid-electrolytes in combination with the liquid-metal reference electrodes (Bi, In, Pb). The range of the working temperatures of the activity meter constitutes 280-600 deg C; the stability by thermoshocks up to 50 deg C/s is guaranteed. The device is recommended for application in the circulating systems with the lead and bismuth meets at the coolant pressures up to 60 atm

  7. Development of a modified diffusion type carbon activity meter for liquid sodium

    A high sensitivity automated carbon activity meter has been developed by combining elements of technology used in other instruments. The basic principle is the diffusion of carbon through an iron membrane driven by the concentration gradient between the sodium being measured and the sweep gas. The membrane used is similar to that used by Harwell workers, i.e., a coil of small diameter iron tubing with an oxide coating on the inner surface. A sweep gas of helium is used to pick up the carbon oxides generated by the reaction of carbon and iron oxide. The carbon oxides are converted to carbon dioxide in a copper oxide bed and measured with a gas chromatograph employing a helium ionization detector. This measuring system has an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and requires fewer gases than the flame ionization detector usually employed. The concentration of CO2 in the sweep gas was in the range of 0.2 to 2 ppM when measuring carbon activity in a stainless steel system

  8. Study of the influence of 200Tl in the activity determination of 201Tl using activity meters

    Full text: At the Ezeiza Atomic Center every week 201TI is produced, controlled and dispensed for medical use and distributed to most medical centers in Argentine. To determine exact activity before dispensing and expedition we have studied the response of a reference activity meter working as ionization chamber, in presence of its main impurity: 200Tl (Eg: 368 keV,1206 keV and others; T 1/2: 26,1 hs), to be found in approximately 4% concentration at the end of production process. It will decrease in function of the decay of 201Tl. According to the Argentine Farmacopea it must be less than 2% on distribution and use. This study was carried out simultaneously on two samples of the same origin. One was measured directly in activity meter on the 201Tl scale and the other, quantitatively diluted, in a high resolution gamma spectrometry system with a GeHP detector, and the relationship 200Tl / 201Tl was determined. This procedure was carried out several times during ten days in order to follow the activity meter response according to the decay of both isotopes of Thallium and their proportion. After several measurements when considering that 200Tl is absent, a line was drawn following the half-life of 201Tl . So were obtained readings without 200Tl impurities as well as the difference with experimental values. Series of measurements were carried out to assure sufficient precision and a curve of correction factor was determined for the proportion of 200Tl/201Tl . This curve is used for the calibration of 201Tl before dispensing . Eventually when up to 4%200Tl could be present at the moment of dispensing and it would create errors about 9% in excess; it will be necessary to correct . The limit of 1,8 % of 200Tl is given by the Control Group of National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) at the moment of dispensing, because it will mean an error by excess of less than 3%, accepted by nuclear medicine centers. Theoretical ideas are presented about ionization chamber response

  9. Active Vibration Isolation Control: Comparison of Feedback and Feedforward Control Strategies Applied to Coriolis Mass-Flow Meters (I)

    Ridder, de, J.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; van Dijk

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, implementation and results of multi degree of freedom (DOF) active vibration control for a Coriolis mass-flow meter (CMFM). Without vibration control, environmental vibrational disturbances results in nanometre movement of the fluid-conveying tube which causes erroneous mass-flow measurements. In order to reduce the transmissibility from external vibrations to the internal tube displacement active vibration control is applied. A comparison of a feedback c...

  10. GIPL1.3 simulated maximum active layer thickness (ALT) in meters averaged for particular decade for the entire Alaskan permafrost domain. NAD83, Alaska Albers projection

    Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative — This raster, created in 2010, is output from the Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab (GIPL) model and represents simulated active layer thickness (ALT) in meters...

  11. The concept of minimum detectable activity of radionuclide activity meters and their suitability for routine quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. An experimental study.

    Zagni, F; Cesarini, F; Lucconi, G; Cicoria, G; Pancaldi, D; Infantino, A; Vichi, S; Marengo, M

    2016-07-01

    Radionuclide activity meters ("dose calibrators") are ionization chambers designed to measure relatively high amount of activities which are normally contained in radiopharmaceuticals. However, in the current radiopharmacy practice, these radiation detectors have been proposed to be used in measurements of samples with lower activity, such as in routine quality control (QC) tests. To check the feasibility of such measurements, in this work we assessed the performance of four different devices in the lower range of detectability, by means of experimental measurements of a radioactive sample. Accuracy and precision of each device was evaluated as a function of the activity contained in the sample in order to estimate a threshold value, or minimum detectable activity (MDA), which, according to our operational definition, may be used to express the concept of Limit of Quantification (LoQ). Moreover, a generalized procedure for the estimation of the MDA was established, which, being device- and radionuclide-independent, it may be adopted by every laboratory. Our results showed a significant variability in the MDA achieved by different activity meters. Hence a single QC test may result feasible with one specific instrument, and not with another one. Moreover, feasibility depends also on the confidence level required for each test. For these reasons, each activity meter should be qualified for its MDA or LoQ by each laboratory according to a procedure such as that described in this paper. PMID:27108071

  12. Implementing Child-focused Activity Meter Utilization into the Elementary School Classroom Setting Using a Collaborative Community-based Approach

    Lynch, BA; Jones, A; Biggs, BK; Kaufman, T; Cristiani, V; Kumar, S; Quigg, S; Maxson, J; Swenson, L; Jacobson, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of pediatric obesity has increased over the past 3 decades and is a pressing public health program. New technology advancements that can encourage more physical in children are needed. The Zamzee program is an activity meter linked to a motivational website designed for children 8–14 years of age. The objective of the study was to use a collaborative approach between a medical center, the private sector and local school staff to assess the feasibility of using the Zamzee Program in the school-based setting to improve physical activity levels in children. Methods This was a pilot 8-week observational study offered to all children in one fifth grade classroom. Body mass index (BMI), the amount of physical activity by 3-day recall survey, and satisfaction with usability of the Zamzee Program were measured pre- and post-study. Results Out of 11 children who enrolled in the study, 7 completed all study activities. In those who completed the study, the median (interquartile range) total activity time by survey increased by 17 (1042) minutes and the BMI percentile change was 0 (8). Both children and their caregivers found the Zamzee Activity Meter (6/7) and website (6/7) “very easy” or “easy” to use. Conclusion The Zamzee Program was found to be usable but did not significantly improve physical activity levels or BMI. Collaborative obesity intervention projects involving medical centers, the private sector and local schools are feasible but the effectiveness needs to be evaluated in larger-scale studies. PMID:27042382

  13. Capacitance Meter

    1983-01-01

    Anders Precision Instrument Co.'s original meter could not measure dissipation leakage in capacitors. Seeking to add that capability, the company planned an advanced model. Before starting work, company president, Thomas Anderson, sought technical assistance from NASA's NERAC (New England Research Application Center). Anderson wanted a survey of the status and capabilities of NASA's electronic measuring devices. NERAC performed a search of six databases, including NASA's and provided a comprehensive report on state of the art worldwide.

  14. Measurement of carbon activity of sodium using nickel tabs and the Harwell Carbon Meter - Preliminary experience

    Carbon can have an important effect on the mechanical properties of certain constructional materials likely to be used in the LMFBRs. Transfer of carbon will occur between the metal and the sodium at any particular location to bring the chemical potential of carbon in both components to the sam: value. Thus, in a mixed system containing austenitic stainless steel and unstabilized ferritic steel, carbon could be transferred by the sodium from the high carbon activity ferritic to the lower activity austenitic steel. Loss of carbon from the unstabilized ferritic steel leads to a weaker, more ductile material, while carburization of the stainless steel could lead to its embrittlement. Similarly carbon entering the coolant in the form of oil from leaking mechanical pumps could have similar effects on the mechanical property of stainless steels. In the light of these possibilities it is essential to measure the carbon activity of the sodium so that its effect on materials properties can be predicted

  15. An Active Sensor Nitrogen Application Algorithm for Corn Using a Chlorophyll Meter Based Sufficiency Index Concept

    Traditional N fertilizer management schemes for U.S. corn production systems have resulted in low N use efficiency, reduced water quality, and considerable public debate regarding N use in crop production. We have built a prototype high clearance N applicator configured with active sensors, controll...

  16. Your Glucose Meter

    ... by Audience For Women Women's Health Topics Your Glucose Meter Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test ...

  17. Smart Meter and Turkey

    ATİÇ, Serdal; Parlakyıldız, Şakir; İlcihan, Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are developed measurement devices that provide much more information to the consumers and that provide the intervention opportunity compared to the conventional energy meters. A smart meter design is dependent on the requirements of the electricity distribution company and the customers. In this study, various features and technologies that can be integrated with the smart meters are explained. Summary information on various problems that can be encountered including design of sm...

  18. An evaluation of the active fracture concept with modeling unsaturated flow and transport in a fractured meter-sized block of rock

    Numerical simulation is an effective and economical tool for optimally designing laboratory experiments and deriving practical experimental conditions. We executed a detailed numerical simulation study to examine the active fracture concept (AFC, Liu et al., 1998) using a cubic meter-sized block model. The numerical simulations for this study were performed by applying various experimental conditions, including different bottom flow boundaries, varying injection rates, and different fracture-matrix interaction (by increasing absolute matrix permeability at the fracture matrix boundary) for a larger fracture interaction under transient or balanced-state flow regimes. Two conceptual block models were developed based on different numerical approaches: a two-dimensional discrete-fracture-network model (DFNM) and a one-dimensional dual continuum model (DCM). The DFNM was used as a surrogate for a natural block to produce synthetic breakthrough curves of water and tracer concentration under transient or balanced-state conditions. The DCM is the approach typically used for the Yucca Mountain Project because of its computational efficiency. The AFC was incorporated into the DCM to capture heterogeneous flow patterns that occur in unsaturated fractured rocks. The simulation results from the DCM were compared with the results from the DFNM to determine whether the DCM could predict the water flow and tracer transport observed in the DFNM at the scale of the experiment. It was found that implementing the AFC in the DCM improved the prediction of unsaturated flow and that the flow and transport experiments with low injection rates in the DFNM were compared better with the AFC implemented DCM at the meter scale. However, the estimated AFC parameter varied from 0.38 to 1.0 with different flow conditions, suggesting that the AFC parameter was not a sufficient to fully capture the complexity of the flow processes in a one meter sized discrete fracture network

  19. Optical cycle power meter

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  20. Integrated metering products

    During the last 10 years the U.K. in particular has become increasingly interested in the introduction of solid state products within the metering market. Whilst this trend has not been seen in the rest of Europe, the U.K. market has made great strides within the domestic single phase metering area. Of course polyphase precision meters have been with us for many years although it must be stated that the high manufacturing cost of these products have not made them attractive for general use. Today, the solid state domestic meter makes up some 40% of the total U.K. market and it is anticipated that this growth will continue for many years to come. Indeed some electricity companies will now only purchase solid state domestic metering products. It is clear that the major benefits which accrue from solid state metering and in particular from integrated metering products ensure that the trend outlined will continue. The two major benefits which are worth considering are cost and additional functionality. (author)

  1. DC attenuation meter

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  2. Peak flow meter (image)

    A peak flow meter is commonly used by a person with asthma to measure the amount of air that can be ... become narrow or blocked due to asthma, peak flow values will drop because the person cannot blow ...

  3. Computer Interfaced Gauss Meter

    Lo, Steven; Lai, Alan; Dao, Christine; Hung Vu, Hung

    2013-01-01

    Goal: Gauss Meter Model X01.  Gauss meter model X01 is the hand-held device designed to meet the needs of magnetic industry to measure magnetic fields accurately, provided high-end functionality and performance in an affordable laptop instrument. Magnet testing and sorting have never been easier. Additional features including calculating magnetic field intensity versus time and displaying magnetic field direction on a Graphical User Interface on Computer.  Introduction/Background:  Magnetic f...

  4. Specific activities and the relevant gamma ray dose rates at 1 meter from radioisotopes and isomers following thermal neutron capture reaction

    Calculations were performed for the specific activity of 245 gamma-ray emitting radioisotopes and isomers produced in 48, 72 and 96 hour irradiation periods of the natural isotopic mixture of their 77 elements with thermal neutron flux 1.0 E + 13 n/cm2 .5, at the core of the (ET-R R-1) reactor. The relevant gamma-ray dose rate at a point 1 meter apart from each radioisotope or isomer was evaluated whenever the specific gamma-ray dose rate constant is available. The irradiation time factor (ITF) for the irradiation periods 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours are reported for each of the 248 gamma-ray emitters. The average of (ITF) over these 248 radionuclides for each irradiation period is taken as a measure of the feasibility of the irradiation time. The results favour the increase of the irradiation period from the conventional 48 to 72 hours but not to 96 hours. A programme was established in the VAX computer to carry out the above mentioned calculations. Tables of the present work are very useful for isotope production and reactor safety. 1 fig., 2 tabs

  5. Design of a Smart Meter for the Indian Energy Scenario

    Al-Saheer S. S; *, Mrs. Shimi S. L

    2014-01-01

    Accurate metering, detection of energy theft and implementation of proper tariff as well as billing system are vital in wise energy management. These objectives can be achieved by using Smart Meters. This article introduces a microcontroller based Smart Meter using wireless communication and LabVIEW suitable for the Indian Energy Scenario. The Smart Meter and Time Of Day (TOD) tariff pricing make the consumers an active part of energy management, thereby energy deficit during ...

  6. Transformer and Meter Tester

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  7. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Glaucia Nency Takara; Gualberto Ruas; Bruna Varanda Pessoa; Luciana Kawakami Jamami; Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo; Mauricio Jamami

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF) from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value record...

  8. Simple Schlieren Light Meter

    Rhodes, David B.; Franke, John M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Leighty, Bradley D.

    1992-01-01

    Simple light-meter circuit used to position knife edge of schlieren optical system to block exactly half light. Enables operator to check quickly position of knife edge between tunnel runs to ascertain whether or not in alignment. Permanent measuring system made part of each schlieren system. If placed in unused area of image plane, or in monitoring beam from mirror knife edge, provides real-time assessment of alignment of schlieren system.

  9. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  10. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    2012-07-10

    ... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework; Request for Comments AGENCY: National... Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter Upgradeability Test Framework (Draft NISTIR 7823). This draft document... process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) Smart Meters. The target audience for Draft...

  11. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  12. Comparison of five portable peak flow meters

    Glaucia Nency Takara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the measurements of spirometric peak expiratory flow (PEF from five different PEF meters and to determine if their values are in agreement. Inaccurate equipment may result in incorrect diagnoses of asthma and inappropriate treatments. METHODS: Sixty-eight healthy, sedentary and insufficiently active subjects, aged from 19 to 40 years, performed PEF measurements using Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® peak flow meters. The highest value recorded for each subject for each device was compared to the corresponding spirometric values using Friedman's test with Dunn's post-hoc (p<0.05, Spearman's correlation test and Bland-Altman's agreement test. RESULTS: The median and interquartile ranges for the spirometric values and the Air Zone®, Assess®, Galemed®, Personal Best® and Vitalograph® meters were 428 (263-688 L/min, 450 (350-800 L/min, 420 (310-720 L/min, 380 (300-735 L/min, 400 (310-685 L/min and 415 (335-610 L/min, respectively. Significant differences were found when the spirometric values were compared to those recorded by the Air Zone® (p<0.001 and Galemed ® (p<0.01 meters. There was no agreement between the spirometric values and the five PEF meters. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the values recorded from Galemed® meters may underestimate the actual value, which could lead to unnecessary interventions, and that Air Zone® meters overestimate spirometric values, which could obfuscate the need for intervention. These findings must be taken into account when interpreting both devices' results in younger people. These differences should also be considered when directly comparing values from different types of PEF meters.

  13. Good standards for smart meters

    R.A. Hoenkamp; G.B. Huitema

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental co

  14. Smart metering design and applications

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  15. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  16. Domain based metering

    Párhonyi, Robert; Beijnum, van, Bert-Jan

    2000-01-01

    In the last two years, there is a gaining interest in usage based accounting for the Internet. One of the driving forces for this growing interest is the progress being made in providing some form of quality assurance in IP packet forwarding. One of the key processes in an accounting system is metering, gathering of network usage parameters on which the accounting is or can be based. In this paper are addressed issues that are potentially of interest in Internet accounting. One of these issue...

  17. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  18. Revenue Recovery Through Meter Replacement

    Shields, Devan J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have identified water meter inaccuracy at low flow rates as a significant source of non-revenue flow for water systems; however a lack of available data makes it difficult to include low flow accuracy degradation in meter replacement plans. This thesis examines results from an extensive accuracy test program carried out at the Utah Water Research Laboratory on small water meters over a wide range of flow rates and at various levels of throughput. The study compares expected a...

  19. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  20. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter.

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A

    2013-08-01

    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (meter that were consistent with data reported by the vendor to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission. Limited measurements conducted in two houses with the meters were unable to clearly distinguish emissions from the meters from the considerable electromagnetic clutter in the same frequency range from other sources, including Wi-Fi routers and, when it was activated, a microwave oven. These preliminary measurements disclosed the difficulties that would be encountered in characterizing the RF exposures from these meters in homes in the face of background signals from other household devices in the same frequency range. An appendix provides an introduction to Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits. PMID:23799502

  1. Digital reactivity meter

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  2. Design of a Smart Meter for the Indian Energy Scenario

    Al-Saheer S. S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate metering, detection of energy theft and implementation of proper tariff as well as billing system are vital in wise energy management. These objectives can be achieved by using Smart Meters. This article introduces a microcontroller based Smart Meter using wireless communication and LabVIEW suitable for the Indian Energy Scenario. The Smart Meter and Time Of Day (TOD tariff pricing make the consumers an active part of energy management, thereby energy deficit during peak hours can be alleviated indirectly.

  3. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system...

  4. Wireless MSEB Meter Reading Vehicle

    Pooja U.Shinde

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The electricity is very essential in day to day life. Most of industries are running with electricity. In commercial areas also electricity plays very vital role and hence electricity is backbone of any developing nation. To measure the consumed electricity and generate Electricity bill, the energy meters are provided to each and every consumer. This project is use to take meter reading wirelessly by using transceiver which provides accuracy and speed in MSEB meter reading. In this work, Micro controller plays the main role. This circuit contains the LCD, RF transmitter, RF receiver, Energy meter, switch, RS 232 etc. This project uses one Microcontroller, LCD, RF transceiver module, energy meter and relay for connecting load. Meter reading is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy meter and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This saves employee trips and means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy. The Transmitter is connected to the meter and it counts the pulses from it and displays it over the LCD. It transmits the data over radio frequency. This network technology overcome all the difficulties of earlier billing system and become more advantageous and accurate.

  5. The Portable Metal Detecting Meter

    2001-01-01

    Using backscatter principle of ray, one kind of the portable metal detecting meters, which comprises five parts, i.e., a ray-emitter, a ray acceptor, discriminating and forming pulse circuits, storing and processing data units, a light and sound alarm device, and a power supply, had been invented. It can judge existence of danger articles as weapons and daggers hided inside luggages, pracels, or clothing of passengers or persons without opening packing. The detecting distance between the meter and danger objects, at present, is about one meter, but can be extended adopting improvement for key parts. For comparison, up to now, in the whole world, known information

  6. Angular velocity and acceleration meter

    Melamed, L.

    1972-01-01

    Meter uses a liquid crystalline film which changes coloration due to shear-stresses produced by a rotating disk. Device is advantageous in that it is not subject to bearing failure or electrical burnouts as are conventional devices.

  7. Calibration of personnel dose meters

    Methods of calibrating both film and thermoluminescent dose meters (TLD) to photon and electron radiations are described. K fluorescent X-rays, heavily filtered X-ray beams, and isotope gamma rays are used at the Los Alamos calibration facility to measure the energy and angular response of radiation detectors over a photon energy range of 10 to 1000keV. Beam spectra, alignment, size and uniformity are discussed. The energy and angular response of dose meters to electrons is measured with beta-emitting isotopes varying in maximum energy from 770 to 2300keV. A free-air ionization chamber is the primary standard used in the measurement of photon radiation. Thimble-sized ionization chambers, calibrated to the free-air chamber, serve as secondary standards. Electron radiation is measured with an end-window ionization chamber having a 7mg/cm2 approximately tissue-equivalent plastic wall. Photon calibrations are performed with personnel dose meters in air, on a phantom, and in a phantom. If the personnel dose meter and secondary chamber are both in air, or both on or both in a phantom, the response of the LiF TLD chip, relative to the secondary chamber, is the same. However, the film dose meter shows a larger relative response on or in the phantom than in air. With beta sources, personnel dose meters are calibrated by exposing the dose meter either in air to a high-dose-rate 90Sr (90Y) source, or in contact with a low-dose-rate uranium source. The differences in personnel dose meter response observed between the two methods are discussed. The personnel dose meters are calibrated to determine penetrating doses by placing the secondary chamber 1cm deep in a phantom and the personnel dose meter on the surface, with a filter over the TLD to simulate 1cm depth. Non-penetrating dose calibrations are measured by placing both chamber and dose meter on the surface of the phantom. (author)

  8. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    2011-07-01

    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  9. Economic Evaluation of Multiphase Meters

    Samuel S. MOFUNLEWI; Joseph. A. AJIENKA

    2007-01-01

    When operators must decide between a traditional approach to the production facilities and one including multiphase flow meters (MPFM), they must compare the capital and operating expenditures (CAPEX and OPEX) of each solution. In order to achieve this, CAPEX and OPEX for the same brand of test separator and multiphase flow meter were obtained.A deterministic economic model was developed for evaluating the economics of MPFM and Test Separators. Two cases were considered. Case A considered whe...

  10. Field proving liquid ultrasonic meters

    Antunes, Bernardo de Castro [Emerson Process Management, Houston, TX (United States). Daniel Measurement and Control Division

    2009-07-01

    Field proving liquid ultrasonic flowmeters is not a straightforward task since these meters are designed for large volumes and flowrates transfers and provers capacities are limited. Some techniques to overcome these issues are provided on API MPMS. Pulse interpolation, master metering, a large number of proving runs are some of these techniques. This works intents to present these procedures and practices in order to give the operators a briefly view of the techniques which will lead to better proving results. (author)

  11. [Development of ultrasonic power meter].

    Huang, Hongxin; Hu, Changming; Zheng, Yan; Xu, Honglei; Zhou, Wohua; Wu, Ziwen; Yu, Liudan; Hao, Jiandong; Luo, Yifan

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision. PMID:25330604

  12. Performance evaluation of the activity meters of nuclear medicine services of the hospitals Rafael Angel Calderon, San Juan de Dios and Mexico during the period from July 1, 2008 to December 31, 2008

    Nuclear medicine has used radioisotopes associated to drugs in order to get them to an organ of interest. The radioisotope has the quality to emit radiation, which passes through the body, after being admitted to it, and this is perceived by equipment such as a gamma camera to study the behavior of the organ under study. The radiation is a energy emission able to boot electrons from atoms and produce ions, thus the chemical composition may be altered, resulting in alterations in the cells. Conditions such as: a onreproductive of the cells, causing a tumor; or alterations in geminal cells, causing genetic alterations, which may occur in the offspring of an individual. For the above reason is that the use of radiopharmaceuticals should be as careful as possible, doing as little radiation exposure, without compromising the quality of the study, these should be applied with more important in more radiosensitive population such as children and older adults. The doses used in nuclear medicine are quantified using a device called activity meters and the proper functioning of the overexposures shall impose or low-quality studies doses outside the range of usefulness. The operation of these machines based on the quality control logs have been studied to discover if there are alterations in dosages of nuclear medicine departments of hospitals Calderon Guardia, San Juan de Dios and Mexico. Tests of zero settings, display, physical monitoring, high voltage, linearity test, stability, background radiation, precision, accuracy and consistency have been performed as quality control. This research is classified as non-experimental longitudinal quantitative. The study population was the record set and the realization of quality control tests made to the hospital activity meters above. The collection of data was performed by two steps, the first taking records concerning quality control of the different hospitals, completed tabulation, gratification and analysis of the same. The

  13. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  14. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi;

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy...... suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power quality (PQ) disturbance can de detected and reported by some advanced metering systems. Thus, this paper...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results will be...

  15. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr−1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr−1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr

  16. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  17. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  18. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Da-Ming Zhu; Cheng, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes, buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basic concepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH, as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. The emergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with a conducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH bu...

  19. Sulfur meter speeds coal blending

    The sulfur content has become the most important criterion that industry looks at when purchasing coal. The exact amount of sulfur in coal being processed by a preparation plant must be known and, if possible, controlled by blending coal streams of various sulfur contents. Present techniques, however, of measuring the sulfur in coal involve laborious and time-consuming sampling and chemical analysis (12 to 24 hr), and the results usually are not available until the following day. By then, the coal barges or trains are already on the way to their destinations. A new nuclear sulfur meter is expected to overcome these difficulties and help lead to true automation in coal preparation plants. Initially developed by the Bureau of Mines' Morgantown Energy Research Center (MERC) at Morgantown, W. Va., and completed after reorganization of the center by the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA), the meter can scan coal to produce a reading within 2 min to an accuracy of 0.04 percent sulfur. The meter is expected to soon result in an element-ash-moisture-Btu meter that would rapidly detect the sulfur, sodium, potassium, and overall mineral content of the coal, as well as its ash and Btu content

  20. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  1. FORMULATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    Ramteke K.H.; Gunjal S.S; Sharma Y.P

    2012-01-01

    The MDI is now established as the principal dosage form of inhalation drug therapy for bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Metered dose inhalers (MDIs) are pharmaceutical delivery systems designed for oral or nasal use, which deliver discrete doses of aerosolized medicament to the respiratory tract. The MDI contains the active substance, dissolved or suspended in a liquefied propellant system held in a pressurized container that is sealed with a metering valve. ...

  2. Characterization of recent Lake Tahoe fault activity: Combining Sub-Meter Resolution Seismic Imagery with AMS C-14 Dated Submerged Paleo-Surfaces.

    Dingler, J. A.; Kent, G. M.; Babcock, J. A.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Gayes, P. T.; Karlin, B.; Morgan, C. W.; Heyvaert, A.; Richards, B. C.

    2002-12-01

    Deformational strain within the Lake Tahoe Basin was mapped during previous campaigns using a combination of high resolution seismic CHIRP, multi-beam swath bathymetry, and airborne laser altimetry. These previous campaigns identified submerged paleo-shorelines of Pleistocene to early Holocene age, which act as a tectonic strain marker due to fault related disruptions of this once flat surface, as well as significantly offset fault scarps. Building upon this previous work, specific sites were selected for additional investigation with seismic CHIRP and AMS C-14 dated vibra and piston cores. The combination of these three techniques is ideally suited for quantifying recent fault activity through the correlation of paleo-surfaces and accurate age determinations. Initial analysis of seismic CHIRP and piston coring conducted in Emerald Bay shows a complex normal fault system with a sedimentation rate much higher than other parts of the lake. Seismic CHIRP conducted near Zephyr Cove was able to image multiple paleo-shorelines. Vibra coring of these same surfaces recovered sands of the same consistency as beach sand. Additional piston cores were collected at various lake locations below 400 m depth, including two cores taken across the Stateline Fault. Core analysis and AMS C-14 dating combined with site-specific seismic CHIRP, and previous mapping, will improve chronological control on the fault activity within the Lake Tahoe Basin.

  3. Radiation meters for civil defence

    The technical requirements for the radiation meters used in civil defence are specified in the guide. The aim of the requirements is to quarantee sufficient measurement accuracy and reliable operation even in extreme environmental conditions. The guide is based on the following standards: (1) IEC 846 'Beta, X and gamma radiation dose equivalent and dose equivalent rate meters for use in radiation protection', (2) IEC 1017-1 'Portable, transportable of installed X or gamma radiation ratemeters for environmental monitoring, part 1: Ratemeters', and (3) IEC 45 B (Secretariat) 104 'Direct reading, personnel dose equivalent and/or dose equivalent rate monitors for X, gamma and high energy beta radiation'. (12 refs., 5 tabs.)

  4. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. A color sensor wavelength meter

    Durfee, Dallin; Jackson, Jarom; Otterstrom, Nils; Jones, Tyler; Archibald, James

    2016-05-01

    We will discuss a laser wavelength meter based on a commercial color sensor chip consisting of an array of photodiodes with different absorptive color filters. By comparing the relative amplitudes of light on the photodiodes, the wavelength of light can be determined with picometer-level precision and with picometer-scale calibration drift over a period longer than a month. This work was supported by NSF Grant Number PHY-1205736.

  6. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music. PMID:22367155

  7. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  8. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    温荣芬

    2009-01-01

    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  9. Security Architecture of Smart Metering Systems

    Zivic, Natasa; Ruland, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The main goals of smart metering are the reduction of costs, energy and CO2 by the provision of actual metering information to the providers and the customer. They allow for flexible possibilities to influence the customers' energy consumption behavior and to adapt dynamically the power generation and distribution to the requested energy by smart grids. Metering devices are under control of governmental organizations, which are responsible for the permanent correct delivery of metering data. ...

  10. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

  11. Smart meter data: Balancing consumer privacy concerns with legitimate applications

    Smart meters are being rolled out in large numbers throughout the world, with proponents claiming they are a critical step in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Yet there are significant unresolved negative reactions to smart meters, principally based on the concern that smart meters might be used to infer the private activities that occur within a dwelling. Though smart meter data is classified as personal data, and as such protected under existing data protection frameworks in the EU, there are relevant exceptions, notably where the data is required for legitimate applications associated with the performance of 'regulated duties'. This paper contributes to this debate by examining the data requirements for some of the proposed applications of smart meter data within the electricity supply industry, and investigates whether the use of personal data can be minimized or even avoided. The discussion includes system balancing, demand reduction, demand response and distribution network operation and planning, and indicates that, for most of these applications, the requirements for personal data can indeed be minimized. 'Privacy friendly' alternatives are discussed. - Highlights: ▶ Current smart meter systems provide a strong indication of occupancy. ▶ This will have important implications for external and internal home privacy. ▶ Personal data requirements within legitimate applications are discussed. ▶ 'Privacy friendly' techniques are suggested that minimize the use of personal data. ▶ Distribution network operator has strongest claim for data from each household.

  12. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    Mol, de, M.J.; Andre, G.

    2009-01-01

    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the milking parlour, e.g. in case of robotic milking. In the first case the model is based on a comparison per milking session of the average per stand with the overall average over all stands. The mode...

  13. Smart meter status report from Toronto

    An update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering program was presented. Electricity demand is expected to keep increasing, and there is presently insufficient generation to match supply needs in Ontario. The smart metering program was introduced to aid in the Ontario government's energy conservation strategy, as well as to address peak supply problems that have led to power outages. It is expected that the smart metering program will reduce provincial peak supply by 5 per cent, as the meters support both time-of-use rates and critical peak pricing. Over 800,000 smart meters will be supplied to customers by 2007, and all 4.3 million homes in Toronto will have a smart meter by 2010. In order to meet targets for 2010, the utility will continue to install more 15,000 meters each month for the next 4 years. While the Ontario government has planned and coordinated the rollout and developed smart metering specifications and standards, Toronto Hydro is responsible for the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of the meters. Advance testing of each meter is needed to ensure billing accuracy, and customer education on meter use is also. The complexity of the metering program has led the utility to establish a rigid project management process. Customer education pilot program are currently being conducted. Experience gained during the earlier phases of the program have enabled the utility to select appropriate metering systems based on density, topography and physical conditions. Project expenditures have been within budget due to improved project estimating and planning. The metering program has been conducted in tandem with the utility's peakSAVER program, a residential and small commercial load control program that has been successful in reducing summer peak demand by cycling air conditioners without causing discomfort. It was concluded that the utility will continue with its mass deployment of smart meters, and is currently preparing its call center to handled

  14. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  15. Too cheap to meter what?

    Full text: 50 years ago, at 17:30 hours, 26 June 1954, in the town of Obninsk, near Moscow, the first nuclear power plant sent electricity to residences and businesses. Atomic energy had crossed the divide from military uses to peaceful ones, demonstrating the potential to fuel civilian electric power plants. The milestone is being marked this year at an IAEA international nuclear power conference in Obninsk. Past experience will be reviewed, but the focus is on meeting future challenges. Though it has come a long way in 50 years, nuclear energy today finds itself in a struggle of the fittest to carve a niche over the next fifty - in the marketplace and in the public eye. Cliches and sound bites tell part of the nuclear story. Visionary talk by nuclear proponents in 1954 was about future energy sources that would be 'too cheap to meter', a phrase critics pounced upon. Today in 2004 the 'too cheap to meter' phrase occasionally haunts the atom, but pops up more often than not in promotional ads for anything from wind power to web sites. Talk of nuclear energy now is of a 'renaissance' and 'second wind.' New nuclear plants are most attractive where energy demand is growing and resources are scarce, and where energy security, air pollution and greenhouse gases are priorities, IAEA Director General Mohamed ElBaradei points out. In cities, towns, and villages, reality is different, or too much the same, depending how you see and live it. Cheap or not, nuclear energy today supplies one-sixth of the world's electricity in some 30 countries. Still, it does not produce enough power. Neither does any other energy source. More than 1.5 billion people have no electricity to meter whatsoever - not from renewables, solar, nuclear, biomass, wind, coal, oil, gas, firewood, or hydrogen, the publicized promise of tomorrow. So what will it take? Maybe bigger blackouts or hotter days than the world has seen. Certainly needed are more attention, action, and money. In dollar terms

  16. Tohoku one meter bubble chamber

    At the request of Tohoku University and the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, IHI has developed a complete freon bubble chamber system successfully, which is used for photo analysis of elementary particles physics. This system will be delivered to Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) in Illinois (U.S.A.) and will be coupled with the superconducting accelerator (TEVATRON) for the study of elementary particles. The total system of the freon bubble chamber is composed of a stainless steel casting spherical bubble chamber with a diameter of about one meter, an expansion system for freon pressure control, hydraulic system for driving an expansion piston, a freon feed system, a temperature control system, an overall control system as well as camera and flashlight for photograph. (author)

  17. The reactivity meter and core reactivity

    The point kinetic equations and the characteristics of the point kinetic reactivity meter are discussed, particularly for large negative reactivities. From a given input signal representing the neutron flux seen by a detector, the meter computes a value of reactivity in dollars (ρ/β), based on inverse point kinetics. The prompt jump point of view is emphasised. A simple point model of the reactor and a local flux distortion factor are used to generate input signals into a simulated reactivity meter. The obtained results show how the reading of the reactivity meter will approach the reactivity of the core model, if the reactivity is lower than -1 dollars. However, for reactivity values higher than -1 dollars, the influence of the flux distortion on the reading of the reactivity meter persists. Reactivity meter measurements taken during typical rod drop experiments in VVER-440 reactors do not produce accurate indications of the (static) core reactivity. (author)

  18. The accuracy of portable peak flow meters.

    Miller, M. R.; Dickinson, S A; Hitchings, D J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The variability of peak expiratory flow (PEF) is now commonly used in the diagnosis and management of asthma. It is essential for PEF meters to have a linear response in order to obtain an unbiased measurement of PEF variability. As the accuracy and linearity of portable PEF meters have not been rigorously tested in recent years this aspect of their performance has been investigated. METHODS: The response of several portable PEF meters was tested with absolute standards of flow ge...

  19. Mass Flow Meter Analysis for Reliable Measuring

    Kupanovac, Tihomir; Špoljarić, Željko; Valter, Zdravko

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how to analyze and correctly chose measuring device specially applied on mass flow meter based on Coriolis principle. In the beginning short description of Coriolis based mass flow meter is given. Furthermore, comparison analysis of two flow meters shows where are the problems of wrongly applied method in slurry fluid measurement in production of powder detergents plant. Analysis is made using RS Logix 500 program. In given diagrams which show causes of wrong ...

  20. Water metering in England and Wales

    David Zetland

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of water services that began with the privatisation of water companies in 1989 extended to households with the implementation of water metering. Meters 'privatised' water and the cost of provision by allocating to individual households costs that had previously been shared within the community. This (ongoing) conversion of common pool to private good has mostly improved economic, environmental and social impacts, but the potential burden of metering on poorer households has...

  1. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  2. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and eliminating human errors due to manual readings which would ultimately reduce labour costs, diagnosis and instantaneous fault detection. This allows for predictive maintenance resulting in a more efficient and reliable distribution network.

  3. Off-level corrections for gravity meters

    Niebauer, T. M.; Blitz, Thomas; Constantino, Andy

    2016-04-01

    Gravity meters must be aligned with the local gravity at any location on the surface of the earth in order to measure the full amplitude of the gravity vector. The gravitational force on the sensitive component of the gravity meter decreases by the cosine of the angle between the measurement axis and the local gravity vector. Most gravity meters incorporate two horizontal orthogonal levels to orient the gravity meter for a maximum gravity reading. In order to calculate a gravity correction it is often necessary to estimate the overall angular deviation between the gravity meter and the local gravity vector using two measured horizontal tilt meters. Typically this is done assuming that the two horizontal angles are independent and that the product of the cosines of the horizontal tilts is equivalent to the cosine of the overall deviation. These approximations, however, break down at large angles. This paper derives analytic formulae to transform angles measured by two orthogonal tilt meters into the vertical deviation of the third orthogonal axis. The equations can be used to calibrate the tilt sensors attached to the gravity meter or provide a correction for a gravity meter used in an off-of-level condition.

  4. Comparison of Selected Differential Producing, Ultrasonic, and Magnetic Flow Meters

    Prettyman, Johnny B.

    2014-01-01

    Flow meters are used to measure flow accurately. There are many different flow meters and it is necessary to know which will function best for specific situations. A wide variety of flow meters were selected for the study to assist in showing that each flow meter has its tradeoffs. The selected meters include: three types of Venturi meters, a wedge meter, a V-cone meter, an electromagnetic flow meter, and an ultrasonic flow meter. The characteristics researched in this study are discharge coe...

  5. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Downs, Janelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Sadie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  6. Physiological correlates to 800 meter running performance.

    Deason, J; Powers, S K; Lawler, J; Ayers, D; Stuart, M K

    1991-12-01

    Much of the previous research efforts aimed at determining those physiological characteristics that contribute to distance running success have centered around distances greater than 1500 meters with little attention to events such as the 800 meter run. Therefore, this investigation examined the relationship between selected physiological and body composition, characteristics and performance in an 800 meter run. Measurements of body composition, VO2max, running economy, and performance times for 100 and 300 meter dashes were obtained on 11 male track athletes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was performed using 800 meter race time as the dependent variable. Although the combination of 300 and 100 meter run times, percent body fat, running economy and VO2 max as independent variables accounted for the greatest amount of total variance (r2 = .89), the additional variance explained by the model did not increase significantly (p greater than 0.05), when VO2max, percent body fat, and running economy were added to a model which contained 300 and 100 meter run time (r2 = .85) as the explanatory variables. These data offer additional support for the notion that much of the intramuscular ATP produce and utilized during an 800 meter run comes from anaerobic metabolic pathway. PMID:1806725

  7. Hydro Ottawa achieves Smart Meter milestone

    As Ontario's second largest municipal electricity company, Hydro Ottawa serves more than 285,000 residential and business customers in the city of Ottawa and the village of Casselman. Since 2006, the utility has installed more than 230,000 Smart Meters throughout its service territory in an effort to provide better services to its customers. This initiative represents the largest operational advanced metering infrastructure network in Canada. This move was necessary before time-of-use rates can be implemented in Ottawa. The Smart Meters deliver data wirelessly to Hydro Ottawa's Customer Information System for billing and eliminating manual readings. The Smart Meters are designed to promote more efficient use of electricity. The Government of Ontario has passed legislation requiring the installation of Smart Meters throughout the province by the end of 2010

  8. Period meter output during startup transients

    The time response of a period meter whose input signal comes from an ionization chamber may be calculated using a Ferranti Mercury digital computer programme. Details of the programme are given. The type of period meter considered is the one for which the input time constant is determined by the input capacity and the logarithmic element. The input excitation is a terminated ramp of reactivity. Other reactivity inputs may be treated. In particular the step change of reactivity may be used as the input excitation. Allowance is taken of the power dependent time constant associated with the logarithmic element and of the differentiating and integrating time constants in the period meter. The programme may be used by period meter designers to assess the performance of their instruments and may also be used by those carrying out safety and operations studies on reactors which use this type of period meter. An example of the use of the programme is given. (author)

  9. Development of a contour meter

    The dosimetric calculation in patients that receive radiotherapy treatment it requires the one knowledge of the geometry of some anatomical portions, which differs from a patient to another. Making reference to the specific case of mammary neoplasia, one of the measurements that is carried out on the patient is the acquisition of the contour of the breast, which is determined from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the lateral of the thorax, below the armpit, with the patient located in the irradiation position. This measurement is carried out with the help of a mechanical contour meter that is a device conformed by a series of wires with a polymeric coating, which support on the breast of the patient and it reproduces its form. Then it is transported in the more careful possible form on a paper and the contour is traced with a tracer one. The geometric error associated to this procedure is of ±1 cm, which is sensitive of being reduced. The present work finds its motivation in the patient's radiological protection radiotherapy. The maximum error in dose allowed in radiotherapeutic treatments is 5%. It would be increase the precision and with it to optimize the treatment received by the patient, reducing the error in the acquisition process of the mammary contour. With this objective, a digital device is designed whose operation is based in the application of a spatial transformation on a picture of the mammary contour, which corrects the geometric distortion introduced in the process of the photographic acquisition. An algorithm that allows to obtain a front image (without distortion) of the plane of the contour was developed. A software tool especially developed carries out the processing of the digital images. The maximum geometric error detected in the validation process is 2 mm located on a small portion of the contour. (Author)

  10. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Da-Ming Zhu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  11. Hydrogen meter for service in liquid sodium

    This standard establishes the requirements for the design, materials, fabrication, quality assurance, examination, and acceptance testing of a hydrogen meter and auxiliary equipment for use in radioactive or nonradioactive liquid sodium service. The meter shall provide a continuous and accurate indication of the hydrogen impurity concentration over the range 0.03 to 10 ppM hydrogen in sodium at temperatures between 800 and 10000F (427 and 5380C). The meter may also be used to rapidly monitor changes in hydrogen concentration, over the same concentration range, and, therefore can be used as a sensor for sodium-water reactions in LMFBR steam generators

  12. Which way through the metering maze?

    Already suffering from the unrelenting rise in electricity prices, some major energy users have found that the metering side of power purchasing offers no relief. Despite having paid out for metering equipment so that they can shop around in the second tier market for their power, those users with 1MW-plus loads have found, to their frustration, that they are unable to find out exactly what they are paying for when it comes to settling the electricity bill. Not only are they unhappy about the lack of information available, but these users are also disgruntled about the high, and unpredictable costs of metering. (author)

  13. Water metering in England and Wales

    David Zetland

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of water services that began with the privatisation of water companies in 1989 extended to households with the implementation of water metering. Meters 'privatised' water and the cost of provision by allocating to individual households costs that had previously been shared within the community. This (ongoing conversion of common pool to private good has mostly improved economic, environmental and social impacts, but the potential burden of metering on poorer households has slowed the transition. Stronger anti-poverty programmes would be better at addressing this poverty barrier than existing coping mechanisms reliant on subsidies from other water consumers.

  14. Soft-sensing, non-intrusive multiphase flow meter

    Wrobel, K.; Schiferli, W.

    2009-01-01

    For single phase flow meters more and better non-intrusive or even clamp-on meters become available. This allows for a wider use of meters and for easier flow control. As the demand for multiphase meters is increasing, the current aim is to develop a non-intrusive multiphase flow meter. The non-intr

  15. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  16. Informatics Solutions for Smart Metering Systems Integration

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects regarding smart metering systems integration have been depicted. Smart metering systems, renewable energy sources integration and advanced tariff systems implementation require informatics solution that could automatically collect and process data, forecast the behavior of electricity consumers, analyze trends regarding electricity prices, optimize the consumption of consumers, provide friendly interfaces, etc. They are advanced technologies that represent solutions for insufficient conventional primary energy sources, gas emissions, dependency on energy sources located outside European Union and issues related to energy efficiency. This paper mainly describes several informatics solutions correlated with operational requirements for smart metering system and our proposal for simplified architecture of smart metering systems, with three distinct levels (base level, middle level and top level and load profile calculation methods.

  17. USGS Digital Orthophoto Quad (DOQ) - 3 meter

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data files are a collection of the USGS standard DOQs that have been resampled to a 3-meter cell resolution and mosaiced into quad format vs quarter quad...

  18. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Daminov Ildar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  19. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network to...... utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  20. Continuous flow measurements using fixed ultrasonic meters

    Oltmann, Rick

    1993-01-01

    USGS has or soon will be installing four continuous flow-monitoring stations in the delta that will use ultrasonic velocity meters (DVM). Funding for the stations has been provided by USGS, DWR, USBR, and Contra Costa Water District.

  1. Requirements for gamma radiation survey meter calibration

    This guide describes the minimum requirements for calibrating a portable analog gamma radiation survey meter by means of a beam calibrator, with a known calibration source. If an alternative method of calibration is to be used the licensee should make a written request to the Atomic Energy Control Board that describes the calibration method to be used, and request the Board's permission to use that method in place of the requirements contained in this guide. This guide explains: the responsibility for survey meter calibration if licensees calibrate their own survey meters, use the services of a Canadian calibration agency, and use the services of a non-Canadian calibration agency; the requirements for survey meter calibration and the supporting documentation; the requirements for record-keeping; and, a calibration certificate, a calibration sticker, and a notification of failure to calibrate form, with examples

  2. Diagnostic flow metering using ultrasound tomography

    For an accurate flow metering without considering the influences of flow control devices such as valves and elbows in closed conduits, velocity distribution in the cross-sectional area must be integrated. However, most flow meters, including multi-path ultrasonic, electromagnetic or Coriolis mass flow meters, require assumptions on the fully-developed turbulent flows to calculate flow rates from physical quantities of their own concern. Therefore, a long straight pipe has been a necessary element for accurate flow metering because the straight pipe can reduce flow disturbances caused by flow control devices. To reduce costs due to the installation of long straight pipes, another flow metering technique is required. For example, flow rates can be estimated by integrating velocity distributions in the cross section of conduits. In the present study, ultrasound tomography was used to find the velocity distribution in the cross-section of a closed conduit where flow was disturbed by a Coriolis mass flow meter or a butterfly valve. A commercial multi-path ultrasonic flow meter was installed in the pipeline to measure the line-averaged velocity distribution in the pipe flow. The ultrasonic flow meter was rotated 180 .deg. at intervals of 10 .deg. to construct line-averaged velocity distributions in Radon space. Flow images were reconstructed by using a backprojection algorithm (inverse Radon transform). Flow diagnostic parameters were defined by calculating statistical moments, i.e., average, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis, based on the normalized velocity distribution. The flow diagnostic parameters were applied to flow images to find whether the parameters could discern flow disturbances in the reconstructed velocity distribution

  3. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Rodney Stewart

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  4. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans (comps.)

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  5. Metering practice and policy : an examination of battery electromagnetic meter calibration, performance and verification

    Thomas, Alun Lewis

    2009-01-01

    The last twenty years has seen the rise to dominance of electromagnetic flowmetering (EFM)technology within the UK water industry network. In the last ten years, the introduction of battery powered EFM designs, for both full bore and insertion meters has seen this technology deployed where before only mechanical meters were used. Nevertheless, despite the increasing use of battery meters, the literature contained little objective reporting of the performance, limitations, calibration or ver...

  6. Privacy-Preserving Energy-Reading for Smart Meter

    Costantino, Gianpiero; Martinelli, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Smart Meters belong to the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and allow customers to monitor locally and remotely the current usage of energy. Providers query Smart Meters for billing purpose or to establish the amount of energy needed by houses. However, reading details sent from smart meters to the energy provider can be used to violate customers? privacy. In this paper, our contribution is two-fold: first, we present an architecture to turn traditional energy meters into Smart Meters, ...

  7. Computation of flow through Venturi meters

    Sattery, J.A.; Reader-Harris, M.J.

    1997-07-01

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) work on Venturi meters reported in this paper was part of a large project for Shell Exploration and Production to investigate the application of Venturi meters to gas flow measurement. The majority of the experimental findings were reported in 'Unpredicted behaviour of Venturi flowmeters in gas at high Reynolds numbers' presented in the 1996 North Sea Flow Metering Workshop. CFD has been used to model the flow through Venturi tubes and thereby gain understanding of how the discharge coefficient is affected by the vital parameters of diameter ratio, pipe Reynolds number and roughness. It has also been used to calculate the effect of manufacturing tolerance. The discharge coefficients obtained from the calibration of Venturi meters have been used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD results have also been compared with experimental results from the 1950s and 1960s with surprisingly good agreement. This work forms the basis of further possible research using CFD on the effect of upstream and Venturi surface roughness on the performance of these meters. The knowledge gained on the effect of surface roughness may also be applicable to ultrasonic flowmeters. (author)

  8. Anti-Theft Automatic Metering Interface

    Abhijeet Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need is increasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity. The purpose of this project is to provide automatic control and monitoring of the Domestic Energy Meter enabling the Electricity Department to read meter readings without anyone visiting each house and also prevent electricity theft .This can be achieved by the use of a Microcontroller Unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM module for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter with the help of an interfacing circuitry. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department after a count period or on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. The Substation will be the receiving end. The data received is fed to a microcontroller at the Substation which will automatically calculate the bill based on tariff provider and display it.

  9. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    2013-01-01

    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  10. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A. J. H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M. A. G.; den Toonder, J. M. J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes place. A proof-of-principle device of the digital flow meter was designed, fabricated, and tested. The device was built on foil-based technology. In the proof-of-principle experiments, good agreement was found between set flow rates and the evaporation rates estimated from reading the number of wetted pore structures. The measurement range of the digital flow meter can be tuned and extended in a straightforward manner by changing the pore structure of the device.

  11. Flow meters for the PAT loop

    The flow of coolant in the PAT loop at temperatures in the range 2000C to 6000C and a pressure of 40 bar must be measured accurately. It is not possible to provide good upstream flow conditions for a flow meter in the complicated pipework or to calibrate a flow meter in the loop itself. Two independent combined flow conditioner and orifice meter units for subsequent insertion into the loop were designed, built and independently calibrated. The discharge coefficient was determined over the working range of Reynolds number by comparison with a standard orifice plate in the WNL high pressure gas loop. Tests at atmospheric pressure have demonstrated that, to the accuracy of measurement, the discharge coefficients of the units are unaffected by disturbances to the upstream flow. (author)

  12. Field intercomparisons of electromagnetic current meters

    Guza, R. T.; Clifton, M. C.; Rezvani, F.

    1988-08-01

    In order to assess the performance of current meters within and near the surf zone, data from biaxial electromagnetic current meters with spherical and open frame probe geometries were intercompared. One bottom-mounted flow meter of each type was deployed in a mean depth of 7.0 m for 17 days, and two sensors of each type were deployed in a mean depth of 2.0 m for 5 days. Sensors in the shallow deployment were frequently in the surf zone. Hourly averaged mean flows measured by different sensor types are highly correlated, averaging above 0.98. The largest difference between measured mean flows is a constant bias, typically about 3.0 cm/s, which is roughly equal to the estimated accuracy of the sensor offset calibrations. Root-mean-square deviations from this constant bias are less than 2.0 cm/s, and are contributed to by errors in both gain calibration and sensor orientation. Comparisons of measured (surface gravity wave) oscillatory currents were made both between current meter types and with velocities inferred from the application of linear theory to pressure sensor data. Correlations between time series of UTrms (the rms total oscillatory velocity for a 1-hour record) were all above 0.99 in 7.0-m depth and averaged 0.95 for the shallow deployment. The average UTrms ratio (over all hour-long records) was within 1.0 ±0.07 for all current meter pairs in both deployments, which is consistent with the estimated 5% uncertainties in the flow meter gain calibration. Typical fluctuations of the UTrms ratio of any spherical and open frame sensor pair about its mean ratio, indicative of flow meter gain distortions probably associated with variations in the hydrodynamic environment, were less than 0.04 for any one deployment. Ratios of UTrms from both deployments taken together suggest that the open frame sensor overresponds, relative to the spherical probe, by about 5% at low (about 10.0 cm/s) total (mean + UTrms) speeds, and underresponds by about 5% at higher total

  13. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  14. Development of the impedance void meter

    Chung, Moon Ki; Song, Chul Hwa; Won, Soon Yeon; Kim, Bok Deuk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-06-01

    An impedance void meter is developed to measure the area-averaged void fraction. Its basic principle is based on the difference in the electrical conductivity between phases. Several methods of measuring void fraction are briefly reviewed and the reason why this type of void meter is chosen to develop is discussed. Basic principle of the measurement is thoroughly described and several design parameters to affect the overall function are discussed in detail. As example of applications is given for vertical air-water flow. It is shown that the current design has good dynamic response as well as very fine spatial resolution. (Author) 47 refs., 37 figs.

  15. DREAM: DiffeRentially privatE smArt Metering

    Acs, Gergely

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new privacy-preserving smart metering system. Our scheme is private under the differential privacy model and therefore provides strong and provable guarantees. With our scheme, an (electricity) supplier can periodically collect data from smart meters and derive aggregated statistics while learning only limited information about the activities of individual households. For example, a supplier cannot tell from a user's trace when he watched TV or turned on heating. Our scheme is simple, efficient and practical. Processing cost is very limited: smart meters only have to add noise to their data and encrypt the results with an efficient stream cipher.

  16. 49 CFR 192.353 - Customer meters and regulators: Location.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Location. 192.353... TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.353 Customer meters and regulators: Location. (a) Each meter and...

  17. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter.

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1065.205. This may include a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter. 1065.225... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use an intake-air flow meter in combination with a...

  18. Wideband bioimpedance meter with the adaptive selection of frequency grid

    V. S. Mosiychuk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. For the diagnosis of functional state and structure of biological objects with weakly expressed irregularities it is important quickly and accurately to determine the amplitude- and phase-frequency characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the article is a representation of the results of the development of biological objects high-speed impedance meter with the ability to select adaptive grid measuring frequencies in the extended band. Structure of the impedance meter. Developed instrument is designed to measure the impedance of the object on four-electrode method. The device uses a frequency synthesizer amplitude-phase detector integrally fabricated and active electrodes, by which the voltage controlled current source and the input buffer amplifiers with low input capacitance, are located in close proximity to the studied bioobject. This allowed to make measurements at frequencies up to 5 MHz. Instruments characteristics. To test the device characteristics the frequency characteristics of the test object (RC-chain impedance were measured. It is composed of 5 precision resistors and capacitors. Parameters of the elements were measured preliminarily by laboratory inductance, capacitance and resistance meter E7-12. The dependence of the measurement errors of the developed device in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 5 MHz is not more than 5% of the modulus of the impedance and not more than 2° of the phase.

  19. Study on the Calibration of Environmental Survey Meter

    Study on calibration of environmental survey meter using 60Co dan 137Cs standard gamma sources made in P3KRBiN had been done. Shadow-shield and free field calibration techniques were used to calibrate a variety of environmental survey meters, which are typically energy compensated GM counter, high-pressure ionization chamber and Na(I)Tl counter. The exposure rate from the gamma source was calculated based on its activities given by the manufacture. The shadow shield calibration technique was carried out in the calibration room with the size of 12 m x 6.6 m x 2.94 m with and without shadow shield at the source to detector distances of 100 cm, 150 cm and 200 cm and the height of the source from the floor was 110 cm. The calibration factor was determined by the ratio between the exposure rate of the gamma source and the reading with and without shadow shield. The free field calibration technique was carried out at free field with the size of 80 m x 70 m with and without the sources present at the source to detector distances of 100 cm, 150 cm and 200 cm and the height of the source from the floor was 100 cm. The calibration factor was determined by the ratio between the nominal exposure rate of the gamma source and the reading with and without the source present. Generally, the calibration results using shadow shield and free field calibration techniques for all survey meters were in the permitted range which was 0.8 ≤ CF ≤ 1.2 for 137Cs gamma source. So shadow shield calibration technique can be used for calibration the environmental survey meter. (author)

  20. Meter Designs Reduce Operation Costs for Industry

    2013-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center collaborated with Quality Monitoring and Control (QMC) of Humble, Texas, through a Space Act Agreement to design a balanced flow meter for the Space Shuttle Program. QMC founded APlus-QMC LLC to commercialize the technology, which has contributed to 100 new jobs, approximately $250,000 in yearly sales, and saved customers an estimated $10 million.

  1. Smart meters and economies in energy use

    A central theme promoted by the government for the energy transition, the mastering of energy consumption features notably the setting up of intelligent electricity networks and the installation of what are known as smart meters. Yet will consumers actually be in a position to become proponents of more sober use of energy? (author)

  2. Improvised Energy Meter Supporting Wireless Data Transfer

    E. Aravind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to design a prototype model of an energy meter which has the ability of wireless data transfer such as sending emails and SMS. In the current energy monitoring scenario, manual energy meter monitoring is a cumbersome and tedious process for the electricity boards. It involves huge manpower and higher expenditure for a simple task. Manual energy meter monitoring is highly erroneous and amounts to great losses for both the consumers and the electricity boards. In this conventional technique, losing the bills and delay in the arrival of the official to note down the reading are common affairs. Complete digitalization of bill delivery and transaction processes eliminates such uneventful circumstances. The manual reading method is inefficient to meet the raising power demands. The invention described here has the potential to wipe of manual energy meter reading from the scene and replace it with a sophisticated automated system facilitating remote monitoring of energy consumption. In this proposed system, the Raspberry Pi performs all the essential functions of a microcontroller and supports features like sending emails and SMS with the aid of Wi-Fi dongle and GSM modem. This automated system enables continuous monitoring of energy consumption.

  3. Measurement error analysis of taxi meter

    He, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Hang; Zhang, Da-Jian; Hou, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shi-pu

    2011-12-01

    The error test of the taximeter is divided into two aspects: (1) the test about time error of the taximeter (2) distance test about the usage error of the machine. The paper first gives the working principle of the meter and the principle of error verification device. Based on JJG517 - 2009 "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", the paper focuses on analyzing the machine error and test error of taxi meter. And the detect methods of time error and distance error are discussed as well. In the same conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class A) are evaluated, while in different conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class B) are also evaluated and measured repeatedly. By the comparison and analysis of the results, the meter accords with JJG517-2009, "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", thereby it improves the accuracy and efficiency largely. In actual situation, the meter not only makes up the lack of accuracy, but also makes sure the deal between drivers and passengers fair. Absolutely it enriches the value of the taxi as a way of transportation.

  4. KTH-1 tantalum and niobium concentration meter

    The KTH-1 tantalum and niobium concentration meter is intended for rapid analysis of technological samples in shop and works laboratories and for the automatic continuous determination of Ta or Nb concenration in flow technological solutions. The analysis time is less than 30 min, including sample preparation and processing of measurement results. The instrument is bases on absorption jump X-ray analysis

  5. Microcontroller Based Single Phase Digital Prepaid Energy Meter for Improved Metering and Billing System

    Md. Mejbaul Haque

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase digital prepaid energy meter based on two microcontrollers and a single phase energy meter IC. This digital prepaid energy meter does not have any rotating parts. The energy consumption is calculated using the output pulses of the energy meter chip and the internal counter of microcontroller (ATmega32. A microcontroller (ATtiny13 is used as a smart card and the numbers of units recharged by the consumers are written in it. A relay system has been used which either isolates or establishes the connection between the electrical load and energy meter through the supply mains depending upon the units present in the smart card.Energy consumption (kWh, maximum demand (kW, total unit recharged (kWh and rest of the units (kWh are stored in the ATmega32 to ensure the accurate measurement even in the event of an electrical power outage that can be easily read from a 20×4 LCD. As soon as the supply is restored, energy meter restarts with the stored values. A single phase prepaid energy meter prototype has been implemented to provide measurement up to 40A load current and 230V line to neutral voltage.Necessary program for microcontrollers are written in c-language and compiled by Win-AVR libc compiler.

  6. KVP meter errors induced by plastic wrap

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether erroneous kVp meter readings, induced by plastic wrap, affected the actual kVp (output) of a dental X-ray machine. To evaluate the effect of plastic wrap on dental X-ray machine kVp meters, a radiation output device was used to measure output in mR/ma.s. An intraoral dental X-ray unit (S.S. White Model number-sign 90W) was used to make the exposures. First, the kVp meter was not covered with plastic wrap and output readings were recorded at various kVp settings with the milliamperage and time held constant. Secondly, the same kVp settings were selected before the plastic wrap was placed. Milliamperage and time were again held to the same constant. The X-ray console was then covered with plastic wrap prior to measuring the output for each kVp. The wrap possessed a static charge. This charge induced erroneous kVp meter readings. Out-put readings at the various induced kVp settings were then recorded. A kVp of 50 with no wrap present resulted in the same output as a kVp of 50 induced to read 40 or 60 kVp by the presence of wrap. Similar results were obtained at other kVp settings. This indicates that the plastic wrap influences only the kVp meter needle and not the actual kilovoltage of the X-ray machine. Dental X-ray machine operators should select kVp meter readings prior to placing plastic wrap and should not adjust initial settings if the meter is deflected later by the presence of wrap. The use of such a procedure will result in proper exposures, fewer retakes, and less patient radiation. If plastic wrap leads to consistent exposure errors, clinicians may wish to use a 0.5% sodium hypochlorite disinfectant as an alternative to the barrier technique

  7. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  8. Energy metering, management and accounting; Comptage, gestion, et comptabilite de l`energie

    Foucherand, P. [Agence de l`environnement et de la maitrise de l`energie, Rhone-Alpes (France)

    1996-12-31

    The activities of the French Energy Conservation Agency (ADEME) in the field of energy management and conservation through energy metering in industrial plants, and more especially in mechanical and metal industries, are presented. Audit and diagnostic procedures and information/awareness measures are presented and discussed with the example of a regional program, and two operations conducted in a mechanical industrial plant and a foundry where metering systems were installed

  9. Managing Highways for Better Reliability - Assessing Reliability Benefits of Ramp Metering

    BHOURI, N; Kauppila, J. (Joonas)

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of reliability, few countries monitor it or explicitly incorporate it into transport policy making. Nevertheless, a number of policy options are available to improve this aspect of transport management. Active management of the network through ramp metering is recognized as an efficient way to control motorway traffic and improve average travel time. Far less is said about the reliability benefits of ramp metering. This paper assesses reliability benefits of ramp meteri...

  10. Vibration isolation for Coriolis Mass-Flow meters

    Ridder, de, J.

    2015-01-01

    A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, with high accuracy, range-ability and repeatability. The working principle of a CMFM is as follows: a fluid conveying tube is actuated to oscillate at a low amplitude. A fluid-flow in the vibrating tube induces Coriolis forces, which are proportional to the mass-flow, and affect the tube motion. Measuring the tube displacement in such a way that the change of its mode...

  11. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  12. Multi-Antenna Data Collector for Smart Metering Networks with Integrated Source Separation by Spatial Filtering

    Quednau, Philipp; Trommer, Ralph; Schmidt, Lorenz-Peter

    2016-03-01

    Wireless transmission systems in smart metering networks share the advantage of lower installation costs due to the expandability of separate infrastructure but suffer from transmission problems. In this paper the issue of interference of wireless transmitted smart meter data with third party systems and data from other meters is investigated and an approach for solving the problem is presented. A multi-channel wireless m-bus receiver was developed to separate the desired data from unwanted interferers by spatial filtering. The according algorithms are presented and the influence of different antenna types on the spatial filtering is investigated. The performance of the spatial filtering is evaluated by extensive measurements in a realistic surrounding with several hundreds of active wireless m-bus transponders. These measurements correspond to the future environment for data-collectors as they took place in rural and urban areas with smart gas meters equipped with wireless m-bus transponders installed in almost all surrounding buildings.

  13. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  14. Smart data acquisition system for utilities metering

    Ileana, I.; Risteiu, M.; Tulbure, A.; Rusu, M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper approaches the task of automatically reading and recognition of registered data on the utility meters of the users and is a part of a more complex project of our team concerning the remote data acquisition from industrial processes. A huge amount of utility meters in our country is of mechanical type without remote acquiring facilities and as an intermediate solution we propose an intelligent optical acquisition system which will store the read values in desktop and mobile devices. The main requirements of such a system are: portability, data reading accuracy, fast processing and energy independence. The paper analyses several solutions (including Artificial Neural Networks approach) tested by our team and present the experimental results and our conclusions.

  15. The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project

    Boroson, Todd A.

    1995-05-01

    The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project is an international partnership to build and operate two 8-meter telescopes, one on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and one on Cerro Pachon, Chile. The telescopes will be international facilities, open to the scientific communities of the six member countries, the United States (50%), the United Kingdom (25%), Canada (15%), Chile (5%), Argentina (2.5%), and Brazil (2.5%). The telescopes are designed to exploit the best atmospheric conditions at these excellent sites. Near diffraction limited performance will be delivered at 2.2 microns and longward, with minimal degradation of the best seeing conditions at shorter wavelengths. The telescopes and facilities are designed to achieve emissivity division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. NOAO is operated by AURA, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  16. Critical Review of Directional Neutron Survey Meters

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. (authors)

  17. SOLVENT DISPERSION AND FLOW METER CALCULATION RESULTS

    Nash, C.; Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.

    2013-06-21

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) found that the dispersion numbers for the six combinations of CSSX:Next Generation Solvent (NGS) “blend” and pure NGS versus salt solution, caustic wash, and strip aqueous solutions are all good. The dispersion numbers are indications of processability with centrifugal contactors. A comparison of solvent physical and thermal properties shows that the Intek™ solvent flow meter in the plant has a reading biased high versus calibrated flow when NGS is used, versus the standard CSSX solvent. The flow meter, calibrated for CSSX solvent, is predicted to read 2.8 gpm of NGS in a case where the true flow of NGS is 2.16 gpm.

  18. On a radiochromic dye dose meter

    Radiochromic dye dose meters made of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) with hexa (hydroxyethyl) pararosaniline cyanide (HPR-CN) as the radiation-sensitive element are being developed and investigated at Risoe. This report summarizes the present results and outlines plans for further research on this dose meter. Currently the response is found to be almost stable after irradiation, but recalibration of a given batch is needed every 3-6 months because of changes in response chracteristics with age. Under typical laboratory conditions, the temperature coefficient is found to be about +1% per degree Celcius and the relative humidity coefficient +(0.4-0.5)% per percent change in relative humidity. The response drops approximately 15% when the dose rate is lowered from 1.1 Gy/sec to 0.2 Gy/sec. (author)

  19. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and thos...

  20. Resonant speed meter for gravitational wave detection

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-aki

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational-wave detectors have been well developed and operated with high sensitivity. However, they still suffer from mirror displacement noise. In this paper, we propose a resonant speed meter, as a displacement noise-canceled configuration based on a ring-shaped synchronous recycling interferometer. The remarkable feature of this interferometer is that, at certain frequencies, gravitational-wave signals are amplified, while displacement noises are not.

  1. Macromodel of Precise Signal-Phase Meter

    Matej Šalamon; Bojan Jarc

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a precise macromodel of a signal-phase meter, which allows continuous phase measurement during simulation. It has been developed as a support tool during the design process of a signal-conditioning circuit for incremental position encoders. The development of a signal conditioning circuit requires precise measurements of small signal phases, amplitudes and offsets using the analog/digital circuit simulator. The phase measurement cannot be performed directly with a simulato...

  2. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Skidmore, Warren; Dell'Antonio, Ian; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G. C; Dickinson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most dist...

  3. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  4. Industry practices in metering and monitoring

    Salem, Anita; Gallenson, Ann; Aten, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide information and understanding to assist the Marine Corps in implementing metering and information systems to support effective use of vehicle fuel. A research project, including the study described here, and also a thesis and MBA project (see Henton & Noack, 2015; Robinson, 2015) examined how industry organizations implemented vehicle telematics systems, with a particular focus on how the organizations aligned fuel usage metrics to business...

  5. Critical review of directional neutron survey meters

    Having been overlooked for many years, research is now starting to take into account the directional distribution of the neutron work place field. The impact of not taking this into account has led to overly conservative estimates of dose in neutron workplace fields. This paper provides a critical review of this existing research into directional survey meters which could improve these estimates of dose. Instruments which could be adapted for use as directional neutron survey meters are also considered within this review. Using Monte-Carlo techniques, two of the most promising existing designs are evaluated; a boron-doped liquid scintillator and a multi-detector directional spectrometer. As an outcome of these simulations, possible adaptations to these instruments are suggested with a view to improving the portability of the instrument. -- Highlights: • We critically review the existing literature into directional survey meters. • Instruments which could be adapted for this purpose are also reviewed. • Investigate the potential of much lighter portable real-time instrument. • Improvements to existing instruments are suggested to improve their design. • Boron-Doped liquid scintillator design is the most promising, but needs further work

  6. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa current meters are widely used for recording the current speed and such other 4 parameters by deploying them over extended period of time. Normally data are recorded on magnetic tape and after recovery of current meters, data are read...

  7. An Incentive Mechanism for Decentralized Water Metering Decisions

    Andrés Chambouleyron

    2002-01-01

    Metering water consumption has been long advocated by economists in developing countries as a way to curb waste and prevent resource depletion. However, very few of these economists have studied the inefficiencies brought about by universal metering or the conditions under which decentralized water metering decisions are optimal. The decision where to install water meters generally rests on either the consumer or the company providing the service. This paper shows that if left unregulated, bo...

  8. The Effects of Pipewall Offsets on Water Meter Accuracy

    Pope, Jesse M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate flow measurement is essential for the management of any type of fluid system. In order for a meter to accurately measure the flow, some installation requirements must be met. These installation requirements are meant to produce a condition where there are limited flow disturbances as the fluid enters the meter. If flow disturbances do occur, the meter may produce inaccurate measurements. This research investigated the effect on accuracy that different types of 12-inch flow meters ...

  9. State of the Art and Trends Review of Smart Metering in Electricity Grids

    Noelia Uribe-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, awareness of energy efficiency, new trends in electricity markets, the obsolescence of the actual electricity model, and the gradual conversion of consumers to prosumer profiles are the main agents of progressive change in electricity systems towards the Smart Grid paradigm. The introduction of multiple distributed generation and storage resources, with a strong involvement of renewable energies, exposes the necessity of advanced metering or Smart Metering systems, able to manage and control those distributed resources. Due to the heterogeneity of the Smart Metering systems and the specific features of each grid, it is easy to find in the related literature a wide range of solutions with different features. This work describes the key elements in a Smart Metering system and compiles the most employed technologies and standards as well as their main features. Since Smart Metering systems can perform jointly with other activities, these growing initiatives are also addressed. Finally, a revision of the main trends in Smart Metering uses and deployments worldwide is included.

  10. HJD-I record and analysis meter for nuclear information

    A low-cost, small-volume, multi-function and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter HJD-I Record and Analysis Meter are stated for Nuclear Information. It's hardware and software were detailed and the 137Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  11. 49 CFR 192.359 - Customer meter installations: Operating pressure.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meter installations: Operating pressure... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.359 Customer meter installations: Operating...

  12. 49 CFR 192.357 - Customer meters and regulators: Installation.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Installation. 192... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.357 Customer meters and regulators: Installation....

  13. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  14. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    2010-07-01

    ... specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. This may involve using an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230... flow meter. (a) Application. You may use measured raw exhaust flow, as follows: (1) Use the...

  16. A new electronic personal exposure meter for radon gas

    A new electronic meter for personal radon exposures was developed and several prototypes were built. The exposure meter is optimized with respect to short-term (days) and long-term (>1y) measurements of indoor radon concentrations and personal radon exposure. The exposure meter records measured concentration levels in adjustable time intervals allowing a time resolved analysis

  17. Measurement of stray light and glare: comparison of Nyktotest, Mesotest, stray light meter, and computer implemented stray light meter

    van Rijn, L J; Nischler, C.; Gamer, D; Franssen, L.; de Wit, G; Kaper, R; Vonhoff, D; Grabner, G; Wilhelm, H.; Völker-Dieben, H.J.; van den Berg, T. J T P

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the properties of devices for measuring stray light and glare: the Nyktotest, Mesotest, “conventional” stray light meter and a new, computer implemented version of the stray light meter.

  18. Geometrical correction factors for heat flux meters

    Baumeister, K. J.; Papell, S. S.

    1974-01-01

    General formulas are derived for determining gage averaging errors of strip-type heat flux meters used in the measurement of one-dimensional heat flux distributions. The local averaging error e(x) is defined as the difference between the measured value of the heat flux and the local value which occurs at the center of the gage. In terms of e(x), a correction procedure is presented which allows a better estimate for the true value of the local heat flux. For many practical problems, it is possible to use relatively large gages to obtain acceptable heat flux measurements.

  19. Radiation survey meter with integrated GPS

    A portable radiation survey meter has been designed, developed for in-situ radioactivity measurements in field areas to accomplish gamma ray surveys for geological, geochemical, and environmental mapping. The instrument measures radioactivity along with latitude, longitude, and ambient temperature. Additional significant features are variable audible alarm indications above threshold limit, in-built memory storage of the complete data, subsequent data retrieval through USB drive/PC and PC based software for data compilation. Automatic shutdown of the instrument in ideal state conserves the battery power. The acquired data along with the geographical coordinates can be integrated with geological mapping tools for data interpretation. (author)

  20. A new model for the V-Cone meter in low pressure wet gas metering

    Wet gas metering with differential pressure (DP) devices (e.g. the orifice plate, the Venturi and the V-Cone) has gained increasing interest in the oil and gas industry. Many investigations have been performed and several models have been proposed. Among the DP devices, the V-Cone flow meter has received increasing attention owing to its remarkable performance characteristics, including high accuracy, excellent repeatability, wide turndowns, shorter straight length and stable signals. In this work, we developed a new method for predicting the gas flow rate in low pressure wet gas flow using a V-Cone flow meter with the diameter ratio of 0.55. The experimental fluid was air and tap water. The test pressure ranged from 0.10 to 0.48 MPa, and the gas and liquid mass flow rates ranged from 100 to 500 N m3 h−1 and from 0.030 to 0.358 m3 h−1, respectively. Thus, the Lockhart–Martinelli parameter, XLM, was up to 0.158 and the gas volume fraction ranged from 98.94% to 100%. A dimensionless parameter, K, was proposed in this work and defined as the two-phase flow coefficient of the flow meter. The results indicated that the K linearly increased with the Lockhart–Martinelli parameter. In addition, the K increased with the gas densiometric Froude number and decreased with the operating pressure when other parameters were kept constant. On the basis of the two-phase flow coefficient, a new wet gas model was developed and compared with seven popular wet gas models. It was found that with the V-Cone flow meter and under the present experimental conditions the new model produced a more accurate prediction of the wet gas than other models. The research approach to obtaining the model can also be used in the studies on other DP devices and thus will benefit the design of wet gas meters. (paper)

  1. A new model for the V-Cone meter in low pressure wet gas metering

    He, Denghui; Bai, Bofeng; Xu, Yong; Li, Xing

    2012-12-01

    Wet gas metering with differential pressure (DP) devices (e.g. the orifice plate, the Venturi and the V-Cone) has gained increasing interest in the oil and gas industry. Many investigations have been performed and several models have been proposed. Among the DP devices, the V-Cone flow meter has received increasing attention owing to its remarkable performance characteristics, including high accuracy, excellent repeatability, wide turndowns, shorter straight length and stable signals. In this work, we developed a new method for predicting the gas flow rate in low pressure wet gas flow using a V-Cone flow meter with the diameter ratio of 0.55. The experimental fluid was air and tap water. The test pressure ranged from 0.10 to 0.48 MPa, and the gas and liquid mass flow rates ranged from 100 to 500 N m3 h-1 and from 0.030 to 0.358 m3 h-1, respectively. Thus, the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter, XLM, was up to 0.158 and the gas volume fraction ranged from 98.94% to 100%. A dimensionless parameter, K, was proposed in this work and defined as the two-phase flow coefficient of the flow meter. The results indicated that the K linearly increased with the Lockhart-Martinelli parameter. In addition, the K increased with the gas densiometric Froude number and decreased with the operating pressure when other parameters were kept constant. On the basis of the two-phase flow coefficient, a new wet gas model was developed and compared with seven popular wet gas models. It was found that with the V-Cone flow meter and under the present experimental conditions the new model produced a more accurate prediction of the wet gas than other models. The research approach to obtaining the model can also be used in the studies on other DP devices and thus will benefit the design of wet gas meters.

  2. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM) to have following objectives a) to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF) architecture for using both the sensors, b) improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c) detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved character...

  3. Smart metering: strategy and implementation in Germany; Smart-Metering: Strategie und Umsetzung in Deutschland

    Dorn, Torsten [Logica Deutschland (Germany). Energy and Utilities; Energie-Service-Alliance (ENSEA e.V.) (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    While a number of publications and lectures on smart metering have already provided detailed coverage of the legal requirements, this is not the case for its implementation strategies. Coherent concepts for this task are still virtually inexistent. Any promising strategy to this end must take account of the fact that there are motives and interests involved which go far beyond the views currently prevailing in the sector. Despite the national differences, experiences gained in other European countries can offer important insights for the implementation of smart metering in Germany.

  4. Electronic meter with custom integrated circuit for electric energy measurement; Medidor eletronico de energia eletrica com circuito integrado dedicado

    Caldas, Roberto Pereira

    1990-04-01

    The design and implementation of an electrical energy electronic meter for operation at low voltages, according to two steps of development carried out in Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica - CEPEL is described. In the first step, an electronic meter with discrete commercial components has been developed, in order to demonstrate to the Brazilian power suppliers the feasibility of such a device for electrical energy metering and charging. The second step was constituted by the design of an integrated circuit, aiming the reduction of the cost of the meter as well as the enhancement of its reliability. Several techniques of electrical energy measurement are presented. The meter with discrete components makes use of a time division multiplier (TDM), in order to determine the active power in the load. Voltage and current levels have been reduced through the use of voltage and current sensors compatible with the TDM's inputs. A V-F converter employing continuos integration, has been used for the determination of the energy consumed by the load through the integration of the TDM's output signal. Most of the discrete components of the meter have been replaced by the dedicated integrated circuit. The TDM has remained essentially the same, but the V-F converter has been changed into a dual-slope one, which is more adequate for implementation in a single chip. The tests performed with the prototypes of the meter including both the meter with discrete components and the meter with the custom-made integrated circuit have presented measurement errors of less the 0,2 %. The initial goal, according to Brazilian specifications of electromechanical meters and international specifications for electronic meters, was 1 %. (author)

  5. Calibration and maintenance of vertical-axis type current meters

    Smoot, George F.; Novak, Charles E.

    1968-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the procedures used in the manufacture and calibration of current meters and to present in detail information pertinent to their proper maintenance and repair. Recent intensive studies on the calibration of current meters and the effects of wear of the component parts on the performance of the meters have led to the adoption of new procedures for the manufacture, calibration, maintenance, and repair of meters. This chapter, therefore, updates the provisional manual 'Care and Rating of Current Meters' (1957) by including these new procedures.

  6. Void fraction measurement with capacitance meter

    The void fraction in an air-water system has been measured using the capacitance meter. Various flow regimes including bubbly, slug, churn, annular and drop-annular flow have been investigated. The superficial air and water velocity have been varied in the range of 0.145 less than or equal to j /SUB f/ less than or equal to 3.62 ft/sec and 0.183 less than or equal to j /SUB g/ less than or equal to 63.7 ft/sec respectively and the void fraction has been varied from 0.04 to 0.94. The capacitance meter is calibrated by both quick closing valve method and theoretical calculation based on drift-flux model. The sensitivity of void fraction measurement on sensor shape has been investigated with sensors of different width. Using the conventional theoretical curves of void fraction vs. relative susceptance, the results show that the sensor width has strong effect on void fraction measurement especially annular flow regime. The results also show that significant discrepancy exists between the theoretical curve and the experimental results. The reason for this discrepancy has been identified due to two dimensional edge effect of the circular sensor. A 2-D model has been developed taking into account of both sensor width and flow regime which gives good prediction of the experimental results

  7. FORMULATION AND QUALITY CONTROL OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    Ramteke K.H.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The MDI is now established as the principal dosage form of inhalation drug therapy for bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Metered dose inhalers (MDIs are pharmaceutical delivery systems designed for oral or nasal use, which deliver discrete doses of aerosolized medicament to the respiratory tract. The MDI contains the active substance, dissolved or suspended in a liquefied propellant system held in a pressurized container that is sealed with a metering valve. In general, MDI formulations can take the form of either suspensions or solutions. Traditionally the preferred route has been to formulate a suspension of the micronized drug substance in the liquid propellant (CFC or HFA. In some cases, additional excipients (e.g., surfactants and/or co- solvents have been added to improve the quality of the dispersion. Quality control testing of MDI batches is applied to the individual inhaler components prior to manufacture, as in-process controls during the manufacturing, and to the finished product. An exhaustive search for new propellants was made at the time of the switch away from CFCs, and it is unlikely that new ones will be found with the necessary physicochemical properties combined with an excellent safety profile.

  8. Smart metering in the gas sector. A field report; Smart Metering im Gassektor. Ein Erfahrungsbericht

    Smejkal, Gerhard [WIEN ENERGIE Gasnetz GmbH, Vienna (Austria)

    2011-07-01

    Smart metering is a much-discussed concept in the power industry. Although most of the discussions focus on electric power supply and smart grids, the WIEN ENERGIE Gasnetz GmbH has been investigating the technology for its gas grid for more than three years now. The positive results of a field test are reported. (orig.)

  9. Transforming the blood glucose meter into a general healthcare meter for in vitro diagnostics in mobile health.

    Lan, Tian; Zhang, Jingjing; Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in mobile network and smartphones have provided an enormous opportunity for transforming in vitro diagnostics (IVD) from central labs to home or other points of care (POC). A major challenge to achieving the goal is a long time and high costs associated with developing POC IVD devices in mobile Health (mHealth). Instead of developing a new POC device for every new IVD target, we and others are taking advantage of decades of research, development, engineering and continuous improvement of the blood glucose meter (BGM), including those already integrated with smartphones, and transforming the BGM into a general healthcare meter for POC IVDs of a wide range of biomarkers, therapeutic drugs and other analytical targets. In this review, we summarize methods to transduce and amplify selective binding of targets by antibodies, DNA/RNA aptamers, DNAzyme/ribozymes and protein enzymes into signals such as glucose or NADH that can be measured by commercially available BGM, making it possible to adapt many clinical assays performed in central labs, such as immunoassays, aptamer/DNAzyme assays, molecular diagnostic assays, and enzymatic activity assays onto BGM platform for quantification of non-glucose targets for a wide variety of IVDs in mHealth. PMID:26946282

  10. Technical and governance considerations for advanced metering infrastructure/smart meters: Technology, security, uncertainty, costs, benefits, and risks

    The fundamental role of policymakers when considering Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), or ‘smart meters for energy and water infrastructure is to investigate a broad range of complex interrelated issues. These include alternative technical and non-technical options and deployment needs, the cost and benefits of the infrastructure (risks and mitigation measures), and the impact of a number of stakeholders: consumers, distributors, retailers, competitive market operators, competing technology companies, etc. The scale and number of potential variables in the AMI space is an almost unprecedented challenge to policymakers, with the anticipation of new ancillary products and services, associated market contestability, related regulatory and policy amendments, and the adequacy of consumer protection, education, and safety considerations requiring utmost due-diligence. Embarking on AMI investment entails significant technical, implementation, and strategic risk for governments and administering bodies, and an active effort is required to ensure AMI governance and planning maximises the potential benefits, and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks to stakeholders. This work seeks to clarify AMI fundamentals and discusses the technical and related governance considerations from a dispassionate perspective, yet acknowledges many stakeholders tend to dichotomise debate, and obfuscate both advantages and benefits, and the converse. - Highlights: • AMI presents an almost unprecedented technical and governance policy challenge. • AMI enables vertical integration of electricity, gas, water, IT, and telco entities • AMI investments involve major technical, implementation, and strategic decisions. • Adequacy of consumer education, safety, privacy, and protection is paramount. • Policy must maximise AMI benefits and minimise uncertainties, costs, and risks

  11. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h−1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  12. The Ozone Layer and Metered Dose Inhalers

    Louis-Philippe Boulet

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting living organisms against ultraviolet radiation. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC contained in metered-dose inhalers (MDIs contribute to ozone depletion and in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer established 10 years ago, phase-out strageies have been developed worldwide for this category of agents. Alternatives to CFC-containing inhalers have been developed, such as powder inhalers and those using hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs as propellants, which have been shown to be as safe and effective as CFC-containing inhalers and even offer interesting advantages over older inhalers. The transition to non-CFC MDIs requires a major effort to make the new products available and to ensure adequate comparision with the previous ones. It also requires a harmonization of actions taken by industry, government, licencing bodies and patients or health professional associations to ensure adequate information and education to the public and respiratory care providers.

  13. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing I: Overview

    Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Travouillon, T; Blum, R; Bustos, E; Chanan, G; Djorgovski, S G; Gillett, P; Gregory, B; Nelson, J; Otarola, A; Seguel, J; Vasquez, J; Walker, A; Walker, D; Wang, L

    2009-01-01

    As part of the conceptual and preliminary design processes of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the TMT site testing team has spent the last five years measuring the atmospheric properties of five candidate mountains in North and South America with an unprecedented array of instrumentation. The site testing period was preceded by several years of analyses selecting the five candidates, Cerros Tolar, Armazones and Tolonchar in northern Chile; San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico and the 13 North (13N) site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Site testing was concluded by the selection of two remaining sites for further consideration, Armazones and Mauna Kea 13N. It showed that all five candidates are excellent sites for an extremely large astronomical observatory and that none of the sites stands out as the obvious and only logical choice based on its combined properties. This is the first article in a series discussing the TMT site testing project.

  14. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-27

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  15. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  16. Educational electrical appliance power meter and logger

    Nunn, John

    2013-09-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power device such as an electric kettle. Typical power-versus-time profiles are shown for a kettle, a dishwasher and a fridge-freezer. The components are cheap and the cost may be recouped many times over from the resultant energy saving. Custom software will be made available free of charge to anyone who requests it. It is hoped that students attending poorly resourced schools will be able to make power loggers for educational use.

  17. The dynamic response of Coriolis mass flow meters

    Cheesewright, R.; Clark, C.; Belhadj, A.; Hou, Y. Y.

    2003-09-01

    The speed of response of commercial Coriolis meters to a step change in mass flow rate corresponds to a time constant which may range from 0.1s to several seconds. This response is a result both of the dynamic response of the physical components of the meter and of the electronics and the computational algorithms used to convert that dynamic response into an estimate of the mass flow rate. A comprehensive investigation of the dynamic response is presented with a view to establishing the ultimate limits of the overall meter response. Attention is initially concentrated on a simple straight tube meter and analytical solutions are presented for the response to a step change in flow rate both for an undamped meter and for a meter with internal damping. These results are compared with results from a finite element model of the same meter and then the finite element modelling is extended to geometries typical of commercial meters. Finally, representative results are presented from an experimental study of the response of commercial meters to step changes in flow rate. A study of the essential components of the algorithm used in a meter leads to the conclusion that the time constant cannot be less than the period of one cycle of the meter drive. The analytical, finite element and experimental results all combine to show that the meters all respond in the period of one drive cycle but that the flow step induces fluctuations in the meter output which decay under the influence of the flow tube damping. It is the additional damping introduced in the signal processing to overcome these fluctuations which is responsible for the large observed time constants. Possible alternative approaches are discussed.

  18. Proceedings of the 2006 smart metering conference and expo

    Ontario's smart metering program was launched as part of a general demand response management strategy to improve energy conservation in the province. Smart metering will help consumers to control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response, and will allow consumers to better manage their energy consumption and use it more effectively during cheaper, off-peak times of day. Smart metering systems measure how much electricity a customer uses on an hourly basis, and data is transferred daily to local electricity distributors. Toronto Hydro will have close to 200,000 smart meters installed by the end of 2006. By 2010, Toronto will be North America's largest urban centre to have made the full transition to smart metering technology across its entire base. This conference provided an update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering project, as well as details of their demand response program. Presentations were given by a variety of experts in information technology as well as electric power industry leaders North American demand and response metering strategies were reviewed, as well as various initiatives in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). Security risks associated with smart metering environments were reviewed. An evaluation of the current regulatory environment was presented along with a discussion of smart metering standards and compatibility issues. New metering technologies were presented as well as various associated demand side management tools. Smart metering pilot programs and initiatives were discussed, and best practices in smart metering were evaluated. Twenty-nine presentations were given at the conference, 13 of which have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  20. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))

    2012-01-15

    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  1. Feasibility of a 30-meter space based laser transmitter

    Berggren, R. R.; Lenertz, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the application of large expandable mirror structures in future space missions to establish the feasibility and define the potential of high power laser systems for such applications as propulsion and power transmission. Application of these concepts requires a 30-meter diameter, diffraction limited mirror for transmission of the laser energy. Three concepts for the transmitter are presented. These concepts include consideration of continuous as well as segmented mirror surfaces and the major stow-deployment categories of inflatable, variable geometry and assembled-in-space structures. The mirror surface for each concept would be actively monitored and controlled to maintain diffraction limited performance at 10.6 microns during operation. The proposed mirror configurations are based on existing aerospace state-of-the-art technology. The assembled-in-space concept appears to be the most feasible, at this time.

  2. A Field Exercise on Groundwater Flow Using Seepage Meters and Mini-Piezometers.

    Lee, David R.; Cherry, John A.

    1979-01-01

    Basic principles of physical hydrogeology and the nature of hydrologic interactions between groundwater and surface water can be demonstrated using two devices, the miniature piezometer and the seepage meter which can be cheaply constructed by the teacher and students. Use of the devices and learning activities are presented. (RE)

  3. Design and Implementation of Intel ligent Water Meter Reading System

    XU Tao-tao

    2016-01-01

    With the rise of intelligent residential housing project and the implement of intelligent meter reading system, the four become the typical representative at the same time , they also become the short board of the old residential intelligent direction and constraints .As one of the four meter is an important measurement tool to save water resources .In the process of the development of society and technology , different types of meter reading methods have been derived , but there are still many problems , such as difficulty , time consuming , error copy , misreading .With the current mature image processing technology , the Internet technology and the rapid development of handheld intelligent terminal , the paper develop a meter reading system base on the Android system.The system can reduce the work intensity and the cost of meter reading , and it can make up the blank which old district and the mechanical meter reading can not be intelligent .

  4. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  5. Automatic Meter Reading and Theft Control System by Using GSM

    P. Rakesh Malhotra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system in energy meter. Current transformer is used to measure the total power consumption for house or industrial purpose. This recorded reading is transmitted to the electricity board for every 60 days once. For transmitting the reading of energy meter GSM module is used. To avoid theft, infrared sensor is placed in the screw portion of energy meter seal. If the screw is removed from the meter a message is sent to the electricity board. The measuring of energy meter and monitoring of IR sensor is done with a PIC microcontroller.The informative system will be helpful for the electricity board to monitor the entire supply and the correct billing accordingly without any mishap. This model reduces the manual manipulation work andtheft control.

  6. Recursive Pyramid Algorithm-Based Discrete Wavelet Transform for Reactive Power Measurement in Smart Meters

    Atiq, Mahin K.; Waleed Ejaz; Najam ul Hasan; Hyung Seok Kim

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the active, reactive, and apparent power is one of the most fundamental tasks of smart meters in energy systems. Recently, a number of studies have employed the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) for power measurement in smart meters. The most common way to implement DWT is the pyramid algorithm; however, this is not feasible for practical DWT computation because it requires either a log N cascaded filter or O (N) word size memory storage for an input signal of the N-point. Both ...

  7. Method of energy efficiency of residential house by implementing of automatic controlled heat metering system

    Taisiya Olegovna Zadvinskaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The method of increasing the efficiency of heat energy describes in this article. The method is based on installation of heat metering system and automatic controlled domestic heating plant in residential building. An example of comparative calculation of the heat input and estimation for heat energy in a typical residential building, according to different methods which are used for the calculation of extra charge by the energy supplier, in the presence of the heat metering system and automatic controlled domestic heating plant and without. Payback period of the proposed activities was calculated.

  8. Advanced metering policy development and influence structures: The case of Norway

    Responding to a global trend of installing smart meters Norway has taken a route of full governmental and regulatory coordination. The article maps and analyses the main influences on the developments of Norwegian Advanced Metering policy. Based on 12 interviews and extensive document mapping the Norwegian policy developments are traced from about 1990 to 2014, divided into three phases: Before 2000, between 2000 and 2007, and after 2007. It finds that the main influence and push came from an increasingly united industry sector, fronted by the grid utilities with respective interest organizations. Policy change has been boosted by years of constrained supply, creating incentives for political action. Also developments at the EU level have been important for creating attention for smart meters, while consumer groups have been less influential. The national regulator NVE has adapted its policy process to include external expertise, in particular from the grid companies. The findings confirm that influence into policy processes is a matter of financial and organizational resources and expert knowledge. Of particular policy relevance is the weak organization of private consumer interests into these policy streams, which may be important for further policy development for distributed generation and regulation of private generation activities. -- Highlights: •Roll-out of smart meters is in Norway coordinated by national regulation. •Grid companies and related interest organizations has been most influential. •EU has provided informal pressure on smart meter policy. •Consumer interests have been less influential in the policy process

  9. An Agent Based Simulation Of Smart Metering Technology Adoption

    Zhang,Tao; Nuttall, William J.

    2007-01-01

    Based on the classic behavioural theory ?the Theory of Planned Behaviour?, we develop an agent-based model to simulate the diffusion of smart metering technology in the electricity market. We simulate the emergent adoption of smart metering technology under different management strategies and economic regulations. Our research results show that in terms of boosting the take-off of smart meters in the electricity market, choosing the initial users on a random and geographically dispersed basis...

  10. Established Designs For Advanced Ground Based Astronomical Telescopes In The 1-meter To 4-meter Domain

    Hull, Anthony B.; Barentine, J.; Legters, S.

    2012-01-01

    The same technology and analytic approaches that led to cost-effective unmitigated successes for the spaceborne Kepler and WISE telescopes are now being applied to meter-class to 4-meter-class ground telescopes, providing affordable solutions to ground astronomy, with advanced features as needed for the application. The range of optical and mechanical performance standards and features that can be supplied for ground astronomy shall be described. Both classical RC designs, as well as unobscured designs are well represented in the IOS design library, allowing heritage designs for both night time and day time operations, the latter even in the proximity of the sun. In addition to discussing this library of mature features, we will also describe a process for working with astronomers early in the definition process to provide the best-value solution. Solutions can include remote operation and astronomical data acquisition and transmission.

  11. FUSION OF VENTURI AND ULTRASONIC FLOW METER FOR ENHANCED FLOW METER CHARACTERISTICS USING FUZZY LOGIC

    K.V. Santhosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  12. The measuring set: reactor power meter (type of SG-8), reactor energy meter (type of SG-11) and digital dose meter (type of SG-9) for reactor rigs operation

    A measuring set consisting of the Reactor Power Meter, Reactor Energy Meter and Digital Dose Meter is described. The gamma radiation of water in the reactor primary cooling circuit reaches the ionisation chamber and involves the output current, driving the Reactor Power Meter and Reactor Energy Meter. The Digital Dose Meter is controlled by the output current of the self-powered detector mounted inside the reactor rig. (author)

  13. Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current...

  14. Application of Intelligent Agents in Wireless Prepaid Energy Meter

    Suresh Sankaranarayanan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepaid meter (PM is getting very popular especially in developing countries. There are many advantages to use prepaid meter as opposed to postpaid meter both to the utility provider and to the consumer. Brunei has adopted PM but it is not intelligent and not wireless enabled. Reading meters and topping up balance are still done manually. Utility provider does not have information on the usage statistics and has only limited functionalities in the grid control. So accordingly an intelligent agent based wireless prepaid energy meter been developed using JADE-LEAP Agent development kit allowing agent from utility provider to query wireless energy meter for energy values for every household. These statistics can be used for statistical computation of the power consumed and for policy and future planning. Agent from consumers’ mobile devices can query the energy meter to study the power consumed and for topping up the balance. When the meter reaches the threshold, agent at energy meter would also send messages to alert consumers for topping up through mobile handset and failing to do so will lead to power being cut automatically

  15. Quantitative estimation of the influence of external vibrations on the measurement error of a coriolis mass-flow meter

    Ridder, de, J.; Hakvoort, W.B.J.; van Dijk; Lötters, J.C.; Boer, de, J.W.; Dimitrovova, Z.; Almeida, De

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the quantitative influence of external vibrations on the measurement value of a Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter for low flows is investigated, with the eventual goal to reduce the influence of vibrations. Model results are compared with experimental results to improve the knowledge on how external vibrations affect the measurement error. A Coriolis Mass-Flow Meter (CMFM) is an active device based on the Coriolis force principle for direct mass-flow measurements, independent of fluid pr...

  16. Evaluation of MDA instant working level meters

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines and the Mine Safety and Health Administration have evaluated, for accuracy and reliability, a commercially available Instant Working Level Meter (IWLM) used by the mining industry to measure short-lived 222Rn-progeny concentrations. Six evaluation parameters were determined experimentally. These included two alpha and two beta detector efficiencies for the short-lived 222Rn progeny and two internal conversion factors. The experimental procedure detailing the evaluation technique is described in the paper. The measuring accuracy of 13 instruments is as follows: average inherent uncertainty (at least 68% confidence interval) is +/- 18%; for counting statistics and rounding at 0.10 WL (2.1 microJ m-3), coefficients of variation range from +/- 15% at low gamma flux backgrounds to +/- 50% at gamma flux backgrounds of 0.39 microC kg-1 h-1 (1.5 mR h-1). All parameters were derived theoretically and measured experimentally. All tests were conducted at a sample flow rate of 2.5 L min-1. A sample air flow rate of 7.5 L min-1 can lower the counting statistics to more acceptable levels at 0.1 WL (2.1 microJ m-3)

  17. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  18. Survey meter using novel inorganic scintillators

    Single crystal scintillator materials are widely used for detection of high-energy photons and particles. There is continuous demand for new scintillator materials with higher performance because of increasing number of medical, industrial, security and other applications. This article presents the recent development of three novel inorganic scintillators; Pr-doped Lu3Al5O12 (Pr:LuAG), Ce doped Gd3 (Al, Ga)5O12 (Ce:GAGG) and Ce or Eu-doped 6LiCaAlF6 (Ce:LiCAF, Eu:LiCAF). Pr:LuAG shows very interesting scintillation properties including very fast decay time, high light yield and excellent energy resolution. Taking the advantage of these properties, positron emission mammography (PEM) equipped with Pr:LuAG were developed. Ce:GAGG shows very high light yield, which is much higher than that of Ce:LYSO. Survey meter using Ce:GAGG is developed using this scintillator. Ce:LiCAF and Eu:LiCAF were developed for neutron detection. The advantage and disadvantage are discussed comparing with halide scintillators. Eu-doped LiCAF indicated five times higher light yield than that of existing Li-glass. It is expected to be used as the alternative of 3He. (author)

  19. Thirty meter telescope observatory software architecture

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be a ground-based, 30-m optical-IR telescope with a highly segmented primary mirror located on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The TMT Observatory Software (OSW) system will deliver the software applications and infrastructure necessary to integrate all TMT software into a single system and implement a minimal end-to-end science operations system. At the telescope, OSW is focused on the task of integrating and efficiently controlling and coordinating the telescope, adaptive optics, science instruments, and their subsystems during observation execution. From the software architecture viewpoint, the software system is viewed as a set of software components distributed across many machines that are integrated using a shared software base and a set of services that provide communications and other needed functionality. This paper describes the current state of the TMT Observatory Software focusing on its unique requirements, architecture, and the use of middle-ware technologies and solutions that enable the OSW design. (authors)

  20. Thirty meter telescope adaptive optics computing challenges

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be used with Adaptive Optics (AO) systems to allow near diffraction-limited performance in the near-infrared and achieve the main TMT science goals. Adaptive optics systems reduce the effect of the atmospheric distortions by dynamically measuring the distortions with wavefront sensors, performing wavefront reconstruction with a real time controller (RTC), and then compensating for the distortions with deformable mirrors. The requirements for the RTC subsystem of the TMT first light AO system will represent a significant advance over the current generation of astronomical AO control systems. Memory and processing requirements would be at least 2 orders of magnitude greater than the currently most powerful AO systems using conventional approaches, so that innovative wavefront reconstruction algorithms and new hardware approaches will be required. In this paper, we will first present the requirements and challenges for the RTC of the first light AO system, together with the algorithms that have been developed to reduce the memory and processing requirements, and then two possible hardware architectures based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). (authors)

  1. Development of a CONTOUR-METER

    Dose calculation in patients undergoing radiotherapy treatments requires the knowledge of their anatomical geometry.Making reference to the specific case of breast cancer, one of the measurement that are made on the patients is the acquisition of the breast's contour, determined in an axial plane from a point marked on the breastbone until another point marked on the thorax side under the armpit.This measurement is normally made with a mechanic contour-meter: a device formed by a series of plastic-covered wires designed to be applied on the patient's skin copying the breast contour after it deformation.The geometrical error associated with this procedure is ± 1 cm. The precision of the dose calculation could be increased acquiring a breast contour more accurate.This objective was achieved developing a method based on breast images from a digital camera.The algorithms to obtain an axial-plane image of the contour from digital photographs taken from arbitrary positions were developed.A geometric transformation is applied to the photograph to correct for perspective distortions, obtaining a frontal - undistorted image (axial-plane image).A software tool to make all the image processing was developed under MatLab.The maximum geometrical error detected during the validation of the process was 2 mm

  2. Coriolis-effect in mass flow metering

    Raszillier, H.; Durst, F.

    The physical background for the so-called Coriolis mass flow meter is described. The vibration modes of a fluid conveying straight pipe segment are analyzed. These modes deviate in shape from those appearing in the absence of fluid motion. The effect of fluid inertia may be exploited for the purpose of flow measurement. The analysis is performed under a simplifying approximation: the pipe is considered as a beam, the fluid as a moving string. The equations describing the vibrations are derived variationally, with the constraint of a common vibration amplitude of both fluid and pipe. The Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint gives the interaction force between pipe and fluid. The modes are determined by a perturbation procedure. The analysis shows how the time delay between the vibrations of two appropriately chosen points of the pipe may serve to determine the mass flow rate of the fluid. The precise role of the Coriolis force is considered. The improvements of the used approximation are discussed.

  3. Coriolis-effect in mass flow metering

    The paper aims at a detailed description of the physical background for the so called Coriolis mass flow meter. It presents essentially an analysis of the (free) vibration modes of a fluid conveying straight pipe segment. Due to the inertial effects of the flowing fluid, mainly the Coriolis force, these modes deviate in shape (and in frequency) from those appearing in the absence of fluid motion. The effect of fluid inertia may, therefore, be exploited for the purpose of flow measurement. The analysis is performed under a simplifying approximation: The pipe is considered as a beam, the fluid as a moving string. This approximation leaves the fluid with only one degree of freedom, connected with its mean velocity, and eliminates an infinity of degrees of freedom of the pipe. Yet it keeps the essential features of the phenomenon. The equations describing the vibrations are derived variationally, with the constraint of a common vibration amplitude of both fluid and pipe. The Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint gives the interaction force between pipe and fluid. The modes are determined by a perturbation procedure, wherein the small (perturbation) parameter is related to the fluid velocity. The analysis shows, as main result, how the time delay between the vibrations of two appropriately chosen points of the pipe may serve to determine the mass flow rate of the fluid. Other aspects of the problem, like the precise role of the Coriolis force, are considered. The possible improvement of the used approximation is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  5. Humidity dependence in kerma area product meter used in diagnostic X ray examinations

    The air-kerma area product, PKA, is a dosimetric quantity that can be directly related to the patient dose and used for risk assessment associated with different x-ray examinations. PKA has the unit Gym2 and can be directly measured by use of a Kerma Area Product (KAP) meter placed in the radiation beam. PKA is the recommended quantity for use in the establishment of diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for conventional x-ray examinations and is also a good indicator for when threshold doses for deterministic effects are reached in interventional x-ray procedures. Most modern x-ray equipment provides the operator with the total PKA from the examination or procedure. This PKA is either obtained from PKA measurements from a built-in KAP meter or calculated from exposure parameters. To get a reliable estimate of DRLs and the patient dose, it is essential that the PKA measurement is correct. Thus all environmental influences on the KAP meter should be taken into account. These influences can either be corrected for or included in the measurement uncertainty. These have to be considered both in the calibration of the KAP-meters, in the use of the KAP meters and in the determination of DRLs. A KAP meter is an electrometer and a plane parallel ion chamber with an active area of typical 15 cm X 15 cm. The KAP meter usually consist of three plastic plates (PMMA) which is coated with a conducting layer made of indium oxide doped with tin (In2O3:Sn). This coating is used due to its transparency to light. The air layers between the plates (sensitive volume) are open to the air. Thus the readings from the KAP meter have to be corrected for air pressure and temperature as for other ion chambers. It has been assumed that the humidity dependence of the KAP meter is so small that no correction has been necessary. This work will show that KAP meter with PMMA plastic plates coated with In2O3:Sn shows a humidity dependence so large that corrections should be considered. The measurements

  6. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  7. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert

    2010-01-01

    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  8. Digital rate meters in radiological instruments for accident conditions

    Advantages of digital rate meter, when applied in radiological protection instruments for accident conditions, re discussed. Some requirements imposed by accident conditions on such instruments are indicated. The specific properties of digital rate meters are shown and some solutions which enable realisation of defined tasks are pointed out. The behaviour of one solution is illustrated by an example simulated on the computer. (author)

  9. Utilization of eddy current flow meter for sodium flow measurement in FBRs

    Highlights: • Design and development of eddy current flow meters for FBRs have been carried out. • The developed flow meter was tested and calibrated in sodium. • The developed flow meter was used in FBTR reactor, India and in Phenix reactor, France. • The performance of the eddy current flow meter is found to be excellent. -- Abstract: Liquid metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors form the second stage of Indian nuclear programme. Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is 500MWe pool type reactor, which is under construction at Kalpakkam, India. Measurement of sodium flow in the reactor system is essential from both operational and safety point of view. Primary sodium pump discharge, secondary sodium circuit, safety grade decay heat removal circuit and auxiliary sodium circuits are the critical locations in an FBR, where sodium flow measurement is of importance. Apart from this, sodium flow measurement in subassemblies in the core facilitates the detection of flow blockage in the subassemblies. Permanent magnet flow meter is widely used for pipe flow measurement in sodium systems, however, it cannot be considered for applications like subassembly and pump discharge flow measurements. From the safety point of view, flow through the core should be ensured under all operating conditions in a FBR. Development of suitable flow sensors meeting the dimensional constraints and having accessibility for maintenance is a challenge. An eddy current flow meter was designed and developed for sodium flow measurement in PFBR and the developed probe was tested for its performance in a sodium test rig. The developed ECFM was also used for core flow measurements in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), India and in Phenix reactor, France, during its end of life test before decommissioning. This paper discusses the activities related to the development, calibration, testing of ECFM probe for PFBR and results of its utilization for flow measurement in FBTR and in Phenix reactor, France

  10. Digital Phase Meter for a Laser Heterodyne Interferometer

    Loya, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The Digital Phase Meter is based on a modified phase-locked loop. When phase alignment between the reference input and the phase-shifted metrological input is achieved, the loop locks and the phase shift of the digital phase shifter equals the phase difference that one seeks to measure. This digital phase meter is being developed for incorporation into a laser heterodyne interferometer in a metrological apparatus, but could also be adapted to other uses. Relative to prior phase meters of similar capability, including digital ones, this digital phase meter is smaller, less complex, and less expensive. The phase meter has been constructed and tested in the form of a field-programmable gate array (FPGA).

  11. Application of a scattered-light radiometric power meter

    Caron, James N.; DiComo, Gregory P.; Ting, Antonio C.; Fischer, Richard P.

    2011-04-01

    The power measurement of high-power continuous-wave laser beams typically calls for the use of water-cooled thermopile power meters. Large thermopile meters have slow response times that can prove insufficient to conduct certain tests, such as determining the influence of atmospheric turbulence on transmitted beam power. To achieve faster response times, we calibrated a digital camera to measure the power level as the optical beam is projected onto a white surface. This scattered-light radiometric power meter saves the expense of purchasing a large area power meter and the required water cooling. In addition, the system can report the power distribution, changes in the position, and the spot size of the beam. This paper presents the theory of the scattered-light radiometric power meter and demonstrates its use during a field test at a 2.2 km optical range.

  12. Combining smart metering with successful marketing; Smart Metering mit erfolgreichem Marketing verbinden

    Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    Smart metering can be implemented in various ways. Apart from data transmission via powerline cables, also teletransmission via GPRS may be advantageous. A current project investigates both communication strategies which can also be used in parallel, especially by major utilities with the appropriate infrastructure. In the case of concrete implementation, it has been found that the communication with users must be clear in order to give them an idea of the advantages of the new technologies, and that an appropriate marketing strategy must be developed for successful rollout. (orig.)

  13. Vortex shedding flow meter performance at high flow velocities

    Siegwarth, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    In some of the ducts of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), the maximum liquid oxygen flow velocities approach 10 times those at which liquid flow measurements are normally made. The hydrogen gas flow velocities in other ducts exceed the maximum for gas flow measurement by more than a factor of 3. The results presented here show from water flow tests that vortex shedding flow meters of the appropriate design can measure water flow to velocities in excess of 55 m/s, which is a Reynolds number of about 2 million. Air flow tests have shown that the same meter can measure flow to a Reynolds number of at least 22 million. Vortex shedding meters were installed in two of the SSME ducts and tested with water flow. Narrow spectrum lines were obtained and the meter output frequencies were proportional to flow to + or - 0.5% or better over the test range with no flow conditioning, even though the ducts had multiple bends preceeding the meter location. Meters with the shedding elements only partially spanning the pipe and some meters with ring shaped shedding elements were also tested.

  14. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  15. Note: Ultrasonic liquid flow meter for small pipes

    Yu, Yang; Zong, Guanghua

    2012-02-01

    An ultrasonic flow meter for small pipes is presented. For metal pipe diameter smaller than 10 mm, clamp-on ultrasonic contrapropagation flow meters may encounter difficulties if cross talk or the short acoustic path contributes to large uncertainty in transit time measurement. Axial inline flow meters can avoid these problems, but they may introduce other problems if the transducer port is not properly positioned. Three types of pipe connecting tees are compared using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. CFD shows the 45° tee has more uniform velocity distribution over the measuring section. A prototype flow meter using the 45° tee was designed and tested. The zero flow experiment shows the flow meter has a maximum of 0.002 m/s shift over 24 h. The flow meter is calibrated by only 1 meter factor. After calibration, inaccuracy lower than 0.1% of reading was achieved in the laboratory, for a measuring range from 15 to 150 g/s (0.29 to 2.99 m/s; Re = 2688 to 26 876).

  16. The Effect of Flow Pulsations on Coriolis Mass Flow Meters

    Cheesewright, R.; Clark, C.

    1998-11-01

    It has been reported that the accuracy of Coriolis mass flow meters can be adversely affected by the presence of pulsations (at particular frequencies) in the flow. A full analysis of the transient performance of a commercial Coriolis meter is only possible using finite element techniques. However, this is a transient, nonlinear problem in which the space and time variables are not (strictly) separable and the finite element techniques for tackling such problems make it desirable to have an analytical solution for a simplified meter, against which the finite element solution can be compared. This paper reports such a solution. The solution will also provide guidance for experiments. Existing analytical solutions for the performance of Coriolis meters in steady flow (a complex eigenvalue problem) are not easily extended to the transient flow case. The paper thus begins with the presentation of an alternative solution for steady flow through a simple, straight tube, Coriolis meter and it is notable that this solution gives a simple analytical expression for the experimentally observed small change in the resonant frequency of the meter, with flow rate, as well as an analytical expression for the meter sensitivity. The analysis is extended to the transient case, using classical, forced vibration, modal decomposition techniques. The solution shows that, unlike the steady flow case where the detector signals contain components at the drive frequency and the second mode frequency (Coriolis frequency), for pulsatile flow the detector signals will in general contain components involving at least four frequencies. It is demonstrated that the meter error depends on the algorithm used to estimate the phase difference from the detector signals. The particular flow pulsation frequencies which could possibly lead to large meter errors are identified.

  17. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communication...... channels. AMI is also featuring to communicate control functions from utility to the smart meters. So, both the consumption data and control data needs to be securely transmitted to their ends. Any leak and tempering may produce the dire effects to both utility and consumers. Hence security of AMI is a...

  18. Numerical study of impurity distribution in ultrasonic heat meter body

    石硕; 孙建亭; 杜广生; 张敏

    2015-01-01

    Based on a discrete phase model, the numerical simulation is carried out for the flow fields of different size calcium carbo- nate suspensions in the ultrasonic heat meter body. The flow characteristics and the impurity distribution in the ultrasonic heat meter body are analyzed. The errors of the ultrasonic heat meter in measuring calcium carbonate suspensions of particles of 10 micrometers and the causes are analyzed by simulation and experiment. Results show the effects of the impurities on the value of the k coeffi- cient and the sound attenuation on the reflection path due to the particle distribution are the two main factors that influence the mea- surement accuracy.

  19. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    The chief aims in the Sphinx Project are research on super lepton physics and new detector experiments. In the second phase of the Sphinx Project, a hybrid TLC-pair meter was designed for measuring for high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV), and measuring muon groups (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of the pair meter has been already proposed. In this TLC pair meter, electromagnetic showers induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using thermoluminescene sheets with position counters

  20. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  1. Embedded Control System for a High Precision Flow Meter

    Nilsson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    This degree project has been conducted to study flow meters and develop firmware for EC Instrument’s Reciflow. Flow rate is the volume of a fluid or mass of a substance which passes through a surface per time unit. Conversion can be made between volumetric and mass flow rate if the gas density is known. A market survey showed that Coriolis and thermal mass flow meters and positive displacement (volumetric) flow meters, as the Reciflow, are the most common kinds. The Reciflow consist of a syst...

  2. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  3. Human Brain Basis of Musical Rhythm Perception: Common and Distinct Neural Substrates for Meter, Tempo, and Pattern

    Michael H. Thaut

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus. Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas. These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure.

  4. Human brain basis of musical rhythm perception: common and distinct neural substrates for meter, tempo, and pattern.

    Thaut, Michael H; Trimarchi, Pietro Davide; Parsons, Lawrence M

    2014-01-01

    Rhythm as the time structure of music is composed of distinct temporal components such as pattern, meter, and tempo. Each feature requires different computational processes: meter involves representing repeating cycles of strong and weak beats; pattern involves representing intervals at each local time point which vary in length across segments and are linked hierarchically; and tempo requires representing frequency rates of underlying pulse structures. We explored whether distinct rhythmic elements engage different neural mechanisms by recording brain activity of adult musicians and non-musicians with positron emission tomography (PET) as they made covert same-different discriminations of (a) pairs of rhythmic, monotonic tone sequences representing changes in pattern, tempo, and meter, and (b) pairs of isochronous melodies. Common to pattern, meter, and tempo tasks were focal activities in right, or bilateral, areas of frontal, cingulate, parietal, prefrontal, temporal, and cerebellar cortices. Meter processing alone activated areas in right prefrontal and inferior frontal cortex associated with more cognitive and abstract representations. Pattern processing alone recruited right cortical areas involved in different kinds of auditory processing. Tempo processing alone engaged mechanisms subserving somatosensory and premotor information (e.g., posterior insula, postcentral gyrus). Melody produced activity different from the rhythm conditions (e.g., right anterior insula and various cerebellar areas). These exploratory findings suggest the outlines of some distinct neural components underlying the components of rhythmic structure. PMID:24961770

  5. Recursive Pyramid Algorithm-Based Discrete Wavelet Transform for Reactive Power Measurement in Smart Meters

    Mahin K. Atiq

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the active, reactive, and apparent power is one of the most fundamental tasks of smart meters in energy systems. Recently, a number of studies have employed the discrete wavelet transform (DWT for power measurement in smart meters. The most common way to implement DWT is the pyramid algorithm; however, this is not feasible for practical DWT computation because it requires either a log N cascaded filter or O (N word size memory storage for an input signal of the N-point. Both solutions are too expensive for practical applications of smart meters. It is proposed that the recursive pyramid algorithm is more suitable for smart meter implementation because it requires only word size storage of L × Log (N-L, where L is the length of filter. We also investigated the effect of varying different system parameters, such as the sampling rate, dc offset, phase offset, linearity error in current and voltage sensors, analog to digital converter resolution, and number of harmonics in a non-sinusoidal system, on the reactive energy measurement using DWT. The error analysis is depicted in the form of the absolute difference between the measured and the true value of the reactive energy.

  6. Enhancing the value of information collected by advanced meters : customer and operational procedures

    Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) meters will have the ability to transform electric power utilities if data is utilized in an appropriate manner. This presentation provided an overview of the benefits of AMI. Case studies were used to present details of new meter data management (MDM) tools developed by Nexus Energy Software. The segmentation and loading aspects of AMI have the capacity to handle complex billing processes as well as increase distribution efficiency. AMI multi-dimensional aggregation can increase revenue protection and provide outage support. Customer bill integration and analytics can aid utilities in forecasting and load research activities. Demand and response, and customer AMI applications can lower customer service costs and leverage more effective pricing programs. A critical peak pricing support tool was used at a California utility to send monthly enhanced information electronic mail to increase customer understanding of behaviours on costs. The result was an amplified customer response to dynamic pricing. Day ahead notification is now regularly provided for peak periods. It was concluded that meter data has little value until it is aligned and synchronized with customer and asset data. Systems should be expandable over time to support new business processes and associated data elements without the need for customization. refs., tabs., figs

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  8. Color Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED...

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  10. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  11. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Nelson C. Rodelas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  12. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which...

  13. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  14. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter

    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically <1 %) whose value is crucial to assessing time-averaged exposure levels. This study is the first to characterise smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters. (authors)

  15. One meter holographic bubble chamber for TEVATRON neutrino experiments

    A one meter holographic bubble chamber was constructed for Fermilab TEVATRON neutrino experiments. Bubble chamber and optics are briefly outlined. Developments in holography for this bubble chamber and two types of reconstruction projectors are reported. (orig.)

  16. Chlorophyll meter for estimating nitrogen status of irrigated wheat

    Chlorophyll-meter readings, generated from the leaves of irrigated wheat at particular growth stages, were normalized to the data obtained with locally recommended rates of fertilizer N, in Chile China, India and Mexico. Normalizing permitted comparisons of crop-N status across growth stages, locations, cultivars, and years. Relative yields and meter readings at growth-stage Z-50 are presented; they revealed similar trends for India, China, and Chile, however, for Mexico, the combination of soil, wheat cultivar, and climate resulted in much less response to N fertilization in the meter data. The implications are discussed. The SPAD meter proved to be a good tool to monitor and evaluate the N status of irrigated wheat. (author)

  17. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  18. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking....... Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world data set as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns...

  19. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Kunicina N.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS. The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  20. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Kunicina, N.; Zabasta, A.; Kondratjevs, K.; Asmanis, G.

    2015-02-01

    The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS). The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks using adapted modules. The proposed smart metering is suitable for outdoor installation, indoor industrial installations, operation under electromagnetic pollution, temperature and humidity impact. The results of tests have shown a good electromagnetic compatibility of the prototype meter with other electronic devices. The metering procedure is exemplified by operation of a testing company's workers under harsh environmental conditions.

  1. Period meter output in response to terminated ramps of reactivity

    The time behaviour of the period meter output has been determined for a range of total reactivity injections and reactivity rates. Some results which are directly applicable to graphite gas cooled reactors are given. (author)

  2. Application of function generator for checking reactivity meter accuracy

    The accuracy of reactivity meters is usually checked with a reactor kinetic simulator operating to an accuracy exceeding the expected accuracy of the measuring device. The present report describes a method to evaluate accuracy by comparing the response R(t) of the reactivity meter to a given function n(t) with the value of the reactivity function r(t) calculated from the same input function instead of using the input reference signal r(t) to the simulator with the output signal R(t) from the reactivity meter. This method has been successfully used by applying sawtooth and exponential input signals for the determination of the accuracy of reactivity meters developed in the Central Research Institute for Physics. (author)

  3. Suppression of radiated emission in fiscal taxi meter

    He, Hong; Yang, Pei-pei; Su, Xing; Zhang, Da-jian; Wang, Ke-xi; Hou, Ming-feng

    2011-12-01

    This paper is based upon National Standards for EMC. For the problem that the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the meter with the THG at 36MHz is seriously more than National Standards, by studying the theory of radiation emission and analyzing the formation mechanism of electromagnetic radiation interference, it proposes three restrain measures: 1.the improvement of the Crystal oscillator's grounding measure; 2.adding a RC filter circuit to the Crystal oscillator circuit; 3.the improvement of the tax's communication cable, solving the problem that radiation harassment the taxi meter seriously exceeds. The experimental result demonstrates that the radiation intensity of tax meter improved with the general measures meet the requirements of the national standard, making more than 32000 taxes in Tianjin install this green meter, protecting the safety of staff and normal operation of the surrounding equipment.

  4. 100-Meter Resolution Land Cover of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains land cover data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The land cover data were derived...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  7. Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker...

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker...

  10. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  11. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  12. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  13. Test results of the DOE/Sandia 17 meter VAWT

    Nellums, R. O.; Worstell, M. H.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of the test program of a 17 meter Vertical Axis Wind Turbine VAWT. Performance test results are discussed including difficulties encountered during the VAWT operation along with ways of solving these problems.

  14. Integrating GPS and Laser Distance Meters For Landslide Monitoring

    Manetti, L.; Knecht, A.; Frapolli, M.; Lou, H.

    In recent years, systems for landslide monitoring have shifted towards ever more au- tomatic and autonomous operation. Moreover, technologies and instruments are avail- able to reliably interconnect distributed components. Specifically, the measurement, logging, data processing and interpretation activities may be carried out by separate units at different locations in near real-time. Building on the results of a previous development project which focused on land movement monitoring with GPS, the system has been generalized to accommodate a range of other sensors. In particular a laser distance meter has been integrated. First results confirm an expected increase in robustness of the combined measurement net- work, which is particularly important in unfavourable stand-alone GPS reception con- ditions. Due to the modular architecture of the system, other sensor types may be supported with minimal effort. Examples range from simple inclinometers to motorized theodo- lites. Measurements are transmitted via cellular or point-to-point radio links to a con- trol centre, which provides for post-processing and network management. The control centre may be remotely accessed via an Internet connection. The resulting system in characterized by autonomy, reliability and a high degree of automation.

  15. Enhancing Energy Efficiency Of Communication Subsystems For Smart Metering

    Lovejeet Singh; Anurag Paliwal

    2014-01-01

    Abstract— Save energy: For nature, for future. To conserve the energy smart metering with exploitation of communication technologies has revolutionized the efficient utilization and management of energy consumption. World over, tremendous research is going on energy efficient communication technologies and protocols. ZigBee is widely accepted protocol for low power and low data rate smart home area networks. In this paper, therefore for smart metering application, instead of devising a new pr...

  16. Forecasting Electricity Smart Meter Data Using Conditional Kernel Density Estimation

    Arora, Siddharth; Taylor, James W.

    2014-01-01

    The recent advent of smart meters has led to large micro-level datasets. For the first time, the electricity consumption at individual sites is available on a near real-time basis. Efficient management of energy resources, electric utilities, and transmission grids, can be greatly facilitated by harnessing the potential of this data. The aim of this study is to generate probability density estimates for consumption recorded by individual smart meters. Such estimates can assist decision making...

  17. Design and Development of SMS Prepaid Energy Meter

    KESHINRO K. K; AKINLEYE A. O; S. O. Salami; SARUMI A. J

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a prepaid energy meter to facilitate energy consumption measurement and to know consumer’s maximum demand. The prepaid energy meter concept is shown by Proteus 8 software simulation. The major components are AVR microcontroller, Voltage and Current transformer, LCD, Relay and a load. Electricity has become one of the basic requirements for people and widely used for domestic, industrial and agricultural purposes. The energy billing system used nowadays are l...

  18. Laboratory and bedside evaluation of portable glucose meters.

    Nichols, J H; Howard, C; Loman, K; Miller, C; Nyberg, D; Chan, D W

    1995-02-01

    A two-phase, laboratory and bedside, evaluation of blood glucose meters was conducted in this study. Four meters, the AccuData Easy (Boehringer-Mannheim, Indianapolis, IN), HemoCue Glucose (HemoCue, Mission Viejo, CA), LifeScan One Touch II (LifeScan, Milpitas, CA), and Miles Encore QA (Miles, Elkhart, IN) systems, were compared to the Nova Stat Profile 5 (Nova, Waltham, MA) as the laboratory reference. Precision, linearity, correlation to the laboratory method, interference from hematocrit, data management, and operator preference were examined. None of the meters were found to satisfy all of the study's evaluation criteria. Therefore, institutions must weigh which criteria are most important to their individual settings. Although the HemoCue Glucose was found to be technically superior, this meter had no data management capabilities. The Encore QA had greater variance and low bias, whereas the AccuData Easy had bias affected by hematocrit and glucose concentration, and the One Touch II had a negative hematocrit bias and limited linear range when compared to the Nova. Only meters meeting both minimal analytical performance and computerization requirements, the One Touch II and AccuData Easy, were selected for further evaluation. At the bedside, the One Touch II demonstrated performance consistent with the lab evaluation, whereas the AccuData Easy showed greater imprecision in the low glucose range and a correlation that varied with sample type: capillary, venous, or arterial blood. This evaluation indicates that the clinician must interpret near-patient glucose results with respect to meter limitations. FDA approval and marketing statistics, alone, are insufficient to judge the performance of the meters in routine institutional use. Independent method validation, under actual operating conditions, is a better means of predicting future performance of the meters. PMID:7856571

  19. Advances in Metered Dose Inhaler Technology: Hardware Development

    Stein, Stephen W.; Sheth, Poonam; Hodson, P. David; Myrdal, Paul B.

    2013-01-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were first introduced in the 1950s and they are currently widely prescribed as portable systems to treat pulmonary conditions. MDIs consist of a formulation containing dissolved or suspended drug and hardware needed to contain the formulation and enable efficient and consistent dose delivery to the patient. The device hardware includes a canister that is appropriately sized to contain sufficient formulation for the required number of doses, a metering ...

  20. Performance Evaluations on UAV-Aided Automated Meter Reading

    Gurkan Tuna

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach of using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for automated meter reading (AMR) applications in rural areas where there are a few consumers scattered across a wide area. Compared to traditional meter reading systems, the use of UAVs for AMR brings several advantages, such as low cost operation, flexibility and online system management. In this paper, the advantages of integrating an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver...

  1. Using Coriolis Mass Flowmeter for Wet Gas Metering

    Geng, Y. F.; Yeung, Hoi; Cao, Yi; Xing, L. C.; Zhu, H; Drahm, W.

    2010-01-01

    Established wet gas metering techniques are typically based on differential pressure devices, and their measurement accuracy is still unsatisfactory to natural gas industry. Coriolis mass flowmeter (CMF) is the most superior flow measurement technology at now, it can provide mass flowrate and density output simultaneously. Putting CMF into wet gas metering may be a reasonable and high accuracy solution to natural gas industry demands. The problems and advantages of CMF in ga...

  2. The Efficiency of the Smoke Meter at Characterizing Engine Emissions

    Paladino, Jonathan D.

    1997-01-01

    The effectiveness of a smoke meter's ability to characterize the particulate emissions of a jet fuel combustor was evaluated using the University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (UMR-MASS). A burner simulating an advanced jet engine combustor design was used to generate typical combustion particulates, which were then analyzed by the smoke meter. The same particulates were then size discriminated to ascertain the effective impact of aerosol diameter on smoke number readings.

  3. Smart Metering Initiatives: Lessons in Public Engagement and Communication

    Curson, Connor

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses four case studies to explore the difficulties with public engagement and communication faced by utilities implementing smart metering initiatives, and the approaches taken to engage and communicate with the public. These case studies are then used to identify common areas of concern for public organizations looking to implement new policies or programs with characteristics similar to smart metering initiatives, and to offer up suggestions for improved public engagement and com...

  4. Interest in smart metering project surprises utility, IBM

    This article provided an outline of Hydro Ottawa and IBM's smart metering pilot project, which has resulted in high approval ratings from the public. The project features 375 participants broken down into 3 separate groups to look for potential consumption differences between customers charged according to standard time-of-use pricing; time-of-use with critical peak pricing; and time-of-use with critical peak rebates. The Ontario Smart Price Pilot project will be run for 5 months, and is expected to provide detailed energy information about usage. Past projects have indicated that customers respond quickly to smart metering, as they are able to monitor their energy usage and more effectively manage their energy consumption. Ontario plans to have all homes and small businesses using smart meters by 2010, as high seasonal demand has indicated that conservation and balanced resource use are now top priorities for many utility companies. At least 10 states in the United States have conducted smart metering pilot projects. The California Public Utilities Commissions has recently approved a $1.7 billion statewide plan to replace old meters with smart meters. In Ontario, customers have ordered 10,000 electricity monitors that Hydro One is giving away. It was concluded that research results from an earlier Hydro One demonstration project with 500 Ontario homeowners showed that real time electricity monitors can help homeowners reduce their consumption of electricity by up to 15 per cent. 4 figs

  5. Cloud-Based Software Platform for Smart Meter Data Management

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in the worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time in- terval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizeable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-......, and compare with other similar works. This paper will provide a proof of concept for building the data management system expanding from the data management of energy sector to the entire sectors of smart cities.......Today smart meters are increasingly used in the worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time in- terval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizeable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social...... of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utility companies to forecast energy loads and improve services, and help households to manage energy usage and save money. As this regard, the proposed paper focuses on building an innovative software platform for smart...

  6. [Accuracy of MiniWright peak expiratory flow meters

    Camargos, P A; Ruchkys, V C; Dias, R M; Sakurai, E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the Mini-Wright (Clement Clarke International Ltd.) peak-flow meters. METHODS: Twenty of those meters were checked by use of electronic calibration syringe (Jones Flow-Volume Calibrator(R)). Nine of them had an old scale, with values displayed equidistantly, and eleven had a new mechanical scale with non-equidistant values. Each device was connected in series to the calibration syringe to perform eight hand-driven volume injections, with flows ranging from 100 to 700 l/min. Absolute and relative differences between meters and syringe were calculated, the syringe values taken as standard. The accuracy of the twenty Mini-Wright devices was validated by the American Thoracic Society criteria (-/+ 10% or -/+ 20 l/min), and/or European Respiratory Society criteria (-/+ 5% or -/+ 5 l/ min). RESULTS: New scale instruments were more accurate than old scale meters (p < 0.001), by both ATS and ERS criteria. Every meter was rechecked after 600 measurements. Both the old, and the new scale instruments maintained the same level of performance after this evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that new scale meters were accurate and can be safely used in clinical practice. The authors strongly recommend that they are rechecked regularly to ensure that they are within the ATS and ERS variation limits. PMID:14647633

  7. 77 FR 7586 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Bioequivalence Recommendation for Nitroglycerin Metered Spray...

    2012-02-13

    ... 11, 2010 (75 FR 33311), FDA announced the availability of a guidance for industry, ``Bioequivalence... for Nitroglycerin Metered Spray/Sublingual Products and Metered Aerosol/ Sublingual Products... Recommendations for Nitroglycerin,'' one for nitroglycerin metered spray/sublingual products and one...

  8. 300 GHz Imaging System with 8 Meter Stand-off Distance and One-Dimensional Synthetic Image Reconstruction for Remote Detection of Material Defects

    Keil, Andreas; Peuser, Jörn; Loeffler, Torsten; Krozer, Viktor; Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; de Maagt, Peter

    An active stand-off imaging system operating at 230–320 GHz is presented. Imaging is achieved by combining a line array consisting of 8 sources and 16 detectors with a scanning cylindrical mirror system. The stand-off distance is 8 meters and the effective aperture of the system is 0.5 meters by 0.......5 meters. Range and intensity information of the object are obtained using an active FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) radar principle. Data acquisition time for one line is as short as 1 ms. Synthetic image reconstruction is achieved in real-time by an embedded GPU (Graphical Processing Unit...

  9. Orifice meter installation effects: Dimensional characterization of 45 d and 17 d meter tubes and orifice plates used in the GRI MRF low pressure loop. GRI Metering Research Facility Program. Topical report. Technical memo

    Morrow, T.B.

    1994-09-01

    The Metering Research Facility (MRF) Orifice Meter Upstream Effects Research Program, sponsored by the Gas Research Institute, is acquiring orifice meter performance data on several different types of flow conditioning devices. The program objective is to investigate the benefit and feasibility of fitting flow conditioning devices into new gas flow metering installations as well as retrofitting these devices into existing metering installations to assure proper upstream flow conditions in orifice meter installations built to conform with A.G.A. Report No. 3, Part 2.

  10. Smart metering gateway works as Smart Home Energy Manager; Smart Metering Gateway als Smart Home Energy Manager

    Walter, Klaus-Dieter [SSV Software Systems GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The installation of smart meters together with real time consumption data visualization doesn't help to save energy CO2 emissions. With regards to refinancing options, the situation in Germany has been quite different since the middle of last year for buildings equipped with a photovoltaic system. If a heat pump system is also present, intelligent energy use in conjunction with smart meters can save considerable amounts of money. A Smart Home Energy Manager (SHEM) automates the energy saving. (orig.)

  11. Accuracy and functionality of hand held wood moisture content meters

    Forsen, H.; Tarvainen, V. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Materials and Products, Wood Technology

    2000-09-01

    The main task of VTT in this EU project was to test and improve the reliability and performance of moisture content meters. A total of 16 resistance type and 6 capacitance type hand-held moisture meters were included in the test series. Test samples of the most important European species (pine, spruce, birch, oak, beech, alder, larch) were obtained from all over Europe. The total survey included about 2,700 pieces for comparative testing. The test material was conditioned to three different moisture contents (8 - 10%, 12 - 14% and 16 - 18%). The moisture gradients in the test specimens were small due to the long conditioning time lasting at least 1 year. The effects of various factors, such as moisture content, species, and temperature, on the electrical resistance of conditioned wood were studied. In the laboratory tests, the resistance - moisture content curves for different species from different countries were determined using conditioned wood material. The species corrections (resistance curves) are quite similar for different counties. Only the resistance curve for Maritime Pine differs clearly from the other resistance curves for the pine species originating from the different countries. The wood temperature corrections are about 0.1 - 0.15% units/deg C which has to be considered when the moisture content of wood is measured at temperatures other than 20 deg C. The other properties of wood, such as sapwood/heartwood and density, do not have a significant effect on resistance values. There were no significant resistance differences related to the type of electrodes, distances between electrodes, and different measuring direction. The commercial instruments for the determination of wood moisture content were tested with respect to accuracy, reliability and ergonomy. The moisture meters were tested both under laboratory and industrial conditions. Most of the resistance meters show a systematic deviation from the actual moisture content because of incorrect MC

  12. An assessment of the Italian smart gas metering program

    The introduction of smart metering is one of the core elements in recent European policies targeting environmental sustainability and competitiveness of energy markets. Following the roll-out of smart electricity meters, in 2008 the Italian regulator designed an ambitious deployment program also for smart gas meters, that was recently modified in both scope and timing. This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans, with a specific focus on the results of its cost–benefit analysis. In light of the evidence derived from the literature, we observe that the case for the roll-out of smart gas meters in Italy was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings but rather focused on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market; in this respect, we argue that options other than smart gas metering should also be considered. Moreover the Italian cost–benefit analysis, which mostly dealt with the potential cost savings for distributors and suppliers, led to ambiguous results in terms of net present values; thus, we believe that an updated assessment would be extremely useful. Finally, in terms of technological choices, our analysis positively evaluates the regulator's recent proposal to consider a dual-fuel solution for the mass market deployment. - Highlights: • This paper assesses Italy's original and current deployment plans for smart gas meters. • The plan was not supported by a strong emphasis on energy savings. • A focus on increasing efficiency of the Italian gas market appears only partly justifiable. • The business case for adopting smart gas meters should be updated. • Our analysis positively evaluates the a dual-fuel solution for the mass market

  13. Metering revisited - innovative concepts for electrical monitoring and reporting systems

    For the first three-quarters of this century, the monitoring of electrical power and energy has been dominated by conventional electromechanical voltmeters, ammeters, and watthour meters. Only in the last decade have solid state microprocessor-based distal devices become available for application in the commercial and industrial marketplace. These new devices perform the tasks of up to 24 conventional indicating meters for about the price of three. Communication via a RS-485 data link to a PC allows monitoring of up to 70 values including times and dates, min/max history, temperature indications, and energy management alarms. Complex waveform analysis can also be carried out for harmonic problems typically associated with adjustable speed drives that have been installed on fans and pumps for energy management savings. Since metering systems are absolutely essential to a successful Energy Management Process, consideration should be given to applying the latest in metering technology. It should be noted that meters by themselves do not save money, they only cost money to install and maintain. Proper monitoring, recording, and analysis lead to corrective actions which produce the desired result of reducing energy per unit of production or per service performed. Experience has shown that a 1 to 2% reduction can be achieved after meters are installed just by letting the users know that they are being monitored. Up to a 5% reduction can occur when the users then become proactive toward better managing of their energy. Ultimately up to 10% reduction can be achieved when metering is tied directly to the process through a PLC or DCS, in a closed loop automated process control arrangement

  14. Development of impedance void meter for evaluation of flow symmetry

    Highlights: • New impedance void meter design to evaluate flow symmetry. • Area-averaged measurements agree well with previous impedance meter designs. • Quadrant measurements agree well with local conductivity probe measurements. - Abstract: Often it is useful or even necessary to know whether the void fraction is evenly distributed in two-phase flows. In industrial systems, unevenly distributed flows can be a factor in vibrations and other undesirable occurrences. In bubble column chemical reactors, uneven distribution of the void can result in reduced reaction efficiency. In experiments, it is often desirable to have symmetrically distributed void for local measurements since this allows for more rapid data collection. Current systems for determining the symmetry of the void distribution in distributed flows either suffer from very long measurement time requirements or cause significant disturbances to the flow. To address the need for approximate evaluation of flow symmetry without causing excessive disturbance to the flow, a new impedance void meter design has been developed and tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of the new design to evaluate the void distribution symmetry has been tested through comparison with conductivity probe measurements of local void fraction, and the accuracy of the impedance meter has been verified through comparison with the conductivity probe measurements and with typical impedance void meter measurements

  15. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    Ahrens, Leif [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-03-31

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  16. Canadian consumer issues in accurate and fair electricity metering

    The Public Interest Advocacy Centre (PIAC), located in Ottawa, participates in regulatory proceedings concerning electricity and natural gas to support public and consumer interest. PIAC provides legal representation, research and policy support and public advocacy. A study aimed toward the determination of the issues at stake for residential electricity consumers in the provision of fair and accurate electricity metering, was commissioned by Measurement Canada in consultation with Industry Canada's Consumer Affairs. The metering of electricity must be carried out in a fair and efficient manner for all residential consumers. The Electricity, Gas and Inspection Act was developed to ensure compliance with standards for measuring instrumentation. The accurate metering of electricity through the distribution systems for electricity in Canada represents the main focus of this study and report. The role played by Measurement Canada and the increased efficiencies of service delivery by Measurement Canada or the changing of electricity market conditions are of special interest. The role of Measurement Canada was explained, as were the concerns of residential consumers. A comparison was then made between the interests of residential consumers and those of commercial and industrial electricity consumers in electricity metering. Selected American and Commonwealth jurisdictions were reviewed in light of their electricity metering practices. A section on compliance and conflict resolution was included, in addition to a section on the use of voluntary codes for compliance and conflict resolution

  17. A model survey meter using undoped poly (ether sulfone)

    Nakamura, Hidehito, E-mail: hidehito@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kanayama, Masaya; Sato, Nobuhiro [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Kitamura, Hisashi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Takahashi, Sentaro [Kyoto University, 2, Asashiro-Nishi, Kumatori-cho, Sennan-gun, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2015-04-21

    The large region surrounding the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has necessitated the use of numerous radiation survey meters with large, robust substrates. The survey meters require efficient scintillation materials that do not require doping and have dimensional stability, such as poly (ether sulfone) (PES) resins. Here, we demonstrate the performance of a model survey meter that uses large PES plates with polished, mirrored surfaces and rough, scattering surfaces. Light collection efficiencies from plates having one or more of these surfaces were quantitatively Characterised with {sup 36}Cl-, {sup 60}Co-, {sup 137}Cs-radioactive sources. The count rates of plates having a combination of mirrored/scattering-surfaces are >1.6 times that for plates having two mirrored surfaces. In addition, a significant amount of radiation-induced light generated in the PES is trapped inside the plate because of its relatively high refractive index. The results indicate that large, undoped PES plates can be used in radiation survey meters. - highlights: • Undoped poly (ether sulfone) (PES) can be used as a scintillation material in radiation survey meters. • Large PES plates with treated surfaces were characterized. • Surface roughening of the plates increased light collection efficiency. • Plates with a combination of mirrored/scattering surfaces work best. • A significant amount of light generated by radiation remains in the PES plates.

  18. Balanced Flow Metering and Conditioning: Technology for Fluid Systems

    Kelley, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    Revolutionary new technology that creates balanced conditions across the face of a multi-hole orifice plate has been developed, patented and exclusively licensed for commercialization. This balanced flow technology simultaneously measures mass flow rate, volumetric flow rate, and fluid density with little or no straight pipe run requirements. Initially, the balanced plate was a drop in replacement for a traditional orifice plate, but testing revealed substantially better performance as compared to the orifice plate such as, 10 times better accuracy, 2 times faster (shorter distance) pressure recovery, 15 times less acoustic noise energy generation, and 2.5 times less permanent pressure loss. During 2004 testing at MSFC, testing revealed several configurations of the balanced flow meter that match the accuracy of Venturi meters while having only slightly more permanent pressure loss. However, the balanced meter only requires a 0.25 inch plate and has no upstream or downstream straight pipe requirements. As a fluid conditioning device, the fluid usually reaches fully developed flow within 1 pipe diameter of the balanced conditioning plate. This paper will describe the basic balanced flow metering technology, provide performance details generated by testing to date and provide implementation details along with calculations required for differing degrees of flow metering accuracy.

  19. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle's Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  20. Overview of density meters used at SRP for sample validation

    This paper provides an overview of density meters used at the Savannah River Plant (SRP). For the process control laboratory, the verification of sample integrity prior to analysis is critical prerequisite for reliable analytical measurements. At SRP density check systems are employed to verify that samples are representative of respective process tank solutions. A wide array of Mettler density meters is used. With respect to temperature control, water-bath thermostatted, electronically thermostatted, and temperature corrected density meters have proven useful. Remote density cells are used to facilitate density measurements in radiobenches, glove boxes and shielded cells. Temperature-corrected density meters have proven very useful for achieving measurements precise to five decimal places under conditions where the use of water baths is not safe, and the use of sensitive electronic components is not practical. Computer software is used to correct for ambient temperature changes in the density measuring cell. An automated six-place density meter is now in use for validating dilute uranium product samples. Customized software is used to determinate the error of density measurements as well as sampling error

  1. Plug-in privacy for Smart Metering billing

    Jawurek, Marek; Kerschbaum, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Smart Metering is a concept that allows to collect fine-grained consumption profiles from customers by replacing traditional electricity meters with Smart Meters in customers' households. The recorded consumption profile is the basis for the calculation of time-dependent tariffs but also allows deduction of the inhabitant's personal schedules and habits. The current reporting of such consumption profiles only protects this data from 3rd parties but falls short to protect the customer's privacy from illegitimate abuse by the supplier itself. We propose a privacy-preserving profile reporting protocol that enables billing for time-dependent tariffs without disclosing the actual data of the consumption profile to the supplier. Our approach relies on a zero-knowledge proof based on Pedersen Commitments performed by a plug-in privacy component that is put into the communication link between Smart Meter and supplier's back-end systems and requires no change to Smart Meter hardware and only little change to the softw...

  2. Comparison of density determination of liquid samples by density meters

    Buchner, C.; Wolf, H.; Vámossy, C.; Lorefice, S.; Lenard, E.; Spohr, I.; Mares, G.; Perkin, M.; Parlic-Risovic, T.; Grue, L.-L.; Tammik, K.; van Andel, I.; Zelenka, Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrostatic density determinations of liquids as reference material are mainly performed by National Metrology Institutes to provide means for calibrating or checking liquid density measuring instruments such as oscillation-type density meters. These density meters are used by most of the metrology institutes for their calibration and scientific work. The aim of this project was to compare the results of the liquid density determination by oscillating density meters of the participating laboratories. The results were linked to CCM.D.K-2 partly via Project EURAMET.M.D.K-2 (1019) "Comparison of liquid density standards" by hydrostatic weighing piloted by BEV in 2008. In this comparison pentadecane, water and of oil with a high viscosity were measured at atmospheric pressure using oscillation type density meter. The temperature range was from 15 °C to 40 °C. The measurement results were in some cases discrepant. Further studies, comparisons are essential to explore the capability and uncertainty of the density meters Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  3. Development of PIC-based digital survey meter

    The need of radiation monitoring and monitoring of radioactive contamination in the workplace is very important especially when x-ray machines, linear accelerators, electron beam machines and radioactive sources are present. The appropriate use of radiation detector is significant in order to maintain a radiation and contamination free workplace. This paper reports on the development of a prototype of PIC-based digital survey meter. This prototype of digital survey meter is a hand held instrument for general-purpose radiation monitoring and surface contamination meter. Generally, the device is able to detect some or all of the three major types of ionizing radiation, namely alpha, beta and gamma. It uses a Geiger-Muller tube as a radiation detector, which converts gamma radiation quanta to electric pulses and further processed by the electronic devices. The development involved the design of the controller, counter and high voltage circuit. All these circuit are assembled and enclosed in a plastic casing together with a GM detector and LCD display to form a prototype survey meter. The number of counts of the pulses detected by the survey meter varies due to the random nature of radioactivity. By averaging the reading over a time-period, more accurate and stable reading is achieved. To test the accuracy and the linearity of the design, the prototype was calibrated using standard procedure at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL) in MINT. (Author)

  4. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Alberto Sendin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  5. Development of on-line reactivity meter for nuclear reactors

    An on-line reactivity meter has been developed for continuous monitoring of reactivity in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). The reactivity meter comprises two main parts. The first part is the hardware and software for on-line acquisition of neutron flux signals from plant instrumentation channels. The second part is high-level Fortran-77 real-time programming for the computation of reactivity by the solution of neutron kinetic equations. The PDP-11/23 plant computer is used for this purpose with time sharing of its regular data logging function. For PARR-2 reactor the reactivity meter is developed on an IBM PC/AT personal computer. The response of both reactivity meters is fast enough to monitor safety related reactivity and power excursions in the two reactors. In this paper the results of various reactivity measurements like reactivity coefficients, worth of control rods, and irradiation samples in PARR-1 using the reactivity meter are described. The proper choice and location of nuclear detectors and system calibration are also discussed

  6. Development of on-line reactivity meter for nuclear reactors

    Ansari, S.A. (Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (PK))

    1991-08-01

    An on-line reactivity meter has been developed for continuous monitoring of reactivity in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1). The reactivity meter comprises two main parts. The first part is the hardware and software for on-line acquisition of neutron flux signals from plant instrumentation channels. The second part is high-level Fortran-77 real-time programming for the computation of reactivity by the solution of neutron kinetic equations. The PDP-11/23 plant computer is used for this purpose with time sharing of its regular data logging function. For PARR-2 reactor the reactivity meter is developed on an IBM PC/AT personal computer. The response of both reactivity meters is fast enough to monitor safety related reactivity and power excursions in the two reactors. In this paper the results of various reactivity measurements like reactivity coefficients, worth of control rods, and irradiation samples in PARR-1 using the reactivity meter are described. The proper choice and location of nuclear detectors and system calibration are also discussed.

  7. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  8. A model survey meter using undoped poly (ether sulfone)

    The large region surrounding the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant has necessitated the use of numerous radiation survey meters with large, robust substrates. The survey meters require efficient scintillation materials that do not require doping and have dimensional stability, such as poly (ether sulfone) (PES) resins. Here, we demonstrate the performance of a model survey meter that uses large PES plates with polished, mirrored surfaces and rough, scattering surfaces. Light collection efficiencies from plates having one or more of these surfaces were quantitatively Characterised with 36Cl-, 60Co-, 137Cs-radioactive sources. The count rates of plates having a combination of mirrored/scattering-surfaces are >1.6 times that for plates having two mirrored surfaces. In addition, a significant amount of radiation-induced light generated in the PES is trapped inside the plate because of its relatively high refractive index. The results indicate that large, undoped PES plates can be used in radiation survey meters. - highlights: • Undoped poly (ether sulfone) (PES) can be used as a scintillation material in radiation survey meters. • Large PES plates with treated surfaces were characterized. • Surface roughening of the plates increased light collection efficiency. • Plates with a combination of mirrored/scattering surfaces work best. • A significant amount of light generated by radiation remains in the PES plates

  9. Dual-Resonator Speed Meter for a Free Test Mass

    Braginsky, V B; Khalili, F Ya; Thorne, K S; Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-01-01

    A description and analysis are given of a ``speed meter'' for monitoring a classical force that acts on a test mass. This speed meter is based on two microwave resonators (``dual resonators''), one of which couples evanescently to the position of the test mass. The sloshing of the resulting signal between the resonators, and a wise choice of where to place the resonators' output waveguide, produce a signal in the waveguide that (for sufficiently low frequencies) is proportional to the test-mass velocity (speed) rather than its position. This permits the speed meter to achieve force-measurement sensitivities better than the standard quantum limit (SQL), both when operating in a narrow-band mode and a wide-band mode. A scrutiny of experimental issues shows that it is feasible, with current technology, to construct a demonstration speed meter that beats the wide-band SQL by a factor 2. A concept is sketched for an adaptation of this speed meter to optical frequencies; this adaptation forms the basis for a possib...

  10. A Neutron Multiplicity Meter for Deep Underground Muon-Induced High Energy Neutron Measurements

    Hennings-Yeomans, R

    2006-01-01

    We present the design of an instrument capable of measuring the high energy ($>$60 MeV) muon-induced neutron flux deep underground. The instrument is based on applying the Gd-loaded liquid-scintillator technique to measure the rate of high-energy neutrons underground based on the neutron multiplicity induced in a Pb target. We present design studies based on Monte Carlo simulations that show that an apparatus consisting of a Pb target of 200 cm by 200 cm area by 60 cm thickness covered by a 60 cm thick Gd-loaded liquid scintillator (0.5% Gd content) detector could measure, at a depth of 2000 meters of water equivalent, a rate of $70\\pm12$ (stat) events/year. Based on these studies, we also discuss the benefits of using a neutron multiplicity meter as a component of active shielding in such experiments.

  11. Resolution no. 15/2012 Safety Guide for the practice of nuclear meters

    1. This guide is Intended to complement the requirements for practice Nuclear meters out in September: • Joint Resolution CITMA-MINSAP Regulation Basic Standards Radiation safety of November 30, 2001, hereinafter NBS. • CITMA Resolution 121/2000, Regulations for the Safe Transport Radioactive Materials; hereinafter transport regulations. • Resolution 35/2003 of CITMA Regulation for the safe management of Radioactive waste of March 7, 2003, hereinafter Regulation waste. • Joint Resolution CITMA-MINSAP Regulations for the Selection, Training Authorization and Associated Personnel performing Employment Practices of Ionizing Radiation of December 19, 2003, hereinafter Staff Rules. 2. The requirements of this guide are applicable to entities and performing practice-related activities Nuclear Meters throughout the national territory.

  12. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan, E-mail: bilguun@pes.ee.tut.ac.jp; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi, E-mail: takikawa@ee.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, 1-1 Habarigaoka, Tempaku, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Tanoue, Hideto [Kitakyushu National College of Technology, 5-20-1, Kokuraminami, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  13. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    Bilguun, Amarsaikhan; Nakaso, Tetsushi; Harigai, Toru; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tanoue, Hideto

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD.

  14. Development of simple band-spectral pyranometer and quantum meter using photovoltaic cells and bandpass filters

    In recent years, greenhouse automatic-control, based on the measurement of solar irradiance, has been attracting attention. This control is an effective method for improving crop production. In the agricultural field, it is necessary to measure Photon Flux Density (PFD), which is an important parameter in the promotion of plant growth. In particular, the PFD of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) and Plant Biologically Active Radiation (PBAR, 300-800 nm) have been discussed in agricultural plant science. The commercial quantum meter (QM, PAR meter) can only measure Photosynthetically Photon Flux Density (PPFD) which is the integrated PFD quantity on the PAR wavelength. In this research, a band-spectral pyranometer or quantum meter using PVs with optical bandpass filters for dividing the PBAR wavelength into 100 nm bands (five independent channels) was developed. Before field testing, calibration of the instruments was carried out using a solar simulator. Next, a field test was conducted in three differing weather conditions such as clear, partly cloudy and cloudy skies. As a result, it was found that the response rate of the developed pyranometer was faster by four seconds compared with the response rate of the commercial pyranometer. Moreover, the outputs of each channel in the developed pyranometer were very similar to the integrated outputs of the commercial spectroradiometer. It was confirmed that the solar irradiance could be measured in each band separately using the developed band-spectral pyranometer. It was indicated that the developed band-spectral pyranometer could also be used as a PV band-spectral quantum meter which is obtained by converting the band irradiance into band PFD

  15. Pharmaceutical Product Development: Intranasal Scopolamine (INSCOP) Metered Dose Spray

    Putcha, Lakshmi; Crady, Camille; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Motion sickness (MS) has been a problem associated with space flight, the modern military and commercial air and water transportation for many years. Clinical studies have shown that scopolamine is the most effective medication for the prevention of motion sickness (Dornhoffer et al, 2004); however, the two most common methods of administration (transdermal and oral) have performance limitations that compromise its utility. Intranasal administration offers a noninvasive treatment modality, and has been shown to counter many of the problems associated with oral and transdermal administration. With the elimination of the first pass effect by the liver, intranasal delivery achieves higher and more reliable bioavailability than an equivalent oral dose. This allows for the potential of enhanced efficacy at a reduced dose, thus minimizing the occurrence of untoward side effects. An Intranasal scopolamine (INSCOP) gel formulation was prepared and tested in four ground-based clinical trials under an active Investigational New Drug (IND) application with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Although there were early indicators that the intranasal gel formulation was effective, there were aspects of formulation viscosity and the delivery system that were less desirable. The INSCOP gel formulation has since been reformulated into an aqueous spray dosage form packaged in a precise, metered dose delivery system; thereby enhancing dose uniformity, increased user satisfaction and palatability, and a potentially more rapid onset of action. Recent reports of new therapeutic indications for scopolamine has prompted a wide spread interest in new scopolamine dosage forms. The novel dosage form and delivery system of INSCOP spray shows promise as an effective treatment for motion sickness targeted at the armed forces, spaceflight, and commercial sea, air, and space travel markets, as well as prospective psychotherapy for mental and emotional disorders.

  16. Advanced Smart Metering Infrastructure for Future Smart Homes

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi;

    2015-01-01

    Smart buildings and homes are becoming a key player in the future green and sustainable energy grid, due to the integration of distributed energy sources and the demand control capabilities. Advanced smart metering systems are required for the operation of the future smart grid. Smart metering......-intrusive load monitoring, can be applied for this purpose. This paper shows an advanced smart metering infrastructure for integration in future smart homes, where not only the electrical consumption is monitored, but also the gas, water, and heating. Therefore, by monitoring all energy systems in the building...... systems allow to monitor the energy consumption of end-users, while provides useful information regarding power quality. The information provided by these systems is used by the system operator to enhance the energy supply, and several techniques, as load scheduling, demand side management, non...

  17. A Randomized Response Model For Privacy Preserving Smart Metering.

    Wang, Shuang; Cui, Lijuan; Que, Jialan; Choi, Dae-Hyun; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Cheng, Samuel; Xie, Le

    2012-09-01

    The adoption of smart meters may bring new privacy concerns to the general public. Given the fact that metering data of individual homes/factories is accumulated every 15 minutes, it is possible to infer the pattern of electricity consumption of individual users. In order to protect the privacy of users in a completely de-centralized setting (i.e., individuals do not communicate with one another), we propose a novel protocol, which allows individual meters to report the true electricity consumption reading with a pre-determinted probability. Load serving entities (LSE) can reconstruct the total electricity consumption of a region or a district through inference algorithm, but their ability of identifying individual users' energy consumption pattern is significantly reduced. Using simulated data, we verify the feasibility of the proposed method and demonstrate performance advantages over existing approaches. PMID:23243488

  18. Privacy, technology, and norms: the case of Smart Meters.

    Horne, Christine; Darras, Brice; Bean, Elyse; Srivastava, Anurag; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    Norms shift and emerge in response to technological innovation. One such innovation is Smart Meters - components of Smart Grid energy systems capable of minute-to-minute transmission of consumer electricity use information. We integrate theory from sociological research on social norms and privacy to examine how privacy threats affect the demand for and expectations of norms that emerge in response to new technologies, using Smart Meters as a test case. Results from three vignette experiments suggest that increased threats to privacy created by Smart Meters are likely to provoke strong demand for and expectations of norms opposing the technology and that the strength of these normative rules is at least partly conditional on the context. Privacy concerns vary little with actors' demographic characteristics. These findings contribute to theoretical understanding of norm emergence and have practical implications for implementing privacy protections that effectively address concerns of electricity users. PMID:25769852

  19. Metering management at the plutonium research and development facilities

    Nuclear fuel research laboratory of the Oarai Research Laboratory of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute is an R and D facility to treat with plutonium and processes various and versatile type samples in chemical and physical form for use of various experimental researches even though on much small amount. Furthermore, wasted and plutonium samples are often transported to other KMP and MBA such as radioactive waste management facility, nuclear reactor facility and so forth. As this facility is a place to treat plutonium important on the safeguards, it is a facility necessary for detection and allowance actions and for detail managements on the metering management data to report to government and IAEA in each small amount sample and different configuration. In this paper, metering management of internationally regulated matters and metering management system using a work station newly produced in such small scale facility were introduced. (G.K.)

  20. Advanced Metering Implementations - A Perspective from Federal Sector

    Eaarni, Shankar

    2014-08-11

    Federal mandate (EPACT 2005) requires that federal buildings install advanced electrical meters-meters capable of providing data at least daily and measuring the consumption of electricity at least hourly. This work presents selected advanced metering implementations to understand some of the existing practices related to data capture and to understand how the data is being translated into information and knowledge that can be used to improve building energy and operational performance to meet federal energy reduction mandates. This study highlights case studies to represent some of the various actions that are being taken based on the data that are being collected to improve overall energy performance of these buildings. Some of these actions include- individualized tenant billing and energy forecasting, benchmarking, identifying energy conservation measures, measurement and verification.

  1. Evaluation of uncertainties in the calibration of radiation survey meter

    In order to meet the requirements of ISO 17025, the quantification of the expanded uncertainties of experimental data in the calibration of survey meters must be carried out using well defined concepts, like those expressed in the 'ISO-Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement'. The calibration procedure of gamma ray survey meters involves two values that have to get their uncertainties clearly known: measurements of the instrument under calibration and the conventional true values of a quantity. Considering the continuous improvement of the calibration methods and set-ups, it is necessary to evaluate periodically the involved uncertainties in the procedures. In this work it is shown how the measurement uncertainties of an individual calibration can be estimated and how it can be generalized to be valid for others radiation survey meters. (authors)

  2. Practical speed meter designs for QND gravitational-wave interferometers

    Purdue, P; Purdue, Patricia; Chen, Yanbei

    2002-01-01

    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g., LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors, rather than monitoring their relative position. A previous paper analyzed a straightforward but impractical design for a {\\it speed-meter interferometer} that accomplishes this. This paper describes some practical variants of speed-meter interferometers. Like the original interferometric speed meter, these designs {\\it in principle} can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies. These variants essentially consist of a Michelson interferometer plus an extra "sloshing" cavity that sends the signal back into the interferometer with opposite phase shift, thereby cancelling the position information and leaving a net phase shift proportional to the relative velocity. {\\it In practice}, the sensitivity of...

  3. Performance Evaluations on UAV-Aided Automated Meter Reading

    Gurkan Tuna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach of using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs for automated meter reading (AMR applications in rural areas where there are a few consumers scattered across a wide area. Compared to traditional meter reading systems, the use of UAVs for AMR brings several advantages, such as low cost operation, flexibility and online system management. In this paper, the advantages of integrating an Inertial Navigation System (INS and a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver for a robust localization and navigation system for automated meter reading applications are investigated. In addition, the results of field tests related to the proposed navigation and localization system, and experimental studies on sensor node lifetime, are given to prove the effectiveness of the proposed system. The proposed system can be used by utility providers to extend or improve their services.

  4. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen;

    2016-01-01

    , mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...... with Gaussian white noise. In this paper, we comprehensively evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method based on a real-world energy data set.......With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision...

  5. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

    Zhaofeng eYuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  6. Development and Evaluation of an Ultrasonic Groundwater Seepage Meter

    Paulsen, R. J.; Smith, C. F.; O'Rourke, D.; Wong, T.; Bokuniewicz, H.

    2001-05-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a groundwater seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flow meter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve groundwater discharges on the order of 0.1 μ m/s, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine groundwater discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology. This meter has also been deployed as part of an international groundwater seepage intercomparison experiment with Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) / Land-Ocean Interaction in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Working Group 112. Results are in good agreement with other methodologies developed to quantify submarine groundwater discharge.

  7. Calibration and verification of surface contamination meters --- Procedures and techniques

    A standardised measurement procedure for surface contamination meters (SCM) is presented. The procedure aims at rendering surface contamination measurements to be simply and safely interpretable. Essential for the approach is the introduction and common use of the radionuclide specific quantity 'guideline value' specified in the Swiss Radiation Protection Ordinance as unit for the measurement of surface activity. The according radionuclide specific 'guideline value count rate' can be summarized as verification reference value for a group of radionuclides ('basis guideline value count rate'). The concept can be generalized for SCM of the same type or for SCM of different types using he same principle of detection. A SCM multi source calibration technique is applied for the determination of the instrument efficiency. Four different electron radiation energy regions, four different photon radiation energy regions and an alpha radiation energy region are represented by a set of calibration sources built according to ISO standard 8769-2. A guideline value count rate representing the activity per unit area of a surface contamination of one guideline value can be calculated for any radionuclide using instrument efficiency, radionuclide decay data, contamination source efficiency, guideline value averaging area (100 cm2), and radionuclide specific guideline value. n this way, instrument responses for the evaluation of surface contaminations are obtained for radionuclides without available calibration sources as well as for short-Iived radionuclides, for which the continuous replacement of certified calibration sources can lead to unreasonable costs. SCM verification is based on surface emission rates of reference sources with an active area of 100 cm2. The verification for a given list of radionuclides is based on the radionuclide specific quantity guideline value count rate. Guideline value count rates for groups of radionuclides can be represented within the maximum

  8. Entropy Meters and the Entropy of Non-extensive Systems

    Lieb, Elliott H

    2014-01-01

    In our derivation of the second law of thermodynamics from the relation of adiabatic accessibility of equilibrium states we stressed the importance of being able to scale a system's size without changing its intrinsic properties. This leaves open the question of defining the entropy of macroscopic, but unscalable systems, such as gravitating bodies or systems where surface effects are important. We show here how the problem can be overcome, in principle, with the aid of an `entropy meter'. An entropy meter can also be used to determine entropy functions for non-equilibrium states and mesoscopic systems.

  9. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customers or their automation systems. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems it is possible to go there with a portable quality meter that is suitable for the case and inspect the situation. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This article also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter. Dynamic tariffs and free electricity markets require two way communication with the utility and the customer and measurement of the time variations of the energy consumption. The customers or their energy management system must receive the energy prices from the utility and calculate the energy costs and decide upon the energy consumption control actions. Some alternative ways to meet these customer interface requirements are compared. Remote reading of kWh-meters requires a certain investment in meters and their data communication with the utility. Because smart meters can have some additional memory and calculating capacity and are capable of measuring various electric quantities, it is possible to share the costs with other applications that use the same hardware and data

  10. EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter test results

    Mersman, C. R.

    1993-09-01

    The results of tests evaluating the electric switching portion of the EDD-7 Electric Charge Point Meter (ECPM) are presented. The ECPM is a modified parking meter that allows the purchase of 120 or 240 volt electric power. The ECPM is designed to make electricity available at any vehicle parking location. The test results indicate that the ECPM operated without failure through a series of over current and ground fault tests at three different test temperatures. The magnitude of current required to trip the over current protection circuitry varied with temperature while the performance of the ground fault interruption circuitry did not change significantly with the test temperature.

  11. A portable digital reactivity meter for power reactors

    A digital reactivity meter has been developed, which can be used for all kinds of kinetic reactivity measurements in PWR's and BWR's. The input signals may be supplied by standard neutron detectors of the reactor. The hardware configuration consists of a minicomputer with ADC and DAC, a 'Silent' terminal and a high speed paper tape reader/punch. It is easily transportable. The reactivity meter solves the inverse kinetics equations for 6 delayed neutron groups, simultaneously for up to 8 logarithmic or linear neutron flux signals. It has been successfully tested at Biblis A PWR and the KRB BWR. (orig.)

  12. Absolute Baseline for Testing of Electronic Distance Meters

    Jaroslav Braun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the construction and determination of coordinates of the absoluteEDMs baseline in a laboratory with 16 pillars with forced centring. Leica Absolute TrackerAT401 (standard deviation of distance measurement: 5 μ m, standard deviation of anglemeasurement: 0.15 mgon, which is designed for very accurate industrial measurements,was used for our purpose. Lengths between the baseline points were determined with astandard deviation of 0.02 mm. The baseline is used for determining systematic and randomerrors of distance meters and for accuracy of distance meters at short distances commonin engineering surveying for purposes of mechanical engineering.

  13. Evaluation of methods to calibrate radiation survey meters

    Calibration requirements for radiation survey meters used in industrial radiography have been reviewed. Information obtained from a literature search, discussions with CSLD inspectors and firms performing calibrations has been considered. Based on this review a set of minimum calibration requirements was generated which, when met, will determine that the survey meter is suited for measurements described in the current AEC Regulations that apply to industrial radiography equipment. These requirements are presented in this report and may be used as guidelines for evaluating calibration methods proposed or in use in industry. 39 refs

  14. Thin-film power-density meter for millimeter wavelengths

    Lee, Karen A.; Guo, Yong; Stimson, Philip A.; Potter, Kent A.; Chiao, Jung-Chih; Rutledge, David B.

    1991-01-01

    A quasi-optical power density meter for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths has been developed. The device is a 2-cm^2 thin-film bismuth bolometer deposited on a mylar membrane. The resistance responsivity is 150 Ω/W, and the time constant is 1 min. The meter is calibrated at DC. The bolometer is much thinner than a wavelength, and can thus be modeled as a lumped resistance in a transmission-line equivalent circuit. The absorption coefficient is 0.5 for 189-Ω/square film. The power-dens...

  15. On M2M communications standards for smart metering

    Sneps-sneppe, Manfred; Maximenko, Anatoly; Namiot, Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses M2M communications standards for smart metering. One of the our goals is to show the failures of ETSI standartization process for M2M communications. Our paper proposes some extesions to ETSI standards. At the first hand, it is M-Bus protocol and Open Metering System based on M-Bus. The paper shows how to estimate wireless M-bus throughput and how to avoid collisions. After analysis of Open API for M2M, submitted to ETSI, we propose a new approach in the client-side web de...

  16. Novel Air Flow Meter for an Automobile Engine Using a Si Sensor with Porous Si Thermal Isolation

    Androula G. Nassiopoulou; Panagiotis Sarafis; Emmanouel Hourdakis

    2012-01-01

    An air flow meter for measuring the intake air of an automobile engine is presented. It is based on a miniaturized silicon thermal mass flow sensor using a thick porous Si (Po-Si) layer for local thermal isolation from the Si substrate, on which the sensor active elements are integrated. The sensor is mounted on one side of a printed circuit board (PCB), on the other side of which the readout and control electronics of the meter are mounted. The PCB is fixed on a housing containing a semi-cyl...

  17. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  18. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Daminov Ildar; Tarasova Ekaterina; Andreeva Tatyana; Avazov Artur

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  19. 40 CFR 1065.245 - Sample flow meter for batch sampling.

    2010-07-01

    ... laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a critical-flow venturi or multiple... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample flow meter for batch sampling... Sample flow meter for batch sampling. (a) Application. Use a sample flow meter to determine sample......

  20. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to...

  1. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from 12 April 1981 - 01 April 1983 (NODC Accession 8400159)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from April 12, 1981 to April 1, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  2. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific (limit - 180) from 12 June 1992 - 20 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9700237)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific (limit - 180) from June 12, 1992 to June 20, 1994. Data were submitted...

  3. Current meter and temperature profile data from current meter and buoy casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1997 to 31 August 1998 (NODC Accession 9800144)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using current meter and buoy casts in the North Pacific Ocean from 01 October 1997 to 31 August 1998. Data...

  4. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter:Top-down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Alexandre eCelma-Miralles

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked sixteen musicians to internally project binary (i.e. a strong-weak pattern and ternary (i.e. a strong-weak-weak pattern meter onto separate, but analogue, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e. flashes at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz, its first harmonic (4.8 Hz, the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz, and ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top-down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately.

  5. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter: Top-Down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities.

    Celma-Miralles, Alexandre; de Menezes, Robert F; Toro, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated top-down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked 16 musicians to internally project binary (i.e., a strong-weak pattern) and ternary (i.e., a strong-weak-weak pattern) meter onto separate, but analog, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e., flashes) at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz), its first harmonic (4.8 Hz), the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz), and the ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz) within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top-down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately. PMID:27047358

  6. Look at the Beat, Feel the Meter: Top–Down Effects of Meter Induction on Auditory and Visual Modalities

    Celma-Miralles, Alexandre; de Menezes, Robert F.; Toro, Juan M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has demonstrated top–down effects on meter induction in the auditory modality. However, little is known about these effects in the visual domain, especially without the involvement of motor acts such as tapping. In the present study, we aim to assess whether the projection of meter on auditory beats is also present in the visual domain. We asked 16 musicians to internally project binary (i.e., a strong-weak pattern) and ternary (i.e., a strong-weak-weak pattern) meter onto separate, but analog, visual and auditory isochronous stimuli. Participants were presented with sequences of tones or blinking circular shapes (i.e., flashes) at 2.4 Hz while their electrophysiological responses were recorded. A frequency analysis of the elicited steady-state evoked potentials allowed us to compare the frequencies of the beat (2.4 Hz), its first harmonic (4.8 Hz), the binary subharmonic (1.2 Hz), and the ternary subharmonic (0.8 Hz) within and across modalities. Taking the amplitude spectra into account, we observed an enhancement of the amplitude at 0.8 Hz in the ternary condition for both modalities, suggesting meter induction across modalities. There was an interaction between modality and voltage at 2.4 and 4.8 Hz. Looking at the power spectra, we also observed significant differences from zero in the auditory, but not in the visual, binary condition at 1.2 Hz. These findings suggest that meter processing is modulated by top–down mechanisms that interact with our perception of rhythmic events and that such modulation can also be found in the visual domain. The reported cross-modal effects of meter may shed light on the origins of our timing mechanisms, partially developed in primates and allowing humans to synchronize across modalities accurately. PMID:27047358

  7. iPhysioMeter: a smartphone photoplethysmograph for measuring various physiological indices.

    Matsumura, Kenta; Rolfe, Peter; Yamakoshi, Takehiro

    2015-01-01

    iPhysioMeter is a new smartphone application ("App") for the Apple iPhone and iPod touch that allows photoplethysmography (PPG) to be implemented without the need for any additional devices. The resulting signal, the photoplethysmogram, allows the calculation of basic but valuable and frequently used physiological indices such as heart rate (HR) and pulse volume (PV). The design of iPhysioMeter has very much been influenced by a consideration of usability, as is immediately evident from ones first experience with it. However, its apparent simplicity in use should not disguise the need for correct operation, which otherwise might lead to collection of invalid or inaccurate data. There are several unexpected pitfalls that might not only produce inaccurate values, but, under some circumstances, could also damage the device or present a hazard to the user or subject. We therefore describe here, firstly, the core technology that makes it possible to perform PPG and to calculate HR and normalized PV (NPV) from the photoplethysmogram using only a smartphone, secondly, the correct and optimum methods and procedures for using iPhysioMeter that will help to ensure safety and the derivation of valid data under real operational conditions. We hope that these descriptions will help facilitate any activities related to physiological measurement when using only a smartphone. PMID:25626548

  8. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm;

    2010-01-01

    intelligent way, also adding increased functionality to the system. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation of different control strategies for Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control of general single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder and an over......-centre valve included. The paper first presents a general model of the system considered, which is experimentally verified. This is followed by a discussion of different control strategies and their implications. For each of the control strategies controllers are described, taking into account the dynamics...

  9. Travel Time Variability After A Shock: The Case Of The Twin Cities Ramp Meter Shut Off

    Lei Zhang; David Levinson

    2001-01-01

    Ramp meters in the Twin Cities were turned off for 8 weeks in the Fall of 2000. This paper analyzes travel time variability with and without ramp metering for several representative freeways during the afternoon peak period. Travel time variability is generally reduced with metering. However, it is found that ramp meters are particularly helpful for long trips relative to short trips. The benefits from reducing travel time variability with meters are on the order of 37% of the benefits from r...

  10. Performance evaluation of cognitive radio in advanced metering infrastructure communication

    Hiew, Yik-Kuan; Mohd Aripin, Norazizah; Din, Norashidah Md

    2016-03-01

    Smart grid is an intelligent electricity grid system. A reliable two-way communication system is required to transmit both critical and non-critical smart grid data. However, it is difficult to locate a huge chunk of dedicated spectrum for smart grid communications. Hence, cognitive radio based communication is applied. Cognitive radio allows smart grid users to access licensed spectrums opportunistically with the constraint of not causing harmful interference to licensed users. In this paper, a cognitive radio based smart grid communication framework is proposed. Smart grid framework consists of Home Area Network (HAN) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), while AMI is made up of Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and Wide Area Network (WAN). In this paper, the authors only report the findings for AMI communication. AMI is smart grid domain that comprises smart meters, data aggregator unit, and billing center. Meter data are collected by smart meters and transmitted to data aggregator unit by using cognitive 802.11 technique; data aggregator unit then relays the data to billing center using cognitive WiMAX and TV white space. The performance of cognitive radio in AMI communication is investigated using Network Simulator 2. Simulation results show that cognitive radio improves the latency and throughput performances of AMI. Besides, cognitive radio also improves spectrum utilization efficiency of WiMAX band from 5.92% to 9.24% and duty cycle of TV band from 6.6% to 10.77%.

  11. 18 CFR 367.9020 - Account 902, Meter reading expenses.

    2010-04-01

    ... reading expenses. 367.9020 Section 367.9020 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Operation and Maintenance Expense Chart of Accounts § 367.9020 Account 902, Meter reading expenses. (a) This account must include the cost of labor, materials used and expenses incurred in...

  12. A Smart Wireless Electronic Energy Meter Reading Using Embedded Technology

    Shraddha Male,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The AMR (Automatic Meter Reading system is a system used for reading energy consumption remotely. This wireless AMR system is based on wireless network and embedded technology to solve the problems in existing AMR system. This paper presents the simple low cost wireless GSM energy meter and it has remote access of existing meter. It saves huge human labour. A GSM based wireless module for communication is integrated with electronic energy meter and it has remote access over the usage of electricity. Authentication is provided to users for accessing the developed web pages details from anywhere in the world. So GSM based wireless AMR system is more effective approach for convention of billing system. This system also provide authority to electricity companies to take actions against lenient customers who have outstanding dues, otherwise company has right to disconnect the power supply and also it can reconnect power supply after deposition of dues. The complete monthly usage of electricity and due bill is messaged back to the customer after processing these data. We finally thought of building such a system that will do the above process automatically.

  13. Enhancing Energy Efficiency Of Communication Subsystems For Smart Metering

    Lovejeet Singh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract— Save energy: For nature, for future. To conserve the energy smart metering with exploitation of communication technologies has revolutionized the efficient utilization and management of energy consumption. World over, tremendous research is going on energy efficient communication technologies and protocols. ZigBee is widely accepted protocol for low power and low data rate smart home area networks. In this paper, therefore for smart metering application, instead of devising a new protocol, we have critically examined the application interfacing methods of energy conservation like fixed and adaptive duty cycling and data reduction to make communication more efficient among smart devices. These methods have been evaluated on the basis of key objectives of smart metering that are real time information or minimum latency in data to user and interoperability among devices and manufacturers. A modification in ZigBee smart energy profile has been suggested to accommodate data modeling and prediction method which is discovered as most appropriate energy conservation method for smart metering application during analysis.

  14. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 30 Meter Resolution

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This 30 Meter DEM is a copy of the USGS 1:24,000 scale Level 2 DEMs for the State. There are three quadrangles known be be Level 1 DEM data: Town Line Lake (q1925),...

  15. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT): An International Observatory

    Gary H. Sanders

    2013-06-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) will be the first truly global ground-based optical/infrared observatory. It will initiate the era of extremely large (30-meter class) telescopes with diffraction limited performance from its vantage point in the northern hemisphere on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, USA. The astronomy communities of India, Canada, China, Japan and the USA are shaping its science goals, suite of instrumentation and the system design of the TMT observatory. With large and open Nasmyth-focus platforms for generations of science instruments, TMT will have the versatility and flexibility for its envisioned 50 years of forefront astronomy. The TMT design employs the filled-aperture finely-segmented primary mirror technology pioneered with the W.M. Keck 10-meter telescopes. With TMT’s 492 segments optically phased, and by employing laser guide star assisted multi-conjugate adaptive optics, TMT will achieve the full diffraction limited performance of its 30-meter aperture, enabling unprecedented wide field imaging and multi-object spectroscopy. The TMT project is a global effort of its partners with all partners contributing to the design, technology development, construction and scientific use of the observatory. TMT will extend astronomy with extremely large telescopes to all of its global communities.

  16. A hybrid ICT-solution for smart meter data analytics

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    analytics. The proposed solution offers an information integration pipeline for ingesting data from smart meters, a scalable platform for processing and mining big data sets, and a web portal for visualizing analytics results. The implemented system has a hybrid architecture of using Spark or Hive for big...

  17. Comparison Test and its Evaluation of Flowmeters for Heat Meter

    Choi, Hae-Man; Choi, Yong-Moon; Yoon, Byung-Ro

    2010-06-01

    This study selected a total of 24 heat flowmeters consisting of three types: impeller, electromagnetic and ultrasonic, 8 meters each. The diameter was 0.05 m (9 meters), 0.08 m (9 meters), and 0.15 m (6 meters). In accordance with the OIML R 75 testing method accuracy, installation position, external environment, and durability were tested, and the flowmeter property field test was conducted in the field where of heat supply from winter to summer in order to select the type of heat flowmeter best suited for the circumstances in Korea. According to the test result, all 3 types of flowmeters met the OIML Recommendation, but the result of the field test showed that the electromagnetic flowmeters displayed a deviation at the low flow rate during summer. The impeller flowmeters showed accuracy suggested by the OIML Recommendation, but the ultrasonic flowmeter, a next-generation flowmeter, which is strong against contamination, low in maintenance-rate, and high in accuracy as it has no moving part, was found to be the best choice.

  18. Continuous flow measurements using ultrasonic velocity meters - an update

    Oltmann, Rick

    1995-01-01

    An article in the summer 1993 Newsletter described USGS work to continously monitor tidal flows in the delta using ultrasonic velocity meters.  This article updates progress since 1993, including new installations, results of data analysis, damage during this year's high flows, and the status of each site.

  19. Field Evaluation of Seepage Meters in the Coastal Marine Environment

    Cable, J. E.; Burnett, W. C.; Chanton, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.; Cable, P. H.

    1997-09-01

    The response of seepage meters was evaluated in a nearshore marine environment where water motion effects are more pronounced than in lake settings, where these meters have been used traditionally. Temporal and spatial variations of seepage, as well as potential artifacts, were evaluated using empty and 1000-ml pre-filled bag measurements. Time-series measurements confirmed earlier observations that anomalously high fluxes occur during the early stages (≤10 min) of collection. As deployment times increased (30-60 min), measured flow rates stabilized at a level thought to represent the actual seepage flux. Pre-filling the plastic measurement bags effectively alleviated this anomalous, short-term influx. Reliable seepage measurements required deployment times sufficient to allow a net volume of at least 150 ml into the collection bag. Control experiments, designed by placing seepage meters inside sand-filled plastic swimming pools, served as indicators of external effects on these measurements, i.e. they served as seepage meter blanks. When winds were under 15 knots, little evidence was found that water motion caused artifacts in the seepage measurements. Tidal cycle influences on seepage rates were negligible in the present study area, but long-term temporal variations (weeks to months) proved substantial. Observed long-term changes in groundwater flux into the Gulf of Mexico correlated with water table elevation at a nearby monitoring well.

  20. Wet gas flow modeling for a vertically mounted Venturi meter

    Venturi meters are playing an increasingly important role in wet gas metering in natural gas and oil industries. Due to the effect of liquid in a wet gas, the differential pressure over the converging section of a Venturi meter is higher than that when a pure gas flows through with the same flow rate. This phenomenon is referred to as over-reading. Thus, a correction for the over-reading is required. Most of the existing wet gas models are more suitable for higher pressure (>2 MPa) than lower pressure (0.5) than lower quality (<0.5) in recent years. However, conditions of lower pressure and lower quality also widely exist in the gas and oil industries. By comparing the performances of eight existing wet gas models in low-pressure range of 0.26–0.86 MPa and low-quality range of 0.07–0.36 with a vertically mounted Venturi meter of diameter ratio 0.45, de Leeuw's model was proven to perform best. Derived from de Leeuw's model, a modified model with better performance for the low-pressure and low-quality ranges was obtained. Experimental data showed that the root mean square of the relative errors of the over-reading was 2.30%. (paper)

  1. A Meter Classification System for Spoken Persian Poetries

    Saeid Hamidi & Farbod Razzazi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a meter classification system has been proposed for Persian poems based onfeatures that are extracted from uttered poem. In the first stage, the utterance has beensegmented into syllables using three features, pitch frequency and modified energy of each frameof the utterance and its temporal variations. In the second stage, each syllable is classified intolong syllable and short syllable classes which is a historically convenient categorization in Persianliterature. In this stage, the classifier is an SVM classifier with radial basis function kernel. Theemployed features are the syllable temporal duration, zero crossing rate and PARCORcoefficients of each syllable. The sequence of extracted syllables classes is then softly comparedwith classic Persian meter styles using dynamic time warping, to make the system robust againstsyllables insertion, deletion or classification and poems authorities. The system has beenevaluated on 136 poetries utterances from 12 Persian meter styles gathered from 8 speakers,using k-fold evaluation strategy. The results show 91% accuracy in three top meter style choicesof the system.

  2. A novel metered dose transdermal spray formulation for oxybutynin

    Bakshi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to develop a metered dose spray formulation for transdermal delivery of oxybutynin and to carry out the in vitro characterization of the optimized formulation. Oxybutynin release from a series of ethanol/acetone/methylal based formulations was assessed in vitro and the developed formulation was used for delivery from a metered dose spray. Various qualitative and quantitative parameters like spray pattern, particle size distribution, pH, evaporation time, pump seal efficiency test, average weight per metered dose, content per spray and content uniformity were evaluated. The different film forming agents were assessed and carbopol (0.5% and lutrol (0.1% were found to give good clarity of solution, evaporation rate, spray pattern and tackiness of the film. Diffusion studies of the optimized formulations through the semipermeable membrane showed the release of drug to the extent of almost 50% over a period of 24 h. Stability studies were conducted as per ICH guidelines and indicated that formulations were stable. Skin irritation studies were performed using rabbit as an animal model. The results obtained show that the metered dose transdermal spray formulation can be a promising and innovative therapeutic system for the transdermal administration of oxybutynin.

  3. Commercial building end-use energy metering inventory

    Heidell, J.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.; Reilly, R.W.

    1985-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a comprehensive inventory of end-use metered data. The inventory did not discover many sources of metered end-use data; however, research into existing data bases and extensive discussions with professionals associated with building energy conservation have enabled a clear characterization to be developed of the types of metered data that are required to further energy conservation in commercial buildings. Based on the results of the inventory and this clarification of data requirements, the adequacy of existing data bases has been assessed, and recommendations have been developed for future federal data collection efforts. A summary of sources of existing metered end-use data is provided in Section 2.1 and its adequacy has been summarized. Collection of further end-use metered data is both desirable and valuable for many areas of building energy conservation research. Empirical data are needed to address many issues which to date have been addressed using only simulation techniques. The adequacy of using simulation techniques for various purposes needs to be assessed through comparison with measured data. While these data are expensive to acquire, it is cost-effective to do so in the long run, and the need is not being served by the private market. The preceding conclusion based on results from the inventory of existing data highlights two important facts: First, although the data are widely desired in the private sector, they are not widely available. Second, where suitable data are publicly available and contain the desired supporting information, their collection has generally been funded by government-sponsored research.

  4. Effects of network pressure on water meter under-registration: an experimental analysis

    C. M. Fontanazza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In water supply systems, a considerable amount of apparent loss is caused by meter under-registration. Water meters are subject to intrinsic systemic error depending on the actual flow rates passing through them. Furthermore, the moving parts of the meter are subject to wear and tear that progressively reduce meter accuracy. The increase in systemic error is especially evident at low flow rates because of growing friction in the rotating mechanism, which requires a higher flow to start the meter (starting flow. The aim of this paper is to experimentally investigate metering error in an attempt to find a direct link between meter age, network pressure and apparent losses caused by the inability of the meter to accurately register the volume passing though it at low flow rates. The study was performed through laboratory experiments in which worn-out water meters were tested using a test bench. The results of the laboratory experiments show that ageing and pressure are both relevant parameters for determining meter starting flow. These results were then applied to assess the effects on apparent losses of the age of the meter, varying pressure values upstream of the meter (the pressure in the network where the meter is installed and different patterns of flow rates passing through the device (the consumption pattern of the user. The presented results are useful for understanding the effects of operating conditions on water meter under-registration, which can aid water managers in implementing effective replacement campaigns.

  5. Improved method to label beta-2 agonists in metered-dose inhalers with technetium-99m

    Ballinger, J.R.; Calcutt, L.E.; Hodder, R.V.; Proulx, A.; Gulenchyn, K.Y. (Ottawa Civic Hospital, Ottawa (Canada). Div. of Nuclear Medicine and Respiratory Unit)

    1993-01-01

    Labelling beta-2 agonists in a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with technetium-99m allows imaging of the deposition of the aerosol in the respiratory tract. We have developed an improved labeling method in which anhydrous pertechnetate is dissolved in a small volume of ethanol, diluted with a fluorocarbon, and introduced into a commercial MDI. Imaging the MDI demonstrated that the [sup 99m]Tc was associated with the active ingredient, not just the propellant. The method has been used successfully with salbutamol and fenoterol MDIs and should be directly applicable to other MDIs which contain hydrophilic drugs. (Author).

  6. Neutron dose equivalent rate meter on the basis of the single sphere Albedo technique

    In area monitoring there is a need for a more accurate neutron reference dose rate meter, especially for the purpose of albedo dosemeter calibrations in neutron stray radiation fields of interest. The so-called Single Sphere Albedo Counter makes use of three active 3He proportional counters as thermal neutron detectors positioned in the centre and on the surface (albedo dosemeter configurations) of a polyethylene sphere. The linear combination of the detector readings allows for the indication of different quantities like H*(10),D,φ, and reduces the energy dependence significantly. The paper describes the dosimetric properties of a prototype instrument and its application in routine monitoring. (author)

  7. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially “groove” and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove. PMID:26973489

  8. dc electric field meter with fiber-optic readout

    Johnston, Alan R.; Kirkham, Harold; Eng, Bjorn T.

    1986-01-01

    The design of a dc electric field meter capable of measuring the magnitude and direction of the electric field at an arbitrary location above the ground plane is described. The meter is based on measuring induced charge on a split cylindrical electrode pair which is rotated around its axis of symmetry. Data readout is by fiber-optic cable using pulse frequency encoding. The sensing head is electrically isolated. Initial results are reported from a series of tests at General Electric's High Voltage Transmission Research Facility, Pittsfield, MA. The electric field was measured in a large test cage and under a dc test line. Measurement of field magnitude and direction around a human subject standing under the conductor was demonstrated.

  9. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership.

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially "groove" and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many musical styles to divorce themselves from their dance-based roots are also briefly considered. To the extent that musical rhythms only make sense in the context of bodily movement, researchers interested in ecologically valid approaches to music cognition should make a more concerted effort to extend their analyses to dance, particularly if we hope to understand the cognitive constraints underlying rhythmic aspects of music like meter and groove. PMID:26973489

  10. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Market Survey Report

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-23

    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the chemical monitored. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. To provide emergency responders with information on handheld multi-gas meters, the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted a market survey. This market survey report is based on information gathered between November 2015 and February 2016 from vendors, Internet research, industry publications, an emergency responder focus group, and a government issued Request for Information (RFI) that was posted on the Federal Business Opportunities website.

  11. A FPGA Based Digital Reactivity Meter for THOR Research Reactor

    A field programmable gate array (FPGA) based real-time reactivity-meter for Tsing-Hua Open-Pool Reactor (THOR) has been developed. The reactivity meter can operate online with real time calculation. According to the inverse point reactor dynamics model, reactivity was estimated from the measured power data. In order to improve the accuracy on the estimation, sensitivity studies have been made to determine a proper sample time interval to reduce the fluctuation of the measured power data. Two sets of ADC were used to extend the dynamic range of the monitoring system. Compared with the existing analog system, the digital system has a wider dynamic range, less noise in low power range, and a comparable system response time. (authors)

  12. Path to meter class single crystal silicon (SCSi) space optics

    McCarter, Douglas R.

    2012-03-01

    With the global financial crisis affecting funding for space systems development, customers are calling for lower cost systems. Yet, at the same time, these lower cost systems must have increased thermal response to operational environments and load survivability. We submit that single crystal silicon (SCSi) meets both of these requirements. This paper will highlight some key SCSi material properties, discuss the opportunities that led to the development of McCarter processing methods, and present the latest steps in the manufacturing path of McCarter Mirrors using SCSi, GFB (glass frit bonding) and MSF (McCarter super finish), including the concept drawing of a one meter SCSi lightweight mirror, which together sets up the last step toward a lower cost, high performing one meter SCSi space optic.

  13. In-Vacuum Photogrammetry of a 10-Meter Solar Sail

    Meyer, Chris G.; Jones, Thomas W.; Lunsford, Charles B.; Pappa, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    In July 2004, a 10-meter solar sail structure developed by L Garde, Inc. was tested in vacuum at the NASA Glenn 30-meter Plum Brook Space Power Facility in Sandusky, Ohio. The three main objections of the test were to demonstrate unattended deployment from a stowed configuration, to measure the deployed shape of the sail at both ambient and cryogenic room temperatures, and to measure the deployed structural dynamic characteristics (vibration modes). This paper summarizes the work conducted to fulfill the second test objective. The deployed shape was measured photogrammetrically in vacuum conditions with four 2-megapixel digital video cameras contained in custom made pressurized canisters. The canisters included high-intensity LED ring lights to illuminate a grid of retroreflective targets distributed on the solar sail. The test results closely matched pre-test photogrammetry numerical simulations and compare well with ABAQUS finite-element model predictions.

  14. Mobile metering. Enabling cost-efficient smart charging for EVs

    Hechtfischer, Knut; Pawlitschek, Frank [ubitricity GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Berg, Andreas [VOLTARIS, Merzig (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Users of electric vehicles want to and should be mobile with the least possible limitations. A fundamental requirement is an affordable and easy to use charging infrastructure that allows charging of the vehicle, if achievable wherever the EV is parked. ubitricity and VOLTARIS are developing and testing the On-Board Metering system and the underlying business and security concepts for such an ubiquitous charging infrastructure for electric mobility. Further leading partners are supporting the project that is being co-funded by research grants of the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology. The basic idea is to install metering and communication technology inside the car to generate the information required for billing processes. (orig.)

  15. Apparent transducer non-reciprocity in an ultrasonic flow meter.

    van Deventer, Jan; Delsing, Jerker

    2002-05-01

    This paper investigates the effects of non-identical ultrasonic transducers on reciprocity and zero-flow calibration in transit time flow meters. According to the theorem of reciprocity, there should not be any difference between the up- and downstream acoustic times of flight in a zero-flow situation. This would thus eliminate zero-flow estimation drifts. The flow meter is modeled as a one dimensional system with equivalent electrical circuits and simulated with simulation program with integrated circuits emphasis. The work shows that variations between the two transducers cause false estimates of flow and indicate which parameters have the largest influence. It indicates that reciprocity holds only for identical transducers. PMID:12159974

  16. Speed limit and ramp meter control for traffic flow networks

    Goatin, Paola; Göttlich, Simone; Kolb, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    The control of traffic flow can be related to different applications. In this work, a method to manage variable speed limits combined with coordinated ramp metering within the framework of the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) network model is introduced. Following a 'first-discretize-then-optimize' approach, the first order optimality system is derived and the switch of speeds at certain fixed points in time is explained, together with the boundary control for the ramp metering. Sequential quadratic programming methods are used to solve the control problem numerically. For application purposes, experimental setups are presented wherein variable speed limits are used as a traffic guidance system to avoid traffic jams on highway interchanges and on-ramps.

  17. GARUSO - Version 1.0. Uncertainty model for multipath ultrasonic transit time gas flow meters

    Lunde, Per; Froeysa, Kjell-Eivind; Vestrheim, Magne

    1997-09-01

    This report describes an uncertainty model for ultrasonic transit time gas flow meters configured with parallel chords, and a PC program, GARUSO Version 1.0, implemented for calculation of the meter`s relative expanded uncertainty. The program, which is based on the theoretical uncertainty model, is used to carry out a simplified and limited uncertainty analysis for a 12`` 4-path meter, where examples of input and output uncertainties are given. The model predicts a relative expanded uncertainty for the meter at a level which further justifies today`s increasing tendency to use this type of instruments for fiscal metering of natural gas. 52 refs., 15 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Fail Operational Controls for an Independent Metering Valve

    Rannow, Michael

    2016-01-01

    As intelligent hydraulic systems with embedded sensors become more ubiquitous, the real or perceived reliability challenge associated with sensors must be addressed to encourage their adoption. In this paper, a fault-tolerant control strategy for an intelligent independent metering valve that allows continued operation if a sensor fails is described. The twin-spool valve example utilizes position sensors to stabilize the spool positions and eliminate hysteresis, and pressure sensors to provid...

  19. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    Xinxin Fan; Guang Gong

    2013-01-01

    The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Depl...

  20. Development of geo-electrical meter based on networking

    WANG Lan-wei; ZHAO Jia-liu

    2008-01-01

    Further development of earthquake equipments is closely associated with that of computer technology. Because Embedded PC104 module has the equivalent functions of PC, it has been widely used in recent years, and can provide a new and flexible hardware design environment, but its applications in observation instruments of earthquake precursor are rare. The present paper introduces in detail the realization of a networked geo-electrical meter by applying the low price, high reliability embedded PC 104 industrial computer.

  1. Dance, Music, Meter and Groove: A Forgotten Partnership

    Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2016-01-01

    I argue that core aspects of musical rhythm, especially “groove” and syncopation, can only be fully understood in the context of their origins in the participatory social experience of dance. Musical meter is first considered in the context of bodily movement. I then offer an interpretation of the pervasive but somewhat puzzling phenomenon of syncopation in terms of acoustic emphasis on certain offbeat components of the accompanying dance style. The reasons for the historical tendency of many...

  2. Clustering Time-Series Energy Data from Smart Meters

    Lavin, Alexander; Klabjan, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Investigations have been performed into using clustering methods in data mining time-series data from smart meters. The problem is to identify patterns and trends in energy usage profiles of commercial and industrial customers over 24-hour periods, and group similar profiles. We tested our method on energy usage data provided by several U.S. power utilities. The results show accurate grouping of accounts similar in their energy usage patterns, and potential for the method to be utilized in en...

  3. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  4. Usage Metering for Service-Oriented Grid Computing

    Arun Kumar; Neeran Karnik; Vikas Agarwal

    2006-01-01

    Currently, the grid computing community is undergoing a paradigm shift from the traditional resource-centric model to a service-oriented one. The Open Grid Services Architecture (OGSA) from the Global Grid Forum proposes that Web service-like abstractions be used to encapsulate shared grid resources for service-oriented grid computing. An important management component of such an infrastructure which is essential for its success in enterprise environments, is the metering and accounting for g...

  5. Review of Scattering Corrections for Calibration of Neutron Survey Meters

    In this study, the calibration factors of the several neutron survey meters obtained by both the shadow-cone method and semi-empirical method. Generally and theoretically, the calibration factors obtained by the methods given in ISO 8529-2 have the similar values. However we found that the calibration factors obtained by two methods have the different values. The calibration factors were obtained by two calibration method and the validity of the 'shadow-cone method' was proven by the MCNPX calculation. The total scattering correction of the conventional true scatter effects in the 'shadow-cone method' was under-estimated by 4.0.8.1% rather than the scatter correction in the 'semi-empirical method'. This lower calibration factor than that of the 'semi-empirical method' is owing to the under-response of the neutron survey meters in the thermal neutron field. These results are elucidated from that most of single-moderator-based survey meters excluding tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) have an under-response in the thermal neutron field. It is concluded that a great care is needed while calibrating a survey meter using a shadow-cone calibration method and in interpreting the readouts. ISO 8529-2 (the International Organization for Standardization) recommends four different approaches to the problem of correcting for scatter effects. The first three methods, denoted as the shadow-cone method, the generalized fit method, and the semi-empirical method, usually involve an initial set of careful measurements as a function of the distance between neutron source and detector

  6. Data acquisition and meter unit based in wifi communication protocol

    Gerardo Cázarez Ayala

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Without doubt, the competitive fast rhythm of the industries is one of the main causes helped bring to the accelerated growth of the electronic technology and the communication. The need to develop new products with a best quality, cheaper and faster as assure and increase the quality of the products in the international markets, requires of new technologies to the metering, monitoring and control of their production processes, of which finality is to improve the processes to guaranteed their products in the market in the less time possible, the best quality and low cost for the final consumer. This work is based in the design and implementation of a Wireless Data Acquisition Unit based in WiFi protocol, which is oriented to meter, monitoring and the control of processes in the industry, commercial and the home automation applications, using one of the wirelessprotocols with the biggest acceptance in the market, with the main objective of to take advantage of the installed physical infrastructure in the place of the application, like industry, company or house. The Unit is based in the RN-131G, a Roving Network company module, which is able to work in stand-alone mode with ultralow power consummation and supporting the IEEE 802.11b/g protocols, in which is possible to achieve transfer rates of up to 11 Mbps and 54 Mbps in /b & /g specifications respectively. Whit this unit is possible to meter up to 5 analogs signals with 14 bits precision and has include a temperature and relative humidity sensors. This unit can meter two digital signals and act mean two digitals outputs, and gas include an USB port for communication and programming tasks.

  7. Gamma radiation methods for clamp-on multiphase flow metering

    Blaney, S

    2008-01-01

    The development of a cost-effective multiphase flow meter to determine the individual phase flow rates of oil, water and gas was investigated through the exploitation of a single clamp-on gamma densitometer and signal processing techniques. A fast-sampling (250 Hz) gamma densitometer was installed at the top of the 10.5 m high, 108.2 mm internal diameter, stainless steel catenary riser in the Cranfield University multiphase flow test facility. Gamma radiation attenuation data w...

  8. Analysis and Prediction of Electricity Consumption Using Smart Meter Data

    Sauhats, A; Varfolomejeva, R; Linkevičs, O; Petričenko, R; Kuņickis, M; Balodis, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is considering application of smart meter data to predict electricity consumption of household consumers. The availability and amount of data is suitable for in- depth statistical analysis of electricity consumption profiles and the study of consumer’s behavior. Prediction of electricity consumption is very important for electricity traders to balance their electricity purchase and sales portfolio, as well as to prepare optimal price products (offers) for their clients. Electricity...

  9. Variable Classifications of Glycemic Index Determined by Glucose Meters

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-01-01

    The study evaluated and compared the differences of glucose responses, incremental area under curve (IAUC), glycemic index (GI) and the classification of GI values between measured by biochemical analyzer (Fuji automatic biochemistry analyzer (FAA)) and three glucose meters: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 ± 1.5, followed by FAA, ...

  10. Solutions For Smart Metering Under Harsh Environmental Condicions

    Kunicina N.; Zabasta A.; Kondratjevs K.; Asmanis G.

    2015-01-01

    The described case study concerns application of wireless sensor networks to the smart control of power supply substations. The solution proposed for metering is based on the modular principle and has been tested in the intersystem communication paradigm using selectable interface modules (IEEE 802.3, ISM radio interface, GSM/GPRS). The solution modularity gives 7 % savings of maintenance costs. The developed solution can be applied to the control of different critical infrastructure networks...

  11. Astronaut Assembly of a 14-Meter-Diameter Microwave Antenna

    1992-01-01

    Astronaut Jerry Ross is shown assembling a portion of a 14-meter-diameter truss structure in NASAs Neutral Buoyancy Simulator at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The structure is part of a large microwave antenna designed for space-based monitoring of soil moisture levels and ocean temperatures. The underwater assembly tests demonstrated that two astronauts could construct the large antenna in approximately 4-6 hours in space.

  12. Analytical modelling of Thirty Meter Telescope optics polarization

    Anche, Ramya M.; Anupama, G. C.; Reddy, Krishna; Sen, Asoke; Sankarasubramanian, K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Sengupta, Sujan; Skidmore, Warren; Atwood, Jenny; Tirupathi, Sivarani; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan

    2015-06-01

    The polarization introduced due to Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) optics is calculated using an analytical model. Mueller matrices are also generated for each optical element using Zemax, based on which the instrumental polarization due to the entire system at the focal plane is estimated and compared with the analytical model. This study is significant in the estimation of the telescope sensitivity and also has great implications for future instruments.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of thermal flow meter

    Cebula Artur

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents analytical and numerical model calculation results of the temperature distribution along the thermal flow meter. Results show a very good conformity between numerical and analytical model. Apart from the calculation results the experimental investigations are presented. The author performed the test where a temperature of duct wall surface was measured. The relation between mass flow rate in terms of the duct surface temperature difference was developed.

  14. Gas mass-flow meters: Principles and applications

    Manuel Arlindo Amador de Matos; Viviana da Silva Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Gas mass-flow meters (GMFM) for original equipment manufacturers (OEM) applications are presently found in a relatively easy and cheap way. GMFM may be applied in a number of different situations but technical formation concerning its principles of measurement and applications are still misleading. In this paper, the principles of GMFM measurement are discussed and the operating parameters are clarified. A concept of gas mass-flow response factor is introduced and further used ...

  15. Current meter observations in the Irish Sea, 1986

    This report presents the results from ten current meter moorings deployed in the eastern Irish Sea during 1986, as part of a field programme investigating local sediment dynamics. The main aim of the moorings was to provide long-term estimates of residual current flow, for use in a numerical box model which will simulate the distribution and behaviour of radionuclides with a high affinity for sediments, such as plutonium. (author)

  16. Analyzing China Smart Water Meter Industry Cluster Competitiveness

    Chan, Parker

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development has always been a top issue nowadays. The smart water management is one of the methods to achieve the sustainable development. This paper aims to focus on analyzing the competitiveness of industrial clusters (Guangzhou, Ningbo and Shanghai) in China specifically to the smart water meter industry. It is part of the CEMIS sourcing work package under the KVTELIOS project with Mr. Al Natsheh Anas, and is supervised by Ms. Komulainen Ruey. Porter Diamond Theory is used ...

  17. Portable radiation meters developed in Boris Kidric Institute

    Portable meters designed for X and gamma radiation measurements and beta detection are described. An instrument using ionization chamber is developed with new type of electrometer amplifier. It is designed for precise and reliable exposure and exposure rate measurements. Another instrument with GM counters covers 8 linear ranges: from background up to 10 Sv/h. Some specific solutions and basic measurement characteristics of these instruments are presented (author)

  18. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Alberto Sendin; Ivan Peña; Pablo Angueira

    2014-01-01

    Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS) existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV) segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC) have been extensively used in electricity grids ...

  19. Deriving knowledge of household behaviour from domestic electricity usage metering

    Dent, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The electricity market in the UK is undergoing dramatic changes and requires a transformation of existing practices to meet the current and forthcoming challenges. One aspect of the solution is the deployment of demand side management (DSM) programmes to influence domestic behaviour patterns for the benefit of the overall network. Effective deployment of DSM requires segmentation of the population into a small number of groupings. Using a database of electricity meter data collected at a f...

  20. A new digital ion drift meter for thermal plasma measurement

    In the near-earth space environment, thermal plasmas are those near equilibrium with temperatures from 0.1 to 10 eV and densities from 1 to 107 cm-3. It is useful to consider the distinctions between common measurement methods for thermal and medium energy (10 to 105 eV) plasmas. Distributions of medium energy plasmas are commonly measured differentially. That is, ions in small portions of velocity space are isolated by devices using static fields. These use charge multipliers for single-ion or digital detection. Complete distribution measurements are made, with some difficulty by moving or combining multiple detectors. In contrast, thermal plasmas are more easily measured in bulk, with differential information being more difficult to obtain. Retarding Potential Analyzers (RPAs) and Drift Meters (DMs) are often used to measure thermal ions. The Digital Ion Drift Meter (DIDM) is being developed as a replacement for analog spacecraft drift meters. It combines the single-ion counting capability of a Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) with a position-determining anode. Careful electrostatic design is needed to create an instrument that can simultaneously measure bulk and differential plasma properties at very low densities. Performance has been optimized by simulating the trajectories of ions entering the device

  1. Broadband PLC for Clustered Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI Architecture

    Augustine Ikpehai

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI subsystems monitor and control energy distribution through exchange of information between smart meters and utility networks. A key challenge is how to select a cost-effective communication system without compromising the performance of the applications. Current communication technologies were developed for conventional data networks with different requirements. It is therefore necessary to investigate how much of existing communication technologies can be retrofitted into the new energy infrastructure to cost-effectively deliver acceptable level of service. This paper investigates broadband power line communications (BPLC as a backhaul solution in AMI. By applying the disparate traffic characteristics of selected AMI applications, the network performance is evaluated. This study also examines the communication network response to changes in application configurations in terms of packet sizes. In each case, the network is stress-tested and performance is assessed against acceptable thresholds documented in the literature. Results show that, like every other communication technology, BPLC has certain limitations; however, with some modifications in the network topology, it indeed can fulfill most AMI traffic requirements for flexible and time-bounded applications. These opportunities, if tapped, can significantly improve fiscal and operational efficiencies in AMI services. Simulation results also reveal that BPLC as a backhaul can support flat and clustered AMI structures with cluster size ranging from 1 to 150 smart meters.

  2. Unlocking the potential for efficiency and demand response throughadvanced metering

    Levy, Roger; Herter, Karen; Wilson, John

    2004-06-30

    Reliance on the standard cumulative kilowatt-hour meter substantially compromises energy efficiency and demand response programs. Without advanced metering, utilities cannot support time-differentiated rates or collect the detailed customer usage information necessary to (1)educate the customer to the economic value of efficiency and demand response options, or (2) distribute load management incentives proportional to customer contribution. These deficiencies prevent the customer feedback mechanisms that would otherwise encourage economically sound demand-side investments and behaviors. Thus, the inability to collect or properly price electricity usage handicaps the success of almost all efficiency and demand response options. Historically, implementation of the advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) necessary for the successful efficiency and demand response programs has been prevented by inadequate cost-benefit analyses. A recent California effort has produced an expanded cost-effectiveness methodology for AMI that introduces previously excluded benefits. In addition to utility-centric costs and benefits, the new model includes qualitative and quantitative costs and benefits that accrue to both customers and society.

  3. Accidental Cutaneous Burns Secondary to Salbutamol Metered Dose Inhaler

    Ashutosh Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of accidental cutaneous burns caused by salbutamol metered dose inhaler. A 9-year-old boy underwent dental extraction at a children's hospital and was incidentally noted to have burn injuries on dorsum of both hands. On questioning, the boy revealed that a few days ago his 14-year-old brother, who is an asthmatic, playfully sprayed his salbutamol metered dose inhaler on the back of both his hands with the inhaler's mouth piece being in direct contact with the patient's skin. On examination, there was a rectangular area of erythema with superficial peeling on the dorsum of both hands, the dimensions of which exactly matched those of the inhaler's mouthpiece. It is possible that the injury could have been a chemical burn from the pharmaceutical/preservative/propellant aerosol or due to the physical effect of severe cooling of the skin or mechanical abrasive effect of the aerosol blasts or a combination of some or all the above mechanisms. This case highlights the importance of informing children and parents of the potentially hazardous consequences of misusing a metered dose inhaler.

  4. Frequency Management for Electromagnetic Continuous Wave Conductivity Meters.

    Mazurek, Przemyslaw; Putynkowski, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Ground conductivity meters use electromagnetic fields for the mapping of geological variations, like the determination of water amount, depending on ground layers, which is important for the state analysis of embankments. The VLF band is contaminated by numerous natural and artificial electromagnetic interference signals. Prior to the determination of ground conductivity, the meter's working frequency is not possible, due to the variable frequency of the interferences. Frequency management based on the analysis of the selected band using track-before-detect (TBD) algorithms, which allows dynamical frequency changes of the conductivity of the meter transmitting part, is proposed in the paper. Naive maximum value search, spatio-temporal TBD (ST-TBD), Viterbi TBD and a new algorithm that uses combined ST-TBD and Viterbi TBD are compared. Monte Carlo tests are provided for the numerical analysis of the properties for a single interference signal in the considered band, and a new approach based on combined ST-TBD and Viterbi algorithms shows the best performance. The considered algorithms process spectrogram data for the selected band, so DFT (Discrete Fourier Transform) could be applied for the computation of the spectrogram. Real-time properties, related to the latency, are discussed also, and it is shown that TBD algorithms are feasible for real applications. PMID:27070608

  5. Miniature, high efficiency transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters

    Saikia, Meghna

    This thesis is concerned with the development of a new type of miniature, high efficiency transducer for use in ultrasonic flow meters. The proposed transducer consists of a thin plate of a suitable piezoelectric material on which an inter-digital transducer is fabricated for the generation and detection of plate acoustic waves. When immersed in a fluid medium, this device can convert energy from plate acoustic waves (PAWs) into bulk acoustic waves (BAWs) and vice versa. It is shown that this mode coupling principle can be used to realize efficient transducers for use in ultrasonic flow meters. This transducer can be mounted flush with the walls of the pipe through which fluid is flowing, resulting in minimal disturbance of fluid flow. A prototype flow cell using these transducers has been designed and fabricated. The characteristics of this device have been measured over water flow rates varying from 0 to 7.5 liters per minute and found to be in good agreement with theory. Another attractive property of the new transducers is that they can be used to realize remotely read, passive, wireless flow meters. Details of methods that can be used to develop this wireless capability are described. The research carried out in this thesis has applications in several other areas such as ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE), noncontact or air coupled ultrasonics, and for developing wireless capability in a variety of other acoustic wave sensors.

  6. Comprehensive Flow Meter for All Materials. Final report

    NONE

    1999-11-15

    The electromagnetic flowmeter is obstructionless and insensitive to the metered stuff's constitutive properties. For low zero-point drift, EM flowmeters employ a low frequency alternating induction, usually with square waveshape. With conventional signal conditioning, high frequency induction leads to excessive zero-point drift for the instrument. The conventional instrument is usable with electrically conductive fluids, where there is no triboelectric noise. Nonconductive fluids have substantial triboelectric noise, with spectral density experimentally measured to be f{sup {minus}2.6}. Here we use an electromagnet and signal conditioner that allows high frequency induction, where the noise is low, but eliminates the heretofore excessive drift--such that the EM flowmeter can be used to meter any stuff, whether conductive or insulating, that can be pumped, blown or extruded through a pipe. Designs and test hardware are shown. An injury occurred, with slow recovery: the principal investigator could not do all the flow test stand work desired. As an option, the flow testing has been simulated on a computer. Using characteristics of transformer oil as the metered fluid, the new signal conditioner has produced: (1) signal/noise/drift behavior experienced in prior published work, and (2) signal--without noise and drift--with performance of today's commercial EM flowmeters.

  7. Field evaluation of an electromagnetic current meter based vertical profiler

    Hamblin, P. F.; Marmoush, Y. M. R.; Boyce, F. M.; Smith, A. A.

    1987-10-01

    A current profiler consisting of a vertical array of three electromagnetic current meters has been evaluated through an intercomparison of the three sensors, with reference to nearby current and wave data and by comparison to recent laboratory performance tests (Aubrey and Trowbridge, 1985). Mean flow estimates are too uncertain and variable to allow bottom boundary layer shear stress to be estimated by the conventional logarithmic law method. As well as unexplained sudden shifts in the mean speed response, the comparison with vector-averaged current meter data indicates possible long-term reduction in response due to fouling of the sensors by biological growth. The directional response was less sensitive to fouling effects. The oscillatory response on one occasion after field deployment for 17 days indicates a reduction in response from 41 to 45% at a period of oscillation of 3 s in a combined steady and oscillatory flow field. This study demonstrates that despite careful laboratory calibration, electromagnetic current meters are not at present suitable for quantitative study of dynamics of sediment resuspension in near-bottom shallow-water environments.

  8. Variable classifications of glycemic index determined by glucose meters.

    Lin, Meng-Hsueh Amanda; Wu, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jenshinn

    2010-07-01

    THE STUDY EVALUATED AND COMPARED THE DIFFERENCES OF GLUCOSE RESPONSES, INCREMENTAL AREA UNDER CURVE (IAUC), GLYCEMIC INDEX (GI) AND THE CLASSIFICATION OF GI VALUES BETWEEN MEASURED BY BIOCHEMICAL ANALYZER (FUJI AUTOMATIC BIOCHEMISTRY ANALYZER (FAA)) AND THREE GLUCOSE METERS: Accue Chek Advantage (AGM), BREEZE 2 (BGM), and Optimum Xceed (OGM). Ten healthy subjects were recruited for the study. The results showed OGM yield highest postprandial glucose responses of 119.6 +/- 1.5, followed by FAA, 118.4 +/- 1.2, BGM, 117.4 +/- 1.4 and AGM, 112.6 +/- 1.3 mg/dl respectively. FAA reached highest mean IAUC of 4156 +/- 208 mg x min/dl, followed by OGM (3835 +/- 270 mg x min/dl), BGM (3730 +/- 241 mg x min/dl) and AGM (3394 +/- 253 mg x min/dl). Among four methods, OGM produced highest mean GI value than FAA (87 +/- 5) than FAA, followed by BGM and AGM (77 +/- 1, 68 +/- 4 and 63 +/- 5, pOGM are more variable methods to determine IAUC, GI and rank GI value of food than FAA. The present result does not necessarily apply to other glucose meters. The performance of glucose meter to determine GI value of food should be evaluated and calibrated before use. PMID:20664730

  9. PROCESS VALIDATION OF METERED DOSE INHALER: A REVIEW

    Kaur Gaganpreet

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to present an introduction and general overview on process validation of Metered dose inhaler.The word validation simply means, “Assessment of validation or action of proving effectiveness”. The most common dosage form for inhalation is the metered-dose inhaler (MDI, by which the drug is delivered from a pressurized container using a liquefied gas propellant.Inhalation is the convenient way to deliver drugs to respiratory tract in treatment of respiratory disease like ASTHMA.The process validation process parameters are derived from the specifications for the device, component or other entity to be produced by the process. The process is developed in such a way that the required parameters are achieved and it ensures that the output of the process will consistently meet the required parameters during routine production, the process is validated. A manufacturer can assure through careful design of the device, processes, process controls and packaging that all manufactured units will meet specifications and have uniform quality. However, in-process and finished product testing still play an important role in assuring that products meet specifications Validation is defined as a collection and evaluation of data , from the process design stage through commercial production, which establishes scientific evidence that a process is capable of consistently delivering quality product. MDI is pocket-sized, hand-held, pressurise multiple-dose inhalation delivery system. It delivers small, precisely measured therapeutic doses, greatly minimizing the risk of adverse side effects. A metered dose inhaler (MDI is a device that delivers a specific amount of medication to the lungs in the form of a short burst of aerosolized medicine that is inhaled by the patient. Three consecutive batches of metered dose inhaler shall be taken up for process validation. Based on the results of all the 3 batches, suitable conclusions will be drawn

  10. Voltage Harmonics Monitoring in a Microgrid Based on Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

    Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Guan, Yajuan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez;

    2015-01-01

    Smart meters are the main part of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and are usually able to provide detailed information on customers’ energy consumptions, voltage variations and interruptions. In addition, these meters are potentially able to provide more information about power quality (PQ......) disturbances. This paper will address the monitoring of voltage harmonics utilizing the features of smart meters and AMI system. To do this, the first step is to select proper indices to quantify the distortion. An important point which should be considered in this regard is the limited processing power of...... smart meters in comparison with PQ Analyzers (PQAs). Furthermore, the indices are categorized as site and system indices. The site indices measure the distortion at one metering section while the system indices provide a PQ view in an area encompassing multiple meters. In addition, the smart metering...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Daminov Ildar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  12. Status of Net Metering: Assessing the Potential to Reach Program Caps

    Heeter, J.; Gelman, R.; Bird, L.

    2014-09-01

    Several states are addressing the issue of net metering program caps, which limit the total amount of net metered generating capacity that can be installed in a state or utility service territory. In this analysis, we examine net metering caps to gain perspective on how long net metering will be available in various jurisdictions under current policies. We also surveyed state practices and experience to understand important policy design considerations.

  13. Investigation of Bandwidth Requirement of Smart Meter Network Using OPNET Modeler

    Rahman, M; Amanullah Mto

    2013-01-01

    Smart meter networks are the backbone for smart electrical distribution grid. Smart meter network requires the bidirectional communications medium and interoperability capability. As thousands of meters are interconnected in the smart meter network, it is vital to select an appropriate communication bandwidth to facilitate real-time two-way information flows and this will also allow further uptake of greenhouse-friendly technology options and enhance energy security. Optimized Network Enginee...

  14. 75 FR 2549 - Clinical Accuracy Requirements for Point of Care Blood Glucose Meters; Public Meeting; Request...

    2010-01-15

    ...) Clinical accuracy for blood glucose meters, (2) tight glycemic control in clinical settings, and (3... allow for better glycemic control by diabetics than in the past. Glucose meters are not only used by... evaluated by FDA. For example, glucose meters are increasingly being used to achieve tight glycemic...

  15. 49 CFR 192.355 - Customer meters and regulators: Protection from damage.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer meters and regulators: Protection from... SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Customer Meters, Service Regulators, and Service Lines § 192.355 Customer meters and regulators: Protection...

  16. 40 CFR 1065.240 - Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters.

    2010-07-01

    ...-displacement pump (PDP), a subsonic venturi (SSV), or an ultrasonic flow meter (UFM). Combined with an upstream... dilution system, you may use a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a... § 1065.240 Dilution air and diluted exhaust flow meters. (a) Application. Use a diluted exhaust...

  17. Metering Plan: Monitoring Energy and Potable Water Use in PNNL EMS4 Buildings

    Pope, Jason E.

    2012-07-25

    This Plan presents progress toward the metering goals shared by all national laboratories and discusses PNNL's contemporary approach to the installation of new meters. In addition, the Plan discusses the data analysis techniques with which PNNL is working to mature using endless data streams made available as a result of increased meter deployment.

  18. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these

  19. Operating experience using venturi flow meters at liquid helium temperature

    Experiences using commercial venturi to measure single phase helium flow near 4 K (degree Kelvin) for cooling superconducting magnets have been presented. The mass flow rate was calculated from the differential pressure and the helium density evaluated from measured pressure and temperature. The venturi flow meter, with a full range of 290 g/s (0.29 Kg/s) at design conditions, has been found to be reliable and accurate. The flow measurements have been used, with great success, for evaluating the performance of a cold centrifugal compressor, the thermal acoustic heat load of a cryogenic system and the cooling of a superconducting magnet after quench

  20. The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope Project

    Li, Di; Pan, Zhichen

    2016-07-01

    The Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese megascience project funded by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC) of the People's Republic of China. The National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) is in charge of its construction and subsequent operation. Upon its expected completion in September 2016, FAST will surpass the 305 m Arecibo Telescope and the 100 m Green Bank Telescope in terms of absolute sensitivity in the 70 MHz to 3 GHz bands. In this paper, we report on the project, its current status, the key science goals, and plans for early science.

  1. High-Temperature Superconducting Level Meter for Liquid Argon Detectors

    Bueno, A; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Ruiz, A G

    2008-01-01

    Capacitive devices are customarily used as probes to measure the level of noble liquids in detectors operated for neutrino studies and dark matter searches. In this work we describe the use of a high-temperature superconducting material as an alternative to control the level of a cryogenic noble liquid. Lab measurements indicate that the superconductor shows a linear behaviour, a high degree of stability and offers a very accurate determination of the liquid volume. This device is therefore a competitive instrument and shows several advantages over conventional level meters.

  2. Photogrammetry measurement of the AMiBA 6-meter platform

    Huang, Yau De; Raffin, Philippe; Chen, Ming-Tang; Altamirano, Pablo; Oshiro, Peter

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the photogrammetry method as a mean to measure the deformation of the 6-meter carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) Platform of the AMiBA interferometric array telescope installed at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. The Platform was surveyed at a series of elevation, azimuth and polarization angles. Photogrammetry demonstrates that the deformation of the Platform is not only gravity-induced but also due to the Hexapod mount actuator. The measurement results verify the predictions of the Finite Element Analysis (FEA).

  3. Smart Grid Security A Smart Meter-Centric Perspective

    Vigo, Roberto; Yuksel, Ender; Ramli, Carroline Dewi Puspa Kencana

    2012-01-01

    , leading to what is known as the Smart Grid. The development of this Cyber-Physical System introduces new security issues, thus calling for efforts in studying possible attacks and devising suitable countermeasures. In this paper, we review a generic model for the Smart Grid, and present possible attacks...... and countermeasures focusing on a key component of the Smart Grid: the Smart Meter.......The electricity grid is a key infrastructure for our society, therefore its security is a critical public concern. This physical system is becoming more and more complex as it is coupled with a cyber layer carrying information about power usage and control instructions for intelligent appliances...

  4. MSET modeling of Crystal River-3 venturi flow meters

    The analysis of archived Crystal River-3 feedwater flow data reveals a slow and steady degradation of the flow meter measurements during the 1992/1993 operating cycle. MSET can reliably estimate the true flow rate and quantify the degree of departure between the indicated signal and the true flow rate with high accuracy. The MSET computed flow rate could, in principle, be used to provide an improved estimate of the reactor power and hence avoid the revenue loss associated with derating the reactor based on a faulty feedwater flow rate indication

  5. The Coldest Cubic Meter in the Known Universe

    Ouellet, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    CUORE is a 741 kg array of TeO2 bolometers that will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of 130Te. The detector is being constructed at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy, where it will begin taking data in 2015. The CUORE cryostat will cool several metric tonnes of material to below 1 K and the CUORE detector itself will operate at a typical temperature of 10 mK. At this temperature, the CUORE detector will be the coldest contiguous cubic meter in the known Universe.

  6. Smart Metering. Between technical challenge and societal acceptance - Interdisciplinary status quo; Smart Metering. Zwischen technischer Herausforderung und gesellschaftlicher Akzeptanz - Interdisziplinaerer Status Quo

    Westermann, Dirk; Doering, Nicola; Bretschneider, Peter (eds.)

    2013-04-01

    The international research project RESIDENS (more efficient energy utilization by means of system technical integration of the private ultimate consumer) investigates the technology of smart metering that is the utilization of intelligent smart meters in private households. The interdisciplinary character of the RESIDENS project becomes visible by different sub-projects examining different formulations of a question from perspectives of different scientific disciplines: First of all, chapter 2 of the contribution under consideration follows up the question, what impact the media coverage on smart metering has on the perception of this technology in the population at large. Chapter 3 reports on the state of the art of the smart metering. Chapter 4 illustrates how a load control of private consumers can be performed by means of the smart meter technology. Chapter 5 reports on the impacts of the smart metering on the procurement of energy in the liberalised energy market. Chapter 6 investigates the smart metering from the customer's point of view. Concretely, the user-friendliness of an internet portal is evaluated by which the customers may follow up their consumption of electricity by means of an intelligent smart meter continuously. Chapter 7 illustrates legal aspects of smart metering from the perspective of the customer, electricity suppliers and distribution system operators. Chapter 8 presents the conception and implementation of an online gaming operation for the promotion of competency of private power customers: In line with this game, the participants may learn to handle smart metering and flexible electricity tariffs in an entertaining manner. Finally, chapter 9 reports on an expert interview in which the smart metering technology is evaluated by public utilities being involved in this project.

  7. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  8. LLNL current meter array--concept and system description

    Mantrom, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A measurement capability using a horizontal array of 10 S4 current meters mounted on a stiff floating structure with 35 m aperture has been developed to support interpretation of radar imaging of surface effects associated with internal waves. This system has been fielded three times and most recently, has collected data alongside the sea-surface footprint of a land-fixed radar imaging ship-generated internal waves. The underlying need for this measurement capability is described. The specifications resulting from this need are presented and the engineering design and deployment procedures of the platform and systems that resulted are described The current meter data are multiplexed along with meteorological and system status data on board the floating platform and are telemetered to a shore station and on to a data acquisition system. The raw data are recorded, and are then processed to form space-time images of current and strain rate (a spatial derivative of the current field). Examples of raw and processed data associated with ship-generated internal waves are presented.

  9. Excitation signal's influence on ultrasonic transit time flow meter's performance

    Ultrasonic flow meter performance was analyzed. Ultrasound transit time was used for flow rate estimation. Time of flight was measured using cross correlation processing. Simultaneous channels excitation was used. Ultrasonic signals were excited using low voltage (4V pp) signal generator, received signals were amplified 30 dB and simultaneously acquired by 100 Ms/s 10 bit analog-to-digit converters. Subsample delay estimation was used. Flow rate was varied from 10 l/h to 200 l/h. Measurement channel diameter 8 mm was used. It is complicated to obtain the unbiased reference signal for correlation processing. Various combinations of signals travelling in measurement channel were used for cross-correlation processing. Performance of correlation function and time of flight estimator variance were studied. Variable gain amplifier usually is used for signal dynamic range matching to A/D converter input. Gain influence on time of flight was a subject to study. It has been concluded that gain control introduces systematic errors in time of flight estimator. Influence of the temperature of electronics (pulser, receiver, A/D converter, reference clock etc.) and ultrasonic transducers on the delay estimator was studied. It was concluded that the major temperature-related systematic error comes from the pulser. Performance of the meter was studied when narrowband and spread spectrum signals were used for ultrasound excitation across temperature and flow rate range. It has been concluded that spread spectrum signal allows for better zero flow stability over temperature and lower time of flight variation.

  10. Digital Survey Meter based on PIC16F628 Microcontroller

    A Digital Survey Meter based on PIC16F628 Microcontroller was designed using simple Geiger-Muller Counter ZP1320 made by Centronic in the UK as detector. The sensitivity of this tube is about 9 counts/s at 10μGy/h. It is sensitive to gamma and beta particles over 0.25 MeV. It has a sensitive length of 28mm. Count rate versus dose rate is quite linear up to about 104 counts/s. Indication is given by a speaker which emits one click for each count. In addition to the acoustic alarm, the meter works according one of three different measurement modes selected using appropriate 3 states switch: 1- Measurement of Dose rate ( in μGy/h) and counting rate ( in CPS) , for High counting rates. 2- Measurement of Dose rate ( in μGy/h) and counting rate ( in CPM), for Low counting rates. 3- Accumulated Counting with continues display for No. of Counts and Counting Time with a period of 2 Sec. The results are Displayed on an Alphanumerical LCD Display, and the circuit will give many hours of operation from a single 9V PP3 battery. The design of the circuit combines between accuracy, simplicity and low power consumption. We built 2 Models of this design, the first only with an internal detector, and the second is equipped with an External Detector. (author)

  11. Hydro One smart meter/smart grid : realizing the vision

    Stevens, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Ontario's Hydro One Networks has been installing smart meters as part of its smart grid plan since 2007. The smart grid plan forms part of the utility's overall aim to create an energy conservation culture across the province. The utility now has over 1 million installed meters over a 640,000{sup 2} km territory. The smart grid planning team has adopted the use of an upgraded open protocol standards-based communications as part of its 2-way high bandwidth network. The utility is using a 1.8 Ghz worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) spectrum designed specifically for the protection of electric utility infrastructure. The utility is now incorporating proof-of-concept applications including automated reclosers, remote terminal units, demand management devices and mobile technologies for use in its smart grid procedures. Various smart zone business scenarios were also described in this power point presentation, as well as details of Hydro One's integration plans for vendors and other power systems. tabs., figs.

  12. Direct access and customer choice : the meter and beyond

    Energy Service Providers (ESPs) and electric utilities have a fierce challenge ahead of them to find new customers and to retain existing ones. All ESPs looking to the future realize that they will be competing not only on the basis of price alone. New metering technology which provides more information on everything from consumption patterns to power quality data, and software that makes the information relevant to the end user, are some of the means used in meeting the challenges. Load management systems driven by real time price signals, and additional services such as security monitoring and home automation, (Internet access, environment sensing, appliance monitoring and even local telephone service) are some of the others. This state of affairs forces many ESPs and utilities to make commitments to private and public networks based primarily on wireless and telephone-based technology, which creates unprecedented opportunities for communications companies. For example, in California where the Independent System Operator requires hourly reads of meter values, as many as 15 million transactions per day are expected. It is suggested that given these developments, it will be only a matter of time before the databases maintained by utilities and ESPs will be worth more than their transmission wires

  13. Excitation signal's influence on ultrasonic transit time flow meter's performance

    Svilainis, L.; Kabisius, P.; Aleksandrovas, A.; Chaziachmetovas, A.

    2012-12-01

    Ultrasonic flow meter performance was analyzed. Ultrasound transit time was used for flow rate estimation. Time of flight was measured using cross correlation processing. Simultaneous channels excitation was used. Ultrasonic signals were excited using low voltage (4V pp) signal generator, received signals were amplified 30 dB and simultaneously acquired by 100 Ms/s 10 bit analog-to-digit converters. Subsample delay estimation was used. Flow rate was varied from 10 l/h to 200 l/h. Measurement channel diameter 8 mm was used. It is complicated to obtain the unbiased reference signal for correlation processing. Various combinations of signals travelling in measurement channel were used for cross-correlation processing. Performance of correlation function and time of flight estimator variance were studied. Variable gain amplifier usually is used for signal dynamic range matching to A/D converter input. Gain influence on time of flight was a subject to study. It has been concluded that gain control introduces systematic errors in time of flight estimator. Influence of the temperature of electronics (pulser, receiver, A/D converter, reference clock etc.) and ultrasonic transducers on the delay estimator was studied. It was concluded that the major temperature-related systematic error comes from the pulser. Performance of the meter was studied when narrowband and spread spectrum signals were used for ultrasound excitation across temperature and flow rate range. It has been concluded that spread spectrum signal allows for better zero flow stability over temperature and lower time of flight variation.

  14. KFM: a homemade yet accurate and dependable fallout meter

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of +-25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM are presented. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM

  15. Direct access and customer choice : the meter and beyond

    Gill, J. [MC2 International Inc, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Energy Service Providers (ESPs) and electric utilities have a fierce challenge ahead of them to find new customers and to retain existing ones. All ESPs looking to the future realize that they will be competing not only on the basis of price alone. New metering technology which provides more information on everything from consumption patterns to power quality data, and software that makes the information relevant to the end user, are some of the means used in meeting the challenges. Load management systems driven by real time price signals, and additional services such as security monitoring and home automation, (Internet access, environment sensing, appliance monitoring and even local telephone service) are some of the others. This state of affairs forces many ESPs and utilities to make commitments to private and public networks based primarily on wireless and telephone-based technology, which creates unprecedented opportunities for communications companies. For example, in California where the Independent System Operator requires hourly reads of meter values, as many as 15 million transactions per day are expected. It is suggested that given these developments, it will be only a matter of time before the databases maintained by utilities and ESPs will be worth more than their transmission wires.

  16. Metering, settlement and export reward options for micro-generation

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the results of a study carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme to evaluate the costs and benefits of various metering, settlement and export reward opportunities for both renewable and non-renewable forms of microgeneration based on existing projections to 2020. The technologies studied included single and three-phase applications of: solar photovoltaic (rated at 1 kW per installation); small-scale wind generation (rated at 1 kW per installation); micro-CHP (combined heat and power) (rated at 1.1 kW per installation); and micro-hydropower (rated at 3.7 and 6.4 kW per installation). The report outlines a number of different options for metering, settlement and export rewards, and describes the development of an economic model to quantify their costs and benefits. This model is then used to predict the future costs and benefits of the various options. The potential value of the options to the UK economy and any environmental benefits are discussed and a commentary on possible barriers to implementation is provided.

  17. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    Xinxin Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Deploying a smart grid without adequate security might result in serious consequences such as grid instability, utility fraud, and loss of user information and energy-consumption data. Due to the heterogeneous communication architecture of smart grids, it is quite a challenge to design sophisticated and robust security mechanisms that can be easily deployed to protect communications among different layers of the smart grid-infrastructure. In this article, we focus on the communication-security aspect of a smart-grid metering and control system from the perspective of cryptographic techniques, and we discuss different mechanisms to enhance cybersecurity of the emerging smart grid. We aim to provide a comprehensive vulnerability analysis as well as novel insights on the cybersecurity of a smart grid.

  18. The Five-Hundred-Meter Aperture Spherical Radio Telescope (FAST) Project

    Nan, Rendong; Jin, Chengjin; Wang, Qiming; Zhu, Lichun; Zhu, Wenbai; Zhang, Haiyan; Yue, Youling; Qian, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Five-hundred-meter Aperture Spherical radio Telescope (FAST) is a Chinese mega-science project to build the largest single dish radio telescope in the world. Its innovative engineering concept and design pave a new road to realize a huge single dish in the most effective way. FAST also represents Chinese contribution in the international efforts to build the square kilometer array (SKA). Being the most sensitive single dish radio telescope, FAST will enable astronomers to jump-start many science goals, for example, surveying the neutral hydrogen in the Milky Way and other galaxies, detecting faint pulsars, looking for the first shining stars, hearing the possible signals from other civilizations, etc. The idea of sitting a large spherical dish in a karst depression is rooted in Arecibo telescope. FAST is an Arecibo-type antenna with three outstanding aspects: the karst depression used as the site, which is large to host the 500-meter telescope and deep to allow a zenith angle of 40 degrees; the active main re...

  19. Effects of network pressure on under-registration of multi-jet water meters

    Fontanazza, Chiara M.; Frenia, Gabriele

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to experimentally investigate metering error in a attempt to find a direct link between meter age, network pressure and apparent losses caused by the inability of the meter to accurately register the volume passing though it at low flow rates. The study was performed through laboratory experiments in which worn-out water meters were tested. The results of the laboratory experiments show that ageing and pressure are both relevant parameters for determining meter starting flow. These results were then applied to assess the effects on apparent losses of the age of the meter, varying pressure values upstream of the meter and different patterns of flow rates passing through the device.

  20. Reciprocity and its utilization in ultrasonic flow meters

    Lunde, Per; Vestrheim, Magne; Boe, Reidar; Smoergrav, Skule; Abrahamsen, Atle K.

    2005-07-01

    In ultrasonic transit time flow meters for gas and liquid (USMs), the flow direction, the flow velocity and the sound velocity are estimated from the measured up- and downstream transit times. At no-flow conditions, the up- and downstream transit times of such meters should ideally be the same, or the difference should be negligible. This may not be the case unless special precautions are made. In order to reduce the possibility of the meter to detect a false flow at no-flow conditions, USMs are typically ''dry calibrated'' before being installed in the field. ''Dry calibration'' (which may be made in different ways), in general involves measurement of (a) the time delays due to electronics, cables and transducers, (b) the so called ''{delta}t-correction'' (for each acoustic path, also denoted ''zero flow offset factor''), and (c) geometrical parameters. Various {delta}t-correction approaches may be used by different manufacturers, but these are basically similar and have the same purpose: to reduce the false flow detection and improve the accuracy at low and no-flow conditions (''zero flow adjustment''), without significantly affecting the accuracy at the high velocity measurements. The AGA-9 report and the API MPMS Ch. 5.8 standard both prescribe need for ''zero flow verification test (zero test)'' or ''zeroing the meter'', for gas and liquid USMs, respectively. Advances in USM technology based on the electro acoustic reciprocity principle have provided methods for reduction or even neglect ion of the need for ''{delta} t-correction'' of USMs. That means, if the USM measurement system is reciprocal, and operated in a ''sufficiently reciprocal'' way, the ''{delta}t-correction'' may be negligibly small over the operational range of pressure and temperature, and

  1. PELATIHAN LARI SAMBUNG BACK TO BACK 20 METER ENAM REPETISI EMPAT SET DAN LARI SAMBUNG BACK TO BACK 30 METER EMPAT REPETISI EMPAT SET MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN LARI 80 METER SISWA PUTRA SMP DHARMA PRAJA BADUNG

    Gimbar Adiputra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Type of 80 meters ran is one of the numbers on athletics competed in early age of child. In early age, the physical condition and mind can still be developed continuously and systematically. The exercise in early age should be an element of play and competition, thus this exercise is attempted to develop the speed by two types of exercise: back to back relay run of 20 meters six reps four sets and back to back relay run of 30 meters four reps four sets. The aim of research is to know the increasing of 80 meters speed of run. The exercise was conducted for six weeks with a frequency of three times a week with the aim to increasing the speed. The numbered of sample was 24 people selected randomly from junior high school students of Dharma Praja Badung that meets the requirements of inclusion and exclusion. The numbered of each group consists of twelve people. Each group was given a different treatment i.e. group I was treated by back to back relay run of 20 meters six reps and four sets and group II treated by back to back relay run of 30 meters four reps four sets. Data derived from the duration time of 80 meters ran before and after exercise, with t paired test to determine the difference average speed of duration time before and after exercise in each group. The t Unpaired test for the difference average of increased speed between two groups with significance limit of 0.05. The differences of speed in 80 meters ran after exercise in both groups showed significant differences, i.e. p = 0.000 (p <0.05. The average of duration time of 80 meters ran in Group I before exercise was 13.51 sec and after exercise was 12.31 sec by difference of 1.16 seconds show significant differences, while Group 2 the average of duration time in 80 meters ran before exercise and after exercise was 13.66 and after 12, 67 by a difference of 0.98 seconds showed significant differences due to differences in distance and number of repetitions between Group I and Group II

  2. A side-by-side test of four land gravity meters

    Chapin, D.A.; Crawford, M.F. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States); Baumeister, M. [Photo Gravity Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Four different land gravity meters were run side by side on a test range in eastern Texas. This test range was designed to duplicate typical field survey conditions encountered in gravity measurements on 3-D land seismic surveys. A profile of 270 stations was acquired with a station spacing of 33.5 m (110 ft). The four meters were Scintrex CG-3, Sodin, LaCoste and Romberg (L and R) G-meter, and Edcon/L and R Super-G meter. The purpose of this study was to determine which of the four meters had the best balance of accuracy, convenience, and speed of measurement for these specialized surveys. All four meters had their limitations, and no single meter was greatly superior to the others. The CG-3 was awkward in leveling, had a large (368 {mu}Gal per day) drift rate, and had some quirks in its user interface. The Sodin meter had problems controlling its temperature and, at one point, had a very high 935 {mu}Gal per day drift rate. It had the poorest accuracy of the four. The G-meter lacked a convenient digital user interface; thus, it was susceptible to operator blunder in misreading or recording the data. The Super-G meter also had some problems in its user interface, had only a 6-mGal range without a range change, and was the heaviest of the field instruments. An unbiased statistical estimator was developed to analyze the data. The technique determined the best three meters at each station. Both the G-meter and the Super-G meter produced the most accurate data. They had an average absolute deviation from the mean of 209 and 23 {mu}Gal, respectively. In comparison, the two quartz meters--the CG-3 and the Sodin--had an average absolute deviation from the mean of 31 and 46 {mu}Gal, respectively. The authors would like to see the manufacturers improve (or add, in the case of the G-meter and the Sodin) their digital interfaces. Additionally, they would like to see upgrades in the thermal control systems in all the meters. The single largest amount of station time was

  3. Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate

    Robertson, Eric P.

    2006-08-01

    A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.

  4. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber

  5. Control System Modeling for the Thirty Meter Telescope Primary Mirror

    MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Thompson, Peter M.; Shelton, J. Chris; Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; Colavita, M. Mark; Sirota, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    The Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror is composed of 492 segments that are controlled to high precision in the presence of wind and vibration disturbances, despite the interaction with structural dynamics. The higher bandwidth and larger number of segments compared with the Keck telescopes requires greater attention to modeling to ensure success. We focus here on the development and validation of a suite of quasi-static and dynamic modeling tools required to support the design process, including robustness verification, performance estimation, and requirements flowdown. Models are used to predict the dynamic response due to wind and vibration disturbances, estimate achievable bandwidth in the presence of control-structure-interaction (CSI) and uncertainty in the interaction matrix, and simulate and analyze control algorithms and strategies, e.g. for control of focus-mode, and sensor calibration. Representative results illustrate TMT performance scaling with parameters, but the emphasis is on the modeling framework itself.

  6. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Jung, E.A.; Roche, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber. (FS)

  7. Water supply network district metering theory and case study

    Di Nardo, Armando; Di Mauro, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The management of a water supply network can be substantially improved defining permanent sectors or districts that enhances simpler water loss detection and pressure management. However, the water network partitioning may compromise water system performance, since some pipes are usually closed to delimit districts in order not to have too many metering stations, to decrease costs and simplify water balance. This may reduce the reliability of the whole system and not guarantee the delivery of water at the different network nodes. In practical applications, the design of districts or sectors is generally based on empirical approaches or on limited field experiences. The book proposes a design support methodology, based on graph theory principles and tested on real case study. The described methodology can help water utilities, professionals and researchers to define the optimal districts or sectors of a water supply network.

  8. NFIRAOS First Facility AO System for the Thirty Meter Telescope

    Herriot, Glen; Atwood, Jenny; Boyer, Corinne; Byrnes, Peter; Caputa, Kris; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Hill, Alexis; Ljusic, Zoran; Pazder, John; Rosensteiner, Matthias; Smith, Malcolm; Spano, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Wevers, Ivan; Wang, Lianqi; Wooff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NFIRAOS, the Thirty Meter Telescope's first adaptive optics system is an order 60x60 Multi-Conjugate AO system with two deformable mirrors. Although most observing will use 6 laser guide stars, it also has an NGS-only mode. Uniquely, NFIRAOS is cooled to -30 C to reduce thermal background. NFIRAOS delivers a 2-arcminute beam to three client instruments, and relies on up to three IR WFSs in each instrument. We present recent work including: robust automated acquisition on these IR WFSs; trade-off studies for a common-size of deformable mirror; real-time computing architectures; simplified designs for high-order NGS-mode wavefront sensing; modest upgrade concepts for high-contrast imaging.

  9. An accurate and portable solid state neutron rem meter

    Accurately resolving the ambient neutron dose equivalent spanning the thermal to 15 MeV energy range with a single configuration and lightweight instrument is desirable. This paper presents the design of a portable, high intrinsic efficiency, and accurate neutron rem meter whose energy-dependent response is electronically adjusted to a chosen neutron dose equivalent standard. The instrument may be classified as a moderating type neutron spectrometer, based on an adaptation to the classical Bonner sphere and position sensitive long counter, which, simultaneously counts thermalized neutrons by high thermal efficiency solid state neutron detectors. The use of multiple detectors and moderator arranged along an axis of symmetry (e.g., long axis of a cylinder) with known neutron-slowing properties allows for the construction of a linear combination of responses that approximate the ambient neutron dose equivalent. Variations on the detector configuration are investigated via Monte Carlo N-Particle simulations to minimize the total instrument mass while maintaining acceptable response accuracy—a dose error less than 15% for bare 252Cf, bare AmBe, an epi-thermal and mixed monoenergetic sources is found at less than 4.5 kg moderator mass in all studied cases. A comparison of the energy dependent dose equivalent response and resultant energy dependent dose equivalent error of the present dosimeter to commercially-available portable rem meters and the prior art are presented. Finally, the present design is assessed by comparison of the simulated output resulting from applications of several known neutron sources and dose rates

  10. Advances in metered dose inhaler technology: hardware development.

    Stein, Stephen W; Sheth, Poonam; Hodson, P David; Myrdal, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    Pressurized metered dose inhalers (MDIs) were first introduced in the 1950s and they are currently widely prescribed as portable systems to treat pulmonary conditions. MDIs consist of a formulation containing dissolved or suspended drug and hardware needed to contain the formulation and enable efficient and consistent dose delivery to the patient. The device hardware includes a canister that is appropriately sized to contain sufficient formulation for the required number of doses, a metering valve capable of delivering a consistent amount of drug with each dose delivered, an actuator mouthpiece that atomizes the formulation and serves as a conduit to deliver the aerosol to the patient, and often an indicating mechanism that provides information to the patient on the number of doses remaining. This review focuses on the current state-of-the-art of MDI hardware and includes discussion of enhancements made to the device's core subsystems. In addition, technologies that aid the correct use of MDIs will be discussed. These include spacers, valved holding chambers, and breath-actuated devices. Many of the improvements discussed in this article increase the ability of MDI systems to meet regulatory specifications. Innovations that enhance the functionality of MDIs continue to be balanced by the fact that a key advantage of MDI systems is their low cost per dose. The expansion of the health care market in developing countries and the increased focus on health care costs in many developed countries will ensure that MDIs remain a cost-effective crucial delivery system for treating pulmonary conditions for many years to come. PMID:24357110

  11. General description and first results with the ORIS-LMRI 4 π γ metering chamber

    A problem that present the ionization chambers is that the response for the radiation is global, that is to say that it cannot discriminate against selectively the relating responses at different energies, if these impact simultaneously in the active volume. This is a reason to calibrate the chambers, if is possible, with gamma monoenergetic emitting and by average calculations to complete the response curve with gamma emitting of well-known yields. To obtain the calibration coefficients and may used them, it is necessary that so much the standardized radioisotopes as the solutions by calibrating, are contained in vessels with the same geometry and the same quantity. In the exposed case, pattern solutions of 5 ml were used contained in glass cruets of 10 ml. The problem solutions are contained in same cruets to those of the patterns. The first results obtained with the ORIS-LMRI 4 π γ metering chamber are presented. (Author)

  12. Metering Best Practices, A Guide to Achieving Utility Resource Efficiency, Release 2.0

    Sullivan, Greg; Hunt, W. D.; Pugh, Ray; Sandusky, William F.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2011-08-31

    This release is an update and expansion of the information provided in Release 1.0 of the Metering Best Practice Guide that was issued in October 2007. This release, as was the previous release, was developed under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The mission of FEMP is to facilitate the Federal Government's implementation of sound cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. Each of these activities is directly related to achieving requirements set forth in the Energy Policy Acts of 1992 and 2005, the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, and the goals that have been established in Executive Orders 13423 and 13514 - and also those practices that are inherent in sound management of Federal financial and personnel resources.

  13. The patient as a radioactive source: an intercomparison of survey meters for measurements in nuclear medicine.

    Uhrhan, K; Drzezga, A; Sudbrock, F

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the radiation exposure in nuclear medicine is evaluated by measuring dose rates in the proximity of patients and those in close contact to sources like capsules and syringes. A huge number of different survey meters (SMs) are offered commercially. This topic has recently gained interest since dosemeters and active personal dosemeters (APD) for the new dose quantities (ambient and directional dose equivalent) have become available. One main concern is the practical use of SMs and APD in daily clinical routines. Therefore, the radiation field of four common radiopharmaceuticals containing (18)F, (90)Y, (99m)Tc and (131)I in radioactive sources or after application to the patient was determined. Measurements were carried out with different SMs and for several distances. Dose rates decline significantly with the distance to the patient, and with some restrictions, APD can be used as SMs. PMID:25071244

  14. Microfluidic pumping, routing and metering by contactless metal-based electro-osmosis.

    Fu, Xiaotong; Mavrogiannis, Nicholas; Doria, Steven; Gagnon, Zachary

    2015-09-01

    Over the past decade, many microfluidic platforms for fluid processing have been developed in order to perform on-chip fluidic manipulations. Many of these methods, however, require expensive and bulky external supporting equipment, which are not typically applicable for microsystems requiring portability. We have developed a new type of portable contactless metal electro-osmotic micropump capable of on-chip fluid pumping, routing and metering. The pump operates using two pairs of gallium metal electrodes, which are activated using an external voltage source, and separated from a main flow channel by a thin micron-scale PDMS membrane. The thin contactless membrane allows for field penetration and electro-osmotic (EO) flow within the microchannel, but eliminates electrode damage and sample contamination commonly associated with traditional DC electro-osmotic pumps that utilize electrodes in direct contact with the working fluid. The maximum flow rates and pressures generated by the pump using DI water as a working buffer are 10 nL min(-1) and 30 Pa, respectively. With our current design, the maximum operational conductivity where fluid flow is observed is 0.1 mS cm(-1). Due to the small size and simple fabrication procedure, multiple micropump units can be integrated into a single microfluidic device for automated on-chip routing and sample metering applications. We experimentally demonstrated the ability to quantify micropump electro-osmotic flowrate and pressure as a function of applied voltage, and developed a mathematical model capable of predicting the performance of a contactless micropump for a given external load and internal hydrodynamic microchannel resistance. Finally, we showed that by activating specific pumps within a microchannel network, our micropumps are capable of routing microchannel fluid flow and generating plugs of solute. PMID:26053965

  15. 300 GHz imaging with 8 meter stand-off distance and one-dimensional synthetic image reconstruction

    Keil, Andreas; Quast, Holger; Loeffler, Torsten;

    2011-01-01

    An active system for stand-off imaging operating in a frequency range from 234 GHz to 306 GHz is presented. Imaging is achieved by combining a line array consisting of 8 emitters and 16 detectors with a scanning cylindrical mirror system. A stand-off distance of 7-8 m is achieved using a system...... of mirrors with effective aperture of 0.5 × 0.5 meter. Information about range and reflectivity of the object are obtained using an active FMCW (frequency modulated continuous wave) radar operation principle. Data acquisition time for one line is as short as 1 ms. Synthetic image reconstruction is achieved...

  16. Vision and Strategy for India’s Electricity Metering Infrastructure of the future

    Yogeeta H. Relan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the country like India with over millions of kilometers of transmission lines and billions of consumers, task of collecting information related to energy consumption of every consumer is a critical job. The meter reader has to travel a long distance and take reading manually to collect the data. This reading is then feed in a central database. Then the bill gets generated later with help of software. This project intends to reduce this tedious work by automating the process of collecting data from consumer’s electricity meter. This would be done by implementing Advanced Metering Infrastructure that unites all the various metering devices of a building in one network and provides the metering data in real-time, locally and from remote. Here, AMI uses ZigBee to build up high-rise building area network of connected metering devices.

  17. What Can Wireless Cellular Technologies Do about the Upcoming Smart Metering Traffic?

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Madueño, Germán Corrales; Pratas, Nuno;

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of smart electricity meters with cellular radio interface puts an additional load on the wireless cellular networks. Currently, these meters are designed for low duty cycle billing and occasional system check, which generates a low-rate sporadic traffic. As the number of...... higher rates per device. In this paper, we characterize the current traffic generated by smart electricity meters and supplement it with the potential traffic requirements brought by introducing enhanced Smart Meters, i.e., meters with PMU-like capabilities. Our study shows how GSM/GPRS and LTE cellular...... system performance behaves with the current and next generation smart meters traffic, where it is clearly seen that the PMU data will seriously challenge these wireless systems. We conclude by highlighting the possible solutions for upgrading the cellular standards, in order to cope with the upcoming...

  18. The Research on Metrological Characteristics of House Water Meters during Transitional Flow Regimes

    Inga Briliūtė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to find the influence of transitional flow regimes on inlet water meters. Four construction types of mechanical inlet water meters (each capacity Q = 10 m3/h were investigated. The biggest additional volume 0,12–0,26% when Q = 0,2…2 m3/h shows single-jet vane wheel meter. This additional volume is less 0,06–0,13% for the multi-jet concentric water meter. The minimum influence of transitional flow regimes was for turbine water meters till 0,1% for all flow range. The volumetric meters are not sensitive for this effect.Article in Lithuanian

  19. Analisis Gangguan Melalui Sistem Automatic Meter Reading Di PT. PLN (PERSERO) Cabang Pematangsiantar

    Hasanah, Nadratul

    2010-01-01

    AMR system consists of the control center, communications media and electronic meters which is a data reading system - automatic meter data that can be used for purposes of monitoring, and controlling the energy supply to customers, as well as to support the administrative and billing purpose. By using this AMR system can be known and the detection of disturbances that occur in the operation. whether disruption occurred in the electronic meters and disturbances - disturbances that occur in...

  20. An algorithm for the detection and analysis of arud meter in Diwan poetry

    KURT, Atakan; KARA, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Diwan poetry is an important branch of classical Turkish literature (or Ottoman literature) that uses arud meter (wazn AR\\footnote{Denotes an Arabic word.} or bahr AR, ölçü TR\\footnote{Denotes a Turkish word.}). The teaching of classical poetry in high schools and in literature departments in universities requires an understanding of this meter. Arud is also used in Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and other eastern languages. Determining the arud meter of poems written in the Ottoman language ...

  1. Privacy for the Smart Grid: Evaluating and enhancing Vehicle-to-Grid and Smart Metering approaches

    Stegelmann, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Smart Grid is the envisioned next generation power grid. Key to a Smart Grid are its components with bidirectional communication capabilities such as Smart Meters and electric vehicles. Smart Meters enable a fine-grained monitoring and management of the energy flows from and to customer premises. Customers can use Smart Meter readings to learn their individual energy use patterns. Service providers such as grid operators, in turn, can use them to optimise the grid’s operation. The energy ...

  2. Deployable telescope having a thin-film mirror and metering structure

    Krumel, Leslie J.; Martin, Jeffrey W.

    2010-08-24

    A deployable thin-film mirror telescope comprises a base structure and a metering structure. The base structure houses a thin-film mirror, which can be rolled for stowage and unrolled for deployment. The metering structure is coupled to the base structure and can be folded for stowage and unfolded for deployment. In the deployed state, the unrolled thin-film mirror forms a primary minor for the telescope and the unfolded metering structure positions a secondary minor for the telescope.

  3. Wireless Communication with a Microprocessor Based Ultrasonic Meter for Flow Measurements

    MAHMOUD Z. ISKANDARANI

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Although the traditional metering system and method for controlling flow is generally safe, reliable and robust, it does suffer certain drawbacks, such as limited accuracy and the ability to implement complex reactive rate designs. Hence, there is a need for a circuit and method of increasing metering accuracy, as well as the position control accuracy for variable flow rates, without further reliance on mechanical tolerances. An essential component for an electronic meter i...

  4. Simulation a Disposable mass flow meter by an advanced FSI Modeling and Finite Element Analysis.

    zadeh, Siavash Hooshmand

    2014-01-01

    Abstract -In this thesis a design of a Coriolis mass flow-meter is chosen by considering all advantages and disadvantages and the project requirements. The chosen geometry is imported into COMSOL, because modelling is implemented by FEM and two different physics should be coupled. To consider both applications of the device include measuring density and flow rate, modeling is divided into two parts: Coriolis density meter and Coriolis mass flow-meter. Both applications are based on Fluid Stru...

  5. Theory of errors in Coriolis flowmeter readings due to compressibility of the fluid being metered

    Kutin, Jože; Hemp, John

    2015-01-01

    The compressibility of fluids in a Coriolis mass flowmeter can cause errors in the meter's measurements of density and mass flow rate. These errors may be better described as errors due to the finite speed of sound in the fluid being metered, or due to the finite wavelength of sound at the operating frequency of the meter. In this paper, they are investigated theoretically and calculated to a first approximation (small degree of compressibility). The investigation is limited to straight beam-...

  6. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Iker Urrutia; Pablo Angueira; Xabier Osorio; Aitor Arzuaga; Alberto Sendin; Iñigo Berganza

    2013-01-01

    Low Voltage (LV) electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC) and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facili...

  7. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  8. Development of an Advanced Flow Meter using the Averaging Bi-directional Flow Tube

    Advanced flow meter using the concept of averaging bi-directional flow tube was developed. To find characteristics of flow meter and derive theory of measurement in the single and two phase flow condition, some basic tests were attempted using flow meters with diameters of 27, 80 and 200 mm. The CFD(computational fluid dynamics) calculation was also performed to find the effects of temperature and pressure, and to optimize design of a prototypic flow meter. Following this procedure, prototypical flow meters with diameters of 200 and 500 mm were designed and manufactured. It is aimed to use in the region in which calibration constant was unchanged. The stress analysis showed that the proposed flow meter of H-beam shape is inherently strong against the bending force induced by flow. The flow computer was developed for the flow rate calculation from the measured pressure difference. In this study, the performance test using this prototype flow meter was carried out. The developed flow meter can be applied in the wide range of pressure and temperature. The basic tests showed that the lineality of the proposed flow meter is ± 0.5 % of full scale and flow turn down ratio is 1:20 where the Reynolds number is larger than 10,000

  9. A gas/solids flow metering method based upon differential pressure measurements

    Experiments were conducted to calibrate a gas/solids mass flow meter which required the measurement of two differential pressures. The metering run consisted of three flow elements: an inlet contraction, a length of straight pipe, and a venturi. The operation of the meter was tested using air and spent fluid cracking catalyst for mass loading ratios (solids/gas) as large as 35:1. Calibration data are presented for a meter utilizing a length of straight pipe and a venturi. Successful operation was attained with other combinations of the three flow elements

  10. Wet Gas Flow Metering Technique Using a Venturi With Conductance Sensors

    Musbah, Abdurazzaq

    2015-01-01

    Wet gas metering is becoming an increasingly important problem to the oil and gas industry. Much research has been done to measure the water and gas flow rates of two-phase flows using a Venturi meter. The Venturi meter is a favoured device for metering of unprocessed wet natural gas production flows. In this thesis, various combinations of techniques have been employed in annular gas-liquid two phase flows to measure the flow parameters (e.g. liquid film thickness, gas volume fraction and ga...

  11. Customer value of smart metering: Explorative evidence from a choice-based conjoint study in Switzerland

    Implementing smart metering is an important field for energy policy to successfully meet energy efficiency targets. From an integrated social acceptance and customer-perceived value theory perspective we model the importance of customer value of smart metering in this regard. We further shape the model on a choice-based conjoint experiment with Swiss private electricity customers. The study finds that overall customers perceive a positive value from smart metering and are willing to pay for it. Further, based on a cluster analysis of customers’ value perceptions, we identify four customer segments, each with a distinct value perception profile for smart metering. We find that energy policy and management should integrate a solid understanding of customer value for smart metering in their initiatives and consider different smart metering market segments within their measures. - Highlights: ► We model the importance of customer value of smart metering. ► We shape the model on a choice-based conjoint experiment. ► Overall customers perceive a positive value from smart metering. ► Customers are willing to pay for smart metering. ► There are four distinct customer segments with different value perceptions.

  12. Wireless Communication with a Microprocessor Based Ultrasonic Meter for Flow Measurements

    Mahmoud Z. Iskandarani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although the traditional metering system and method for controlling flow is generally safe, reliable and robust, it does suffer certain drawbacks, such as limited accuracy and the ability to implement complex reactive rate designs. Hence, there is a need for a circuit and method of increasing metering accuracy, as well as the position control accuracy for variable flow rates, without further reliance on mechanical tolerances. An essential component for an electronic meter is a database and method of communication to obtain the required measurements and to program the meter for any additional needed values. Flexibility is added to such meters by using wireless communication circuits and protocols, which will enable reading of multi-devices from the same source point. Approach: To collect data, critical quality of service and carry out analysis, wireless flow meter reading system is designed, tested and implemented. The hardware and software in the designed system work together, to wirelessly receive readings from meters and then process it in order to obtain an accurate reading for the measured flow. The system makes use of modern communication algorithms and techniques. Also, the system allows for history tracing and analysis. The interfacing hardware uses two-way wireless optical interface to flow meter device. Results: The Hardware and Communication Protocol tested successfully and provided sufficient and accurate data for flow measurements analysis, presented in this research. Conclusion: Such hardware-software arrangement is considered a core for mobile meter reading and control with possibility to add intelligent security algorithms.

  13. Summary of the Industry Canada proposed specification for meter data communications

    Proposed Specification for Meter Data Communications, issued by Industry Canada was summarized. The proposed specifications defined end device (gas, water and electricity meter) data presentation formats (likely to become a North American standard), data communication protocol for use with the ANSI Type II point to point optical interface, and Industry Canada's supplementary requirements for meter approval of type for use in Canada. This specification was based on work done by the Industry Canada Task Force on Data Communication Protocols for Electronic Metering Devices, AMRA/IEEE SCC31 End Device/TIU subcommittee and ANSI ASC12 subcommittee 17, over the past four years. 9 refs., 7 figs

  14. Consumers’ Perspective on Full-Scale Adoption of Smart Meters: A Case Study in Västerås, Sweden

    Iana Vassileva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale deployment of reliable smart electricity metering networks has been considered as the first step towards a smart, integrated and efficient grid. On the consumer’s side, however, the real impact is still uncertain and limited. This paper evaluates the consumer’s perspective in the city of Västerås, Sweden, where full implementation of smart meters has been reached. New services, such as consumption feedback and the possibility to choose dynamic electricity pricing contracts, have been available from the adoption of this infrastructure. A web-based survey evaluating customers’ perception of these new services was carried out. The survey included consumers’ personal information, preferences about the type of information and the frequency of delivery and the preference for electricity pricing contracts. The results showed that the electricity consumption information offered by distribution system operators (DSOs today is not detailed enough for customers to react accordingly. Additionally, while variable pricing contracts are becoming more popular, the available pricing schemes do not encourage customers to increase their consumption flexibility. Therefore, more detailed information from the smart meters should be made available, including disaggregated electricity consumption per appliance that would allow consumers to have more control over their energy consumption activities.

  15. Novel Air Flow Meter for an Automobile Engine Using a Si Sensor with Porous Si Thermal Isolation

    Androula G. Nassiopoulou

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An air flow meter for measuring the intake air of an automobile engine is presented. It is based on a miniaturized silicon thermal mass flow sensor using a thick porous Si (Po-Si layer for local thermal isolation from the Si substrate, on which the sensor active elements are integrated. The sensor is mounted on one side of a printed circuit board (PCB, on the other side of which the readout and control electronics of the meter are mounted. The PCB is fixed on a housing containing a semi-cylindrical flow tube, in the middle of which the sensor is situated. An important advantage of the present air flow meter is that it detects with equal sensitivity both forward and reverse flows. Two prototypes were fabricated, a laboratory prototype for flow calibration using mass flow controllers and a final demonstrator with the housing mounted in an automobile engine inlet tube. The final demonstrator was tested in real life conditions in the engine inlet tube of a truck. It shows an almost linear response in a large flow range between –6,500 kg/h and +6,500 kg/h, which is an order of magnitude larger than the ones usually encountered in an automobile engine.

  16. Novel air flow meter for an automobile engine using a Si sensor with porous Si thermal isolation.

    Hourdakis, Emmanouel; Sarafis, Panagiotis; Nassiopoulou, Androula G

    2012-01-01

    An air flow meter for measuring the intake air of an automobile engine is presented. It is based on a miniaturized silicon thermal mass flow sensor using a thick porous Si (Po-Si) layer for local thermal isolation from the Si substrate, on which the sensor active elements are integrated. The sensor is mounted on one side of a printed circuit board (PCB), on the other side of which the readout and control electronics of the meter are mounted. The PCB is fixed on a housing containing a semi-cylindrical flow tube, in the middle of which the sensor is situated. An important advantage of the present air flow meter is that it detects with equal sensitivity both forward and reverse flows. Two prototypes were fabricated, a laboratory prototype for flow calibration using mass flow controllers and a final demonstrator with the housing mounted in an automobile engine inlet tube. The final demonstrator was tested in real life conditions in the engine inlet tube of a truck. It shows an almost linear response in a large flow range between –6,500 kg/h and +6,500 kg/h, which is an order of magnitude larger than the ones usually encountered in an automobile engine. PMID:23202189

  17. Multi phase metering with low field NMR. Abstract 98

    'Full text:' In conventional oil productions, commonly there is a simultaneous production of oil, water and gas. Furthermore, thermal recovery methods are widely used in heavy oil production. Under steam injection, the viscosity of oil will be significantly decreased and will be produced. With oil production, gas, steam and water will be produced simultaneously. The question of how to accurately meter oil, water and steam or gas content accurately comes up. Solving this problem and precisely measuring oil production rate in conventional and heavy oil operations is becoming an increasingly important issue. The goal of this study is to build a three-phase water cut meter laboratory device using low field NMR. If successful it will then be applied in oil field trials. Preliminary results of laboratory testing at ambient temperature obtained to date are presented here. Three types of oil, light, conventional heavy and bitumen, with corresponding viscosities around 10 cp, 1,500 cp and 700,00 cp respectively, were used to perform screening experiments with a flow through NMR that was designed for two-phase water cut measurements. 2% NaCI brine was used as the water phase. Air was used as the gas phase. The fluids were mixed in a fixed volume vial. The weight percentage of oil was from 5% to 95% respectively. At each oil percentage, the weight percentage of water was 5% to 95% respectively. The void space of the testing vials was used as the gas phase. In order to calculate the fluid content, the amplitudes obtained from mixtures oil and water was compared with the values of pure oil and water. The water and oil contend calculated from NMR results and were compared to those from mass balance. The results indicate that the water content value obtained from mixture for light and conventional heavy oil is excellent when compared to mass balance. For bitumen the results were very good, but not as good as the results of conventional oil. Improvements in the measurement

  18. 关口电能表计量稳定性研究%The Research of Metering Stability on Gateway Electrical Energy Meters

    孙国学; 李俊文; 苏宇华; 赵言涛

    2014-01-01

    关口电能表在电网电能计量中承担着重要责任,其计量稳定性是关口电能表最重要的指标之一。本文从电压电流采样电路分析、计量关键元器件验证、生产工艺、计量稳定性验证几个方面给出关口电能表计量设计思想。%The gataway electrical energy meters undertake the important responsibility in the electrical energy measurement of electrical grid,also the metering stability is one of the most important indicator mark of gateway electrical energy meter.This paper put forward its designing scheme based on the voltage and current sampling circuit analysis, metrological verification key components,production process and metering stability verification.

  19. Calibration and performance testing of survey meters used in ionizing radiation applications in Greece

    Radiation protection monitoring is an essential activity in any facility using radioactive sources or isotopes, for medical, industrial, research and other ionizing radiation application. Quantification of the radiation levels in a workplace in order to designate an area as controlled or supervised or to estimate the effectiveness of shielding is frequently needed. According to the Greek legislation the levels of ionizing radiation must be adequately monitored and the equipment used for this purpose should be tested and calibrated at appropriate intervals that should not exceed two years. The Ionizing Radiation Calibration Laboratory (H.I.R.C.L.) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (G.A.E.C.) has established a detailed calibration procedure for radiation protection equipment in order to investigate the accuracy of the various detectors and to provide homogeneous response of their use in Greece. H.I.R.C.L. has been accredited according to E.N./ISO 17 025, for radiation protection calibrations by the Hellenic Accreditation Council, E.S.Y.D.. This study summarizes the results of calibrations and performance testing in nearly 650 survey meters of different types. For each instrument, operational characteristics such as, accuracy and linearity in every scale, energy and angular dependence have been studied. The calibration factor in each scale was also determined. The measured values were compared to the suggested limits. The results were classified in seven dose intervals (from 0,1 + Sv/h up to >1 Sv/h). The statistical distribution showed tales that exceeded the + 20% criterion of accuracy in all dose intervals. About 20% of them showed non - linearity in their response. Moreover, about 8,5% of the instruments with more than one operational scales, showed accuracy discrepancies in some scales, while the others where found to operate satisfactory. Almost 9% of the instruments were found to be out of order because of technical and operational malfunctions. About 270

  20. Smart meters as an opportunity to motivate households for energy savings? Designing innovative policy instruments based on the coupling of smart meters and non-financial incentives.

    Joachain, Hélène; Klopfert, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The process of deploying smart meters in EU’s households is following its course. Cost-benefit analyses are being carried out in Member States and new Directives are replacing the one that gave the initial impulse. However, throughout this process, smart meters are always presented as a way to reduce customer energy consumption. This makes potential energy savings in households a crucial element in the debate. But what is the rationale to expect energy savings in households and how are those ...

  1. In-situ calibration of clinical built-in KAP meters with traceability to a primary standard using a reference KAP meter

    Malusek, A.; Helmrot, E.; Sandborg, M.; Grindborg, J.-E.; Alm Carlsson, G.

    2014-12-01

    The air kerma-area product (KAP) is used for settings of diagnostic reference levels. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) recommends that doses in diagnostic radiology (including the KAP values) be estimated with an accuracy of at least ±7% (k = 2). Industry standards defined by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) specify that the uncertainty of KAP meter measurements should be less than +/- 25% (k = 2). Medical physicists willing to comply with the IAEA’s recommendation need to apply correction factors to KAP values reported by x-ray units. The aim of this work is to present and evaluate a calibration method for built-in KAP meters on clinical x-ray units. The method is based on (i) a tandem calibration method, which uses a reference KAP meter calibrated to measure the incident radiation, (ii) measurements using an energy-independent ionization chamber to correct for the energy dependence of the reference KAP meter, and (iii) Monte Carlo simulations of the beam quality correction factors that correct for differences between beam qualities at a standard laboratory and the clinic. The method was applied to the KAP meter in a Siemens Aristos FX plus unit. It was found that values reported by the built-in KAP meter differed from the more accurate values measured by the reference KAP meter by more than 25% for high tube voltages (more than 140 kV) and heavily filtered beams (0.3 mm Cu). Associated uncertainties were too high to claim that the IEC’s limit of 25% was exceeded. Nevertheless the differences were high enough to justify the need for a more accurate calibration of built-in KAP meters.

  2. Tuning a 2.4-meter telescope... blindfolded

    Lanclos, Kyle; Peck, Michael; Saylor, Michael; Kibrick, Robert I.; Allen, Steve L.

    2014-07-01

    Just as the 2.4 meter Automated Planet Finder (APF) commenced its final shakedown, three significant events occurred: uncontrolled telescope oscillations while tracking, liquidation of the telescope vendor's primary facility, and the expiration of the vendor warranty. Left with scant documentation, few external resources to draw upon, and limited direct local expertise, University of California Observatories (UCO) embarked on an initiative to stabilize the telescope control system at a minimal internal cost. This paper covers the problems encountered, our solutions, and the compromises made when the budget could not support a complete remedy. Specific topics include: measurement and alignment of linear encoder signals, and custom electronics developed to enable precise alignment of the read heads and adjustment of the interpolation electronics; the use of sensitive accelerometers to isolate and diagnose sources of vibration, and to provide immediate feedback on the stability of the servo tuning; procedures used to adjust the servo control loop, and the observable effects of parameter adjustments; assessment and validation of the performance on-sky.

  3. A MEMS electrochemical bellows actuator for fluid metering applications.

    Sheybani, Roya; Gensler, Heidi; Meng, Ellis

    2013-02-01

    We present a high efficiency wireless MEMS electrochemical bellows actuator capable of rapid and repeatable delivery of boluses for fluid metering and drug delivery applications. Nafion®-coated Pt electrodes were combined with Parylene bellows filled with DI water to form the electrolysis-based actuator. The performance of actuators with several bellows configurations was compared for a range of applied currents (1-10 mA). Up to 75 boluses were delivered with an average pumping flow rate of 114.40 ± 1.63 μL/min. Recombination of gases into water, an important factor in repeatable and reliable actuation, was studied for uncoated and Nafion®-coated actuators. Real-time pressure measurements were conducted and the effects of temperature, physiological back pressure, and drug viscosity on delivery performance were investigated. Lastly, we present wireless powering of the actuator using a class D inductive powering system that allowed for repeatable delivery with less than 2 % variation in flow rate values. PMID:22833156

  4. Musical Meter Modulates the Allocation of Attention across Time.

    Fitzroy, Ahren B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic attending theory predicts that attention is allocated hierarchically across time during processing of hierarchical rhythmic structures such as musical meter. ERP research demonstrates that attention to a moment in time modulates early auditory processing as evidenced by the amplitude of the first negative peak (N1) approximately 100 msec after sound onset. ERPs elicited by tones presented at times of high and low metric strength in short melodies were compared to test the hypothesis that hierarchically structured rhythms direct attention in a manner that modulates early perceptual processing. A more negative N1 was observed for metrically strong beats compared with metrically weak beats; this result provides electrophysiological evidence that hierarchical rhythms direct attention to metrically strong times during engaged listening. The N1 effect was observed only on fast tempo trials, suggesting that listeners more consistently invoke selective processing based on hierarchical rhythms when sounds are presented rapidly. The N1 effect was not modulated by musical expertise, indicating that the allocation of attention to metrically strong times is not dependent on extensive training. Additionally, changes in P2 amplitude and a late negativity were associated with metric strength under some conditions, indicating that multiple cognitive processes are associated with metric perception. PMID:26284995

  5. Arrival-Time Detection and Ultrasonic Flow-Meter Applications

    Willatzen, Morten; Søndergaard, Peter; Latino, Carl; Voss, Frands; Lervad Andersen, Niels; Brokate, Martin; Bounaim, Aicha

    2006-11-01

    The Danfoss problem on ultrasonic flow measurement has been separated into three parts each handled by a subgroup of the authors listed above. The first subgroup deals with a presentation of modelling equations describing the physics of ultrasonic flow meters employing reciprocal ultrasonic transducer systems. The mathematical model presented allows the electrical output signal to be determined corresponding to any time-dependent electrical input signal. The transducers modelled consist of a piezoceramic material layer and a passive acoustic matching layer. The second subgroup analyzes the possibility of coding the input signal so as to simplify arrival-time detection by re.nding the coded input sequence in the received signal. The narrow-band nature of the transducers makes this problem non-trivial but suggestions for improvement are proposed. The analysis given is based on traditional autoand cross-correlation techniques. The third subgroup attempts to improve existing correlation methods in determining arrival-time detection of signals. A mathematical formulation of the problem is given and the application to a set of real signals provided by Danfoss A/S is performed with good results.

  6. Electricity Submetering on the Cheap: Stick-on Electricity Meters

    Lanzisera, Steven; Lorek, Michael; Pister, Kristofer

    2014-08-17

    We demonstrate a low-cost, 21 x 12 mm prototype Stick-on Electricity Meter (SEM) to replace traditional in-circuit-breaker-panel current and voltage sensors for building submetering. A SEM sensor is installed on the external face of a circuit breaker to generate voltage and current signals. This allows for the computation of real and apparent power as well as capturing harmonics created by non-linear loads. The prototype sensor is built using commercially available components, resulting in a production cost of under $10 per SEM. With no highvoltage install work requiring an electrician, home owners or other individuals can install the system in a few minutes with no safety implications. This leads to an installed system cost that is much lower than traditional submetering technology.. Measurement results from lab characterization as well as a real-world residential dwelling installation are presented, verifying the operation of our proposed SEM sensor. The SEM sensor can resolve breaker power levels below 10W, and it can be used to provide data for non-intrusive load monitoring systems at full sample rate.

  7. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing VI: Turbulence Profiles

    Els, S G; Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Seguel, J; Bustos, E; Walker, D

    2009-01-01

    The results on the vertical distribution of optical turbulence above the five mountains which were investigated by the site testing for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are reported. On San Pedro Martir in Mexico, the 13 North site on Mauna Kea and three mountains in northern Chile Cerro Tolar, Cerro Armazones and Cerro Tolonchar, MASS-DIMM turbulence profilers have been operated over at least two years. Acoustic turbulence profilers - SODARs - were also operated at these sites. The obtained turbulence profiles indicate that at all sites the lowest 200m are the main source of the total seeing observed, with the Chilean sites showing a weaker ground layer than the other two sites. The two northern hemisphere sites have weaker turbulence at altitudes above 500m, with 13N showing the weakest 16km turbulence, being responsible for the large isoplanatic angle at this site. The influence of the jetstream and wind speeds close to the ground on the clear sky turbulence strength throughout the atmosphere are discussed...

  8. Calibrating the neutron moisture meter: Precision and economy

    Established laboratory and field calibration procedures for the neutron moisture meter are demonstrated on a uniform soil and alternative, low cost procedures on a duplex, less uniform soil. The effect of field variability on the calibration methodology is discussed with the aim of optimising calibration reliability at minimal cost. The difference between calibration for a soil material, or for a field (a range of soil materials) is considered. In particular, calibration for the estimation of water content change is shown to be a different problem from calibration for the estimation of water content in a variable field. Techniques aimed at detecting field variability problems during calibration are suggested, and methods for optimising the results for the intended use of the instrument are outlined. Pairing of calibration tubes, alternative methods of analysis of calibration data, and use of other information from the field to measure its variability, can improve the precision of calibration procedures to the point where minimal calibration effort, with careful analysis, can provide reliable results. (author)

  9. Twenty Meter Space Telescope Based on Diffractive Fresnel Lens

    Early, J; Hyde, R; Baron, R

    2003-06-26

    Diffractive lenses offer two potential advantages for very large aperture space telescopes; very loose surface-figure tolerances and physical implementation as thin, flat optical elements. In order to actually realize these advantages one must be able to build large diffractive lenses with adequate optical precision and also to compactly stow the lens for launch and then fully deploy it in space. We will discuss the recent fabrication and assembly demonstration of a 5m glass diffractive Fresnel lens at LLNL. Optical performance data from smaller full telescopes with diffractive lens and corrective optics show diffraction limited performance with broad bandwidths. A systems design for a 20m space telescope will be presented. The primary optic can be rolled to fit inside of the standard fairings of the Delta IV vehicle. This configuration has a simple deployment and requires no orbital assembly. A twenty meter visible telescope could have a significant impact in conventional astronomy with eight times the resolution of Hubble and over sixty times the light gathering capacity. If the light scattering is made acceptable, this telescope could also be used in the search for terrestrial planets.

  10. A reference radiance-meter system for thermodynamic temperature measurements

    Salim, S. G. R.; Briaudeau, S.; Bourson, F.; Rougié, B.; Truong, D.; Kozlova, O.; Coutin, J.-M.; Sadli, M.

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the work carried out to evaluate the radiometric performance of a radiance-meter system which has been built at the LNE-Cnam to determine the thermodynamic temperature of high-temperature fixed points. The work comes as an integral part of the ‘implementing the new Kelvin’ (INK) project in which nine National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) strive to assign the thermodynamic temperatures to the melting curve of high-temperature fixed points with the lowest possible uncertainty. The method used in this research is based on the radiance approach. It exploits a system based on a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source whose radiance is absolutely measured by a trap detector through a well-defined geometry. The trap detector is calibrated traceable to the LNE-Cnam’s cryogenic radiometer. Once the radiance of the sphere is defined, a single grating-based spectroradiometer is used to measure the radiance of the fixed point source at the laser wavelength through direct comparison with the sphere radiance. This allows the thermodynamic temperature of the fixed point to be determined using Planck’s radiation law. The work provides a thorough evaluation of the system along with a detailed study of all related systematic effects and their corresponding uncertainties.

  11. Smart Tariff for Smart Meters In Smart Grid

    Dr.D.P.Kothari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The power grid is aging and congested and faces new challenges and stresses that put at risk its ability to reliably deliver power to an economy that is increasingly dependent on electricity. A growing recognition of the need to modernize the grid to meet tomorrow’s challenges has found articulation in the vision of a Smart Grid. The essence of this vision is “a fullyautomated power delivery network that can ensure a two-way flow of electricity and information between the power plants and appliances and all points in between”. The three key technological components of the Smart Grid are distributed intelligence, broadband communications and automated control systems. It is considered that introduction of “Smart Grid” technology will improve the reliability of power system, quality of supply, efficiency of the power sector apart from being consumer friendly and ultimately reduces line losses. Regardless of how quickly various tilities embrace smart grid concepts, technologies, and systems, they all agree on the inevitability of this massive transformation. Focusing in on the role of Smart Meters, this paper lays out the importance of time shifting the load to off-peak hours to avail the benefit of the proposed smart tariff which aims on cost reduction forconsumers for operating during off-peak hours thereby improving the reliability of the whole network.

  12. PELATIHAN RENANG GAYA DADA 8 KALI 25 METER 4 SET LEBIH MENINGKATKAN KECEPATAN RENANG 100 METER GAYA DADA DARIPADA 4 KALI 50 METER 4 SET PADA RENANG PEMULA PUTRA

    I Wayan Suarta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Sports pool in Indonesia are well known to the public, which is reduced when driving (after the end of the recovery to begin hand pull another hand, the breaststroke is the style of the most interesting because it does not quickly tiring when compared with other styles, because the process of respiration take place with ease, making them easier use in long-distance swim, at the start to affect the pace to continue this next movement needs to get training and a variety of training models, especially at students aged 10-12 years. Training pool 8 times 25 times 50 meters and 4 meters is one of the training methods that can speed up travel time. The best training model has not been encountered in the data. So do the research to find a model training 25 meter pool 8 times and 4 times 4 sets of 50 meters. The study was conducted with pretest-postes group design. Samples taken from the novice swimmer Toya Ening on Dalung Badung, as many as 26 people were randomly selected simple. Samples were divided into 2 groups each group totaled 13 people. Both groups were equally give training in the first group to pool 8 by 25 feet 4 sets, and 4 times the second group of 4 sets of 50 meters. 0.05 ab. Differences in results were analyzed statistically with  The data analyzed were age, height, weight, leg length and physical fitness.  13.49 seconds.± 107.69, and 126.38 ±The mean test results of the final 100 meter breaststroke swimming in a row 12.14 seconds  F count the results obtained respectively by 0.95 seconds with p = 0.59 and 0.93 seconds with a value of p = 0.34. Data showed significant differences significant (p> 0.05. These results indicate that the training of swimming the breaststroke 8 by 25 feet 4 sets is better than 4 times in 4 sets of 50 meter speed up travel time 100-meter breaststroke swimming novice men (p <0.05. Suggested the use of breaststroke swimming training method 8 by 25 feet 4 sets to be intensified to provide training pool at 100

  13. Smart meter adoption and deployment strategy for residential buildings in Indonesia

    Highlights: • Limited consumer awareness of smart meters contributes to skepticism. • Data obtained from a survey of energy users are analyzed using SEM. • A CAP index is developed via SEM results to measure consumer propensity for adopting smart meters. • The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors. • Concrete strategies are proposed to help policy makers and utility companies. - Abstract: For countries pursuing sustainable development and energy efficiency, the use of smart meters is considered a first step in allowing residential consumers to remotely control their energy consumption, and a promising technology for conserving limited energy resources. However, despite the growing interest in smart meters, limited consumer awareness, knowledge, and understanding of these devices contributes to skepticism. This study thus developed an index to measure consumer propensity to adopt smart meters in residential buildings. Data obtained from a survey of energy use by Indonesian households were analyzed using structural equation modeling to determine the interacting factors in consumer acceptance of smart meters. Consumer perceptions, expectations, and intentions regarding the potential use of smart meters in Indonesia were also discussed. The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors, and can help decision makers and energy utility companies develop policies and strategies for a “one-size-fits-all” program related to smart meter applications in future residential buildings

  14. Acceptance of Privacy-Sensitive Technologies: Smart Metering Case in The Netherlands

    Alabdulkarim, L.O.; Lukszo, Z.; Fens, T.W.

    2012-01-01

    Over recent years there have been several initiatives around the world that aim to roll out smart metering systems, especially within North America and member states of the European Union. Smart metering systems, giving essential conditions for smart grids in the energy sector, can offer services ai

  15. BH5047 type depth sand moisture-meter of high sensitivity

    A new depth neutron moisture meter BH5047 has been developed. BH5047 neutron moisture meter is characterised by it is high sensitivity and used for sand water content measurement at concrete mixer. Calibration function is obtained by the Method of Least Squares. Linear correlation efficiency is as good as 0.9977

  16. Privacy-Preserving Smart Metering with Authentication in a Smart Grid

    Jun Beom Hur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The traditional security objectives of smart grids have been availability, integrity, and confidentiality. However, as the grids incorporate smart metering and load management, user and corporate privacy is increasingly becoming an issue in smart grid networks. Although transmitting current power consumption levels to the supplier or utility from each smart meter at short intervals has an advantage for the electricity supplier’s planning and management purposes, it threatens user privacy by disclosing fine-grained consumption data and usage behavior to utility providers. In this study, we propose a distributed incremental data aggregation scheme where all smart meters on an aggregation path are involved in routing the data from the source meter to the collection unit. User privacy is preserved by symmetric homomorphic encryption, which allows smart meters to participate in the aggregation without seeing any intermediate or final result. Aggregated data is further integrated with an aggregate signature to achieve data integrity and smart meter authentication in such a way that dishonest or fake smart meters cannot falsify data en route. Only the collection unit can obtain the aggregated data and verify its integrity while the individual plain data are not exposed to the collection unit. Therefore, user privacy and security are improved for the smart metering in a smart grid network.

  17. Study on the hydrogen meter of nuclear sampling system of CPR1000 project

    Study on the on-line hydrogen meter of nuclear sampling system (REN) of CPR1000 project. The configuration of the hydrogen meter is observed, the measuring process are analyzed. Especially, the formula of measuring principle is deduced. Furthermore, it contains the theory of independence manufacture. (authors)

  18. Optimization of parameters of single-beam gamma absorption concentration meter within definite measuring range

    Problems of two-parametric optimization of single-beam gamma absorption concentration meters in the assigned measurement range are considered. It is shown that maximum absolute and relative statistical measurement errors are observed at the measurement range boundaries under any values of variable parameters. Optimization of single-beam gamma absorption concentration meter parameters for a number of binary solutions is performed

  19. Effects of Swirling Flow Components on Discharge Coefficients of Elbow Flow Meters

    Murakami, Mitsukiyo; Kito, Osami; キトウ, オサミ; 鬼頭, 修己

    1980-01-01

    Change of discharge coefficient of elbow flow meters due to swirling flow component was analyzed. The theory based on a potential flow model shows that even a weak swirling flow component which will be found in the flow in actual pipe lines has a considerable effect on the discharge coefficients of elbow flow meters. Experimental verification for this result is also given.

  20. An inductive conductivity meter for monitoring the salinity of dialysis water

    Diamond, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    An inductive conductivity meter is described, especially adapted as a salinity monitor for dialysis water. Salinity are given. The principal problems of the inductive conductivity meter result from the low conductivity of electrolytes. The weak coupling due to the electrolyte means that stray...

  1. Agreement of Power Measures between Garmin Vector and SRM Cycle Power Meters

    Novak, Andrew R.; Dascombe, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if the Garmin Vector (Schaffhausen, Switzerland) power meter produced acceptable measures when compared with the Schoberer Rad Messetechnik (SRM; Julich, Germany) power meter across a range of high-intensity efforts. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists completed power profiles (seven maximal mean efforts between 5 and…

  2. A case study: The economic cost of net metering in Maryland: Who bears the economic burden?

    The Maryland legislature approved net-metering legislation for residential consumer generators with photovoltaic systems during 1997. Before the legislation passed, the Maryland Energy Administration (MEA) examined its potential economic impact on both the affected utilities and consumer ratepayers--with and without net-metered PV systems. The MEA discovered that the impact on the affected utility is minimal when the net-metered PV capacity is limited to a small percentage of utility peak load. The analysis also determined that the cost burden on other customers under a net-metered scenario is likewise limited. For Maryland's largest investor-owned utility, the maximum amount of any cross-subsidy (or cost) on a per customer basis is 46 cents annually. Furthermore, their analysis showed that when distribution system savings and environmental externalities are incorporated, net-metered customers may actually subsidize other utility customers. The MEA analysis also determined that about 50% of the value of the energy produced is lost if net metering is not available to those customers with grid tied PV systems. Over the long term, most if not all of any potential cost is borne by other residential customers, not utility shareholders. Finally, the additional cost burden to the utility under net metering--compensating the consumer at the retail rate versus the avoided cost rate--is less than expected when one considers the administrative costs associated with a dual-metered billing approach

  3. 21 CFR 868.1860 - Peak-flow meter for spirometry.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peak-flow meter for spirometry. 868.1860 Section 868.1860 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spirometry. (a) Identification. A peak-flow meter for spirometry is a device used to measure a...

  4. A Framework for Reliable Reception of Wireless Metering Data using Protocol Side Information

    Melchior Jacobsen, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar

    Stationary collectors reading wireless, battery powered smart meters, often operate in harsh channel conditions to cut network installation cost to a minimum, challenging the individual link to each meter. The desired performance measure is reliable reception of at least some data from as many as...

  5. Standardization of {sup 123}I and {sup 18}F for providing traceability of activity meters performed in the Radiopharmaceutical Production Service of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, RJ, Brazil; Padronizacao do Iodo-123 e Fluor-18 para provimento de rastreabilidade das medicoes de atividade realizadas no Servico de Producao de Radiofarmacos do Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear

    Andrade, E.A.L., E-mail: erica@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delgado, J.U.; Iwahara, A.; Contic, C.C., E-mail: delgado@ird.gov.br, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.br, E-mail: ccconti@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The commercialization and use of radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil are regulated by Sanitary Vigilance National Agency which requiring Good Manufacturing Practices certification for all segments within the Nuclear Medicine. Quality Assurance Programmes should implement the standard requirements to ensure that radiopharmaceuticals have requirements quality to proving its efficiency. Several aspects should be controlled, and one of them is the traceability of the Radionuclides Activity Measurement in radiopharmaceuticals doses. This paper aims to provide traceability to dose calibrators (well type ionization chambers) used for {sup 123}I and {sup 18}F activity measurements in Radiopharmaceuticals Production Service placed in Institute of Nuclear Engineering, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. (author)

  6. ACCURATE KAP METER CALIBRATION AS A PREREQUISITE FOR OPTIMISATION IN PROJECTION RADIOGRAPHY.

    Malusek, A; Sandborg, M; Carlsson, G Alm

    2016-06-01

    Modern X-ray units register the air kerma-area product, PKA, with a built-in KAP meter. Some KAP meters show an energy-dependent bias comparable with the maximum uncertainty articulated by the IEC (25 %), adversely affecting dose-optimisation processes. To correct for the bias, a reference KAP meter calibrated at a standards laboratory and two calibration methods described here can be used to achieve an uncertainty of standards laboratory, Q0, to any beam quality, Q, in the clinic. Alternatively, beam quality corrections are measured with an energy-independent dosemeter via a reference beam quality in the clinic, Q1, to beam quality, Q Biases up to 35 % of built-in KAP meter readings were noted. Energy-dependent calibration factors are needed for unbiased PKA Accurate KAP meter calibration as a prerequisite for optimisation in projection radiography. PMID:26743261

  7. Allocation of Power Meters for Online Load Distribution Estimation in Smart Grids

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2015-01-01

    The electrification of heating and transportation along with the penetration of renewable energy in electricity networks has necessitated the evolution of low voltage distribution grids into smart grids. Contemporary, smart grids are realised by smart meter installations to electricity end users....... In the literature, these meters aim at online metering of the grid status. Depending on this status, proactive and/or reactive load management can subsequently be conducted. In reality however, many smart grids perform this metering offline due to excessive data problems. As such, grid operators have...... reduced observability of the load distribution in their grid throughout the day. This paper investigates the possibility of improving the observability by allocating a minimum number of additional online operated power meters in the distribution grid. This allocation, driven by optimisation, clustering...

  8. Use of a blood glucose meter for radiochromic film analysis in blood irradiation

    The use of a diabetic blood glucose meter for radiochromic film dosimetry in blood irradiation using x-ray beams on a medical linear accelerator has been investigated. The glucose meter provides optical density analysis in the visible and infrared region using a reflectance measurement technique. By comparing the 'blood sugar' level output with standard calibration gafchromic films a calibration curve is produced for quantitative analysis. Results show that a reproducible dose to meter output curve can be fitted using a second order polynomial function and that blood irradiation doses in vitro were measured to within 7.9% mean error (as compared to ionization chamber results) using the blood glucose meter. This level of accuracy falls below that measured with a standard densitometer (4.3%); however, results show that the blood glucose meter, which would be available in any haematology department, produces an adequate measure of gafchromic film optical density for blood irradiation dosimetry. (author)

  9. Design and Implementation of an Ultrasonic Heat Meter Based on MSP430F437

    LI Yue; HE Yu-zhu; ZHOU Hai-li; CHEN Gong; ZHANG Qingrong

    2011-01-01

    Flowing with the reform of the hot water heating method in China, heat meter will enter into households in the near future. A portable ultrasonic heat meter is designed in this paper. The meter uses chip microprocessor MSP430F437 as the data process core, and uses ultrasonic flow sensor to measure flow rate of the hot water, and capture input and output temperatures of the hot water using the thermal resistance sensor Ptl000, and then household energy consumption is calculated via temperature difference between input temperature and output temperature of the hot water multiplied by volume of hot water that is calculated though flow rate integration of hot water. In order to test the performance of the proposed heat meter, experiments is carried out. Both the temperature and flow measurement results satisfy the requirements of accuracy and the heat meter is effective in the heat measurement.

  10. The NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope

    Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Hickson, P.; Glesne, T.; Anz-Meador, P.; Barker, E.; Stansbery, G.; Kervin, P.

    2016-01-01

    For the past decade, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has relied on using various ground-based telescopes in Chile to acquire statistical survey data as well as photometric and spectroscopic data of orbital debris in geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). The statistical survey data have been used to supply the Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM) v.3.0 with debris detections in GEO to better model the environment at altitudes where radar detections are limited. The data produced for the statistical survey ranged from 30 to 40 nights per year, which only accounted for 10% of the possible observing time. Data collection was restricted by ODPO resources and weather conditions. In order to improve the statistical sampling in GEO, as well as observe and sample other orbits, NASA's ODPO with support from the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), has constructed a new observatory dedicated to orbital debris - the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island. This location provides MCAT with the unique ability to access targets orbiting at an altitude of less than 1,000 km and low inclinations (MEO), as well as highly eccentric orbits like geostationary transfer orbits. On 25 August 2015, MCAT successfully acquired scientific first light, imaging the Bug Nebula and tracked objects in LEO, MEO, and GEO. NASA is working towards characterizing the system and thoroughly testing the integrated hardware and software control to achieve fully autonomous operations by late 2016. This paper will review the history and current status of the MCAT project, the details of the telescope system, and its five currently manifested operating modes.

  11. Accuracy of handheld blood glucose meters at high altitude.

    Pieter de Mol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to increasing numbers of people with diabetes taking part in extreme sports (e.g., high-altitude trekking, reliable handheld blood glucose meters (BGMs are necessary. Accurate blood glucose measurement under extreme conditions is paramount for safe recreation at altitude. Prior studies reported bias in blood glucose measurements using different BGMs at high altitude. We hypothesized that glucose-oxidase based BGMs are more influenced by the lower atmospheric oxygen pressure at altitude than glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Glucose measurements at simulated altitude of nine BGMs (six glucose dehydrogenase and three glucose oxidase BGMs were compared to glucose measurement on a similar BGM at sea level and to a laboratory glucose reference method. Venous blood samples of four different glucose levels were used. Moreover, two glucose oxidase and two glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs were evaluated at different altitudes on Mount Kilimanjaro. Accuracy criteria were set at a bias 6.5 mmol/L and <1 mmol/L from reference glucose (when <6.5 mmol/L. No significant difference was observed between measurements at simulated altitude and sea level for either glucose oxidase based BGMs or glucose dehydrogenase based BGMs as a group phenomenon. Two GDH based BGMs did not meet set performance criteria. Most BGMs are generally overestimating true glucose concentration at high altitude. CONCLUSION: At simulated high altitude all tested BGMs, including glucose oxidase based BGMs, did not show influence of low atmospheric oxygen pressure. All BGMs, except for two GDH based BGMs, performed within predefined criteria. At true high altitude one GDH based BGM had best precision and accuracy.

  12. Detection of protein biomarker using a blood glucose meter.

    Lan, Tian; Xiang, Yu; Lu, Yi

    2015-01-01

    mHeath technologies are recognized to play important roles in the future of personal care and medicine. However, their full potentials have not been reached, as most of current technologies are restricted to monitoring physical and behavioral parameters, such as body temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and physical movement, while direct monitoring of biomarkers in body fluids can provide much more accurate and useful information for medical diagnostics. A major barrier to realizing the full potential of mHealth is the high costs and long cycles of developing mHealth devices capable of monitoring biomarkers in body fluids. To lower the costs and shorten the developmental cycle, we have demonstrated the leveraging of the most successful portable medical monitoring device on the market, the blood glucose meter (BGM), with FDA-approved smartphone technologies that allow for wireless transmission and remote monitoring of a wide range of non-glucose targets. In this protocol, an aptamer-based assay for quantification of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using an off-the-shelf BGM is described. In this assay, an aptamer-based target recognition system is employed. When IFN-γ binds to the aptamer, it triggers the release of a reporter enzyme, invertase, which can catalyze the conversion of sucrose (not detected by BGM) to glucose. The glucose being produced is then detected using a BGM. The system mimics a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), where the traditional immunoassay is replaced by an aptamer binding assay; the reporter protein is replaced by invertase, and finally the optical or fluorescence detector is replaced with widely available BGMs. PMID:25626534

  13. Development of a calibration methodology and tests of kerma area product meters

    The quantity kerma area product (PKA) is important to establish reference levels in diagnostic radiology exams. This quantity can be obtained using a PKA meter. The use of such meters is essential to evaluate the radiation dose in radiological procedures and is a good indicator to make sure that the dose limit to the patient's skin doesn't exceed. Sometimes, these meters come fixed to X radiation equipment, which makes its calibration difficult. In this work, it was developed a methodology for calibration of PKA meters. The instrument used for this purpose was the Patient Dose Calibrator (PDC). It was developed to be used as a reference to check the calibration of PKA and air kerma meters that are used for dosimetry in patients and to verify the consistency and behavior of systems of automatic exposure control. Because it is a new equipment, which, in Brazil, is not yet used as reference equipment for calibration, it was also performed the quality control of this equipment with characterization tests, the calibration and an evaluation of the energy dependence. After the tests, it was proved that the PDC can be used as a reference instrument and that the calibration must be performed in situ, so that the characteristics of each X-ray equipment, where the PKA meters are used, are considered. The calibration was then performed with portable PKA meters and in an interventional radiology equipment that has a PKA meter fixed. The results were good and it was proved the need for calibration of these meters and the importance of in situ calibration with a reference meter. (author)

  14. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  15. Carryover of bovine leukemia virus antibodies in samples from shared milk meters.

    Nekouei, O A; Sanchez, J; Keefe, G P

    2015-08-01

    Screening for infectious diseases of cattle using milk from the dairy herd improvement (DHI) sampling process is very convenient. However, when samples from shared milk meters are used, carryover of antibodies or other diagnostic targets can complicate the interpretation of the diagnostic test results for diseases, including bovine leukosis. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess the potential for carryover of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in milk samples obtained from shared meters, and (2) to determine if adjustment of the diagnostic test cut-off value would improve the test characteristics for meter-collected milk ELISA results. Eight dairy farms were randomly selected from herds with a wide range of BLV prevalence levels in Prince Edward Island, Canada. Within each chosen farm, 2 to 4milk meters were randomly selected. During the routine procedures of DHI sampling, 2 simultaneous milk samples, 1 hand-collected at the beginning of milking (after udder preparation) and the other from the corresponding milk meter, were taken from all lactating cows (n=236) that were milked at the selected meters (n=26). The sequence of cows using each meter was recorded. All samples were tested for BLV antibodies using a commercial indirect ELISA. Antibody carryover potential was assessed in meter-collected samples which were preceded by other cows using the same meters. Applying the hand-collected sample results as our reference standard, a new cut-off was defined for meter-collected samples to optimize the test characteristics. At the standard cut-off value of the diagnostic test, 110 (46.6%) of the hand-collected and 136 (57.6%) of the meter-collected samples were positive. For low-titer cows (e.g., true negatives), the likelihood of antibody carryover significantly increased as the titer of preceding cows increased, whereas this change was not substantial for high-titer cows. The odds of obtaining false diagnoses in meter-positive samples became

  16. Application of a commercial diffusion type carbon meter in a sodium circuit

    The exchange of carbon between structural materials and liquid sodium influences the mechanical properties of components of the cooling circuits. Therefore, the estimation of the carbon content of the alkali metal and the knowledge of its carburizing potential is of importance. Since some years the measurement of the carburizing potential of sodium is easy to perform by the application of the foil equilibration method which leads to good results in spite of the very low carbon concentrations in the liquid metal. Thin foils (0.025 to 0.125 mm) of Fe-18Cr-8Ni-C alloy (corresponding to stainless steel type AISI 304) are immersed in sodium at 550 to 700 deg. C for 200 to 400 hours. The equilibrium of the carbon distribution must be reached. Chemical analyses of the steel tabs and relation of concentration to activity of carbon lead to information on the carbon concentration in the sodium, if the saturation concentration of carbon in sodium is known. The method gives arbitrary values over a longer period of time. The time needed for equilibration and analysis causes a delay for the getting of results. Therefore, there is a need for instruments which are capable to measure carbon directly in the circuits and give continuously information on the actual carbon activities in the fluid. Until 1975 only one carbon meter was commercially available. One unit in was tested a chemical analytical sodium circuit

  17. The NASA Meter Class Autonomous Telescope: Ascension Island

    Lederer, S. M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Pace, L. F.; Abercromby, K. J.; Kervin, P. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) is the newest optical sensor dedicated to NASA's mission to characterize the space debris environment. It is the successor to a series of optical telescopes developed and operated by the JSC Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) to monitor and assess the debris environment in (1) Low Earth Orbit (LEO), (2) Medium Earth Orbit (MEO), and (3) Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO), with emphasis on LEO and GEO altitudes. A joint NASA - Air Force Research Labs project, MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope dedicated to debris research. Its optical path and sensor yield a large survey fence at the cutting edge of current detector performance. It has four primary operational observing modes, two of which were not computationally feasible a decade ago. Operations are supported by a sophisticated software suite that monitors clouds and weather conditions, and controls everything from data collection to dome rotation to processing tens of gigabytes of image data nightly. With fainter detection limits, precision detection, acquisition and tracking of targets, multi-color photometry, precision astrometry, automated re-acquisition capability, and the ability to process all data at the acquisition rate, MCAT is capable of producing and processing a volume and quality of data far in excess of any current (or prior) ODPO operations. This means higher fidelity population inputs and eliminating the multi-year backlog from acquisition-to-product typical of optical campaigns. All of this is possible given a suitable observing location. Ascension Island offers numerous advantages. As a British overseas territory with a US Air Force base presence, the necessary infrastructure and support already exists. It is located mid-way between Brazil and Africa at 7.93S latitude and 14.37 W longitude. With the Ground-based Electro-Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) asset in Moron, Spain shutting down, this presents access to the sky from a unique latitude

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean as part of the Equatorial Pacific Ocean Climate Studies (EPOCS) project from 21 November 1981 - 20 November 1983 (NODC Accession 8500258)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the South Pacific Ocean from November 21, 1981 to November 20, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  19. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South as part of the Outer Continental Shelf Baltimore Canyon Study, 17 April 1981 - 01 November 1982 (NODC Accession 8500009)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North American Coastline-South from April 17, 1981 to November 1, 1982. Data were...

  20. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean as part of the Marginal Ice Zone EXperiment (MIZEX) project from 22 October 1982 - 01 May 1983 (NODC Accession 8400014)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the North Pacific Ocean from October 22, 1982 to May 1, 1983. Data were submitted by Science...