WorldWideScience

Sample records for activity behaviour change

  1. Changing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in people with COPD.

    Cavalheri, Vinicius; Straker, Leon; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Gardiner, Paul A; Hill, Kylie

    2016-04-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). Given the evidence for the health benefits associated with participating in 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA each week, there is considerable interest in methods to increase PA in people with COPD. Studies to date have focused largely on exercise training and behavioural approaches, and many have demonstrated minimal, if any effect. An intermediate goal that focuses on reducing time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) and increasing participation in light intensity PA is a more realistic goal in this population and offers a gateway to higher intensity PA. Although strategies that are capable of reducing time spent in SB in COPD are unknown, studies that have shown some increase in PA in this population often provide individualized goal setting, motivational interviewing and frequent contact with health-care professionals to provide advice regarding strategies to overcome barriers. Therefore, these approaches should be considered in interventions to reduce time in SB. There are a range of devices available to monitor time in SB for use in both clinical and research settings. To move this area forward, a theoretically informed and systematic approach to behaviour change is needed. The theoretical model, the 'behaviour change wheel', is described and an example is provided of how it can be applied to a person with COPD. PMID:26560834

  2. Reducing the decline in physical activity during pregnancy: a systematic review of behaviour change interventions.

    Sinead Currie

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA typically declines throughout pregnancy. Low levels of PA are associated with excessive weight gain and subsequently increase risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension disorders, delivery by caesarean section and stillbirth. Systematic reviews on PA during pregnancy have not explored the efficacy of behaviour change techniques or related theory in altering PA behaviour. This systematic review evaluated the content of PA interventions to reduce the decline of PA in pregnant women with a specific emphasis on the behaviour change techniques employed to elicit this change. SEARCH AND REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Literature searches were conducted in eight databases. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were employed. Two reviewers independently evaluated each intervention using the behaviour change techniques (BCT taxonomy to identify the specific behaviour change techniques employed. Two reviewers independently assessed the risk of bias using the guidelines from the Cochrane Collaboration. Overall quality was determined using the GRADE approach. FINDINGS: A total of 1140 potentially eligible papers were identified from which 14 studies were selected for inclusion. Interventions included counselling (n = 6, structured exercise (n = 6 and education (n = 2. Common behaviour change techniques employed in these studies were goal setting and planning, feedback, repetition and substitution, shaping knowledge and comparison of behaviours. Regular face-to-face meetings were also commonly employed. PA change over time in intervention groups ranged from increases of 28% to decreases of 25%. In 8 out of 10 studies, which provided adequate data, participants in the intervention group were more physically active post intervention than controls. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Physical activity interventions incorporating behaviour change techniques help reduce the decline in PA throughout pregnancy

  3. Do physical activity and dietary smartphone applications incorporate evidence-based behaviour change techniques?

    Direito, Artur; Pfaeffli Dale, Leila; Shields, Emma; Dobson, Rosie; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Background There has been a recent proliferation in the development of smartphone applications (apps) aimed at modifying various health behaviours. While interventions that incorporate behaviour change techniques (BCTs) have been associated with greater effectiveness, it is not clear to what extent smartphone apps incorporate such techniques. The purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of BCTs in physical activity and dietary apps and determine how reliably the taxonomy checklis...

  4. Changing Information Retrieval Behaviours

    Constantiou, Ioanna D.; Lehrer, Christiane; Hess, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    on the continuance of LBS use and indicate changes in individuals' information retrieval behaviours in everyday life. In particular, the distinct value dimension of LBS in specific contexts of use changes individuals' behaviours towards accessing location-related information....

  5. Economic instruments for population diet and physical activity behaviour change: a systematic scoping review.

    Ian Shemilt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unhealthy diet and low levels of physical activity are common behavioural factors in the aetiology of many non-communicable diseases. Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of policy and research interest in the use of taxes and other economic instruments to improve population health. OBJECTIVE: To assemble, configure and analyse empirical research studies available to inform the public health case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change. METHODS: We conducted a systematic scoping review of evidence for the effects of specific interventions to change, or general exposure to variations in, prices or income on dietary and physical activity behaviours and corollary outcomes. Systematic electronic searches and parallel snowball searches retrieved >1 million study records. Text mining technologies were used to prioritise title-abstract records for screening. Eligible studies were selected, classified and analysed in terms of key characteristics and principal findings, using a narrative, configuring synthesis focused on implications for policy and further research. RESULTS: We identified 880 eligible studies, including 192 intervention studies and 768 studies that incorporated evidence for prices or income as correlates or determinants of target outcomes. Current evidence for the effects of economic instruments and exposures on diet and physical activity is limited in quality and equivocal in terms of its policy implications. Direct evidence for the effects of economic instruments is heavily skewed towards impacts on diet, with a relative lack of evidence for impacts on physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence-based case for using economic instruments to promote dietary and physical activity behaviour change may be less compelling than some proponents have claimed. Future research should include measurement of people's actual behavioural responses using study designs capable of

  6. Changing doctor prescribing behaviour

    Gill, P.S.; Mäkelä, M.; Vermeulen, K.M.;

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane Collabora......The aim of this overview was to identify interventions that change doctor prescribing behaviour and to derive conclusions for practice and further research. Relevant studies (indicating prescribing as a behaviour change) were located from a database of studies maintained by the Cochrane...... Collaboration on Effective Professional Practice. This register is kept up to date by searching the following databases for reports of relevant research: DHSS-DATA; EMBASE; MEDLINE; SIGLE; Resource Database in Continuing Medical Education (1975-1994), along with bibliographies of related topics, hand searching...

  7. The cost of changing physical activity behaviour: evidence from a "physical activity pathway" in the primary care setting

    Bull Fiona C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 'Physical Activity Care Pathway' (a Pilot for the 'Let's Get Moving' policy is a systematic approach to integrating physical activity promotion into the primary care setting. It combines several methods reported to support behavioural change, including brief interventions, motivational interviewing, goal setting, providing written resources, and follow-up support. This paper compares costs falling on the UK National Health Service (NHS of implementing the care pathway using two different recruitment strategies and provides initial insights into the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Methods A combination of a time driven variant of activity based costing, audit data through EMIS and a survey of practice managers provided patient-level cost data for 411 screened individuals. Self reported physical activity data of 70 people completing the care pathway at three month was compared with baseline using a regression based 'difference in differences' approach. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses in combination with hypothesis testing were used to judge how robust findings are to key assumptions and to assess the uncertainty around estimates of the cost of changing physical activity behaviour. Results It cost £53 (SD 7.8 per patient completing the PACP in opportunistic centres and £191 (SD 39 at disease register sites. The completer rate was higher in disease register centres (27.3% vs. 16.2% and the difference in differences in time spent on physical activity was 81.32 (SE 17.16 minutes/week in patients completing the PACP; so that the incremental cost of converting one sedentary adult to an 'active state' of 150 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week amounts to £ 886.50 in disease register practices, compared to opportunistic screening. Conclusions Disease register screening is more costly than opportunistic patient recruitment. However, additional costs come with a higher

  8. Processes of identity development and behaviour change in later life : exploring self-talk during physical activity uptake.

    Oliver, E.J.; Hudson, J.; Thomas, L.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of exercise are well documented, nevertheless, physical activity decreases progressively with age, a trend exacerbated in those who have fallen. An important predictor of exercise behaviour is the extent to which motivation for exercise has been internalised into one's identity, however, we know little about changing health behaviours in older people, with calls for longitudinal studies to aid understanding. Grounded in self-determination theory, the present study explored the ro...

  9. Web seminar: Behaviour change

    Curtis, V

    2012-01-01

    The IDEAS project runs web seminars as part of its Technical Resource Centre. The IDEAS web seminar series aims to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. Seminar description: On 7 November 2012, join the IDEAS team for a varied presentation and discussion on behaviour change.This web seminar is part of a series IDEAS is running to share learning, knowledge and experience in maternal and newborn health. There will be an opportunity for questions and comme...

  10. Subchronic atrazine exposure changes defensive behaviour profile and disrupts brain acetylcholinesterase activity of zebrafish.

    Schmidel, Ademir J; Assmann, Karla L; Werlang, Chariane C; Bertoncello, Kanandra T; Francescon, Francini; Rambo, Cassiano L; Beltrame, Gabriela M; Calegari, Daiane; Batista, Cibele B; Blaser, Rachel E; Roman Júnior, Walter A; Conterato, Greicy M M; Piato, Angelo L; Zanatta, Leila; Magro, Jacir Dal; Rosemberg, Denis B

    2014-01-01

    Animal behaviour is the interaction between environment and an individual organism, which also can be influenced by its neighbours. Variations in environmental conditions, as those caused by contaminants, may lead to neurochemical impairments altering the pattern of the behavioural repertoire of the species. Atrazine (ATZ) is an herbicide widely used in agriculture that is frequently detected in surface water, affecting non-target species. The zebrafish is a valuable model organism to assess behavioural and neurochemical effects of different contaminants since it presents a robust behavioural repertoire and also all major neurotransmitter systems described for mammalian species. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of subchronic ATZ exposure in defensive behaviours of zebrafish (shoaling, thigmotaxis, and depth preference) using the split depth tank. Furthermore, to investigate a putative role of cholinergic signalling on ATZ-mediated effects, we tested whether this herbicide alters acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain and muscle preparations. Fish were exposed to ATZ for 14days and the following groups were tested: control (0.2% acetone) and ATZ (10 and 1000μg/L). The behaviour of four animals in the same tank was recorded for 6min and biological samples were prepared. Our results showed that 1000μg/L ATZ significantly increased the inter-fish distance, as well as the nearest and farthest neighbour distances. This group also presented an increase in the shoal area with decreased social interaction. No significant differences were detected for the number of animals in the shallow area, latency to enter the shallow and time spent in shallow and deep areas of the apparatus, but the ATZ 1000 group spent significantly more time near the walls. Although ATZ did not affect muscular AChE, it significantly reduced AChE activity in brain. Exposure to 10μg/L ATZ did not affect behaviour or AChE activity. These data suggest that ATZ impairs defensive

  11. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G; Brown, Kerry A.; Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Shepherd, Richard; Raats, Monique M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to relate behaviour change mechanisms to nutritionally relevant behaviour and demonstrate how the different mechanisms can affect attempts to change these behaviours. Folate was used as an example to illuminate the possibilities and challenges in inducing behaviour...... change. The behaviours affecting folate intake were recognised and categorised. Behaviour change mechanisms from “rational model of man”, behavioural economics, health psychology and social psychology were identified and aligned against folate-related behaviours. The folate example demonstrated the...... complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes in...

  12. Rooting behaviour, polyphenol oxidase activity, and biochemical changes in grape rootstocks at different growth stages

    SOMKUWAR, Ramhari G.; BONDAGE, Devanand D.; SURANGE, Manisha S.; Ramteke, Sahadeo D.

    2011-01-01

    Four grape rootstocks belonging to different Vitis species were planted in September. Rooting behaviour, polyphenol oxidase (PPO; EC 1.14.18.1) activity and biochemical parameters were studied at different growth stages after planting the cuttings in polythene bags. Significant differences were recorded for rooting success among the different rootstocks, with the maximum sprouting percentage determined in the Freedom rootstock. The highest variation in PPO activity was also recorded in Freedo...

  13. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  14. In vivo gene delivery of urokinase-type plasminogen activator with regulatable lentivirus induces behavioural changes in chronic cocaine administration

    Bahi, Amine; Boyer, Frederic; Gumy, Christèle; Kafri, Tal; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    Serine proteases play a key function in extracellular processes affecting central nervous system plasticity. Recently, the role of extracellular proteolytic processes in regulating synaptic structure and function has been described. However, to date direct evidence linking extracellular serine protease activity with drug-related behavioural changes has not been documented. Importantly, in a screening for genes induced after drug treatment we found that urokinase plasminogen-type activator (uP...

  15. Past behaviour change success.

    1993-01-01

    Discussions of behavior change involve values, cultural norms, power, ideology, manipulation, oppression, and human rights. Coercion and force can induce behavior change. Authority figures all inject their values when one debates what is right and wrong for the individual, community, or nation. We tend to agree on what should be good values in human rights (e.g., liberty, health and speech). Global standards are acceptable for some areas of health (e.g., smallpox, water safety, and drug purity). Yet, setting guidance and control measures that are reasonable accepted by all people, groups, and cultures is more difficult in health matters involving personal choice and liberty. Marketing and advertising professionals are quite familiar with the science of behavior change. It is difficult to measure whether a health promotion campaign is a success. For example, the statistics show that the number of people who smoke and smoking-related illnesses and deaths is falling. This behavior change may be a result of health warnings on cigarette packets and bill boards and the activities of antismoking groups. Yet, many people have died during the 25 years of the antismoking campaign and many more still smoke even though they know the consequences of smoking. In 1991, participants at an African conference on AIDS drafted a belief statement that examines the complexities of behavior change and the great need to understand behavior change to stop the spread of HIV. The statement contends that people have an inherent capacity to change but the power to do so is often denied or not exercised. A supportive response to people living with HIV in the community is an important part of the process helping people begin to change and maintain health promoting behaviors. PMID:12159251

  16. CHANGING TRENDS IN LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY MASS INDEX AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Viji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Early sleep, early waking up, regular breakfast and light-to-moderate exercise all constitute healthy habits. Balanced diet, regular sleep and adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health in human life. Regrettably these habits are not very frequent among medical students, because of exceptionally tiring schedule, protracted studies and burden of performing well in medical colleges. The study aims to correlate the trends in breakfast habits, mid-day snacking, sleeping habits and physical activity in relation to body mass index among medical students. METHOD This was a single centre cross-sectional questionnaire based study conducted at Jubilee Mission Medical College & Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala. The target population was 1 st year MBBS students. We collected data from 234 students. The study duration was from August 2014 till September 2015. Convenient sampling was implied for the collection of data. RESULTS Mean age of participants was 20.85 ± 0.9 years, while mean BMI of participants was 24.7 ± 6.31 kg/m2. Average sleep duration was 7.1 hours ± 3.9 hours while average physical activity was 208 min/week ± 92 min/week. We observed that females (63.4% tend to skip breakfast twice more than males (27.9%. Students who had regular breakfast were found to have a lower BMI than those who did not. Moreover, those who took breakfast were found to be more physically active than those who skipped breakfast. CONCLUSION Since it was found that a regular consumption of breakfast, adequate sleep and exercise not only lowers BMI but also makes a person more physically fit. Therefore, it is recommended to start the day with a healthy breakfast having all the essential nutrients.

  17. The challenges of co-developing a behaviour change app that aimed to make physical activity a habit

    Alice S Forster

    2016-01-01

    Developers of behaviour change apps must balance the demands of users that will make using the app a habit, while retaining the ingredients necessary for the app to achieve its purpose. Mixed methods provide a rich data set with which to base app development and greater confidence that the app will meet the needs of users in terms of social networking and privacy.

  18. Mapping barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory for Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON), a multi-site implementation intervention in acute care hospitals

    Moore, Julia E.; Mascarenhas, Alekhya; Marquez, Christine; Almaawiy, Ummukulthum; Chan, Wai-Hin; D’Souza, Jennifer; Liu, Barbara; Straus, Sharon E; ,

    2014-01-01

    Background As evidence-informed implementation interventions spread, they need to be tailored to address the unique needs of each setting, and this process should be well documented to facilitate replication. To facilitate the spread of the Mobilization of Vulnerable Elders in Ontario (MOVE ON) intervention, the aim of the current study is to develop a mapping guide that links identified barriers and intervention activities to behaviour change theory. Methods Focus groups were conducted with ...

  19. Are incremental changes in physical activity and sedentary behaviours associated with improved employee health?: A 12-month prospective study in five organisations

    Jackson, Cath; Lewis, Kiara; Conner, Mark; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The workplace offers an ideal setting for facilitating physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviours. Understanding employees’ current health behaviours is required to inform appropriate, tailored, health promotion interventions. The purpose of this paper is to compare the physical activity and sedentary behaviours over 12 months of employees within and across five UK organisations. The paper also explores the association of these health behaviours with objective and self-repo...

  20. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set goals. A meta-analysis was ultimately carried out across 45 articles (comprising 52 interventions, 126 effect sizes, n = 5912) that met eligibility criteria using a random-effects model. Overall, a medium, positive effect (Cohen's d(SE) = .552(.06), 95% CI = .43-.67, Z = 9.03, p goal setting interventions in relation to PA behaviour was found. Moderator analyses across 20 variables revealed several noteworthy results with regard to features of the study, sample characteristics, PA goal content, and additional goal-related behaviour change techniques. In conclusion, multi-component goal setting interventions represent an effective method of fostering PA across a diverse range of populations and settings. Implications for effective goal setting interventions are discussed. PMID:26445201

  1. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents ho...

  2. Behavioural and neural plasticity of ocular motor control: changes in performance and fMRI activity following antisaccade training

    Sharna Jamadar; Beth P Johnson; Joanne Fielding

    2015-01-01

    The antisaccade task provides a model paradigm that sets the inhibition of a reflexively driven behaviour against the volitional control of a goal-directed behaviour. The stability and adaptability of antisaccade performance was investigated in 23 neurologically healthy individuals. Behaviour and brain function were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) prior to and immediately following two weeks of daily antisaccade training. Participants performed antisaccade trials f...

  3. A test of cognitive mediation in a 12-month physical activity workplace intervention: does it explain behaviour change in women?

    Pickering Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attempts to demonstrate the efficacy of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity (PA have been mixed. Further, studies are seldom designed in a manner that facilitates the understanding of how or why a treatment is effective or ineffective and PA intervention designs should be guided by a heavier reliance upon behavioral theory. The use of a mediating variable framework offers a systematic methodological approach to testing the role of theory, and could also identify the effectiveness of specific intervention components. The primary purpose of this paper was to test the mediating role that cognitive constructs may have played in regards to the positive effect that a workplace behavioral intervention had on leisure-time PA for women. A subsidiary purpose was to examine the cross-sectional relationships of these cognitive constructs with PA behavior. Methods The Physical Activity Workplace Study was a randomized controlled trial which compared the effects of stage-matched and standard print materials upon self-reported leisure-time PA, within a workplace sample at 6 and 12-months. In this secondary analysis we examined the mediation effects of 14 psychosocial constructs across 3 major social-cognitive theories which were operationalized for the intervention materials and measured at baseline, 6 and 12-months. We examined change in PA and change in the psychological constructs employing a mediation strategy proposed by Baron and Kenny for: (1 the first 6-months (i.e., initial change, (2 the second 6-months (i.e., delayed change, and (3 the entire 12-months (overall change of the study on 323 women (n = 213 control/standard materials group; n = 110 stage-matched materials group. Results Of the 14 constructs and 42 tests (including initial, delayed and overall change two positive results were identified (i.e., overall change in pros, initial change in experiential powerful intervention approaches processes, with very

  4. Mechanisms of change in human behaviour

    Marchal, Paul; Bartelings, Heleen; Bastardie, François; Batsleer, Jurgen; Delaney, Alyne; Girardin, Raphael; Gloaguen, Pierre; Hamon, Katell; Hoefnagel, Ellen; Jouanneau, Charlène; Mahevas, Stephanie; Nielsen, Rasmus; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Poos, Jan-Jaap; SCHULZE Torsten

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this report is to present the science developed within the VECTORS project to improve the understanding of the key processes driving the behaviour of human agents utilising a variety of EU maritime domains. While particular attention has been paid to the spatial interactions between fishing activities and other human uses (e.g., maritime traffic, offshore wind parks, aggregate extractions), the behaviour of non-fishing sectors of activity has also been considered. Various quantit...

  5. Risk compensation behaviours in construction workers' activities.

    Feng, Yingbin; Wu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the construction workers have the tendency of engaging in risk compensation behaviours, and identify the demographic variables, which may influence the extent to which the construction workers may show risk compensation behaviours. Both quantitative (survey) and qualitative (interviews) approaches were used in this study. A questionnaire survey was conducted with all the construction workers on three building construction sites of a leading construction company in Australia. Semi-structured interviews were then conducted to validate the findings of the quantitative research. The findings indicate that workers tend to show risk compensation behaviours in the construction environment. The workers with more working experience, higher education, or having never been injured at work before have a higher tendency to show risk compensation in their activities than the others. The implication is that contractors need to assess the potential influence of workers' risk compensation behaviours when evaluating the effect of risk control measures. It is recommended that supervisors pay more attention to the behavioural changes of those workers who have more experience, higher education, and have never been injured before after the implementation of new safety control measures on construction site. PMID:24134314

  6. Factors of influence and changes in the tourism consumer behaviour

    Fratu, D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer behaviour is a very important aspect to be studied in every marketing activity, therefore in tourism marketing as well. Defining and identifying the factors that influence consumers help in understanding individual needs and buying processes in their whole complexity. Consumers have changed their behaviour over the last two years due to the instability of the economic environment. The author describes in this article the factors which influence consumer behaviour and also presents how it has changed over the past two years.

  7. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8–9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University

  8. Oral hygiene behaviour change using motivational interviewing

    Wynne, Leanna

    2014-01-01

    Understanding a person's readiness to change could improve the way in which oral hygiene interventions and advice are given in the clinical setting. The aim of this article, therefore, is to provide a brief guide to behaviour change using motivational interviewing when discussing interdental cleaning.

  9. β-Catenin transcriptional activity is minimal in canine osteosarcoma and its targeted inhibition results in minimal changes to cell line behaviour.

    Piskun, Caroline M; Stein, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    Canine osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignancy associated with poor outcomes. Therapeutic improvements are likely to develop from an improved understanding of signalling pathways contributing to OS development and progression. The Wnt signalling pathway is of interest for its role in osteoblast differentiation, its dysregulation in numerous cancer types, and the relative frequency of cytoplasmic accumulation of β-catenin in canine OS. This study aimed to determine the biological impact of inhibiting canonical Wnt signalling in canine OS, by utilizing either β-catenin siRNA or a dominant-negative T-cell factor (TCF) construct. There were no consistent, significant changes in cell line behaviour with either method compared to parental cell lines. Interestingly, β-catenin transcriptional activity was three-fold higher in normal canine primary osteoblasts compared to canine OS cell lines. These results suggest canonical Wnt signalling is minimally active in canine OS and its targeted inhibition is not a relevant therapeutic strategy. PMID:24256430

  10. The Psychology Behind Road Pricing: Identification of Socio-Cognitive Factors Inducing Changes in Activity-Travel Behaviour

    COOLS, Mario; Brijs, Kris; MOONS, Elke; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2010-01-01

    The overall final objective of this study is to investigate the effect of road pricing on people’s tendency to adapt their current travel behaviour. In order to reach this goal, a two-stage hierarchical model is estimated, concentrated around the concept of public acceptability. The research was conducted in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking region of Belgium, by means of an interactive stated adaptation survey, administered on the internet, involving 300 respondents. It is found th...

  11. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    Gardner, B; Smith, L.; Lorencatto, F.; Hamer, M.; Biddle, S J H

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘qui...

  12. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults

    Gardner, B; Smith, L.; Lorencatto, F.; Hamer, M.; Biddle, S J H

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behaviour – i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down – is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as ‘very promising’, ‘qui...

  13. Variability in baseline travel behaviour as a predictor of changes in commuting by active travel, car and public transport: a natural experimental study

    Heinen, Eva; Ogilvie, David

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To strengthen our understanding of the impact of baseline variability in mode choice on the likelihood of travel behaviour change. Methods: Quasi-experimental analyses in a cohort study of 450 commuters exposed to a new guided busway with a path for walking and cycling in Cambridge, UK. Exposure to the intervention was defined using the shortest network distance from each participant?s home to the busway. Variability in commuter travel behaviour at baseline was defined using the ...

  14. What Are the Most Effective Intervention Techniques for Changing Physical Activity Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity Behaviour--and Are They the Same?

    Williams, S. L.; French, D. P.

    2011-01-01

    There is convincing evidence that targeting self-efficacy is an effective means of increasing physical activity. However, evidence concerning which are the most effective techniques for changing self-efficacy and thereby physical activity is lacking. The present review aims to estimate the association between specific intervention techniques used…

  15. Effective Transformational Leadership Behaviours For Managing Change

    Gift Vinger; Frans Cilliers

    2006-01-01

    The South African higher education (HE) sector has been criticised for an apparent lack of leadership, calling into question the leaders’ ability to manage change as a result of the recent mergers of HE institutions. The aim of this present research was to establish the frequency of exhibition of transformational leadership and its behaviours and its level in this sector, including the commonly manifesting themes and strategies that transformational leaders, as change agents, utilise to effec...

  16. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    2003-01-01

    social change, examining whether they are trying to create a change in attitudes or in behaviour or in both? This analysis has implications beyond the Danish case, as general reflections on entrepreneurship policy are induced from the analysis. It is argued that policy makers should reflect whether the...... target groups towards which policy initiatives are directed: 1) have a positive or negative attitude towards entrepreneurship, and 2) are engaged or not engaged in entrepreneurial action....

  17. Understanding and changing human behaviour--antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour.

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2014-05-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factors like knowledge, attitudes, social norms, socio-economic conditions, peer pressure, experiences, and bio-physical and socio-behavioural environment. Further, key concepts are often perceived in different ways by different individuals. While designing and implementing projects or programmes for behavioural change with respect to antibiotics for professionals or consumers it is helpful to consider theories or models of behaviour change, e.g. the 'stages of change model', including pre-contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance. People in different stages of change are susceptible to different behaviour modification strategies. Application of marketing principles to 'global good', so-called 'social marketing', to improve 'welfare of the individual and society' is gaining increased attention in public health. In conclusion, just providing correct knowledge is not sufficient although it is a pre-requisite for behaviour modification in the desired direction. We can never change the behaviour of any other human, but we can facilitate for others to change their own behaviour. One possibility is to implement 'antibiotic mainstreaming' as a potentially effective way for behaviour modification, i.e. to address consequences for maintaining effective antibiotics in all activities and decisions in society. PMID:24735112

  18. Simulating behaviour change interventions based on the theory of planned behaviour: Impacts on intention and action.

    Fife-Schaw, Chris; Sheeran, Paschal; Norman, Paul

    2007-03-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) has been used extensively to predict social and health behaviours. However, a critical test of the TPB is whether interventions that increased scores on the theory's predictors would engender behaviour change. The present research deployed a novel technique in order to provide this test. Statistical simulations were conducted on data for 30 behaviours (N=211) that estimated the impact of interventions that generated maximum positive changes in attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control (PBC) on subsequent intentions and behaviour. Findings indicated that interventions that maximized TPB variables had a substantial impact on behavioural intentions. Although TPB maximization increased the proportion of the sample that performed respective behaviours by 28% compared with baseline, the behaviour of a substantial minority of the sample (26%) did not change. The research also identified several interactions among TPB variables in predicting simulated intention and behaviour scores and investigated the mediating role of intentions in predicting behaviour. PMID:17355718

  19. Humpback Dolphin (Genus Sousa) Behavioural Responses to Human Activities.

    Piwetz, Sarah; Lundquist, David; Würsig, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Humpback dolphins (genus Sousa) use shallow, near-shore waters throughout their range. This coastal distribution makes them vulnerable to recreational and commercial disturbances, especially near heavily populated and industrialized areas. Most research focusing on Sousa and human activities has emphasized direct impacts and threats, involving injury and death, with relatively little focus on indirect effects on dolphins, such as changes in behaviour that may lead to deleterious effects. Understanding behaviour is important in resolving human-wildlife conflict and is an important component of conservation. This chapter gives an overview of animal behavioural responses to human activity with examples from diverse taxa; reviews the scientific literature on behavioural responses of humpback dolphins to human activity throughout their range, including marine vessel traffic, dolphin tourism, cetacean-fishery interactions, noise pollution, and habitat alteration; and highlights information and data gaps for future humpback dolphin research to better inform behaviour-based management decisions that contribute to conservation efforts. PMID:26555621

  20. Theories of behaviour and behaviour change across the social and behavioural sciences: a scoping review.

    Davis, Rachel; Campbell, Rona; Hildon, Zoe; Hobbs, Lorna; Michie, Susan

    2015-09-01

    Interventions to change health-related behaviours typically have modest effects and may be more effective if grounded in appropriate theory. Most theories applied to public health interventions tend to emphasise individual capabilities and motivation, with limited reference to context and social factors. Intervention effectiveness may be increased by drawing on a wider range of theories incorporating social, cultural and economic factors that influence behaviour. The primary aim of this paper is to identify theories of behaviour and behaviour change of potential relevance to public health interventions across four scientific disciplines: psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. We report in detail the methodology of our scoping review used to identify these theories including which involved a systematic search of electronic databases, consultation with a multidisciplinary advisory group, web searching, searching of reference lists and hand searching of key behavioural science journals. Of secondary interest we developed a list of agreed criteria for judging the quality of the theories. We identified 82 theories and 9 criteria for assessing theory quality. The potential relevance of this wide-ranging number of theories to public health interventions and the ease and usefulness of evaluating the theories in terms of the quality criteria are however yet to be determined. PMID:25104107

  1. Effective Transformational Leadership Behaviours For Managing Change

    Gift Vinger

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African higher education (HE sector has been criticised for an apparent lack of leadership, calling into question the leaders’ ability to manage change as a result of the recent mergers of HE institutions. The aim of this present research was to establish the frequency of exhibition of transformational leadership and its behaviours and its level in this sector, including the commonly manifesting themes and strategies that transformational leaders, as change agents, utilise to effect change in their organisations. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire was administered to 190 HE leaders, followed by individual interviews. It was found that these leaders exhibit transformational leadership fairly often and that, contrary to criticism, they manage change fairly successfully.

  2. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  3. How to reduce sitting time? A review of behaviour change strategies used in sedentary behaviour reduction interventions among adults.

    Gardner, Benjamin; Smith, Lee; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Hamer, Mark; Biddle, Stuart Jh

    2016-03-01

    Sedentary behaviour - i.e., low energy-expending waking behaviour while seated or lying down - is a health risk factor, even when controlling for physical activity. This review sought to describe the behaviour change strategies used within interventions that have sought to reduce sedentary behaviour in adults. Studies were identified through existing literature reviews, a systematic database search, and hand-searches of eligible papers. Interventions were categorised as 'very promising', 'quite promising', or 'non-promising' according to observed behaviour changes. Intervention functions and behaviour change techniques were compared across promising and non-promising interventions. Twenty-six eligible studies reported thirty-eight interventions, of which twenty (53%) were worksite-based. Fifteen interventions (39%) were very promising, eight quite promising (21%), and fifteen non-promising (39%). Very or quite promising interventions tended to have targeted sedentary behaviour instead of physical activity. Interventions based on environmental restructuring, persuasion, or education were most promising. Self-monitoring, problem solving, and restructuring the social or physical environment were particularly promising behaviour change techniques. Future sedentary reduction interventions might most fruitfully incorporate environmental modification and self-regulatory skills training. The evidence base is, however, weakened by low-quality evaluation methods; more RCTs, employing no-treatment control groups, and collecting objective data are needed. PMID:26315814

  4. Training Programs That Facilitate Lasting Change in Student Academic Behaviour

    Hodge, Brad

    2014-01-01

    A range of evidence suggests that changing a person's pattern of behaviour is extremely difficult, with past behaviour being one of the strongest predictors of future behaviour. This is particularly evident in the university setting where students tend to use the same academic processes they have used throughout their schooling despite any…

  5. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    Gorely Trish

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys. Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day, fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week, and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls.

  6. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animals

    D'Eath, R.B.; Conington, J.; Lawrence, A.B.;

    2010-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits......, and opportunities exist to increase the inclusion of behaviour in breeding indices. On a technical level, breeding for behaviour presents a number of particular challenges compared to physical traits. It is much more difficult and time-consuming to directly measure behaviour in a consistent and reliable manner...... in order to evaluate the large numbers of animals necessary for a breeding programme. For this reason, the development and validation of proxy measures of key behavioural traits is often required. Despite these difficulties, behavioural traits have been introduced by certain breeders. For example, ease...

  7. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Godin Gaston; Amireault Steve; Vohl Marie-Claude; Pérusse Louis

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC)- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, parti...

  8. Achieving energy efficiency through behaviour change: what does it take?

    Barbu, A.-D. [European Environment Agency (EEA), Copenhagen (Denmark); Griffiths, N.; Morton, G. [Ricardo-AEA (United Kingdom)

    2013-04-15

    On October 2012, the European Union adopted the Energy Efficiency Directive in reaction to the fact that EU Member States were not on track to reduce primary energy consumption by 20 % by 2020. The implementation of this directive, and other policies that have been adopted in recent years, will require a change in consumer behaviour and energy consumption practices. Within this context, and related to on-going debates on the same subject, a new European Environment Agency (EEA) report argues that correctly navigating the interface between policymaking and human behaviour is key to achieving sustained reductions in energy consumption. As such, the report provides timely and reliable information and analysis to those involved in designing policy measures to reduce energy consumption which target the end consumer. A growing body of evidence in academic literature demonstrates that there is potential for energy savings due to measures targeting behaviour. There is, however, one issue that has not been covered by previous studies, and which the EEA report directly addresses, namely the distinction between consumer behaviour and consumption practices. Most recent academic literature argues that it is the consumption practices themselves that need careful scrutiny as they tend to lock consumers into patterns that are more and more energy intensive and they involve a wide range of actors. From the energy efficiency policy design perspective, this is relevant because these actors need to be involved from the outset of the policy process. The report also argues that a whole range of changes need to take place in the way energy markets function and are regulated in order to enable the consumer to actively engage with these markets. The report however does not include a discussion on the socio-economic implications of these structural changes. During 2013, the EEA will launch a survey via social media and its own website to follow up on conclusions of the report. The aim will

  9. Energy, the Environment and Behaviour Change: A survey of insights from behavioural economics

    Baddeley, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Evidence of climate change is largely undisputed but moderating the impacts not only of climate change but also of resource depletion is a complex, multi-faceted problem. Technical solutions will have a large role to play but engineering behaviour change within households and firms is essential to harnessing the potential for energy efficient consumption, production and investment. To inform debates about behavior change, this paper explores some insights from behavioural economics including ...

  10. Basal ganglion stroke presenting as subtle behavioural change.

    Wagner, Stephanie J; Begaz, T

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral infarctions can have many presentations ranging from hemiparesis to subtle behavioural changes. A case is presented in which the only sign of a left basal ganglion infarct was isolated abulia. This case highlights the importance of a thorough evaluation in cases of acute unexplained changes in behaviour. PMID:21686449

  11. Breeding for behavioural change in farm animails

    Sandøe, Peter; D'eath, RB; Lawrence, AB;

    2009-01-01

    In farm animal breeding, behavioural traits are rarely included in selection programmes despite their potential to improve animal production and welfare. Breeding goals have been broadened beyond production traits in most farm animal species to include health and functional traits...

  12. Modelling the influence of automaticity of behaviour on physical activity motivation, intention and actual behaviour

    Rietdijk, Yara

    2014-01-01

    In research and in practise social-cognitive models, such as the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), are used to predict physical activity behaviour. These models mainly focus on reflective cognitive processes. As a reflective process, intention is thought to be the most proximal predictor to behaviour. Nevertheless, research suggests that the relation between intention and actual behaviour, the so called intention-behaviour gap, is moderate. Many health-related actions in d...

  13. Moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity

    Godin Gaston

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intention is a key determinant of action. However, there is a gap between intention and behavioural performance that remains to be explained. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify moderators of the intention-behaviour and perceived behavioural control (PBC- behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. Method This was tested in reference to Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. A sample of 300 volunteers, 192 women and 108 men, aged 18 to 55, participated in the study. At baseline, the participants completed a self-administrated psychosocial questionnaire assessing Ajzen's theory variables (i.e., intention and perceived behavioural control. The behavioural measure was obtained by mail three months later. Results Multiple hierarchical regression analyses indicated that age and annual income moderated the intention-behaviour and PBC-behaviour relationships. However, in the final model predicting behaviour (R2 = .46, only the interaction term of PBC by annual income (β = .24, p = 0.0003 significantly contributed to the prediction of behaviour along with intention (β = .49, p = 0.0009 and past behaviour (β = .44, p Conclusion Physical activity promotion programs would benefit not only from focusing on increasing the intention of low intenders, but also from targeting factors that moderate the perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships.

  14. Challenging behaviour: a challenge to change.

    van Berckelaer-Onnes, I A; van Loon, J; Peelen, A

    2002-09-01

    People with intellectual disability often exhibit severe behavioural problems. Treatment of these problems is frequently very difficult. In The Netherlands, parents, institutes, schools and others can request the services of an independent advisory team with a pool of professionals who have experience with individuals who exhibit challenging behaviour. In this article the methods of the team will be described using a 24-year-old man as an example. The process took almost 7 years. Finally, this man, who had been living full time in one room in total isolation from the rest of the world, fulfilled his heart's desire--visiting the UK by Hovercraft. PMID:12212917

  15. Altered behaviour in spotted hyenas associated with increased human activity

    Boydston, E.E.; Kapheim, K.M.; Watts, H.E.; Szykman, M.; Holekamp, K.E.

    2003-01-01

    To investigate how anthropogenic activity might affect large carnivores, we studied the behaviour of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) during two time periods. From 1996 to 1998, we documented the ecological correlates of space utilization patterns exhibited by adult female hyenas defending a territory at the edge of a wildlife reserve in Kenya. Hyenas preferred areas near dense vegetation but appeared to avoid areas containing the greatest abundance of prey, perhaps because these were also the areas of most intensive livestock grazing. We then compared hyena behaviour observed in 1996-98 with that observed several years earlier and found many differences. Female hyenas in 1996-98 were found farther from dens, but closer to dense vegetation and to the edges of their territory, than in 1988-90. Recent females also had larger home ranges, travelled farther between consecutive sightings, and were more nocturnal than in 1988-90. Finally, hyenas occurred in smaller groups in 1996-98 than in 1988-90. We also found several changes in hyena demography between periods. We next attempted to explain differences observed between time periods by testing predictions of hypotheses invoking prey abundance, climate, interactions with lions, tourism and livestock grazing. Our data were consistent with the hypothesis that increased reliance on the reserve for livestock grazing was responsible for observed changes. That behavioural changes were not associated with decreased hyena population density suggests the behavioural plasticity typical of this species may protect it from extinction. ?? 2003 The Zoological Society of London.

  16. Dust and activity behaviour (of the AVR)

    During the 20 years' operating period of the AVR reactor, apart from numerous operational measurements, experimental devices were planned, operated and evaluated in close collaboration with KFA (Nuclear Research Centre) and AVR, which give information on the dust and activity behaviour in the AVR primary circuit on the one hand, and on the other hand, on the verification of generally valid models. This work was also assisted by the industrial firms of Interatom and HRB. The present state of knowledge and the gaps in it are shown, which must be filled with regard to authorisation of future high temperature reactors. (orig.)

  17. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards; Jim Lumsden; Carol Rivas; Lindsey Edwards; Hope Caton

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs),...

  18. Gaming concepts and incentives to change driver behaviour

    McCall, Roderick; Koenig, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept that deals specifically with changing driver behaviour in order to reduce traffic congestion. The project I-GEAR (incentives and gaming environments for automobile routing) aims to understand the motivations that drivers have while undertaking the daily commute and then to provide them with a range of incentives to change their behaviour. A key focus within the project is on ways in which the problem could potentially be solved without recourse to an e...

  19. Behaviour and climate change : consumer perceptions of responsibility.

    Wells, V.K.; Ponting, C.; Peattie, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the under-researched notion of consumer responsibility, a potentially significant influence on consumer behaviour that marketers and policymakers may be able to harness as they attempt to respond to environmental challenges such as climate change. The paper uses data derived from a commercially motivated survey (n = 1513) to explore domestic consumption behaviours most closely associated with the issue of disruptive climate change. A measure of 'General Environmental Respo...

  20. Changes in import pricing behaviour: the case of Germany

    Stahn, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Since changes in import prices feed into consumer prices and thus might affect monetary policy decisions, policymakers need to establish whether or not German importers' long-run pricing behaviour has changed. Of particular interest are any shifts in the importance of cost passthrough and pricing-to-market for import pricing in Germany that may have ocurred since the 1990s. We analyse pricing in single equations for 11 product categories because the factors influencing the pricing behaviour, ...

  1. Changes in Import Pricing Behaviour: Evidence for Germany

    Kerstin Stahn

    2011-01-01

    Since changes in import prices feed into consumer prices and thus might affect monetary policy decisions, policymakers need to establish whether or not German importers’ long-run pricing behaviour has changed. Of particular interest are any shifts in the importance of cost passthrough and pricing-to-market for import pricing in Germany that may have ocurred since the 1990s. We analyse pricing in single equations for 11 product categories because the factors influencing the pricing behaviour, ...

  2. STUDIES CONCERNING the IMPACT of CLIMATE CHANGES on HONEYBEES BEHAVIOUR

    Monica Parvu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to clarify some aspects of the biological evolution of bee families under the influence of environmental temperature and subsequent reporting of behavioural change. The experiment was conducted in a private apiary in Giurgiu County, during three years, in May and June. The biological material was represented by 14 strong colonies. The bees were maintained in vertical hives. The biological evolution of bees was analyzed in population growth period. Bee indicators were the following: egg-laying activities of the queen bee, honey bee flight activity, gentleness of bees, swarming behaviour. It was found out that by lowering the temperature with about 3°C, the number of eggs laid decreased by 11%, the differences being significant (p ≤ 0.05. In rainy years, it has been a tendency of swarming, 41.7% of bee colonies showing this trend. The irritability of bees was significantly higher in periods of warm temperatures, this occurring in the early morning hours.

  3. Leisure Activities and Problem Behaviours among Hungarian Youth

    Piko, Bettina F.; Vazsonyi, Alexander T.

    2004-01-01

    We examined leisure behaviours and the relationships between leisure and a variety of problem behaviours in a sample of 1422 Hungarian adolescents (age range: 14-19). Findings from multivariate analyses suggest that some aspects of adolescent leisure, such as family or conventional activities, act as protective factors against problem behaviours,…

  4. Children: a critical link for changing driving behaviour

    O' Brien, C. [York Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    Sustainable transportation is a pressing issue, according to Transport Canada, the National Round Table on the Environment and the Economy, the Centre for Sustainable Transportation and several others. To meet Canada's commitment to reducing the carbon dioxide emissions by 20 per cent by 2005, reducing the number of kilometres driven seems to be the only viable solution. Improving air quality by reducing the use of cars will lessen the negative impact in children. Some of the strategies proposed include compact, mixed-use communities, user fees, increased use of public transit are combined with a requirement for greater public education and awareness. Several studies have demonstrated that increased knowledge of an issue alone does not lead to changes in behaviour. One strategy recommended is called social marketing, by fostering changes in norms, providing prompts, obtaining public commitments and the removal of barriers. Raising the profile of children in sustainable transportation makes parents more receptive to information about child-friendly transportation. Some of the impacts of cars on children are: traffic fatalities, less than 50 per cent of children now walk to school, the average physical activity guidelines for children are not met in two thirds of children, obesity, reduced independent mobility of children, emotional distress following an involvement in a traffic accident and more. Some programs such as Way to Go, Walking School Bus, and Active and Safe Routes to School have been implemented in many communities and were found to be successful and additional funding to these programs might be more efficient than conventional education programs to alter behaviour toward sustainable transportation. Get the children to influence their parents. 25 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Design for Behaviour Change: Cooking towards a better future

    Lin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Design for behaviour change is an area that is gathering much attention these days in the design field. Its momentum probably spurred by decline in different areas seen around us. This is probably why there are uprisings of movements that attempt to move us away from current scenarios. We cannot really quantify the state of cooking behaviour due to its complex composition; but with the presence of food movements and their growing exertive pressures around the world, one cannot help but respon...

  6. Changes in mobility behaviours, a comparison between 3 big cities

    ROCCI, A.

    2006-01-01

    This document presents some results of a PhD research which is on changes in mobility behaviours. At the present time, while the policies try to manage and reduce automobile, motorization and car use are still very high. The objective is to analyse the reluctance to and the acceptance of a change of behaviours toward more sustainable mobility. Briefly, we try to understand why most people are not prepared to refrain from using cars in urban areas and what would make them change.

  7. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  8. Policies to Accelerate Fuel, Technology andBehavioural Change in Transport - Results and Success of the Austrian Climate: Active Mobile Programme after the First Seven Years

    There is plenty of concepts and strategies on almost all administrative levels to reduce carbon emissions and boost energy efficiency in transport. But it usually takes a long time to adapt national and regional legislation to these strategies with considerable loss of valuable time. Furthermore some of the defined measures will never find the necessary ''political will'' for implementation. To bridge this gap Austria's Environmental ministry supported by the Austrian Energy Agency, got into action 2005 and set up an action programme, condensing all so called ''soft'' and ''voluntary'' measures in transport (''mobility management''), that do not necessarily need to wait for legislation or specific administrative framework conditions. In its comprehensive approach - not only transport is targeted, but also buildings, renewables and energy saving - and also in its effects regarding the reduction of GHG emissions, Climate:active and especially climate:active mobile seems to be one-of-a-kind in Europe. Climate-active mobile set-up: free-of-charge consulting programmes addressing specific target groups (companies, cites andmunicipalities, real estate developers, schools andyouth, tourism); a financial support programme with 51 Mio Euro since 2007 for mobility management measures, fleet conversions to low-carbon technologies, work travel plans etc.; an EcoDriving training programme with up to now 20,000 trainees and educating all novice drivers in Austria in a smart driving style; a broad awareness raising campaign; about 2,900 klima:aktiv mobil partners among the target groups implementing sustainable transport measures and therewith reduces more than 530,000 tons of CO2 emissions every year, created or saved 4300 ''green jobs'' in transport and induced ''green'' investments by companies and administrations 7 to 8 times higher as the funding. Climate-active mobile is one of the main drivers in Austria to accelerate fuel, technology andbehavioural change in transport and

  9. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-01-01

    Tail biting, resulting in outbreaks of tail damage in pigs, is a multifactorial welfare and economic problem which is usually partly prevented through tail docking. According to European Union legislation, tail docking is not allowed on a routine basis; thus there is a need for alternative...... preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail...... damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose of...

  10. Web-assisted tobacco intervention in Portuguese : intentions to make behavioural changes and behavioural changes

    Nunes, Luís Saboga

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT - The problem of how to support “intentions to make behavioural changes” (IBC) and “behaviour changes” (BC) in smoking cessation when there is a scarcity of resources is a pressing issue in public health terms. The present research focuses on the use of information and communications technologies and their role in smoking cessation. It is developed in Portugal after the ratification of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (on 8 November 2005). The prevalence of smokers over fi...

  11. Coastal observatories for monitoring of fish behaviour and their responses to environmental changes

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Doya, Carol; Río Fernandez, Joaquín del

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of behavioural components in the analysis of a community is of key relevance in marine ecology. Diel and seasonal activity rhythms or more longlasting changes in behavioural responses determine shifts in population, which in turn affect measurable abundances. Here, we review the value of cabled videoobservatories as a new and reliable technology for the remote, long-term, and highfrequency monitoring of fishes and their environment in coastal temperate areas. We provide detai...

  12. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control

    Pezzulo, G; Rigoli, F.; Friston, K.

    2015-01-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a...

  13. Perceived stress as a risk factor for changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Grønbaek, M; Schnohr, P;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of stress on changes in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile in men and women. DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: The Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. SUBJECTS: The analyses were based on 7066 women and men...... health behaviour (smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, overweight) and cardiac risk profile (cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, diabetes). RESULTS: Individuals with high levels of stress compared to those with low levels of stress were less likely to quit smoking (OR = 0.58; 95% CI...... in health behaviour and cardiac risk profile....

  14. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural adults in suixi, china: a cross-sectional study

    Zheng Miao; Du Jianzhong; Hovell Melbourne F; Sallis James F; Ding Ding; He Haiying; Owen Neville

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Modernisation and urbanisation have led to lifestyle changes and increasing risks for chronic diseases in China. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours among rural populations need to be better understood, as the rural areas are undergoing rapid transitions. This study assessed levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviours of farming and non-farming adults in rural Suixi, described activity differences between farming and non-farming seasons, and examined correl...

  15. Technical energy savings versus changes in human behaviour

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    the way into human satisfaction via energy services. Results of various analyses and field experiments show saving potentials for electricity of 50 - 80 per cents. Barriers for implementing these technical saving options are discussed. Also the necessity and potentials for changing behavioural or life...

  16. Periodic activations of behaviours and emotional adaptation in behaviour-based robotics

    Burattini, Ernesto; Rossi, Silvia

    2010-09-01

    The possible modulatory influence of motivations and emotions is of great interest in designing robotic adaptive systems. In this paper, an attempt is made to connect the concept of periodic behaviour activations to emotional modulation, in order to link the variability of behaviours to the circumstances in which they are activated. The impact of emotion is studied, described as timed controlled structures, on simple but conflicting reactive behaviours. Through this approach it is shown that the introduction of such asynchronies in the robot control system may lead to an adaptation in the emergent behaviour without having an explicit action selection mechanism. The emergent behaviours of a simple robot designed with both a parallel and a hierarchical architecture are evaluated and compared.

  17. Can the theory of planned behaviour predict the physical activity behaviour of individuals?

    Hobbs, Nicola; Dixon, Diane; Johnston, Marie; Howie, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) can identify cognitions that predict differences in behaviour between individuals. However, it is not clear whether the TPB can predict the behaviour of an individual person. This study employs a series of n-of-1 studies and time series analyses to examine the ability of the TPB to predict physical activity (PA) behaviours of six individuals. Six n-of-1 studies were conducted, in which TPB cognitions and up to three PA behaviours (walking, gym workout and a personally defined PA) were measured twice daily for six weeks. Walking was measured by pedometer step count, gym attendance by self-report with objective validation of gym entry and the personally defined PA behaviour by self-report. Intra-individual variability in TPB cognitions and PA behaviour was observed in all participants. The TPB showed variable predictive utility within individuals and across behaviours. The TPB predicted at least one PA behaviour for five participants but had no predictive utility for one participant. Thus, n-of-1 designs and time series analyses can be used to test theory in an individual. PMID:22943555

  18. The role of game design in addressing behavioural change

    Coulton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing promotion of design for behavioural change as a means of addressing the complex societal and environmental challenges the world currently faces, comes the associated challenge of developing appropriate design techniques to achieve such change. Whilst many designers have sought inspiration from game design they have often drawn from the techniques associated with ‘gamification’ which has been heavily criticised as manipulative and only capable of addressing simplistic extri...

  19. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in the sun: the barriers to behavioural change in Northern Ireland

    Owen, Tracy; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Dolan, O.; Gavin, Anna

    2004-01-01

    To inform future health promotion programmes, we studied the knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of the Northern Ireland population to sun care. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was applied to one adult per household from a random sample of 1242 addresses. Lower levels of knowledge were found among respondents who were male, aged under 25 years or over 65 years, in a manual occupation or living in the west where health promotion activity on this topic was less active than in the east....

  20. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    Norris, E.; Dunsmuir, S., Atkinson, C. & Wright, S.; Duke-Williams, O.; Stamatakis, E.; Shelton, N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whit...

  1. Dielectric and polarization behaviour of cellulose electro-active paper (EAPap)

    Dielectric and polarization behaviour of electro-active paper (EAPap) were studied to understand the detailed material behaviour of EAPap as a novel smart material. It was revealed that the dielectric constant of EAPap was temperature and frequency dependent. The largest change in the dielectric constant was observed near 0 0C while the highest dielectric constant was obtained at around 100 0C, which might be related to the dipolar behaviour of the hydroxyl structure of cellulose and adsorbed or existing internal water molecules in cellulose EAPap. By thermal stimulated current measurement for polarization behaviour of cellulose EAPap, it was shown that the maximum current was observed in the temperature range 105-110 0C. Compared with the polarization behaviour in the low temperature range, abnormal polarization was observed under an applied field mainly due to the trapped space charge in EAPap, which indicates that cellulose EAPap has a similar material behaviour to that of electret polymers. (fast track communication)

  2. Patient Preferences for Receiving Remote Communication Support for Lifestyle Physical Activity Behaviour Change: The Perspective of Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders from Three Hospital Services

    Steven M. McPhail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined patients’ preference ratings for receiving support via remote communication to increase their lifestyle physical activity. Methods. People with musculoskeletal disorders (n=221 of 296 eligible accessing one of three clinics provided preference ratings for “how much” they wanted to receive physical activity support via five potential communication modalities. The five ratings were generated on a horizontal analogue rating scale (0 represented “not at all”; 10 represented “very much”. Results. Most (n=155, 70% desired referral to a physical activity promoting intervention. “Print and post” communications had the highest median preference rating (7/10, followed by email and telephone (both 5/10, text messaging (1/10, and private Internet-based social network messages (0/10. Desire to be referred was associated with higher preference for printed materials (coefficient = 2.739, p<0.001, telephone calls (coefficient = 3.000, p<0.001, and email (coefficient = 2.059, p=0.02. Older age was associated with lower preference for email (coefficient = −0.100, p<0.001, texting (coefficient = −0.096, p<0.001, and social network messages (coefficient = −0.065, p<0.001. Conclusion. Patients desiring support to be physically active indicated preferences for interventions with communication via print, email, or telephone calls.

  3. Urine marking in male common voles: does behavioural activity matter?

    Lantová, Petra; Brixová, Lenka; Lanta, Vojtěch

    2012-06-01

    Rodent urine provides animals with a large amount of information, from the identity of the animal through its physical condition to social status. Many studies therefore focus on rodent urine-marking behaviour and use marking frequency as an indicator of social status or competitive ability. However, marking, like many other aspects of rodent behaviour, may be affected by individual behavioural activity, a factor that has not been examined so far. We therefore studied a relationship between male urine-marking in reaction to another male's marks (standard opponent) and individual personality profile, characterised by behavioural activity in an open field test (OFT). The marking appeared to be consistent and specific for particular individuals as there was a significant positive relationship between individual markings in two different phases of the experiment. The linkage between behavioural activity in the OFT and urine-marking frequency was non-linear (quadratic), which suggested that males with intermediate activity marked more intensively than males from the extremes of the behavioural spectra. The relationship between the opponent's and the tested males' markings was positive, however, we found no statistically significant evidence that the voles would attempt to overmark the opponent. Marking thus seems to have more of a self-advertising than a competitive function in the common vole. Further, as high marking activity is under strong intra- or intersexual selection, the result might suggest a stabilising selection of the personality trait described as behavioural activity in our study. PMID:22285890

  4. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  5. Can tail damage outbreaks in the pig be predicted by behavioural change?

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2016-03-01

    Tail biting, resulting in outbreaks of tail damage in pigs, is a multifactorial welfare and economic problem which is usually partly prevented through tail docking. According to European Union legislation, tail docking is not allowed on a routine basis; thus there is a need for alternative preventive methods. One strategy is the surveillance of the pigs' behaviour for known preceding indicators of tail damage, which makes it possible to predict a tail damage outbreak and prevent it in proper time. This review discusses the existing literature on behavioural changes observed prior to a tail damage outbreak. Behaviours found to change prior to an outbreak include increased activity level, increased performance of enrichment object manipulation, and a changed proportion of tail posture with more tails between the legs. Monitoring these types of behaviours is also discussed for the purpose of developing an automatic warning system for tail damage outbreaks, with activity level showing promising results for being monitored automatically. Encouraging results have been found so far for the development of an automatic warning system; however, there is a need for further investigation and development, starting with the description of the temporal development of the predictive behaviour in relation to tail damage outbreaks. PMID:26831153

  6. "Behaviour changes in Permethrin-resistant strain of Anopheles Stephensi "

    Vatandoost H

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Behaviour studies indicated that the permethrin resistant strin of An. Stephensi was 3-fold resistant to knock-down compared with the susceptible strain. The resistant strain was however 3-fold less irritable to permethrin and less responsive than the susceptible strain to the movement of an aspirator. If reduced irritability and reduced responsiveness to catch are consequences of the changes in the nervous system, then such a form of resistance may be disadvantageous to mosquitoes in natural populations.

  7. Engaging communities for sustainable behaviour change in Limerick City

    Cullinane, Kay; Cosgrove, Tom

    2013-01-01

    peer-reviewed As 'Ireland's Smarter Travel Demonstration City' Limerick is charged with piloting ways to convince its citizens to move around their city in a more sustainable way, in particular to walk, cycle and use public transport more. The project is funded by the Department of Transport with EU support and implemented by a multi-disciplinary team of University of Limerick (UL) researchers and Limerick Local Authority staff. Behaviour change programs tend to focus on a few behavioura...

  8. STUDIES CONCERNING the IMPACT of CLIMATE CHANGES on HONEYBEES BEHAVIOUR

    Monica Parvu; Ioana Cristina Andronie; Violeta Elena Simion; Adriana Amfim

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to clarify some aspects of the biological evolution of bee families under the influence of environmental temperature and subsequent reporting of behavioural change. The experiment was conducted in a private apiary in Giurgiu County, during three years, in May and June. The biological material was represented by 14 strong colonies. The bees were maintained in vertical hives. The biological evolution of bees was analyzed in population growth period. Bee indicators were the following...

  9. Health-enhancing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents.

    Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish; Stensel, David J

    2004-08-01

    We provide a wide-ranging review of health-related physical activity in children and adolescents using a behavioural epidemiology framework. In contrast to many other reviews, we highlight issues associated with true sedentary behaviours alongside physically active behaviours. Specifically, we review the evidence concerning the links between physical activity and cardiovascular disease, overweight and obesity, psychosocial measures, type II diabetes, and skeletal health. Although the evidence is unconvincing at times, several factors lead to the conclusion that promoting physical activity in youth is desirable. A review of the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours shows that many young people are active, but this declines with age. A substantial number are not adequately active for health benefits and current trends in juvenile obesity are a cause for concern. Prevalence data on sedentary behaviours are less extensive but suggest that total media use by young people has not changed greatly in recent years. Most children and adolescents do not exceed recommended daily hours of TV viewing. Physical activity is unrelated to TV viewing. We also identified the key determinants of physical activity in this age group, highlighting demographic, biological, psychological, behavioural, social and environmental determinants. Interventions were considered for school, family and community environments. Finally, policy recommendations are offered for the education, governmental, sport and recreation, health, and mass media sectors. PMID:15370482

  10. Trading between Healthy Food, Alcohol and Physical Activity Behaviours

    Giles, E; Brennan, Mary

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundWhile recent lifestyle studies have explored the role that food, alcohol or physical activity have on health and wellbeing, few have explored the interplay between these behaviours and the impact this has on a healthy lifestyle. Given the long term health advantages associated with leading healthier lifestyles, this study seeks to: 1) explore the interplay between the food, alcohol and physical activity behaviours of young adults (aged 19-26 years) in the North East of England; 2) e...

  11. Controlling Interneuron Activity in Caenorhabditis Elegans to Evoke Chemotactic Behaviour

    Kocabas, Askin; Shen, Ching-Han; Guo, Zengcai V.; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2012-01-01

    Animals locate and track chemoattractive gradients in the environment to find food. With its small nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a good model system in which to understand how the dynamics of neural activity control this search behaviour. Extensive work on the nematode has identified the neurons that are necessary for the different locomotory behaviours underlying chemotaxis through the use of laser ablation, activity recording in immobilized animals and the study of mutants. Howe...

  12. Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state

    Landsness, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Noirhomme, Quentin; Riedner, Brady; Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and

  13. Electrophysiological correlates of behavioural changes in vigilance in vegetative state and minimally conscious state.

    Landsness, Eric; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Noirhomme, Quentin; Riedner, Brady; Gosseries, Olivia; Schnakers, Caroline; Massimini, Marcello; Laureys, Steven; Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Mélanie

    2011-08-01

    The existence of normal sleep in patients in a vegetative state is still a matter of debate. Previous electrophysiological sleep studies in patients with disorders of consciousness did not differentiate patients in a vegetative state from patients in a minimally conscious state. Using high-density electroencephalographic sleep recordings, 11 patients with disorders of consciousness (six in a minimally conscious state, five in a vegetative state) were studied to correlate the electrophysiological changes associated with sleep to behavioural changes in vigilance (sustained eye closure and muscle inactivity). All minimally conscious patients showed clear electroencephalographic changes associated with decreases in behavioural vigilance. In the five minimally conscious patients showing sustained behavioural sleep periods, we identified several electrophysiological characteristics typical of normal sleep. In particular, all minimally conscious patients showed an alternating non-rapid eye movement/rapid eye movement sleep pattern and a homoeostatic decline of electroencephalographic slow wave activity through the night. In contrast, for most patients in a vegetative state, while preserved behavioural sleep was observed, the electroencephalographic patterns remained virtually unchanged during periods with the eyes closed compared to periods of behavioural wakefulness (eyes open and muscle activity). No slow wave sleep or rapid eye movement sleep stages could be identified and no homoeostatic regulation of sleep-related slow wave activity was observed over the night-time period. In conclusion, we observed behavioural, but no electrophysiological, sleep wake patterns in patients in a vegetative state, while there were near-to-normal patterns of sleep in patients in a minimally conscious state. These results shed light on the relationship between sleep electrophysiology and the level of consciousness in severely brain-damaged patients. We suggest that the study of sleep and

  14. Inspiring Sustainable Behaviour 19 Ways to Ask for Change

    Payne, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    What is the answer to inspiring sustainable behaviour? It starts with a question - or nineteen. With this simple and inspiring guide you'll learn how to ask for persistent, pervasive, and near-costless change by uncovering our hidden quirks, judgmental biases, and apparent irrationalities.  The only change you'll need to make is how you ask.Businesses, larger or small, will soon have to cut costs and cut carbon, irrespective of the products they sell, or the services they perform. National government has structural policy and legislative needs, and local government has implementation and docum

  15. Stress in owned cats: behavioural changes and welfare implications.

    Amat, Marta; Camps, Tomàs; Manteca, Xavier

    2016-08-01

    Domestic cats are exposed to a variety of stressful stimuli, which may have a negative effect on the cats' welfare and trigger a number of behavioural changes. Some of the stressors most commonly encountered by cats include changes in environment, inter-cat conflict, a poor human-cat relationship and the cat's inability to perform highly motivated behaviour patterns. Stress is very likely to reduce feed intake, and stress-related anorexia may contribute to the development of potentially serious medical conditions. Stress also increases the risk of cats showing urine marking and some forms of aggression, including redirected aggression. A number of compulsive disorders such as over-grooming may also develop as a consequence of stressful environments. Some of the main strategies to prevent or reduce stress-related behavioural problems in cats are environmental enrichment, appropriate management techniques to introduce unfamiliar cats to each other and the use of the synthetic analogue of the feline facial pheromone. As the stress response in cats depends, to a large extent, on the temperament of the animal, breeding and husbandry strategies that contribute to the cat developing a well-balanced temperament are also very useful. PMID:26101238

  16. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  17. Onset of impaired sleep as a predictor of change in health-related behaviours

    Clark, Alice Jessie; Salo, Paula; Lange, Theis;

    2015-01-01

    used data from 37 508 adults from the longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study. In analysis of 59 152 person-observations on duration and quality of sleep and health-related behaviours (alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity and weight control), data were treated as a series of non......BACKGROUND: Changes in health-related behaviour may be a key mechanism linking impaired sleep to poor health, but evidence on this is limited. In this study, we analysed observational data to determine whether onset of impaired sleep is followed by changes in health-related behaviours. METHODS: We......-randomized pseudo-trials with strict predefined criteria for data inclusion and temporality. RESULTS: Smokers who experienced onset of short sleep were less likely to quit smoking than those with persistent normal sleep [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-0.97]. Onset of short sleep also...

  18. Behavioural Changes in Rats Internally Contaminated with Caesium-137

    Full text: The effect of low doses of 137Cs on the exercise performances, behavioural and learning processes in rats is analysed. The experiments were performed on albino male and female Wistar rats. The animals were divided as follows: two groups, M1 and F1 (males and females) internally contaminated with 490 Bq 137Cs by milk ingestion during 34 days, groups M2 and F2, internally contaminated with 283 Bq by ingestion of milk during 38 days and two control groups. The duration of forced swimming, the active avoidance reaction and the total latency time in the shuttle-box and the score of aggressive behaviour were analysed. The following results were obtained: (1) the duration of forced swimming decreased significantly in the contaminated groups as compared with controls. (2) The active avoidance reaction in the shuttle-box increased in female groups and decrease in male groups. (3) The total latency time of the same reaction was lower in animals internally contaminated with 137Cs in the first day of learning. (4) The score of aggressive behavioural rise significantly, especially in female groups. The results can be explained by neurotoxic action of the caesium on several central neural areas including monoaminergic and endocrine mechanisms and sex dependence of caesium accumulation in the organism. (author)

  19. Determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions

    Deliens, Tom; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Clarys, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background: College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in energy related behaviours in students. The first objective of this explorative study was to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in Belgian university students. Secondly, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations to increase physical activity and decrease sedentary behaviours in university students. Methods: Using a semi-structured question guide, seven focus group discu...

  20. The effectiveness of interventions to change six health behaviours: a review of reviews

    Jepson Ruth G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several World Health Organisation reports over recent years have highlighted the high incidence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and cancer. Contributory factors include unhealthy diets, alcohol and tobacco use and sedentary lifestyles. This paper reports the findings of a review of reviews of behavioural change interventions to reduce unhealthy behaviours or promote healthy behaviours. We included six different health-related behaviours in the review: healthy eating, physical exercise, smoking, alcohol misuse, sexual risk taking (in young people and illicit drug use. We excluded reviews which focussed on pharmacological treatments or those which required intensive treatments (e.g. for drug or alcohol dependency. Methods The Cochrane Library, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE and several Ovid databases were searched for systematic reviews of interventions for the six behaviours (updated search 2008. Two reviewers applied the inclusion criteria, extracted data and assessed the quality of the reviews. The results were discussed in a narrative synthesis. Results We included 103 reviews published between 1995 and 2008. The focus of interventions varied, but those targeting specific individuals were generally designed to change an existing behaviour (e.g. cigarette smoking, alcohol misuse, whilst those aimed at the general population or groups such as school children were designed to promote positive behaviours (e.g. healthy eating. Almost 50% (n = 48 of the reviews focussed on smoking (either prevention or cessation. Interventions that were most effective across a range of health behaviours included physician advice or individual counselling, and workplace- and school-based activities. Mass media campaigns and legislative interventions also showed small to moderate effects in changing health behaviours. Generally, the evidence related to short-term effects rather than sustained

  1. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs, however, few apps appear to apply the techniques systematically or to define the BCTs they include. Aim: We aimed a to assess the number apps that incorporate gamification to modify health behaviors, b to examine the BCT repertoire and combinations used in these apps c to consider associations with user satisfaction. Methods: English-language health apps that contain gamification techniques were identified through a systematic search of the official Apple and Google Play store and the NHS health apps library. Top rated free and paid Medical, Health & Wellness, Health & Fitness apps as defined by Apple and Google Play stores were searched. Apps were coded for BCTs according to the Michie et al. taxonomy. The taxonomy comprises 16 categories and 93 individual BCTs. BCT coding was conducted by two trained researchers (EE, JL who scored independently and then cross-checked for discrepancies. BCT numbers, user ratings and app pricing were compared. We explored the association between number of BCTs per app, user and NHS libraries’ ratings and price. We also investigated, which of the 16 BCT categories and the individual 93 BCTs and their combinations were most commonly used. Results: 1,680 Medical, Health & Wellness or Health & Fitness Apps were reviewed and seventy containing gamification techniques were identified. The mean number of BCTs used was 12.5 (range 1-24. There was no correlation between number of BCTs, customer ratings, NHS library app rating or

  2. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    Gorely Trish; Biddle Stuart JH; Atkin Andrew J; Pearson Natalie; Edwardson Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit,...

  3. Behaviour analysis for web-mediated active learning

    Pahl, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Software-mediated learning requires adjustments in the teaching and learning process. In particular active learning facilitated through interactive learning software differs from traditional instructor-oriented, classroom-based teaching. We present behaviour analysis techniques for Web-mediated learning. Motivation, acceptance of the learning approach and technology, learning organisation and actual tool usage are aspects of behaviour that require different analysis techniques to be used. ...

  4. iFlit: an ambient display to induce cognitive dissonance and behaviour change

    R. Maimone

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore how persuasive ambient displays could induce cognitive dissonance to promote positive behaviour change among graduate students. We developed iFlit –an interactive and collective ambient display that enables a group of students to reflect on their burnout level, and sleeping and activity habits. iFlit shows a garden with birds representing students monitored behaviour. Birds move according to users’ activity level, and the garden’s background changes according to each user’s sleeping habits. Users match peers perceived burnout, and sleep and activity habits to induce cognitive dissonance. We argue such displays are more efficient than personal devices to empower individuals’ self-reflection due their capabilities for enabling a playful interaction with their personal data.

  5. Prevention and lifestyle behaviour change : a competence framework

    Payne, K; De Normanville, Clare; Stansfield, Karen; Barnett, Nicholas; Machaczek, Katarzyna; Qutishat, Dania; Okasheh, Rasha; Ion, V.; Wicks, H; Smewing, Ch

    2010-01-01

    Prevention, Health and Wellbeing and Health Inequalities are key national and regional priorities for the future of our nation and for the NHS. This was highlighted in recent ‘Fair Society, Healthy Lives’ Marmot review. The ‘Prevention and Lifestyle Behaviour Change: A Competence Framework’, has been developed to support NHS Yorkshire and the Humber’s key Public Health strategy ‘Making Every Contact Count’, to which there has already been an excellent response. Delivery on this subject has al...

  6. Behavioural Changes of Students By Peer Pressure in the Higher Educational Institution in context to Popularity in North East, India

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-01-01

    Human behaviour, the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity during the phases of human life. Change in human behaviour is the only static trait characterised by physical, mental and physiological features. It occurs in different phases of life from play age to old age. The outcome of these changes is due to education, advising, commanding, and appealing to values and peer pressure. Out of all the possible mentioned factors peer pressure is one of the most ...

  7. Active Inference, homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control.

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl

    2015-11-01

    We review a theory of homeostatic regulation and adaptive behavioural control within the Active Inference framework. Our aim is to connect two research streams that are usually considered independently; namely, Active Inference and associative learning theories of animal behaviour. The former uses a probabilistic (Bayesian) formulation of perception and action, while the latter calls on multiple (Pavlovian, habitual, goal-directed) processes for homeostatic and behavioural control. We offer a synthesis these classical processes and cast them as successive hierarchical contextualisations of sensorimotor constructs, using the generative models that underpin Active Inference. This dissolves any apparent mechanistic distinction between the optimization processes that mediate classical control or learning. Furthermore, we generalize the scope of Active Inference by emphasizing interoceptive inference and homeostatic regulation. The ensuing homeostatic (or allostatic) perspective provides an intuitive explanation for how priors act as drives or goals to enslave action, and emphasises the embodied nature of inference. PMID:26365173

  8. Can fMRI help optimise lifestyle behaviour change feedback from wearable technologies?

    Maxine Whelan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable diseases (NCDs place severe financial strain on global health resources. Diabetes mellitus, the second most prevalent NCD, has been attributed to 8.4% of deaths worldwide for adults aged 20-79 years (International Diabetes Federation, 2013 with physical inactivity attributable to 7% of cases (Lee et al., 2012. The recent surge in commercially available wearable technology has begun to allow individuals to self-monitor their physical activity and sedentary behaviour as well as the physiological response to these behaviours (e.g., health markers such as glucose levels. Equipped with feedback obtained from such wearables, individuals are better able to understand the relationship between the lifestyle behaviours they take (e.g. going for a walk after dinner and health consequences (e.g. less glucose excursions (area under the curve. However, in order to achieve true behaviour change, the feedback must be optimised. Innovative communications research suggest that health messages (and in our case feedback that activates brain regions such as the medial prefrontal cortex (Falk, Berkman, Mann, Harrison & Lieberman, 2010 can predict and are associated with successful behaviour change. Fortunately, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI can map this neural activity whilst individuals receive various forms of personalised feedback. Such insight into the optimisation of feedback can improve the design and delivery of future behaviour change interventions. Aim Examine neural activity in response to personalised feedback in order to identify health messages most potent for behaviour change. Methods A mixed gender sample of 30 adults (aged 30-65 years will be recruited through campus advertisements at Loughborough University, UK. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed using waist-worn ActiGraph GT3x-BT accelerometer (100Hz and LUMO posture sensor (30Hz, respectively. Both devices will be removed for sleep

  9. The effect of a behaviour change intervention on the diets and physical activity levels of women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres: results from a complex public health intervention

    Baird, Janis; Jarman, Megan; Lawrence, W.; Black, Christina; Davies, J H; Tinati, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The UK government's response to the obesity epidemic calls for action in communities to improve people's health behaviour. This study evaluated the effects of a community intervention on dietary quality and levels of physical activity of women from disadvantaged backgrounds. Design Non-randomised controlled evaluation of a complex public health intervention. Participants 527 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres (SSCC) in Southampton (intervention) and 495 women a...

  10. Towards a differentiated understanding of active travel behaviour: Using social theory to explore everyday commuting

    Guell, C.; Panter, J.; Jones, N R; Ogilvie, D

    2012-01-01

    Fostering physical activity is an established public health priority for the primary prevention of a variety of chronic diseases. One promising population approach is to seek to embed physical activity in everyday lives by promoting walking and cycling to and from work (‘active commuting’) as an alternative to driving. Predominantly quantitative epidemiological studies have investigated travel behaviours, their determinants and how they may be changed towards more active choices. This study a...

  11. Oral Hygiene Behaviour Change During the Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment Phase

    Shamani, Saeed; Jansson, Leif

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the frequency of smoking cessation and the use of proximal tooth cleaning routines after a nonsurgical periodontal treatment phase in a Specialist clinic of Periodontology and to evaluate if these behaviour changes had any influence on the periodontal healing results. The investigation was conducted as a retrospective longitudinal study on a randomly selected population of 100 patients referred for periodontal treatment. The variables were registered from the dental records and the radiographs. Forty-six individuals declared that they were smokers at baseline and one individual of those quitted smoking during the nonsurgical treatment period. The percentage of individuals who performed proximal tooth cleaning daily was significantly increased from 56% to 72% during the treatment period. The patients practising proximal tooth cleaning daily had significantly lower Plaque index before as well as after the nonsurgical periodontal treatment phase compared to those without the routine. The subjects who did not perform tooth cleaning daily before the treatment and who did not introduce this routine had significantly deeper periodontal pockets compared to those who performed inter-dental cleaning daily before treatment or who had adopted the routine during the treatment phase. However, there were no significant differences according to number of deepened periodontal pockets after nonsurgical treatment irrespective of proximal cleaning routines. In the future, motivational interviewing may be a more effective method to achieve a behaviour change if an extended education of dental hygienists within this area will be implemented. PMID:23284591

  12. Sodium reduction in New Zealand requires major behaviour change.

    Lofthouse, Catherine; Te Morenga, Lisa; McLean, Rachael

    2016-10-01

    This pilot study examined the feasibility of adherence to a low sodium diet in a sample of healthy New Zealand adults. It also addressed whether following a low sodium diet was accompanied by changes in intakes of other nutrients that influence cardiovascular risk. Eleven healthy adults provided dietary intake data and a 24-hour urine collection at baseline and follow-up. They then received nutritional counselling based on the World Health Organization recommendation for sodium intake (consuming nature of interpreting nutrition information labels, and difficulty identifying suitable snacks were barriers to adherence. Detailed meal planning and cooking from scratch, using flavour replacements, reading food labels to identify low sodium foods, receiving support from other people and receiving tailored nutrition advice were facilitators. Mean sodium intake reduced over the period, accompanied by a decrease in mean intake of total fat. These factors suggest that sodium reduction in New Zealand adults was feasible. However, considerable changes to eating behaviours were required. PMID:27395412

  13. FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF ACTIVATED FLY ASH CONCRETE

    SUNILAA GEORGE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement concrete is the most widely used construction material in many infrastructure projects. The development and use of mineral admixture for cement replacement is growing in construction industry mainly due to the consideration of cost saving, energy saving, environmental production and conservation of resources. Present study is aimed at replacing cement in concrete with activated fly ash. The paper highlights the chemical activation of low calcium fly ash using CaO and Na2SiO3 in the ratio 1:8 for improving the pozzolanic properties of fly ash .The investigation deals with the flexural behavior of beams using chemically activated fly ash at various cement replacement levels of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% with water cement ratio 0.45.The results are compared with OPC and Activated Fly ash at the same replacement levels.

  14. Analysis of behavioural changes induced by prenatal irradiation

    Two experiments were carried out to detect an impairment of central nervous system functions after prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation. Groups of rats (Wistar) were either irradiated in-utero on the 13th day of gestation with doses of 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 or 0,90 Gy or on days 11, 13 or 16 p.c. with a dose of 0.60 Gy (Cs 137, 1.0 Gy/min). When adult all animals were confronted with a series of standardized tests of operant, instrumental behaviour in which they were required to press a lever for food reward. The contingencies of reinforcement and the data collection from 10 simultaneously operating test chambers were controlled by a microcomputer. The behavioural performance of each exposure group (n=10) and its course during the tests were expressed as percentages of reinforced lever presses/session and compared to other biological, especially weight changes. The analysis of the experimental data obtained so far indicate that the observed performance deficits depended more on the exposure date than on the exposure dose. (orig.)

  15. Behaviour of telocytes during physiopathological activation.

    Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Díaz-Flores, Lucio; Goméz, Miriam González; Sáez, Francisco J; Madrid, Juan F

    2016-07-01

    We consider CD34+ stromal cells/telocytes (CD34+ SC/TCs) in normal and pathological conditions. These cells are involved in organisation and control of the extracellular matrix, structural support, creation of microenvironments, intercellular communication, neurotransmission, immunomodulation and immunosurveillance, inhibition of apoptosis, and control, regulation and source of other cell types. CD34+ SC/TCs are widely reported in the origin of interstitial cells of Cajal and in regeneration in the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, respiratory tree, liver, urinary system and the eye. In addition, we contribute CD34+ SC/TC hyperplasia associated with several processes, including neurogenous hyperplasia (neuroma of the appendix), hyperplasia of Leydig cells in undescended testes (Cryptorchidism), peripheral areas of inflammatory/repair processes (pericicatricial tissue and transitional zones between diseased segments in Crohn's disease and normal bowel), benign tumours (neurofibromas, Antoni-B zones of neurilemmomas, granular cell tumours, and melanocytic nevi) and in some lesions with myxoid, oedematous and degenerative changes (Reinke's oedema, myxomatous mitral valve degeneration, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and basophilic degenerative changes of the collagen in the dermis). We pay particular attention to the role of CD34+ SC/TCs during repair through granulation tissue, including morphologic changes, loss of CD34 expression and gain of αSMA expression with myofibroblast transformation, and interactions with pericytes, endothelial and inflammatory cells. Finally, we consider CD34 or αSMA expression in stromal cells of malignant epithelial tumours, and the role of CD34+ SC/TCs in the origin of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and myofibroblasts. In conclusion, CD34+ SC/TCs play an important role in the maintenance and modulation of tissue homeostasis and in morphogenesis/renewal/repair. PMID:26826526

  16. Bridging the physical activity intention-behaviour gap: contemporary strategies for the clinician.

    Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of regular moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) are numerous, yet most Canadians are inactive. Behavioural researchers have amassed considerable literature on theories-models of PA and many postulate that intention is the proximal antecedent. While intentions are clearly necessary, they are often not sufficient. In this brief overview, I summarize some of the contemporary areas of research aimed at overcoming the intention-behaviour gap in the behavioural science of PA. These are followed by suggestions for how PA practitioners may wish to employ strategies to help their clients translate good intentions into actual behaviour. The topics include the promotion of affect, organization, automaticity, and social responsibility. These areas of research are not meant to be exhaustive in breadth, but they highlight complementary additions to the typical approaches of changing PA through increases in self-efficacy-capability and personal outcome expectations and attitudes. PMID:24383514

  17. Autonomous motivation is associated with the maintenance stage of behaviour change in people with affective disorders.

    Vancampfort, Davy; Moens, Herman; Madou, Tomas; De Backer, Tanja; Vallons, Veerle; Bruyninx, Peter; Vanheuverzwijn, Sarah; Mota, Cindy Teixeira; Soundy, Andy; Probst, Michel

    2016-06-30

    The present study examined whether in people with affective disorders motives for adopting and maintaining physical activity recommendations (as formulated by the self-determination theory) differed across the stages of behaviour change (identified by the transtheoretical model). A total of 165 (105♀) persons (45.6±14.2years) with affective disorders [major depressive disorder (n=96) or bipolar disorder (n=69)] completed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 and the Patient-centred Assessment and Counselling for Exercise questionnaire. Discriminant and multivariate analyses demonstrated that persons with affective disorders at the early stages of change have less autonomous and more controlled physical activity motives than those at the later stages. Our results suggest that autonomous motivation may have an important role to play in the maintenance of health recommendations in persons with affective disorders. Longitudinal and intervention studies should be designed in people with affective disorders to identify the causal pathways between motives for maintaining health recommendations, effective changes in health behaviour and physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27131627

  18. Variation in depth of whitetip reef sharks: does provisioning ecotourism change their behaviour?

    Fitzpatrick, Richard; Abrantes, Kátya G.; Seymour, Jamie; Barnett, Adam

    2011-09-01

    In the dive tourism industry, shark provisioning has become increasingly popular in many places around the world. It is therefore important to determine the impacts that provisioning may have on shark behaviour. In this study, eight adult whitetip reef sharks Triaenodon obesus were tagged with time-depth recorders at Osprey Reef in the Coral Sea, Australia. Tags collected time and depth data every 30 s. The absolute change in depth over 5-min blocks was considered as a proxy for vertical activity level. Daily variations in vertical activity levels were analysed to determine the effects of time of day on whitetip reef shark behaviour. This was done for days when dive boats were absent from the area, and for days when dive boats were present, conducting shark provisioning. Vertical activity levels varied between day and night, and with the presence of boats. In natural conditions (no boats present), sharks remained at more constant depths during the day, while at night animals continuously moved up and down the water column, showing that whitetip reef sharks are nocturnally active. When boats were present, however, there were also long periods of vertical activity during the day. If resting periods during the day are important for energy budgets, then shark provisioning may affect their health. So, if this behaviour alteration occurs frequently, e.g., daily, this has the potential to have significant negative effects on the animals' metabolic rates, net energy gain and overall health, reproduction and fitness.

  19. Behaviour of mobile macrofauna is a key factor in beach ecology as response to rapid environmental changes

    Scapini, Felicita

    2014-10-01

    Sandy beach animals show behavioural adaptations that are expressed as contingencies during the life history of individuals to face periodic and episodic environmental changes. Such adaptations include activity rhythms, orientation, zonation, burrowing, escape responses and feeding strategies, the first two being common adaptations to all mobile animals. The complex conditions of a particular beach environment may be integrated in a learning process enhancing the adaptation and survival of individuals and eventually of populations. Evidence exists of genetic determination of some behavioural features that are adaptive in the long term (throughout generations) by increasing individual survival and reproductive potential. The environmental features integrated with the life history of beach animals shape the individual behaviour through ontogenetic processes, as well as population behaviour through evolutionary processes. Thus, behavioural differences among individuals may reflect environmental variation at the local and small/medium temporal scales of beach processes, whereas within-population behavioural coherence and differences among populations may reflect variation at the geographic scale. The different foci stressed by different authors and the variety of evidence dependent upon local geographical and ecological conditions have often resulted in compartmentalised explanations, making generalizations and the repeatability of behavioural studies of beach ecology challenging. There was a need to developing a more synthetic paradigm for beach animal behaviour. This paper gives a brief overview of the theoretical background and keystone studies, which have contributed to our understanding of animal behaviour in sandy beach ecology, and proposes testable hypotheses to be integrated in the beach ecology paradigm.

  20. Changes in the acoustic environment alter the foraging and sheltering behaviour of the cichlid Amititlania nigrofasciata.

    McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic noise can affect behaviour across a wide range of species in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. However, behaviours might not be affected in isolation. Therefore, a more holistic approach investigating how environmental stressors, such as noise pollution, affect different behaviours in concert is necessary. Using tank-based noise exposure experiments, we tested how changes in the acoustic environment affect the behaviour of the cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata. We found that exposure to anthropogenic noise affected a couple of behaviours: an increase in sheltering was accompanied by a decrease in foraging. Our results highlight the multiple negative effects of an environmental stressor on an individual's behaviour. PMID:25937344

  1. Using the transtheoretical model of behavioural change to understand the processes through which climate change films might encourage mitigation action

    Howell, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent films such as An Inconvenient Truth and The Age of Stupid aim not merely to inform their audience about climate change, but to engage them in taking mitigation action. This paper outlines the transtheoretical model of behavioural change, which incorporates six stages of change that individuals progress through as they change their behaviour, and ten associated processes of change. Using four climate change films as illustrations, I show how the model can be applied to ident...

  2. BetterPoints: Motivating behaviour change using technology-driven incentivisation

    Anne Lancaster

    2015-01-01

    Background Conference theme: Using behaviour change theory to create high-quality interventions and products. BetterPoints is a localised behaviour change system that uses incentivisation, recognition and social interaction – all driven by an innovative technology. Our main method of engagement is a proprietary smartphone app. The app is part of a powerful behaviour change technology platform that allows rapid customisation, massive reward flexibility and sophisticated reporting. This...

  3. BetterPoints: Motivating behaviour change using technology-driven incentivisation

    Anne Lancaster

    2015-10-01

    The BetterPoints system is unique in it’s flexibility and ability to draw on multiple behaviour change models to create high quality interventions. Early findings from existing programmes being implemented for Local Authorities in the UK suggest that BetterPoints can demonstrate real-world behaviour change. We would like to work with academic partners to further investigate these real-world changes in behaviour and establish a robust evidence base.

  4. Why does asking questions change health behaviours? The mediating role of attitude accessibility

    Wood, Chantelle; Conner, Mark; Sandberg, Tracy; Godin, Gaston; Sheeran, Paschal

    2013-01-01

    Objective The question-behaviour effect (QBE) refers to the finding that measuring behavioural intentions increases performance of the relevant behaviour. This effect has been used to change health behaviours. The present research asks why the QBE occurs and evaluates one possible mediator – attitude accessibility. Design University staff and students (N = 151) were randomly assigned to an intention measurement condition where they reported their intentions to eat healthy foods, or to one of ...

  5. Psychosocial correlates of dietary behaviour in type 2 diabetic women, using a behaviour change theory.

    Didarloo, A; Shojaeizadeh, D; Gharaaghaji Asl, R; Niknami, S; Khorami, A

    2014-06-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), along with self-efficacy to predict dietary behaviour in a group of Iranian women with type 2 diabetes. A sample of 352 diabetic women referred to Khoy Diabetes Clinic, Iran, were selected and given a self-administered survey to assess eating behaviour, using the extended TRA constructs. Bivariate correlations and Enter regression analyses of the extended TRA model were performed with SPSS software. Overall, the proposed model explained 31.6% of variance of behavioural intention and 21.5% of variance of dietary behaviour. Among the model constructs, self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intentions and dietary practice. In addition to the model variables, visit intervals of patients and source of obtaining information about diabetes from sociodemographic factors were also associated with dietary behaviours of the diabetics. This research has highlighted the relative importance of the extended TRA constructs upon behavioural intention and subsequent behaviour. Therefore, use of the present research model in designing educational interventions to increase adherence to dietary behaviours among diabetic patients was recommended and emphasized. PMID:25076670

  6. Transitioning to low carbon communities-from behaviour change to systemic change: Lessons from Australia

    Transitioning to low carbon communities requires an understanding of community practices and resultant emissions, as well as the technologies, infrastructures and institutions associated with and accessed by communities. Moreover, it requires an understanding of the connections between these integrated system components, its dynamics, a defined transition and potential 'levers' involved in 'transitioning'. This paper accepts the notion that 'levers' include programmes designed to achieve practice or behaviour change in households which result in less carbon intensive lifestyles, and focuses on the factors that shape human behaviour and influence householder energy consumption. Research to date by the authors and others indicates that a comprehensive socio-technical framework that considers both individual psychological factors as well as the systems, standards and norms under which individuals operate is fundamental to the development of successful strategies to shift towards low carbon communities. A database has been compiled of over one hundred local programmes aimed at realising carbon neutral communities across Australia largely through approaches to behaviour change. This paper presents the findings of an analysis of these programmes, particularly with regard to the extent to which they take account of a socio-technical framework or understanding of domestic consumption behaviours and whether they are aware of or aim to influence changing standards and expectations around consumption practices within the home. While a number of exemplary community-based programmes adopt an integrated approach to addressing both technical and behavioural dimensions in the shift to low carbon communities, it was found that most fail to take sufficient account of the systems, standards and norms shaping consumption. Conclusions include directions for policy and programme design based on the study findings.

  7. Behavioural responses to thermal conditions affect seasonal mass change in a heat-sensitive northern ungulate.

    Floris M van Beest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Empirical tests that link temperature-mediated changes in behaviour (activity and resource selection to individual fitness or condition are currently lacking for endotherms yet may be critical to understanding the effect of climate change on population dynamics. Moose (Alces alces are thought to suffer from heat stress in all seasons so provide a good biological model to test whether exposure to non-optimal ambient temperatures influence seasonal changes in body mass. Seasonal mass change is an important fitness correlate of large herbivores and affects reproductive success of female moose. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using GPS-collared adult female moose from two populations in southern Norway we quantified individual differences in seasonal activity budget and resource selection patterns as a function of seasonal temperatures thought to induce heat stress in moose. Individual body mass was recorded in early and late winter, and autumn to calculate seasonal mass changes (n = 52 over winter, n = 47 over summer. We found large individual differences in temperature-dependent resource selection patterns as well as within and between season variability in thermoregulatory strategies. As expected, individuals using an optimal strategy, selecting young successional forest (foraging habitat at low ambient temperatures and mature coniferous forest (thermal shelter during thermally stressful conditions, lost less mass in winter and gained more mass in summer. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that behavioural responses to temperature have important consequences for seasonal mass change in moose living in the south of their distribution in Norway, and may be a contributing factor to recently observed declines in moose demographic performance. Although the mechanisms that underlie the observed temperature mediated habitat-fitness relationship remain to be tested, physiological state and individual variation in

  8. Health behaviour changes and onset of chronic health problems in later life

    Marijke Veenstra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.

  9. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    Ismael Velasco; Marie K. Harder

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable de...

  10. Hypoxia increases the behavioural activity of schooling herring: a response to physiological stress or respiratory distress?

    Herbert, Neill A.; Steffensen, John F.

    2006-01-01

    Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, increase their swimming speed during low O2 (hypoxia) and it has been hypothesised that the behavioural response is modulated by the degree of "respiratory distress" (i.e. a rise in anaerobic metabolism and severe physiological stress). To test directly whether a...... deviation in physiological homeostasis is associated with any change in behavioural activity, we exposed C. harengus in a school to a progressive stepwise decline in water oxygen pressure  and measured fish swimming speed and valid indicators of primary and secondary stress (i.e. blood cortisol, lactate...

  11. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  12. A simple model for behaviour change in epidemics

    Brauer Fred

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People change their behaviour during an epidemic. Infectious members of a population may reduce the number of contacts they make with other people because of the physical effects of their illness and possibly because of public health announcements asking them to do so in order to decrease the number of new infections, while susceptible members of the population may reduce the number of contacts they make in order to try to avoid becoming infected. Methods We consider a simple epidemic model in which susceptible and infectious members respond to a disease outbreak by reducing contacts by different fractions and analyze the effect of such contact reductions on the size of the epidemic. We assume constant fractional reductions, without attempting to consider the way in which susceptible members might respond to information about the epidemic. Results We are able to derive upper and lower bounds for the final size of an epidemic, both for simple and staged progression models. Conclusions The responses of uninfected and infected individuals in a disease outbreak are different, and this difference affects estimates of epidemic size.

  13. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a questionnaire survey among 2289 employees who voluntarily participated in a HRA program at seven Dutch worksites between 2007 and 2009. The HRA included a web-based questionnaire, biometric measurements, laboratory evaluation, and tailored feedback. The survey questionnaire assessed initial self-reported health-behaviour change and satisfaction with the web-based HRA, and was e-mailed four weeks after employees completed the HRA. Results Response was received from 638 (28% employees. Of all, 86% rated the program as positive, 74% recommended it to others, and 58% reported to have initiated overall health-behaviour change. Compared with employees at low CVD risk, those at high risk more often reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.52-7.45. Obese employees more frequently reported to have increased physical activity (OR 3.35, 95% CI 1.72-6.54 and improved diet (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.50-7.60. Being satisfied with the HRA program in general was associated with more frequent self-reported initiation of overall health-behaviour change (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.73-4.44, increased physical activity (OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.06-3.39, and improved diet (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.61-5.17. Conclusions More than half of the employees who voluntarily participated in a web-based HRA with tailored feedback, reported to have initiated health-behaviour change. Self-reported initiation of health-behaviour change was more frequent among those at high CVD risk and BMI levels. In

  14. Use of mental simulations to change theory of planned behaviour variables

    Armitage, Christopher J.; Reidy, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The predictive validity of the theory of planned behaviour iswell established, but much less is known about: (a) whether there are causal relationships between key components of the model and (b) how to go about changing the theory of planned behaviour variables. This study tested the ability of outcome and process simulations to change variables specified in the theory of planned behaviour in relation to blood donation. Design. Participants (N ¼ 146) were randomized to one of ...

  15. Perceived behavioural control and the role of information on climate change in increasing sustainable travel

    Howarth, C.; Waterson, B.J.; McDonald, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the extent to which information on climate change can influence travel behaviour. Travel behaviour on the aggregate level is unsustainable; in light of increasing awareness on climate change, the need to substantially reduce emissions from the transport sector is growing. The status of travel behaviour has grown both in terms of its potential to fill the gaps left by technological and political progress as well as the potential longevity and transferability of its impa...

  16. Understanding and changing human behaviour—antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate modification of provider and consumer behaviour

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Tamhankar, Ashok J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses: 1) Situations where human behaviour is involved in relation to antibiotics, focusing on providers and consumers; 2) Theories about human behaviour and factors influencing behaviour in relation to antibiotics; 3) How behaviour in relation to antibiotics can change; and, 4) Antibiotic mainstreaming as an approach to facilitate changes in human behaviour as regards antibiotics. Influencing human behaviour in relation to antibiotics is a complex process which includes factor...

  17. Healthcare professional behaviour change using technological supports: A realist literature review

    Chris Keyworth

    2015-10-01

    Technological supports aiming to change the behaviour of healthcare professionals show considerable promise, particularly those involving computer-generated reminders and feedback. Due to the lack of theoretically-informed interventions, we were unable to draw conclusions around the effectiveness of theory-behaviour change interventions in this context. Interventions currently lack consistency in delivery method and content, which future research should address.

  18. Applying the Transtheoretical Model to Investigate Behavioural Change in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Lin, Shu-Ping; Wang, Ming-Jye

    2013-01-01

    Background: Long-term behaviour change in type 2 diabetic patients may provide effective glycemic control. Purpose: To investigate the key factors that promote behaviour change in diabetic subjects using the transtheoretical model. Methods: Subjects were selected by purposive sampling from type 2 diabetes outpatients. Self-administered…

  19. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds.

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  20. The Strategy to Survive Primary Malaria Infection: An Experimental Study on Behavioural Changes in Parasitized Birds

    Mukhin, Andrey; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Platonova, Elena; Kobylkov, Dmitry; Vakoliuk, Irina; Valkiūnas, Gediminas

    2016-01-01

    Avian malaria parasites (Haemosporida, Plasmodium) are of cosmopolitan distribution, and they have a significant impact on vertebrate host fitness. Experimental studies show that high parasitemia often develops during primary malaria infections. However, field studies only occasionally reveal high parasitemia in free-living birds sampled using the traditional methods of mist-netting or trapping, and light chronic infections predominate. The reason for this discrepancy between field observation and experimental data remains insufficiently understood. Since mist-netting is a passive capture method, two main parameters determine its success in sampling infected birds in wildlife, i. e. the presence of parasitized birds at a study site and their mobility. In other words, the trapping probability depends on the survival rate of birds and their locomotor activity during infection. Here we test (1) the mortality rate of wild birds infected with Plasmodium relictum (the lineage pSGS1), (2) the changes in their behaviour during presence of an aerial predator, and (3) the changes in their locomotor activity at the stage of high primary parasitemia.We show that some behavioural features which might affect a bird's survival during a predator attack (time of reaction, speed of flush flight and take off angle) did not change significantly during primary infection. However, the locomotor activity of infected birds was almost halved compared to control (non-infected) birds during the peak of parasitemia. We report (1) the markedly reduced mobility and (2) the 20% mortality rate caused by P. relictum and conclude that these factors are responsible for the underrepresentation of birds in mist nets and traps during the stage of high primary parasitemia in wildlife. This study indicates that the widespread parasite, P. relictum (pSGS1) influences the behaviour of birds during primary parasitemia. Experimental studies combined with field observations are needed to better understand the

  1. Group-based care: does it change problem behaviour?

    van Weel, Chris

    1980-01-01

    As a result of disappointing experiences in managing problem behaviour presented by patients in general practice, a system of team or group-based care was developed at the Ommoord Health Centre in Rotterdam, the Netherlands.

  2. Socially driven changes in neural and behavioural plasticity in zebrafish

    Teles, Magda Cristina, 1981-

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Biologia (Etologia), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Social competence, the ability of individuals to regulate the expression of their social behaviour in order to optimize their social relationships in a group, is especially benefic for individuals living in complex social environments, and implies the ability to perceive social cues and produce appropriate behavioural output responses (Social Plasticity). Numerous examples of social competence ca...

  3. Contribution of the After-School Period to Children’s Daily Participation in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviours

    Arundell, Lauren; Hinkley, Trina; Veitch, Jenny; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    behaviour guidelines. After-school MVPA was positively associated with achieving the physical activity guidelines (OR: 1.31, 95%CI 1.18, 1.44, p<0.05), and after-school screen-based sedentary behaviours were negatively associated with achieving the sedentary behaviours guidelines (OR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.97, p<0.05). Conclusions The after-school period plays a critical role in the accumulation of children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Small changes to after-school behaviours can have large impacts on children’s daily behaviours levels and likelihood of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Therefore interventions should target reducing after-school sedentary behaviours and increasing physical activity. PMID:26517362

  4. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    2012-01-01

    Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention) to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional process. However, despite a

  5. Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change

    Nilsen Per

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social cognitive theories on behaviour change are increasingly being used to understand and predict healthcare professionals’ intentions and clinical behaviours. Although these theories offer important insights into how new behaviours are initiated, they provide an incomplete account of how changes in clinical practice occur by failing to consider the role of cue-contingent habits. This article contributes to better understanding of the role of habits in clinical practice and how improved effectiveness of behavioural strategies in implementation research might be achieved. Discussion Habit is behaviour that has been repeated until it has become more or less automatic, enacted without purposeful thinking, largely without any sense of awareness. The process of forming habits occurs through a gradual shift in cognitive control from intentional to automatic processes. As behaviour is repeated in the same context, the control of behaviour gradually shifts from being internally guided (e.g., beliefs, attitudes, and intention to being triggered by situational or contextual cues. Much clinical practice occurs in stable healthcare contexts and can be assumed to be habitual. Empirical findings in various fields suggest that behaviours that are repeated in constant contexts are difficult to change. Hence, interventions that focus on changing the context that maintains those habits have a greater probability of success. Some sort of contextual disturbance provides a window of opportunity in which a behaviour is more likely to be deliberately considered. Forming desired habits requires behaviour to be carried out repeatedly in the presence of the same contextual cues. Summary Social cognitive theories provide insight into how humans analytically process information and carefully plan actions, but their utility is more limited when it comes to explaining repeated behaviours that do not require such an ongoing contemplative decisional

  6. Opposite selection on behavioural types by active and passive fishing gears in a simulated guppy Poecilia reticulata fishery.

    Diaz Pauli, B; Wiech, M; Heino, M; Utne-Palm, A C

    2015-03-01

    This study assessed whether fishing gear was selective on behavioural traits, such as boldness and activity, and how this was related with a productivity trait, growth. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata were screened for their behaviour on the shy-bold axis and activity, and then tested whether they were captured differently by passive and active fishing gear, here represented by a trap and a trawl. Both gears were selective on boldness; bold individuals were caught faster by the trap, but escaped the trawl more often. Boldness and gear vulnerability showed weak correlations with activity and growth. The results draw attention to the importance of the behavioural dimension of fishing: selective fishing on behavioural traits will change the trait composition of the population, and might eventually affect resilience and fishery productivity. PMID:25619538

  7. Ombuds’ corner: Code of Conduct and change of behaviour

    Vincent Vuillemin

    2012-01-01

    In this series, the Bulletin aims to explain the role of the Ombuds at CERN by presenting practical examples of misunderstandings that could have been resolved by the Ombuds if he had been contacted earlier. Please note that, in all the situations we present, the names are fictitious and used only to improve clarity.   Is our Code of Conduct actually effective in influencing behaviour? Research studies suggest that codes, while necessary, are insufficient as a means of encouraging respectful behaviour among employees. Codes are only a potential means of influencing employee behaviour. For a Code of Conduct to be effective, several elements must be in place. Firstly, there needs to be communication and effective training using relevant examples to make the code real. It should be embraced by the leaders and accepted by the personnel. Finally, it should be embedded in the CERN culture and not seen as a separate entity, which requires serious discussions to raise awareness. In addition, every c...

  8. A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial

    Carla FJ Nooijen

    2016-01-01

    intervention was effective in eliciting a behavioural change toward a more active lifestyle among people with subacute spinal cord injury. Trial registration: NTR2424. [Nooijen CFJ, Stam H, Bergen MP, Bongers-Janssen HMH, Valent L, van Langeveld S, Twisk J, Act-Active Research Group, van den Berg-Emons RJG (2016 A behavioural intervention increases physical activity in people with subacute spinal cord injury: a randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 62: 35–41

  9. Olfactory bulb ablation in the rat: behavioural changes and their reversal by antidepressant drugs.

    van Riezen, H; Schnieden, H; Wren, A F

    1977-01-01

    1. The effects of bilateral olfactory bulbectomy, sham-operation and inducement of peripheral anosmia were studied on locomotor activity, passive avoidance acquisition and irritability. 2. Bulbectomized rats were hyperactive, deficient at learning a step-down passive avoidance response and hyperirritable. Peripheral anosmia, induced by intranasal infusion of ZnSO4 solution resulted in no behavioural changes. 3. Chronic pretreatment with amitriptyline (3 and 10 mg/kg) and a tetracyclic antidepressant mianserin (Org GB 94, 5 and 15 mg/kg) reversed the hyperactivity and reduced the learning deficit of bulbectomized rats. These drugs had no significant effects on sham-operated animals. 4. Neither amitriptyline nor mianserin reduced the exaggerated responses of bulbectomized rats to external stimuli. 5. (+)-Amphetamine (1 and 3 mg/kg) accelerated the acquisition of the passive avoidance response, greatly enhanced the locomotor activity and slightly increased the irritability score of both sham-operated and bulbectomized rats. 6. Chlorpromazine (1 and 3 mg/kg) and chlordiazepoxide (10 mg/kg) significantly reduced the acquisition, locomotor activity and irritability of experimental and control rats. 7. Lithium sulphate (1 and 3 mg/kg) had no effect on activity or irritability but produced a small impairment in acquistion of bulbectomized rats. 8. It is concluded that the reversal by antidepressant drugs of the behavioural syndrome seen after olfactory bulb ablation could constitute a new model for the detection of this group of centrally acting compounds. PMID:907867

  10. l-Scoulerine attenuates behavioural changes induced by methamphetamine in zebrafish and mice.

    Mi, Guiyun; Gao, Yunyun; Yan, Hui; Jin, Xiao; Ye, Enmao; Liu, Shuai; Gong, Zehui; Yang, Hongju; Yang, Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine (METH), a substance with a high potential for abuse and addiction, is a serious worldwide public health problem. METH addicts often show extreme paranoia, anxiety, and depression. Thus, there is no effective medication for the treatment of METH-induced abnormalities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of l-Scoulerine (l-SLR), a tetrahydroprotoberberine (THPBS) alkaloid, on METH-induced anxiety-like behaviour in zebrafish and METH-induced addictive behavior in mice. In the novel tank test, acute administration of METH (2 mg/L) induced a significant decrease in the number of total vertical transitions and time spent in the upper zone. Moreover, METH produced significant avoidance behaviour showing increased swimming time in the central area and high speed movement in the mirror area in the mirror stimulation test; these anxiety-like changes were attenuated by l-SLR. Chronic administration of METH (2 mg/kg) produced a steady increase in locomotor activity and conditioned place preference in mice. l-SLR (5 mg/kg) failed to reduce acute METH-induced hyperlocomotion, but attenuated chronic METH-induced behavioural sensitization and significantly blocked the expression of conditioned place preference induced by METH in mice. The present study suggests that l-SLR may be a promising agent for the treatment of addiction and anxiety induced by METH. PMID:26433144

  11. Behavioural Change, Indoor Air Pollution and Child Respiratory Health in Developing Countries: A Review

    Brendon R. Barnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Indoor air pollution caused by the indoor burning of solid biomass fuels has been associated with Acute Respiratory Infections such as pneumonia amongst children of less than five years of age. Behavioural change interventions have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce child indoor air pollution exposure, yet very little is known about the impact of behavioural change interventions to reduce indoor air pollution. Even less is known about how behaviour change theory has been incorporated into indoor air pollution behaviour change interventions. A review of published studies spanning 1983–2013 suggests that behavioural change strategies have the potential to reduce indoor air pollution exposure by 20%–98% in laboratory settings and 31%–94% in field settings. However, the evidence is: (1 based on studies that are methodologically weak; and (2 have little or no underlying theory. The paper concludes with a call for more rigorous studies to evaluate the role of behavioural change strategies (with or without improved technologies to reduce indoor air pollution exposure in developing countries as well as interventions that draw more strongly on existing behavioural change theory and practice.

  12. Intrinsic Changes: Energy Saving Behaviour among Resident University Students

    Black, Rosemary; Davidson, Penny; Retra, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that explored the effectiveness of three intervention strategies in facilitating energy saving behaviour among resident undergraduate university students. In contrast to a dominant practice of motivating with rewards or competition this study sought to appeal to students' intrinsic motivations. An…

  13. Driving behavioural change towards ecodesign integration: Nudging experiment in industry

    Brones, Fabien; Gyldendal Melberg, Morten; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly;

    2014-01-01

    sciences and policy making. An empirical experiment identified and tested employee motivations in combination with behavioural influences, in order to positively affect employees’ intention to practice ecodesign. This original experience of green nudging in a private company context supported the diffusion...

  14. Perceptions and behaviour towards climate change and energy savings: the role of social media

    Piccolo, Lara S. G.; Alani, Harith

    2015-01-01

    Success in promoting changes in behaviour is often dependent on the choice of interventions. This research investigates the use of social technology features as interventions to raise energy awareness and to promote a collective behaviour change towards saving energy. Aiming at understanding this scenario, an online survey was conducted to extract from Internet users their current position towards climate change, energy savings, and social media usage. Main results are reported in this paper ...

  15. Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behaviour

    Loyd Beal III; Jacqueline M. Stavros; Matthew L. Cole

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap) is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change.Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB), in which OCB ser...

  16. A translational research intervention to reduce screen behaviours and promote physical activity among children: Switch-2-Activity.

    Salmon, Jo; Jorna, Michelle; Hume, Clare; Arundell, Lauren; Chahine, Natalie; Tienstra, Myrthe; Crawford, David

    2011-09-01

    Translational or implementation research that assesses the effectiveness of strategies to promote health behaviours among children that have been previously tested under 'ideal' conditions is rarely reported. Switch-2-Activity aimed to examine the effectiveness of an abbreviated programme delivered by teachers targeting children's television viewing, computer use, physical activity and potential mediators of behaviour change. Fifteen schools from disadvantaged areas in Melbourne, Australia agreed to participate in the study (43% school-level response rate). Out of the 1566 Grades 5 and 6 (9-12 year old) children invited to take part in the study, 1048 (67% response rate) provided informed consent. Schools were randomized to either an intervention or wait-list control condition. Teachers delivered six lessons, which included strategies such as self-monitoring, behavioural contracting and budgeting of screen time. Children completed a self-report survey at baseline and post-intervention examining screen-based behaviours, physical activity, self-efficacy and behavioural capability. Teachers reported implementation of and attitudes to the programme. Seventy-one per cent of teachers delivered at least four of the six lessons. Most teachers reported that the materials were easy to follow and deliver; however, many teachers reported modifying the materials in some way. Among boys, there were favourable small intervention effects on weekend screen time [(coefficient = -0.62, 95% 95% confidence interval: -1.15, -0.10, p = 0.020)]. The intervention also had significant positive effects on children's self-efficacy for reducing television viewing and on behavioural capability (television viewing styles). Future studies that assess the translation of efficacious programmes and that test whether such programmes are equally effective in different settings (e.g. in the family setting) are urgently required. PMID:21177770

  17. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    McCowan, Luke S.C.; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We fo...

  18. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Metabolic Control following Stroke: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    Moore, Sarah A.; Hallsworth, Kate; Plötz, Thomas; Ford, Gary A; Rochester, Lynn; Trenell, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are key moderators of cardiovascular disease risk and metabolic control. Despite the importance of a physically active lifestyle, little is known about the effects of stroke on physical activity. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour at three time points following stroke compared to a healthy control group. Methods Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were objectively measured using a portable multi-sensor array in 31 s...

  19. From Attitude Change to Behaviour Change: Institutional Mediators of Education for Sustainable Development Effectiveness

    Ismael Velasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore the way in which institutional contexts mediate values-focused behaviour change, with potential design implications. We use concepts taken from training research, where “learning transfer” refers to the translation into practice of the learning acquired during training: it is considered necessary to generalize it for the job context and for it to be maintained over a period of time on the job. In this paper, we analyse the example of one education for sustainable development (ESD intervention that is already established as pedagogically effective when it is deployed in diverse institutional environments worldwide—the Youth as Agents of Behaviour Change program of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC. This allows an opportunity to consider variations in learning transfer due to distinctive moderating institutional features, which can now be understood in terms of varying transfer climates, levels of leadership support and opportunities to practice. Additional barriers of tokenistic consultation, lack of role clarity and perverse effects of increased distance between trainees and their colleagues on return were also seen. ESD programs intending to bridge the values-action gap could benefit from not focusing only on the training content, but pre-planning organisational support for returning trainees and including in the training ways for them to assess and plan to overcome such difficulties.

  20. Changing teacher's beliefs about school self-evaluation and the impact on teacher behaviour and student achievement

    Alenka Hauptman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to examine if different ways of promoting school self-evaluation had an effect on changing teachers' beliefs about school self-evaluation, on their behaviour in the classroom and on student achievement. Although school self-evaluation in Slovenian primary schools is legally required; there are no uniform instructions about using it or even systematic research on its effectiveness. Our sample included 111 fourth grade teachers from 59 Slovenian primary schools and their 2153 students. The study was designed as an experimental study with three groups of schools and two separate measurements. Durability of changes in beliefs and behaviour of teachers was also included. Groups of schools differed on activities of school self-evaluation; the first group of schools was the control group, the other two were separated according to intensity of promoting school self-evaluation. The data were gathered from teachers and students. Teachers were asked about their beliefs of school self-evaluation and behaviour in the classroom. From students we gathered data about their achievement in mathematics and science at the beginning and end of school year and data about their teachers' behaviour in the classroom. Differences between the groups of schools were expected mainly at the teachers' beliefs about school selfevaluation and as well on teacher behaviour and student achievement. The results showed that teachers' beliefs are fairly stable, and a lot of time is needed to achieve changes. In our research we failed to prove the impact of promoting school selfevaluation on changing teachers' beliefs, which is very likely the result of research limitations. Change in beliefs is the basis for changing behaviour and achievement, but this happens over a longer timeframe.

  1. The active site behaviour of electrochemically synthesised gold nanomaterials.

    Plowman, Blake J; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Bhargava, Suresh K

    2011-01-01

    Even though gold is the noblest of metals, a weak chemisorber and is regarded as being quite inert, it demonstrates significant electrocatalytic activity in its nanostructured form. It is demonstrated here that nanostructured and even evaporated thin films of gold are covered with active sites which are responsible for such activity. The identification of these sites is demonstrated with conventional electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry as well as a large amplitude Fourier transformed alternating current (FT-ac) method under acidic and alkaline conditions. The latter technique is beneficial in determining if an electrode process is either Faradaic or capacitive in nature. The observed behaviour is analogous to that observed for activated gold electrodes whose surfaces have been severely disrupted by cathodic polarisation in the hydrogen evolution region. It is shown that significant electrochemical oxidation responses occur at discrete potential values well below that for the formation of the compact monolayer oxide of bulk gold and are attributed to the facile oxidation of surface active sites. Several electrocatalytic reactions are explored in which the onset potential is determined by the presence of such sites on the surface. Significantly, the facile oxidation of active sites is used to drive the electroless deposition of metals such as platinum, palladium and silver from their aqueous salts on the surface of gold nanostructures. The resultant surface decoration of gold with secondary metal nanoparticles not only indicates regions on the surface which are rich in active sites but also provides a method to form interesting bimetallic surfaces. PMID:22455038

  2. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in European Children

    Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba Ma; Mouratidou, Theodora; Verbestel, Vera;

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours in European children, and to evaluate the relationship between media availability in personal space and physical activity in relation to total screen time. Design: Data from the baseline IDEFICS (Identification and...... prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cross-sectional survey. Information on hours of television/digital video disk/video viewing and computer/games-console use (weekday and weekend days), media device availability in personal space, sports club membership....... Availability of a television set in personal space increased the risk of excess total screen time. This information could be used to identify potential targets for public health promotion actions of young population groups....

  3. Mate-guarding courtship behaviour: Tactics in a changing world

    Elias, DO; Sivalinghem, S; Mason, AC; Andrade, MCB; Kasumovic, MM

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Mate guarding is one of the most common tactics in sperm competition. Males are expected to guard their mates when costs of guarding (accrued from physical confrontations with rivals and/or reduced foraging) are low relative to the benefits of ensuring mating opportunities and paternity. We investigated mate guarding in the jumping spider Phidippus clarus, a species where males defend immature subadult females against rival males and a...

  4. Changes in pilot control behaviour across Stewart platform motion systems

    Nieuwenhuizen, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Flight simulators provide an effective, efficient, and safe environment for practising flight-critical manoeuvres without requiring a real aircraft. Most simulators are equipped with a Stewart-type motion system, which consists of six linear actuators in a hexapod configuration. The argument for use of motion systems in simulators is derived from the presence of motion cues during flight. It is hypothesised that if pilots would train in a fixed-base simulator, they would adapt their behaviour...

  5. Changes in learning and foraging behaviour within developing bumble bee (Bombus terrestris colonies.

    Lisa J Evans

    Full Text Available Organisation in eusocial insect colonies emerges from the decisions and actions of its individual members. In turn, these decisions and actions are influenced by the individual's behaviour (or temperament. Although there is variation in the behaviour of individuals within a colony, we know surprisingly little about how (or indeed if the types of behaviour present in a colony change over time. Here, for the first time, we assessed potential changes in the behavioural type of foragers during colony development. Using an ecologically relevant foraging task, we measured the decision speed and learning ability of bumble bees (Bombus terrestris at different stages of colony development. We determined whether individuals that forage early in the colony life cycle (the queen and early emerging workers behaved differently from workers that emerge and forage at the end of colony development. Whilst we found no overall change in the foraging behaviour of workers with colony development, there were strong differences in foraging behaviour between queens and their workers. Queens appeared to forage more cautiously than their workers and were also quicker to learn. These behaviours could allow queens to maximise their nectar collecting efficiency whilst avoiding predation. Because the foundress queen is crucial to the survival and success of a bumble bee colony, more efficient foraging behaviour in queens may have strong adaptive value.

  6. Predictors of technical adoption and behavioural change to transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change

    Energy conservation can be achieved through the adoption of technical measures or the changing of one's behaviour. A survey of 201 Malaysian public personnel was conducted to examine the predictors of these two types of transport energy-saving measures in response to climate change. The results indicated that there were significant differences in the relative acceptability of both behavioural measures with respect to gender, level of education, income, knowledge of climate change and attitude. Gender, knowledge of causes of climate change and personal norm were predictors for the acceptability of technical measures, while perceived efficacy and personal norm were the factors that influenced the acceptability of behavioural measures. The results also indicated that distinctions ought to be made between technology adoption and behaviour modifications that require lifestyle changes when assessing pro-environmental intent behaviour. The implications for theory and practice are discussed. - Highlights: • A survey was conducted to examine acceptability of transport energy-saving measures. • Gender, knowledge of causes, efficacy and personal norm are predictors of technical measures. • Personal norm and perceived efficacy influenced acceptability of behavioural change. • Both measures are strongly correlated to psychological factors than to socio-demographic variables

  7. Book review: nudge, nudge, think, think: experimenting with ways to change civic behaviour

    van der Linden, Sander

    2011-01-01

    Peter John’s latest book investigates how to get the best out of nudge, considering positive behaviour changes in recycling, volunteering, voting, and petitioning, and provides some unexpected insights about some interventions, finds Sander van der Linden.

  8. Building low carbon communities in China: The role of individual’s behaviour change and engagement

    Low carbon sustainability has been addressed in China’s national development strategies. This research explores individual behaviour change and engagement in building low carbon communities in China through a case study looking at the building of a low carbon campus at Fudan University, Shanghai. Individual behaviour directly influences the overall energy consumption and carbon emissions on Fudan University’s campus. Even though relevant polices have been issued for energy conservation, the energy consumption increased by 5% every year, which suggests that the “top-down” approach telling students and staff “what to do” does not work effectively. Based on a comprehensive method which includes the individual and social aspects related to the energy behaviour, the research analyses the promotion of individual engagement in building a low carbon campus through behaviour change based on four main aspects: (1) awareness raising and behaviour forming; (2) approaches to encourage behaviour change; (3) beyond the barriers and the constraints; and (4) systems and mechanisms for the long-term engagement. A low carbon management system is proposed for not only addressing management and technical solutions at the university level, but also based on the contributions from behaviour changes in establishing a low carbon campus at Fudan University at the individual level. - Highlights: • The “top-down” approach is not an effective way to building low carbon communities in China. • Individuals’ behaviour change and engagement play a key role in low carbon sustainability. • Awareness raising, proper approaches and sound mechanisms are necessary to encourage long-term behaviour changes. • An integrated management system is developed for comprehensibly establishing a low carbon campus at Fudan University

  9. Nudge, nudge, think, think: experimenting with ways to change civic behaviour

    van der Linden, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Peter John‘s recent book investigates how to get the best out of nudge theories, considering positive behaviour changes in recycling, volunteering, voting, and petitioning, and provides some unexpected insights about some interventions, finds Sander van der Linden. Nudge, Nudge, Think, Think: Experimenting with Ways to Change Civic Behaviour. Peter John, Sarah Cotterill, Alice Moseley, Liz Richardson, Graham Smith, Gerry Stoker and Corinne Wales. Bloomsbury Academic Publishing. September ...

  10. Effect of housing system on behavioural activity of lactating buffaloes

    F. Grasso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to verify the effect of a pool on behaviour and milk yield, eighty-eight lactating buffalo cows equally allocated to two treatments were used. Group WP was provided with a concrete pool of 208 m2, 36 m2/ head + 10 m2 of outdoor and indoor space allowance, respectively, whereas group NP only received 10 m2. Less animals from group WP were observed idling (P<0.05 compared to buffaloes from group NP, whereas subjects provided with a pool were more often involved in investigative activities (locomotion and exploration than cows without access to it (P< 0.01. A higher number of social interactions (sniffing and nuzzling and allogrooming were observed in group WP than in group NP (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05, respectively. The WP buffalo cows exhibited a higher yield of milk than NP subject (P< 0.05, whereas no differences between the two groups were observed for protein and fat contents. The provision of a pool can have beneficial effects on behaviour and milk production of buffaloes.

  11. Effect of psychological capital and resistance to change on organisational citizenship behaviour

    Loyd Beal III

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research in positive organisational behaviour shows that positive psychological capital (PsyCap is a construct that enables self-efficacy, optimism, hope and resilience to succeed in the workplace and that employee resistance to change is a key barrier to organisational change.Research purpose: This study examined the possible role of resistance to change as a moderator of the predictive relationship between PsyCap and organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB, in which OCB served as an index for measuring positive organisational change.Motivation for the study: Little empirical research has investigated the application of positive organisational behaviour to government organisations undergoing organisational change. Organisations can use the study results to increase positive outcomes and reduce resistance in government organisations experiencing a holistic change intervention.Research design, approach and method: The data comprised a cross-sectional survey of 97 employees from a government organisation that provides life-cycle career management support. Employees completed the 24-item psychological capital questionnaire, the 16-item organisational citizenship behaviour scale and the 17-item resistance to change scale. Data analyses used a mixed methods approach to merge quantitative inferential statistics with qualitative thematic analysis.Main findings: The quantitative analysis yielded high levels of resistance to change that moderated the positive effect of PsyCap on organisational citizenship behaviour. The thematic analysis revealed that affective, behavioural and cognitive forms of resistance to change were prevalent.Practical/managerial implications: Organisational leaders should seek to reduce resistance and increase the resources that organisations need to effect positive organisational change.Contribution/value-add: This study adds to the growing body of knowledge about positive organisational behaviour in government

  12. Behaviour change and social blinkers? The role of sociology in trials of self-management behaviour in chronic conditions.

    Ong, Bie Nio; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne; Bower, Peter; Sanders, Tom; Morden, Andrew; Cheraghi-Sohi, Sudeh; Richardson, Jane C; Stevenson, Fiona

    2014-02-01

    Individual-focused self-management interventions are one response to both an ageing society and the purported increase in chronic conditions. They tend to draw on psychological theories in self-management interventions, but over-reliance on these theories can reinforce a narrow focus on specified attitudinal and behavioural processes, omitting aspects of living with a chronic condition. While advances have been made in health behaviour change theory and practice, scant attention has been paid to the social, with the question of social context remaining under-theorised and under-explored empirically. This is particularly noticeable in trials of behaviour change interventions for self-management. The common sociological critique is that these ignore context and thus no explanation can be given as to why, for whom and under what circumstances a treatment works. Conversely, sociologists are criticised for offering no positive suggestions as to how context can be taken into account and for over-emphasising context with the risk of inhibiting innovation. This article provides an overview of these issues and provides examples of how context can be incorporated into the rigid method of trials of self-management for chronic conditions. We discuss modifications to both trial interventions and design that make constructive use of the concept of context. PMID:24528304

  13. Modification of Insect and Arachnid Behaviours by Vertically Transmitted Endosymbionts: Infections as Drivers of Behavioural Change and Evolutionary Novelty

    Sara L. Goodacre

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertically acquired, endosymbiotic bacteria such as those belonging to the Rickettsiales and the Mollicutes are known to influence the biology of their arthropod hosts in order to favour their own transmission. In this study we investigate the influence of such reproductive parasites on the behavior of their insects and arachnid hosts. We find that changes in host behavior that are associated with endosymbiont infections are not restricted to characteristics that are directly associated with reproduction. Other behavioural traits, such as those involved in intraspecific competition or in dispersal may also be affected. Such behavioural shifts are expected to influence the level of intraspecific variation and the rate at which adaptation can occur through their effects on effective population size and gene flow amongst populations. Symbionts may thus influence both levels of polymorphism within species and the rate at which diversification can occur.

  14. Behavioural change in an urban smart-grid community

    Milovanovic, Marko; Steg, Emmalina; Spears, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Achieving long term behavioral change is a challenging task, especially when it comes to changing energy use habits. In our research we explore the social route to behavioral change, and examine how people influence each other in urban communities. We explore the conditions under which individuals a

  15. Clustering of children's activity behaviour: the use of self-report versus direct measures

    Tremblay Mark S; Prince Stephanie A; Saunders Travis J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract While we concur with the objectives of the recent International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity paper published by Jago and colleagues titled "Physical activity and sedentary behaviour typologies of 10-11 year olds", we feel that the results as currently presented do not support their conclusions. Though the authors created groups of children with dramatically different patterns of self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour, an inspection of the ob...

  16. The effect of need supportive text messages on motivation and physical activity behaviour.

    Kinnafick, Florence-Emilie; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Duda, Joan

    2016-08-01

    Few short messaging service (SMS) studies to support behaviour change have used a theoretical underpinning. Using a self-determination theory perspective, we explored the effects of need supportive (NS) SMS on physical activity in 65 (BMI = 24.06 kg/m(2), SD = 5.49; M = 25.76 years, SD = 10.23) insufficiently active individuals embarking on an existing exercise programme. For 10 weeks participants were randomised to an intervention group (NS) or control group (neutral). SMS were sent twice weekly, randomly, via an online SMS service. Mixed design ANCOVA and MANCOVA analyses of measures taken at baseline, mid and post intervention revealed increased levels of perceived autonomy support and psychological need satisfaction in the intervention group post intervention. Both groups reported increases in intrinsic motivation from pre to post intervention. Moderate intensity physical activity was greater in the intervention than the control group at 4-month post intervention with control group returning to baseline levels. Findings provide preliminary causal evidence to support the use of NS SMS to optimise physical activity behaviour change in individuals who are insufficiently active. PMID:26915963

  17. Behavioural Climate Change Mitigation Options and Their Appropriate Inclusion in Quantitative Longer Term Policy Scenarios

    Faber, J.; Schroten, A.; Bles, M.; Sevenster, M.; Markowska, A.; Smit, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Rohde, C.; Duetschke, E.; Koehler, J.; Gigli, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Zimmermann, K.; Soboh, R.; Van ' t Riet, J. [Landbouw Economisch Instituut LEI, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-01-15

    Changes in consumer behaviour can lead to major reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union, particularly in the areas of transport, housing and food. Behavioural changes can complement technological changes and can allow emission reduction targets to be achieved more cost-effectively overall. The study identifies 36 options for behavioural change that would cut greenhouse gas emissions. Of these, 11 particularly relevant options have been studied in detail. They include shifting to a more healthy and balanced diet, eating less meat and dairy products, buying and using a smaller car or an electric car, teleworking, adjusting room temperature and optimising ventilation. For each of the behavioural changes studied in depth, emission reduction potentials have been quantified for 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study identifies barriers to implementing the changes, and quantifies the likely effects of policy packages which could overcome these barriers. The results show that the behavioural changes that could take place simultaneously have the potential to save emissions totalling up to about 600 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent a year in 2020. This is about one-quarter of the projected annual emissions from sectors not covered by the EU emissions trading system. The savings potential is particularly high in the area of food.

  18. Behaviour Change Techniques embedded in health and lifestyle apps: coding and analysis.

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence showing that commercially available health and lifestyle apps can be used as co-adjuvants to clinical interventions and for the prevention of chronic and non-communicable diseases. This can be particularly significant to support and improve wellbeing of young people given their familiarity with these resources. However it is important to understand the content and consistency of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT’s embedded in the apps to maximise their potential benefits. Objectives This study explores the BCT content of a selected list of health and lifestyle tracking apps in three behavioural dimensions: physical activity, sleep and diet. We identified BCT commonalities within and between categories to detect the most frequently used and arguably more effective techniques in the context of wellbeing and promotion of health behaviours. Methods Apps were selected by using keywords and by reviewing the “health and fitness” category of GooglePlay (477 apps. The selection criteria included free apps (even if they also offered paid versions and being common to GooglePlay and AppStore. A background review of each app was also completed. Selected apps were classified according to user ratings in GooglePlay (apps with less that 4+ star ratings were disregarded. The top ten apps in each category were selected, making it a total of 30 for the analysis. Three coders used the apps for two months and were trained to use a comprehensive 93 items taxonomy (BCTv1 to complete the analysis. Results Strong BCT similarities were found across all three categories, suggesting a consistent basic content composition. Out of all 93 BCTS’s 8 were identified as being present in at least 50% of the apps. 6 of these BCT’s are concentrated in categories “1. Goals and Planning” and “2. Feedback and Monitoring”. BCT “Social support (unspecified” was coded for in 63% of the apps, as it was present through different features in

  19. A simulated avalanche search and rescue mission induces temporary physiological and behavioural changes in military dogs.

    Diverio, Silvana; Barbato, Olimpia; Cavallina, Roberta; Guelfi, Gabriella; Iaboni, Martina; Zasso, Renato; Di Mari, Walter; Santoro, Michele Matteo; Knowles, Toby G

    2016-09-01

    Saving human lives is of paramount importance in avalanche rescue missions. Avalanche military dogs represent an invaluable resource in these operations. However, their performance can be influenced by several environmental, social and transport challenges. If too severe, these are likely to activate a range of responses to stress, which might put at risk the dogs' welfare. The aim of this study was to assess the physiological and behavioural responses of a group of military dogs to a Simulated Avalanche Search and Rescue mission (SASR). Seventeen avalanche dogs from the Italian Military Force Guardia di Finanza (SAGF dogs) were monitored during a simulated search for a buried operator in an artificial avalanche area (SASR). Heart rate (HR), body temperature (RBT) and blood samples were collected at rest the day before the trial (T0), immediately after helicopter transport at the onset of the SASR (T1), after the discovery of the buried operator (T2) and 2h later (T3). Heart rate (HR), rectal body temperature (RBT), cortisol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. During the search mission the behaviour of each SAGF dog was measured by focal animal sampling and qualitatively assessed by its handler and two observers. Inter-rater agreement was evaluated. Snow and environmental variables were also measured. All dogs successfully completed their search for the buried, simulated victim within 10min. The SASR was shown to exert significant increases on RBT, NEFA and cortisol (Pstress probably induced by the addition of factors such as helicopter transport, disembarking, and the search and rescue exercise. However, changes were moderate and limited over time, progressively decreasing with complete recovery at T3 except for sera cortisol that showed a slightly slower decline. More time walking within the search was related to lower RBT, conversely to walking. Standing still

  20. Drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour change: A case study from mid-western Nepal.

    McMichael, Celia; Robinson, Priscilla

    2016-08-01

    Behaviour change is central to the prevention of many population health problems, yet it is typically difficult to initiate and sustain. This paper reports on an evaluation of a water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) intervention in mid-western Nepal, with particular focus on the drivers and barriers for handwashing with soap/ash and elimination of open defecation. The research was conducted during October-November 2014, two and half years following the intervention's end-point. Qualitative data were collected from the target community (n = 112) via group discussions, interviews and drawings/stories of 'most significant change'. Households' handwashing/water facilities and toilets were observed. Analysis was informed by a model that highlights environmental, psychosocial and technological factors that shape hygiene behaviours across multiple levels, from the habitual to the structural (Dreibelbis et al. 2013). Findings indicate the intervention has supported development of new norms around hygiene behaviours. Key drivers of sustained hygiene behaviour were habit formation, emotional drivers (e.g. disgust, affiliation), and collective action and civic pride; key constraints included water scarcity and socio-economic disadvantage. Identifying and responding to the drivers and constraints of hygiene behaviour change in specific contexts is critical to sustained behaviour change and population health impact. PMID:27391250

  1. Core structure, internal osmotic pressure and irreversible structural changes of chromaffin granules during osmometer behaviour.

    Südhof, T C

    1982-01-01

    In the adrenal medullary cells, catecholamines are stored in and secreted from specialized secretory vesicles, the chromaffin granules. In order to gain some understanding of both functions of chromaffin granules, it is important to characterize their biophysical organization. Using isolated bovine chromaffin granules we have investigated the osmometer behaviour of chromaffin granules by 31P-NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy, by turbidity measurements and by electron-microscopic determination of chromaffin granule size distributions. On the basis of the osmometer model we have formulated equations predicting the behaviour of the native catecholamine fluorescence quenching and of the size of chromaffin granules a a function of osmolarity and have shown experimentally that the granules' behaviour conforms to these. It was possible to estimate the osmotic activity of the chromaffin granule core solution and the mean absolute water space in chromaffin granules from the determination of the size distributions as a function of osmotic pressure. With NMR spectroscopy a selective line-broadening of the alpha-resonances was observed with increasing osmolarities, while the gamma-phosphorus resonances remained virtually unchanged. Possibly there is an increase in core viscosity with osmolarity which affects only the alpha- and beta-phosphorus groups. While suspending chromaffin granules from lower to higher osmolarities causes no lysis, moving them back to their original osmolarity at which they were previously stable lyses them, thereby releasing a maximum of 70% of their releasable protein. This 'hyperosmolar' lysis is independent of preincubation times in the higher osmolarities and of the absolute dilution applied but depends on dilution beyond the 405 to 322 mosM sucrose range. Under the experiment conditions no uptake of sucrose from the medium into the granules could be measured, thereby suggesting that hyperosmolar lysis is a phenomenon not due to solute penetration

  2. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  3. From Spontaneous Motor Activity to Coordinated Behaviour: A Developmental Model

    Marques, Hugo Gravato; Bharadwaj, Arjun; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, the developmental path that links the primary behaviours observed during foetal stages to the full fledged behaviours observed in adults is still beyond our understanding. Often theories of motor control try to deal with the process of incremental learning in an abstract and modular way without establishing any correspondence with the mammalian developmental stages. In this paper, we propose a computational model that links three distinct behaviours which appear at three different...

  4. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  5. The Influence of Semi-active Dampers on the Vibration Behaviour of Passenger Cars

    Schneider, Sebastian; Brechter, Daniel; Janßen, Andreas; Mauch, Heiko

    The number of mechatronic components in modern car suspensions is increasing continuously to solve conflicts concerning design goals. Thus, changes in the vibration behaviour of the vehicle are caused. It needs to be ascertained whether this influence has to be taken into account when determining the fatigue life of a car and its components. Therefore, changes of the loads are studied in measurements and multi-body simulations of a passenger car with semi-active dampers. The evaluation of the forces at the wheel centre and at the shock absorber tower shows that different settings of semi-active dampers have an influence on fatigue life of the chassis and the car body. It is concluded that these effects need to be taken into account when determining fatigue life. Furthermore, multi-body simulations have been successfully applied to study the influence of semi-active dampers on the loads.

  6. Public attitudes to climate change and carbon mitigation—Implications for energy-associated behaviours

    This work explores public opinions regarding climate change and mitigation options and examines how psychological factors, such as attitudes, norms, and willingness to pay, determine self-reported energy-efficient behaviour. The aim is to create knowledge for the design and implementation of policy measures. The results of an opinion poll conducted in 2005 and 2010 are compared. The number of respondents favouring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions was substantially lower in 2010 than in 2005, whereas there was an increase in the number of people who acknowledged that lifestyle changes are necessary to counteract climate changes. This indicates an increased awareness among the public of the need for lifestyle changes, which could facilitate implementation of policies promoting environmental behaviour. Renewable energy and energy saving measures were ranked as the top two measures for mitigating climate change in both polls. In determining which energy behaviours of the public are determined by psychological factors, an analysis of the 2010 survey revealed that respondents with pro-environmental attitudes towards global warming favour significantly increased use of renewable energy technologies and greater engagement in energy-efficient behaviours. - Highlights: ► Public opinion place priority to environmental issues and beliefs to change current lifestyle. ► A decline in favoring new technologies as a way to reduce emissions in 2010 compare to 2005 poll. ► Environmental attitudes relate to favor of renewable energy technologies. ► Environmental attitudes relate to households energy efficient behaviour

  7. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-01-01

    In the field of environmental impact reduction, Behaviour Change has not traditionally been regarded as an easy route to achieving substantial results. Arguably this is driven by perceptions that it is (i) difficult to influence large numbers of people, and (ii) difficult to quantify the potentially nebulous results generated. This paper proposes that by use of innovative and engaging IT systems and good programme design, both of these challenges can be addressed. By so doing, Behaviour C...

  8. Behaviour change techniques in home-based cardiac rehabilitation: a systematic review

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Donnelly, Michael; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Cupples, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programmes offering secondary prevention for cardiovascular disease (CVD) advise healthy lifestyle behaviours, with the behaviour change techniques (BCTs) of goals and planning, feedback and monitoring, and social support recommended. More information is needed about BCT use in home-based CR to support these programmes in practice.AIM: To identify and describe the use of BCTs in home-based CR programmes.DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomised controlled trials o...

  9. Thermal Mass Behaviour of Concrete Panels Incorporating Phase Change Materials

    Niall, Dervilla; West, Roger; MCCORMACK, SARAH; Kinnane, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Phase Change Materials (PCM) have been incorporated into a range of building envelope materials with varied success. This study investigates two different methods of combining concrete and phase change materials to form PCM/concrete composite panels. The first method involves adding microencapsulated paraffin to fresh concrete during the mixing process. The second method involves vacuum impregnating butyl stearate into lightweight aggregate which is then included in the concrete mix design. T...

  10. Electroconvulsive stimulations normalizes stress-induced changes in the glucocorticoid receptor and behaviour

    Hageman, Ida; Nielsen, Marianne; Wörtwein, Gitta;

    2009-01-01

    Animal models of chronic stress, such as 21 days of 6h/daily restraint stress cause changes in neuronal morphology in the hippocampus and alter behaviour. These changes are partly mediated by the glucocorticoids. The objective of this study was threefold: (1) to study how this particular chronic ...

  11. Estimation of leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among school adolescents in Nepal.

    Paudel, Susan; Subedi, Narayan; Bhandari, Ramjee; Bastola, Ramesh; Niroula, Rakshya; Poudyal, Amod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Leisure-time physical activity is essential for healthy and physically active life; however, this domain of physical activity is less common in developing countries. Information on leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among Nepalese population is not available. The study was carried out to assess leisure time physical activity and sedentary behaviour among high school adolescents and identify the associated factors in Nepal. Methods: A cross-sectional d...

  12. Research priorities for child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviours

    Gillis, Lauren; Tomkinson, Grant; Olds, Timothy; Moreira, Carla; Christie, Candice; Nigg, Claudio; Cerin, Ester; Van Sluijs, Esther; Stratton, Gareth; Janssen, Ian; Dorovolomo, Jeremy; Reilly, John J; Mota, Jorge; Zayed, Kashef; Kawalski, Kent; Andersen, Lars Bo; Carrizosa, Manuel; Tremblay, Mark; Chia, Michael; Hamlin, Mike; Thomas, Non Eleri; Maddison, Ralph; Biddle, Stuart; Gorely, Trish; Onywera, Vincent; Van Mechelen, Willem

    2013-01-01

    The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner.......The quantity and quality of studies in child and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour have rapidly increased, but research directions are often pursued in a reactive and uncoordinated manner....

  13. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  14. Measuring reliable change of emotional and behavioural problems in children

    Iachina, Maria; Bilenberg, Niels

    2012-01-01

    that if these corrections are implemented in routine outcome measurement of children diagnosed with Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD), the estimate of change in total HoNOSCA score after adjustment is clearly smaller in absolute value than the absolute difference estimate. If RTM and the ceiling/floor effect...

  15. Soil transmitted helminthiases: implications of climate change and human behaviour.

    Soil transmitted helminthiases (STH) collectively cause the highest global burden of parasitic disease after malaria and are most prevalent in the poorest communities, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Climate change is predicted to alter the physical environment through cumulative impacts of warmin...

  16. Factors influencing smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan among Malay male students

    Suriani Ismail

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting during Ramadan provides an opportunistic setting for smoking cessation intervention. Smokers find it easy to cease smoking during Ramadan due to the religion, cultural and environmental influences. This study aims to determine the changes in smoking behaviour during Ramadan among Malay Muslim male students who were current smokers. Methods: This is cross sectional study using self-administered questionnaire to evaluate the socio demographic characteristics and two main relevant religious perceptions on smoking (i.e. ‘Is smoking ‘haram’ and ‘Does smoking invalidate your fasting’. Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND questionnaire was used to evaluate smoking behaviour before and during Ramadan. The total FTND scores and the percentages according to FTDN items, before Ramadan and during Ramadan were compared to determine good or poor smoking behaviour changes. Results: The overall FTND scores and the percentage according to its items were significantly reduced. There were significant association between smoking behaviour changes during Ramadan and household income, nicotine dependence and perception that smoking is ‘haram’. The percentage of good smoking behaviour changes was higher among those with higher income, high nicotine dependence and those who are not aware that smoking is ‘haram’. Conclusion: There is a great potential in taking advantage of the Ramadan environment to encourage smoking cessation among Muslim smokers.

  17. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood

    Luke S.C. McCowan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual’s entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual’s future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival.

  18. Nestling activity levels during begging behaviour predicts activity level and body mass in adulthood.

    McCowan, Luke S C; Griffith, Simon C

    2014-01-01

    Across a range of species including humans, personality traits, or differences in behaviour between individuals that are consistent over time, have been demonstrated. However, few studies have measured whether these consistent differences are evident in very young animals, and whether they persist over an individual's entire lifespan. Here we investigated the begging behaviour of very young cross-fostered zebra finch nestlings and the relationship between that and adult activity levels. We found a link between the nestling activity behaviour head movements during begging, measured at just five and seven days after hatching, and adult activity levels, measured when individuals were between three and three and a half years old. Moreover, body mass was found to be negatively correlated with both nestling and adult activity levels, suggesting that individuals which carry less body fat as adults are less active both as adults and during begging as nestlings. Our work suggests that the personality traits identified here in both very young nestlings and adults may be linked to physiological factors such as metabolism or environmental sources of variation. Moreover, our work suggests it may be possible to predict an individual's future adult personality at a very young age, opening up new avenues for future work to explore the relationship between personality and a number of aspects of individual life history and survival. PMID:25279258

  19. How will climate change affect vine behaviour in different soils?

    Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Morales, Fermin; Pascual, Inmaculada; Unamunzaga, Olatz

    2014-05-01

    Various agricultural sectors are sensitive to projected climate change. In this sense, the strong link between climate and grapevine phenology and berry quality suggests a relevant impact. Within the concept of terroir, climate is a factor that influences ripening of a specific variety and resulting wine style. Furthermore, the effect of soil on grape potential is complex, because the soil acts on grapevine water and nutrient supply, and influences root zone temperature. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of climate change (increased CO2, higher temperature and lower relative humidity), soil texture and irrigation on the physiology, yield and berry quality of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) cv. Tempranillo. A greenhouse experiment was carried out with potted, own-rooted fruit-bearing cuttings. Three factors were studied: a) climate change (700 μmol CO2 mol-1 air, 28/18°C and 45/65% day/night relative humidity) vs. current conditions (375 μmol CO2 mol-1 air, 24/14ºC and 33/53% day/night relative humidity), b) soil texture (9, 18 and 36% soil clay content) and c) irrigation; well-irrigated (20-35% of soil water content) vs. water deficit (60% of the water applied to the irrigated plants). Berries were harvested at ripeness (21-23 ºBrix). Climate change shortened the time between veraison and full maturity up to 9 days and reduced the number of berries per bunch. Grapes grown under climate change conditions had higher pH and lower acidity (due to malic and tartaric acids), anthocyanins content and colour intensity. Water-deficit delayed ripening up to 10 days and reduced final leaf area and root weight. Berries from water stressed plants had an increased skin/pulp ratio and pH, and lower acidity (malic acid) and polyphenol content. Regarding soil texture, plants grown in the soil with lower clay content increased root fresh weight and had higher total anthocyanins content. There were no interactions between factors. In conclusion, both climate change

  20. Changes in physiological stress and behaviour in semi-free-ranging red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) following antiparasitic treatment.

    Friant, Sagan; Ziegler, Toni E; Goldberg, Tony L

    2016-07-27

    Parasites are ubiquitous in wildlife populations, but physiological and behavioural responses of hosts to infection are difficult to measure. We experimentally treated semi-free-ranging red-capped mangabeys (Cercocebus torquatus) in Nigeria with antiparasitic drugs and examined subsequent changes in glucocorticoid production and individual behaviour. Because both parasites and stress impact energy balance and health, we measured (i) behavioural time re-allocation via activity budgets, (ii) social relationships (e.g. social connectivity and dominance hierarchy stability) and (iii) body condition. We collected triplicate faecal samples (n = 441) from 49 individuals prior to and following treatment. Cortisol levels fluctuated in parallel with parasite abundance. Elevations in cortisol, but not parasitism, were related to reduced body condition. Behaviour also shifted according to infection status, with uninfected individuals spending more time foraging and less time resting and vigilant compared with when they were infected. Time spent feeding, travelling or socializing did not differ between pre- and post-treatment time periods. Group cohesion, but not dominance stability, changed following treatment, suggesting parasite-induced social avoidance. Together, these findings show a coordinated response to infection that promotes host tolerance through stress and energy conservation, reduces transmission risk and increases protection when infected hosts are vulnerable. PMID:27466454

  1. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC. By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary development of behaviour from the aspect of the animal's adaption to living conditions, and ecotoxicology. In this mutual connection, the role of etology is to identify changes in animal behaviour which will serve as the first bioindicator of the presence of EDC in a certain environment, and before the occurrence of organic changes that could have lethal consequences.

  2. Synchronous behaviour of cetaceans observed with active acoustics

    Godø, Olav Rune; Sivle, Lise Doksæter; Patel, Ruben; Torkelsen, Terje

    2013-12-01

    Scientific split-beam echosounders are sensitive instruments for observing biomass densities and individual behaviour. Earlier studies have demonstrated that these instruments can be used to study diving behaviour of cetaceans. In this paper, we go into more detail about the recorded signal to see if and how acoustic split-beam data can be used to extract information about synchronous behaviour and other species related characteristics. Data of several cetacean individuals were collected by a moored echosounder pinging upwards from about 900 m in the Charlie Gibbs Fracture Zone. In this paper, we discuss methodological issues associated with using split-beam tracking of large marine animals. Further we demonstrate that target tracking of cetaceans can be used to study solo dives as well as behavioural synchrony. We also show that paired signals can easily be interpreted as false synchrony due to the size of the animals. In such cases a rough estimate of the diameter, and hence size, of the animals can be estimated. We emphasise on four examples that clarify methodological challenges including synchronous swimmers as well as large single cetaceans that might be interpreted as two synchronous swimmers. The applied technology requires that the animals remain in a narrow acoustic beam for long enough time to extract behavioural information. The technology can be improved by developing automatic tracking of cetaceans with a steerable transducer. This will substantially increase the search volume and enable tracking of cetaceans over longer periods and thus, produce more realistic information about the whale behaviour.

  3. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in bronchiectasis: a cross-sectional study

    Bradley, Judy M.; Wilson, Jason J; Hayes, Kate; Kent, Lisa; McDonough, Suzanne; Tully, Mark A; Bradbury, Ian; Kirk, Alison; Cosgrove, Denise; Convery, Rory; Kelly, Martin; Elborn, Joseph Stuart; O'Neill, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of bronchiectasis on sedentary behaviour and physical activity is unknown. It is important to explore this to identify the need for physical activity interventions and how to tailor interventions to this patient population. We aimed to explore the patterns and correlates of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in bronchiectasis. Methods Physical activity was assessed in 63 patients with bronchiectasis using an ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer over seven days. Patients ...

  4. Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study

    Higuera, I.; Varga, C.; Palomo, J. G.; Gil-Maroto, A.; Vázquez, T.; Puertas, F.

    2012-01-01

    The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin...

  5. Climate change and related activities

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change

  6. Digital Behaviour Change Interventions for Osteoarthritis - A Systematic Literature Review

    Alice Berry

    2015-10-01

    •\tTo examine how uptake and usage of digital interventions has been reported Methods: A pre-defined search was carried out using databases including: AMED, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline, Psycinfo, Pubmed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science. Articles were included if: they reported PA data; included people with OA; and if the intervention was accessed via a digital platform. Results: The database searches generated 2132 published papers. After applying selection criteria, eight studies were included in the final review. 5 out of the 8 included studies showed a statistically significant increase in self-reported levels of PA for up to 12 months. A number of outcome measures were used but were predominantly self-reported. BCTs used included: goal setting, action planning, problem solving, feedback, shaping knowledge, self-talk, and self-monitoring. Most studies (n=6 were based on social cognitive theory. A variety of methods were employed to report uptake and usage of digital interventions, making it difficult for comparisons to be made. Discussion and Conclusions: There is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of internet based interventions to increase PA in OA. Most studies rely on self-report to determine change in levels of PA; objective measurement may be beneficial. Interventions were generally based on Social Cognitive Theory; other constructs may increase effectiveness. Clearer reporting of BCTs and intervention usage is needed.

  7. Providing education on evidence-based practice improved knowledge but did not change behaviour: a before and after study

    Lovarini Meryl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many health professionals lack the skills to find and appraise published research. This lack of skills and associated knowledge needs to be addressed, and practice habits need to change, for evidence-based practice to occur. The aim of this before and after study was to evaluate the effect of a multifaceted intervention on the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour of allied health professionals. Methods 114 self-selected occupational therapists were recruited. The intervention included a 2-day workshop combined with outreach support for eight months. Support involved email and telephone contact and a workplace visit. Measures were collected at baseline, post-workshop, and eight months later. The primary outcome was knowledge, measured using the Adapted Fresno Test of Evidence-Based Practice (total score 0 to 156. Secondary outcomes were attitude to evidence-based practice (% reporting improved skills and confidence; % reporting barriers, and behaviour measured using an activity diary (% engaging/not engaging in search and appraisal activities, and assignment completion. Results Post-workshop, there were significant gains in knowledge which were maintained at follow-up. The mean difference in the Adapted Fresno Test total score was 20.6 points (95% CI, 15.6 to 25.5. The change from post-workshop to follow-up was small and non-significant (mean difference 1.2 points, 95% CI, -6.0 to 8.5. Fewer participants reported lack of searching and appraisal skills as barriers to evidence-based practice over time (searching = 61%, 53%, 24%; appraisal 60%, 65%, 41%. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.0001 and 0.010 respectively. Behaviour changed little. Pre-workshop, 6% engaged in critical appraisal increasing to 18% post-workshop and 18% at follow-up. Nearly two thirds (60% were not reading any research literature at follow-up. Twenty-three participants (20.2% completed their assignment. Conclusion Evidence

  8. Monitoring progress of the role of integration of environmental health education with water and sanitation services in changing community behaviours.

    Metwally, Ammal M; Saad, Amal; Ibrahim, Nihad A; Emam, Hanaa M; El-Etreby, Lobna A

    2007-02-01

    The health benefits of clean water, improved sanitation and better hygiene are now more recognized than ever before. The objective of the present study focused on monitoring the progress of behavioural changes towards appropriate behaviours related to water, environment and sanitation (WES). This was achieved through assessing the baseline community behaviours towards WES, exploring to what extent community hygienic behaviours had changed towards desirable and sustainable behaviours, through monitoring progress. The expected behavioural changes are results of an integrated package; safe water supply, sanitation, and hygiene education interventions produced by governmental and non-governmental organizations. The monitoring progress consisted of three household surveys that were administered over three years in four Egyptian districts within three Governorates; Fayoum, Beni Suef, and El-Menia. Behavioural changes were detected through special observation checklist indicators. These indicators were 7, 6, and 9 indicators each for personal hygienic behaviours, proper handling of drinking water, and proper use and maintenance of simple constructed sanitary latrines. The results from the baseline to mid-term and final surveys suggested improvement in the majority of the household behaviours towards the desirable behaviours. The proportions of the householders who practiced desirable behaviours were not to the same levels in the four districts. The results provide support to the concept that integrated interventions can produce a significant sustainable improvement in health promotion. PMID:17365081

  9. Simultaneous Changes in Sleep, qEEG, Physiology, Behaviour and Neurochemistry in Rats Exposed to Repeated Social Defeat Stress.

    Ahnaou, A; Drinkenburg, W H I M

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by alterations at psychological, behavioural, physiological, neurophysiological, and neurochemical levels. Social stress is a prevalent stress in man, and the repeated social defeat stress model in rats has been proposed as being the rodent equivalent to loss of control, which in subordinate animals produces alterations that resemble several of the cardinal symptoms found in depressed patients. Here, rats followed a resident-intruder protocol for 4 consecutive days during which behavioural, physiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were simultaneously monitored in subordinate rats. On day 5, prefrontal dopamine (DA) and hippocampal serotonin (5-HT) as well as corticosterone were measured in submissive rats that had visual, acoustic, and olfactory (but no physical) contact with a dominant, resident conspecific rat. Socially defeated rats demonstrated increases in ultrasonic vocalizations (20-25 KHz), freezing, submissive defensive behaviour, inactivity, and haemodynamic response, while decreases were found in repetitive grooming behaviour and body weight. Additionally, alterations in the sleep-wake architecture were associated with reduced active waking, enhanced light sleep, and increased frequency of transitions from light sleep to quiet wakefulness, indicating sleep instability. Moreover, the attenuation of EEG power over the frequency range of 4.2-30 Hz, associated with a sharp transient increase in delta oscillations, appeared to reflect increased brain activity and metabolism in subordinate animals. These EEG changes were synchronous with a marked increase in body temperature and a decrease in locomotor activity. Furthermore, psychosocial stress consistently increased 5-HT, DA, and corticosterone levels. The increased levels of cortical DA and hippocampal 5-HT during social threat may reflect a coping mechanism to promote alertness and psychological adaptation to provocative and threatening

  10. Behavioural Changes of Students By Peer Pressure in the Higher Educational Institution in context to Popularity in North East, India

    Ekta Chakravarty

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Human behaviour, the potential and expressed capacity for physical, mental, and social activity during the phases of human life. Change in human behaviour is the only static trait characterised by physical, mental and physiological features. It occurs in different phases of life from play age to old age. The outcome of these changes is due to education, advising, commanding, and appealing to values and peer pressure. Out of all the possible mentioned factors peer pressure is one of the most important, especially in regard to students in higher education. Peer pressure means pressure from one's peers to behave in a manner similar or acceptable to them. Peer group encourages positive as well as negative vibes. This study is an attempt to understand the impacts of peer pressure that lead to behavioural changes in the students of Higher Educational Institutions, in an effort to face the lure of popularity. It is based on data collected through questionnaires, telephonic interview and observation method conducted across different colleges of Dharmanagar, Routa, Dibrugarh, Jorhat, Shillong, Agartala, Kolkata, Siliguri and Guwahati city. The study further attempts to put forward suggestions towards managing peer pressure and the role of teachers and parents in this regard.

  11. Intervention Fidelity for a Complex Behaviour Change Intervention in Community Pharmacy Addressing Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    McNamara, K. P.; O'Reilly, S. L.; George, J.; Peterson, G. M.; Jackson, S. L.; Duncan, G.; Howarth, H.; Dunbar, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Delivery of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programs by community pharmacists appears effective and enhances health service access. However, their capacity to implement complex behavioural change processes during patient counselling remains largely unexplored. This study aims to determine intervention fidelity by pharmacists…

  12. An Investigation on Changing Behaviours of University Students Switching from Using Classical Cell Phones to Smartphones

    Arslan, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to comprehend whether there occur any changes in behaviours of university students switching from classical cell phones to smartphones. The investigation was carried out according to quantitative research method. Questionnaire was employed as data collection tool. The datum of the study was limited with the information…

  13. Structural and behavioural changes in a rodent developmental disruption model of schizophrenia

    Tabiová, K.; Kučerová, J.; Dražanová, Eva; Kořínek, Radim; Starčuk jr., Zenon; Šulcová, A.; Micale, V.

    Vol. 24 S2. Berlin : Elsevier, 2014, S486. ISSN 0924-977X. [ECNP Congress /27./. Berlin (DE), 18.10.2014-21.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : schizophrenia * structural and behavioural changes Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers

  14. Changing the Environmental Behaviour of Small Business Owners: The Business Case

    Walker, Beth; Redmond, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the environment is something of a cracked record to many small business owners, as historically any calls to business to change or improve their practices or behaviours were from the "environmental" or "green" perspective, rather than from a business perspective. As a consequence, many small businesses have…

  15. Do changes of pen and penmate affect the behaviour of heifers?

    Raussi, S.; Boissy, A; Delval, E; Andanson, S.; Veissier, I.

    2003-01-01

    We wanted to investigate if relocation affects behaviour of dairy heifers. In the study 32 Holstein heifers were housed in pairs until they were 13 months old. 16 heifers stayed in the same pen with the same penmate (control). The pen and penmates of 16 heifers were changed 16 times between 11 and 13 months of age.

  16. Heuristic use of mental map information gained from behavioural inspection of routines in daily activities (HUMMINGBIRDS)

    HANNES, Els; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2007-01-01

    This research project aims at identifying the critical spatial factors in an individual’s mental map which influence daily activity travel behaviour in order to improve the agent-based modelling of activity travel behaviour by means of a computational process model. A qualitative travel survey and in depth interviews are used to identify the spatial factors that appear in the destination and travel mode choice heuristics of experts when discussing their activity space. Recorded interviews are...

  17. The use of choice heuristic in daily activity travel behaviour: an expert system

    HANNES, Els; JANSSENS, Davy; Wets, Geert

    2007-01-01

    This research project aims at identifying the critical spatial factors in an individual’s mental map which influence daily activity travel behaviour in order to improve the agentbased modelling of activity travel behaviour by means of a computational process model. A qualitative travel survey and in depth interviews are used to identify the spatial factors that appear in the destination and travel mode choice heuristics of experts when discussing their daily activity space. Recorded interview...

  18. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically for...... food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future research should emphasize a real-life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings. Key findings: An increasing interest in the...

  19. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study)

    Jaroslava Voráčová; Erik Sigmund; Dagmar Sigmundová; Michal Kalman

    2015-01-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2...

  20. Predictors of health-related behaviour change in parents of overweight children in England ☆

    Park, Min Hae; Falconer, Catherine L; Croker, Helen; Saxena, Sonia; Kessel, Anthony S.; Viner, Russell M.; Kinra, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Objective Providing parents with information about their child's overweight status (feedback) could prompt them to make lifestyle changes for their children. We assessed whether parents of overweight children intend to or change behaviours following feedback, and examined predictors of these transitions. Methods We analysed data from a cohort of parents of children aged 4–5 and 10–11 years participating in the National Child Measurement Programme in five areas of England, 2010–2011. Parents o...

  1. Cigarette smoking and drug use in schoolchildren: IV--factors associated with changes in smoking behaviour.

    Alexander, H M; Callcott, R; Dobson, A J; Hardes, G R; Lloyd, D M; O'Connell, D L; Leeder, S R

    1983-03-01

    Factors associated with changes in the smoking behaviour of approximately 6000 schoolchildren (two cohorts aged between 10 and 12 years in 1979) over 12 months are described. They were measured twice as part of a randomized controlled trial of a smoking prevention programme. Four groups were defined: (a) those who became smokers (adopters); (b) those who remained non-smokers; (c) those who became non-smokers (quitters), and, (d) those who remained smokers. Personal and social variables were ordered using a logistic regression model according to the strength of their association with adopting and quitting smoking. Factors distinguishing adopters from children who remained nonsmokers were, being a member of the older cohort, having friends who smoke, having siblings who smoke, approving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively large amount of money to spend each week. Factors distinguishing quitters from children who continued to smoke were, having siblings who do not smoke, being a member of the younger cohort, disapproving of cigarette advertising and having a relatively small amount of money to spend each week. Initial attitude scores were indicative of future smoking behaviour and where smoking behaviour changed, attitudes also changed so that the two remained congruent. The younger cohort improved their knowledge of smoking hazards over the year irrespective of their smoking behaviour. The older cohort showed significant differences in knowledge which were dependent upon smoking category, with 1980 smokers having lower knowledge scores than non-smokers and showing an apparent decrement in their previous knowledge. PMID:6341272

  2. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ. METHODS: The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. RESULTS: In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland

  3. A strategy for implementing genomics into nursing practice informed by three behaviour change theories.

    Leach, Verity; Tonkin, Emma; Lancastle, Deborah; Kirk, Maggie

    2016-06-01

    Genomics is an ever increasing aspect of nursing practice, with focus being directed towards improving health. The authors present an implementation strategy for the incorporation of genomics into nursing practice within the UK, based on three behaviour change theories and the identification of individuals who are likely to provide support for change. Individuals identified as Opinion Leaders and Adopters of genomics illustrate how changes in behaviour might occur among the nursing profession. The core philosophy of the strategy is that genomic nurse Adopters and Opinion Leaders who have direct interaction with their peers in practice will be best placed to highlight the importance of genomics within the nursing role. The strategy discussed in this paper provides scope for continued nursing education and development of genomics within nursing practice on a larger scale. The recommendations might be of particular relevance for senior staff and management. PMID:27241441

  4. Relating the bipolar spectrum to dysregulation of behavioural activation: a perspective from dynamical modelling.

    Arno Steinacher

    Full Text Available Bipolar Disorders affect a substantial minority of the population and result in significant personal, social and economic costs. Understanding of the causes of, and consequently the most effective interventions for, this condition is an area requiring development. Drawing upon theories of Bipolar Disorder that propose the condition to be underpinned by dysregulation of systems governing behavioural activation or approach motivation, we present a mathematical model of the regulation of behavioural activation. The model is informed by non-linear, dynamical principles and as such proposes that the transition from "non-bipolar" to "bipolar" diagnostic status corresponds to a switch from mono- to multistability of behavioural activation level, rather than an increase in oscillation of mood. Consistent with descriptions of the behavioural activation or approach system in the literature, auto-activation and auto-inhibitory feedback is inherent within our model. Comparison between our model and empirical, observational data reveals that by increasing the non-linearity dimension in our model, important features of Bipolar Spectrum disorders are reproduced. Analysis from stochastic simulation of the system reveals the role of noise in behavioural activation regulation and indicates that an increase of nonlinearity promotes noise to jump scales from small fluctuations of activation levels to longer lasting, but less variable episodes. We conclude that further research is required to relate parameters of our model to key behavioural and biological variables observed in Bipolar Disorder.

  5. Behavioural and biochemical changes in maternally separated Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to restraint stress.

    van Zyl, P J; Dimatelis, J J; Russell, V A

    2016-02-01

    Early life adversity has been associated with the development of various neuropsychiatric disorders in adulthood such as depression and anxiety. The aim of this study was to determine if stress during adulthood can exaggerate the depression-/anxiety-like behaviour observed in the widely accepted maternally separated (MS) Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat model of depression. A further aim was to determine whether the behavioural changes were accompanied by changes in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the protein profile of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Depression-/anxiety-like behaviour was measured in the elevated plus maze, open field and forced swim test (FST) in the MS SD rats exposed to chronic restraint stress in adulthood. As expected, MS increased immobility of SD rats in the FST but restraint stress did not enhance this effect of MS on SD rats. A proteomic analysis of the PFC revealed a decrease in actin-related proteins in MS and non-separated rats subjected to restraint stress as well as a decrease in mitochondrial energy-related proteins in the stressed rat groups. Since MS during early development causes a disruption in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and long-term changes in the response to subsequent stress, it may have prevented restraint stress from exerting its effects on behaviour. Moreover, the decrease in proteins related to mitochondrial energy metabolism in MS rats with or without subsequent restraint stress may be related to stress per se and not depression-like behaviour, because rats subjected to restraint stress displayed similar decreases in energy-related proteins and spent less time immobile in the FST than control rats. PMID:26555398

  6. Can microgeneration catalyse behaviour change in the domestic energy sector in the UK?

    Bergman, Noam (Univ. of Oxford, Environmental Change Inst., Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-01

    Domestic energy use accounts for more than a quarter of CO{sub 2} emissions in the UK. Traditional approaches to energy reduction look at direct emissions savings, and recommend insulation and efficiency as more cost-effective than microgeneration. However, microgeneration has indirect, 'soft' benefits and could play a significant role in emissions reduction. Current uptake of microgeneration in the UK is low, with various barriers economic, technical, cultural, behavioural and institutional both to uptake and to maximising energy and emissions savings once installed. Subsidies and spreading information alone do not guarantee maximising uptake, and even if successful, this is not enough to maximise savings. The industry focuses on maximising sales, with no incentives to ensure best installations and use; householders do not have access to the best information and user behaviour does not maximise energy and emission savings. This is related to a broader state of socio-technical 'lock-in' in domestic energy use there's a lack of connection between personal behaviour and energy consumption, let alone global climate change; energy use in the home is rising faster than energy saving measures are implemented. This suggests that a major cultural-behavioural shift is needed to reduce energy/emissions in the home. Transition theory and strategic niche management provide insights into possible systemic change, and a suitable framework for future policies, such as supporting a variety of radically innovative niches, both technological and social. Microgeneration, properly employed, has the potential to play a part in such a transition, by increasing awareness and energy literacy and empowering people to seriously engage in energy debates as producers, as well as consumers, of energy. This deeper understanding and heightened responsibility are crucial in a shift toward bottom-up emissions-reducing behaviour change and better acceptance of top

  7. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA; DIDID DIAPARI; ARIA PERDANA; WARTIKA ROSA FARIDA

    2005-01-01

    Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One ...

  8. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R; Brychta, Robert J; Caserotti, Paolo; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Launer, Lenore J; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Johannsson, Erlingur; Harris, Tamara B; Chen, Kong Y; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2013-01-01

    objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer.......objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer....

  9. Traversing myths and mountains: addressing socioeconomic inequities in the promotion of nutrition and physical activity behaviours

    Ball, Kylie

    2015-01-01

    Background In developed countries, individuals experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage – whether a low education level, low income, low-status occupation, or living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhood – are less likely than those more advantaged to engage in eating and physical activity behaviours conducive to optimal health. These socioeconomic inequities in nutrition and physical activity (and some sedentary) behaviours are graded, persistent, and evident across multiple popu...

  10. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Jago Russell; Loucaides Constantinos A; Theophanous Maria

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There are no data on physical activity and sedentary behaviours of Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents, and no study to date examined the association between these two behaviours in this population. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Greek-Cypriot adolescents and examine the association between physical activity and a range of sedentary behaviours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ex...

  11. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Loucaides, Constantinos A; Jago, Russell; Theophanous, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Background There are no data on physical activity and sedentary behaviours of Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents, and no study to date examined the association between these two behaviours in this population. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Greek-Cypriot adolescents and examine the association between physical activity and a range of sedentary behaviours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the...

  12. How does cognitive behaviour therapy reduce fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome? The role of physical activity.

    Wiborg, J.F.; Knoop, H.; Stulemeijer, M.; Prins, J. B.; Bleijenberg, G

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is known to reduce fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). How this change in symptomatology is accomplished is not yet understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effect of CBT on fatigue is mediated by an increase in physical activity. METHOD: Three randomized controlled trials were reanalysed, previously conducted to evaluate the efficacy of CBT for CFS. In all samples, actigraphy was used to assess the...

  13. The application of behaviour change theory, delivered through mobile-app and wearable-based technology, proven to engage and improve the health & wellbeing of populations. A case study

    Ronan Carter

    2015-09-01

    A snapshot of qualified aggregated totals is shown below. In summary, the evidence shows that implementation of the Yomp system successfully leads to activity behaviour change both during the challenge period and for six months following the last challenge.

  14. Movement activity based classification of animal behaviour with an application to data from cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus.

    Steffen Grünewälder

    Full Text Available We propose a new method, based on machine learning techniques, for the analysis of a combination of continuous data from dataloggers and a sampling of contemporaneous behaviour observations. This data combination provides an opportunity for biologists to study behaviour at a previously unknown level of detail and accuracy; however, continuously recorded data are of little use unless the resulting large volumes of raw data can be reliably translated into actual behaviour. We address this problem by applying a Support Vector Machine and a Hidden-Markov Model that allows us to classify an animal's behaviour using a small set of field observations to calibrate continuously recorded activity data. Such classified data can be applied quantitatively to the behaviour of animals over extended periods and at times during which observation is difficult or impossible. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method by applying it to data from six cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus in the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Cumulative activity data scores were recorded every five minutes by accelerometers embedded in GPS radio-collars for around one year on average. Direct behaviour sampling of each of the six cheetah were collected in the field for comparatively short periods. Using this approach we are able to classify each five minute activity score into a set of three key behaviour (feeding, mobile and stationary, creating a continuous behavioural sequence for the entire period for which the collars were deployed. Evaluation of our classifier with cross-validation shows the accuracy to be 83%-94%, but that the accuracy for individual classes is reduced with decreasing sample size of direct observations. We demonstrate how these processed data can be used to study behaviour identifying seasonal and gender differences in daily activity and feeding times. Results given here are unlike any that could be obtained using traditional approaches in both accuracy and detail.

  15. Changes in illness perceptions mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy in severe functional somatic syndromes

    Christensen, Sara Sletten; Frostholm, Lisbeth; Ørnbøl, Eva; Schröder, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    . Methods We analysed additional data from a randomised controlled trial comparing completers of cognitive behavioural group therapy (46 patients) to an enhanced usual care group (66 patients). Proposed mediators (illness perceptions) and primary (physical health) and secondary (somatic symptoms and illness...... (primary analysis), and (2) whether changes in illness perceptions during the whole trial period were associated with improved outcome (secondary analysis). Results Improvements in illness perceptions during treatment partially mediated the effect of cognitive behavioural therapy on physical health one...... year after treatment (sum of indirect effects 1.556, BCa 95% CI (0.006; 3.620)). Improving perceived control was particularly important. Changes in illness perceptions from baseline to 16 months after randomisation were associated with clinically meaningful improvements in physical health, somatic...

  16. A Theory-Based Approach for Developing Interventions to Change Patient Behaviours: A Medication Adherence Example from Paediatric Secondary Care

    Gemma Heath

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a Health Psychology approach to changing patient behaviour, in order to demonstrate the value of Health Psychology professional practice as applied within healthcare settings. Health Psychologists are experts in understanding, predicting and changing health-related behaviours at the individual, group and population level. They combine psychological theory, research evidence and service-user views to design interventions to solve clinically relevant behavioural problems and improve health outcomes. We provide a pragmatic overview of a theory and evidence-based Intervention Mapping approach for developing, implementing and evaluating interventions to change health-related behaviour. An example of a real behaviour change intervention designed to improve medication adherence in an adolescent patient with poorly controlled asthma is described to illustrate the main stages of the intervention development process.

  17. Chronic exposure to low-levels of lead in the rat: biochemical and behavioural changes

    The prevalence of lead in the environment is a cause of continuing toxicology concern and there have been numerous human and animal studies to examine more thoroughly the possible consequences of exposure to this ecotoxicant. Because lead is highly toxic to the developing central nervous system, increasing concern over the rise in the lead content in the environment has been expressed. These concerns seem appropriate since more recent clinical studies have shown that prolonged exposure of children to so called 'subclinical' concentrations of lead may be associated with behavioural disorders, learning disabilities and mental retardation. Moreover, animal studies have shown that chronic perinatal low-level lead exposure elicits alterations in both learned and spontaneous behavioural patterns in the absence of typical outward signs of lead-induced neurological toxicity. No study however could relate behavioural changes to specific alterations in neurochemisty. The aim of this study was therefore to expose rats, in different stages of their development, to low-levels of lead in order to induce behavioural disorders and correlate latter with possible neurochemical changes. In accordance with the general aims of the study, the structuring of the thesis is as follows: (a) a discussion of the neurotransmitters in the brain in order to describe the different systems which have been investigated; (b) a review of appropriate literature regarding the kinetics, toxodynamics and neurotoxicity of lead and (c) a summary of the methods employed in the study. The following results are presented: (d) the effects of lead treatment on physical development of the rats; (e) the induction of behavioural supersensitivity and (f) the effects lead has on central receptors

  18. On the Current Solar Magnetic Activity in the Light of Its Behaviour During the Holocene

    Inceoglu, F.; Simoniello, R.; Knudsen, M. F.; Karoff, C.; Olsen, J.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2016-01-01

    Solar modulation potential (SMP) reconstructions based on cosmogenic nuclide records reflect changes in the open solar magnetic field and can therefore help us obtain information on the behaviour of the open solar magnetic field over the Holocene period. We aim at comparing the Sun's large-scale magnetic field behaviour over the last three solar cycles with variations in the SMP reconstruction through the Holocene epoch. To achieve these objectives, we use the IntCal13 14C data to investigate distinct patterns in the occurrences of grand minima and maxima during the Holocene period. We then check whether these patterns might mimic the recent solar magnetic activity by investigating the evolution of the energy in the Sun's large-scale dipolar magnetic field using the Wilcox Solar Observatory data. The cosmogenic radionuclide data analysis shows that {≈} 71 % of grand maxima during the period from 6600 BC to 1650 AD were followed by a grand minimum. The characteristics of the occurrences of grand maxima and minima are consistent with the scenario in which the dynamical non-linearity induced by the Lorentz force leads the Sun to act as a relaxation oscillator. This finding implies that the probability for these events to occur is non-uniformly distributed in time, as there is a memory in their driving mechanism, which can be identified via the back-reaction of the Lorentz force.

  19. On the current solar magnetic activity in the light of its behaviour during the Holocene

    Inceoglu, F; Knudsen, M F; Karoff, C; Olsen, J; Turck-Chièze, S

    2015-01-01

    Solar modulation potential (SMP) reconstructions based on cosmogenic nuclide records reflect changes in the open solar magnetic field and can therefore help us obtain information on the behaviour of the open solar magnetic field over the Holocene period. We aim at comparing the Sun's large-scale magnetic field behaviour over the last three solar cycles with variations in the SMP reconstruction through the Holocene epoch. To achieve these objectives, we use the IntCal13 $^{14}$C data to investigate distinct patterns in the occurrences of grand minima and maxima during the Holocene period. We then check whether these patterns might mimic the recent solar magnetic activity by investigating the evolution of the energy in the Sun's large-scale dipolar magnetic field using the Wilcox Solar Observatory data. The cosmogenic radionuclide data analysis shows that $\\sim$71\\% of grand maxima during the period from 6600 BC to 1650 AD were followed by a grand minimum. The occurrence characteristics of grand maxima and mini...

  20. Stability and change in health behaviours as predictors for disability pension: a prospective cohort study of Swedish twins

    Alexanderson Kristina

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stability or changes of health behaviours have not been studied in association with incidence of disability pension (DP. The aims were to (1 investigate if stability or changes in health behaviours predict DP due to musculoskeletal diagnosis (MSD, (2 to evaluate if an association exists for DP in general, and (3 after taking familial confounding into account. Methods The study sample was 16,713 like-sexed twin individuals born in Sweden between 1935-1958 (6195 complete twin pairs who had participated in two surveys 25 years apart, were alive, and not pensioned at the time of the latest survey. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the associations (hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI between stability and change in health behaviours (physical activity, tobacco and alcohol use, body mass index (BMI, and number of pain locations collected at two time points 25 years apart and the incidence of DP until 2008. Results During the follow-up, 1843 (11% individuals were granted DP with 747 of these due to MSD. A higher proportion of women were granted DP than men. Increase in BMI and stable use of tobacco products were predictors for DP due to MSD (HR 1.21-1.48 and DP in general (HR 1.10-1.41. The stability in the frequency of physical activity and increased frequency of physical activity were protective factors for DP due to MSD only when accounting for familial confounding. However, the number of pain locations (stability, increase, or decrease was the strongest predictor for future DP due to MSD (HR 3.69, CI 2.99-4.56 and DP in general (HR 2.15, CI 1.92-2.42. In discordant pair analysis, the HRs for pain were lower, indicating potential familial confounding. Conclusions Health behaviours in adulthood, including an increase in pain locations were associated with the incidence of DP. The association between physical activity and DP was especially related to adulthood choices or habits, i.e., the

  1. Values and Environmental Ethics – Pillars of Changing Human Behaviour Toward Sustainable Development

    Florina Bran; Carmen Valentina Radulescu; Ildiko Ioan

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable development necessitates the harmonisation of human’s and nature’s needs under the siege of continuous demographic growth and the quest for wellbeing based on material things. This outcome implies important changes to occur at individual, collective and corporate behaviour. How they could be accomplished is a question that animates debates for several decades and revealed that solutions should be related to the process of valuation. Better understanding of value and how it relates...

  2. A South African University practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication

    Christofides, Nicola J.; Nieuwoudt, Sara; Usdin, Shereen; Goldstein, Susan; Fonn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC), combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary bac...

  3. Estimating the environmental impact of home energy visits and extent of behaviour change

    The objective of this study was to estimate the environmental impact of a home energy visit programme, known as RE:NEW, that was delivered in London, in the United Kingdom. These home energy visits intended to encourage reductions in household carbon emissions and water consumption through the installation of small energy saving measures (such as radiator panels, in-home energy displays and low-flow shower heads), further significant energy saving measures (loft and cavity wall insulation) and behaviour change advice. The environmental impact of the programme was estimated in terms of carbon emissions abated and on average, for each household in the study, a visit led to an average carbon abatement of 146 kgCO2. The majority of this was achieved through the installation of small energy saving measures. The impact of the visits on the installation of significant measures was negligible, as was the impact on behaviour change. Therefore, these visits did not overcome the barriers required to generate behaviour change or the barriers to the installation of more significant energy saving measures. Given this, a number of recommendations are proposed in this paper, which could increase the efficacy of these home energy visits. - Highlights: • The environmental impact of the RE:NEW home energy visit programme is estimated. • Visits do not generate significant pro-environmental behaviour change. • Visits do not overcome the barriers to the installation loft and wall insulation. • Small energy saving measures yield carbon savings of 145 kgCO2/year. • The average carbon abatement per household was estimated to be 146 kgCO2/year

  4. Role of etology in detecting environmental pollutants that affect changes in animal behaviour

    Vučinić Marijana M.

    2005-01-01

    A large number of chemical pollutants originating from industrial agricultural and urban through the direct or indirect disruption of endocrine gland and hormone function. That is why these pollutants are known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC). By disrupting endocrine function, the EDC change certain forms of animal behaviour. This is why a direct link can be established between etology, as a scientific discipline that studied the role, function, ontogenetic and evolutionary developmen...

  5. A smarter choice? Exploring the behaviour change agenda for environmentally sustainable mobility

    Stewart Barr; Jan Prillwitz

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores some of the limitations of individualistic approaches towards the study and promotion of environmentally sustainable practices within the context of efforts by states to tackle global climate change. Using the example of government attempts to promote sustainable mobility through behavioural shifts amongst citizens in the UK, the paper argues that an overreliance on individualistic approaches poses three major challenges through the ways in which: (1) mobility is intricate...

  6. Social networking sites as platforms to persuade behaviour change in domestic energy consumption

    Foster, Derek

    2009-01-01

    This MSc project addresses the following research question – “Can online social networks such as Facebook facilitate the motivation and behaviour change to reduce energy consumption in the home?” An investigation into the role of social interaction in social networks provides evidence to support the research question. The project undertook an extensive literature review and identified a gap in current knowledge regarding energy monitoring systems that are socially enabled. A participatory des...

  7. Has the export pricing behaviour of German enterprises changed? Empirical evidence from German sectoral prices

    Stahn, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The question as to whether the globalisation-related increase in competitive pressure may have caused the importance of exchange rate pass-through and pricing-to-market for export pricing in Germany to shift since the 1990s is addressed by testing the long-run export pricing behaviour of German enterprises for changes in the impact of its determinants. As globalisation may have affected competitive pressure in individual product markets differently, export pricing is analysed for 11 product c...

  8. Low-carbon communities as a context for individual behavioural change

    Previous attempts to change energy-related behaviour were targeted at individuals as consumers of energy. Recent literature has suggested that more focus should be placed on the community level and that energy users should be engaged in the role of citizens, and not only that of consumers. This article analyses different types of emerging low-carbon communities as a context for individual behavioural change. The focus is on how these communities offer solutions to problems in previous attempts to change individual behaviour. These problems include social dilemmas, social conventions, socio-technical infrastructures and the helplessness of individuals. Different community types are examined, including geographical communities as well as sector-based, interest-based and smart mob communities. Through four case studies representing each of these community types, we examine how different communities reframe problems on the individual level to reduce carbon emissions. On the basis of an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of various community solutions, implications are drawn for further research and for the design and support of low-carbon communities.

  9. Development of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale

    Sarang Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is not yet understood how attitudes concerning dementia risk may affect motivation to change health behaviours and lifestyle. This study was designed to develop a reliable and valid theory-based measure to understand beliefs underpinning the lifestyle and health behavioural changes needed for dementia risk reduction. Methods: 617 participants aged ≥50 years completed a theory-based questionnaire, namely, the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR scale. The MCLHB-DRR consists of 53 items, reflecting seven subscales of the Health Belief Model. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and revealed that a seven-factor solution with 27 items fitted the data (comparative fit index = 0.920, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.047 better than the original 53 items. Internal reliability (α = 0.608-0.864 and test-retest reliability (α = 0.552-0.776 were moderate to high. Measurement of invariance across gender and age was also demonstrated. Conclusions: These results propose that the MCLHB-DRR is a useful tool in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of males and females aged ≥50 years towards dementia risk reduction. This measure can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at dementia prevention.

  10. Evaluation of Using Behavioural Changes to Assess Post-Operative Pain in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Ellen, Yvette; Flecknell, Paul; Leach, Matt

    2016-01-01

    To manage pain effectively in people and animals, it is essential to recognise when pain is present and to assess its intensity. Currently there is very little information regarding the signs of post-surgical pain or its management in guinea pigs. Studies from other rodent species indicate that behaviour-based scoring systems can be used successfully to detect pain and evaluate analgesic efficacy. This preliminary study aimed to establish whether behaviour-based scoring systems could be developed to assess post-surgical pain in guinea pigs. This prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled study used 16 guinea pigs, and evaluated changes in behaviour following either anaesthesia alone or anaesthesia and orchiectomy. Behaviour was assessed using a combination of manual and automated scoring of remotely obtained video footage. A small number of behaviours were identified that appeared to have high specificity for pain caused by orchiectomy. However, the behaviours were displayed infrequently. The most common was a change in posture from standing to recumbency, sometimes with one hind leg extended either to the side or behind the body. A composite behaviour score incorporating these abnormal behaviours differentiated between the effects of surgery and anaesthesia alone (p<0.0001), and between animals that received analgesia post-operatively compared to an untreated group (p<0.0001). Although behavioural changes occurred in these guinea pigs after orchiectomy, the changes were relatively subtle and the individual specific pain-related behaviours occurred infrequently. However, it may prove possible to develop a behaviour-based scoring system for routine use in this species using a combination of pain-related behaviours. PMID:27583446

  11. Preliminary Study on Delta-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC: Hemispheric Lateralization with Behavioural Changes

    Noor Azuin Suliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is designed inspired by the fact that there is an interhemisphere asymmetry of the brain region. A lot of researches studied in demonstrating the differences between right and left hemispheres of the brain. The objective of this preliminary study is to observe scientifically the effect of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC on the hemispheric lateralization with behavioural changes. Two regions of brain are selected, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Behavioural tests, namely heat stress test and novel-object discrimination test (NOD, were done on day seven. The hippocampus and prefrontal cortex regions of the brain were preceded to Western Blot technique in detecting c-fos. As for behavioural tests, heat stress and NOD and c-fos on hippocampus did not show significant differences. Meanwhile, the prefrontal cortex shows significant difference with p < 0.01. With these findings, reasonable dosages of ∆9-THC should be used to have statistically significant differences effects on behavioural tests. 

  12. Engineering behaviour change in an epidemic: the epistemology of NIH-funded HIV prevention science.

    Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat

    2015-05-01

    Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy. PMID:25565009

  13. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study.

    Rutten, G.M.; Meis, J.J.M.; Hendriks, M.R.C.; Hamers, F.J.M.; Veenhof, C.; Kremers, S. P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examine...

  14. The contribution of lifestyle coaching of overweight patients in primary care to more autonomous motivation for physical activity and healthy dietary behaviour: results of a longitudinal study

    Rutten, Geert M; Meis, Jessie JM; Hendriks, Marike RC; Hamers, Femke JM; Veenhof, Cindy; Kremers, Stef PJ

    2014-01-01

    Background Combined lifestyle interventions (CLIs) have been advocated as an effective instrument in efforts to reduce overweight and obesity. The odds of maintaining higher levels of physical activity (PA) and healthier dietary behaviour improve when people are more intrinsically motivated to change their behaviour. To promote the shift towards more autonomous types of motivation, facilitator led CLIs have been developed including lifestyle coaching as key element. The present study examined...

  15. The effects of goal variation on adult physical activity behaviour.

    Moon, Dal-Hyun; Yun, Joonkoo; McNamee, Jeff

    2016-10-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of varying levels of goals on increasing daily steps and the frequency of goal achievement among middle-aged adults. Ninety-six adults participated in a randomised control study. Participants were randomly assigned to five different step goal groups: (1) Easy (n = 19), (2) Medium (n = 19), (3) Difficult (n = 19), (4) Do-your-best (n = 19), and (5) No goal (n = 20) based on previous research. The participants wore a pedometer and were asked to reach a pre-established goal during the experimental period. In order to examine the effectiveness of the goal difficulty, (a) an average number of steps taken by different goal conditions and (b) the number of days meeting the assigned goal were tested. A one-way ANCOVA revealed significant step count differences among goal groups. Post hoc analyses indicated that the change in step count in both the Medium and Difficult goal groups was significantly greater than the remaining groups. However, there was no significant difference between the medium and difficult goal conditions. In addition, a one-way ANOVA indicated that there were no significant differences in the frequency of goal achievement among the Easy, Medium, and Difficult goal groups. Results suggest that when promoting physical activity through increasing step counts, researchers and clinicians should design goals that are specific and challenging. PMID:26860430

  16. Family circumstance, sedentary behaviour and physical activity in adolescents living in England: Project STIL

    Gorely Trish

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of non-modifiable correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviour in youth contributes to the development of effective targeted intervention strategies. The purpose of this research was to examine the relationships between family circumstances (e.g. socio-economic status, single vs. dual parent household, presence/absence of siblings and leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviours in adolescents. Methods A total of 1171 adolescents (40% male; mean age 14.8 years completed ecological momentary assessment diaries every 15 minutes for 3 weekdays outside of school hours and 1 weekend day. Analysed behaviours were sports/exercise, active travel, TV viewing, computer use, sedentary socialising (hanging-out, using the telephone, sitting and talking and total sedentary behaviour. Linear regression was employed to estimate levels of association between individual family circumstance variables and each behaviour. Results Compared to girls from higher socioeconomic status (SES groups, girls from low SES groups reported higher weekend TV viewing and higher weekday total sedentary behaviour. For boys, single parent status was associated with greater total sedentary behaviour compared to those from dual parent households. Boys and girls from low socio-economic neighbourhoods reported lower participation in sports/exercise compared to those living in higher socio-economic neighbourhoods. Conclusion Associations were not consistent across behaviours or between genders. Overall, findings indicate that boys from single parent households and girls from low socio-economic families may be at increased risk of high sedentary behaviour. Those living in low socioeconomic neighbourhoods may be at increased risk of reduced participation in sports and exercise.

  17. Southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Islands confronted by Antarctic Sea ice. Changes in movements and in diving behaviour

    Bailleul, Frédéric; Charrassin, Jean-Benoıˆt; Ezraty, Robert; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny; McMahon, Clive R.; Field, Iain C.; Guinet, Christophe

    2007-02-01

    The behaviour of southern elephant seals from Kerguelen Island ( 49∘50'S, 70∘30'E) was investigated in relation to the oceanographic regions of the Southern Ocean. The oceanographic and the seal behaviour data, including location and diving activity, were collected using a new generation of satellite-relayed devices measuring and transmitting pressure, temperature, and salinity along with locations. Dive duration, maximum diving depth, time spent at the bottom of the dives, and shape of dive profiles were compared between male and female seals, and were related to the oceanographic characteristics of areas prospected by the seals. Most animals travelled to the Antarctic shelf. However, during winter, adult females travelled away from the continent, remained and foraged within the marginal sea-ice zone, while juvenile males remained within the pack ice to forage mainly on the Antarctic shelf. Therefore, as the ice expanded females appeared to shift from benthic to pelagic foraging farther north, while males continued to forage almost exclusively benthically on the continental shelf. This difference is likely related to the different energetic requirements between the two sexes, but also may be related to pregnant females having to return to Kerguelen in early spring in order to give birth and successfully raise their pups, while males can remain in the ice. Our results show an important link between elephant seals and Antarctic sea ice and suggest that changes in sea-ice conditions could strongly affect the behaviour of this species.

  18. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour: a mixed-studies systematic review.

    Morton, K L; Atkin, A J; Corder, K; Suhrcke, M; van Sluijs, E M F

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school-based policy, physical and social-environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11-18 years old), (2) investigated school-environmental influences and (3) reported a physical activity and/or sedentary behaviour outcome or theme. Findings were synthesized using a non-quantitative synthesis and thematic analysis. Ninety-three papers of mixed methodological quality were included. A range of school-based policy (e.g. break time length), physical (e.g. facilities) and social-environmental (e.g. teacher behaviours) factors were associated with adolescent physical activity, with limited research on sedentary behaviour. The mixed-studies synthesis revealed the importance of specific activity settings (type and location) and intramural sport opportunities for all students. Important physical education-related factors were a mastery-oriented motivational climate and autonomy supportive teaching behaviours. Qualitative evidence highlighted the influence of the wider school climate and shed light on complexities of the associations observed in the quantitative literature. This review identifies future research needs and discusses potential intervention approaches to be considered. PMID:26680609

  19. Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18–25 year olds: A mixed method study

    Poobalan Amudha S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young people (18–25 years during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed method study design, based on health Behaviour Change Theories was used. Those at university/college and in the community, including those Not in Education, Employment or Training (NEET were included. An initial self reported quantitative questionnaire survey underpinned by the Theory of Planned Behaviour and Social Cognitive Theory was conducted. 1313 questionnaires were analysed. Results from this were incorporated into a qualitative phase also grounded in these theories. Seven focus groups were conducted among similar young people, varying in education and socioeconomic status. Exploratory univariate analysis was followed by multi staged modelling to analyse the quantitative data. ‘Framework Analysis’ was used to analyse the focus groups. Results Only 28% of 18–25 year olds achieved recommended levels of PA which decreased with age. Self-reported overweight/obesity prevalence was 22%, increasing with age, particularly in males. Based on the statistical modelling, positive attitudes toward PA were strong predictors of physical activity associated with being physically active and less sedentary. However, strong intentions to do exercise, was not associated with actual behaviour. Interactive discussions through focus groups unravelled attitudes and barriers influencing PA behaviour. Doing PA to feel good and to enjoy themselves was more important for young people than the common assumptions of ‘winning’ and ‘pleasing others’. Further

  20. Social change and physical activity

    Engström, Lars-Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Today’s Western society is undergoing rapid change, and the speed of this process of change seems to be increasing. One of the major social changes is the gradual changeover from daily lives that contained high levels of physical effort to lives that are increasingly sedentary. A sedentary lifestyle is not without its problems. Several common illnesses are related to physical inactivity. Athletics, exercise, outdoor life and trend sports must be regarded as expressions of lifestyle and not as...

  1. How changes in consumer behaviour and retailing affect competence requirements for food producers and processors

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    are singled out as especially important: consumer understanding, relationship management, and new product development. The development of market-related competencies aimed at exploiting trends in consumer behaviour and retailing will also entail changing forms of cooperation among members of the value chain......, which favour both new ways of adding value but also new ways of matching consumer heterogeneity with heterogeneity in agricultural raw materials.......This paper analyses the changing competence requirements which members of the food chain face in their pursuit of competitive advantage. Two groups of trends serve as point of departure: more dynamic and heterogeneous consumer demands, which can be analysed in terms of consumer demands for sensory...

  2. The effects of dihydropyridine compounds in behavioural tests of dopaminergic activity.

    Bourson, A.; Gower, A. J.; Mir, A. K.; Moser, P C

    1989-01-01

    1. The effects of the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker nifedipine and the activator Bay K 8644 were investigated in different behavioural tests involving dopaminergic systems. These were the discriminative stimulus induced by amphetamine, rotational behaviour in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesions and apomorphine-induced yawning in rats. 2. The yawning induced by apomorphine (40 micrograms kg-1 s.c.) was significantly potentiated by nifedipine (5-10 mgkg-1 i.p.). Ba...

  3. A hybrid method for the analysis of learner behaviour in active learning environments

    Pahl, Claus

    2007-01-01

    Software-mediated learning requires adjustments in the teaching and learning process. In particular active learning facilitated through interactive learning software differs from traditional instructor-oriented, classroom-based teaching. We present behaviour analysis techniques for Web-mediated learning. Motivation, acceptance of the learning approach and technology, learning organisation and actual tool usage are aspects of behaviour that require different analysis techniques to be used. A h...

  4. Nutrition knowledge and food consumption: can nutrition knowledge change food behaviour?

    Worsley, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    The status and explanatory role of nutrition knowledge is uncertain in public health nutrition. Much of the uncertainty about this area has been generated by conceptual confusion about the nature of knowledge and behaviours, and, nutrition knowledge and food behaviours in particular. So the paper describes several key concepts in some detail. The main argument is that 'nutrition knowledge' is a necessary but not sufficient factor for changes in consumers' food behaviours. Several classes of food behaviours and their causation are discussed. They are influenced by a number of environmental and intra-individual factors, including motivations. The interplay between motivational factors and information processing is important for nutrition promoters as is the distinction between declarative and procedural knowledge. Consideration of the domains of nutrition knowledge shows that their utility is likely to be related to consumers' and nutritionists' particular goals and viewpoints. A brief survey of the recent literature shows that the evidence for the influence of nutrition knowledge on food behaviours is mixed. Nevertheless, recent work suggests that nutrition knowledge may play a small but pivotal role in the adoption of healthier food habits. The implications of this overview for public health nutrition are: (i) We need to pay greater attention to the development of children's and adults' knowledge frameworks (schema building); (ii) There is a need for a renewed proactive role for the education sector; (iii) We need to take account of consumers' personal food goals and their acquisition of procedural knowledge which will enable them to attain their goals; (iv) Finally, much more research into the ways people learn and use food-related knowledge is required in the form of experimental interventions and longitudinal studies. PMID:12492651

  5. Changes in Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviours over a School-Year: Differences between 6-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    Hammarberg, Annie; Hagekull, Berit

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours in 6-year-olds with a focus on sex differences. Teachers rated problem behaviours at the beginning and at the end of the school year, 8 months apart, in 370 children (197 boys and 173 girls) attending 22 school preparatory classrooms.…

  6. Changes in Eating Behaviours among Czech Children and Adolescents from 2002 to 2014 (HBSC Study).

    Voráčová, Jaroslava; Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar; Kalman, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Many children skip breakfast, consume soft drinks/sweets and do not eat the recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables. Poor eating habits in children tend to be carried over into adulthood. The changes in eating behaviours of Czech 11-, 13- and 15-year-old children were examined by frequency of breakfast (on weekdays and weekends), fruit, vegetable, sweet and soft drink consumption using data obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys in 2002, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Logistic regression was used to analyze changes in eating behaviours. The findings showed a significant increase (only in girls, p ≤ 0.001) in prevalence of breakfast consumption (on weekdays) and a decrease in daily consumption of soft drinks (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.001), sweets (in boys and girls, p ≤ 0.01) and fruit (in boys, p ≤ 0.01; in girls, p ≤ 0.001) between 2002 and 2014. Daily vegetable and breakfast on weekends consumption remained statistically unchanged over time. More frequent daily fruit, vegetable and breakfast (on weekends) consumption was reported by girls and younger children, whereas daily soft drink intake was more prevalent in boys and older children. There is a need for re-evaluation of current policies and new initiatives to improve the eating habits of Czech children. PMID:26694428

  7. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  8. Choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Lourenco, Sofia; Laub Hansen, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The primary objective of this review was to investigate the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reduce calorie intake. 12 databases were searched systematically for experimental...... food choice, whilst (ii) manipulating the plate and cutlery size has an inconclusive effect on consumption volume. Finally, (iii) assortment manipulation and (iv) payment option manipulation was associated with healthier food choices. The majority of studies were of very weak quality and future...... research should emphasise a real life setting and compare their results with the effect of other more well-established interventions on food behaviour in self-service eating settings....

  9. Planning to break unwanted habits: habit strength moderates implementation intention effects on behaviour change.

    Webb, Thomas L; Sheeran, Paschal; Luszczynska, Aleksandra

    2009-09-01

    Implementation intention formation promotes effective goal striving and goal attainment. However, little research has investigated whether implementation intentions promote behaviour change when people possess strong antagonistic habits. Experiment 1 developed relatively habitual responses that, after a task switch, had a detrimental impact on task performance. Forming an if-then plan reduced the negative impact of habit on performance. However, the effect of forming implementation intentions was smaller among participants who possessed strong habits as compared to participants who had weaker habits. Experiment 2 provided a field test of the role of habit strength in moderating the relationship between implementation intentions and behaviour in the context of smoking. Implementation intentions reduced smoking among participants with weak or moderate smoking habits, but not among participants with strong smoking habits. In summary, habit strength moderates the effectiveness of if-then plan formation in breaking unwanted habits. PMID:18851764

  10. Health complaints among adolescents: Associations with more screen-based behaviours and less physical activity.

    Marques, Adilson; Calmeiro, Luís; Loureiro, Nuno; Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between screen-based behaviours, physical activity, and health complaints (headaches, feeling low, irritability, and nervousness). Screen-based behaviour included TV viewing, computer use, and time spent playing video games. Data were collected from 4462 Portuguese adolescents (2394 girls) aged 11-16 years. Girls who reported engaging in more screen-based behaviour (hours/day) also reported having more headaches, feeling lower, being more irritable, and feeling more nervous. Boys who reported more screen time were more irritable. Physical activity (times/week) was negatively associated with reports of feeling nervous among girls, and with headaches, feeling low, irritability, and feeling nervous among boys. Considering that time spent using the computer is related with more health complaints, and physical activity was related with fewer health complaints among boys, it is important to develop strategies to reduce adolescents' computer screen time, and to promote physical activity. PMID:26275746

  11. Active and sedentary behaviours in children aged 7 to 10 years old: the urban and rural contexts, Brazil

    Andrade Neto, Flávio de; Eto, Fabiola Naomi; Pereira, Taísa Sabrina Silva; Carletti, Luciana; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the effects of physical activity (PA) on health and wellness are well-established, incorporating sedentary behaviours in the daily lives of populations from high- and medium-income countries is becoming increasingly common. Regardless of other factors, the area of residence can influence the physical activity level and sedentary behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify and analyse active and sedentary behaviours and factors associated with physical activity in two...

  12. Testing a participatory strategy to change hygiene behaviour: face washing in central Tanzania.

    Lynch, M; West, S K; Muñoz, B; Kayongoya, A; Taylor, H R; Mmbaga, B B

    1994-01-01

    A participatory strategy to increase face washing was designed and tested in central Tanzania. Changing children's face-washing behaviour is postulated to be important in preventing the transmission of eye disease, particularly blinding trachoma. The strategy used non-formal adult education techniques at neighbourhood level meetings to build a community consensus to keep children's faces clean for the prevention of eye disease. Men, women, schoolchildren, traditional healers and village social groups participated in the intervention. The strategy was evaluated by observing changes in numbers of clean faces of a sample of preschool children in the village. Clean faces increased from 9% to 33% over the course of a year. Factors which were related to sustained change in children's clean faces included distance to water, age of the child, and presence of a corrugated metal roof. Owning cattle was associated with lack of sustainable change in this population. PMID:7992324

  13. Relationship of obesity to physical activity, domestic activities, and sedentary behaviours: cross-sectional findings from a national cohort of over 70,000 Thai adults

    Bain Chris

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of physical activity (PA, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours are changing rapidly in Asia. Little is known about their relationship with obesity in this context. This study investigates in detail the relationship between obesity, physical activity, domestic activity and sedentary behaviours in a Thai population. Methods 74,981 adult students aged 20-50 from all regions of Thailand attending the Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University in 2005-2006 completed a self-administered questionnaire, including providing appropriate self-reported data on height, weight and PA. We conducted cross-sectional analyses of the relationship between obesity, defined according to Asian criteria (Body Mass Index (BMI ≥25, and measures of physical activity and sedentary behaviours (exercise-related PA; leisure-related computer use and television watching ("screen-time"; housework and gardening; and sitting-time adjusted for age, sex, income and education and compared according to a range of personal characteristics. Results Overall, 15.6% of participants were obese, with a substantially greater prevalence in men (22.4% than women (9.9%. Inverse associations between being obese and total weekly sessions of exercise-related PA were observed in men, with a significantly weaker association seen in women (p(interaction Conclusions Domestic activities and sedentary behaviours are important in relation to obesity in Thailand, independent of exercise-related physical activity. In this setting, programs to prevent and treat obesity through increasing general physical activity need to consider overall energy expenditure and address a wide range of low-intensity high-volume activities in order to be effective.

  14. Students' physical activity behaviour and sports services at SAMK

    Honkanen, Jenni

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to determine the level of physical activity among the students of Satakunta University of Applied Science. In addition, to find out what type of physical activity services is provided by the University at each campus and to define the students’ activity and interest to use and participate into offered opportunities. This thesis was carried out as a survey research in autumn 2010. The questionnaire included both closed and open questions. In total of 909 answ...

  15. Active Learning about Climate Change

    Hwang, I.C.; Tol, R.S.J.; Hofkes, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a climate-economy model with active learning. We consider three ways of active learning: improved observations, adding observations from the past and improved theory from climate research. From the model, we find that the decision maker invests a significant amount of money in climate research. Expenditures to increase the rate of learning are far greater than the current level of expenditure on climate research, as it helps in taking improved decisions. The optimal carbon tax for ...

  16. The control of deviant sexual behaviour by drugs. I. Behavioural changes following oestrogens and anti-androgens.

    Bancroft, J; Tennent, G; Loucas, K; Cass, J

    1974-09-01

    Using attitudinal, behavorial, and physiological measures, the effects of cyproterone acetate and ethinyl estradiol on the sexual behavior of sexual offenders was assessed. The effects of the drugs did not differ significantly on any measure. Compared to no treatment, both drugs lowered sexual interest and sexual activity. Sexual attitudes were not changed. No important side effects were noted. These studies do not indicate what long-term side effects might be expected. Further research will be needed to determine these. Since estrogens carry the risk of serious and irreversible side effects, cyproterone acetate seems to be more desirable for controlling sexual behavior. PMID:4607733

  17. Clustering of children's activity behaviour: the use of self-report versus direct measures

    Tremblay Mark S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While we concur with the objectives of the recent International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity paper published by Jago and colleagues titled "Physical activity and sedentary behaviour typologies of 10-11 year olds", we feel that the results as currently presented do not support their conclusions. Though the authors created groups of children with dramatically different patterns of self-reported physical activity and sedentary behaviour, an inspection of the objectively measured accelerometry data shows little difference between the groups. Further, in at least one instance the difference between groups was of the opposite direction when using objective measures, as opposed to the self-report measures used in the published analysis. Thus, we caution the authors from making conclusions based on their self-report data, and propose that they re-analyze their data using their objectively measured data instead.

  18. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay

    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific odometer cells were used allowing 'flushing' the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96. (authors)

  19. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay

    Deng, Y. F.; Cui, Y. J.; Tang, A. M.; Nguyen, X. P.; Li, X. L.; Van Geet, M.

    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific oedometer cells were used allowing “flushing” the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96.

  20. Associations between sexual behaviour change in young people and decline in HIV prevalence in Zambia

    Siziya Seter

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that HIV prevalence amongst young Zambians has declined recently, especially in higher-education groups. We studied trends in key sexual behaviour indicators among 15–24 year-olds from 1995 to 2003, including the associations between sexual behaviour change and education. Methods The data stem from a series of three population-based surveys conducted in 1995 (n = 1720, 1999 (n = 1946 and 2003 (n = 2637. Logistic regression and Extended Mantel Haenszel Chi Square for linear trends were used to compare the three surveys. Results Men and lower-education groups reported more than one sexual partner in the year immediately prior to the survey more frequently than did women and higher-education groups (p Conclusion High risk behaviours clearly decreased, especially in higher-educated and urban groups, and there is a probable association here with the decline in HIV prevalence in the study population. Fewer sexual partners and condom use were among the core factors involved for both sexes; and for women a further factor was delayed child-bearing.

  1. Initiation of health-behaviour change among employees participating in a web-based health risk assessment with tailored feedback

    Kraaijenhagen Roderik A; Vosbergen Sandra; Peek Niels; Niessen Maurice AJ; Colkesen Ersen B; van Kalken Coenraad K; Tijssen Jan GP; Peters Ron JG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary prevention programs at the worksite can improve employee health and reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Programs that include a web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback hold the advantage of simultaneously increasing awareness of risk and enhancing initiation of health-behaviour change. In this study we evaluated initial health-behaviour change among employees who voluntarily participated in such a HRA program. Methods We conducted a q...

  2. Randomised controlled trial of the effects of physical activity feedback on awareness and behaviour in UK adults: the FAB study protocol [ISRCTN92551397

    Marteau Theresa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there are increasing data implicating poor recognition of physical inactivity as a potential barrier to healthy behaviour change, the efficacy of feedback to promote physical activity is uncertain. Using a randomised controlled trial nested within a population-based cohort study, we plan to test three variations of physical activity feedback against a control group. Our primary objective is to assess the efficacy of physical activity feedback in promoting physical activity behaviour change. Secondary objectives are to determine the influence of feedback on physical activity awareness and cognitions, and to compare behavioural effects by type of feedback. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 500 healthy participants aged 30 to 55 years from the ongoing Fenland Study (Cambridge, UK. Following careful phenotyping during baseline measurement (anthropometric, clinical, body composition and fitness measurements, as well as questionnaires assessing self-reported and self-rated physical activity, psychosocial correlates of physical activity behaviour, diet, lifestyle and general health, participants wear a combined heart rate and movement sensor (Actiheart® for six continuous days and nights. After receipt of the physical activity data (around 2 weeks later, participants are randomly allocated to either a control group (no feedback or one of three types of personalised physical activity feedback ('simple', 'visualised' or 'contextualised', and complete repeat measures of self-rated physical activity and psychosocial correlates. Approximately five weeks after receiving feedback, all participants wear the Actiheart® for another six-day follow-up period and complete repeat questionnaires. Values at outcome, adjusted for baseline, will be compared between randomised groups. Discussion Given the randomised trial design and use of objective measure of physical activity, this study is likely to provide valuable insights into the

  3. The effectiveness of adding cognitive behavioural therapy aimed at changing lifestyle to managed diabetes care for patients with type 2 diabetes: design of a randomised controlled trial

    van Oppen Patricia

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with type 2 diabetes, the risk for cardiovascular disease is substantial. To achieve a more favourable risk profile, lifestyle changes on diet, physical activity and smoking status are needed. This will involve changes in behaviour, which is difficult to achieve. Cognitive behavioural therapies focussing on self-management have been shown to be effective. We have developed an intervention combining techniques of Motivational Interviewing (MI and Problem Solving Treatment (PST. The aim of our study is to investigate if adding a combined behavioural intervention to managed care, is effective in achieving changes in lifestyle and cardiovascular risk profile. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes will be selected from general practices (n = 13, who are participating in a managed diabetes care system. Patients will be randomised into an intervention group receiving cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT in addition to managed care, and a control group that will receive managed care only. The CBT consists of three to six individual sessions of 30 minutes to increase the patient's motivation, by using principles of MI, and ability to change their lifestyle, by using PST. The first session will start with a risk assessment of diabetes complications that will be used to focus the intervention. The primary outcome measure is the difference between intervention and control group in change in cardiovascular risk score. For this purpose blood pressure, HbA1c, total and HDL-cholesterol and smoking status will be assessed. Secondary outcome measures are quality of life, patient satisfaction, physical activity, eating behaviour, smoking status, depression and determinants of behaviour change. Differences between changes in the two groups will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with 95% confidence intervals. The power calculation is based on the risk for cardiovascular disease and we calculated that 97 patients

  4. Who will increase their physical activity? Predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort

    Sutton Stephen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to identify predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity over 12 months in the ProActive cohort to improve understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity. Methods ProActive is a physical activity promotion trial that took place in Eastern England (1999-2004. 365 offspring of people with type 2 diabetes underwent measurement of physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE using heart rate monitoring, fitness, and anthropometric and biochemical status at baseline and 1 year (n = 321. Linear regression was used to quantify the associations between baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural variables and change in PAEE over 12 months. This study is registered as ISRCTN61323766. Results ProActive participants significantly increased their PAEE by 0.6 kj/min (SD 4.2, p = 0.006 over one year, the equivalent of around 20 minutes brisk walking/day. Male sex and higher fitness at baseline predicted increase in PAEE. No significant associations were found for any other variables. Very few baseline demographic, clinical, psychosocial and behavioural predictors were associated with change in objectively measured physical activity. Conclusions Traditional baseline determinants of self-reported physical activity targeted by behavioural interventions may be relatively weak predictors of change in objectively measured physical activity. Further research is needed to improve our understanding of factors influencing change in physical activity to inform the development and targeting of interventions.

  5. The application of behaviour change theory, delivered through mobile-app and wearable-based technology, proven to engage and improve the health & wellbeing of populations. A case study

    Ronan Carter

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Yomp’s aims are simple – get more people active, more often. Especially those sedentary or ‘high risk’. Yomp do this through community engagement and behavioural change techniques applied through ‘gamification’ via our award-winning technology (online platform, app and integration into wearable devices). A London-based technology company now working globally, Yomp has been developing behaviour change programs for almost five years, initially in cycling and now across all for...

  6. Handedness and behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system (BIS/BAS) scores: A replication and extension of Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009).

    Beaton, Alan A; Kaack, Imogen H; Corr, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ) as modified by Briggs and Nebes was administered along with Carver and White's behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS) scale and a shortened form of the Big Five personality questionnaire to 92 university students. After eliminating the data from five respondents who reported having changed handedness and one outlier, there was a significant sex difference in mean BIS scores, with females (n = 43) scoring higher than males (n = 43). Replicating the results of Wright, Hardie and Wilson, non-right-handers (n = 36) had significantly higher mean BIS score than right-handers (n = 50). Controlling for sex of participant, neuroticism and BAS sub-scale scores in hierarchical regression analyses left this BIS effect substantially unaffected. There was no handedness or sex difference on any of the three BAS sub-scales. Further analyses revealed no association between strength, as distinct from direction, of handedness and BIS (or BAS) scores. The findings are discussed with reference to recent developments in reinforcement sensitivity theory on which BIS/BAS variables are based. PMID:25697855

  7. Mechanical behaviour of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-activated metakaolin blended pastes. Statistical study

    Higuera, I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The study and development of alternative, more ecoefficient binders than portland cement are attracting a good deal of scientific and technological interest. Binders obtained from the chemical interaction between calcium silico-aluminous materials and highly alkaline solutions are one of several types of such possible cements. The present paper discusses the mechanical behaviour and mineralogical composition of blended pastes made from NaOH-activated vitreous blast furnace slag and metakaolin. The aim of the study was to determine how parameters such as the slag/metakaolin ratio, activating solution concentration and curing temperature affect strength development in these binders. A statistical study was conducted to establish the impact of each variable and model strength behaviour in these alkaline cements. The conclusion drawn is that activator concentration and the slag/metakaolin ratio are both determinant parameters.

    El estudio y desarrollo de cementos alternativos y más eco-eficientes que el cemento Portland es un tema de gran impacto a nivel científico y tecnológico. Entre esos posibles cementos se encuentran los cementos alcalinos que son materiales conglomerantes obtenidos por la interacción química de materiales silico-aluminosos cálcicos y disoluciones fuertemente alcalinas. En el presente trabajo se estudia el comportamiento mecánico y la composición mineralógica de mezclas de escoria vítrea de horno alto y metacaolín activadas alcalinamente con disoluciones de NaOH. El objetivo de este estudio es conocer cómo afectan parámetros tales como la relación escoria/metacaolín, la concentración de la disolución activadora y la temperatura de curado, al desarrollo resistente de las mezclas. A través del estudio estadístico realizado se ha podido establecer la influencia de cada variable y modelizar el comportamiento resistente de estos cementos alcalinos. Se concluye que la concentración del activador y la relaci

  8. Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps in captivity at night

    ANITA SARDIANA TJAKRADIDJAJA

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Activities that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps in captivity at night study on activity that related to feeding behaviour of sugar glider in captivity of small mammals at night has been conducted at the Division of Zoology, Research Center for Biology-LIPI, Bogor. Feeds consisted of passion fruit, banana, guava, papaya, sweet corn, coconut, and bread and were given ad libitum. Four sugar glider consisting of two males and females were place in two cages. One zero sampling method was used to observe daily activity with interval every 15 minutes which was divided in two periods (06.00-11.45 pm and 00.15-06.00 am. Result of behaviour observation showed that feeding activity (13.65%, drinking activity (0.58%, urination activity (4.71% and defecation activity (5.93%. Other activities are locomotion, grooming, and resting activities 42.59%; 23.54%; and 9.01%. Male and female sugar gliders different in their feeding activities and locomotion.

  9. Behavioural strategies of aggressive and non-aggressive male mice in active shock avoidance

    Benus, R. F.; Bohus, B; Koolhaas, J.M.; van Oortmerssen, G.A

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis, partly based on findings in social interactions, that aggressive mice generally adopt an active behavioural strategy (cf. fight-flight) in threatening situations, while non-aggressive ones generally assume a passive strategy (cf. conservation-withdrawal) was tested using a two-way active shock avoidance paradigm. Overall, aggressive mice were found to be better active shock avoiders than non-aggressive animals, a finding that is consistent with our hypothesis. However, within ...

  10. A re-examination of information seeking behaviour in the context of activity theory

    Wilson T.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Activity theory, developed in the USSR as a Marxist alternative to Western psychology, has been applied widely in educational studies and increasingly in human-computer interaction research. Argument. The key elements of activity theory, Motivation, Goal, Activity, Tools, Object, Outcome, Rules, Community and Division of labour are all directly applicable to the conduct of information behaviour research. An activity-theoretical approach to information behaviour research would provide a sound basis for the elaboration of contextual issues, for the discovering of organizational and other contradictions that affect information behaviour. It may be used to aid the design and analysis of investigations. Elaboration. The basic ideas of activity theory are outlined and an attempt is made to harmonize different perspectives. A contrast is made between an activity system perspective and an activity process perspective and a diagrammatic representation of the process perspective is offered. Conclusion. Activity theory is not a predictive theory but a conceptual framework within which different theoretical perspectives may be employed. Typically, it is suggested that several methods of data collection should be employed and that the time frame for investigation should be long enough for the full range of contextual issues to emerge. Activity theory offers not only a useful conceptual framework, but also a coherent terminology to be shared by researchers, and a rapidly developing body of literature in associated disciplines.

  11. A transactional analysis of changes in parent and chick behaviour prior to separation of Herring Gulls (Larus Argentatus): A three-term contingency model.

    Reed, Phil

    2015-09-01

    The effect of the passage of time on parent-offspring behaviour of urban Herring Gulls (Larus Argentatus) was studied and analysed using a three-term contingency model. A behavioural sequence was initiated by the arrival of a parental adult gull, which would lead to feeding in the chick. However, with the passage of time, and approach of the separation period, this pattern changed. Chicks' begging became more intense, and parent gulls more often withheld food. However, the chicks' begging became directed at a wider range of adults over the observation period. These activities are placed within a three-term contingency model, which may have implications for understanding some behavioural processes involved in parent-offspring separation. PMID:26003136

  12. Habitat change influences mate search behaviour in three-spined sticklebacks

    Heuschele, Jan; Salminen, Tiina; Candolin, Ulrika

    2012-01-01

    is a global problem that alters habitat structure and visibility in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated whether changes in habitat complexity and male cue modality, visual or olfactory, influence mate search behaviour of female three-spined sticklebacks, Gasterosteus aculeatus. We allowed gravid females...... to search for mates in experimental pools that contained two nesting males and one social female, under low and high structural complexity (created from green Plexiglas sheets), with access to either visual or olfactory cues of the individuals. We found increased habitat complexity reduced the number...... evaluation in the absence of visual stimulation. This reduced the rate of mate encounters and probably also the opportunity for choice. Our results show that changes in habitat structure and visibility can alter female mate searching, with potential consequences for the opportunity for sexual selection....

  13. Achieving behaviour change at scale: Alive & Thrive's infant and young child feeding programme in Bangladesh.

    Sanghvi, Tina; Haque, Raisul; Roy, Sumitro; Afsana, Kaosar; Seidel, Renata; Islam, Sanjeeda; Jimerson, Ann; Baker, Jean

    2016-05-01

    The Alive & Thrive programme scaled up infant and young child feeding interventions in Bangladesh from 2010 to 2014. In all, 8.5 million mothers benefited. Approaches - including improved counselling by frontline health workers during home visits; community mobilization; mass media campaigns reaching mothers, fathers and opinion leaders; and policy advocacy - led to rapid and significant improvements in key practices related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding. (Evaluation results are forthcoming.) Intervention design was based on extensive formative research and behaviour change theory and principles and was tailored to the local context. The programme focused on small, achievable actions for key audience segments identified through rigorous testing. Promotion strategies took into account underlying behavioural determinants and reached a high per cent of the priority groups through repeated contacts. Community volunteers received monetary incentives for mothers in their areas who practised recommended behaviours. Programme monitoring, midterm surveys and additional small studies to answer questions led to ongoing adjustments. Scale-up was achieved through streamlining of tools and strategies, government branding, phased expansion through BRAC - a local non-governmental implementing partner with an extensive community-based platform - and nationwide mainstreaming through multiple non-governmental organization and government programmes. Key messages Well-designed and well-implemented large-scale interventions that combine interpersonal counselling, community mobilization, advocacy, mass communication and strategic use of data have great potential to improve IYCF practices rapidly. Formative research and ongoing studies are essential to tailor strategies to the local context and to the perspectives of mothers, family members, influential community members and policymakers. Continued use of data to adjust programme elements is also central to the process. Scale

  14. The stigmatisation of pregnancy: societal influences on pregnant women's physical activity Behaviour.

    van Mulken, Michelle R H; McAllister, Margaret; Lowe, John B

    2016-08-01

    Many women going through the major life transition of pregnancy experience decreases in physical activity behaviour, which may compromise maternal and infant health and wellbeing. Although research suggests that the social environment plays a large role in influencing women's physical activity behaviour, little is known about the association between societal attitudes and physical activity behaviour during the course of pregnancy. Through a qualitative longitudinal study, we explored women's physical activity experiences throughout pregnancy and how these were formed, supported and/or opposed by their social environment. This research included telephone interviews with 30 pregnant participants, recruited via a regional public hospital. Using a feminist standpoint analysis incorporating modern dialectics, three major tensions were identified, reflecting dominant societal discourses around physical activity and pregnancy: (1) engaging in physical activity and keeping the baby safe, (2) engaging in physical activity and obtaining social approval and (3) listening to oneself and to others. These findings present previously unrecognised opportunities for developing tailored and effective physical activity interventions among pregnant women. PMID:26967357

  15. Physical activity, sedentary behaviour and metabolic control following stroke: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Sarah A Moore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are key moderators of cardiovascular disease risk and metabolic control. Despite the importance of a physically active lifestyle, little is known about the effects of stroke on physical activity. We assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour at three time points following stroke compared to a healthy control group. METHODS: Physical activity and sedentary behaviour were objectively measured using a portable multi-sensor array in 31 stroke participants (73±9 years, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale 2±2, mobile 10 metres with/without aid within seven days and at three and six months. Stroke data were compared with an age, sex and body mass index matched healthy control group (n = 31. RESULTS: Within seven days of stroke, total energy expenditure and physical activity were significantly lower and sedentary time higher in the stroke group compared to controls (total energy expenditure 1840±354 vs. 2220±489 kcal, physical activity 28±32 vs. 79±46 min/day, steps 3111±2290 vs. 7996±2649, sedentary time 1383±42 vs. 1339±44 min/day, p<0.01. At three months physical activity levels had increased (64±58 min/day but plateaued by six months (66±68 min/day. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity levels are reduced immediately post-stroke and remain below recommended levels for health and wellbeing at the three and six month time points. Clinicians should explore methods to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviour in both the acute and later stages following stroke.

  16. Self-Identity as a Component of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Predicting Physical Activity

    Ries, Francis; Hein, Vello; Pihu, Maret; Armenta, Jose Manuel Sevillano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of self-identity, defined as salient and enduring aspects of one's self-perception (Sparks, 2000), in relation to adolescent physical activity (PA) intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). School students aged 12 to 18 from two cultural groups (Estonia and Spain) completed measures of…

  17. On the behaviour of the IR Ca II triplet in normal and active galaxies

    Terlevich, Elena; Angeles I. Díaz; Terlevich, Roberto

    1990-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an article published in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. Terlevich, E., Díaz, A.I., Terlevich, R. On the behaviour of the IR Ca II triplet in normal and active galaxies. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 242 (1990): 271-284

  18. Behavioural Risk Factors and Health Promotional Activities in Adults at Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in a South Indian Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital

    Auras Atreya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: India along with other South Asian countries significantly contributes to the global burden of cardiovascular diseases. Studies have shown Indians to exhibit higher prevalence of Coronary Artery Disease and coronary risk factors as compared with Caucasians. These risk factors are compounded by behavioural risk factors such as regular tobacco use, low physical activity as well as a high saturated fat intake and this places a need for effective behavioural modification. Objective: To identify behavioural risk factors among patients at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the general medical practice and to identify if these high-risk patients were subjected to any health promotional activities to modify their risk behaviour.Methods: A cross sectional study was carried out at the general medical clinics of a tertiary care teaching hospital in coastal Karnataka, India. A total of 68 patients who were at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease attending these outpatient services during a two month period were recruited into the study. A pretested questionnaire was used to collect the relevant data.Results: Seventy three percent of the participants were older than 50 years of age. Majority (79% were diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes. Most of the participants (66% were engaged in light physical activity, and almost 48% were observed to have a high Body Mass Index (BMI. None of the 8 smokers identified in the study had been subjected to any stage based behaviour change therapy. Although diet modification was advised in up to 95% of the cases, only 19% received a supervised diet plan. A marginal improvement in the BMI was noted among these individuals.Conclusion: These findings indicate the paucity of behavioural change intervention in the day to day care of chronic patients. A targeted behavioural counselling imparted by trained professionals is the need of the hour to bring about the desired change among patients at risk of

  19. Changes in attitude, sexual behaviour and the risk of HIV/AIDS transmission in southwest Nigeria.

    Olayinka, B A; Osho, A A

    1997-09-01

    This pilot study was carried out in southwest Nigeria to determine the current trends in sexual behaviours known to be associated with HIV transmission in Nigeria. Knowledge of AIDS in general and as an incurable disease was high (91.4% and 79.4% respectively). Knowledge of the means of AIDS transmission was also very high among both men and women. Overall, condom use was consistent at 25%, inconsistent at 55% and non-existent at 20% for all sexually active respondents. Over 60 per cent of sexually active respondents had two or more sexual partners, with significantly more males than females having this number of sexual partners (p < 0.01). Eighteen per cent of sexually active respondents had a history of sex with commercial sex workers while 25% had a history of at least one sexually transmitted disease. Using multiple logistic regression, the significant determinants of condom use among the sexually active group were: being in a stable sexual relationship, history of sex with commercial sex workers, self-perception of testing positive for HIV and self-perception of HIV/AIDS risk in Nigeria. Prevalence of condom use in this study was much higher than those reported in previous studies, suggesting a probable decline in high risk sexual behaviours among inhabitants of urban Southwest Nigeria since the advent of AIDS. Most sexually active respondents aged 19 years or below (adolescents) who perceived themselves at a high risk of testing positive for HIV had never used condoms. The non usage of condoms among this group of adolescents is disturbing, since they are at greatest risk of spreading the disease. Health education and promotion of safe sex practices need to be extensively targeted at adolescents. PMID:9487429

  20. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures

    Katapally, Tarun R.; Nazeem Muhajarine

    2015-01-01

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s built environment was assessed by two ...

  1. Unintended consequences of incentive provision for behaviour change and maintenance around childbirth.

    Gill Thomson

    Full Text Available Financial (positive or negative and non-financial incentives or rewards are increasingly used in attempts to influence health behaviours. While unintended consequences of incentive provision are discussed in the literature, evidence syntheses did not identify any primary research with the aim of investigating unintended consequences of incentive interventions for lifestyle behaviour change. Our objective was to investigate perceived positive and negative unintended consequences of incentive provision for a shortlist of seven promising incentive strategies for smoking cessation in pregnancy and breastfeeding. A multi-disciplinary, mixed-methods approach included involving two service-user mother and baby groups from disadvantaged areas with experience of the target behaviours as study co-investigators. Systematic reviews informed the shortlist of incentive strategies. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and a web-based survey of health professionals asked open questions on positive and negative consequences of incentives. The participants from three UK regions were a diverse sample with and without direct experience of incentive interventions: 88 pregnant women/recent mothers/partners/family members; 53 service providers; 24 experts/decision makers and interactive discussions with 63 conference attendees. Maternity and early years health professionals (n = 497 including doctors, midwives, health visitors, public health and related staff participated in the survey. Qualitative analysis identified ethical, political, cultural, social and psychological implications of incentive delivery at population and individual levels. Four key themes emerged: how incentives can address or create inequalities; enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation and wellbeing; have a positive or negative effect on relationships with others within personal networks or health providers; and can impact on health systems and resources by raising awareness and directing

  2. Lowbury Lecture 2013. Cultural determinants of infection control behaviour: understanding drivers and implementing effective change.

    Borg, M A

    2014-03-01

    Despite dealing with biomedical practices, infection prevention and control (IPC) is essentially a behavioural science. Human behaviour is influenced by various factors, including culture. Hofstede's model of cultural dimensions proposes that national cultures vary along consistent dimensions which can be grouped and scored as specific constructs. Studies have reported that three Hofstede constructs--power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity--show significant association with several key performance indicators relevant to IPC and antibiotic stewardship. In addition, national meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) levels within Europe correlate well with general quality-of-care indices, including preventive strategies and patient rights. This suggests that IPC may be simply a microcosm of overall quality and safety standards within hospitals and countries. Effective improvement would therefore need to address underlying and embedded core cultural values relevant to patient safety and quality of care. Successful IPC strategies are likely to be those that are compatible with the cultural background where they are implemented. To this end, content analysis of many current IPC improvement tools identifies elements of strong compatibility with cultures that are low in uncertainty avoidance and power distance, and high in individualism and masculinity. However, this cultural combination is largely restricted to Anglo-Saxon countries, where most of the recent improvements in healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) incidence have taken place. There is a paucity of research on IPC behaviour change in different cultural backgrounds, especially countries that score high for power distance and/or uncertainty avoidance. This information is vital to inform IPC campaigns in these countries, which often show high HCAI prevalence. PMID:24534705

  3. Linking brain-wide multivoxel activation patterns to behaviour: Examples from language and math.

    Raizada, Rajeev D S; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Liu, Huei-Mei; Holloway, Ian D; Ansari, Daniel; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2010-05-15

    A key goal of cognitive neuroscience is to find simple and direct connections between brain and behaviour. However, fMRI analysis typically involves choices between many possible options, with each choice potentially biasing any brain-behaviour correlations that emerge. Standard methods of fMRI analysis assess each voxel individually, but then face the problem of selection bias when combining those voxels into a region-of-interest, or ROI. Multivariate pattern-based fMRI analysis methods use classifiers to analyse multiple voxels together, but can also introduce selection bias via data-reduction steps as feature selection of voxels, pre-selecting activated regions, or principal components analysis. We show here that strong brain-behaviour links can be revealed without any voxel selection or data reduction, using just plain linear regression as a classifier applied to the whole brain at once, i.e. treating each entire brain volume as a single multi-voxel pattern. The brain-behaviour correlations emerged despite the fact that the classifier was not provided with any information at all about subjects' behaviour, but instead was given only the neural data and its condition-labels. Surprisingly, more powerful classifiers such as a linear SVM and regularised logistic regression produce very similar results. We discuss some possible reasons why the very simple brain-wide linear regression model is able to find correlations with behaviour that are as strong as those obtained on the one hand from a specific ROI and on the other hand from more complex classifiers. In a manner which is unencumbered by arbitrary choices, our approach offers a method for investigating connections between brain and behaviour which is simple, rigorous and direct. PMID:20132896

  4. Using Photovoice as a Community Based Participatory Research Tool for Changing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Behaviours in Usoma, Kenya

    Elijah Bisung; Susan J. Elliott; Bernard Abudho; Karanja, Diana M.; Corinne J. Schuster-Wallace

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an increase in the use of community based participatory research (CBPR) tools for understanding environment and health issues and facilitating social action. This paper explores the application and utility of photovoice for understanding water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) behaviours and catalysing community led solutions to change behaviours. Between June and August 2013, photovoice was conducted with eight (8) women in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Ke...

  5. Behaviour of oscillations in loop structures above active regions

    Kolobov, D Y; Chelpanov, A A; Kochanov, A A; Anfinogentov, S A; Chupin, S A; Myshyakov, I I; Tomin, V E

    2015-01-01

    In this study we combine the multiwavelength ultraviolet -- optical (Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO) and radio (Nobeyama Radioheliograph, NoRH) observations to get further insight into space-frequency distribution of oscillations at different atmospheric levels of the Sun. We processed the observational data on NOAA 11711 active region and found oscillations propagating from the photospheric level through the transition region upward into the corona. The power maps of low-frequency (1--2 mHz) oscillations reproduce well the fan-like coronal structures visible in the Fe ix 171A line. High frequency oscillations (5--7 mHz) propagate along the vertical magnetic field lines and concentrate inside small-scale elements in the umbra and at the umbra-penumbra boundary. We investigated the dependence of the dominant oscillation frequency upon the distance from the sunspot barycentre to estimate inclination of magnetic tubes in higher levels of sunspots where it cannot be measured directly, and found that this angle i...

  6. Abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramics containing apatite

    I Sevim; M K Kulekci

    2006-06-01

    In this study, abrasive wear behaviour of bio-active glass ceramic materials produced with two different processes is studied. Hot pressing process and conventional casting and controlled crystallization process were used to produce bio-active ceramics. Fracture toughness of studied material was calculated by fracture toughness equations using experimental hardness results of the bio-active glass ceramic material. Two fracture toughness equations in the literature were used to identify the wear behaviour of studied ceramics. Wear resistance results that identified with both of the equations were similar. The results showed that the abrasive wear resistance of the bio-active glass ceramics produced with hot pressing process was found to be higher than that of the ceramics produced by conventional casting and controlled crystallization process.

  7. EFFECT OF FLOOR TYPE ON BEHAVIOURAL ACTIVITIES OF INTENSIVELY MANAGED OSTRICHES

    Dan SEABO; Esu WAUGH; Chistopher TSOPITO; Funnie COOPER

    2015-01-01

    Effects of providing grit on daily behavioural activities of intensively kept ostriches were investigated at the Botswana College of Agriculture. Two groups of ostriches were each housed in a 30 x 6m pen. Each group had seven ostriches in it. Each member of the group was identified by a number tag attached to its neck. Activities studied were feeding, picking objects, walking about, sparring, standing rest, sitting rest, grooming self, and grooming others. The study lasted 30 days. The result...

  8. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina; Dopsaj Milivoj; Vesković Ana

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eat...

  9. Relationship between psychological and biological factors and physical activity and exercise behaviour in Filipino students

    Polman, Remco; Pieter, Willy; Luigi T. Bercades; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was threefold. Firstly, it investigated whether a general measure or specific measure of motivational orientation was better in describing the relationship between motivation and exercise behaviour. Secondly, it examined the relationship between the four most popular indirect methods of body composition assessment and physical activity and exercise patterns. Thirdly, the interaction between motivation and body composition on physical activity and exercise behaviou...

  10. Indoor Tracking to Understand Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour: Exploratory Study in UK Office Buildings

    Spinney, Richard; Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Fisher, Abigail; Konstantatou, Marina; Sawyer, Alexia; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Alexi

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the patterns of physical activity, standing and sitting by office workers. However, insight into these behaviours is of growing interest, notably in regard to public health priorities to reduce non-communicable disease risk factors associated with high levels of sitting time and low levels of physical activity. With the advent and increasing availability of indoor tracking systems it is now becoming possible to build detailed pictures of the usage of indoor spaces. This pap...

  11. Change of attitude and behaviour of the West-German population after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    As a result of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the West-German population has shown to be much more aware of the hazards emanating from environmental pollution and chemical or radioactive contamination of food. It could be observed that, on the whole, consumption of important basic food has been reduced, so that the population's supply with various, significant nutrients is expected to deteriorate. The nutrients to be mentioned in this context are primarily calcium, riboflavin, folic acid, and ascorbic acid. Investigations over the period May to July 1986 show that the reactor accident's impact on the food consumption behaviour subsides only slowly, and it remains to be seen to what extent changes and fluctuations in the population's nutritional behaviour will have to be taken as 'normal'. Hence some sort of nutritional deficiency can be expected among certain groups of the population, either temporarily or over a prolonged period. A National Survey of Food Consumption currently in preparation will yield more detailed insight into the whole process. (orig./MG)

  12. How big is the physical activity intention-behaviour gap? A meta-analysis using the action control framework

    R.E. Rhodes; G.-J. de Bruijn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The physical activity (PA) intention-behaviour gap is a topic of considerable contemporary research, given that most of our models used to understand physical activity suggest that intention is the proximal antecedent of behavioural enactment. The purpose of this study was to quantify the

  13. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-01

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. PMID:26371015

  14. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures

    Tarun R. Katapally

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10–14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  15. An extended version of the theory of planned behaviour: the role of self-efficacy and past behaviour in predicting the physical activity of Chinese adolescents.

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to use an extended theory of planned behaviour (TPB), which incorporated additional self-efficacy and past behaviour, to predict the intention to engage in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the MVPA level of Chinese adolescents. Questionnaires that focused on MVPA, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioural control (PBC), self-efficacy and past behaviour related to the MVPA engagement were administered to a sample of 488 young people. Multiple regression analyses provided moderate support for TPB. Three TPB constructs predicted 28.7% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA, and that PBC, but not intention, explained 3.4% of the variance in MVPA. Self-efficacy significantly affected intention and behaviour over and above the influence of TPB. Past behaviour had a small but significant improvement in the prediction of intention, but no improvement in the prediction of MVPA. Based on the results, interventions should target adolescent self-efficacy and PBC in physical activity participation. PMID:26148128

  16. Autistic-like behavioural and neurochemical changes in a mouse model of food allergy

    de Theije, Caroline G M; Wu, Jiangbo; Koelink, Pim J; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien A H; Borre, Yuliya; Kas, Martien J H; Lopes da Silva, Sofia; Korte, S Mechiel; Olivier, Berend; Garssen, Johan; Kraneveld, Aletta D

    2014-01-01

    Food allergy has been suggested to contribute to the expression of psychological and psychiatric traits, including disturbed social behaviour and repetitive behaviour inherent in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Most research in this field receives little attention, since fundamental evidence showin

  17. Neural and behavioural changes in male periadolescent mice after prolonged nicotine-MDMA treatment.

    Adeniyi, Philip A; Ishola, Azeez O; Laoye, Babafemi J; Olatunji, Babawale P; Bankole, Oluwamolakun O; Shallie, Philemon D; Ogundele, Olalekan M

    2016-02-01

    The interaction between MDMA and Nicotine affects multiple brain centres and neurotransmitter systems (serotonin, dopamine and glutamate) involved in motor coordination and cognition. In this study, we have elucidated the effect of prolonged (10 days) MDMA, Nicotine and a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment on motor-cognitive neural functions. In addition, we have shown the correlation between the observed behavioural change and neural structural changes induced by these treatments in BALB/c mice. We observed that MDMA (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) induced a decline in motor function, while Nicotine (2 mg/Kg body weight; subcutaneous) improved motor function in male periadolescent mice. In combined treatment, Nicotine reduced the motor function decline observed in MDMA treatment, thus no significant change in motor function for the combined treatment versus the control. Nicotine or MDMA treatment reduced memory function and altered hippocampal structure. Similarly, a combined Nicotine-MDMA treatment reduced memory function when compared with the control. Ultimately, the metabolic and structural changes in these neural systems were seen to vary for the various forms of treatment. It is noteworthy to mention that a combined treatment increased the rate of lipid peroxidation in brain tissue. PMID:26088184

  18. Evaluation of EMLA cream for preventing pain during tattooing of rabbits: changes in physiological, behavioural and facial expression responses.

    Stephanie C J Keating

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ear tattooing is a routine procedure performed on laboratory, commercial and companion rabbits for the purpose of identification. Although this procedure is potentially painful, it is usually performed without the provision of analgesia, so compromising animal welfare. Furthermore, current means to assess pain in rabbits are poor and more reliable methods are required. The objectives of this study were to assess the physiological and behavioural effects of ear tattooing on rabbits, evaluate the analgesic efficacy of topical local anaesthetic cream application prior to this procedure, and to develop a scale to assess pain in rabbits based on changes in facial expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a crossover study, eight New Zealand White rabbits each underwent four different treatments of actual or sham ear tattooing, with and without prior application of a topical local anaesthetic (lidocaine/prilocaine. Changes in immediate behaviour, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, serum corticosterone concentrations, facial expression and home pen behaviours were assessed. Changes in facial expression were examined to develop the Rabbit Grimace Scale in order to assess acute pain. Tattooing without EMLA cream resulted in significantly greater struggling behaviour and vocalisation, greater facial expression scores of pain, higher peak heart rate, as well as higher systolic and mean arterial blood pressure compared to all other treatments. Physiological and behavioural changes following tattooing with EMLA cream were similar to those in animals receiving sham tattoos with or without EMLA cream. Behavioural changes 1 hour post-treatment were minimal with no pain behaviours identifiable in any group. Serum corticosterone responses did not differ between sham and tattoo treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Ear tattooing causes transient and potentially severe pain in rabbits, which is almost completely prevented by prior application of local

  19. SEXUAL EXPLOITATION AND ABUSE BY UN PEACEKEEPERS: THE PSYCHOSOCIAL CONTEXT OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE

    Carol Allais

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available United Nations peacekeepers have been subject to allegations of serious sexual misconduct for many years. Such incidents of sexual assault perpetrated by peacekeepers have been documented over the years in a number of countries. The violation of codes of conduct, particularly regarding sexual exploitation and abuse, damages the image and credibility of a peacekeeping operation. Victims of sexual exploitation and abuse suffer sever physical and psychological consequences.The sexual exploitation of children by peacekeepers is particularly insidious. Educational interventions and training initiatives to bring about behaviour change to address sexual exploitation and abuse must take cognisance of the way in which social identities are shaped in response to the life challenges posed by the relevant social and material world in which peacekeepers find themselves.

  20. Effect of transient change in strain rate on plastic flow behaviour of low carbon steel

    A Ray; P Barat; P Mukherjee; A Sarkar; S K Bandyopadhyay

    2007-02-01

    Plastic flow behaviour of low carbon steel has been studied at room temperature during tensile deformation by varying the initial strain rate of 3.3 × 10-4 s-1 to a final strain rate ranging from 1.33 × 10-3 s-1 to 2 × 10-3 s-1 at a fixed engineering strain of 12%. Haasen plot revealed that the mobile dislocation density remained almost invariant at the juncture where there was a sudden increase in stress with a change in strain rate and the plastic flow was solely dependent on the velocity of mobile dislocations. In that critical regime, the variation of stress with time was fitted with a Boltzmann type Sigmoid function. The increase in stress was found to increase with final strain rate and the time elapsed in attaining these stress values showed a decreasing trend. Both of these parameters saturated asymptotically at a higher final strain rate.

  1. An update: choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service settings

    Skov, Laurits Rohden; Perez-Cueto, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this review was to update the current evidence-base for the use of choice architecture as a means to change eating behaviour in self-service eating settings, hence potentially reducing energy intake. Methodology: 12 databases were searched systematically...... for experimental studies with predefined choice architectural interventions in the period June 2011 - March 2012. The 12 included studies were grouped according to type of interventions and underwent a narrative synthesis. An update of the review was conducted during the summer of 2014. Results: The evidence...... indicates that (i) health labelling at point-of-purchase is associated with healthier food choice, whilst (ii) manipulating the plate and cutlery size has an inconclusive effect on consumption volume. Finally, (iii) assortment manipulation and (iv) payment option manipulation was associated with healthier...

  2. Kazakhstan : Overview of Climate Change Activities

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This overview of climate change activities in Kazakhstan is part of a series of country notes for five Central Asian countries that summarize climate portfolio of the major development partners in a number of climate-sensitive sectors, namely energy, agriculture, forestry, and natural resources, water, health, and transport. Recognizing the nature and significance of climate change contrib...

  3. Kyrgyz Republic : Overview of Climate Change Activities

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This overview of climate change activities in the Kyrgyz Republic is part of a series of country notes for five Central Asian countries that summarize climate portfolio in a number of sectors, namely agriculture, forestry, water, health, energy, and transport. Recognizing the nature and significance of climate change contribution to an increase in disaster risk, the note also looks into th...

  4. Tajikistan : Overview of Climate Change Activities

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This overview of climate change activities in Tajikistan is part of a series of country notes for five Central Asian countries that summarize climate portfolio of the major development partners in a number of climate-sensitive sectors, namely energy, agriculture, forestry and natural resources, water, health, and transport. Recognizing the nature and significance of climate change contribu...

  5. From mother to child: orbitofrontal cortex gyrification and changes of drinking behaviour during adolescence.

    Kühn, Simone; Witt, Charlotte; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barbot, Alexis; Barker, Gareth J; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia J; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Paus, Tomas; Rietschel, Marcella; Smolka, Michael N; Ströhle, Andreas; Brühl, Rüdiger; Schumann, Gunter; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence is a common time for initiation of alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Importantly, the neuro-anatomical foundation for later alcohol-related problems may already manifest pre-natally, particularly due to smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. In this context, cortical gyrification is an interesting marker of neuronal development but has not been investigated as a risk factor for adolescent alcohol use. On magnetic resonance imaging scans of 595 14-year-old adolescents from the IMAGEN sample, we computed whole-brain mean curvature indices to predict change in alcohol-related problems over the following 2 years. Change of alcohol use-related problems was significantly predicted from mean curvature in left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Less gyrification of OFC was associated with an increase in alcohol use-related problems over the next 2 years. Moreover, lower gyrification in left OFC was related to pre-natal alcohol exposure, whereas maternal smoking during pregnancy had no effect. Current alcohol use-related problems of the biological mother had no effect on offsprings' OFC gyrification or drinking behaviour. The data support the idea that alcohol consumption during pregnancy mediates the development of neuro-anatomical phenotypes, which in turn constitute a risk factor for increasing problems due to alcohol consumption in a vulnerable stage of life. Maternal smoking during pregnancy or current maternal alcohol/nicotine consumption had no significant effect. The OFC mediates behaviours known to be disturbed in addiction, namely impulse control and reward processing. The results stress the importance of pre-natal alcohol exposure for later increases in alcohol use-related problems, mediated by structural brain characteristics. PMID:25913102

  6. Behavioural activation system sensitivity is associated with cerebral μ-opioid receptor availability.

    Karjalainen, Tomi; Tuominen, Lauri; Manninen, Sandra; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Nuutila, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Hari, Riitta; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2016-08-01

    The reinforcement-sensitivity theory proposes that behavioural activation and inhibition systems (BAS and BIS, respectively) guide approach and avoidance behaviour in potentially rewarding and punishing situations. Their baseline activity presumably explains individual differences in behavioural dispositions when a person encounters signals of reward and harm. Yet, neurochemical bases of BAS and BIS have remained poorly understood. Here we used in vivo positron emission tomography with a µ-opioid receptor (MOR) specific ligand [(11)C]carfentanil to test whether individual differences in MOR availability would be associated with BAS or BIS. We scanned 49 healthy subjects and measured their BAS and BIS sensitivities using the BIS/BAS scales. BAS but not BIS sensitivity was positively associated with MOR availability in frontal cortex, amygdala, ventral striatum, brainstem, cingulate cortex and insula. Strongest associations were observed for the BAS subscale 'Fun Seeking'. Our results suggest that endogenous opioid system underlies BAS, and that differences in MOR availability could explain inter-individual differences in reward seeking behaviour. PMID:27053768

  7. A systematic review of patient reported factors associated with uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change

    Murray Jenni

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthy lifestyles are an important facet of cardiovascular risk management. Unfortunately many individuals fail to engage with lifestyle change programmes. There are many factors that patients report as influencing their decisions about initiating lifestyle change. This is challenging for health care professionals who may lack the skills and time to address a broad range of barriers to lifestyle behaviour. Guidance on which factors to focus on during lifestyle consultations may assist healthcare professionals to hone their skills and knowledge leading to more productive patient interactions with ultimately better uptake of lifestyle behaviour change support. The aim of our study was to clarify which influences reported by patients predict uptake and completion of formal lifestyle change programmes. Methods A systematic narrative review of quantitative observational studies reporting factors (influences associated with uptake and completion of lifestyle behaviour change programmes. Quantitative observational studies involving patients at high risk of cardiovascular events were identified through electronic searching and screened against pre-defined selection criteria. Factors were extracted and organised into an existing qualitative framework. Results 374 factors were extracted from 32 studies. Factors most consistently associated with uptake of lifestyle change related to support from family and friends, transport and other costs, and beliefs about the causes of illness and lifestyle change. Depression and anxiety also appear to influence uptake as well as completion. Many factors show inconsistent patterns with respect to uptake and completion of lifestyle change programmes. Conclusion There are a small number of factors that consistently appear to influence uptake and completion of cardiovascular lifestyle behaviour change. These factors could be considered during patient consultations to promote a tailored approach to

  8. Why don't we change our mobility behaviours ? Acceptance and hindrance to a change: the case study of the Greater Paris Region as compared to Nagoya

    ROCCI, A.

    2006-01-01

    We all know the harmful effects of car use, on social, environmental and urban aspects. But despite the urgency to reduce car use, in practice it seems difficult to bring about changes in mobility behaviours. My purpose is to understand why most people are not prepared to refrain from using cars in urban areas and what would make them change. I attempt to identify limiting factors to a behavioural change and the acceptability of more sustainable mobility practices. First I will analyse the mo...

  9. The assumption of self_ responsibility for health behaviour change in patients with hypertension from poor socio-economic areas

    A. V. Stewart

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with hypertension need to convert their knowledgeabout the disease and its management into meaningful action to be able to change their health behaviour. By doing this they are able to reduce the risk of the cardiovascular complications that are associated with hypertension If they can change their health behaviour it can be said that they have taken responsibility for their health. In this study a group of patients with hypertension who assumed responsibility for health behaviour change during a health behaviour modification programme was identified and compared to a group who did not. There were significant differences between the group that assumed responsibility for health behaviour change and the group that did not. The group that assumed responsibility:• had the support of a health care practitioner and a family member (p<0,000; • were employed (p=0.03; • were not anxious or depressed (p=0.07; • experienced their usual sex-lives (p=0.03; • did not have symptoms of heart pounding present (p=0.03. The adjusted odds ratio obtained from a logistic regression analysis showed a seven- times more likelihood ofpatients becoming responsible for their health if they were supported by their families and a health-care practitioner

  10. The limits of behaviour change theory: condom use and contexts of HIV risk in the Kolkata sex industry.

    Evans, Catrin; Lambert, Helen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses ethnographic data from a sex workers' HIV project in India to consider the appropriateness of individual, social/group and structural theories of health behaviour when applied to HIV-prevention initiatives. Existing theories are critiqued for their modernist representation of behaviour as determined by individual rational decision-making processes or by external structural forces, with inadequate recognition being given to the roles that human agency, subjective meaning and local context play in everyday actions. Analysis of sex workers' accounts of their sexual practices suggests that existing theories of health behaviour can only partially account for sexual behaviour change retrospectively and that they have limited predictive value with respect to the outcomes of individual sexual encounters. Our data show that these outcomes were, in fact, highly context dependent, while possibilities for action were ultimately strongly constrained by structural forces. Findings suggest that interventions need to adopt an integrated, structurally-oriented approach for promoting safer sexual practices in sex work settings. Recognising that no one model of health behaviour is likely to be adequate in explaining or predicting behaviour change encourages responsiveness to local people's agency, recognises the different (health- and non-health-related) registers of risk with which people operate and encourages flexibility according to local contingencies and contexts. PMID:18038279

  11. Surface physical and chemical changes of pure iron after molybdenum ion implantation and their effects on the tribological behaviour. Pt. 2. Tribological behaviour

    This paper is aimed at studying the effect of surface physical and chemical changes caused by molybdenum ion implantation on the friction and wear behaviours of pure iron. The wear tests of unimplanted and implanted specimens were conducted on an SRV fretting wear machine in air, at room temperature and with or without lubrication. The surface morphology, composition and chemical state of the wear tracks were also examined using electron probe microanalysis, Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the wear resistance of pure iron is largely improved by molybdenum ion implantation. Under dry friction conditions, the wear resistance of the specimen implanted with a dose of 3x1017 is increased to 2.8 times that of unimplanated pure iron since the anti-adhesion, anti-abrasion and anti-deformation abilities are improved as a result of the increse in microhardness. When liquid paraffin is used as a lubricant, the wear resistance of the implanted specimen is 4.8 times as high as that of the unimplanted one. This further increase is mainly due to the boundary lubricating film provided by liquid paraffin. When liquid paraffin plus sulphurized olefin is used as a lubricant, the wear resistance of the implanted specimen is 2.8 times as high as that of the unimplanted one. It can be seen that the increasing value of the wear resistance is lower than that of the sample lubricated with liquid paraffin. The reason is that the compounds FeS and FeSO4 formed between the element of the wear specimen and the active elements of the lubricant in the wear process play an anti-wear role. However, the presence of a molybdenum element in the implanted specimen decreases the atomic ratio of iron, and thus decreases the amount of FeS and FeSO4 and the wear resistance. ((orig.))

  12. Demand response to improved walking infrastructure: A study into the economics of walking and health behaviour change.

    Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, W George; Hunter, Ruth F; Tully, Mark A; Kee, Frank

    2015-10-01

    Walking is the most common form of moderate-intensity physical activity among adults, is widely accessible and especially appealing to obese people. Most often policy makers are interested in valuing the effect on walking of changes in some characteristics of a neighbourhood, the demand response for walking, of infrastructure changes. A positive demand response to improvements in the walking environment could help meet the public health target of 150 min of at least moderate-intensity physical activity per week. We model walking in an individual's local neighbourhood as a 'weak complement' to the characteristics of the neighbourhood itself. Walking is affected by neighbourhood characteristics, substitutes, and individual's characteristics, including their opportunity cost of time. Using compensating variation, we assess the economic benefits of walking and how walking behaviour is affected by improvements to the neighbourhood. Using a sample of 1209 respondents surveyed over a 12 month period (Feb 2010-Jan 2011) in East Belfast, United Kingdom, we find that a policy that increased walkability and people's perception of access to shops and facilities would lead to an increase in walking of about 36 min/person/week, valued at £13.65/person/week. When focussing on inactive residents, a policy that improved the walkability of the area would lead to guidelines for physical activity being reached by only 12.8% of the population who are currently inactive. Additional interventions would therefore be needed to encourage inactive residents to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity, as it appears that interventions that improve the walkability of an area are particularly effective in increasing walking among already active citizens, and, among the inactive ones, the best response is found among healthier, younger and wealthier citizens. PMID:26347960

  13. Predictors of physical activity among rural and small town breast cancer survivors: an application of the theory of planned behaviour.

    Vallance, Jeff K; Lavallee, Celeste; Culos-Reed, Nicole S; Trudeau, Marc G

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the utility of the two-component theory of planned behaviour (TPB) in understanding physical activity intentions and behaviour in rural and small town breast cancer survivors. The secondary objective was to elicit the most common behavioural, normative and control beliefs of rural and small town survivors regarding physical activity. Using a cross-sectional survey design, 524 rural and small town breast cancer survivors completed a mailed survey that assessed physical activity and TPB variables. Physical activity intention explained 12% of the variance in physical activity behaviour (p < 0.01) while the TPB constructs together explained 43% of the variance in physical activity intention (p < 0.01). Unique behavioural, normative and control beliefs were elicited from the sample. The two-component TPB framework appears to be a suitable model to initiate an understanding of physical activity determinants among rural and small town breast cancer survivors. These data can be used in the development and establishment of physical activity behaviour interventions and health promotion materials designed to facilitate physical activity behaviour among rural and small town breast cancer survivors. PMID:22409699

  14. Predictors of physical activity, healthy eating and being smoke-free in teens: a theory of planned behaviour approach.

    Murnaghan, Donna A; Blanchard, Chris M; Rodgers, Wendy M; LaRosa, Jennifer N; MacQuarrie, Colleen R; MacLellan, Debbie L; Gray, Bob J

    2010-10-01

    This paper elicited context specific underlying beliefs for physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and smoke-free behaviour from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), and then determined whether the TPB explained significant variation in intentions and behaviour over a 1 month period in a sample of grade 7-9 (age 12-16 years) adolescents. Eighteen individual interviews and one focus group were used to elicit student beliefs. Analyses of this data produced behavioural, normative and control beliefs which were put into a TPB questionnaire completed by 183 students at time 1 and time 2. The Path analyses from the main study showed that the attitude/intention relationship was moderately large for fruit and vegetable consumption and small to moderate for being smoke free. Perceived behavioural control had a large effect on being smoke free and a moderately large effect for fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity. Intention had a large direct effect on all three behaviours. Common (e.g. feel better, more energy) and behaviour-specific (e.g., prevent yellow fingers, control my weight) beliefs emerged across the three health behaviours. These novel findings, to the adolescent population, support the importance of specific attention being given to each of the behaviours in future multi-behavioural interventions. PMID:20204952

  15. Italy: Delayed adaptation of social institutions to changes in family behaviour

    Anna Laura Zanatta

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Considering its very low fertility and high age at childbearing, Italy stands alone in the European context and can hardly be compared with other countries, even those in the Southern region. The fertility decline occurred without any radical change in family formation. Individuals still choose (religious marriage for leaving their parental home and rates of marital dissolution and subsequent step-family formation are low. Marriage is being postponed and fewer people marry. The behaviours of young people are particularly alarming. There is a delay in all life cycle stages: end of education, entry into the labour market, exit from the parental family, entry into union, and managing an independent household. Changes in family formation and childbearing are constrained and slowed down by a substantial delay (or even failure with which the institutional and cultural framework has adapted to changes in economic and social conditions, in particular to the growth of the service sector, the increase in female employment and the female level of education. In a Catholic country that has been led for almost half a century by a political party with a Catholic ideology, the paucity of attention to childhood and youth seems incomprehensible. Social policies focus on marriage-based families already formed and on the phases of life related to pregnancy, delivery, and the first months of a newborn's life, while forming a family and childbearing choices are considered private affairs and neglected.

  16. The Dynamic Family Home: a qualitative exploration of physical environmental influences on children’s sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent changes in home physical environments, such as decreasing outdoor space and increasing electronic media, may negatively affect health by facilitating sedentariness and reducing physical activity. As children spend much of their time at home they are particularly vulnerable. This study qualitatively explored family perceptions of physical environmental influences on sedentary behaviour and physical activity within the home space. Methods Home based interviews were conducted w...

  17. Associations between Aspects of Friendship Networks, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviour among Adolescents

    Keri Jo Sawka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent friendships have been linked to physical activity levels; however, network characteristics have not been broadly examined. Method. In a cross-sectional analysis of 1061 adolescents (11–15 years, achieving 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA and participating in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour were determined based on friendship network characteristics (density; proportion of active/sedentary friends; betweenness centrality; popularity; clique membership and perceived social support. Results. Adolescents with no friendship nominations participated in less MVPA. For boys and girls, a ten percent point increase in active friends was positively associated with achievement of 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.02–1.21, OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.02–1.27, resp.. For boys, higher social support from friends was negatively associated with achieving 60 minutes/day of MVPA (OR 0.63; 95% CI 0.42–0.96. Compared with low density networks, boys in higher density networks were more likely to participate in over 2 hours/day of sedentary behaviour (OR 2.93; 95% CI 1.32–6.49. Social support from friends also modified associations between network characteristics and MVPA and sedentary behaviour. Conclusion. Different network characteristics appeared to have different consequences. The proportion of active close friends was associated with MVPA, while network density was associated with sedentary behaviour. This poses challenges for intervention design.

  18. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism, and Policy Change

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper studies how institutional constraints affect legislative activism, and how legislative activism affects policy change, analyzing the case of the European Union’s legislative process. Our argument revolves around the key role of the Commission in advancing policy change, and emphasizes...... that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from 1984--‐2012, we find that the number of legislative proposals significantly...... affects the extent of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposal, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU’s legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space allows...

  19. Adolescent Weight Status and Related Behavioural Factors: Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition

    Kate E. Storey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify whether non-overweight students were different from their overweight or obese peers with respect to diet, suboptimal meal behaviours, and physical activity using a self-administered web-based survey. Methods. 4097 adolescents living in Alberta, Canada completed Web-SPAN (Web Survey of Physical Activity and Nutrition. Students were classified as overweight or obese, and differences were described in terms of nutrient intakes, physical activity, and meal behaviours. Results. Non-overweight students consumed significantly more carbohydrate and fibre, and significantly less fat and high calorie beverages, and had a higher frequency of consuming breakfast and snacks compared to overweight or obese students. Both non-overweight and overweight students were significantly more active than obese students. Conclusions. This research supports the need to target suboptimal behaviours such as high calorie beverage consumption, fat intake, breakfast skipping, and physical inactivity. School nutrition policies and mandatory physical education for all students may help to improve weight status in adolescents.

  20. Changes in active commuting and changes in physical activity in adults: a cohort study

    Foley, Louise; Panter, Jenna; Heinen, Eva; Prins, Richard; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Active travel is associated with greater physical activity, but there is a dearth of research examining this relationship over time. We examined the longitudinal associations between change in time spent in active commuting and changes in recreational and total physical activity. Methods Adult commuters working in Cambridge, United Kingdom completed questionnaires in 2009 and 2012, and a sub-set completed objective physical activity monitoring in 2010 and 2012. Commuting was assess...

  1. Brief Report: Understanding Intention to Be Physically Active and Physical Activity Behaviour in Adolescents from a Low Socio-Economic Status Background: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Duncan, Michael J.; Rivis, Amanda; Jordan, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this brief report is to report on the utility of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) for predicting the physical activity intentions and behaviour of British adolescents from lower-than-average socio-economic backgrounds. A prospective questionnaire design was employed with 197, 13-14 year olds (76 males, 121 females). At time 1…

  2. Retail restructuring and consumer choice 1. Long-term local changes in consumer behaviour: Portsmouth, 1980 – 2002

    Ian Clarke; Alan Hallsworth; Peter Jackson; Ronan de Kervenoael; Rossana Perez del Aguila; Malcolm Kirkup

    2006-01-01

    Over the last two decades fundamental changes have taken place in the global supply and local structure of provision of British food retailing. Consumer lifestyles have also changed markedly. Despite some important studies of local interactions between new retail developments and consumers, we argue in this paper that there is a critical need to gauge the cumulative effects of these changes on consumer behaviour over longer periods. In this, the first of two papers, we present the main findin...

  3. Modelling demographic behaviours in the French microsimulation model Destinie: An analysis of future change in completed fertility

    I. ROBERT-BOBEE

    2001-01-01

    Future change in partnerships and fertility are not easy to forecast. However, the fertility of the youngest cohorts will depend on those behaviours. The way young people start a partnership has changed a lot during the past three decades. Many couples are now unmarried, union disruptions and step-families are more frequent, young people leave school later and the age of motherhood has increased. Microsimulation can provide a measure of the change in future completed fertility, which helps to...

  4. Visual Analysis of Behaviour

    Gong, Shaogang

    2011-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive treatment of visual analysis of behaviour from computational-modelling and algorithm-design perspectives. This title: covers learning-group activity models, unsupervised behaviour profiling, hierarchical behaviour discovery, learning behavioural context, modelling rare behaviours, and 'man-in-the-loop' active learning; examines multi-camera behaviour correlation, person re-identification, and 'connecting-the-dots' for abnormal behaviour detection; discusses Bayesian information criterion, Bayesian networks, 'bag-of-words' representation, canonical correlation

  5. Solar activities and Climate change hazards

    Hady, A. A., II

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the geological history of Earth, climate change is one of the recurrent natural hazards. In recent history, the impact of man brought about additional climatic change. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary, both solar activities and building-up of green-house gases effect added to the climatic changes. This paper discusses if the global worming caused by the green-house gases effect will be equal or less than the global cooling resulting from the solar activities. In this respect, we refer to the Modern Dalton Minimum (MDM) which stated that starting from year 2005 for the next 40 years; the earth's surface temperature will become cooler than nowadays. However the degree of cooling, previously mentioned in old Dalton Minimum (c. 210 y ago), will be minimized by building-up of green-house gases effect during MDM period. Regarding to the periodicities of solar activities, it is clear that now we have a new solar cycle of around 210 years. Keywords: Solar activities; solar cycles; palaeoclimatic changes; Global cooling; Modern Dalton Minimum.

  6. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR, USE OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA, AND SNACKING AMONG YOUTH: AN INTERNATIONAL STUDY

    Soos, Istvan; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Ling, Jonathan; Hamar, Pal; Sandor, Iosif; Boros-Balint, Iulianna; Szabo, Peter; Simonek, Jaromir

    2014-01-01

    This study examined physical activity, sedentary behaviours, location of electronic media and snacking among children from five countries. These variables were assessed by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) using a free-time diary. Data were obtained from 812 secondary-school students (348 male, 464 female) aged from 12 to 18 years in United Kingdom, China, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia. We found that less than half the students met the recommended guideline of 60 minutes daily physi...

  7. First direct measurements of behavioural responses by Cuvier's beaked whales to mid-frequency active sonar

    De Ruiter, Stacy Lynn; Southall, Brandon L.; Calambokidis, John; Zimmer, Walter M X; Sadykova, Dinara; Falcone, Erin A.; Friedlaender, Ari S.; John E. Joseph; Moretti, David; Schorr, Gregory S.; Thomas, Len; Tyack, Peter Lloyd

    2013-01-01

    Most marine mammal­ strandings coincident with naval sonar exercises have involved Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris). We recorded animal movement and acoustic data on two tagged Ziphius and obtained the first direct measurements of behavioural responses of this species to mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar signals. Each recording included a 30-min playback (one 1.6-s simulated MFA sonar signal repeated every 25 s); one whale was also incidentally exposed to MFA sonar from distant nav...

  8. Perceived family functioning and friendship quality: cross-sectional associations with physical activity and sedentary behaviours

    Atkin, Andrew J.; Corder, Kirsten; Goodyer, Ian M.; Bamber, Diane J; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Søren; Valerie J. Dunn; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association of adolescent-reported family functioning and friendship quality with objectively-measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and self-reported sedentary behaviours. Methods: Data are from the ROOTS study. MVPA and sedentary time were assessed using combined movement and heart rate sensing. Time spent TV viewing, using the internet, playing video games, doing homework and reading for pleasure was self-rep...

  9. Child overweight in France and its relationship with physical activity, sedentary behaviour and socioeconomic status

    Lioret, S.; Maire, Bernard; Volatier, J. L.; Charles, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: (1) To assess the prevalence of childhood overweight (OW) and obesity in France; (2) to examine how physical activity and sedentary behaviour are involved in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW, while taking into account total energy intake. Design and subjects: Representative sample of French children aged 3-14 years (n=1016) taken from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French INCA (Enquete Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires) food consum...

  10. Association between Sedentary Behaviour, Physical Activity and Body Composition in Children

    K Djafarian; M Hession; JR Speakman; DM Jackson

    2005-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are already on the rise in developed and developing countries. Childhood obesity is becoming a serious health problem. The cause of this problem is poorly understood. Despite a variety of factors such as genetic and environmental, a sedentary lifestyle is a known major contributor to obesity in children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and body composition in children. Methods: The stu...

  11. First Results of 3 Year Monitoring of Red Wood Ants' Behavioural Changes and Their Possible Correlation with Earthquake Events

    Berberich, Gabriele; Berberich, Martin; Grumpe, Arne; Wöhler, Christian; Schreiber, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Short-term earthquake predictions with an advance warning of several hours or days can currently not be performed reliably and remain limited to only a few minutes before the event. Abnormal animal behaviours prior to earthquakes have been reported previously but their detection creates problems in monitoring and reliability. A different situation is encountered for red wood ants (RWA; Formica rufa-group (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). They have stationary nest sites on tectonically active, gas-bearing fault systems. These faults may be potential earthquake areas and are simultaneously information channels deeply reaching into the crust. A particular advantage of monitoring RWA is their high sensitivity to environmental changes. Besides an evolutionarily developed extremely strong temperature sensitivity of 0.25 K, they have chemoreceptors for the detection of CO2 concentrations and a sensitivity for electromagnetic fields. Changes of the electromagnetic field are discussed or short-lived "thermal anomalies" are reported as trigger mechanisms for bioanomalies of impending earthquakes. For 3 years, we have monitored two Red Wood Ant mounds (Formica rufa-group), located at the seismically active Neuwied Basin (Eifel, Germany), 24/7 by high-resolution cameras equipped with a colour and infrared sensor. In the Neuwied Basin, an average of about 100 earthquakes per year with magnitudes up to M 3.9 occur located on different tectonic fault regimes (strike-slip faults and/or normal or thrust faults). The RWA mounds are located on two different fault regimes approximately 30 km apart. First results show that the ants have a well-identifiable standard daily routine. Correlation with local seismic events suggests changes in the ants' behaviour hours before the earthquake event: The nocturnal rest phase and daily activity are suppressed, and standard daily routine is continued not before the next day. Additional parameters that might have an effect on the ants' daily routine

  12. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa

    Chidrawi, H. Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The ...

  13. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial

    Sutton Stephen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25, and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health (d = .23 and more control (d = .32 over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50 in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21 and affective benefits (d = .29 than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but

  14. Changes in Alcohol Behaviour among Adolescents in North-West Russia between 1995 and 2004

    Verho, Anastasiya; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Puska, Pekka

    2012-01-01

    Background. Among Russian adults, alcohol consumption with binge drinking was high and increased during past decades. Little is known regarding adolescents' drinking. The present study investigates changes in alcohol-related behaviour among Russian youth between 1995 and 2004. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among the 15-year-old youths from all schools in Pitkäranta, Republic of Karelia, Russia. In 1995, 385 students participated (response 95%), in 2004—395 (response 85%). Results. The proportion of abstainers decreased: boys from 26% to 13% (P = 0.002), girls from 23% to 12% (P = 0.007). The age of first alcohol consumption decreased among both genders. First alcohol drinking with friends increased among boys from 65% to 79% (P = 0.031), among girls from 49% to 70% (P = 0.001). Weekly drinking increased: boys from 13% to 28% (P < 0.001), girls from 6% to 15% (P = 0.001). The prevalence on inebriation increased among girls from 45% to 60% (P = 0.012), beer consumption from 8% to 21% (P = 0.006) by 2004. Gender differences were less prominent in 2004. Conclusion. Negative changes: early drinking initiation and more frequent alcohol consumption were observed among Russian youth by 2004. Regular monitoring, effective policy measures, and health education are necessary to prevent further increase in alcohol consumption and subsequent burden of alcohol-related diseases in Russia. PMID:23056064

  15. Pollution abatement from road transport: cross-sectoral implications, climate co-benefits and behavioural change

    With the abatement potential of end-of-pipe technologies for road transport becoming increasingly marginal, and with greater emissions reductions still needed in order to reduce pollution, alternative strategies involving behavioural change and choices between fossil fuelled or low carbon vehicles becomes more important. The environmental requirements include local air quality objectives, meeting national emissions ceilings to limit transboundary effects, and to aspire to significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. In this paper we use the BRUTAL sub-model of the UK integrated Assessment Model (UKIAM) to investigate a selection of alternative strategies including downsizing of cars, switching from petrol to diesel, and the introduction of electric, bio-fuelled or hydrogen vehicles into the fleet, relative to a business-as-usual projection for 2020. Projected impacts upon air quality limit values, national emissions ceilings and CO2 emissions are assessed in relation to local, national and international objectives. We discuss related life-cycle impacts, implications for infrastructure, and potential impacts upon emissions from other sectors in order to highlight the full potential implications of the different strategies within the context of changes resulting from other policy developments at different scales.

  16. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Dake Fidelia AA; Tagoe Henry A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with he...

  17. An environmental social marketing intervention among employees: assessing attitude and behaviour change

    Gregory-Smith, D.; Wells, V.K.; Manika, D.; Graham, S

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of individual and organisational factors on two simultaneous environmental social marketing interventions (SmartPrint and heating/cooling) and types of behaviours (recycling, printing and heating/cooling), among employees of a British City Council. Using a quantitative methodology, in the form of a situated experiment, self-reported attitudes, perceptions of organisational support, self-reported behaviours and actual behaviours were measured before and after the ...

  18. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    Hodges Steve; Berry Emma; Doherty Aiden; Kelly Paul; Batterham Alan M; Foster Charlie

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new el...

  19. Pyrazine analogues are active components of wolf urine that induce avoidance and freezing behaviours in mice.

    Kazumi Osada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The common grey wolf (Canis lupus is found throughout the entire Northern hemisphere and preys on many kinds of mammals. The urine of the wolf contains a number of volatile constituents that can potentially be used for predator-prey chemosignalling. Although wolf urine is put to practical use to keep rabbits, rodents, deer and so on at bay, we are unaware of any prior behavioural studies or chemical analyses regarding the fear-inducing impact of wolf urine on laboratory mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three wolf urine samples harvested at different times were used in this study. All of them induced stereotypical fear-associated behaviors (i.e., avoidance and freezing in female mice. The levels of certain urinary volatiles varied widely among the samples. To identify the volatiles that provoked avoidance and freezing, behavioural, chemical, and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. One of the urine samples (sample C had higher levels of 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (DMP, trimethylpyrazine (TMP, and 3-ethyl-2,5-dimethyl pyrazine (EDMP compared with the other two urine samples (samples A and B. In addition, sample C induced avoidance and freezing behaviours more effectively than samples A and B. Moreover, only sample C led to pronounced expression of Fos-immunoreactive cells in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB of female mice. Freezing behaviour and Fos immunoreactivity were markedly enhanced when the mice were confronted with a mixture of purified DMP, TMP, and EDMP vs. any one pyrazine alone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current results suggest that wolf urinary volatiles can engender aversive and fear-related responses in mice. Pyrazine analogues were identified as the predominant active components among these volatiles to induce avoidance and freezing behaviours via stimulation of the murine AOB.

  20. Dynamic changes of adenosine triphosphate enzyme activity in encephalon tissue of rat with posttraumatic stress disorder psycho and behaviour abnormity%创伤后应激障碍样情感行为异常大鼠脑组织ATP酶活性的动态变化

    肖凯

    2004-01-01

    AIM:To discuss the pathophysiology basis of posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD like) psycho and behaviour abnormity in attempt to provide a new method in treatments. METHODS:Seventy two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups:hippocampus under threshold electric stimulation group(SE,n=32),hippocampus electrode burying control group(CE,n=32) and normal control group(NC,n=8).Hippocampus were continuously stimulated by constant monopulse electricity,with 25 Hz frequency,1 ms wave length,10 s cluster length,7 min cluster interval and 100 μ A strength under eclampsia threshold. The enzymatic activity changes of Na+ K+ adenosine triphosphate enzyme(ATPase) and Ca2+ ATPase in hippocampal homogenate of the experimental animals and mitochondria were detected in quantitation.RESULTS:The enzymatic activity of Na+-K+-ATPase in hippocampus mitochondria decreased obviously(0.56±0.15)mmol/(kg·s)(F=4.348,P<0.01) in under-threshold electric stimulation group atfer 12 hours of electric timulations as well as(0.61±0.17) mmol/(kg·s) (P<0.05) after 48 hours,which were significantly lower than NC group (0.84±0.22) mmol/(kg·s) the enzymatic activity of Ca2+-ATPase in hippocampus mitochondria also decreased obviously into (0.53±0.14) mmol/(kg·s) (F=4.999,P<0.05) after 24 hours of electric stimulations as well as (0.60±0.16) mmol/(kg·s) after 72 hours, which were significantly lower than NC group (0.83±0.22) mmol/(kg·s).CONCLUSION:Functional damages of the hippocampus, especially the Na K pump and Ca2+ pump in hippocampal mitochondria may have an important significance in the occurrence and development of long term PTSD like psycho and behaviour abnormity in experimental animals.%目的:探讨创伤后应激障碍( posttraumatic stress disorder,PTSD)样精神与行为异常的病理生理基础,为其治疗途径提供新思路. 方法:将 72只雄性 Wistar大鼠随机分组为海马阈下电刺激组( SE, n=32)、海马电极埋植对照组( CE, n=32)

  1. The use and effectiveness of behavioural modification techniques in achieving and maintaining normal weight and fitness – the lifestyle changes for adults in Cyprus

    Andreou, Eleni P.; Philippou, Christiana M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND and AIM: Research showed that behavioural modification techniques were the most effective way to achieve and maintain a healthy weight compared to diet and exercise alone. If behavioural modification was the most effective technique, then at least the two thirds of the candidates (Weight Loss Candidate with Behaviour Modification-WLCB) who used the specific behavioural modification techniques regarding eating and physical activity would achieve a weight loss of avera...

  2. Processes of Change in Cognitive-Behavioural Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder : Current Status and Some Future Directions

    Polman, Annemiek; Bouman, Theo K.; van Hout, Wiljo J. P. J.; de Jong, Peter J.; den Boer, Johan A.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper discusses theoretical and methodological issues involved in the processes of change in cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Treatment outcome studies showed that CBT is effective in reducing obsessive-compulsive symptoms. However, why and ho

  3. Consumer willingness to invest money and time for benefits of lifestyle behaviour change: An application of the contingent valuation method

    A.F.G. Alayli-Goebbels (Adrienne F.G.); N.J.A. van Exel (Job); A.J.H.A. Ament (André); N.K. de Vries (Nanne); S.D.M. Bot (Sandra); J.L. Severens (Hans)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Objective: To use contingent valuation (CV) to derive individual consumer values for both health and broader benefits of a public-health intervention directed at lifestyle behaviour change (LBC) and to examine the feasibility and validity of the method. Method: Particip

  4. Spurring climate-friendly behaviour change: a case study of the university of Grenoble

    Climate change is definitely a huge challenge for the 21. century. Models in energy economics show that efficiency gains through energy productivity improvement, technical change and technological innovations towards lower carbon technologies will not be sufficient to achieve the ultimate objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), i.e. stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Mitigation actions that stem from individual behaviour change towards a lower individual carbon footprint are also part of the response to the climate challenge. Depending on their current behaviour, individuals may focus on many different actions to reduce their carbon footprint, be they at home, at work or any other place: for example, they can use the public transportation system or ride their bike instead of driving their car, video conference instead of flying to a conference or a meeting, turn the heating system off if they open the window when it is cold outside or if they are out of town for some time, turn the lights off when leaving a room, set their computer in sleep mode when not using it for some time, install sockets to shut off the standby modes of their multi-media devices, reduce the amount of waste they generate by purchasing products in bulk or with little packaging, consume local products rather than goods imported from other regions or countries, follow a diet with a low-meat content, and much more. All those actions, as insignificant as they seem to be in terms of individual energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions, do have a real impact at the macro-economic level. Furthermore, they are often 'low-hanging fruit' options, easy to implement at nearly zero cost. Studies that illustrate this point are numerous and cover all GHG emitting sectors. For example, lowering room temperatures by 1 deg. C is estimated to save 7

  5. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  6. A South African university-practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication.

    Christofides, Nicola J; Nieuwoudt, Sara; Usdin, Shereen; Goldstein, Susan; Fonn, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC), combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly) southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south-south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south. PMID:23364096

  7. Perspectives and reflections on the practice of behaviour change communication for infant and young child feeding.

    Pelto, Gretel H; Martin, Stephanie L; van Liere, Marti J; Fabrizio, Cecilia S

    2016-04-01

    Behaviour change communication (BCC) is a critical component of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) interventions. In this study we asked BCC practitioners working in low- and middle-income countries to participate in an examination of BCC practice. We focus here on results of their personal reflections related to larger issues of practice. We used a combination of iterative triangulation and snowball sampling procedures to obtain a sample of 29 BCC professionals. Major themes include (1) participants using tools and guidelines to structure their work, and many consider their organisation's tools to be their most important contribution to the field; (2) they value research to facilitate programme design and implementation; (3) half felt research needed to increase; (4) they have a strong commitment to respecting cultural beliefs and culturally appropriate programming; (5) they are concerned about lack of a strong theoretical foundation for their work. Based on participants' perspectives and the authors' reflections, we identified the following needs: (1) conducting a systematic examination of the alternative theoretical structures that are available for nutrition BCC, followed by a review of the evidence base and suggestions for future programmatic research to fill the gaps in knowledge; (2) developing a checklist of common patterns to facilitate efficiency in formative research; (3) developing an analytic compendium of current IYCF BCC guidelines and tools; (4) developing tools and guidelines that cover the full programme process, including use of innovative channels to support 'scaling up nutrition'; and (5) continued support for programmes of proven effectiveness. PMID:26194743

  8. A South African university-practitioner partnership to strengthen capacity in social and behaviour change communication

    Nicola J. Christofides

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Globally, communication plays an integral role in public health strategies, from infectious diseases to diseases related to lifestyles. The evolution of the field of social and behaviour change communication (SBCC, combined with the need for evidence based practice and multi-level interventions to promote health, and human resource gaps in sub-Saharan Africa have led to the imperative to standardise and formalise the field. Moreover, current practitioners come from different disciplinary backgrounds underlining the need to define common core skills and competencies. This paper describes the partnership between the Wits School of Public Health and the Soul City Institute for Health and Development Communication and how the partners responded to this need. It highlights the factors influencing sustainable institutional capacity to provide quality assured, accredited training. We describe an unexpected positive response from a number of practitioner organisations that have chosen to send multiple staff members for training, specifically to build a critical mass within their organisations. Finally, we note the interest from (mostly southern-based academic institutions in setting up similar programmes and postulate that south–south collaborations can contribute to building sustainable context specific and evidence-informed SBCC programmes in the global south.

  9. A Mathematical Model for the Dynamics of HIV/AIDS with Gradual Behaviour Change

    F. Baryarama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An HIV/AIDS model that incorporates gradual behaviour change is formulated with a variable force of infection for the adult population. The variability is modelled using a general function of time since introduction of the initial infective and exemplified for three specific functions. Expressions for the time taken for the reproductive number to reduce to unity and expressions for the time taken to attain a stationary steady state are deduced and discussed. Model projections for urban, peri-urban and rural Uganda are compared with corresponding antenatal clinic sites prevalence trends. The analysis shows that the dramatic decline in HIV prevalence in Uganda in the early 1990s was only possible through drastic declines in the force of infection. Since prevalence was high and reductions in frequency of sexual acts was minimal, the huge reduction could be attributed to reductions in probability of transmission per sexual act probably due to increased selective condom use among high risk sexual partnerships since overall condom use was low.

  10. Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort

    Gitau, Tabither M.; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; PETTIFOR, John M; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal ‘ideal’ body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years...

  11. Changes in Eating Attitudes, Body Esteem and Weight Control Behaviours during Adolescence in a South African Cohort

    Tabither M Gitau; Micklesfield, Lisa K.; Pettifor, John. M.; Norris, Shane A

    2014-01-01

    Failure to consume an adequate diet or over consumption during adolescence can disrupt normal growth and development, resulting in undesirable weight change. This leads to an increase in unhealthy weight control practices related to eating and exercise among both adolescent girls and boys to meet the societal 'ideal' body shape. This study therefore aims to examine the longitudinal changes in eating attitudes, body-esteem and weight control behaviours among adolescents between 13 and 17 years...

  12. Changes in proinflammatory cytokine activity after menopause.

    Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Köditz, Roland; Pfohl, Martin; Schatz, Helmut

    2002-02-01

    There is now a large body of evidence suggesting that the decline in ovarian function with menopause is associated with spontaneous increases in proinflammatory cytokines. The cytokines that have obtained the most attention are IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-alpha. The exact mechanisms by which estrogen interferes with cytokine activity are still incompletely known but may potentially include interactions of the ER with other transcription factors, modulation of nitric oxide activity, antioxidative effects, plasma membrane actions, and changes in immune cell function. Experimental and clinical studies strongly support a link between the increased state of proinflammatory cytokine activity and postmenopausal bone loss. Preliminary evidence suggests that these changes also might be relevant to vascular homeostasis and the development of atherosclerosis. Better knowledge of the mechanisms and the time course of these interactions may open new avenues for the prevention and treatment of some of the most prevalent and important disorders in postmenopausal women. PMID:11844745

  13. 'Making every contact count': Evaluation of the impact of an intervention to train health and social care practitioners in skills to support health behaviour change.

    Lawrence, Wendy; Black, Christina; Tinati, Tannaze; Cradock, Sue; Begum, Rufia; Jarman, Megan; Pease, Anna; Margetts, Barrie; Davies, Jenny; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Baird, Janis; Barker, Mary

    2016-02-01

    A total of 148 health and social care practitioners were trained in skills to support behaviour change: creating opportunities to discuss health behaviours, using open discovery questions, listening, reflecting and goal-setting. At three time points post-training, use of the skills was evaluated and compared with use of skills by untrained practitioners. Trained practitioners demonstrated significantly greater use of these client-centred skills to support behaviour change compared to their untrained peers up to 1 year post-training. Because it uses existing services to deliver support for behaviour change, this training intervention has the potential to improve public health at relatively low cost. PMID:24713156

  14. Infection-induced behavioural changes reduce connectivity and the potential for disease spread in wild mice contact networks

    Lopes, Patricia C.; Block, Per; König, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Infection may modify the behaviour of the host and of its conspecifics in a group, potentially altering social connectivity. Because many infectious diseases are transmitted through social contact, social connectivity changes can impact transmission dynamics. Previous approaches to understanding disease transmission dynamics in wild populations were limited in their ability to disentangle different factors that determine the outcome of disease outbreaks. Here we ask how social connectivity is affected by infection and how this relationship impacts disease transmission dynamics. We experimentally manipulated disease status of wild house mice using an immune challenge and monitored social interactions within this free-living population before and after manipulation using automated tracking. The immune-challenged animals showed reduced connectivity to their social groups, which happened as a function of their own behaviour, rather than through conspecific avoidance. We incorporated these disease-induced changes of social connectivity among individuals into models of disease outbreaks over the empirically-derived networks. The models revealed that changes in host behaviour frequently resulted in the disease being contained to very few animals, as opposed to becoming widespread. Our results highlight the importance of considering the role that behavioural alterations during infection can have on social dynamics when evaluating the potential for disease outbreaks. PMID:27548906

  15. An exploration of mental health nursing students' experiences and attitudes towards using cigarettes to change client's behaviour.

    Nash, M J; Romanos, M T

    2010-10-01

    Using cigarettes to change client behaviour is a common, yet little studied, practice in mental health care. A questionnaire survey was used to explore mental health nursing student's experiences and attitudes to this practice. The sample was four cohorts of mental health nursing students (n= 151). Of them, 84% had experienced the practice of using cigarettes to change client behaviour in acute wards (73%), rehabilitation wards (28%) and elderly care (14%). Cigarettes were used to change client behaviour in areas such as attending to personal hygiene (57%) or engaging in the ward routine (39%). However, items such as leave (60%) or drinks (tea and coffee) (38%) were also reportedly used. Of the respondents, 54% inferred that the practice did not work well with 46% stating it was not written up in care plans; 52% felt it was an ad hoc practice, 60% inferred that at times it was used as a punishment while 55% intimated that they felt bad withholding cigarettes. There are ethical and moral dilemmas around using lifestyle risk factors as rewards or using client's nicotine addiction as a means of controlling behaviour. The question of whether this intervention should ever be used, given its associated health risk, requires more critical debate in clinical practice. PMID:21050334

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in Alberta, Canada: implications for public health policy and practice.

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Wright, Mary-Frances; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2004-06-01

    Climate change has received recent extensive media attention (e.g., Kyoto Protocol) and is currently on the international public health agenda. The purpose of this study was to survey knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change in the province of Alberta, Canada. A random sample of 600 Alberta households, using proportional quotas based on the Canada Census of the Alberta population, was surveyed on knowledge, attitudes and behaviours related to climate change using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing protocol. Albertans are highly concerned, particularly about health problems related to the environment and air pollution; yet are only moderately informed about a variety of environmental issues. While the great majority of Albertans appear to be engaged in environmental behaviours at home, fewer consider energy efficiency when purchasing consumer goods. An even smaller percentage makes environmentally conscious transportation decisions. To encourage the population to make recommended environmental behaviours, mass media approaches may do well to target the specific beliefs that were deemed salient (e.g., promote the association between environment issues and health). The public health sector has a major role in working with inter-sectoral groups to address this significant public health issue. PMID:15203453

  17. Effect of Shading on Physiological, Biochemical and Behaviour Changes in Crossbred Calves Under Hot Climatic Conditions

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance and the effect of shading and non-shading house on physiological changes, body weight (BW), average daily gain (ADG), total antioxidant and thyroid hormones in crossbred calves under hot conditions. Thirty six growing crossbred calves (Friesian x Baladi) aged 8-10 months were divided into two groups (each 18 calves); the first group was maintained in shaded house and the second in house without shade (climatic house). The period of study was 79 days during hot conditions. Performance variables (BW, ADG) were measured and the blood samples were collected to assess some biochemical parameters including antioxidants such as total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT), total protein, thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and immunoglobulin factor (IgG). Respiration rates and behaviour parameters (feeding, drinking, standing, lying and agonistic) were also measured during the study. The data indicated that the shaded calves had higher ADG (P<0.05) and final BW than non-shaded ones. Also, a significant improvement in total protein levels and globulins were recorded in shaded house calves as compared to non-shaded ones. The same result was obtained for T3 level whereas non-significant changes were observed for T4 level as well as the level of IgG at different times. The present data indicated that using shaded house will decrease the effect of heat stress on calves which will increase the animal performance through improving BW and ADG as well as some biochemical parameters in addition to T3 hormonal level.

  18. Can research assessments themselves cause bias in behaviour change trials? A systematic review of evidence from solomon 4-group studies.

    Jim McCambridge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The possible effects of research assessments on participant behaviour have attracted research interest, especially in studies with behavioural interventions and/or outcomes. Assessments may introduce bias in randomised controlled trials by altering receptivity to intervention in experimental groups and differentially impacting on the behaviour of control groups. In a Solomon 4-group design, participants are randomly allocated to one of four arms: (1 assessed experimental group; (2 unassessed experimental group (3 assessed control group; or (4 unassessed control group. This design provides a test of the internal validity of effect sizes obtained in conventional two-group trials by controlling for the effects of baseline assessment, and assessing interactions between the intervention and baseline assessment. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate evidence from Solomon 4-group studies with behavioural outcomes that baseline research assessments themselves can introduce bias into trials. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Electronic databases were searched, supplemented by citation searching. Studies were eligible if they reported appropriately analysed results in peer-reviewed journals and used Solomon 4-group designs in non-laboratory settings with behavioural outcome measures and sample sizes of 20 per group or greater. Ten studies from a range of applied areas were included. There was inconsistent evidence of main effects of assessment, sparse evidence of interactions with behavioural interventions, and a lack of convincing data in relation to the research question for this review. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There were too few high quality completed studies to infer conclusively that biases stemming from baseline research assessments do or do not exist. There is, therefore a need for new rigorous Solomon 4-group studies that are purposively designed to evaluate the potential for research assessments to cause bias in behaviour

  19. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    Casey Gray; Rebecca Gibbons; Richard Larouche; Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter; Adam Bienenstock; Mariana Brussoni; Guylaine Chabot; Susan Herrington; Ian Janssen; William Pickett; Marlene Power; Nick Stanger; Margaret Sampson; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fi...

  20. Physical activity attitudes, intentions and behaviour among 18–25 year olds: A mixed method study

    Poobalan Amudha S; Aucott Lorna S; Clarke Amanda; Smith W Cairns S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Young people (18–25 years) during the adolescence/adulthood transition are vulnerable to weight gain and notoriously hard to reach. Despite increased levels of overweight/obesity in this age group, physical activity behaviour, a major contributor to obesity, is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) behaviour among 18–25 year olds with influential factors including attitudes, motivators and barriers. Methods An explanatory mixed ...

  1. Nutritional and physical activity behaviours and habits in adolescent population of Belgrade

    Đorđević-Nikić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Proper nutrition and regular physical activity are essential parts of a adolescent's overall health. The aim of this research was to evaluated eating and physical activity behaviours and habits, nutritional and food knowledge, beliefs and self-efficacy related to diet and health of the adolescents of the city of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A dietary questionnaire previously constructed and tested in adolescent population from Italy was self-administrated. We evaluated eating habits, physical activity, meaning of healthy and unhealthy dietary habits and food, self-efficacy, barriers affecting food choices, nutritional and food safety, and body mass index (BMI of the adolescents. The sample included 707 adolescents, the mean age of 15,8 ± 2 years enrolled in the first grade at several high schools in Belgrade. Results. Only 27% of the adolescents had satisfactory eating habits; 31% have a very active lifestyle; 7% good nutritional knowledge and 6- 12% satisfactory food safety knowledge and hygiene practices. Conclusion. Significant deviations from recommendations for healthy lifestyle was noted in adolescents’ habits, knowledge and practice. It is therefore necessary to develop and organize programs for promotion of healthy behaviours adapted to the adolescents’ needs. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47015

  2. Adolescent understanding of DOHaD concepts: a school-based intervention to support knowledge translation and behaviour change.

    Bay, J L; Mora, H A; Sloboda, D M; Morton, S M; Vickers, M H; Gluckman, P D

    2012-12-01

    A life-course approach to reduction of risk of non-communicable diseases (NCD) suggests that early-life interventions may be more effective than lifestyle modifications in middle age. Knowledge translation to develop understanding of the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) within the community offers the potential to encourage informed diet and lifestyle choices supporting reduction of NCD risk in current and future generations. Many women do not make sustained dietary change before or during pregnancy, therefore appropriate nutritional behaviours need to be established prior to adulthood. This makes adolescence an appropriate stage for interventions to establish suitable dietary and lifestyle behaviours. Therefore, we engaged adolescents in a school-based educational intervention, and assessed the value of this in development of understanding of DOHaD concepts to support behaviour change that could lead to NCD risk reduction in the next generation. Modules of course work were written for 11-14 year olds and trialled in nine schools. Matched pre- and post-intervention questionnaire responses from 238 students and 99 parents, and post-intervention interviews evaluated the intervention. Understanding of a link between maternal diet during pregnancy and the health of the foetus in adulthood increased from 46% to 76% following intervention. Post-intervention evidence suggests the programme facilitated discussion of diet, lifestyle and DOHaD concepts in most families. The intervention was effective in improving understanding of DOHaD concepts and in some cases led to appropriate behaviour change. However, the sustainability of these changes remains to be determined through on-going evaluation of attitudes and behaviour within this cohort. PMID:25084300

  3. Disease and disaster: Optimal deployment of epidemic control facilities in a spatially heterogeneous population with changing behaviour.

    Gaythorpe, Katy; Adams, Ben

    2016-05-21

    Epidemics of water-borne infections often follow natural disasters and extreme weather events that disrupt water management processes. The impact of such epidemics may be reduced by deployment of transmission control facilities such as clinics or decontamination plants. Here we use a relatively simple mathematical model to examine how demographic and environmental heterogeneities, population behaviour, and behavioural change in response to the provision of facilities, combine to determine the optimal configurations of limited numbers of facilities to reduce epidemic size, and endemic prevalence. We show that, if the presence of control facilities does not affect behaviour, a good general rule for responsive deployment to minimise epidemic size is to place them in exactly the locations where they will directly benefit the most people. However, if infected people change their behaviour to seek out treatment then the deployment of facilities offering treatment can lead to complex effects that are difficult to foresee. So careful mathematical analysis is the only way to get a handle on the optimal deployment. Behavioural changes in response to control facilities can also lead to critical facility numbers at which there is a radical change in the optimal configuration. So sequential improvement of a control strategy by adding facilities to an existing optimal configuration does not always produce another optimal configuration. We also show that the pre-emptive deployment of control facilities has conflicting effects. The configurations that minimise endemic prevalence are very different to those that minimise epidemic size. So cost-benefit analysis of strategies to manage endemic prevalence must factor in the frequency of extreme weather events and natural disasters. PMID:26992574

  4. Innocent or guilty? Redox activity in and magnetic and optical behaviour of dinuclear molydenum complexes

    Jon A McCleverty; Michael D Ward

    2002-08-01

    The phenomenon of `non-innocence’, first articulated by Jørgensen in 1966, is briefly reviewed. Spectroelectrochemical studies of a range of dinuclear complexes of the type [{Mo(NO)Tp∗Cl}2(bridge)] (bridge = dipyridyls) and [{Mo(O)Tp∗Cl}2(bridge)] (bridge = diphenolates) which are redox active, show that oxidised or reduced forms of these species exhibit `non-innocence’. The spectral behaviour is associated with metal-to-ligand or ligand-to-metal charge transfer phenomena, probably the first time that monodentate bridging ligands have been implicated in `non-innocent’ behaviour. These bridging ligands also determine the nature and extent of magnetic interaction between the unpaired spins in [{Mo(NO)Tp∗Cl}2(bridge)] and [{Mo(O)Tp∗Cl}2(bridge)], the dominant mechanism of spin-exchange relying on the extent of $\\eth$-delocalisation within the bridging ligands. The unusual optical behaviour of these dinuclear complexes when oxidised (oxomolybdenum diphenolates) or reduced (nitrosyl molybdenum dipyridyls) has led to the exploration of electrochromism as a means to develop variable optical attenuators operating in the near-infrared region.

  5. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of the reduced-activation-ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER

    Reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steels are being considered for structural application in potential fusion energy systems. Based on the substantial experience with RAFM developmental steels of OPTIFER type, an industrial 3.5 tons batch of a 9CrWVTa-RAFM steel, called EUROFER 97 had been specified and ordered. A characterisation programme has been launched to determine the relevant mechanical and physical-metallurgical properties in order to qualify the steel for fusion application. The hardening, tempering and transformation behaviour of EUROFER is in good agreement with that of other RAFM-steels like OPTIFER and the Japanese industrial scale heat F82H mod. Tensile tests, performed between RT and 750 deg. C, show comparable strength and ductility values that are not strongly affected by different heat treatments and ageing at 580 and 600 deg. C up to 3300 h. Impact bending tests indicate a superior ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) of EUROFER in the as-received condition compared with that of F82H mod. Creep tests between 450 and 650 deg. C up to test times of 15000 h reveal a creep strength similar to other RAFM steels like OPTIFER and F82H mod. EUROFER shows a good low-cycle fatigue behaviour with longer lifetimes than F82H mod. The deformation and softening behaviour is similar

  6. Incorporating Student Activities into Climate Change Education

    Steele, H.; Kelly, K.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    atmospheric circulation with applications of the Lorenz model, explored the land-sea breeze problem with the Dynamics and Thermodynamics Circulation Model (DTDM), and developed simple radiative transfer models. Class projects explored the effects of varying the content of CO2 and CH4 in the atmosphere, as well as the properties of paleoclimates in atmospheric simulations using EdGCM. Initial assessment of student knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors associated with these activities, particularly about climate change, was measured. Pre- and post-course surveys provided student perspectives about the courses and their learning about remote sensing and climate change concepts. Student performance on the tutorials and course projects evaluated students' ability to learn and apply their knowledge about climate change and skills with remote sensing to assigned problems or proposed projects of their choice. Survey and performance data illustrated that the exercises were successful in meeting their intended learning objectives as well as opportunities for further refinement and expansion.

  7. A cluster-randomised, controlled trial to assess the impact of a workplace osteoporosis prevention intervention on the dietary and physical activity behaviours of working women: study protocol

    Tan, Ai May; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Sarmugam, Rani; Howard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease and its risk can be reduced through adequate calcium consumption and physical activity. This protocol paper describes a workplace-based intervention targeting behaviour change in premenopausal women working in sedentary occupations. Method/Design A cluster-randomised design was used, comparing the efficacy of a tailored intervention to standard care. Workplaces were the clusters and units of randomisation and intervention. Sample size calculat...

  8. Seahorses under a changing ocean: the impact of warming and acidification on the behaviour and physiology of a poor-swimming bony-armoured fish.

    Faleiro, Filipa; Baptista, Miguel; Santos, Catarina; Aurélio, Maria L; Pimentel, Marta; Pegado, Maria Rita; Paula, José Ricardo; Calado, Ricardo; Repolho, Tiago; Rosa, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Seahorses are currently facing great challenges in the wild, including habitat degradation and overexploitation, and how they will endure additional stress from rapid climate change has yet to be determined. Unlike most fishes, the poor swimming skills of seahorses, along with the ecological and biological constraints of their unique lifestyle, place great weight on their physiological ability to cope with climate changes. In the present study, we evaluate the effects of ocean warming (+4°C) and acidification (ΔpH = -0.5 units) on the physiological and behavioural ecology of adult temperate seahorses, Hippocampus guttulatus. Adult seahorses were found to be relatively well prepared to face future changes in ocean temperature, but not the combined effect of warming and acidification. Seahorse metabolism increased normally with warming, and behavioural and feeding responses were not significantly affected. However, during hypercapnia the seahorses exhibited signs of lethargy (i.e. reduced activity levels) combined with a reduction of feeding and ventilation rates. Nonetheless, metabolic rates were not significantly affected. Future ocean changes, particularly ocean acidification, may further threaten seahorse conservation, turning these charismatic fishes into important flagship species for global climate change issues. PMID:27293694

  9. Neurobiological changes after intervention in individuals with anti-social behaviour: A literature review

    Cornet, L.J.M.; Kogel, C.H. de; Nijman, H.L.I.; Raine, A.; Laan, P.H. van der

    2015-01-01

    Background A neurobiological perspective has become accepted as a valuable approach for understanding anti-social behaviour. There is literature to suggest that, in non-offending populations, psychological treatments affect both neurobiological measures and clinical presentation. A theoretical posit

  10. Behavioural changes induced by N,N-dimethyl-tryptamine in rodents.

    Jenner, P; Marsden, C D; Thanki, C. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) in pargyline pretreated rodents induced a dose-dependent behavioural syndrome consisting of hyperactivity, prostration and hindlimb abduction, mild tremor, Straub tail, retropulsion and jerking. 2 In rats pretreated with pargyline, the behavioural syndrome induced by DMT differed from that induced by L-tryptophan or quipazine, in the lack of forepaw treading and head-weaving and in the presence of only mild tremor. 3 The hyperactivity component of the DMT-induce...

  11. Isolation-induced behavioural changes in a genetic animal model of depression

    Elfving, Betina; Fischer, Christina; Liebenberg, Nico; Lund, Sten; Wegener, Gregers

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a heterogeneous disorder displaying a range of symptoms including feelings of despair and social withdrawal. Social isolation may complicate the progression of depression and have effects on both behaviour and physiology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social isolation on behavioural and metabolic parameters in a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Line (FSL/FRL) rats. Rats were housed either individually (social isolati...

  12. Multinationals' Political Activities on Climate Change

    This article explores the international dimensions of multinationals' corporate political activities, focusing on an international issue - climate change - being implemented differently in a range of countries. Analyzing data from Financial Times Global 500 firms, it examines the influence on types and process of multinationals' political strategies, reckoning with institutional contexts and issue saliency. Findings show that the type of political activities can be characterized as an information strategy to influence policy makers toward market-based solutions, not so much withholding action on emission reduction. Moreover, multinationals pursue self-regulation, targeting a broad range of political actors. The process of political strategy is mostly one of collective action. International differences particularly surface in the type of political actors aimed at, with U.S. and Australian firms focusing more on non-government actors (voluntary programs) than European and Japanese firms. Influencing home-country (not host-country) governments is the main component of international political strategy on climate change

  13. An improved model for predicting coolant activity behaviour for fuel-failure monitoring analysis

    El-Jaby, A.; Lewis, B.J.; Thompson, W.T. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, K7K 7B4 (Canada); Iglesias, F.C. [Candesco Corporation, 230 Richmond Street West, 10th Floor, Toronto, Ontario, M5V 1V6 (Canada); Ip, Monique [Bruce Power, 123 Front Street West, 4th Floor Toronto, Ontario, M5J 2M2 (Canada)

    2009-06-15

    ), that is applicable in all operating reactor conditions, and which accounts for the changing condition of the defect. Previous work focused on the development of a general fission product release model for defective fuel using the COMSOL Multiphysics finite-element commercial platform. The current work synthesizes all previous theoretical treatments with the solution of the general time-dependent model using a custom-developed finite-difference variable mesh (FDVM) numerical treatment as a stand-alone tool (code). This model, entitled STAR (Steady-state and Transient Activity Release), is able to specifically predict the fission product activity behaviour in the UO{sub 2} fuel matrix, fuel-to-sheath gap, and PHTS coolant, while respecting the overall fission product mass-balance under all reactor operating conditions, including: startup, steady-state, shutdown, and bundle-shifting manoeuvres. In addition, an improved ability to predict the PHTS coolant activity of the Xe-135 isotope in commercial reactors is discussed. Moreover, a method to approximate both the burnup and the amount of the tramp uranium deposits in-core, as well as the tramp uranium fission rate is proposed. The model parameters are derived from in-reactor experiments conducted with defective fuel elements containing natural and artificial failures at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). The STAR code has also been successfully validated against analytical solutions to the release-to-birth ratio R/B of both short and long-lived fission product species, as well as the specific analytical solution to the coolant activity of {sup 129}I. In addition, STAR has been benchmarked against several documented defect occurrences in a commercial reactor. Lastly, the performance of the FDVM numerical algorithm implemented in the stand-alone STAR C++ code has been benchmarked against the COMSOL Multiphysics finite-element implementation. (authors)

  14. The role of knowledge in the contraceptive behaviour of sexually active young people in state care

    Hyde, Abbey; Fullerton, Deirdre; Lohan, Maria; et al.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To analyse the role of sex-focused knowledge in the contraceptive behaviour of sexually active young people in state care. Methods: The sample consisted of 19 care leavers (young people previously in state care) aged 18–22 years, 16 females and 3 males. In-depth interviewing was the method of data collection, and a qualitative strategy resembling modified analytical induction was used to analyse data. Findings: Findings indicated that a lack of information was not the sole or even the pr...

  15. Comparative effects of building envelope improvements and occupant behavioural changes on the exergy consumption for heating and cooling

    Much focus is put on measures to improve the building envelope system performance to reduce the impact of the building sector on the global environmental degradation. This paper compares the potential of building envelope improvements to those of a change in the occupant's behavioural pattern. Three cases of improvements together with a base case were analysed using exergy analysis, because the exergy concept is useful to understand the underlying processes and the necessary adjustments to the calculation of the heat-pump system. The assumptions for the occupant behaviour were set up based on our field measurements conducted in a dormitory building and the calculation was for steady-state conditions. It was found that the potential of occupant behavioural changes for the reduction in exergy consumption is more affected by the outdoor temperature compared to building envelope improvements. The influence of occupant behaviour was highly significant (more than 90% decrease of exergy consumption) when the temperature difference between indoors and outdoors is small, which is the case for long periods in regions with moderate temperatures during summer and/or winter. Nevertheless, both measures combined lead to a reduction from 76% up to 95% depending on the outside conditions and should be the final goal.

  16. The behaviour of selected material/oxide layer systems with change of temperature loading

    In this work, the behaviour of material/oxide layer systems with isothermal and thermal cycling stresses was examined in detail on the example of X 20 CrMoV 12 1, alloy 800 H (X 10 NiCrAlTi 32 20) and HK 40 (G-X 40 CrNiSi 25 20) steels. The materials were in the form of heat exchanger pipes and some of them were bar material. The change of temperature loading was defined by the parameter temperature of the isothermal stopping phase, maximum cooling load, duration of the isothermal stopping phase and the value of the cooling speed. The parameters for the individual materials were as follows: X 20 CrMoV 12 1:650deg C, 350deg-250deg C, 4-24 hours, 10degC/min; Alloy 800 H: 900degC, 650deg-800deg C, 12-48 hours, 25degC/min; HK 40: 950deg C, 750deg C, 12-48 hours, 25degC/min. The compliance of the parameters was controlled by a personal computer, which was used to record sound emission measurements. The analysis of sound signals on the heat exchanger pipes, similar to components, or on bars should give information on the time of occurrence and the type of oxidation damage. The experiments were carried out in air, air + 0.5% SO2 and for X 20 CrMoV 12 1 also with an (Ar + 5% H2) + 50% H2O gas mixture on the inside of the heat exchanger pipes. (orig./MM)

  17. The climatic change induced by human activities

    The climate of the Earth is a changing climate. Along their history many natural climate changes have existed in all time scales. At the present time we use the term climate changes have existed in all time scales. At the present time we use the term climate change in a restricted way, understanding that we have referring to a singular change that has their origin in the modification of the natural composition of the atmosphere. The increase of greenhouse gases from the second half the XVIII century, is due to the human activities of fossil fuels burning to obtain energy and to industrial and agricultural activities needing for the development of a world which population has been duplicated between 1960 and 2000, until overcoming the 6,000 million inhabitants. In particular, the concentrations of carbon dioxide-CO2 have increased in a 34%. The more recent emission scenarios proposed by the IPCC (SRES, 2000) are based on hypothesis about the population evolution, the energy consumption and the word patterns of development, which are grouped in four families dominated as A1, A2, B1 and B2. The answer for these scenarios from a range of climate models results in an increase of the world average surface atmospheric temperature between 1,4 degree centigrade and 5,8 degree centigrade and a corresponding sea level rise understood between 9 cm and 88 cm. The changes in the precipitation patterns show us that could be above to the current one in high and media latitudes and below in subtropical latitudes, with exceptions highly depending of the model used. (Author)

  18. Analysis of automated quantification of motor activity in REM sleep behaviour disorder

    Frandsen, Rune; Nikolic, Miki; Zoetmulder, Marielle;

    2015-01-01

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is characterized by dream enactment and REM sleep without atonia. Atonia is evaluated on the basis of visual criteria, but there is a need for more objective, quantitative measurements. We aimed to define and optimize a method for establishing...... baseline and all other parameters in automatic quantifying submental motor activity during REM sleep. We analysed the electromyographic activity of the submental muscle in polysomnographs of 29 patients with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), 29 controls and 43 Parkinson's (PD) patients. Six adjustable parameters for...... were validated on PD patients. Automatic baseline estimation improved characterization of atonia during REM sleep, as it eliminates inter/intra-observer variability and can be standardized across diagnostic centres. We found an optimized method for quantifying motor activity during REM sleep. The...

  19. Self-reported physical activity behaviour; exercise motivation and information among Danish adult cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Midtgaard, J.; Baadsgaard, M.T.; Moller, T.;

    2009-01-01

    . PURPOSE: The current study aimed at investigating self-reported physical activity behaviour, exercise motivation and information in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. METHODS AND SAMPLE: Using a cross-sectional design, 451 patients (18-65 years) completed a questionnaire assessing pre-illness and...... present physical activity; motivation and information received. RESULTS: Patients reported a significant decline in physical activity from pre-illness to the time in active treatment (p<0.001). Amongst the respondents, 68% answered that they believed exercise to be beneficial; and 78% claimed not...... exercising as much as desired. Exercise barriers included fatigue (74%) and physical discomfort (45%). Present physical activity behaviour was associated with pre-illness physical activity behaviour (p<0.001), exercise belief (p<0.001), and diagnosis (p<0.001). More patients <40 years than patients >40 years...

  20. Environmental influences on the at-sea behaviour of a major consumer, Mirounga leonina, in a rapidly changing environment

    Trevor McIntyre

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the distribution and foraging ecology of major consumers within pelagic systems, specifically in relation to physical parameters, can be important for the management of bentho-pelagic systems undergoing rapid change associated with global climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances such as fishing (i.e., the Antarctic Peninsula and Scotia Sea. We tracked 11 adult male southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina, during their five-month post-moult foraging migrations from King George Island (Isla 25 de Mayo, northern Antarctic Peninsula, using tags capable of recording and transmitting behavioural data and in situ temperature and salinity data. Seals foraged mostly within the Weddell–Scotia Confluence, while a few foraged along the western Antarctic Peninsula shelf of the Bellingshausen Sea. Mixed model outputs suggest that the at-sea behaviour of seals was associated with a number of environmental parameters, especially seafloor depth, sea-ice concentrations and the temperature structure of the water column. Seals increased dive bottom times and travelled at slower speeds in shallower areas and areas with increased sea-ice concentrations. Changes in dive depth and durations, as well as relative amount of time spent during the bottom phases of dives, were observed in relation to differences in overall temperature gradient, likely as a response to vertical changes in prey distribution associated with temperature stratification in the water column. Our results illustrate the likely complex influences of bathymetry, hydrography and sea ice on the behaviour of male southern elephant seals in a changing environment and highlight the need for region-specific approaches to studying environmental influences on behaviour.

  1. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours in Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    Jago Russell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no data on physical activity and sedentary behaviours of Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents, and no study to date examined the association between these two behaviours in this population. The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of physical activity and sedentary behaviours among Greek-Cypriot adolescents and examine the association between physical activity and a range of sedentary behaviours. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between physical activity and sedentary behaviours. Methods A cross-sectional study among 1,966 Greek-Cypriot children and adolescents was conducted in 2008/2009. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire across primary, middle, high and technical/vocational schools. Results Overall 52.3% and 52.4% of the participants met physical activity and television viewing guidelines respectively. Boys and younger children were more likely to meet guidelines. Boys who attended sports clubs for two or more times per week were more likely to be physically active (OR = 3.4, and those who listened to music for one or less than one hour per day were less likely to be physically active (OR = 0.6. Girls who attended sports clubs for two or more times per week and who watched television for two or less than two hours per day were more likely to be physically active, (OR = 3.0 and OR = 1.5 respectively. Girls who reported travelling by car/bus/motorbike for one or less than one hour per day were more likely to actively travel to school (OR = 1.8. Conclusions Findings from this study provide limited support for the displacement hypothesis whereby sedentary behaviours displace physically active time. About 50.0% of Greek children and adolescents in Cyprus meet existing physical activity and television viewing guidelines. Encouraging children to attend sports clubs for at least two times per week may markedly improve their physical activity levels.

  2. Predicting Changes in Physical Activity among Adolescents: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Intention, Action Planning and Coping Planning

    Araujo-Soares, Vera; McIntyre, Teresa; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to test the direct predictors of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), action planning and coping planning as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) in 157 adolescents (mean age: 12). TPB measures, the Action Planning and Coping Planning Scales (APCPS) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaires were measured…

  3. The influence of network rigidity on the electrical switching behaviour of Ge-Te-Si glasses suitable for phase change memory applications

    Ge15Te85-xSix (2 ≤ x ≤ 12) glasses of a wide range of compositions have been found to exhibit electrical switching at threshold voltages in the range 100-600 V, for a sample thickness of 0.3 mm. The samples become latched to the ON state (memory behaviour) at higher ON state currents (>1 mA). However, the switching is found to be reversible (threshold behaviour) if the ON state current is limited to lower values (≤0.7 mA). While Ge15Te85-xSix glasses with x ≤ 5 exhibit a normal electrical switching, an unstable behaviour is seen in the I-V characteristics of Ge15Te85-xSix glasses with x > 5 during the transition to the ON state. Further, a sparking in the electrode region and the splashing of the active material is observed in Ge15Te85-xSix glasses with x > 5. It is also interesting to note that the switching voltage (VT) and initial resistance (R) of Ge15Te85-xSix glasses increase with addition of Si, exhibiting a change in slope at a composition x = 5 ((r) = 2.4). The observed electrical switching behaviour of Ge15Te85-xSix glasses has been understood on the basis that the composition x = 5 is the rigidity percolation threshold of the Ge15Te85-xSix system. It is also proposed that the Ge15Te85-xSix glasses with x < 5 are likely to be more suitable for phase change memory applications

  4. The microstructure of coaching practice: behaviours and activities of an elite rugby union head coach during preparation and competition.

    Hall, Edward Thomas; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2016-01-01

    The activities and behaviours of a female head coach of a national rugby union team were recorded in both training and competition, across a whole rugby season, using the newly developed Rugby Coach Activities and Behaviours Instrument (RCABI). The instrument incorporates 24 categories of behaviour, embedded within three forms of activity (training form (TF), playing form (PF) and competitive match) and seven sub-activity types. In contrast to traditional drill-based coaching, 58.5% of the training time was found to have been spent in PF activities. Moreover, the proportion of PF activities increased to a peak average of 83.8% in proximity to the team's annual international championship. Uniquely, one of the coach's most prolific behaviours was conferring with associates (23.3%), highlighting the importance of interactions with assistant coaches, medical staff and others in shaping the coaching process. Additionally, the frequencies of key behaviours such as questioning and praise were found to vary between the different activity forms and types, raising questions about previous conceptions of effective coaching practice. The findings are discussed in the light of the Game Sense philosophy and the role of the head coach. PMID:26260577

  5. Defensive behaviour and biological activities of the abdominal secretion in the ant Crematogaster scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae).

    Marlier, J F; Quinet, Y; de Biseau, J C

    2004-11-30

    Using bioassays, the defensive behaviour of Crematogaster scutellaris and the biological activities of its abdominal secretion were investigated. Beside classical aggressive behaviours such as grips, C. scutellaris workers performed frequent characteristic gaster flexions during interspecific encounters, sometimes tempting to apply their abdominal secretion topically on the enemy. The toxicity of the venom of C. scutellaris to other ants greatly differed among the species tested, some being killed after the topical application of only three droplets, while others were quite resistant to a dose of 90 droplets. All ant species tested were strongly and immediately repelled by a contact between their antennae or mouthparts with the venom of C. scutellaris. Abdominal secretion was never used during intraspecific interference and workers were resistant to a topical application of the venom of their own species. Intraspecific repellency was significant but moderate compared to interspecific one. Workers of C. scutellaris were never seen using their venom during prey capture. In conclusion, the main biological activity of the abdominal secretion of C. scutellaris seems to be its repellency to other ant species. This is supported by field experiments showing that Pheidole pallidula foragers were efficiently repelled at coexploited baits, allowing the monopolization of most prey by C. scutellaris. PMID:15518992

  6. Changing teacher's beliefs about school self-evaluation and the impact on teacher behaviour and student achievement

    Alenka Hauptman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine if different ways of promoting school self-evaluation had an effect on changing teachers' beliefs about school self-evaluation, on their behaviour in the classroom and on student achievement. Although school self-evaluation in Slovenian primary schools is legally required; there are no uniform instructions about using it or even systematic research on its effectiveness. Our sample included 111 fourth grade teachers from 59 Slovenian primary ...

  7. How lay health workers tailor in effective health behaviour change interventions: a protocol for a systematic review

    Hodgins, Faith; Gnich, Wendy; Ross, Alastair J.; Sherriff, Andrea; Worlledge-Andrew, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background Lay health workers (LHWs) are utilised as a channel of delivery in many health interventions. While they have no formal professional training related to their role, they utilise their connections with the target group or community in order to reach individuals who would not normally readily engage with health services. Lay health worker programmes are often based on psychological theories of behaviour change that point to ‘tailoring to individuals’ needs or characteristics’ as key ...

  8. How do lay health workers tailor in effective health behaviour change interventions? A protocol for a qualitative synthesis

    Hodgins, Faith; Gnich, Wendy; Ross, Alastair J.; Sherriff, Andrea; Worlledge-Andrew, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lay health workers (LHWs) are utilised as a channel of delivery in many health interventions. While they have no formal professional training related to their role, they utilise their connections with the target group or community in order to reach individuals who would not normally readily engage with health services. Lay health worker programmes are often based on psychological theories of behaviour change that point to ‘tailoring to individuals’ needs or characteristics’ as ...

  9. Improving hand hygiene compliance for the reduction of nosocomial infections: recommendations for behaviour change in a health care setting

    Reason, Florence Paige

    2008-01-01

    Nosocomial infection rates are highly dependent on hand hygiene compliance within health care facilities. This paper examines the literature concerning elements of effective hand hygiene interventions and relevant behaviour change theory, in addition to current practice surrounding hand hygiene interventions in leading institutions, in order to inform and propose recommendations for the improvement and success of the University Health Network’s current hand hygiene initiative. The results of ...

  10. Seasonal changes in mood and behaviour in the general population. Associations with mood, sleep and health risk factors

    Øyane, Nicolas Melchior Frederic

    2010-01-01

    The way seasons affect humans varies considerably between individuals, nevertheless most humans’ mood and behaviour change throughout the year. Almost 25 years ago, Seasonal Affective Disorder was described as recurring major depressive episodes during a certain time of the year. Seasonal Affective Disorder has been reported to be associated with hypersomnia, increased appetite and carbohydrate craving, and the disorder is most common in subjects with high education and socioec...

  11. Modelling the thermo-mechanical volume change behaviour of compacted expansive clays

    Tang, Anh-Minh; 10.1680/geot.2009.59.3.185

    2009-01-01

    Compacted expansive clays are often considered as a possible buffer material in high-level deep radioactive waste disposals. After the installation of waste canisters, the engineered clay barriers are subjected to thermo-hydro-mechanical actions in the form of water infiltration from the geological barrier, heat dissipation from the radioactive waste canisters, and stresses generated by clay swelling under almost confined conditions. The aim of the present work is to develop a constitutive model that is able to describe the behaviour of compacted expansive clays under these coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical actions. The proposed model is based on two existing models: one for the hydro-mechanical behaviour of compacted expansive clays and another for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of saturated clays. The elaborated model has been validated using the thermo-hydro-mechanical test results on the compacted MX80 bentonite. Comparison between the model prediction and the experimental data show that this model is able...

  12. Sexual activity and school deviant behaviour among adolescents: peer influence and homophily interactions with sex and ethnicity

    Berten, Hans; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    Criminologist and sociologists have since long recognized the importance of peer influence in adolescence, but only rarely are peer influence interactions studied with regard to important salient status characteristics. This study examines whether homophily status characteristics condition the influence between best friends and the individual´s behaviour. The focus of the study is on school deviant behaviour as well as sexual activity. More specifically, we address the question to what extent...

  13. The school environment and adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour:A mixed-studies systematic review

    Morton, K. L.; Atkin, A. J.; Corder, K.; Suhrcke, M; van Sluijs, E. M. F.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing academic and policy interest in interventions aiming to promote young people's health by ensuring that the school environment supports healthy behaviours. The purpose of this review was to summarize the current evidence on school-based policy, physical and social-environmental influences on adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Electronic databases were searched to identify studies that (1) involved healthy adolescents (11-18years old), (2) investigated sch...

  14. Is physical activity associated with low-risk health behaviours among 15-year-old adolescents in Finland?

    Vuori, Mika; Kannas, Lasse; Villberg, Jari; Ojala, Kristiina; Tynjälä, Jorma; Välimaa, Raili

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the associations between physical activity and the pattern of risk health behaviour consisting of smoking, alcohol consumption, snuff (snus), cannabis and condom use among 15-year-old adolescents, taking their educational aspirations and family affluence into account. Methods: The data were collected in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study in Finland in 2006. Standardised questionnaires were issued at schools to a 15-year-old nationally representative...

  15. Neural correlates of behavioural olfactory sensitivity changes seasonally in European starlings.

    Geert De Groof

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Possibly due to the small size of the olfactory bulb (OB as compared to rodents, it was generally believed that songbirds lack a well-developed sense of smell. This belief was recently revised by several studies showing that various bird species, including passerines, use olfaction in many respects of life. During courtship and nest building, male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris incorporate aromatic herbs that are rich in volatile compounds (e.g., milfoil, Achillea millefolium into the nests and they use olfactory cues to identify these plants. Interestingly, European starlings show seasonal differences in their ability to respond to odour cues: odour sensitivity peaks during nest-building in the spring, but is almost non-existent during the non-breeding season. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study used repeated in vivo Manganese-enhanced MRI to quantify for the first time possible seasonal changes in the anatomy and activity of the OB in starling brains. We demonstrated that the OB of the starling exhibits a functional seasonal plasticity of certain plant odour specificity and that the OB is only able to detect milfoil odour during the breeding season. Volumetric analysis showed that this seasonal change in activity is not linked to a change in OB volume. By subsequently experimentally elevating testosterone (T in half of the males during the non-breeding season we showed that the OB volume was increased compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: By investigating the neural substrate of seasonal olfactory sensitivity changes we show that the starlings' OB loses its ability during the non-breeding season to detect a natural odour of a plant preferred as green nest material by male starlings. We found that testosterone, applied during the non-breeding season, does not restore the discriminatory ability of the OB but has an influence on its size.

  16. RECENT CHANGES IN THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY IN VASLUI

    Mihai Florin Necula

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A thunderstorm (also called an electrical storm is a form of weather characterized by the presence of lightning and its attendant thunder, produced from a cumulonimbus cloud. Thunderstorms form when significant condensation (resulting in the production of a wide range of water droplets and ice crystals occurs in an atmosphere that is unstable and supports deep, rapid upward motion. This appears in the presence of three conditions: sufficient moisture accumulated in the lower atmosphere, reflected by high temperatures; a significant fall in air temperature with increasing height (steep adiabatic lapse rate; and a force such as mechanical convergence along a cold front to focus the lift. The process to initiate vertical lifting can be caused by: (1 unequal warming of the surface of the Earth, (2 orographic lifting due to topographic obstruction of airflow, and (3 dynamic lifting created by the presence of a frontal zone. As an intricate part of the global climatic system, thunderstorms pattern and activity are highly susceptible to anthropogenic climate change, and recent observation concerning thunderstorms in Vaslui seems to support this connection. But even if this is only a temporary period of anomaly, a cyclic variation or the beginning of a trend prone to continue in the future, the period spanning more than 22 years analyzed in this paper (1985-2006, deserve some more in depth research, because of the significant and rapid developments in thunderstorm activity, and also considering the� ackground: this interval contains the top 17 hottest years ever recorded in the instrumental meteorology era. In addition, the fact that the changes in thunderstorm activity can be clearly linked to the significant changes in the way precipitations fall in the warm season, opens a new way in which the ferocity and destructive force of recent extreme weather phenomena can be explained, and ultimately predicted .

  17. Outlook for activity and structural change

    The level of energy-using activities is continuing to increase throughout the world, but the rates of likely growth differ among regions. Over the next 20 years, manufacturing production is expected to grow at a rapid pace in parts of the developing world, and moderately in the OECD countries. In the Former East Bloc, it seems likely to stagnate or decline for much of the 1990s, but could then grow at a moderate pace if the transition to a market economy is successfully managed. Domestic passenger travel seems likely to increase everywhere, and growth in international travel will be especially strong. Freight transport activity is difficult to evaluate in the aggregate, since the composition of goods changes over time, but increase is expected in all regions, especially in the developing countries. Structural change within sectors will have significant impacts on energy use. In manufacturing, faster growth in light industry will lead to lower energy intensity in the OECD countries and especially in the Former East Bloc. The outlook in the LDCs suggests somewhat higher growth in energy-intensive industries, but this trend will vary among countries. In passenger travel, structural change is pointing toward higher energy intensity in most of the world as the role of automobiles and air travel continues to grow. Increase in the use of trucks is pushing in a similar direction in freight transport. In the residential sector, structural change will have only a moderate impact in the OECD countries, where per capita levels of home services are already high, but will push energy use significantly upward in the LDCs, and to a lesser extent, in the Former East Bloc. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. Protocol for the ADDITION-Plus study: a randomised controlled trial of an individually-tailored behaviour change intervention among people with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes under intensive UK general practice care

    Fanshawe Tom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses both clinical and public health challenges. Cost-effective approaches to prevent progression of the disease in primary care are needed. Evidence suggests that intensive multifactorial interventions including medication and behaviour change can significantly reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among patients with established type 2 diabetes, and that patient education in self-management can improve short-term outcomes. However, existing studies cannot isolate the effects of behavioural interventions promoting self-care from other aspects of intensive primary care management. The ADDITION-Plus trial was designed to address these issues among recently diagnosed patients in primary care over one year. Methods/Design ADDITION-Plus is an explanatory randomised controlled trial of a facilitator-led, theory-based behaviour change intervention tailored to individuals with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes. 34 practices in the East Anglia region participated. 478 patients with diabetes were individually randomised to receive (i intensive treatment alone (n = 239, or (ii intensive treatment plus the facilitator-led individual behaviour change intervention (n = 239. Facilitators taught patients key skills to facilitate change and maintenance of key behaviours (physical activity, dietary change, medication adherence and smoking, including goal setting, action planning, self-monitoring and building habits. The intervention was delivered over one year at the participant's surgery and included a one-hour introductory meeting followed by six 30-minute meetings and four brief telephone calls. Primary endpoints are physical activity energy expenditure (assessed by individually calibrated heart rate monitoring and movement sensing, change in objectively measured dietary intake (plasma vitamin C, medication adherence (plasma drug levels, and smoking status (plasma cotinine levels at

  19. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Blake L. Spady

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon dioxide (CO2 levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species.

  20. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus.

    Spady, Blake L; Watson, Sue-Ann; Chase, Tory J; Munday, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm) on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19-25% and increased movement (number of line-crosses) by nearly 3 times compared to squid at present-day CO2. Squid vigilance and defensive behaviours were also altered by elevated CO2 with >80% of individuals choosing jet escape responses over defensive arm postures in response to a visual startle stimulus, compared with 50% choosing jet escape responses at control CO2. In addition, more escape responses were chosen over threat behaviours in body pattern displays at elevated CO2 and individuals were more than twice as likely to use ink as a defence strategy at 956 µatm CO2, compared with controls. Increased activity could lead to adverse effects on energy budgets as well as increasing visibility to predators. A tendency to respond to a stimulus with escape behaviours could increase survival, but may also be energetically costly and could potentially lead to more chases by predators compared with individuals that use defensive postures. These results demonstrate that projected future ocean acidification affects the behaviours of a tropical squid species. PMID:25326517

  1. Sound exposure changes European seabass behaviour in a large outdoor floating pen: Effects of temporal structure and a ramp-up procedure.

    Neo, Y Y; Hubert, J; Bolle, L; Winter, H V; Ten Cate, C; Slabbekoorn, H

    2016-07-01

    Underwater sound from human activities may affect fish behaviour negatively and threaten the stability of fish stocks. However, some fundamental understanding is still lacking for adequate impact assessments and potential mitigation strategies. For example, little is known about the potential contribution of the temporal features of sound, the efficacy of ramp-up procedures, and the generalisability of results from indoor studies to the outdoors. Using a semi-natural set-up, we exposed European seabass in an outdoor pen to four treatments: 1) continuous sound, 2) intermittent sound with a regular repetition interval, 3) irregular repetition intervals and 4) a regular repetition interval with amplitude 'ramp-up'. Upon sound exposure, the fish increased swimming speed and depth, and swam away from the sound source. The behavioural readouts were generally consistent with earlier indoor experiments, but the changes and recovery were more variable and were not significantly influenced by sound intermittency and interval regularity. In addition, the 'ramp-up' procedure elicited immediate diving response, similar to the onset of treatment without a 'ramp-up', but the fish did not swim away from the sound source as expected. Our findings suggest that while sound impact studies outdoors increase ecological and behavioural validity, the inherently higher variability also reduces resolution that may be counteracted by increasing sample size or looking into different individual coping styles. Our results also question the efficacy of 'ramp-up' in deterring marine animals, which warrants more investigation. PMID:27061472

  2. Structural changes, Evolution of damage parameters and crack crack propagation behaviour in welded plastic pipes

    Lach, R.; Hutař, Pavel; Veselý, P.; Nezbedová, E.; Knésl, Zdeněk; Grellmann, W.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 465, - (2011), s. 427-430. ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC101/09/J027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : plastic pipes * welded joints * microhardness * laser extensometry * fracture behaviour Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  3. Are Incentive Schemes Effective in Changing Young People's Behaviour? A Systematic Review

    Kavanagh, Josephine; Oakley, Ann; Harden, Angela; Trouton, Alex; Powell, Chloe

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of single or dual component incentive schemes on health and social behaviours, in young people. Design: A systematic review. Method: Systematic and comprehensive cross-disciplinary searches were conducted to identify research. Following screening for relevance, included studies were quality assessed and data…

  4. A randomised controlled trial of an exercise plus behaviour change intervention in people with multiple sclerosis: the step it up study protocol

    Coote, Susan; Gallagher, Stephen; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Larkin, Aidan; Newell, John; Motl, Robert; Hayes, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise has consistently yielded short-term, positive effects on health outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these effects have not been maintained in the long-term. Behaviour change interventions aim to promote long-term positive lifestyle change. This study, namely, “Step it Up” will compare the effect of an exercise plus Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)-based behaviour change intervention with an exercise plus control education intervention on walking mobility...

  5. AutoEPG: software for the analysis of electrical activity in the microcircuit underpinning feeding behaviour of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    James Dillon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pharyngeal microcircuit of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a model for analysing neural network activity and is amenable to electrophysiological recording techniques. One such technique is the electropharyngeogram (EPG which has provided insight into the genetic basis of feeding behaviour, neurotransmission and muscle excitability. However, the detailed manual analysis of the digital recordings necessary to identify subtle differences in activity that reflect modulatory changes within the underlying network is time consuming and low throughput. To address this we have developed an automated system for the high-throughput and discrete analysis of EPG recordings (AutoEPG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: AutoEPG employs a tailor made signal processing algorithm that automatically detects different features of the EPG signal including those that report on the relaxation and contraction of the muscle and neuronal activity. Manual verification of the detection algorithm has demonstrated AutoEPG is capable of very high levels of accuracy. We have further validated the software by analysing existing mutant strains with known pharyngeal phenotypes detectable by the EPG. In doing so, we have more precisely defined an evolutionarily conserved role for the calcium-dependent potassium channel, SLO-1, in modulating the rhythmic activity of neural networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: AutoEPG enables the consistent analysis of EPG recordings, significantly increases analysis throughput and allows the robust identification of subtle changes in the electrical activity of the pharyngeal nervous system. It is anticipated that AutoEPG will further add to the experimental tractability of the C. elegans pharynx as a model neural circuit.

  6. Acidification in Three Lake District Tarns: Historical Iong term trends and modelled future behaviour under changing sulphate and nitrate deposition

    P. G. Whitchead

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Three upland Lake District Tarns, Scoat, Greendale and Burnmoor, have been evaluated using MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater In Catchments to reconstruct past, present and future chemical behaviour. The modelled historical changes in acidity are compared with palaeoecological estimation of pH to demonstrate model validity. Chemistry as simulated for all anions and cations and two of the three lakes are shown to have undergone significant acidification. The effects of changing atmospheric pollution levels on lake chemistry is evaluated and 80-90% sulphur reduction levels are required to achieve zero alkalinity. The impacts of increased nitrogen deposition are assessed and are shown to further delay reversibility.

  7. Changing the world through shareholder activism?

    Joakim Sandberg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available As one of the more progressive facets of the socially responsibleinvestment (SRI movement, shareholder activism isgenerally recommended or justified on the grounds that itcan create social change. But how effective are differentkinds of activist campaigns likely to be in this regard? Thisarticle outlines the full range of different ways in whichshareholder activism could make a difference by carefullygoing through, first, all the more specific lines of actiontypically included under the shareholder activismumbrella and, second, all of the different ways in which ithas been suggested that these could influence the activitiesof commercial companies. It is argued that – althoughmuch more empirical research is needed in the area – thereare at least theoretical reasons for thinking that it will bedifficult to influence companies through the standardactions of filing or voting on shareholder resolutions.However, some alternative strategies open to activists mayallow them to increase their efficacy. It is specificallyargued that even individual investors could be able to pushfor corporate change through devising a radically selfsacrificialcampaign that manages to get the attention ofpowerful forces outside the corporate sphere.

  8. Rapidly learning preconditions for means-ends behaviour using active learning

    Fichtl, Severin; Alexander, John; Guerin, Frank;

    2013-01-01

    ones. For example a young infant has a behaviour for waving an object back and forth on a table surface. At some later point, this behaviour becomes differentiated to produce a behaviour for deliberately displacing an object to one side in order to retrieve a visible toy behind it (see Figure I)....

  9. Indoor Tracking to Understand Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour: Exploratory Study in UK Office Buildings.

    Spinney, Richard; Smith, Lee; Ucci, Marcella; Fisher, Abigail; Konstantatou, Marina; Sawyer, Alexia; Wardle, Jane; Marmot, Alexi

    2015-01-01

    Little is known of the patterns of physical activity, standing and sitting by office workers. However, insight into these behaviours is of growing interest, notably in regard to public health priorities to reduce non-communicable disease risk factors associated with high levels of sitting time and low levels of physical activity. With the advent and increasing availability of indoor tracking systems it is now becoming possible to build detailed pictures of the usage of indoor spaces. This paper reports initial results of indoor tracking used in conjunction with the ActivPAL activity monitoring device. In this paper we give an overview of the usage of the tracking system and its installation and illustrate some of the resultant data. We also provide preliminary results that investigate the relationship between location, light physical activity and sitting in a small sample of office workers (n=33) from two separate office environments in order to demonstrate the relevance and explanatory power of the technique. PMID:25993515

  10. Indoor Tracking to Understand Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour: Exploratory Study in UK Office Buildings.

    Richard Spinney

    Full Text Available Little is known of the patterns of physical activity, standing and sitting by office workers. However, insight into these behaviours is of growing interest, notably in regard to public health priorities to reduce non-communicable disease risk factors associated with high levels of sitting time and low levels of physical activity. With the advent and increasing availability of indoor tracking systems it is now becoming possible to build detailed pictures of the usage of indoor spaces. This paper reports initial results of indoor tracking used in conjunction with the ActivPAL activity monitoring device. In this paper we give an overview of the usage of the tracking system and its installation and illustrate some of the resultant data. We also provide preliminary results that investigate the relationship between location, light physical activity and sitting in a small sample of office workers (n=33 from two separate office environments in order to demonstrate the relevance and explanatory power of the technique.

  11. Variations on the Activity-travel Scheduling Process After Participation in Travel Behavior Change Program

    GARCÍA GARCÉS, PABLO; Ruiz Sánchez, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    In the last few decades, several “soft” transport policy measures have arisen in order to shift people voluntarily out of their cars to public transport or non-polluting travel modes, such as walk or bicycle. Considering the activities as precursor of trips, travel changes affect the way people manage their agendas, so it is clear to think that behaviour change is associated with the flexibility to change daily schedules. The aim of this paper is to present a preliminary analysis of the va...

  12. Inhibitory control training for appetitive behaviour change: A meta-analytic investigation of mechanisms of action and moderators of effectiveness.

    Jones, Andrew; Di Lemma, Lisa C G; Robinson, Eric; Christiansen, Paul; Nolan, Sarah; Tudur-Smith, Catrin; Field, Matt

    2016-02-01

    Inhibitory control training (ICT) is a novel intervention in which participants learn to associate appetitive cues with inhibition of behaviour. We present a meta-analytic investigation of laboratory studies of ICT for appetitive behaviour change in which we investigate candidate mechanisms of action, individual differences that may moderate its effectiveness, and compare it to other psychological interventions. We conducted random-effects generic inverse variance meta-analysis on data from 14 articles (18 effect sizes in total). Participants who received ICT chose or consumed significantly less food or alcohol compared to control groups (SMD = 0.36, 95% CIs [0.24, 0.47]; Z = 6.18, p contingency between appetitive cues and the requirement to inhibit. The effect of ICT on cue devaluation (primarily assessed with implicit association tests) was not statistically significant. Our analysis confirms the efficacy of ICT for short-term behaviour change in the laboratory, and we have demonstrated that its effectiveness may depend on pairings between appetitive cues and successful inhibition. We highlight the need for further research to translate these findings outside of the laboratory. PMID:26592707

  13. Behavioural Medicine Perspectives for Change and Prediction of Oral Hygiene Behaviour : Development and Evaluation of an Individually Tailored Oral Health Educational Program

    Jönsson, Birgitta

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is about a behavioural medicine approach in periodontal treatment and oral hygiene self-care. The aim of this thesis was to develop, describe, and evaluate an individually tailored oral health educational program on oral hygiene behaviour and non-surgical periodontal treatment success, and to determine factors of importance for predicting oral hygiene behaviour. Two separate studies, both conducted at a specialist clinic for periodontics in a Swedish county council are described. ...

  14. Developmental neurotoxicity of Propylthiouracil (PTU) in rats: Relationship between transient hypothyroxinemia during development and long-lasting behavioural and functional changes

    Markedly lowered thyroid hormone levels during development may influence a child's behaviour, intellect, and auditory function. Recent studies, indicating that even small changes in the mother's thyroid hormone status early in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on her child, have lead to increased concern for thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals in the environment. The overall aim of the study was therefore to provide a detailed knowledge on the relationship between thyroid hormone levels during development and long-lasting effects on behaviour and hearing. Groups of 16-17 pregnant rats (HanTac:WH) were dosed with PTU (0, 0.8, 1.6 or 2.4 mg/kg/day) from gestation day (GD) 7 to postnatal day (PND) 17, and the physiological and behavioural development of rat offspring was assessed. Both dams and pups in the higher dose groups had markedly decreased thyroxine (T4) levels during the dosing period, and the weight and histology of the thyroid glands were severely affected. PTU exposure caused motor activity levels to decrease on PND 14, and to increase on PND 23 and in adulthood. In the adult offspring, learning and memory was impaired in the two highest dose groups when tested in the radial arm maze, and auditory function was impaired in the highest dose group. Generally, the results showed that PTU-induced hypothyroxinemia influenced the developing rat brain, and that all effects on behaviour and loss of hearing in the adult offspring were significantly correlated to reductions in T4 during development. This supports the hypothesis that decreased T4 may be a relevant predictor for long-lasting developmental neurotoxicity

  15. Changes in behavioural responses to infrastructure affect local and regional connectivity – a simulation study on pond breeding amphibians

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Nachman, Gøsta Støger

    2013-01-01

    An extensive and expanding infrastructural network destroys and fragments natural habitat and has detrimental effect on abundance and population viability of many amphibian species. Roads function as barriers in the landscape. They separate local populations from each other or prevent access to...... necessary resources. Therefore, road density and traffic intensity in a region may have severe impact on regional as well as local connectivity. Amphibians may be able to detect and avoid unsuitable habitat. Individuals’ ability to avoid roads can reduce road mortality but at the same time road...... avoidance behaviour, can increase the barrier effect of the road and reduce connectivity. We use an individual based model to explore how changes in road mortality and road avoidance behaviour affect local and regional connectivity in a population of Moor frogs (Rana arvalis). The results indicate that road...

  16. Impact of social norms and social support on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents: a scoping review.

    Draper, C E; Grobler, L; Micklesfield, L K; Norris, S A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in adulthood is rapidly increasing, and it is essential that risk factors for NCDs be addressed in adolescence, both for the health of individuals during adolescence and for their health in later life. These risk factors include diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. No literature has been published that comprehensively summarizes the impact of social norms and social support on these behaviours among adolescents. Therefore, a scoping review was conducted to determine the extent of recent (since 2000) literature available on this topic. A comprehensive search strategy was used to search PubMed and EMBASE for eligible reviews. Review papers (narrative reviews, systematic and non-systematic reviews) published in English in peer-reviewed journals from 2000 to February 2013 were included in the overview. Two of the authors screened the titles and abstracts of the search results independently. Thirty reviews were included in the scoping review. This scoping review has shown sufficient evidence for parental influences, and especially the positive impact of an authoritative parenting style, on healthy behaviours of adolescents, although the evidence is somewhat more compelling for diet than for physical activity and sedentary behaviour. More research is needed to investigate parental and family influences on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. And the effect of peer influences on diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviour of adolescents requires further investigation. The evidence presented affirms the consideration of social norms and social support in the development of interventions to address these behaviours in adolescents. The evidence regarding parenting style provides some concrete guidance for such interventions. PMID:25809525

  17. On the behaviour of the IR Ca II triplet in normal and active galaxies

    Ca II triplet in absorption at λλ8498,8542,8662 A is the strongest feature in the infrared spectrum of late-type stars and normal galaxies. Its strength has been found to be a good luminosity indicator for metal-rich stellar populations. We present high signal-to-noise near-IR spectroscopic data for the nuclear region of 42 normal and active galaxies. We have explored the behaviour of the Ca II triplet strength and found that it shows a small spread around a mean value of 7 A for our sample of normal galaxies. We also found that, in all the Seyfert type 2 galaxies measured and even in some Seyfert type 1, while the optical stellar features show substantial dilution, the strength of the IR Ca II triplet is equal to and in some cases larger than that in normal elliptical galaxies. (author)

  18. A web delivered intervention for depression combining Behavioural Activation with physical activity promotion: study protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    Jeffrey David Lambert

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical activity (PA yields moderate effect sizes for treating depression (Cooney et al., 2013. PA may also help reduce depressive relapse, providing additional psychological benefits such as positive self-regard and a sense of competence (Babyak et al., 2000. Behavioural Activation (BA is an evidence-based psychological therapy for depression, which aims to get people more engaged with activities that provide positive reinforcement for non-depressed behaviours (Hopko, Lejuez, LePage, Hopko, & McNeil, 2003. The structured nature of BA is consistent with the use of good behaviour change techniques (specific goal-setting, self-regulation offering a potential platform for promoting PA alongside depression treatment. BA may also be useful for gradually increasing PA in people who are more sedentary than the general population. Aims: This pilot randomised controlled trial aims to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and fidelity of a web-delivered intervention combining BA and PA (eBAcPAc to enhance mental and physical health, and assess the trial methods. Method: A community sample of 120 people exhibiting symptoms of depression and who are participating in less than 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per week will be randomized to receive eBAcPAc or be put on a wait list control group. eBAcPAc is informed by previous work (Farrand et al., 2014; Pentecost et al., 2015 and further developed using the Centre for eHealth Research and Disease management Roadmap (CeHReS (van Gemert-Pijnen et al., 2011 in order to be applied in an web-based setting. A platform hosted by the University of Glasgow which has been used to deliver a wide range of successful web-delivered interventions for mental health, will be used to deliver eBAcPAc. Feasibility measures will include data on recruitment, attrition and acceptability. Pre-post outcome measures will include the PHQ-9, and self-reported and accelerometer measured PA. Process and

  19. Time behaviour of the neutron flux at reactivity changes close to criticality

    In the determination of the control rod positions for which a nuclear power reactor becomes critical, the time behaviour of the neutron flux is usually observed. This time behaviour has been calculated in the point reactor approximation using six groups of delayed neutrons. The results show that, from the shape of the obtained curves, it is difficult to draw any certain conclusions whether the reactor is supercritical or not, if the observation time is as short as 10-30 s. Determination of the doubling time seems to be a good help in deciding when to decrease the steps in the control rod movements and increase the observation time in order to avoid unintentional criticality. (author)

  20. Thermally activated relaxation behaviour of shot-peened tool steels for cutting tool body applications

    Research highlights: → Different shot-peened tool steels had different thermal surface stress relaxation. → Hot-work tool steel had better stress relaxation resistance than low-alloyed steel. → Stress relaxation mechanism was diffusion-controlled. → Relaxation rate determining exponent was time and temperature dependent. - Abstract: Surface residual stress, microstrain and domain size were determined using X-ray diffraction in shot-peened low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels subjected to varying temperatures (200-600 deg. C) and times (0.5-50 h). The stress relaxation was directly related to microstrain decrease and domain size increase.The Zener-Wert-Avrami function was used to model the relaxation behaviour. The mechanism responsible for the relaxation behaviour is proposed to be diffusion-controlled as the activation energies for stress and microstrain relaxation were close to the activation enthalpy for lattice self-diffusion of alpha-iron.The relaxation rate varied over time and temperature. At temperatures up to 300 deg. C, the relaxation rate was insignificant in all the steels. In the temperature range of 300-400 deg. C and 400-550 deg. C for low-alloyed and hot-work tool steels, respectively, the stresses decreased at a similar rate with increasing time and temperature. At the tempering temperatures of the steels, the stress relaxation was controlled by microstructure transformations. A stress relaxation stabilization was found in one of hot-work steels between 450 and 500 deg. C at annealing times longer than 3 h.

  1. Comparative studies of offices pre and post — how changing spatial configurations affect organisational behaviours

    Sailer, K.; Budgen, A.; Lonsdale, N; Turner, A; Penn, A

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the way in which design interventions in an office affect everyday users, and thus shape organisational behaviour, should be high on the agenda for architects, designers and consultants alike. Surprisingly, this seems rarely to be the case. Here we aim to help close this gap by studying a variety of organisations in depth both before and after an office move from the point of view of design practice. This paper thus aims at understanding how a newly designed office is seen, used...

  2. Subclinical mastitis changes the patterns of maternal-offspring behaviour in dairy sheep.

    Gougoulis, D A; Kyriazakis, I; Papaioannou, N; Papadopoulos, E; Taitzoglou, I A; Fthenakis, G C

    2008-06-01

    Subclinical mastitis was induced by inoculating one mammary gland in dairy ewes (n=8) with a Staphylococcus simulans isolate; control ewes (n=4) were included. The milk yield of inoculated glands decreased (PMastitis Test (CMT) score increased and the organism could be recovered from the inoculated glands. With time, there was significantly increased frequency of "hindering sucking" (P=0.016) and "head up posture" (Pmastitis alters the sucking behaviour of both ewes and lambs. PMID:17451978

  3. Implementing quality indicators in intensive care units: exploring barriers to and facilitators of behaviour change

    de Keizer Nicolette F

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Quality indicators are increasingly used in healthcare but there are various barriers hindering their routine use. To promote the use of quality indicators, an exploration of the barriers to and facilitating factors for their implementation among healthcare professionals and managers of intensive care units (ICUs is advocated. Methods All intensivists, ICU nurses, and managers (n = 142 working at 54 Dutch ICUs who participated in training sessions to support future implementation of quality indicators completed a questionnaire on perceived barriers and facilitators. Three types of barriers related to knowledge, attitude, and behaviour were assessed using a five-point Likert scale (1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree. Results Behaviour-related barriers such as time constraints were most prominent (Mean Score, MS = 3.21, followed by barriers related to knowledge and attitude (MS = 3.62; MS = 4.12, respectively. Type of profession, age, and type of hospital were related to knowledge and behaviour. The facilitating factor perceived as most important by intensivists was administrative support (MS = 4.3; p = 0.02; for nurses, it was education (MS = 4.0; p = 0.01, and for managers, it was receiving feedback (MS = 4.5; p = 0.001. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that healthcare professionals and managers are familiar with using quality indicators to improve care, and that they have positive attitudes towards the implementation of quality indicators. Despite these facts, it is necessary to lower the barriers related to behavioural factors. In addition, as the barriers and facilitating factors differ among professions, age groups, and settings, tailored strategies are needed to implement quality indicators in daily practice.

  4. Executive Functioning and Social Behaviour: How Are They Related and How Does This Change With Age?

    Russell, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Executive functions, such as inhibition and dual tasking, have repeatedly been linked to social behaviour (e.g. McDonald & Pearce, 1996; Foley, Cantagallo, Della Sala & Logie, 2010); however the exact strength and nature of this relationship is still unknown. Although certain executive functions, such as dual tasking, are maintained at a high-level into old age (e.g. Logie, Cocchini, Della Sala & Baddeley, 2004) others, such as inhibition, have repeatedly been shown to decline with age (e.g. ...

  5. Changing unsafe behaviour on social network sites: the role of school education

    Vanderhoven, Ellen; Schellens, Tammy; Valcke, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Because of the emerging popularity of social network sites (SNS) among teenagers, adults’ concerns about privacy and security are increasing. School education has been put forth as a possible solution (Livingstone, Haddon, Görzig, & Olafsson, 2011)). However, although safety interventions regularly have an impact on knowledge and awareness, an immediate impact on attitudes and behaviour is often lacking in media education interventions (Martens, 2010). A possible reason for this lack of impac...

  6. An mHealth intervention: Associations between Theory of Planned Behaviour constructs for physical activity and longitudinal smoking related behavioural data.

    Mary Hassandra

    2015-10-01

    The results support previous literature suggesting that a possible mechanism behind the beneficial effects of exercise on decreasing smoking behaviour might be the increased perceived behavioural control over exercise that has an effect on the control to smoking behaviour. Moreover, using exercise to manage after quit smoking cravings can delay further smoking behaviour relapses.

  7. Induced changes in the consumption of coffee alter ad libitum dietary intake and physical activity level.

    Mosdøl, Annhild; Christensen, Benedicte; Retterstøl, Lars; Thelle, Dag S

    2002-03-01

    Dietary trials with subjects on a freely selected diet may be affected by unwanted behavioural changes. Few studies, if any, have examined changes in coffee consumption and possible concomitant changes in diet and health-related habits. The aim of the present study was to examine whether induced changes in coffee consumption lead to changes in food habits and leisure-time physical activity. Healthy, non-smoking coffee-drinkers (n 214) were asked to change their coffee habits in a controlled clinical trial on the metabolic effects of coffee. The participants were asked to maintain their usual dietary habits. Self-perceived changes in diet and physical activity during the 6-week intervention period were assessed at the end. In the analyses, the participants were rearranged into groups reflecting the difference in coffee intake during the trial as compared with habitual intake. Associations with changes in food intake or physical activity were analysed by Spearman rank correlation. Changes in intake of 'chocolate, sweets' (r 0.179, Ppastry' (r 0.306, P<0.001), and 'jam' r 0.198, P<0.05) showed positive associations with change in coffee intake during the trial. Negative associations were found for 'dishes with fish' (r -0.204, P<0.01) and many of the drinks as well as with physical activity (r -0.164, P<0.05). Induced changes in coffee intake seem to alter ad libitum intake of several foods. The recognized associations between health behaviours may have physiological explanations. PMID:12064335

  8. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Blake L. Spady; Sue-Ann Watson; Chase, Tory J.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm) on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (number of line...

  9. Projected near-future CO2 levels increase activity and alter defensive behaviours in the tropical squid Idiosepius pygmaeus

    Blake L. Spady; Watson, Sue-Ann; Chase, Tory J.; Munday, Philip L.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels projected to occur in the oceans by the end of this century cause a range of behavioural effects in fish, but whether other highly active marine organisms, such as cephalopods, are similarly affected is unknown. We tested the effects of projected future CO2 levels (626 and 956 µatm) on the behaviour of male two-toned pygmy squid, Idiosepius pygmaeus. Exposure to elevated CO2 increased the number of active individuals by 19–25% and increased movement (numbe...

  10. EFFECT OF FLOOR TYPE ON BEHAVIOURAL ACTIVITIES OF INTENSIVELY MANAGED OSTRICHES

    Dan SEABO

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of providing grit on daily behavioural activities of intensively kept ostriches were investigated at the Botswana College of Agriculture. Two groups of ostriches were each housed in a 30 x 6m pen. Each group had seven ostriches in it. Each member of the group was identified by a number tag attached to its neck. Activities studied were feeding, picking objects, walking about, sparring, standing rest, sitting rest, grooming self, and grooming others. The study lasted 30 days. The results of the study show that during the mornings and afternoons, ostriches without access to grit allocated significantly (P<0.05 greater proportion of their activity time to feeding than did those with access to grit. The proportion of time allocated to morning feeding by the non-grit group was 23.1% as opposed to 13.9% for the grit group. In the afternoon, the non-grit group of ostriches continued allocating significantly more time (13.3 % to feeding than the grit group which only allocated 4.8% of their activity to the same activity. This trend in apportioning activity time by the two groups of ostriches was maintained with regards to the proportion of time allocated to walking about in the pens. The non-grit group allocated significantly (P<0.05 greater proportions of time to walking than the grit group. In the morning, non-grit ostriches allocated 25.8% of their daily activity to walking about in the pen while their grit counterparts allocated 19.9% to the same activity. The grit-fed group of ostriches rested more as they allocated significantly higher proportion (28.1% of their afternoon time to resting while standing than the proportion (17.7% allocated to the same by the non-grit group. Both treatment groups allocated higher proportions of their activity times to morning feeding. The group with access to grit spent 35.2% of the morning time feeding while allocating only 22.5% for the same activity in the afternoon feeding. The non-grit group allocated 24

  11. Using Photovoice as a Community Based Participatory Research Tool for Changing Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Behaviours in Usoma, Kenya

    Elijah Bisung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed an increase in the use of community based participatory research (CBPR tools for understanding environment and health issues and facilitating social action. This paper explores the application and utility of photovoice for understanding water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH behaviours and catalysing community led solutions to change behaviours. Between June and August 2013, photovoice was conducted with eight (8 women in Usoma, a lakeshore community in Western Kenya with a follow-up community meeting (baraza in May 2014 to discuss findings with the community members and government officials. In the first part of the study, photovoice one-on-one interviews were used to explore local perceptions and practices around water-health linkages and how the ecological and socio-political environment shapes these perceptions and practices. This paper, which is the second component of the study, uses photovoice group discussions to explore participants’ experiences with and (reaction to the photographs and the photovoice project. The findings illustrate that photovoice was an effective CBPR methodology for understanding behaviours, creating awareness, facilitating collective action, and engaging with local government and local health officials at the water-health nexus.

  12. Recent temporal trends in sleep duration, domain-specific sedentary behaviour and physical activity. A survey among 25-79-year-old Danish adults

    Aadahl, Mette; Andreasen, Anne Helms; Hammer-Helmich, Lene;

    2013-01-01

    (p <0.0001) per day, respectively. Time spent on MVPA had increased by 2.9 minutes per day (p <0.0001). The 24-hour energy expenditure had decreased by 0.41 METs (p <0.0001). Conclusions: Adult Danish men and women spend an increased amount of time sitting down at work and during leisure time, but......Background: Prevalence of sedentary behaviour is high in many countries, but little is known about temporal trends in sitting time. Objective: To examine temporal changes in sleep and domain-specific sedentary behaviour and moderate to vigorous leisure time physical activity (MVPA). Methods: Two......-report questionnaire and sociodemographic information from central registers. Data were weighted for survey design and for non-response and were analysed by multiple regression analyses. Results: In 2007, the entire survey population reported a mean daily sleeping duration of 7.4 hours, leisure time sitting of 3...

  13. How does cognitive behaviour therapy reduce fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome? The role of physical activity.

    Wiborg, J.F.; Knoop, H.; Stulemeijer, M.; Prins, J.B.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is known to reduce fatigue severity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). How this change in symptomatology is accomplished is not yet understood. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the effect of CBT on fatigue is mediated by an incre

  14. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    Burke Linda; Lee Andy H; Jancey Jonine; Xiang Liming; Kerr Deborah A; Howat Peter A; Hills Andrew P; Anderson Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires...

  15. Physical activity and nutrition behavioural outcomes of a home-based intervention program for seniors: a randomized controlled trial

    Burke, Linda; Lee, Andy H.; Jancey, Jonine; Xiang, Liming; Deborah A. Kerr; Howat, Peter A.; Hills, Andrew P; Anderson, Annie S

    2013-01-01

    Background This intervention aimed to ascertain whether a low-cost, accessible, physical activity and nutrition program could improve physical activity and nutrition behaviours of insufficiently active 60–70 year olds residing in Perth, Australia. Methods A 6-month home-based randomised controlled trial was conducted on 478 older adults (intervention, n = 248; control, n = 230) of low to medium socioeconomic status. Both intervention and control groups completed postal questionnaires at basel...

  16. Design and methodology of a community-based cluster-randomized controlled trial for dietary behaviour change in rural Kerala

    Meena Daivadanam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interventions targeting lifestyle-related risk factors and non-communicable diseases have contributed to the mainstream knowledge necessary for action. However, there are gaps in how this knowledge can be translated for practical day-to-day use in complex multicultural settings like that in India. Here, we describe the design of the Behavioural Intervention for Diet study, which was developed as a community-based intervention to change dietary behaviour among middle-income households in rural Kerala. Methods: This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a sequential stage-matched intervention to bring about dietary behaviour change by targeting the procurement and consumption of five dietary components: fruits, vegetables, salt, sugar, and oil. Following a step-wise process of pairing and exclusion of outliers, six out of 22 administrative units in the northern part of Trivandrum district, Kerala state were randomly selected and allocated to intervention or control arms. Trained community volunteers carried out the data collection and intervention delivery. An innovative tool was developed to assess household readiness-to-change, and a household measurement kit and easy formulas were introduced to facilitate the practical side of behaviour change. The 1-year intervention included a household component with sequential stage-matched intervention strategies at 0, 6, and 12 months along with counselling sessions, telephonic reminders, and home visits and a community component with general awareness sessions in the intervention arm. Households in the control arm received information on recommended levels of intake of the five dietary components and general dietary information leaflets. Discussion: Formative research provided the knowledge to contextualise the design of the study in accordance with socio-cultural aspects, felt needs of the community, and the ground realities associated with existing dietary

  17. Development of behaviour change communication strategy for a vaccination-linked malaria control tool in southern Tanzania

    Mshinda Hassan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi using sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and linked to the expanded programme on immunization (EPI is a promising strategy for malaria control in young children. As evidence grows on the efficacy of IPTi as public health strategy, information is needed so that this novel control tool can be put into practice promptly, once a policy recommendation is made to implement it. This paper describes the development of a behaviour change communication strategy to support implementation of IPTi by the routine health services in southern Tanzania, in the context of a five-year research programme evaluating the community effectiveness of IPTi. Methods Mixed methods including a rapid qualitative assessment and quantitative health facility survey were used to investigate communities' and providers' knowledge and practices relating to malaria, EPI, sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine and existing health posters. Results were applied to develop an appropriate behaviour change communication strategy for IPTi involving personal communication between mothers and health staff, supported by a brand name and two posters. Results Malaria in young children was considered to be a nuisance because it causes sleepless nights. Vaccination services were well accepted and their use was considered the mother's responsibility. Babies were generally taken for vaccination despite complaints about fevers and swellings after the injections. Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine was widely used for malaria treatment and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy, despite widespread rumours of adverse reactions based on hearsay and newspaper reports. Almost all health providers said that they or their spouse were ready to take SP in pregnancy (96%, 223/242. A brand name, key messages and images were developed and pre-tested as behaviour change communication materials. The posters contained public health messages

  18. Investigation of the load change behaviour of PWR- and BWR fuel rods at positive power ramps

    The following irradiation experiments have been performed to determine the operational behaviour of fuel rods in LWR during power ramps: a) power ramp experiment in the nuclear power plant of Obrigheim (KWO) with 6 PWR test fuel rods at a burnup of about 14 MWd/kgU. No fuel rod defects have been found. b) preirradiation of 45 segmented fuel rods in KWO and of 8 segmented fuel rods in the reactor of Wuergassen; the preirradiated segments will be ramped at HFR Petten. c) power ramp experiments at HBWR with 8 BWR test fuel rods at burnups of 4-14 MWd/kgU; ramping caused no defects. (orig.)

  19. Do geomagnetic storms change the behaviour of the stingless bee guiruçu ( Schwarziana quadripunctata)?

    Esquivel, Darci M. S.; Wajnberg, E.; Do Nascimento, F. S.; Pinho, M. B.; de Barros, H. G. P. Lins; Eizemberg, R.

    2007-02-01

    Six behavioural experiments were carried out to investigate the magnetic field effects on the nest-exiting flight directions of the honeybee Schwarziana quadripunctata ( Meliponini). No significant differences resulted during six experiment days under varying geomagnetic field and the applied static inhomogeneous field (about ten times the geomagnetic field) conditions. A surprising statistically significant response was obtained on a unique magnetic storm day. The magnetic nanoparticles in these bees, revealed by ferromagnetic resonance, could be involved in the observed effect of the geomagnetic storm.

  20. Changes in feather condition in relation to feather pecking and aggressive behaviour in laying hens.

    Bilcík, B; Keeling, L J

    1999-09-01

    The aim of this experiment was to describe and examine the relationship between pecks received by individual birds and the feather and skin damage of those birds at different ages. The effect of group size was also studied. Laying hens were raised in floor pens in group sizes of 15, 30, 60 and 120 birds, each with 4 replicates. Behavioural observations were performed at the ages of 22, 27, 32 and 37 weeks. Detailed feather scoring was carried out at the ages of 18, 23, 28 and 33 weeks. Behavioural observations focused on the number of feather pecks (gentle and severe) and aggressive pecks received, and on the part of the body that was pecked. Scoring of feather and skin damage focused on the same 11 parts of the body. Increasing numbers of aggressive pecks received were associated with decreased body weight and increased feather damage at the ages of 27 and 32 weeks. The number of severe feather pecks received was significantly related with feather damage at all ages; however, no relation with gentle feather pecks received was found. Group size had a significant effect on feather condition, with large group sizes having most feather damage. PMID:10579400

  1. Larval size in acanthocephalan parasites: Influence of intraspecific competition and effects on intermediate host behavioural changes

    Dianne Lucile

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parasites often face a trade-off between exploitation of host resources and transmission probabilities to the next host. In helminths, larval growth, a major component of adult parasite fitness, is linked to exploitation of intermediate host resources and is influenced by the presence of co-infecting conspecifics. In manipulative parasites, larval growth strategy could also interact with their ability to alter intermediate host phenotype and influence parasite transmission. Methods We used experimental infections of Gammarus pulex by Pomphorhynchus laevis (Acanthocephala, to investigate larval size effects on host behavioural manipulation among different parasite sibships and various degrees of intra-host competition. Results Intra-host competition reduced mean P. laevis cystacanth size, but the largest cystacanth within a host always reached the same size. Therefore, all co-infecting parasites did not equally suffer from intraspecific competition. Under no intra-host competition (1 parasite per host, larval size was positively correlated with host phototaxis. At higher infection intensities, this relationship disappeared, possibly because of strong competition for host resources, and thus larval growth, and limited manipulative abilities of co-infecting larval acanthocephalans. Conclusions Our study indicates that behavioural manipulation is a condition-dependant phenomenon that needs the integration of parasite-related variables to be fully understood.

  2. Changes in transformation behaviour and microstructure of a CrV-spring steel by thermomechanical treatment

    The effect of austenite deformation on the transformation behaviour was investigated on a CrV-spring steel with the major attention put on the martensitic transformation. In the first part, a small review is given on the relation between the state of austenite after hot deformation and its influence on the formation of martensite. In the laboratory tests, the second part of the paper, a conventional heat treatment (CHT) was compared with two types of austenite conditioning by thermomechanical treatment (TMT): TMTR - with deformation above the recrystallization temperature vR leading to a fully recrystallized austenite and TMTN- with deformation below vR with a not recrystallized but possibly polygonized austenite. For the laboratory tests, the hot deformation simulator Wumsi was employed. After quenching in oil, the martensite after TMT consisted of associations of many fine fragments with a smaller number of large acicular martensitic units than observed after CHT. In both TMT-variants small ferritic areas (< 1 μm) could be revealed. Different behaviour of martensite during tempering at low temperatures was observed after CHT and TMT. It can be explained by reduced inherent stresses generated during martensitic transformation after TMT, presumably as a result of a better ability of deformed austenite to withstand the accommodation strain during martensitic transformation. This may have considerable consequences for the toughness properties of tempered martensite. (orig.)

  3. Contrasts in active transport behaviour across four countries: How do they translate into public health benefits?

    Götschi, T.; Tainio, M; Maizlish, N.; Schwanen, T.; Goodman, A.; Woodcock, J

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Countries and regions vary substantially in transport related physical activity that people gain from walking and cycling and in how this varies by age and gender. This study aims to quantify the population health impacts of differences between four settings. METHOD: The Integrated Transport and Health Model (ITHIM) was used to estimate health impacts from changes to physical activity that would arise if adults in urban areas in England and Wales adopted travel patterns of Switzerl...

  4. Pozzolanic behaviour of compound-activated red mud-coal gangue mixture

    The pozzolanic behaviour of compound-activated red mud-coal gangue has been investigated through TG, DTA, XRD, FTIR and 27Al MAS NMR. From viewpoint of reaction kinetics, it is found that the pozzolanic reaction mechanism of the compound-activated red mud-coal gangue - lime system is clearly consistent with diffusion control up to 14 days, and the reaction rate constant calculated from Jander equation decreases with the increase of CaO addition in the system. The hydration products formed in the red mud-coal gangue - lime systems at ambient temperature are essentially aluminous C-S-H and Ca3Al2O6.xH2O. From TG analysis results, it is thought that the high amount of Ca(OH)2 in the pastes of studied system is not conducive to the continual increase of non-evaporable water content of the hydration products. Of particular interest, 27Al MAS NMR proved to be an effective technique to obtain valuable information of Al[4] in C-S-H and Al[6] in Ca3Al2O6.xH2O.

  5. Pozzolanic behaviour of compound-activated red mud-coal gangue mixture

    Zhang, N.; Liu, X.M.; Sun, H.H.; Li, L.T. [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2011-03-15

    The pozzolanic behaviour of compound-activated red mud-coal gangue has been investigated through TG, DTA, XRD, FTIR and {sup 27}Al MAS NMR. From viewpoint of reaction kinetics, it is found that the pozzolanic reaction mechanism of the compound-activated red mud-coal gangue-lime system is clearly consistent with diffusion control up to 14 days, and the reaction rate constant calculated from Jander equation decreases with the increase of CaO addition in the system. The hydration products formed in the red mud coal gangue-lime systems at ambient temperature are essentially aluminous C-S-H and Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} center dot xH{sub 2}O. From TG analysis results, it is thought that the high amount of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the pastes of studied system is not conducive to the continual increase of non-evaporable water content of the hydration products. Of particular interest. {sup 27}Al MAS NMR proved to be an effective technique to obtain valuable information of Al(4) in C-S-H and Al(6) in Ca{sub 3}Al{sub 2}O{sub 6} {center_dot} xH{sub 2}O.

  6. An improved model for predicting coolant activity behaviour for fuel-failure monitoring analysis

    A Candu fuel element becomes defective when the Zircaloy-4 sheath is breached, allowing high pressure D2O coolant to enter the fuel-to-sheath gap, thereby creating a direct path for fission products (mainly volatile species of iodine and noble gases) and fuel debris to escape into the primary heat transport system (PHTS). In addition, the entry of high-pressure D2O coolant into the fuel-to-sheath gap may cause the UO2 fuel to oxidize, which in turn can augment the rate of fission product release into the PHTS. The release of fission products and fuel debris into the PHTS will elevate circuit contamination levels, consequently increasing radiation exposure to station personnel during maintenance tasks. Moreover, the continued operation of a defective fuel element may result in a diminished thermal performance if the thermal conductivity and the incipient melting temperature of the UO2 fuel are reduced due to fuel oxidation effects. It is therefore desirable to discharge defective fuel as soon as possible. Hence, a better understanding of defective fuel behaviour is required in order to develop an improved methodology for fuel-failure monitoring and PHTS coolant activity prediction. Several codes have been previously developed for fuel-failure monitoring in Candu, LWR (PWR and BWR), and WWER reactors. Most tools use a steady-state coolant activity analysis, where a Booth diffusion-type model is used to describe the fission product release from the UO2 fuel matrix into the fuel-to-sheath gap, and a first order kinetic model to consider the transport, hold-up, and release of volatile fission products from the fuel-to-sheath gap into the PHTS coolant. It is therefore necessary to use an empirical diffusion coefficient D' to account for the fission product diffusion in the UO2 fuel matrix and an escape rate coefficient ν for the release from the fuel-to-sheath gap into the PHTS coolant. However, these parameters are not constant in time as they are influenced by the

  7. Changes over time in sexual behaviour among young people with different levels of educational attainment in Tanzania

    Elizabeth Fearon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV prevalence trends in Tanzania differ between socioeconomic groups. While HIV prevalence was initially higher among those with higher levels of educational attainment, it has fallen fastest among these groups. Among those with lower levels of education HIV prevalence has been stable. The behavioural dynamics underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, and a theory to guide interpretation of these trends and enable predictions of future patterns has not emerged. Methods: We analysed data from two large nationally representative surveys conducted in Tanzania in 2003/2004 and 2007/2008. We focused on young people aged 15 to 24 years and explored reports of (i first sex, (ii having had more than one sexual partner in the last year and (iii unprotected last sex with a non-cohabiting partner. Our analysis explored whether the behaviours differed by educational attainment in 2003/2004 and in 2007/2008, and whether changes over time in these behaviours differed between educational groups. Results: The rate of first sex was lower among more educated males in 2007/2008 but not in 2003/2004, and among females in both surveys. The change over time in educational patterning of the rate of first sex in males was mostly due to a declining rate among the secondary educated groups. Among males, having had more than one sexual partner in the last year was associated with lower education in 2003/2004 and in 2007/2008. Among females, those with less education were more likely to report more than one partner in 2003/2004, although by 2007/2008 there was little association between education and reporting more than one partner. Unprotected last sex with a non-cohabiting partner was less common among the more educated. Among both sexes this decreased over time among those with no education and increased among those with secondary education. Conclusions: Patterns of behaviour suggest that differences in HIV incidence might explain trends in HIV prevalence

  8. Physical environmental characteristics and individual interests as correlates of physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools: The health behaviour in school-aged children study

    Samdal Oddrun

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school has been identified as a key arena for physical activity promotion for young people. Effective change of physical activity behaviour requires identification of consistent and modifiable correlates. The study explores students' interests in school physical activity and facilities in the school environment and examines their associations with students' participation in physical activity during recess and their cross-level interaction effect. Methods This cross-sectional study was based on a national representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Physical environment characteristics were assessed through questionnaires completed by the principals, and students' physical activity and interests in physical activity were assessed through student self-completion questionnaires. Results Most students were interested in more opportunities for physical activity in school. Multilevel logistic regression models demonstrated that students attending schools with many facilities had 4.49 times (95% Confidence Interval (CI = 1.93–10.44 higher odds of being physically active compared to students in schools with fewer facilities when adjusting for socio-economic status, sex and interests in school physical activity. Also open fields (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.31, 95% CI = 1.65–11.28, outdoor obstacle course (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.32–2.40, playground equipment (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.24–2.42 and room with cardio and weightlifting equipment (OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.18–2.10 were associated with increased participation in physical activity. Both students' overall interests and the physical facilitation of the school environment significantly contributed to the prediction of recess physical activity. The interaction term demonstrated that students' interests might

  9. Key Beliefs for Targeted Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children: Analyzing Data from an Extended Version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    A. Bélanger-Gravel; Godin, G.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high prevalence of overweight and low levels of physical activity among children, a better understanding of physical activity behaviour is an important step in intervention planning. This study, based on the theory of planned behaviour, was conducted among 313 fifth graders and their parents. Children completed a computer-based questionnaire to evaluate theoretical constructs and behaviour. Additional information was obtained from parents by means of a questionnaire. Correlates of c...

  10. Consistent abnormalities in metabolic network activity in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder

    Wu, Ping; Yu, Huan; Peng, Shichun; Dauvilliers, Yves; Wang, Jian; Ge, Jingjie; Zhang, Huiwei; Eidelberg, David; Ma, Yilong; Zuo, Chuantao

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enactment behaviour and loss of REM atonia, and is considered a prodromal symptom of Parkinson’s disease. Wu et al. identify an abnormal brain metabolic network associated with the disorder, and show that evolution of this network occurs with progression to Parkinson’s disease.

  11. The parasite's long arm: a tapeworm parasite induces behavioural changes in uninfected group members of its social host.

    Beros, Sara; Jongepier, Evelien; Hagemeier, Felizitas; Foitzik, Susanne

    2015-11-22

    Parasites can induce alterations in host phenotypes in order to enhance their own survival and transmission. Parasites of social insects might not only benefit from altering their individual hosts, but also from inducing changes in uninfected group members. Temnothorax nylanderi ant workers infected with the tapeworm Anomotaenia brevis are known to be chemically distinct from nest-mates and do not contribute to colony fitness, but are tolerated in their colonies and well cared for. Here, we investigated how tapeworm- infected workers affect colony aggression by manipulating their presence in ant colonies and analysing whether their absence or presence resulted in behavioural alterations in their nest-mates. We report a parasite-induced shift in colony aggression, shown by lower aggression of uninfected nest-mates from parasitized colonies towards conspecifics, potentially explaining the tolerance towards infected ants. We also demonstrate that tapeworm-infected workers showed a reduced flight response and higher survival, while their presence caused a decrease in survival of uninfected nest-mates. This anomalous behaviour of infected ants, coupled with their increased survival, could facilitate the parasites' transmission to its definitive hosts, woodpeckers. We conclude that parasites exploiting individuals that are part of a society not only induce phenotypic changes within their individual hosts, but in uninfected group members as well. PMID:26582019

  12. Climate change in fish: effects of respiratory constraints on optimal life history and behaviour.

    Holt, Rebecca E; Jørgensen, Christian

    2015-02-01

    The difference between maximum metabolic rate and standard metabolic rate is referred to as aerobic scope, and because it constrains performance it is suggested to constitute a key limiting process prescribing how fish may cope with or adapt to climate warming. We use an evolutionary bioenergetics model for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) to predict optimal life histories and behaviours at different temperatures. The model assumes common trade-offs and predicts that optimal temperatures for growth and fitness lie below that for aerobic scope; aerobic scope is thus a poor predictor of fitness at high temperatures. Initially, warming expands aerobic scope, allowing for faster growth and increased reproduction. Beyond the optimal temperature for fitness, increased metabolic requirements intensify foraging and reduce survival; oxygen budgeting conflicts thus constrain successful completion of the life cycle. The model illustrates how physiological adaptations are part of a suite of traits that have coevolved. PMID:25673000

  13. Travel behaviour of potential Electric Vehicle drivers. The need for changing

    Christensen, Linda; Nørrelund, Anders Vedsted; Olsen, Allan

    2011-01-01

    such as their potential contribution to reducing CO2 and local emissions and other negative external effects of mobility. The extent to which Electric Vehicles (EVs) will contribute to reducing Green House Gas emissions depends on the energy mix used to recharge the battery. Theoretically, where there...... an electric vehicle. 2) Assessment of the possibility to regulate the charging periods and to use the EVs as storage. 3) Analyses of optimisation of the localisation of the infrastructure based on the travel patterns of the EV. At the moment when very few EVs are in the market it is necessary to...... assess the potential behaviour from analyses of travel patterns of conventional cars. Two datasets are used for this purpose. A GPS based driving dataset obtained in a road pricing experiment in the Copenhagen area is covering the driving of 365 cars in between 13 and 150 days each is used to illustrate...

  14. Changing oral health status and oral health behaviour of schoolchildren in Poland

    Wierzbicka, Maria; Petersen, Poul Erik; Szatko, Franciszek;

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of dental caries over time in Polish schoolchildren, to analyse the oral health behaviour of children and mothers, and to compare the levels of dental knowledge and attitudes of mothers and schoolteachers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional oral health surveys of children...... aged 6 and 12 years were carried out in 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2000; questionnaire surveys of a sample of mothers and schoolteachers were conducted in 1999. SETTING: The surveys in schools intended to aid planning and evaluation of the revitalised school oral health programme in Poland. SUBJECTS...... conditions in children and wanted to become involved in oral health education. In conclusion, the need for oral health education of children and mothers was shown and the continuous implementation of school oral health programmes is most relevant....

  15. Factor analysis shows that female rat behaviour is characterized primarily by activity, male rats are driven by sex and anxiety.

    Fernandes, C; González, M I; Wilson, C A; File, S E

    1999-12-01

    This experiment explored sex differences in behaviour using factor analysis to describe the relationship between different behavioral variables. A principal component solution with an orthogonal rotation of the factor matrix was used, ensuring that the extracted factors are independent of one another, and thus reflect separate processes. In the elevated plus-maze test of anxiety, in male rats factor 1 accounted for 75% of the variance and reflected anxiety, factor 2 represented activity, and accounted for 24% of the variance. This contrasted with the finding in female rats in which factor 1 was activity, accounting for 57% of the variance, with the anxiety factor accounting for only 34% of the variance. When behaviour in both the plus-maze and holeboard were analysed, a similar sex difference was found with anxiety emerging as factor 1 in males and holeboard activity as factor 1 in females. Locomotor activity in the inner portion of the holeboard loaded on the anxiety factor for males, but on activity for females. When behaviours in the plus-maze and sexual orientation tests were analysed, anxiety emerged as factor 1 in males, sexual preferences factor 2, and activity factor 3. In females, activity was factor 1, sexual preference factor 2, anxiety factor 3, and social interest factor 4. These results suggest caution should be exercised in interpreting the results from female rats in tests validated on males because the primary controlling factor may be different. PMID:10593196

  16. Evaluation of behavioural and antioxidant activity of Cytisus scoparius Link in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Harisudhan Thanukrishnan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various human diseases have oxidative stress as one of their component. Many herbs have been reported to exhibit properties that combat oxidative stress through their active constituents such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds etc. Cytisus scoparius (CS Link, (Family: Leguminosae, also called Sarothamnus scoparius, has been shown in invitro experiments to be endowed with anti-diabetic, hypnotic and sedative and antioxidant activity. Therefore this study was carried out to evaluate CS for its anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-oxidant activity in stressed rats. Methods 60% methanolic extract of CS was quantified for phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. Chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS was employed to induce stress in rats. CS (125 and 250 mg/kg, p.o and diazepam (DZM (2 mg/kg, p.o was administered during the 21 day stress exposure period. Anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of CS were assessed in open field exploratory and behavioural despair paradigms, respectively. Plasma glucose and total lipids; endogenous antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT; non-enzymic-ascorbic acid and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS levels were measured in brain, kidneys and adrenals using standard protocols to assess the effect of CS. Results Total phenolic content of CS was found to be 8.54 ± 0.16% w/w. CMS produced anxiogenic and depressive behaviour in experimental rats with metabolic disturbance. Significant decrease in SOD, CAT levels and increase in lipid peroxidation level was observed in stressed rats. CS administration for 21 days during stress exposure significantly increased the ambulatory behaviour and decreased the freezing time in open field behaviour. In behavioural despair test no significant alteration in the immobility period was observed. CS also improved SOD, CAT, and ascorbic acid level and controlled the lipid peroxidation in different tissues

  17. Diversifying meat consumption patterns: consumers' self-reported past behaviour and intentions for change.

    Latvala, Terhi; Niva, Mari; Mäkelä, Johanna; Pouta, Eija; Heikkilä, Jaakko; Kotro, Jaana; Forsman-Hugg, Sari

    2012-09-01

    This study analysed meat consumption patterns among Finnish consumers, considering both stated past changes and intended future changes. Consumer segments with different patterns of and reasons for change were identified. Latent class analysis revealed six consumer clusters that formed three major cluster blocks. The first block, comprising 48% of the consumers, had established consumption patterns and no intentions to change them. In the second block, with 13% of the consumers, consumption patterns had already shifted towards more vegetables and less meat. The third block, with 39% of the consumers, was identified to be in the middle of a change with a general tendency to reduce the use of meat and increase the use of vegetables. Although the environmental effects of meat and animal welfare issues were important reasons for change in some clusters, healthiness was the most salient stated reason for changing consumption habits. PMID:22560481

  18. Past ice-sheet behaviour: retreat scenarios and changing controls in the Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Halberstadt, Anna Ruth W.; Simkins, Lauren M.; Greenwood, Sarah L.; Anderson, John B.

    2016-05-01

    Studying the history of ice-sheet behaviour in the Ross Sea, Antarctica's largest drainage basin can improve our understanding of patterns and controls on marine-based ice-sheet dynamics and provide constraints for numerical ice-sheet models. Newly collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data, combined with two decades of legacy multibeam and seismic data, are used to map glacial landforms and reconstruct palaeo ice-sheet drainage. During the Last Glacial Maximum, grounded ice reached the continental shelf edge in the eastern but not western Ross Sea. Recessional geomorphic features in the western Ross Sea indicate virtually continuous back-stepping of the ice-sheet grounding line. In the eastern Ross Sea, well-preserved linear features and a lack of small-scale recessional landforms signify rapid lift-off of grounded ice from the bed. Physiography exerted a first-order control on regional ice behaviour, while sea floor geology played an important subsidiary role. Previously published deglacial scenarios for Ross Sea are based on low-spatial-resolution marine data or terrestrial observations; however, this study uses high-resolution basin-wide geomorphology to constrain grounding-line retreat on the continental shelf. Our analysis of retreat patterns suggests that (1) retreat from the western Ross Sea was complex due to strong physiographic controls on ice-sheet drainage; (2) retreat was asynchronous across the Ross Sea and between troughs; (3) the eastern Ross Sea largely deglaciated prior to the western Ross Sea following the formation of a large grounding-line embayment over Whales Deep; and (4) our glacial geomorphic reconstruction converges with recent numerical models that call for significant and complex East Antarctic ice sheet and West Antarctic ice sheet contributions to the ice flow in the Ross Sea.

  19. Lifestyles of Adult Omani Women; Cross-sectional study on physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    Azza Al-Habsi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the lifestyles of adult Omani women with regards to physical activity (PA levels and sedentary behaviour (SB. Methods: The study was carried out between May and June 2013 and included a total of 277 healthy women aged 18–48 years from five governorates in Oman. Total, moderate and vigorous PA levels and walking were self-reported by participants using the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. SB (total sitting time and different types of sitting time was self-reported using the Domain- Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire on both working and non-working days. PA levels and SB were also objectively measured among 86 of the participants using an accelerometer. Results: The self-reported median ± interquartile range (IQR total PA was 1,516 ± 3,392 metabolic equivalent of task minutes/week. The self-reported median ± IQR total sitting time was 433 ± 323 minutes/day and 470 ± 423 minutes/day for working and non-working days, respectively. Sitting at work on working days and sitting during leisure activities on non-working days formed the greatest proportion of total sitting time. Overall, accelerometer results indicated that participants spent 62% of their time involved in SB, 35% in light PA and only 3% in moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusion: Sedentary lifestyles were common among the adult Omani women studied. Lack of PA and increased SB is known to increase the risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. The use of accelerometers to monitor PA and SB among different groups in Oman is highly recommended in order to accurately assess the lifestyle risks of this population.

  20. Long-term monitoring of hydrogeological activation behaviour of an active landslide system using time-lapse temperature-corrected electrical resistance geophysical measurements

    Merritt, Andrew; Murphy, William; Chambers, Jonathan; Wilkinson, Paul; West, Jared; Uhlemann, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    If the effects of landslides are to be mitigated and avoided then the causes of landslide activations - and re-activations - must be better understood. The most common subsurface property change in the lead up to rainfall-triggered landslide activation is the moisture content of slope material and associated pore water pressure rises and/or consistency changes. If these characteristic subsurface physical properties can be observed in advance of activation then early warning of imminent slope activation may be possible. Recent advances in geoelectrical monitoring techniques reveal that time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a useful tool, capable of observing hillslope hydrogeological processes. However, most previous studies lasted a short time-frame and compared few tomograms. Therefore, a geophysical imaging system through which the progressive wetting of the ground in response to rainfall leading to saturation and then sliding can be observed would seem to be a sensible approach to explore the forecasting of imminent landslide movement. Presented here is the analysis and interpretation of the results of a four and a half year, long-term and high temporal resolution monitoring campaign of a periodically active inland landslide, located in the UK, by a geoelectrical monitoring system called Automated time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ALERT). Time-lapse temperature-corrected transfer resistances reveal that the system responds very well to rises and falls in piezometric level and seasonal trends of soil desiccation during warmer, drier months and crack annealing and soil moisture accumulation in response to wetter periods. The existence of threshold slope moisture contents, and hence electrical resistances, above which the slope activates are not observed in resistance/resistivity results most probably due to the complex nature of the landslide system, the monitoring system resolution and a number of physical slope processes taking place

  1. Can we use digital life-log images to investigate active and sedentary travel behaviour? Results from a pilot study

    Hodges Steve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active travel such as walking and cycling has potential to increase physical activity levels in sedentary individuals. Motorised car travel is a sedentary behaviour that contributes to carbon emissions. There have been recent calls for technology that will improve our ability to measure these travel behaviours, and in particular evaluate modes and volumes of active versus sedentary travel. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the potential efficacy of a new electronic measurement device, a wearable digital camera called SenseCam, in travel research. Methods Participants (n = 20 were required to wear the SenseCam device for one full day of travel. The device automatically records approximately 3,600 time-stamped, first-person point-of-view images per day, without any action required by the wearer. Participants also completed a self-report travel diary over the same period for comparison, and were interviewed afterwards to assess user burden and experience. Results There were a total of 105 confirmed journeys in this pilot. The new SenseCam device recorded more journeys than the travel diary (99 vs. 94. Although the two measures demonstrated an acceptable correlation for journey duration (r = 0.92, p Conclusions Direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images shows considerable potential in the field of travel research. Journey duration derived from direct observation of travel behaviour from time-stamped images appears to suggest over-reporting of self-reported journey duration.

  2. Macro-level change and micro level effects: a twenty-year perspective on changing grocery shopping behaviour in Britain

    de Kervenoael, Ronan; Hallsworth, Alan; Clarke, Ian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we summarise key elements of retail change in Britain over a twenty-year period. The time period is that covered by a funded study into long-term change in grocery shopping habits in Portsmouth, England. The major empirical findings—to which we briefly allude—are reported elsewhere: the present task is to assess the wider context underlying that change. For example, it has frequently been stated that retailing in the UK is not as competitive as in other leading economies. As a r...

  3. First direct measurements of behavioural responses by Cuvier's beaked whales to mid-frequency active sonar.

    DeRuiter, Stacy L; Southall, Brandon L; Calambokidis, John; Zimmer, Walter M X; Sadykova, Dinara; Falcone, Erin A; Friedlaender, Ari S; Joseph, John E; Moretti, David; Schorr, Gregory S; Thomas, Len; Tyack, Peter L

    2013-08-23

    Most marine mammal- strandings coincident with naval sonar exercises have involved Cuvier's beaked whales (Ziphius cavirostris). We recorded animal movement and acoustic data on two tagged Ziphius and obtained the first direct measurements of behavioural responses of this species to mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar signals. Each recording included a 30-min playback (one 1.6-s simulated MFA sonar signal repeated every 25 s); one whale was also incidentally exposed to MFA sonar from distant naval exercises. Whales responded strongly to playbacks at low received levels (RLs; 89-127 dB re 1 µPa): after ceasing normal fluking and echolocation, they swam rapidly, silently away, extending both dive duration and subsequent non-foraging interval. Distant sonar exercises (78-106 dB re 1 µPa) did not elicit such responses, suggesting that context may moderate reactions. The observed responses to playback occurred at RLs well below current regulatory thresholds; equivalent responses to operational sonars could elevate stranding risk and reduce foraging efficiency. PMID:23825085

  4. Liparid and macrourid fishes of the hadal zone: in situ observations of activity and feeding behaviour.

    Jamieson, A J; Fujii, T; Solan, M; Matsumoto, A K; Bagley, P M; Priede, I G

    2009-03-22

    Using baited camera landers, the first images of living fishes were recorded in the hadal zone (6000-11000 m) in the Pacific Ocean. The widespread abyssal macrourid Coryphaenoides yaquinae was observed at a new depth record of approximately 7000 m in the Japan Trench. Two endemic species of liparid were observed at similar depths: Pseudoliparis amblystomopsis in the Japan Trench and Notoliparis kermadecensis in the Kermadec Trench. From these observations, we have documented swimming and feeding behaviour of these species and derived the first estimates of hadal fish abundance. The liparids intercepted bait within 100-200 min but were observed to preferentially feed on scavenging amphipods. Notoliparis kermadecensis act as top predators in the hadal food web, exhibiting up to nine suction-feeding events per minute. Both species showed distinctive swimming gaits: P. amblystomopsis (mean length 22.5 cm) displayed a mean tail-beat frequency of 0.47 Hz and mean caudal:pectoral frequency ratio of 0.76, whereas N. kermadecensis (mean length 31.5 cm) displayed respective values of 1.04 and 2.08 Hz. Despite living at extreme depths, these endemic liparids exhibit similar activity levels compared with shallow-water liparids. PMID:19129104

  5. Characterisation of charge and discharge behaviour of lithium ion batteries with olivine based cathode active material

    Roscher, Michael A.; Sauer, Dirk Uwe [RWTH Aachen University, Electrochemical Energy Conversion and Storage Systems Group, Institute for Power Electronics and Electrical Drives (ISEA), 52066 Aachen (Germany); Vetter, Jens [BMW Group, 80788 Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    This paper gives insight to the physical processes taking part during the two-phase transition in lithium intercalation compounds. The behaviour of olivine based electrodes is in the special focus of this work. These electrodes exhibit phase juxtaposition within the electrode particles over a wide state of charge (SOC) range. Measurements were made to explore effects related to the formation of distinct phase sequences within the particles. Asymmetric charge characteristics, a load history dependency of the internal resistance and a voltage effect related to the disappearance of certain phase regions (the later on called vanishing phase effect) were identified. Moreover, these measurements give evidence to the existence of stable phase regions inside the electrode active material. An intuitive model is given to visualize the phase regions within spherical olivine particles. Therefore an analytical approach is developed in order to take the geometry of the particles, the ion permeability as well as the size distribution of the particles in consideration. According to the developed approach and the obtained measurement results, an enhanced cell equivalent electrical circuit is evaluated, considering phase shell development effects. (author)

  6. Effects of a behaviour change intervention for Girl Scouts on child and parent energy-saving behaviours

    Boudet, Hilary; Ardoin, Nicole M.; Flora, June; Armel, K. Carrie; Desai, Manisha; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-08-01

    Energy education programmes for children are hypothesized to have great potential to save energy. Such interventions are often assumed to impact child and family behaviours. Here, using a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 30 Girl Scout troops in Northern California, we assess the efficacy of two social cognitive theory-based interventions focused on residential and food-and-transportation energy-related behaviours of Girl Scouts and their families. We show that Girl Scouts and parents in troops randomly assigned to the residential energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported residential energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention and after more than seven months of follow-up, compared with controls. Girl Scouts in troops randomly assigned to the food-and-transportation energy intervention significantly increased their self-reported food-and-transportation energy-saving behaviours immediately following the intervention, compared with controls, but not at follow-up. The results demonstrate that theory-based, child-focused energy interventions have the potential to increase energy-saving behaviours among both children and their parents.

  7. The sexually dimorphic behaviour of adult Drosophila suzukii: elevated female locomotor activity and loss of siesta is a post-mating response.

    Ferguson, Calum T J; O'Neill, Tara L; Audsley, Neil; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2015-12-01

    The polyphagous Drosophila suzukii is a highly invasive species that causes extensive damage to a wide range of berry and stone fruit crops. A better understanding of its biology and especially its behaviour will aid the development of new control strategies. We investigated the locomotor behaviour of D. suzukii in a semi-natural environment resembling a typical summer in northern England and show that adult female D. suzukii are at least 4-fold more active during daylight hours than adult males. This result was reproduced in several laboratory environments and was shown to be a robust feature of mated, but not virgin, female flies. Both males and virgin females kept on a 12 h light:12 h dark (12LD) cycle and constant temperature displayed night-time inactivity (sleep) followed by weak activity in the morning, an afternoon period of quiescence (siesta) and then a prominent evening peak of activity. Both the siesta and the sharp evening peak at lights off were severely reduced in females after mating. Flies of either sex entrained in 12LD displayed a circadian pattern of activity in constant darkness confirming the importance of an endogenous clock in regulating adult activity. This response of females to mating is similar to that elicited in female Drosophila melanogaster by the male sex peptide (SP). We used mass spectrometry to identify a molecular ion (m/z, 5145) corresponding to the poly-hydroxylated SP of D. suzukii and to show that this molecule is transferred to the female reproductive tract during copulation. We propose that the siesta experienced by male and virgin female D. suzukii is an adaptation to avoid unnecessary exposure to the afternoon sun, but that mated females faced with the challenge of obtaining resources for egg production and finding oviposition sites take greater risks, and we suggest that the change in female behaviour is induced by the male SP. PMID:26486360

  8. Developmental Changes in Cognitive and Behavioural Functioning of Adolescents with Fragile-X Syndrome

    Frolli, A.; Piscopo, S.; Conson, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with fragile-X syndrome exhibit developmental delay, hyperexcitation and social anxiety; they also show lack of attention and hyperactivity. Few studies have investigated whether levels of functioning change with increasing age. Here, we explored developmental changes across adolescence in the cognitive and behavioural…

  9. [A behavioural rating scale of activity engagement in psychogeriatric day care].

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2014-09-01

    The Participation Scale was developed as an observational measure of activity engagement (as rated by group facilitators) of adult day care clients with mild to moderate dementia. In a consecutive sample of 448 subjects Mokken scaling procedure was conducted to assess the latent structure of 27 questionnaire items. The study included an exploratory and a confirmatory approach. For that purpose the sample was randomly divided into two halves. Exploratory analysis revealed three dimensions of participation that adequately captured the item structure: motivation (10 items; Loevinger's H = 0.48), competence (7 items; H = 0.56) and self-confidence (4 items; H = 0.57). The structure was validated in a confirmatory analysis. In a stepwise multiple regression model 49% of the variance in motivation was explained by independent behavioural measures of apathy and affect. Apathy and cognitive impairment were significant predictors of competence in participation (R(2) = 31.2%). Negative affect was the main predictor of reduced self-confidence (R(2) = 37.9%). Cross-validation of these exploratory regression models on the confirmatory sample explained 39.6%, 29.2% and 23.1% of the variance in motivation, competence and self-confidence, respectively. Test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2(A,1)) as determined in a random subsample of 56 participants, were 0.77 (motivation), 0.85 (competence) and 0.76 (self-confidence). The three measures allow the differentiation and ordering of individual participants on separate dimensions of activity engagement in psychogeriatric day care. PMID:25007866

  10. How to change attitudes and behaviours in the context of energy

    It is commonly assumed that attitudes and behaviours need to be modified to secure a sustainable energy future. This paper examines insights from the social sciences in this extensive field. Alongside instruments such as regulation and economic measures, government campaigns have sought to 'educate' the public. However, such 'information deficit' models have been criticised on theoretical and pragmatic grounds. In the area of energy consumption, there is a need to take account of the physical, social, cultural and institutional contexts that shape and constrain people's choices, and for a richer understanding of opposition to energy facility siting, which has often been (inadequately) characterised as 'NIMBYism'. Recent work also points to the need for more deliberation and better communication between decision-makers, technical experts, other stakeholders and the public. Predicting future developments in the field is challenging but attention is likely to focus on aspects of policy learning, a more critical examination of the 'deliberative turn', and the need for a systemic approach to complex socio-economic and socio-technical systems. The consistency of government objectives across all policy spheres is likely to provide an important avenue for future research

  11. Observations from behind the bar: changing patrons' behaviours in response to smoke-free legislation in Scotland

    MacLean Alice

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Smoke-Free" legislation prohibiting smoking in all enclosed public places was introduced in March 2006. This qualitative study presents insights from bar workers about their observations of the changing social bar environment, changing patrons' behaviours and challenges bar workers have faced in managing smoke-free legislation. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted between November 2006 and January 2007 with a purposively-selected sample of bar workers, identified from a larger quantitative study evaluating the impact of the legislation in Scotland [the Bar Workers' Health and Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure project (BHETSE]. Results Bar workers all spoke of the improvements the legislation had brought to their working lives and the greater comfort it appeared to offer patrons. Bar workers reported that patrons were generally quick to accept and comply with the new law, and that families had become a greater feature of pub life since the legislation. However, they expressed concerns that older men seemed to have had most difficulty adjusting to the legislation and lack of knowledge about the best practices they should adopt in order to reduce the risks of unattended drinks being spiked and of anti-social behaviour associated with patrons moving outside to smoke. Conclusion Smoke-free legislation is changing the social context of smoking in Scotland. Further research to assess the impact the legislation is having on older male smokers and on the incidence of drink spiking would be useful. More specifically, bar workers would benefit from guidance on how to manage issues arising from patrons moving outside to smoke.

  12. Changing Physician Practice of Physical Activity Counseling

    Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Hickam, David H.; Lessler, Daniel S; Buchner, David M.

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a prospective controlled trial to determine whether an educational intervention could improve resident physician self-efficacy and counseling behaviors for physical activity and increase their patients’ reported activity levels. Forty-eight internal medicine residents who practiced at a Department of Veterans Affairs hospital received either two workshops on physical activity counseling or no intervention. All residents completed questionnaires before and 3 months after the works...

  13. CLUSTERING ANALYSIS OF OFFICER'S BEHAVIOURS IN LONDON POLICE FOOT PATROL ACTIVITIES

    J. Shen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this small paper we aim at presenting a framework of conceptual representation and clustering analysis of police officers’ patrol pattern obtained from mining their raw movement trajectory data. This have been achieved by a model developed to accounts for the spatio-temporal dynamics human movements by incorporating both the behaviour features of the travellers and the semantic meaning of the environment they are moving in. Hence, the similarity metric of traveller behaviours is jointly defined according to the stay time allocation in each Spatio-temporal region of interests (ST-ROI to support clustering analysis of patrol behaviours. The proposed framework enables the analysis of behaviour and preferences on higher level based on raw moment trajectories. The model is firstly applied to police patrol data provided by the Metropolitan Police and will be tested by other type of dataset afterwards.

  14. Clustering Analysis of OFFICER'S Behaviours in London Police Foot Patrol Activities

    Shen, J.; Cheng, T.

    2015-07-01

    In this small paper we aim at presenting a framework of conceptual representation and clustering analysis of police officers' patrol pattern obtained from mining their raw movement trajectory data. This have been achieved by a model developed to accounts for the spatio-temporal dynamics human movements by incorporating both the behaviour features of the travellers and the semantic meaning of the environment they are moving in. Hence, the similarity metric of traveller behaviours is jointly defined according to the stay time allocation in each Spatio-temporal region of interests (ST-ROI) to support clustering analysis of patrol behaviours. The proposed framework enables the analysis of behaviour and preferences on higher level based on raw moment trajectories. The model is firstly applied to police patrol data provided by the Metropolitan Police and will be tested by other type of dataset afterwards.

  15. Persistent behavioural blindness after early visual deprivation and active visual rehabilitation: a case report.

    S Carlson; Hyvärinen, L; Raninen, A.,

    1986-01-01

    Early long lasting binocular deprivation results in behavioural blindness in both man and experimental animals. However, few reported cases show that visual rehabilitation may improve visual behaviour. A 34-year-old man who had experienced 30 years of binocular deprivation due to bilateral cataracts received visual rehabilitation for one year. The rehabilitation included training in eye-hand co-ordination, recognition of objects, evaluation of distance and size, and mobility training. Despite...

  16. Panorama 2015 - Changes in French behaviour in terms of transport: generational effect and new mobility services

    Analysis of the daily mobility of French households reveals some changes in their use of the different modes of transport available to them. While use of the private car is still predominant, the use of other transport modes is changing, depending on the socio-economic characteristics of households and areas of residence. New mobility services such as car-pooling or car sharing now complement the transport facilities available to individuals. (authors)

  17. Monitoring the future behaviour of urban drainage system under climate change: a case study from north-western England

    Osman, Yassin Z.

    2014-11-01

    Catchments hydrological conditions and responses are anticipated to be affected by the changes in weather patterns, increasing in climate variability and extreme rainfall. Thus, engineers have no choice but to consider climate change in their practices in order to adapt and serve the public interests. This paper is an exploration of the impacts of climate change on the hydrology that underlies the hydraulic design of urban drainage system. Future rainfall has been downscaled from the Global Climate Model (GCM) employing a hybrid Generalised Linear Model (GLM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) downscaling techniques under different greenhouse emission scenarios. The output from this model is applied to a combined sewer system of an urban drainage catchment in the Northwest of England during the 21st Century to monitor its future behaviour in winter and summer seasons. Potential future changes in rainfall intensity are expected to alter the level of service of the system, causing more challenges in terms of surface flooding and increase in surcharge level in sewers. The results obtained demonstrate that there is a real chance for these effects to take place and therefore would require more attention from designers and catchment managers.

  18. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour.

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G V; Favaro, Carla F; Azevedo, Kamila E X; Landi, Carolina H; Maluta, Nathalie K P; Bento, José Mauricio S; Lopes, Joao R S

    2016-01-01

    Virus infection frequently modifies plant phenotypes, leading to changes in behaviour and performance of their insect vectors in a way that transmission is enhanced, although this may not always be the case. Here, we investigated Bemisia tabaci response to tomato plants infected by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a non-circulative-transmitted crinivirus, and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), a circulative-transmitted begomovirus. Moreover, we examined the role of visual and olfactory cues in host plant selection by both viruliferous and non-viruliferous B. tabaci. Visual cues alone were assessed as targets for whitefly landing by placing leaves underneath a Plexiglas plate. A dual-choice arena was used to assess whitefly response to virus-infected and mock-inoculated tomato leaves under light and dark conditions. Thereafter, we tested the whitefly response to volatiles using an active air-flow Y-tube olfactometer, and chemically characterized the blends using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Visual stimuli tests showed that whiteflies, irrespective of their infectious status, always preferred to land on virus-infected rather than on mock-inoculated leaves. Furthermore, whiteflies had no preference for either virus-infected or mock-inoculated leaves under dark conditions, but preferred virus-infected leaves in the presence of light. ToSRV-infection promoted a sharp decline in the concentration of some tomato volatiles, while an increase in the emission of some terpenes after ToCV infection was found. ToSRV-viruliferous whiteflies preferred volatiles emitted from mock-inoculated plants, a conducive behaviour to enhance virus spread, while volatiles from ToCV-infected plants were avoided by non-viruliferous whiteflies, a behaviour that is likely detrimental to the secondary spread of the virus. In conclusion, the circulative persistent begomovirus, ToSRV, seems to have evolved together with its vector B. tabaci to optimise its own spread. However

  19. Tomato Infection by Whitefly-Transmitted Circulative and Non-Circulative Viruses Induce Contrasting Changes in Plant Volatiles and Vector Behaviour

    Fereres, Alberto; Peñaflor, Maria Fernanda G. V.; Favaro, Carla F.; Azevedo, Kamila E. X.; Landi, Carolina H.; Maluta, Nathalie K. P.; Bento, José Mauricio S.; Lopes, Joao R.S.

    2016-01-01

    Virus infection frequently modifies plant phenotypes, leading to changes in behaviour and performance of their insect vectors in a way that transmission is enhanced, although this may not always be the case. Here, we investigated Bemisia tabaci response to tomato plants infected by Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV), a non-circulative-transmitted crinivirus, and Tomato severe rugose virus (ToSRV), a circulative-transmitted begomovirus. Moreover, we examined the role of visual and olfactory cues in host plant selection by both viruliferous and non-viruliferous B. tabaci. Visual cues alone were assessed as targets for whitefly landing by placing leaves underneath a Plexiglas plate. A dual-choice arena was used to assess whitefly response to virus-infected and mock-inoculated tomato leaves under light and dark conditions. Thereafter, we tested the whitefly response to volatiles using an active air-flow Y-tube olfactometer, and chemically characterized the blends using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Visual stimuli tests showed that whiteflies, irrespective of their infectious status, always preferred to land on virus-infected rather than on mock-inoculated leaves. Furthermore, whiteflies had no preference for either virus-infected or mock-inoculated leaves under dark conditions, but preferred virus-infected leaves in the presence of light. ToSRV-infection promoted a sharp decline in the concentration of some tomato volatiles, while an increase in the emission of some terpenes after ToCV infection was found. ToSRV-viruliferous whiteflies preferred volatiles emitted from mock-inoculated plants, a conducive behaviour to enhance virus spread, while volatiles from ToCV-infected plants were avoided by non-viruliferous whiteflies, a behaviour that is likely detrimental to the secondary spread of the virus. In conclusion, the circulative persistent begomovirus, ToSRV, seems to have evolved together with its vector B. tabaci to optimise its own spread. However

  20. Increasing non-exercise physical activity : extended theory of planned behaviour model testing and the role of stress within sedentary parents

    Loosveldt, Justine

    2015-01-01

    Although much research has been done in studying physical activity and its health benefits, inactive behaviour has obtained little attention. The main purpose of the present study is to test the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) in predicting sedentary behaviour to a group of parents with young children and a sedentary job. The secondary purpose of this study is to explore if stress explains additional variation when is entered as an additional variable between intention and sedentary behavio...