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Sample records for activin receptors

  1. Activin receptor patterning of foregut organogenesis

    Kim, Seung K.; Hebrok, Matthias; Li, En; Oh, S. Paul; Schrewe, Heinrich; Harmon, Erin B; Lee, Joon S.; Melton, Douglas A.

    2000-01-01

    Foregut development produces a characteristic sequence of gastrointestinal and respiratory organs, but the signaling pathways that ensure this developmental order remain largely unknown. Here, mutations of activin receptors ActRIIA and ActRIIB are shown to disrupt the development of posterior foregut-derived organs, including the stomach, pancreas, and spleen. Foregut expression of genes including Shh and Isl1 is shifted in mutant mice. The endocrine pancreas is particularly sensitive to the ...

  2. Regulation of body mass growth through activin type IIB receptor in teleost fish.

    Carpio, Yamila; Acosta, Jannel; Morales, Reynold; Santisteban, Yaimín; Sanchéz, Aniel; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2009-01-15

    Myostatin is a TGF-beta family member that plays a key role in regulating skeletal muscle growth. Previous studies in mammals have demonstrated that myostatin is capable of binding the two activin type II receptors. Additionally, activin type II receptors have been shown to be capable of binding a number of other TGF-beta family members besides myostatin. An injection of a soluble form of activin type IIB receptor obtained from CHO cells into wild-type mice generated up to a 60% increase in muscle mass in 2 weeks. The knowledge on the role of activin receptors in fish is limited. In the present study, we examined the growth effect of administering a recombinant, soluble form of goldfish activin type IIB receptor extracellular domain to juvenile and larval goldfish (Carassius auratus), African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) larvae and tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) larvae. We have expressed the goldfish activin type IIB receptor extracellular domain in the yeast Pichia pastoris and we have demonstrated for the first time that this recombinant molecule stimulates growth in teleost fish in a dose-dependent manner. We provide evidence that this body weight increase is achieved by an increase in muscle mass and protein content. Histological analysis of the goldfish muscle revealed that treated fish exhibited hyperplasia as compared to controls. These findings contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms that regulate growth in non-mammalian vertebrates and suggest a powerful biotechnology approach to improving fish growth in aquaculture. PMID:19056390

  3. Crystal structure of activin receptor type IIB kinase domain from human at 2.0 Å resolution

    Han, Seungil; Loulakis, Pat; Griffor, Matt; Xie, Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB), a type II TGF-β serine/threonine kinase receptor, is integral to the activin and myostatin signaling pathway. Ligands such as activin and myostatin bind to activin type II receptors (ActRIIA, ActRIIB), and the GS domains of type I receptors are phosphorylated by type II receptors. Myostatin, a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth, is regarded as a potential therapeutic target and binds to ActRIIB effectively, and to a lesser extent, to ActRIIA. The...

  4. Activin-receptor signaling regulates cocaine-primed behavioral and morphological plasticity

    Gancarz, Amy M.; Wang, Zi-Jun; Schroeder, Gabrielle L.; Damez-Werno, Diane; Braunscheidel, Kevin; Mueller, Lauren E.; Monica S Humby; Caccamise, Aaron; Martin, Jennifer A.; Dietz, Karen C.; Neve, Rachael L; Dietz, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a life-long relapsing disorder that results from long-term adaptations within the brain. We find that Activin-receptor signaling, including the transcription factor Smad3, is upregulated in the rat nucleus accumbens shell following withdrawal from cocaine. Direct genetic and pharmacological manipulations of this pathway bidirectionally alter cocaine seeking, while governing morphological plasticity in nucleus accumbens neurons. These findings reveal that Activin/Smad3 sig...

  5. An Activin Receptor IA/Activin-Like Kinase-2 (R206H Mutation in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva

    Rafael Herrera-Esparza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP is an exceptionally rare genetic disease that is characterised by congenital malformations of the great toes and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO in specific anatomical areas. This disease is caused by a mutation in activin receptor IA/activin-like kinase-2 (ACVR1/ALK2. A Mexican family with one member affected by FOP was studied. The patient is a 19-year-old female who first presented with symptoms of FOP at 8 years old; she developed spontaneous and painful swelling of the right scapular area accompanied by functional limitation of movement. Mutation analysis was performed in which genomic DNA as PCR amplified using primers flanking exons 4 and 6, and PCR products were digested with Cac8I and HphI restriction enzymes. The most informative results were obtained with the exon 4 flanking primers and the Cac8I restriction enzyme, which generated a 253 bp product that carries the ACVR1 617G>A mutation, which causes an amino acid substitution of histidine for arginine at position 206 of the glycine-serine (GS domain, and its mutation results in the dysregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling that causes FOP.

  6. A soluble activin receptor type IIB does not improve blood glucose in streptozotocin-treated mice.

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and decrease hyperglycemia in mice treated with streptozotocin (STZ) to destroy pancreatic beta cells. After diabetes developed, mice were treated with a soluble MSTN/activin receptor fused to Fc (ACVR2B:Fc). ACVR2B:Fc increased body weight and muscle mass compared to vehicle treated mice. Unexpectedly, ACVR2B:Fc reproducibly exacerbated hyperglycemia within approximately one week of administration. ACVR2B:Fc treatment also elevated serum levels of the glucocorticoid corticosterone. These results suggest that although MSTN/activin inhibitors increased muscle mass, they may be counterproductive in improving health in patients with T1DM. PMID:25561902

  7. The structure of the follistatin:activin complex reveals antagonism of both type I and type II receptor binding

    Thompson, T.B.; Lerch, T.F.; Cook, R.W.; Woodruff, T.K.; Jardetzky, T.S. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    TGF-{beta} ligands stimulate diverse cellular differentiation and growth responses by signaling through type I and II receptors. Ligand antagonists, such as follistatin, block signaling and are essential regulators of physiological responses. Here we report the structure of activin A, a TGF-{beta} ligand, bound to the high-affinity antagonist follistatin. Two follistatin molecules encircle activin, neutralizing the ligand by burying one-third of its residues and its receptor binding sites. Previous studies have suggested that type I receptor binding would not be blocked by follistatin, but the crystal structure reveals that the follistatin N-terminal domain has an unexpected fold that mimics a universal type I receptor motif and occupies this receptor binding site. The formation of follistatin:BMP:type I receptor complexes can be explained by the stoichiometric and geometric arrangement of the activin:follistatin complex. The mode of ligand binding by follistatin has important implications for its ability to neutralize homo- and heterodimeric ligands of this growth factor family.

  8. Targeting tumour vasculature by inhibiting activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1 function.

    de Vinuesa, Amaya García; Bocci, Matteo; Pietras, Kristian; Ten Dijke, Peter

    2016-08-15

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and is now a validated therapeutic target in the clinical setting. Despite the initial success, anti-angiogenic compounds impinging on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway display limited survival benefits in patients and resistance often develops due to activation of alternative pathways. Thus, finding and validating new targets is highly warranted. Activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1 is a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) type I receptor predominantly expressed in actively proliferating endothelial cells (ECs). ALK1 has been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating angiogenesis by binding to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)9 and 10. Two main pharmacological inhibitors, an ALK1-Fc fusion protein (Dalantercept/ACE-041) and a fully human antibody against the extracellular domain of ALK1 (PF-03446962) are currently under clinical development. Herein, we briefly recapitulate the role of ALK1 in blood vessel formation and the current status of the preclinical and clinical studies on inhibition of ALK1 signalling as an anti-angiogenic strategy. Future directions in terms of new combination regimens will also be presented. PMID:27528762

  9. Roles of activin receptor-like kinase 7 signaling and its target, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, in lean and obese adipocytes

    Yogosawa, Satomi; Izumi, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    We recently discovered a novel signaling pathway involving activin receptor-like kinase 7 (ALK7), one of the type I transforming growth factor-β receptors. ALK7 and activated Smads 2, 3, and 4 inhibit the master regulators of adipogenesis, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) specifically in differentiated adipocytes, but surprisingly increase both the adipocyte size and lipid content by suppressing lipolysis. Here, we show that, a...

  10. Bioinformatic analysis of pathogenic missense mutations of activin receptor like kinase 1 ectodomain.

    Claudia Scotti

    Full Text Available Activin A receptor, type II-like kinase 1 (also called ALK1, is a serine-threonine kinase predominantly expressed on endothelial cells surface. Mutations in its ACVRL1 encoding gene (12q11-14 cause type 2 Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT2, an autosomal dominant multisystem vascular dysplasia. The study of the structural effects of mutations is crucial to understand their pathogenic mechanism. However, while an X-ray structure of ALK1 intracellular domain has recently become available (PDB ID: 3MY0, structure determination of ALK1 ectodomain (ALK1(EC has been elusive so far. We here describe the building of a homology model for ALK1(EC, followed by an extensive bioinformatic analysis, based on a set of 38 methods, of the effect of missense mutations at the sequence and structural level. ALK1(EC potential interaction mode with its ligand BMP9 was then predicted combining modelling and docking data. The calculated model of the ALK1(EC allowed mapping and a preliminary characterization of HHT2 associated mutations. Major structural changes and loss of stability of the protein were predicted for several mutations, while others were found to interfere mainly with binding to BMP9 or other interactors, like Endoglin (CD105, whose encoding ENG gene (9q34 mutations are known to cause type 1 HHT. This study gives a preliminary insight into the potential structure of ALK1(EC and into the structural effects of HHT2 associated mutations, which can be useful to predict the potential effect of each single mutation, to devise new biological experiments and to interpret the biological significance of new mutations, private mutations, or non-synonymous polymorphisms.

  11. Activin receptor IIA ligand trap in chronic kidney disease: 1 drug to prevent 2 complications-or even more?

    Massy, Ziad A; Drueke, Tilman B

    2016-06-01

    Vascular calcification and kidney fibrosis are 2 important features of chronic kidney disease. Bone morphogenetic proteins/growth differentiation factors and their receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of both processes. Modulation of the bone morphogenetic protein/growth differentiation factor pathways by a soluble chimeric protein that contains the activin receptor IIA (ActRIIA) domain and acts as an ActRIIA ligand trap for activin and other ligands could become a new therapeutic strategy for vascular calcification and kidney fibrosis in chronic kidney disease. PMID:27181771

  12. Regulation of activin receptor-interacting protein 2 expression in mouse hepatoma Hepal-6 cells and its relationship with collagen type Ⅳ

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the regulation of activin receptor-interacting protein 2 (ARIP2) expression and its possible relationships with collagen type Ⅳ (collagen Ⅳ) in mouse hepatoma cell line Hepal-6 cells.METHODS: The ARIP2 mRNA expression kinetics in Hepal-6 cells was detected by RT-PCR, and its regulation factors were analyzed by treatment with signal transduction activators such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), forskolin and A23187. After pcDNA3-ARIP2 was transfected into Hepal-6 cells, the effects of ARIP2 overexpression on activin type Ⅱ receptor (ActRII)and collagen Ⅳ expression were evaluated.RESULTS: The expression levels of ARIP2 mRNA in Hapel-6 cells were elevated in time-dependent manner 12 h after treatment with activin A and endotoxin LPS, but not changed evidently in the early stage of stimulation (2 or 4 h). TheARIP2 mRNA expression was increased after stimulated with signal transduction activators such as PMA and forskolin in Hepal-6 cells, whereas decreased after treatment with A23187 (25.3% ± 5.7% vS 48.1% ± 3.6%, P < 0.01). ARIP2 overexpression could remarkably suppress the expression of ActRIIA mRNA in dose-dependent manner, but has no effect on ActRIIB in Hepal-6 cells induced by activin A. Furthermore, we have found that overexpression of ARIP2 could inhibit collagen Ⅳ mRNA and protein expressions induced by activin A in Hapel-6 cells.CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that ARIP2 expression can be influenced by various factors. ARIP2 may participate in the negative feedback regulation of signal transduction in the late stage by affecting the expression of ActRIIA and play an important role in regulation of development of liver fibrosis induced by activin.

  13. Administration of soluble activin receptor 2B increases bone and muscle mass in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta

    Douglas J DiGirolamo; Vandana Singhal; Xiaoli Chang; Se-Jin Lee; Emily L Germain-Lee

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of heritable connective tissue disorders generally defined by recurrent fractures, low bone mass, short stature and skeletal fragility. Beyond the skeletal complications of OI, many patients also report intolerance to physical activity, fatigue and muscle weakness. Indeed, recent studies have demonstrated that skeletal muscle is also negatively affected by OI, both directly and indirectly. Given the well-established interdependence of bone and skeletal muscle in both physiology and pathophysiology and the observations of skeletal muscle pathology in patients with OI, we investigated the therapeutic potential of simultaneous anabolic targeting of both bone and skeletal muscle using a soluble activin receptor 2B (ACVR2B) in a mouse model of type III OI (oim). Treatment of 12-week-old oim mice with ACVR2B for 4 weeks resulted in significant increases in both bone and muscle that were similar to those observed in healthy, wild-type littermates. This proof of concept study provides encouraging evidence for a holistic approach to treating the deleterious consequences of OI in the musculoskeletal system.

  14. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    María González-Núñez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1 is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−. We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons.

  15. Heterozygous disruption of activin receptor-like kinase 1 is associated with increased arterial pressure in mice

    González-Núñez, María; Riolobos, Adela S.; Castellano, Orlando; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; de los Ángeles Sevilla, María; Oujo, Bárbara; Pericacho, Miguel; Cruz-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Pérez-Barriocanal, Fernando; ten Dijke, Peter; López-Novoa, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK-1) is a type I cell-surface receptor for the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of proteins. Hypertension is related to TGF-β1, because increased TGF-β1 expression is correlated with an elevation in arterial pressure (AP) and TGF-β expression is upregulated by the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of ALK-1 in regulation of AP using Alk1 haploinsufficient mice (Alk1+/−). We observed that systolic and diastolic AP were significantly higher in Alk1+/− than in Alk1+/+ mice, and all functional and structural cardiac parameters (echocardiography and electrocardiography) were similar in both groups. Alk1+/− mice showed alterations in the circadian rhythm of AP, with higher AP than Alk1+/+ mice during most of the light period. Higher AP in Alk1+/− mice is not a result of a reduction in the NO-dependent vasodilator response or of overactivation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system. However, intracerebroventricular administration of losartan had a hypotensive effect in Alk1+/− and not in Alk1+/+ mice. Alk1+/− mice showed a greater hypotensive response to the β-adrenergic antagonist atenolol and higher concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma than Alk1+/+ mice. The number of brain cholinergic neurons in the anterior basal forebrain was reduced in Alk1+/− mice. Thus, we concluded that the ALK-1 receptor is involved in the control of AP, and the high AP of Alk1+/− mice is explained mainly by the sympathetic overactivation shown by these animals, which is probably related to the decreased number of cholinergic neurons. PMID:26398936

  16. Activin A inhibits BMP-signaling by binding ACVR2A and ACVR2B

    Olsen, Oddrun Elise; Wader, Karin Fahl; Hella, Hanne; Mylin, Anne Kærsgaard; Turesson, Ingemar; Nesthus, Ingerid; Waage, Anders; Sundan, Anders; Holien, Toril

    2015-01-01

    activin A through canonical ALK4-ACVR2 receptor complexes activates the transcription factors SMAD2 and SMAD3. Activin A has a strong affinity to type 2 receptors, a feature that they share with some of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Activin A is also elevated in myeloma patients with advanced...

  17. A myostatin and activin decoy receptor enhances bone formation in mice.

    Bialek, P; Parkington, J; Li, X; Gavin, D; Wallace, C; Zhang, J; Root, A; Yan, G; Warner, L; Seeherman, H J; Yaworsky, P J

    2014-03-01

    Myostatin is a member of the bone morphogenetic protein/transforming growth factor-β (BMP/TGFβ) super-family of secreted differentiation factors. Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle mass as shown by increased muscle mass in myostatin deficient mice. Interestingly, these mice also exhibit increased bone mass suggesting that myostatin may also play a role in regulating bone mass. To investigate the role of myostatin in bone, young adult mice were administered with either a myostatin neutralizing antibody (Mstn-mAb), a soluble myostatin decoy receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) or vehicle. While both myostatin inhibitors increased muscle mass, only ActRIIB-Fc increased bone mass. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV), as determined by microCT, was increased by 132% and 27% in the distal femur and lumbar vertebrae, respectively. Histological evaluation demonstrated that increased BV/TV in both locations was attributed to increased trabecular thickness, trabecular number and bone formation rate. Increased BV/TV resulted in enhanced vertebral maximum compressive force compared to untreated animals. The fact that ActRIIB-Fc, but not Mstn-mAb, increased bone volume suggested that this soluble decoy receptor may be binding a ligand other than myostatin, that plays a role in regulating bone mass. This was confirmed by the significant increase in BV/TV in myostatin deficient mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc. Of the other known ActRIIB-Fc ligands, BMP3 has been identified as a negative regulator of bone mass. However, BMP3 deficient mice treated with ActRIIB-Fc showed similar increases in BV/TV as wild type (WT) littermates treated with ActRIIB-Fc. This result suggests that BMP3 neutralization is not the mechanism responsible for increased bone mass. The results of this study demonstrate that ActRIIB-Fc increases both muscle and bone mass in mice. Therefore, a therapeutic that has this dual activity represents a potential approach for the treatment of frailty. PMID:24333131

  18. Complete reversal of muscle wasting in experimental cancer cachexia: Additive effects of activin type II receptor inhibition and β-2 agonist.

    Toledo, Míriam; Busquets, Sílvia; Penna, Fabio; Zhou, Xiaolan; Marmonti, Enrica; Betancourt, Angelica; Massa, David; López-Soriano, Francisco J; Han, H Q; Argilés, Josep M

    2016-04-15

    Formoterol is a highly potent β2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist, which is a muscle growth promoter in many animal species. Myostatin/activin inhibition reverses skeletal muscle loss and prolongs survival of tumor-bearing animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effects of a combination of the soluble myostatin receptor ActRIIB (sActRIIB) and the β2-agonist formoterol in the cachectic Lewis lung carcinoma model. The combination of formoterol and sActRIIB was extremely effective in reversing muscle wasting associated with experimental cancer cachexia in mice. Muscle weights from tumor-bearing animals were completely recovered following treatment and this was also reflected in the measured grip strength. This combination increased food intake in both control and tumor-bearing animals. The double treatment also prolonged survival significantly without affecting the weight and growth of the primary tumor. In addition, it significantly reduced the number of metastasis. Concerning the mechanisms for the preservation of muscle mass during cachexia, the effects of formoterol and sActRIIB seemed to be additive, since formoterol reduced the rate of protein degradation (as measured in vitro as tyrosine release, using incubated isolated individual muscles) while sActRIIB only affected protein synthesis (as measured in vivo using tritiated phenylalanine). Formoterol also increased the rate of protein synthesis and this seemed to be favored by the presence of sActRIIB. Combining formoterol and sActRIIB seemed to be a very promising treatment for experimental cancer cachexia. Further studies in human patients are necessary and may lead to a highly effective treatment option for muscle wasting associated with cancer. PMID:26595367

  19. Characterization of the human Activin-A receptor type II-like kinase 1 (ACVRL1 promoter and its regulation by Sp1

    Botella Luisa M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1 is a Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β receptor type I, mainly expressed in endothelial cells that plays a pivotal role in vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. Mutations in the ALK1 gene (ACVRL1 give rise to Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia, a dominant autosomal vascular dysplasia caused by a haploinsufficiency mechanism. In spite of its patho-physiological relevance, little is known about the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. Here, we have studied the different origins of ACVRL1 transcription, we have analyzed in silico its 5'-proximal promoter sequence and we have characterized the role of Sp1 in the transcriptional regulation of ACVRL1. Results We have performed a 5'Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends (5'RACE of ACVRL1 transcripts, finding two new transcriptional origins, upstream of the one previously described, that give rise to a new exon undiscovered to date. The 5'-proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 (-1,035/+210 was analyzed in silico, finding that it lacks TATA/CAAT boxes, but contains a remarkably high number of GC-rich Sp1 consensus sites. In cells lacking Sp1, ACVRL1 promoter reporters did not present any significant transcriptional activity, whereas increasing concentrations of Sp1 triggered a dose-dependent stimulation of its transcription. Moreover, silencing Sp1 in HEK293T cells resulted in a marked decrease of ACVRL1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated multiple Sp1 binding sites along the proximal promoter region of ACVRL1 in endothelial cells. Furthermore, demethylation of CpG islands, led to an increase in ACVRL1 transcription, whereas in vitro hypermethylation resulted in the abolishment of Sp1-dependent transcriptional activation of ACVRL1. Conclusions Our results describe two new transcriptional start sites in ACVRL1 gene, and indicate that Sp1 is a key regulator of ACVRL1 transcription, providing new insights into

  20. Activin Decoy Receptor ActRIIB:Fc Lowers FSH and Therapeutically Restores Oocyte Yield, Prevents Oocyte Chromosome Misalignments and Spindle Aberrations, and Increases Fertility in Midlife Female SAMP8 Mice.

    Bernstein, Lori R; Mackenzie, Amelia C L; Lee, Se-Jin; Chaffin, Charles L; Merchenthaler, István

    2016-03-01

    Women of advanced maternal age (AMA) (age ≥ 35) have increased rates of infertility, miscarriages, and trisomic pregnancies. Collectively these conditions are called "egg infertility." A root cause of egg infertility is increased rates of oocyte aneuploidy with age. AMA women often have elevated endogenous FSH. Female senescence-accelerated mouse-prone-8 (SAMP8) has increased rates of oocyte spindle aberrations, diminished fertility, and rising endogenous FSH with age. We hypothesize that elevated FSH during the oocyte's FSH-responsive growth period is a cause of abnormalities in the meiotic spindle. We report that eggs from SAMP8 mice treated with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) for the period of oocyte growth have increased chromosome and spindle misalignments. Activin is a molecule that raises FSH, and ActRIIB:Fc is an activin decoy receptor that binds and sequesters activin. We report that ActRIIB:Fc treatment of midlife SAMP8 mice for the duration of oocyte growth lowers FSH, prevents egg chromosome and spindle misalignments, and increases litter sizes. AMA patients can also have poor responsiveness to FSH stimulation. We report that although eCG lowers yields of viable oocytes, ActRIIB:Fc increases yields of viable oocytes. ActRIIB:Fc and eCG cotreatment markedly reduces yields of viable oocytes. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated FSH contributes to egg aneuploidy, declining fertility, and poor ovarian response and that ActRIIB:Fc can prevent egg aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve ovarian response. Future studies will continue to examine whether ActRIIB:Fc works via FSH and/or other pathways and whether ActRIIB:Fc can prevent aneuploidy, increase fertility, and improve stimulation responsiveness in AMA women. PMID:26713784

  1. Activin Receptor-Like Kinase Receptors ALK5 and ALK1 Are Both Required for TGFβ-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    Laurie M G de Kroon

    Full Text Available Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are promising for cartilage regeneration because BMSCs can differentiate into cartilage tissue-producing chondrocytes. Transforming Growth Factor β (TGFβ is crucial for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and is known to signal via Activin receptor-Like Kinase (ALK receptors ALK5 and ALK1. Since the specific role of these two TGFβ receptors in chondrogenesis is unknown, we investigated whether ALK5 and ALK1 are expressed in BMSCs and whether both receptors are required for chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs.ALK5 and ALK1 gene expression in human BMSCs was determined with RT-qPCR. To induce chondrogenesis, human BMSCs were pellet-cultured in serum-free chondrogenic medium containing TGFβ1. Chondrogenesis was evaluated by aggrecan and collagen type IIα1 RT-qPCR analysis, and histological stainings of proteoglycans and collagen type II. To overexpress constitutively active (ca receptors, BMSCs were transduced either with caALK5 or caALK1. Expression of ALK5 and ALK1 was downregulated by transducing BMSCs with shRNA against ALK5 or ALK1.ALK5 and ALK1 were expressed in in vitro-expanded as well as in pellet-cultured BMSCs from five donors, but mRNA levels of both TGFβ receptors did not clearly associate with chondrogenic induction. TGFβ increased ALK5 and decreased ALK1 gene expression in chondrogenically differentiating BMSC pellets. Neither caALK5 nor caALK1 overexpression induced cartilage matrix formation as efficient as that induced by TGFβ. Moreover, short hairpin-mediated downregulation of either ALK5 or ALK1 resulted in a strong inhibition of TGFβ-induced chondrogenesis.ALK5 as well as ALK1 are required for TGFβ-induced chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and TGFβ not only directly induces chondrogenesis, but also modulates ALK5 and ALK1 receptor signaling in BMSCs. These results imply that optimizing cartilage formation by mesenchymal stem cells will depend on

  2. Effects of activin and TGFβ on p21 in colon cancer.

    Jessica Bauer

    Full Text Available Activin and TGFβ share SMAD signaling and colon cancers can inactivate either pathway alone or simultaneously. The differential effects of activin and TGFβ signaling in colon cancer have not been previously dissected. A key downstream target of TGFβ signaling is the cdk2 inhibitor p21 (p21(cip1/waf1. Here, we evaluate activin-specific effects on p21 regulation and resulting functions. We find that TGFβ is a more potent inducer of growth suppression, while activin is a more potent inducer of apoptosis. Further, growth suppression and apoptosis by both ligands are dependent on SMAD4. However, activin downregulates p21 protein in a SMAD4-independent fashion in conjunction with increased ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation to enhance migration, while TGFβ upregulates p21 in a SMAD4-dependent fashion to affect growth arrest. Activin-induced growth suppression and cell death are dependent on p21, while activin-induced migration is counteracted by p21. Further, primary colon cancers show differential p21 expression consistent with their ACVR2/TGFBR2 receptor status. In summary, we report p21 as a differentially affected activin/TGFβ target and mediator of ligand-specific functions in colon cancer, which may be exploited for future risk stratification and therapeutic intervention.

  3. Activin inhibits telomerase activity in cancer

    Katik, Indzi; Mackenzie-Kludas, Charley; Nicholls, Craig [Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Jiang, Fang-Xu [Centre for Diabetes Research, Western Australian Institute for Medical Research and The University of Western Australia, Perth (Australia); Zhou, Shufeng [School of Health Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Li, He [Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Liu, Jun-Ping, E-mail: jun-ping.liu@med.monash.edu.au [Department of Immunology, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2009-11-27

    Activin is a pleiotropic cytokine with broad tissue distributions. Recent studies demonstrate that activin-A inhibits cancer cell proliferation with unknown mechanisms. In this report, we demonstrate that recombinant activin-A induces telomerase inhibition in cancer cells. In breast and cervical cancer cells, activin-A resulted in telomerase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant inhibition was observed at 10 ng/ml of activin-A, with a near complete inhibition at 80 ng/ml. Consistently, activin-A induced repression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, with the hTERT gene to be suppressed by 60-80% within 24 h. In addition, activin-A induced a concomitant increase in Smad3 signaling and decrease of the hTERT gene promoter activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. These data suggest that activin-A triggered telomerase inhibition by down-regulating hTERT gene expression is involved in activin-A-induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.

  4. Exploring biological and pathological functions of TGFβ family member activin C

    proteins and their respective pathway. Like other members of the TGFβ family activin A and B are known to elicit their actions through transmembrane serine/threonine kinase receptors and Smad proteins. Receptors and downstream signaling for activin C or E however are hardly elucidated, whereas there are data suggesting Smad independent mechanisms. In the second part of this work we show for the first time that activin C signaling differs between primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cell lines, as activin C stimulates phosphorylation of ERK in cells without basal Smad phosphorylation. Furthermore we report that activin C is able to induce apoptosis by ERK phosphorylation in a Caspase 3 independent way. As mentioned above activin A is known to be involved in many biological mechanisms, like development, apoptosis, inflammation and cancerogenicity. The objective of the third part was to define the role of activin C in these biological functions. Thus, we report that activin A and C effect viability during development depending on the day of growth, hence expression of the respective receptor and accessibility for these factors. Data gained on the basis of a well established apoptosis cell model suggest a modulatory role for activin C and the other activin subfamily members regarding apoptosis. With respect to inflammation activin C reduces basal as well as the IL6 induced T-kininogen mRNA levels in primary rat hepatocytes, whereas it enhanced the release of TNFβ in LPS treated Kupffer cells. Together with the differential effects of activin C on CRP release seen in human primary hepatocytes, apparently depending on the anamnesis of patients, we emphasize the importance of a trigger necessary to induce the properties of activins. These studies demonstrate the involvement of activins in many physiological but also pathological mechanisms, and show that activin C modulates basic biochemical pathways. The present identification of one possible signaling mechanism for activin

  5. Overexpression of activin-A and -B in malignant mesothelioma – Attenuated Smad3 signaling responses and ERK activation promote cell migration and invasive growth

    Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma tumors are locally invasive and our results clearly suggest that acivins have a tumor-promoting function in mesothelioma through increasing expression and switching from canonical Smad3 pathway to non-canonical ERK pathway signaling. Blocking activin activity offers a new therapeutic approach for inhibition of mesothelioma invasive growth. - Highlights: • Activin-A and activin-B are highly expressed in mesothelioma. • Mesothelioma cell migration and invasive growth can be blocked with sActR2B. • Activin induced Smad3 activity is attenuated in invasive mesothelioma cells. • Activins induce ERK activity in mesothelioma cells

  6. Overexpression of activin-A and -B in malignant mesothelioma – Attenuated Smad3 signaling responses and ERK activation promote cell migration and invasive growth

    Tamminen, Jenni A.; Yin, Miao [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Rönty, Mikko [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Pathology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Sutinen, Eva [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Pasternack, Arja; Ritvos, Olli [Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Bacteriology and Immunology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Myllärniemi, Marjukka [Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland); Helsinki University Central Hospital Laboratory, Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, University of Helsinki (Finland); Koli, Katri, E-mail: katri.koli@helsinki.fi [Research Programs Unit, Translational Cancer Biology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Transplantation Laboratory, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-03-01

    Activin-A and activin-B, members of the TGF-β superfamily, are regulators of reproductive functions, inflammation and wound healing. These dimeric molecules regulate various cellular activities such as proliferation, migration and suvival. Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos exposure related tumor affecting mainly pleura and it usually has a dismal prognosis. Here, we demonstrate that both activin-A and -B are abundantly expressed in mesothelioma tumor tissue as well as in cultured primary and established mesothelioma cells. Migratory and invasive mesothelioma cells were also found to have attenuated activation of the Smad2/3 pathway in response to activins. Migration and invasive growth of the cells in three-dimentional matrix was prevented by inhibition of activin activity using a soluble activin receptor 2B (sActR2B-Fc). This was associated with decreased ERK activity. Furthermore, migration and invasive growth was significantly inhibited by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Mesothelioma tumors are locally invasive and our results clearly suggest that acivins have a tumor-promoting function in mesothelioma through increasing expression and switching from canonical Smad3 pathway to non-canonical ERK pathway signaling. Blocking activin activity offers a new therapeutic approach for inhibition of mesothelioma invasive growth. - Highlights: • Activin-A and activin-B are highly expressed in mesothelioma. • Mesothelioma cell migration and invasive growth can be blocked with sActR2B. • Activin induced Smad3 activity is attenuated in invasive mesothelioma cells. • Activins induce ERK activity in mesothelioma cells.

  7. Autocrine Bone Morphogenetic Protein-9 signals via Activin Receptor Like Kinase-2/Smad1/Smad4 to promote ovarian cancer cell proliferation

    Herrera, Blanca; van Dinther, Maarten; ten Dijke, Peter; Inman, Gareth J.

    2009-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as central regulators of ovarian physiology and may be involved in ovarian cancer development. In an effort to understand these processes we characterized TGFβ/BMP receptor and Smad expression in immortalised ovarian surface epithelial cells (IOSE) and a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines. These studies prompted us to evaluate the potential role of BMP9 signalling in ovarian cancer. Using siRNA, ligand trap, inhibitor and ligand stimulation approaches we...

  8. A phase I study of the human anti-activin receptor-like kinase 1 antibody PF-03446962 in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Doi, Toshihiko; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Tae-Min; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kim, Tae Yong; Ikeda, Masafumi; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Gallo Stampino, Corrado; Hirohashi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Akiyuki; Fujii, Yosuke; Andrew Williams, James; Bang, Yung-Jue

    2016-07-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that ALK-1 signaling mediates a complementary angiogenesis pathway activated upon development of resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-targeted therapies. Inhibition of ALK-1 signaling may lead to disruption of tumor angiogenesis and growth. We report findings from a multicenter, open-label, phase I study of the fully human anti-ALK-1 mAb PF-03446962 conducted in Japan and South Korea, in Asian patients with advanced solid tumors. The dose escalation Part 1 of the study was based on a standard 3 + 3 design (n = 16). In Part 2, patients were treated with PF-03446962 at 7 and 10 mg/kg (10/cohort), including patients with disease progression following prior VEGF receptor (R)-targeted therapy. Primary objectives were determination of the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of PF-03446962. No dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was noted in the 12 DLT-evaluable patients. Treatment was well tolerated. The MTD for biweekly intravenous administration was estimated to be 10 mg/kg and the RP2D 7 mg/kg. Treatment-related grades 1-3 thrombocytopenia was experienced by 27.8% patients. The most frequent nonhematologic treatment-related AEs were grades 1-2 pyrexia and epistaxis. Four patients (3/4 with hepatocellular carcinoma) developed telangiectasia suggesting vascular targeting and in vivo ALK-1 inhibition by PF-03446962. Stable disease for 12 weeks or more was observed in 25.7% of patients and in 44.4% of those with hepatocellular carcinoma. ALK-1 inhibition by PF-03446962 may represent a novel antiangiogenic strategy for patients with advanced solid malignancies complementary to current treatment with VEGF(R)-targeted inhibitors or chemotherapy. PMID:27075560

  9. Differential regulation of follicle stimulating hormone by activin A and TGFB1 in murine gonadotropes

    Miller William L

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activins stimulate the synthesis of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in pituitary gonadotropes, at least in part, by inducing transcription of its beta subunit (Fshb. Evidence from several laboratories studying transformed murine LbetaT2 gonadotropes indicates that activins signal through Smad-dependent and/or Smad-independent pathways, similar to those used by transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGFB1 in other cell types. Therefore, given common intracellular signaling mechanisms of these two ligands, we examined whether TGFBs can also induce transcription of Fshb in LbetaT2 cells as well as in purified primary murine gonadotropes. Methods Murine Fshb promoter-reporter (-1990/+1 mFshb-luc activity was measured in LbetaT2 cells treated with activin A or TGFB1, and in cells transfected with either activin or TGFB receptors. The ability of the ligands to stimulate phosphorylation of Smads 2 and 3 in LbetaT2 cells was measured by western blot analysis, and expression of TGFB type I and II receptors was assessed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in both LbetaT2 cells and primary gonadotropes purified from male mice of different ages. Finally, regulation of endogenous murine Fshb mRNA levels by activin A and TGFB1 in purified gonadotropes and whole pituitary cultures was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. Results Activin A dose-dependently stimulated -1990/+1 mFshb-luc activity in LbetaT2 cells, but TGFB1 had no effect at doses up to 5 nM. Similarly, activin A, but not TGFB1, stimulated Smad 2 and 3 phosphorylation in these cells. Constitutively active forms of the activin (Acvr1b-T206D and TGFB (TGFBR1-T204D type I receptors strongly stimulated -1990/+1 mFshb-luc activity, showing that mechanisms down stream of Tgfbr1 seem to be intact in LbetaT2 cells. RT-PCR analysis of LbetaT2 cells and whole adult murine pituitaries indicated that both expressed Tgfbr1 mRNA, but that Tgfbr2 was not detected in LbetaT2 cells

  10. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) Mediates Activin A-Induced Human Trophoblast Endothelial-Like Tube Formation.

    Li, Yan; Zhu, Hua; Klausen, Christian; Peng, Bo; Leung, Peter C K

    2015-11-01

    Remodeling of maternal spiral arteries during pregnancy requires a subpopulation of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs) to differentiate into endovascular EVTs. Activin A, which is abundantly expressed at the maternal-fetal interface, has been shown to promote trophoblast invasion, but its role in endovascular differentiation remains unknown. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is well recognized as a key regulator in trophoblast endovascular differentiation. Whether and how activin A might regulate VEGF-A production in human trophoblasts and its relationship to endovascular differentiation have yet to be determined. In the present study, we found that activin A increased VEGF-A production in primary and immortalized (HTR8/SVneo) human EVT cells. In addition, activin A enhanced HTR8/SVneo endothelial-like tube formation, and these effects were attenuated by pretreatment with small interfering RNA targeting VEGF-A or the VEGF receptor 1/2 inhibitor SU4312. Pretreatment with the activin/TGF-β type 1 receptor (ALK4/5/7) inhibitor SB431542 abolished the stimulatory effects of activin A on phosphorylated mothers against decapentaplegic (SMAD)-2/3 phosphorylation, VEGF-A production, and endothelial-like tube formation. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated down-regulation of SMAD2, SMAD3, or common SMAD4 abolished the effects of activin A on VEGF-A production and endothelial-like tube formation. In conclusion, activin A may promote human trophoblast cell endothelial-like tube formation by up-regulating VEGF-A production in an SMAD2/3-SMAD4-dependent manner. These findings provide insight into the cellular and molecular events regulated by activin A during human implantation. PMID:26327470

  11. Graded Nodal/Activin signaling titrates conversion of quantitative phospho-Smad2 levels into qualitative embryonic stem cell fate decisions.

    Kian Leong Lee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nodal and Activin are morphogens of the TGFbeta superfamily of signaling molecules that direct differential cell fate decisions in a dose- and distance-dependent manner. During early embryonic development the Nodal/Activin pathway is responsible for the specification of mesoderm, endoderm, node, and mesendoderm. In contradiction to this drive towards cellular differentiation, the pathway also plays important roles in the maintenance of self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic and epiblast stem cells. The molecular basis behind stem cell interpretation of Nodal/Activin signaling gradients and the undertaking of disparate cell fate decisions remains poorly understood. Here, we show that any perturbation of endogenous signaling levels in mouse embryonic stem cells leads to their exit from self-renewal towards divergent differentiation programs. Increasing Nodal signals above basal levels by direct stimulation with Activin promotes differentiation towards the mesendodermal lineages while repression of signaling with the specific Nodal/Activin receptor inhibitor SB431542 induces trophectodermal differentiation. To address how quantitative Nodal/Activin signals are translated qualitatively into distinct cell fates decisions, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation of phospho-Smad2, the primary downstream transcriptional factor of the Nodal/Activin pathway, followed by massively parallel sequencing, and show that phospho-Smad2 binds to and regulates distinct subsets of target genes in a dose-dependent manner. Crucially, Nodal/Activin signaling directly controls the Oct4 master regulator of pluripotency by graded phospho-Smad2 binding in the promoter region. Hence stem cells interpret and carry out differential Nodal/Activin signaling instructions via a corresponding gradient of Smad2 phosphorylation that selectively titrates self-renewal against alternative differentiation programs by direct regulation of distinct target gene subsets and Oct4

  12. Activin A secreted by human mesenchymal stem cells induces neuronal development and neurite outgrowth in an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease: neurogenesis induced by MSCs via activin A.

    Park, Sang Eon; Lee, Jeongmin; Chang, Eun Hyuk; Kim, Jong Hwa; Sung, Ji-Hee; Na, Duk L; Chang, Jong Wook

    2016-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive loss of memory in addition to cortical atrophy. Cortical atrophy in AD brains begins in the parietal and temporal lobes, which are near the subventricular zone (SVZ). The aim of this study was to activate the neurogenesis in the SVZ of AD brains by human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Neural stem cells (NSCs) were isolated from SVZ of 4-month-old 5XFAD mice. Co-culture of hMSCs with SVZ-derived NSCs from 5XFAD mice induced neuronal development and neurite outgrowth. To examine the inducing factor of neurogenesis, human cytokine array was performed with co-cultured media, and revealed elevated release of activin A from hMSCs. Also, we confirmed that the mRNA levels of activin A and activin receptor in the SVZ of 5XFAD mice were significantly lower than normal mice. Treatment of human recombinant activin A in SVZ-derived NSCs from 5XFAD mice induced neuronal development and neurite outgrowth. These data suggest that use of hMSCs and activin A to recover neurogenesis in future studies of cortical regeneration to treat AD. PMID:27515053

  13. Serum activin B concentration as predictive biomarker for ectopic pregnancy.

    Dhiman, Pooja; Senthilkumar, G P; Rajendiran, Soundravally; Sivaraman, K; Soundararaghavan, S; Kulandhasamy, Maheshwari

    2016-05-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of activin B in discriminating tubal ectopic pregnancy (tEP) from intrauterine miscarriages (IUM), and normal viable intrauterine pregnancy (IUP). We included 28 women with tEP, 31 women with IUM, and 29 normal IUP, confirmed both by clinical examination and ultrasonography. Serum activin B concentration was measured at the time of admission using the ELISA kit. The median serum activin B concentration was found to be significantly decreased in both tEP (p=0.004) and IUM (p=0.022) compared to normal IUP. When compared between tEP and IUM, activin B concentrations did not differ significantly. ROC analysis of activin B and free β-hCG demonstrated AUC of 0.722 and 0.805, respectively to discriminate tEP from viable IUP. The model including both activin B and free β-hCG improved the discriminating potential with greater AUC (0.824), and specificity (93%) than individual one. To discriminate tEP from IUM, activin B, free β-hCG and combination of both performed poorly. We conclude that serum activin B concentration is lower in tubal ectopic pregnancy, and can discriminate it from normal pregnancy with moderate accuracy. It also shows improved diagnostic potential along with free β-hCG, but cannot distinguish tEP from IUM reliably. PMID:26968108

  14. Inhibition of somatotroph growth and growth hormone biosynthesis by activin in vitro

    Billestrup, Nils; González-Manchón, C; Potter, E; Vale, W

    1990-01-01

    effect of activin on FSH secretion, did not reverse the effect of activin on GH biosynthesis. Treatment of somatotrophs with activin for 3 days completely inhibited the growth-promoting effect of GRF on somatotrophs. However, no effect of activin on GRF-stimulated expression of the c-fos protooncogene...

  15. Uric acid: a modulator of prostate cells and activin sensitivity.

    Sangkop, Febbie; Singh, Geeta; Rodrigues, Ely; Gold, Elspeth; Bahn, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (SUA) or urate is associated with inflammation and gout. Recent evidence has linked urate to cancers, but little is known about urate effects in prostate cancer. Activins are inflammatory cytokines and negative growth regulators in the prostate. A hallmark of prostate cancer progression is activin insensitivity; however, mechanisms underlying this are unclear. We propose that elevated SUA is associated with prostate cancer counteracting the growth inhibitory effects of activins. The expression of activins A and B, urate transporter GLUT9 and tissue urate levels were examined in human prostate disease. Intracellular and secreted urate and GLUT9 expression were assessed in human prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, the effects of urate and probenecid, a known urate transport inhibitor, were determined in combination with activin A. Activin A expression was increased in low-grade prostate cancer, whereas activin B expression was reduced in high-grade prostate cancer. Intracellular urate levels decreased in all prostate pathologies, while GLUT9 expression decreased in benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis and high-grade prostate cancer. Activin responsive LNCaP cells had higher intracellular and lower secreted urate levels than activin-insensitive PC3 cells. GLUT9 expression in prostate cancer cells was progressively lower than in prostate epithelial cells. Elevated extracellular urate was growth promoting in vitro, which was abolished by the gout medication probenecid, and it antagonized the growth inhibitory effects of activins. This study shows for the first time that a change in plasma or intracellular urate levels, possibly involving GLUT9 and a urate efflux transporter, has an impact on prostate cancer cell growth, and that lowering SUA levels in prostate cancer is likely to be therapeutically beneficial. PMID:26910779

  16. Anterograde Activin signaling regulates postsynaptic membrane potential and GluRIIA/B abundance at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction.

    Myung-Jun Kim

    Full Text Available Members of the TGF-β superfamily play numerous roles in nervous system development and function. In Drosophila, retrograde BMP signaling at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ is required presynaptically for proper synapse growth and neurotransmitter release. In this study, we analyzed whether the Activin branch of the TGF-β superfamily also contributes to NMJ development and function. We find that elimination of the Activin/TGF-β type I receptor babo, or its downstream signal transducer smox, does not affect presynaptic NMJ growth or evoked excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs, but instead results in a number of postsynaptic defects including depolarized membrane potential, small size and frequency of miniature excitatory junction potentials (mEJPs, and decreased synaptic densities of the glutamate receptors GluRIIA and B. The majority of the defective smox synaptic phenotypes were rescued by muscle-specific expression of a smox transgene. Furthermore, a mutation in actβ, an Activin-like ligand that is strongly expressed in motor neurons, phenocopies babo and smox loss-of-function alleles. Our results demonstrate that anterograde Activin/TGF-β signaling at the Drosophila NMJ is crucial for achieving normal abundance and localization of several important postsynaptic signaling molecules and for regulating postsynaptic membrane physiology. Together with the well-established presynaptic role of the retrograde BMP signaling, our findings indicate that the two branches of the TGF-β superfamily are differentially deployed on each side of the Drosophila NMJ synapse to regulate distinct aspects of its development and function.

  17. Activins and inhibins: Novel regulators of thymocyte development

    Activins and inhibins are members of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that act on different cell types and regulate a broad range of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Here, we provide the first evidence that activins and inhibins regulate specific checkpoints during thymocyte development. We demonstrate that both activin A and inhibin A promote the DN3-DN4 transition in vitro, although they differentially control the transition to the DP stage. Whereas activin A induces the accumulation of a CD8+CD24hiTCRβlo intermediate subpopulation, inhibin A promotes the differentiation of DN4 to DP. In addition, both activin A and inhibin A appear to promote CD8+SP differentiation. Moreover, inhibin α null mice have delayed in vitro T cell development, showing both a decrease in the DN-DP transition and reduced thymocyte numbers, further supporting a role for inhibins in the control of developmental signals taking place during T cell differentiation in vivo.

  18. Effect of B-activin on human T suppressor cells

    The authors studied the influence of B-activin on the effect of human concanavalin A (con A)-induced T suppressor cells and also on the process of induction of T suppressor cells by con A and stimulation of proliferative activity of lymphocytes by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Con A-induced suppression and the effect of B-activin on it were studied in a system in which the test cell culture and the culture for induction of suppressors were prepared simultaneously. Peripheral blood was obtained from blood donors for the experiments and during the preparation of the experiments, 3H-thymidine was added. The results of investigation of the influence of B-activin on the effect of con A-induced suppressors and also on the process of their induction are given. It is concluded that B-activin blocks the effect of con A-induced human suppressor cells but does not affect their induction, and B-activin does not affect proliferative activity of lymphocytes induced by PHA

  19. Efficient retina formation requires suppression of both Activin and BMP signaling pathways in pluripotent cells

    Kimberly A. Wong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Retina formation requires the correct spatiotemporal patterning of key regulatory factors. While it is known that repression of several signaling pathways lead to specification of retinal fates, addition of only Noggin, a known BMP antagonist, can convert pluripotent Xenopus laevis animal cap cells to functional retinal cells. The aim of this study is to determine the intracellular molecular events that occur during this conversion. Surprisingly, blocking BMP signaling alone failed to mimic Noggin treatment. Overexpressing Noggin in pluripotent cells resulted in a concentration-dependent suppression of both Smad1 and Smad2 phosphorylation, which act downstream of BMP and Activin signaling, respectively. This caused a decrease in downstream targets: endothelial marker, xk81, and mesodermal marker, xbra. We treated pluripotent cells with dominant-negative receptors or the chemical inhibitors, dorsomorphin and SB431542, which each target either the BMP or Activin signaling pathway. We determined the effect of these treatments on retina formation using the Animal Cap Transplant (ACT assay; in which treated pluripotent cells were transplanted into the eye field of host embryos. We found that inhibition of Activin signaling, in the presence of BMP signaling inhibition, promotes efficient retinal specification in Xenopus tissue, mimicking the affect of adding Noggin alone. In whole embryos, we found that the eye field marker, rax, expanded when adding both dominant-negative Smad1 and Smad2, as did treating the cells with both dorsomorphin and SB431542. Future studies could translate these findings to a mammalian culture assay, in order to more efficiently produce retinal cells in culture.

  20. Intertwining of Activin A and TGFβ Signaling: Dual Roles in Cancer Progression and Cancer Cell Invasion

    In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles in cancer. Investigations into the role of activin A in prostate and breast cancer has demonstrated tumor suppressive effects, while in lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, it has been consistently shown that activin A expression is correlated with increased proliferation, invasion and poor patient prognosis. Activin A signaling is highly context-dependent, which is demonstrated in studies of epithelial cell tumors and the microenvironment. This review discusses normal activin A signaling in comparison to TGFβ and highlights how its dysregulation contributes to cancer progression and cell invasion

  1. Intertwining of Activin A and TGFβ Signaling: Dual Roles in Cancer Progression and Cancer Cell Invasion

    Loomans, Holli A. [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Andl, Claudia D., E-mail: claudia.andl@vanderbilt.edu [Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt Digestive Disease Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States); Vanderbilt Epithelial Biology Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    In recent years, a significant amount of research has examined the controversial role of activin A in cancer. Activin A, a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily, is best characterized for its function during embryogenesis in mesoderm cell fate differentiation and reproduction. During embryogenesis, TGFβ superfamily ligands, TGFβ, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and activins, act as potent morphogens. Similar to TGFβs and BMPs, activin A is a protein that is highly systemically expressed during early embryogenesis; however, post-natal expression is overall reduced and remains under strict spatiotemporal regulation. Of importance, normal post-natal expression of activin A has been implicated in the migration and invasive properties of various immune cell types, as well as endometrial cells. Aberrant activin A signaling during development results in significant morphological defects and premature mortality. Interestingly, activin A has been found to have both oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles in cancer. Investigations into the role of activin A in prostate and breast cancer has demonstrated tumor suppressive effects, while in lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, it has been consistently shown that activin A expression is correlated with increased proliferation, invasion and poor patient prognosis. Activin A signaling is highly context-dependent, which is demonstrated in studies of epithelial cell tumors and the microenvironment. This review discusses normal activin A signaling in comparison to TGFβ and highlights how its dysregulation contributes to cancer progression and cell invasion.

  2. A drug delivery hydrogel system based on activin B for Parkinson's disease.

    Li, Juan; Darabi, Mohammadali; Gu, Jingjing; Shi, Junbin; Xue, Jinhua; Huang, Lu; Liu, Yutong; Zhang, Lei; Liu, N; Zhong, Wen; Zhang, Lin; Xing, Malcolm; Zhang, Lu

    2016-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases. Activins are members of the superfamily of transforming growth factors and have many potential neuroprotective effects. Herein, at the first place, we verified activin B's neuroprotective role in a PD model, and revealed that activin B's fast release has limited function in the PD therapy. To this end, we developed a multi-functional crosslinker based thermosensitive injectable hydrogels to deliver activin B, and stereotactically injected the activin B-loaded hydrogel into the striatum of a mouse model of PD. The histological evaluation showed that activin B can be detected even 5 weeks post-surgery in PD mice implanted with activin B-loaded hydrogels, and activin B-loaded hydrogels can significantly increase the density of tyrosine hydroxylase positive (TH(+)) nerve fibers and reduce inflammatory responses. The behavioral evaluation demonstrated that activin B-loaded hydrogels significantly improved the performance of the mice in the PD model. Meanwhile, we found that hydrogels can slightly induce the activation of microglia cells and astrocytes, while cannot induce apoptosis in the striatum. Overall, our data demonstrated that the developed activin B-loaded hydrogels provide sustained release of activin B for over 5 weeks and contribute to substantial cellular protection and behavioral improvement, suggesting their potential as a therapeutic strategy for PD. PMID:27322960

  3. Activin A maintains cerebral cortex neuronal survival and increases voltage-gated Na+ neuronal current

    Jingyan Ge; Yinan Wang; Haiyan Liu; Fangfang Chen; Xueling Cui; Zhonghui Liu

    2010-01-01

    Activin A,which was first described in 1986,has been shown to maintain hippocampal neuronal survival.Activin A increases intracellular free Ca2+via L-type Ca2+channels.Our previous study showed that activin A promotes neurite growth of dorsal root ganglia in embryonic chickens and inhibits nitric oxide secretion.The present study demonstrated for the first time that activin A could maintain cerebral cortex neuronal survival in vitro for a tong period,and that activin A was shown to increase voltage-gated Na+current(INa)in Neure-2a cells,which was recorded by patch clamp technique.The present study revealed a novel mechanism for activin A,as well as the influence of activin A on neurons by regulating expressions of vasoactive intestine peptide and inducible nitric oxide synthase.

  4. Activin A and Follistatin as Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Missed Abortion

    Alexandros Daponte; Efthimios Deligeoroglou; Antonios Garas; Spyros Pournaras; Christos Hadjichristodoulou; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2013-01-01

    Activin A as a predictor of pregnancy failure has been the focus of heated debate, but the value of a combined activin A and follistatin (FS) measurement in serum to predict pregnancy failure has not been reported yet. We assessed whether a single serum measurement of the two physiological antagonists at 6–8 weeks gestation could differentiate ectopic pregnancies (EP) or missed abortions (MA) from healthy intrauterine pregnancies (IUP). activin A concentrations were significantly lower in wom...

  5. Effects of Activin A on the Activities of the Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages

    XuejunZhang; YangLi; GuixiangTai; GuiyueXu; PengyuZhang; YuYang; FengxueLao; ZhonghuiLiu

    2005-01-01

    Activin A is a kind of pre-inflammatory factor that belongs to the transforming growth factor-β(TGF-β) superfamily. To investigate the effect and mechanism of activin A on the activities of mouse macrophages, the secretion of NO in the supernatant of cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages was examined by NO assay kit, and the expression of iNOS, ActRIIA and ARIP2 mRNA in mouse peritoneal macrophages was analyzed by RT-PCR. The results showed that activin A stimulated the secretion of NO and the expression of iNOS mRNA in non-activated mouse macrophages in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, activin A in the same concentration inhibited the secretion of NO in LPS-activated mouse macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. ActRIIA was highly expressed on macrophages, and activin A upregulated the ActRIIA mRNA expression in macrophages. Anti-ActRIIA antibody can block the secretion of NO from the macrophages stimulated by activin A. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that activin A enhanced the ARIP2 mRNA expression in macrophages. These results indicated that Activin A may be a weak activator compared with LPS to mouse macrophages, and activin A may modulate the secretion of NO through ActRIIA-ARIP2 signal pathway in mouse macrophages. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(1):63-67.

  6. Kdm6b and Pmepa1 as Targets of Bioelectrically and Behaviorally Induced Activin A Signaling.

    Link, Andrea S; Kurinna, Svitlana; Havlicek, Steven; Lehnert, Sandra; Reichel, Martin; Kornhuber, Johannes; Winner, Beate; Huth, Tobias; Zheng, Fang; Werner, Sabine; Alzheimer, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family member activin A exerts multiple neurotrophic and protective effects in the brain. Activin also modulates cognitive functions and affective behavior and is a presumed target of antidepressant therapy. Despite its important role in the injured and intact brain, the mechanisms underlying activin effects in the CNS are still largely unknown. Our goal was to identify the first target genes of activin signaling in the hippocampus in vivo. Electroconvulsive seizures, a rodent model of electroconvulsive therapy in humans, were applied to C57BL/6J mice to elicit a strong increase in activin A signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments with hippocampal lysates subsequently revealed that binding of SMAD2/3, the intracellular effectors of activin signaling, was significantly enriched at the Pmepa1 gene, which encodes a negative feedback regulator of TGF-β signaling in cancer cells, and at the Kdm6b gene, which encodes an epigenetic regulator promoting transcriptional plasticity. Underlining the significance of these findings, activin treatment also induced PMEPA1 and KDM6B expression in human forebrain neurons generated from embryonic stem cells suggesting interspecies conservation of activin effects in mammalian neurons. Importantly, physiological stimuli such as provided by environmental enrichment proved already sufficient to engender a rapid and significant induction of activin signaling concomitant with an upregulation of Pmepa1 and Kdm6b expression. Taken together, our study identified the first target genes of activin signaling in the brain. With the induction of Kdm6b expression, activin is likely to gain impact on a presumed epigenetic regulator of activity-dependent neuronal plasticity. PMID:26215835

  7. Impaired growth of pancreatic exocrine cells in transgenic mice expressing human activin βE subunit

    Activins, TGF-β superfamily members, have multiple functions in a variety of cells and tissues. Recently, additional activin β subunit genes, βC and βE, have been identified. To explore the role of activin E, we created transgenic mice overexpressing human activin βE subunit. There were pronounced differences in the pancreata of the transgenic animals as compared with their wild-type counterparts. Pancreatic weight, expressed relative to total body weight, was significantly reduced. Histologically, adipose replacement of acini in the exocrine pancreas was observed. There was a significant decrease in the number of PCNA-positive cells in the acinar cells, indicating reduced proliferation in the exocrine pancreas of the transgenic mice. However, quantitative pancreatic morphometry showed that the total number and mass of the islets of the transgenic mice were comparable with those of the nontransgenic control mice. Our findings suggest a role for activin E in regulating the proliferation of pancreatic exocrine cells

  8. Activin B mediated induction of Pdx1 in human embryonic stem cell derived embryoid bodies

    Frandsen, Ulrik; Pørneki, Ann Dorte Storm; Floridon, Charlotte;

    2007-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the potential to provide alternative sources for pancreatic islet grafts. In the present study we have investigated the influence of Activin A and Activin B on the expression of the pancreas marker gene Pdx1 in hESCs differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs...... embryonic and fetal pancreas anlage in humans. Pdx1(+) cells are found in cell clusters also expressing Serpina1 and FABP1, suggesting activation of intestinal/liver developmental programs. Moreover, Activin B up-regulates Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and its target Gli1, which during normal development is...

  9. Testicular Somatic Cells, not Gonocytes, Are the Major Source of Functional Activin A during Testis Morphogenesis

    Archambeault, Denise R.; Tomaszewski, Jessica; Childs, Andrew J.; Anderson, Richard A.; YAO, HUMPHREY HUNG-CHANG

    2011-01-01

    Proper development of the seminiferous tubules (or testis cords in embryos) is critical for male fertility. Sertoli cells, somatic components of the seminiferous tubules, serve as nurse cells to the male germline, and thus their numbers decide the quantity of sperm output in adulthood. We previously identified activin A, the protein product of the activin βA (Inhba) gene, as a key regulator of murine Sertoli cell proliferation and testis cord expansion during embryogenesis. Although our genet...

  10. Activin A Plays a Critical Role in Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Adipose Progenitors

    Zaragosi, L.-E.; Wdziekonski, B.; Villageois, P.; Keophiphath, M.; Maumus, M; Tchkonia, T.; Bourlier, V.; Mohsen-Kanson, T.; Ladoux, A.; Elabd, C.; Scheideler, M; Trajanoski, Z.; Takashima, Y.; Amri, E.-Z.; Lacasa, D.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Growth of white adipose tissue takes place in normal development and in obesity. A pool of adipose progenitors is responsible for the formation of new adipocytes and for the potential of this tissue to expand in response to chronic energy overload. However, factors controlling self-renewal of human adipose progenitors are largely unknown. We investigated the expression profile and the role of activin A in this process. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Expression of INHBA/activin A was in...

  11. Differential Effects of Aging on Activin A and its Binding Protein, Follistatin, across the Menopause Transition

    Reame, Nancy E.; Lukacs, Jane L; Olton, Pamela; Ansbacher, Rudi; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2007-01-01

    To assess the involvement of ovarian-derived regulatory proteins in FSH modulation, we compared FSH, inhibin A, inhibin B, activin A and follistatin in 79 women from the following five groups: young cycling (YC), older cycling (OC), perimenopause (PERI), spontaneous menopause (PM), and surgical menopause receiving estrogen (OVX+ET). Although inhibin B varied as expected by ovarian function, no group differences were observed in activin A, barring a tendency for an increase in PERI, while FS 2...

  12. Activin A and follistatin as biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy and missed abortion.

    Daponte, Alexandros; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Garas, Antonios; Pournaras, Spyros; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Messinis, Ioannis E

    2013-01-01

    Activin A as a predictor of pregnancy failure has been the focus of heated debate, but the value of a combined activin A and follistatin (FS) measurement in serum to predict pregnancy failure has not been reported yet. We assessed whether a single serum measurement of the two physiological antagonists at 6-8 weeks gestation could differentiate ectopic pregnancies (EP) or missed abortions (MA) from healthy intrauterine pregnancies (IUP). activin A concentrations were significantly lower in women with EP (n = 30, median value of 264 pg/mL) and women with MA (n = 30, median value of 350 pg/mL) compared to IUP (n = 33, median value of 788 pg/mL); P < 0.001. At a threshold value of 505 pg/mL, activin A had 87.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity and negative predictive value of 0.974 for discriminating an ectopic pregnancy from viable pregnancies. FS was able to discriminate IUP from EP (ROC curve P < 0.001) as was their ratio (ROC curve P = 0.008), but was unable to discriminate a MA from an EP. In EP, activin A did not correlate with beta HCG levels. The present findings support the thesis that activin A or FS could be considered promising biomarkers for the discrimination between an IUP and a failed pregnancy (MA or EP). PMID:24222717

  13. Activin A and Follistatin as Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Missed Abortion

    Alexandros Daponte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activin A as a predictor of pregnancy failure has been the focus of heated debate, but the value of a combined activin A and follistatin (FS measurement in serum to predict pregnancy failure has not been reported yet. We assessed whether a single serum measurement of the two physiological antagonists at 6–8 weeks gestation could differentiate ectopic pregnancies (EP or missed abortions (MA from healthy intrauterine pregnancies (IUP. activin A concentrations were significantly lower in women with EP ( = 30, median value of 264 pg/mL and women with MA ( = 30, median value of 350 pg/mL compared to IUP ( = 33, median value of 788 pg/mL; . At a threshold value of 505 pg/mL, activin A had 87.9% sensitivity and 100% specificity and negative predictive value of 0.974 for discriminating an ectopic pregnancy from viable pregnancies. FS was able to discriminate IUP from EP (ROC curve as was their ratio (ROC curve , but was unable to discriminate a MA from an EP. In EP, activin A did not correlate with beta HCG levels. The present findings support the thesis that activin A or FS could be considered promising biomarkers for the discrimination between an IUP and a failed pregnancy (MA or EP.

  14. Activin A induces Langerhans cell differentiation in vitro and in human skin explants.

    Tiziana Musso

    Full Text Available Langerhans cells (LC represent a well characterized subset of dendritic cells located in the epidermis of skin and mucosae. In vivo, they originate from resident and blood-borne precursors in the presence of keratinocyte-derived TGFbeta. In vitro, LC can be generated from monocytes in the presence of GM-CSF, IL-4 and TGFbeta. However, the signals that induce LC during an inflammatory reaction are not fully investigated. Here we report that Activin A, a TGFbeta family member induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and involved in skin morphogenesis and wound healing, induces the differentiation of human monocytes into LC in the absence of TGFbeta. Activin A-induced LC are Langerin+, Birbeck granules+, E-cadherin+, CLA+ and CCR6+ and possess typical APC functions. In human skin explants, intradermal injection of Activin A increased the number of CD1a+ and Langerin+ cells in both the epidermis and dermis by promoting the differentiation of resident precursor cells. High levels of Activin A were present in the upper epidermal layers and in the dermis of Lichen Planus biopsies in association with a marked infiltration of CD1a+ and Langerin+ cells. This study reports that Activin A induces the differentiation of circulating CD14+ cells into LC. Since Activin A is abundantly produced during inflammatory conditions which are also characterized by increased numbers of LC, we propose that this cytokine represents a new pathway, alternative to TGFbeta, responsible for LC differentiation during inflammatory/autoimmune conditions.

  15. Activin a is associated with impaired myocardial glucose metabolism and left ventricular remodeling in patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes

    Chen, Weena JY; Greulich, Sabrina; van der Meer, Rutger W; Rijzewijk, Luuk J.; Lamb, Hildo J.; de Roos, Albert; Smit, Johannes WA; Romijn, Johannes A.; Ruige, Johannes B.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Lubberink, Mark; Diamant, Michaela; Ouwens, D Margriet

    2013-01-01

    Background Activin A released from epicardial adipose tissue has been linked to contractile dysfunction and insulin resistance in cardiomyocytes. This study investigated the role of activin A in clinical diabetic cardiomyopathy by assessing whether circulating activin A levels associate with cardiometabolic parameters in men with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes (T2D), and the effects of treatment with pioglitazone versus metformin on these associations. Methods Seventy-eight men with uncomplica...

  16. Role of satellite cells versus myofibers in muscle hypertrophy induced by inhibition of the myostatin/activin signaling pathway

    Lee, Se-Jin; Huynh, Thanh V.; Lee, Yun-Sil; Sebald, Suzanne M.; Wilcox-Adelman, Sarah A.; Iwamori, Naoki; Lepper, Christoph; Matzuk, Martin M.; Fan, Chen-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Myostatin and activin A are structurally related secreted proteins that act to limit skeletal muscle growth. The cellular targets for myostatin and activin A in muscle and the role of satellite cells in mediating muscle hypertrophy induced by inhibition of this signaling pathway have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that myostatin/activin A inhibition can cause muscle hypertrophy in mice lacking either syndecan4 or Pax7, both of which are important for satellite cell function and devel...

  17. Activin signaling targeted by insulin/dFOXO regulates aging and muscle proteostasis in Drosophila.

    Hua Bai

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin/IGF signaling increases lifespan in many animals. To understand how insulin/IGF mediates lifespan in Drosophila, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analysis with the insulin/IGF regulated transcription factor dFOXO in long-lived insulin/IGF signaling genotypes. Dawdle, an Activin ligand, is bound and repressed by dFOXO when reduced insulin/IGF extends lifespan. Reduced Activin signaling improves performance and protein homeostasis in muscles of aged flies. Activin signaling through the Smad binding element inhibits the transcription of Autophagy-specific gene 8a (Atg8a within muscle, a factor controlling the rate of autophagy. Expression of Atg8a within muscle is sufficient to increase lifespan. These data reveal how insulin signaling can regulate aging through control of Activin signaling that in turn controls autophagy, representing a potentially conserved molecular basis for longevity assurance. While reduced Activin within muscle autonomously retards functional aging of this tissue, these effects in muscle also reduce secretion of insulin-like peptides at a distance from the brain. Reduced insulin secretion from the brain may subsequently reinforce longevity assurance through decreased systemic insulin/IGF signaling.

  18. Reversible increase of serum activin A levels in women with Graves' disease.

    Centanni, M; Viceconti, N; Luisi, S; Reis, F M; Gargano, L; Maiani, F; Franchi, A; Canettieri, G; Petraglia, F

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the serum levels of activin A in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease. Serum activin A and FSH levels were measured in a total of 93 females (64 regularly cycling and 29 post-menopausal). Of these, 20 were hyperthyroid patients with Graves disease, 33 were euthyroid goitrous patients (20 had autoimmune thyroiditis AT and 13 only had goiter) representing the internal control group and 40 were healthy subjects representing the external control group. Serum levels of activin A were higher in goitrous patients with AT than in control subjects (p=0.0388). Activin A levels were almost doubled in the cycling and in post-menopausal hyperthyroid women (0.91+/-0.21 vs 0.43+/-0.07 microg/l; phyperthyroid patients, studied even after methimazole treatment, that increase was substantially reversed, once euthyroidism was attained (p=0.002). These findings indicate that thyroid function and autoimmune processes significantly affect serum levels of activin A in patients with Graves' disease. PMID:12553556

  19. Tissue absence initiates regeneration through follistatin-mediated inhibition of activin signaling.

    Gaviño, Michael A; Wenemoser, Danielle; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-01-01

    Regeneration is widespread, but mechanisms that activate regeneration remain mysterious. Planarians are capable of whole-body regeneration and mount distinct molecular responses to wounds that result in tissue absence and those that do not. A major question is how these distinct responses are activated. We describe a follistatin homolog (Smed-follistatin) required for planarian regeneration. Smed-follistatin inhibition blocks responses to tissue absence but does not prevent normal tissue turnover. Two activin homologs (Smed-activin-1 and Smed-activin-2) are required for the Smed-follistatin phenotype. Finally, Smed-follistatin is wound-induced and expressed at higher levels following injuries that cause tissue absence. These data suggest that Smed-follistatin inhibits Smed-Activin proteins to trigger regeneration specifically following injuries involving tissue absence and identify a mechanism critical for regeneration initiation, a process important across the animal kingdom. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00247.001. PMID:24040508

  20. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats

    de Silva, R N; Bueno, P.G.; L.R.S. Avó; Nonaka, K.O.; H.S. Selistre-Araújo; A.M.O. Leal

    2014-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subj...

  1. Upregulation of activin-B and follistatin in pulmonary fibrosis ¿ a translational study using human biopsies and a specific inhibitor in mouse fibrosis models

    MyllÀrniemi, Marjukka; Tikkanen, Jussi; Hulmi, Juha J.; Pasternack, Arja; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; LeppÀranta, Outi; Ma, Hongqiang; Ritvos, Olli; Koli, Katri

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Activins are members of the TGF-ß superfamily of growth factors. First, we identified by expression array screening that activin-B and follistatin are upregulated in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Next, we wanted to clarify their specific role in lung fibrosis formation. Methods We used specific antibodies for activin-A and -B subunits and follistatin to measure and localiz...

  2. Upregulation of activin-B and follistatin in pulmonary fibrosis – a translational study using human biopsies and a specific inhibitor in mouse fibrosis models

    Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Tikkanen, Jussi; Hulmi, Juha; Pasternack, Arja; Sutinen, Eva; Rönty, Mikko; Leppäranta, Outi; Ma, Hongqiang; Ritvos, Olli; Koli, Katri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Activins are members of the TGF-ß superfamily of growth factors. First, we identified by expression array screening that activin-B and follistatin are upregulated in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Next, we wanted to clarify their specific role in lung fibrosis formation. Methods: We used specific antibodies for activin-A and -B subunits and follistatin to measure and localize their levels in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and control lung biopsies. To inhibit activi...

  3. Expression of immunoreactive activin A protein in remodeling lesions associated with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis.

    Matsuse, T.; Ikegami, A; Ohga, E.; Hosoi, T; Oka, T.; Kida, K; Fukayama, M; Inoue, S.; Nagase, T; Ouchi, Y.; Fukuchi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The expression of activin A, one of the transforming growth factor-beta supergene family, was studied in various pulmonary conditions associated with interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (3 cases with diffuse alveolar damage, 6 cases with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and 1 case with pulmonary fibrosis associated with rheumatoid arthritis) using immunohistochemical techniques on paraffin-embedded sections. Controls consisted of 10 cases with normal pulmonary parenchyma, and 2 cases with primary p...

  4. Overexpression of Leap2 impairs Xenopus embryonic development and modulates FGF and activin signals.

    Thiébaud, Pierre; Garbay, Bertrand; Auguste, Patrick; Sénéchal, Caroline Le; Maciejewska, Zuzanna; Fédou, Sandrine; Gauthereau, Xavier; Costaglioli, Patricia; Thézé, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Besides its widely described function in the innate immune response, no other clear physiological function has been attributed so far to the Liver-Expressed-Antimicrobial-Peptide 2 (LEAP2). We used the Xenopus embryo model to investigate potentially new functions for this peptide. We identified the amphibian leap2 gene which is highly related to its mammalian orthologues at both structural and sequence levels. The gene is expressed in the embryo mostly in the endoderm-derived tissues. Accordingly it is induced in pluripotent animal cap cells by FGF, activin or a combination of vegT/β-catenin. Modulating leap2 expression level by gain-of-function strategy impaired normal embryonic development. When overexpressed in pluripotent embryonic cells derived from blastula animal cap explant, leap2 stimulated FGF while it reduced the activin response. Finally, we demonstrate that LEAP2 blocks FGF-induced migration of HUman Vascular Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Altogether these findings suggest a model in which LEAP2 could act at the extracellular level as a modulator of FGF and activin signals, thus opening new avenues to explore it in relation with cellular processes such as cell differentiation and migration. PMID:27335344

  5. Concentration of activin A and follistatin in follicular fluid from human small antral follicles associated to gene expression of the corresponding granulosa cells

    Jeppesen, J V; Nielsen, M E; Kristensen, S G;

    2012-01-01

    activin A levels increased in follicles exceeding 10 mm in diameter. Levels of activin A and inhibin B showed a highly significant inverse association. Follistatin showed highly significant positive associations with AMH and inhibin B levels and with FSHR and AR gene expression in GC. This study revealed...... unexpected associations that probably reflect the complicated regulatory mechanisms governing human folliculogenesis....

  6. Changes in the reproductive function and developmental phenotypes in mice following intramuscular injection of an activin betaA-expressing plasmid

    Mayo Kelly E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The TGF-beta family protein activin has numerous reported activities with some uncertainty in the reproductive axis and development. The precise roles of activin in in vivo system were investigated using a transient gain of function model. Methods To this end, an expression plasmid, pCMV-rAct, with the activin betaA cDNA fused to the cytomegalovirus promoter, was introduced into muscle of the female adult mice by direct injection. Results Activin betaA mRNA was detected in the muscle by RT-PCR and subsequent Southern blot analysis. Activin betaA was also detected, and western blot analysis revealed a relatively high level of serum activin with correspondingly increased FSH. In the pCMV-rAct-injected female mice, estrus stage within the estrous cycle was extended. Moreover, increased numbers of corpora lutea and a thickened granulosa cell layer with a small antrum in tertiary follicles within the ovary were observed. When injected female mice were mated with males of proven fertility, a subset of embryos died in utero, and most of those that survived exhibited increased body weight. Conclusion Taken together, our data reveal that activin betaA can directly influence the estrous cycle, an integral part of the reproduction in female mice and activin betaA can also influence the embryo development as an endocrine fashion.

  7. Serum levels of activin A and inhibin A are not related to the increased susceptibility to pre-eclampsia in type I diabetic pregnancies

    Ekbom, Pia; Damm, Peter; Andersson, Anna-Maria;

    2006-01-01

    Activin A and inhibin A have been found to be elevated in women without diabetes subsequently developing pre-eclampsia. The aim was to investigate whether activin A and inhibin A in serum were elevated in type I diabetic women after developing pre-eclampsia and, if so, were they clinically useful...

  8. A late requirement for Wnt and FGF signalling during activin-induced formation of foregut endoderm from mouse embryonic stem cells

    Hansson, Mattias; Petersen, Dorthe Rønn; Peterslund, Janny M.L.;

    2009-01-01

    found at the lowest activin concentration. The expression of Gsc and other anterior markers induced by activin is prevented by treatment with BMP4, which induces T expression and subsequent mesodermal development. We show that canonical Wnt signaling is required only during late stages of activin......-induced development of Sox17-expressing endodermal cells. Furthermore, Dkk1 treatment is less effective in reducing development of Sox17(+) endodermal cells in adherent culture than in aggregate culture and appears to inhibit nodal-mediated induction of Sox17(+) cells more effectively than activin-mediated induction...... requires FGF signaling in adherent but not aggregate culture. Lastly, we demonstrate that activin-induced definitive endoderm derived from mouse ES cells can incorporate into the developing foregut endoderm in vivo and adopt a mostly anterior foregut character after further culture in vitro....

  9. A crucial role of activin A-mediated growth hormone suppression in mouse and human heart failure.

    Noritoshi Fukushima

    Full Text Available Infusion of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells (BMMNC has been reported to ameliorate cardiac dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction. In this study, we investigated whether infusion of BMMNC is also effective for non-ischemic heart failure model mice and the underlying mechanisms. Intravenous infusion of BMMNC showed transient cardioprotective effects on animal models with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM without their engraftment in heart, suggesting that BMMNC infusion improves cardiac function via humoral factors rather than their differentiation into cardiomyocytes. Using conditioned media from sorted BMMNC, we found that the cardioprotective effects were mediated by growth hormone (GH secreted from myeloid (Gr-1(+ cells and the effects was partially mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in cardiomyocytes. On the other hand, the GH expression in Gr-1(+ cells was significantly downregulated in DCM mice compared with that in healthy control, suggesting that the environmental cue in heart failure might suppress the Gr-1(+ cells function. Activin A was upregulated in the serum of DCM models and induced downregulation of GH levels in Gr-1(+ cells and serum. Furthermore, humoral factors upregulated in heart failure including angiotensin II upregulated activin A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC via activation of NFκB. Similarly, serum activin A levels were also significantly higher in DCM patients with heart failure than in healthy subjects and the GH levels in conditioned medium from PBMNC of DCM patients were lower than that in healthy subjects. Inhibition of activin A increased serum GH levels and improved cardiac function of DCM model mice. These results suggest that activin A causes heart failure by suppressing GH activity and that inhibition of activin A might become a novel strategy for the treatment of heart failure.

  10. A Soluble Activin Receptor Type IIB Does Not Improve Blood Glucose in Streptozotocin-Treated Mice

    Wang, Qian; Guo, Tingqing; Portas, Jennifer; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), or insulin dependent DM, is accompanied by decreased muscle mass. The growth factor myostatin (MSTN) is a negative regulator of muscle growth, and a loss of MSTN signaling has been shown to increase muscle mass and prevent the development of obesity, insulin resistance and lipodystrophic diabetes in mice. The effects of MSTN inhibition in a T1DM model on muscle mass and blood glucose are unknown. We asked whether MSTN inhibition would increase muscle mass and ...

  11. Activin Plays a Key Role in the Maintenance of Long-Term Memory and Late-LTP

    Ageta, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Shiro; Miura, Masami; Masuda, Masao; Migishima, Rika; Hino, Toshiaki; Takashima, Noriko; Murayama, Akiko; Sugino, Hiromu; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kida, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    A recent study has revealed that fear memory may be vulnerable following retrieval, and is then reconsolidated in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Activin [beta]A, a member of the TGF-[beta] superfamily, is increased in activated neuronal circuits and regulates…

  12. Induction of primitive streak and mesendoderm formation in monolayer hESC culture by activation of TGF-β signaling pathway by Activin B

    Mahmood, Amer; Aldahmash, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the ability to differentiate into all human cells, however controlling the differentiation has always been a challenge. In the present study we have investigated the direct differentiation of hESCs on MEFs by using TGF-β signaling pathway activators Activin A and Activin B. Activation of the TGF-β pathway with Activin B in low serum highly induced primitive streak and mesendoderm formation after 24 h, which included up-regulation of SOX 17 and BRACHYURY...

  13. A late requirement for Wnt and FGF signaling during activin-induced formation of foregut endoderm from mouse embryonic stem cells

    Hansson, Mattias; Olesen, Dorthe R.; Peterslund, Janny M. L.; Engberg, Nina; Kahn, Morten; Winzi, Maria; Klein, Tino; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul; Serup, Palle

    2009-01-01

    Here we examine how BMP, Wnt, and FGF signaling modulate activin-induced mesendodermal differentiation of mouse ES cells grown under defined conditions in adherent monoculture. We monitor ES cells containing reporter genes for markers of primitive streak (PS) and its progeny and extend previous findings on the ability of increasing concentrations of activin to progressively induce more ES cell progeny to anterior PS and endodermal fates. We find that the number of Sox17- and Gsc-expressing ce...

  14. Inhibin and activin modulate the release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, human chorionic gonadotropin, and progesterone from cultured human placental cells.

    Petraglia, F; Vaughan, J.; Vale, W

    1989-01-01

    Although it is clear that human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone play fundamental roles in pregnancy, the regulation of placental production of these hormones remains to be defined. Recent evidence suggests that the human placenta expresses proteins related to inhibin (alpha beta subunits) or activin (beta beta subunits). Inhibin and activin (follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing protein) possess opposing activities in several biological systems including pituitary follicle-stim...

  15. Follistatin、Activin A与BMP-4在大鼠脑发育过程中的表达及意义%Expression and significance of follistatin, activin A and BMP-4 during the development of rat brain

    卢彦春; 张蕾; 穆长征; 李伟伟; 金辉

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察卵泡抑素(FS)、激活素(Activin)A与骨形态发生蛋白(BMP)-4在大鼠脑发育过程中的表达变化规律.方法 将同期受孕30只SD大鼠按照胎鼠发育时间随机分为胚胎8.5 d(E8.5组)、13 d(E13组)、18d(E18组)及出生后3 d(P3组)、7d(P7组)、30 d(P30组)各5只,采用免疫组化ABC法检测各组脑皮质、纹状体、海马齿状回、嗅球组织中FS、Activin A、BMP-4表达情况.结果 FS与Activin A在大鼠脑内广泛分布,二者在E8.5组表达最高,并以E13组表达强度开始降低,在P30组降至最低,同一发育阶段各脑区表达无明显差异;在大鼠的相应脑区BMP-4亦广泛表达,但从E8.5组到P7组持续低表达,尤以海马表达极弱,P30组在不同脑区呈高表达,各发育阶段以大脑皮质和纹状体表达略强.结论 FS、Activin A与BMP-4在大鼠不同发育年龄各脑区呈波动性表达,表达水平与发育年龄密切相关.%Objective To observe the variation rule of follistatin ( FS) , Activin A and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 expression during the brain development of rat. Methods Thirty simultaneous pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into six groups, with five in each group; embryo 8. 5 d( E8. 5 group) , embryo 13 d( E13 group) , embryo 18 d (E18 group) and 3 ds after born(P3 group) , 7 ds after born(P7 group) , 30 ds after bom(P30 group). Expressions of FS, Activin A and BMP4- in the cortex, striatum, hippocampus and olfactory bulb were examined by means of ABC immu-nohistochemical method. Results FS and Activin A expression level in rat brain was strong in E8.5 group, the level began to descend at E13 group, and decreased to the minimum at P30 group. In the same phase, no distinct differences patterns were found in different tissues. BMP-4 was widely expressed in rat brain, but from E 8. 5 group to P7 group appeared with a lower level, especially weak in the hippocampus. The positive cells in P30 group were abundant at different brain regions

  16. Systemic Activin signaling independently regulates sugar homeostasis, cellular metabolism, and pH balance in Drosophila melanogaster

    Ghosh, Arpan C.; O’Connor, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering the systemic signaling mechanisms that modulate metabolic activity has important implications owing to the central role that metabolism plays in regulating organismal adaptability and survival. Here, we show that loss of Drosophila TGF-β/Activin-like ligand Dawdle (Daw) causes major alterations in larval metabolic activity, including accumulation of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, acidification of hemolymph pH, and misregulation of insulin signaling and nuclear-encoded mit...

  17. receptores

    Salete Regina Daronco Benetti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se trata de un estudio etnográfico, que tuvo lo objetivo de interpretar el sistema de conocimiento y del significado atribuidos a la sangre referente a la transfusión sanguínea por los donadores y receptores de un banco de sangre. Para la colecta de las informaciones se observaron los participantes y la entrevista etnográfica se realizó el análisis de dominio, taxonómicos y temáticos. Los dominios culturales fueron: la sangre es vida: fuente de vida y alimento valioso; creencias religiosas: fuentes simbólicas de apoyos; donación sanguínea: un gesto colaborador que exige cuidarse, gratifica y trae felicidad; donación sanguínea: fuente simbólica de inseguridad; estar enfermo es una condición para realizar transfusión sanguínea; transfusión sanguínea: esperanza de vida; Creencias populares: transfusión sanguínea como riesgo para la salud; donadores de sangre: personas benditas; donar y recibir sangre: como significado de felicidad. Temática: “líquido precioso que origina, sostiene, modifica la vida, provoca miedo e inseguridad”.

  18. Induction of primitive streak and mesendoderm formation in monolayer hESC culture by activation of TGF-β signaling pathway by Activin B.

    Mahmood, Amer; Aldahmash, Abdullah

    2015-11-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have the ability to differentiate into all human cells, however controlling the differentiation has always been a challenge. In the present study we have investigated the direct differentiation of hESCs on MEFs by using TGF-β signaling pathway activators Activin A and Activin B. Activation of the TGF-β pathway with Activin B in low serum highly induced primitive streak and mesendoderm formation after 24 h, which included up-regulation of SOX 17 and BRACHYURY protein and gene expression. Continuous stimulation with Activin B in 2% serum further induced mesendoderm formation by increased gene expression of Brachyury, SOX17, MEOX and FOX at the same time we found down-regulation of neuroectodermal marker genes. Further, by stimulating the mesodermal cells by BMP-2 we succeeded to induce mesenchymal like cells with high expression of mesenchymal markers including; MEOX, FOX, RUNX2, COL1 and OSTEOPONTIN. In conclusion we have directed the differentiation of hESCs as monolayer to primitive streak like cells with Activin B and further into pure mesoderm and mesenchymal like cells by BMP-2. PMID:26586995

  19. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats

    R.N. Silva

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subjected to swimming exercise. Control rats (C and high-fat (HF diet-fed rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (C-Swim and HF-Swim or a sedentary group (C-Sed and HF-Sed. Activin βA subunit mRNA expression was significantly higher in HF-Swim than in HF-Sed rats. Follistatin mRNA expression was significantly lower in C-Swim and HF-Swim than in either C-Sed or HF-Sed animals. There was no evidence of steatosis or inflammation in C rats. In contrast, in HF animals the severity of steatosis ranged from grade 1 to grade 3. The extent of liver parenchyma damage was less in HF-Swim animals, with the severity of steatosis ranging from grade 0 to grade 1. These data showed that exercise may reduce the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on the liver, suggesting that the local expression of activin-follistatin may be involved.

  20. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats.

    Silva, R N; Bueno, P G; Avó, L R S; Nonaka, K O; Selistre-Araújo, H S; Leal, A M O

    2014-09-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subjected to swimming exercise. Control rats (C) and high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (C-Swim and HF-Swim) or a sedentary group (C-Sed and HF-Sed). Activin βA subunit mRNA expression was significantly higher in HF-Swim than in HF-Sed rats. Follistatin mRNA expression was significantly lower in C-Swim and HF-Swim than in either C-Sed or HF-Sed animals. There was no evidence of steatosis or inflammation in C rats. In contrast, in HF animals the severity of steatosis ranged from grade 1 to grade 3. The extent of liver parenchyma damage was less in HF-Swim animals, with the severity of steatosis ranging from grade 0 to grade 1. These data showed that exercise may reduce the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on the liver, suggesting that the local expression of activin-follistatin may be involved. PMID:25075578

  1. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subjected to swimming exercise. Control rats (C) and high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (C-Swim and HF-Swim) or a sedentary group (C-Sed and HF-Sed). Activin βA subunit mRNA expression was significantly higher in HF-Swim than in HF-Sed rats. Follistatin mRNA expression was significantly lower in C-Swim and HF-Swim than in either C-Sed or HF-Sed animals. There was no evidence of steatosis or inflammation in C rats. In contrast, in HF animals the severity of steatosis ranged from grade 1 to grade 3. The extent of liver parenchyma damage was less in HF-Swim animals, with the severity of steatosis ranging from grade 0 to grade 1. These data showed that exercise may reduce the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on the liver, suggesting that the local expression of activin-follistatin may be involved

  2. Effect of physical training on liver expression of activin A and follistatin in a nonalcoholic fatty liver disease model in rats

    Silva, R.N. [Departamento de Fisioterapia, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bueno, P.G. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Avó, L.R.S. [Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Nonaka, K.O.; Selistre-Araújo, H.S. [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Leal, A.M.O. [Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-25

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat accumulation in the liver and is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Activin A is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF)-β superfamily and inhibits hepatocyte growth. Follistatin antagonizes the biological actions of activin. Exercise is an important therapeutic strategy to reduce the metabolic effects of obesity. We evaluated the pattern of activin A and follistatin liver expression in obese rats subjected to swimming exercise. Control rats (C) and high-fat (HF) diet-fed rats were randomly assigned to a swimming training group (C-Swim and HF-Swim) or a sedentary group (C-Sed and HF-Sed). Activin βA subunit mRNA expression was significantly higher in HF-Swim than in HF-Sed rats. Follistatin mRNA expression was significantly lower in C-Swim and HF-Swim than in either C-Sed or HF-Sed animals. There was no evidence of steatosis or inflammation in C rats. In contrast, in HF animals the severity of steatosis ranged from grade 1 to grade 3. The extent of liver parenchyma damage was less in HF-Swim animals, with the severity of steatosis ranging from grade 0 to grade 1. These data showed that exercise may reduce the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on the liver, suggesting that the local expression of activin-follistatin may be involved.

  3. The Notch ligand Delta-like 1 integrates inputs from TGFbeta/Activin and Wnt pathways

    Unlike the well-characterized nuclear function of the Notch intracellular domain, it has been difficult to identify a nuclear role for the ligands of Notch. Here we provide evidence for the nuclear function of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in colon cancer (CC) cells exposed to butyrate. We demonstrate that the intracellular domain of Delta-like 1 (Dll1icd) augments the activity of Wnt signaling-dependent reporters and that of the promoter of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene. Data suggest that Dll1icd upregulates CTGF promoter activity through both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct mechanism is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous Smad2/3 proteins and Dll1 and by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses that revealed the occupancy of Dll1icd on CTGF promoter sequences containing a Smad binding element. The indirect upregulation of CTGF expression by Dll1 is likely due to the ability of Dll1icd to increase Wnt signaling, a pathway that targets CTGF. CTGF expression is induced in butyrate-treated CC cells and results from clonal growth assays support a role for CTGF in the cell growth-suppressive role of butyrate. In conclusion, integration of the Notch, Wnt, and TGFbeta/Activin signaling pathways is in part mediated by the interactions of Dll1 with Smad2/3 and Tcf4.

  4. The glycoprotein-hormones activin A and inhibin A interfere with dendritic cell maturation

    Reichardt Holger M

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy represents an exclusive situation in which the immune and the endocrine system cooperate to prevent rejection of the embryo by the maternal immune system. While immature dendritic cells (iDC in the early pregnancy decidua presumably contribute to the establishment of peripheral tolerance, glycoprotein-hormones of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta family including activin A (ActA and inhibin A (InA are candidates that could direct the differentiation of DCs into a tolerance-inducing phenotype. Methods To test this hypothesis we generated iDCs from peripheral-blood-monocytes and exposed them to TGF-beta1, ActA, as well as InA and Dexamethasone (Dex as controls. Results Both glycoprotein-hormones prevented up-regulation of HLA-DR during cytokine-induced DC maturation similar to Dex but did not influence the expression of CD 40, CD 83 and CD 86. Visualization of the F-actin cytoskeleton confirmed that the DCs retained a partially immature phenotype under these conditions. The T-cell stimulatory capacity of DCs was reduced after ActA and InA exposure while the secretion of cytokines and chemokines was unaffected. Conclusion These findings suggest that ActA and InA interfere with selected aspects of DC maturation and may thereby help preventing activation of allogenic T-cells by the embryo. Thus, we have identified two novel members of the TGF-beta superfamily that could promote the generation of tolerance-inducing DCs.

  5. Transforming Growth Factor β/Activin Signaling Functions as a Sugar-Sensing Feedback Loop to Regulate Digestive Enzyme Expression

    Wen-bin Alfred Chng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organisms need to assess their nutritional state and adapt their digestive capacity to the demands for various nutrients. Modulation of digestive enzyme production represents a rational step to regulate nutriment uptake. However, the role of digestion in nutrient homeostasis has been largely neglected. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism underlying glucose repression of digestive enzymes in the adult Drosophila midgut. We demonstrate that glucose represses the expression of many carbohydrases and lipases. Our data reveal that the consumption of nutritious sugars stimulates the secretion of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β ligand, Dawdle, from the fat body. Dawdle then acts via circulation to activate TGF-β/Activin signaling in the midgut, culminating in the repression of digestive enzymes that are highly expressed during starvation. Thus, our study not only identifies a mechanism that couples sugar sensing with digestive enzyme expression but points to an important role of TGF-β/Activin signaling in sugar metabolism.

  6. FGF signaling via MAPK is required early and improves Activin A-induced definitive endoderm formation from human embryonic stem cells

    Highlights: ► Deep study the FGF signaling role during DE specification in the context of hESCs. ► DE differentiation from hESCs has an early dependence on FGF signaling. ► A serum-free DE protocol is developed based on the findings. ► The DE cells showed potential to differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells. -- Abstract: Considering their unlimited proliferation and pluripotency properties, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) constitute a promising resource applicable for cell replacement therapy. To facilitate this clinical translation, it is critical to study and understand the early stage of hESCs differentiation wherein germ layers are defined. In this study, we examined the role of FGF signaling in Activin A-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation in the absence of supplemented animal serum. We found that activated FGF/MAPK signaling is required at the early time point of Activin A-induced DE formation. In addition, FGF activation increased the number of DE cells compared to Activin A alone. These DE cells could further differentiate into PDX1 and NKX6.1 positive pancreatic progenitors in vitro. We conclude that Activin A combined with FGF/MAPK signaling efficiently induce DE cells in the absence of serum. These findings improve our understanding of human endoderm formation, and constitute a step forward in the generation of clinical grade hESCs progenies for cell therapy.

  7. FGF signaling via MAPK is required early and improves Activin A-induced definitive endoderm formation from human embryonic stem cells

    Sui, Lina, E-mail: linasui@vub.ac.be [Cell Differentiation Unit, Diabetes Research Center, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Mfopou, Josue K. [Cell Differentiation Unit, Diabetes Research Center, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Geens, Mieke; Sermon, Karen [Department of Embryology and Genetics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium); Bouwens, Luc [Cell Differentiation Unit, Diabetes Research Center, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Laarbeeklaan 103, 1090 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-09-28

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deep study the FGF signaling role during DE specification in the context of hESCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DE differentiation from hESCs has an early dependence on FGF signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A serum-free DE protocol is developed based on the findings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DE cells showed potential to differentiate into pancreatic progenitor cells. -- Abstract: Considering their unlimited proliferation and pluripotency properties, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) constitute a promising resource applicable for cell replacement therapy. To facilitate this clinical translation, it is critical to study and understand the early stage of hESCs differentiation wherein germ layers are defined. In this study, we examined the role of FGF signaling in Activin A-induced definitive endoderm (DE) differentiation in the absence of supplemented animal serum. We found that activated FGF/MAPK signaling is required at the early time point of Activin A-induced DE formation. In addition, FGF activation increased the number of DE cells compared to Activin A alone. These DE cells could further differentiate into PDX1 and NKX6.1 positive pancreatic progenitors in vitro. We conclude that Activin A combined with FGF/MAPK signaling efficiently induce DE cells in the absence of serum. These findings improve our understanding of human endoderm formation, and constitute a step forward in the generation of clinical grade hESCs progenies for cell therapy.

  8. Role of inhibin and activin in the modulation of gonadotropin- and steroid-induced oocyte maturation in the teleost Fundulus heteroclitus

    Toussaint Gesulla

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activin and inhibin are glycoproteins structurally related to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily. These peptides were first described as factors that regulate the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH at the pituitary level. The possible role of inhibin and activin, at the ovarian level, in mediating the stimulatory actions of a Fundulus pituitary extract (FPE and 17alpha,20beta-dihydroprogesterone (DHP on oocyte maturation was investigated in this study. Methods In vitro culture of ovarian follicles and induction of oocyte maturation were carried out in 75% Leibovitz L-15 medium. Follicles or denuded oocytes were exposed to FPE, inhibin, activin, ethanol vehicle (control group, or DHP. The competence of the follicles or denuded oocytes to respond to the hormones was assessed by scoring germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD used as an indication of the reinitiation of meiosis or oocyte maturation. DHP level was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results Addition of FPE promoted the synthesis of DHP by the granulose cells of fully grown ovarian follicles and thus stimulated GVBD in the oocyte. Presence of porcine inhibin did not hinder the synthesis of DHP stimulated by FPE, although it did inhibit the subsequent GVBD in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the action of inhibin was at the oocyte level. Similarly to the findings with FPE, inhibin also blocked the DHP-induced GVBD in intact follicles, as well as the spontaneous and steroid-induced GVBD of denuded oocyte. Inhibin straightforwardly blocked the response to a low dose of DHP throughout the culture period, while higher doses of the steroid appeared to overcome the inhibitory effect especially at later times. In contrast to inhibin, recombinant human activin A significantly enhanced DHP-induced GVBD in a dose-dependent manner after 48 hr, although activin alone was not able to induce GVBD without the presence of the steroid. Conclusion Taking together with our

  9. Goat ovarian follicles express different levels of mRNA for inhibin-ßA subunit and activin-A stimulates secondary follicle growth in vitro Folículos ovarianos caprinos expressam diferentes níveis de RNAm para subunidade ßA da inibina e ativina-A promove o crescimento de folículos secundários in vitro

    Cintia Camurça Fernandes Leitão

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the levels of messenger ribonucleic acids (mRNA for inhibin-ßA subunit in goat primordial, primary and secondary follicles, as well as in cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs and mural granulosa / theca cells of antral follicles. The effects of activin-A (100ng mL-1 and/or follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, 50ng mL-1 on growth and expression of mRNA for activin-A and FSH receptor (FSH-R in secondary follicles cultured for six days were evaluated. The data showed that the expression of inhibin-ßA is lower in secondary follicles than in primary follicles and is higher in large antral follicles than in small antral follicles. After culture, activin-A and/or FSH promoted growth of secondary follicles, while FSH increased the levels of mRNA for inhibin-ßA, and activin-A increased the levels of FSH-R mRNA. In conclusion, mRNA for inhibin-ßA is expressed at different levels in pre-antral and antral follicles and activin-A acts as a stimulator of the FSH-R expression in goat follicles. On its turn, the expression of inhibin-ßA is stimulated by FSH, which together with activin-A promotes secondary follicle growth in-vitro.Este estudo investigou os níveis de ácidos ribonucleicos (RNAm para a subunidade ßA da inibina em folículos primordiais, primários e secundários caprinos, bem como em complexos cumulus-oócitos (CCOs e células da granulosa mural/teca de folículos antrais. Além disso, avaliaram-se os efeitos da ativina-A (100ng mL-1 e/ou hormônio folículo estimulante (FSH, 50ng mL-1 sobre o crescimento e a expressão do RNAm para inibina-ßA e receptores de FSH (FSH-R em folículos secundários cultivados por seis dias. Os dados mostraram que a expressão de inibina-ßA é menor em folículos secundários do que em folículos primários e é maior em grandes folículos antrais que nos pequenos folículos antrais. Após o cultivo, ativina-A e/ou FSH promoveram o crescimento de folículos secundários. Enquanto o FSH

  10. TAK-1/p38/nNFκB signaling inhibits myoblast differentiation by increasing levels of Activin A

    Trendelenburg Anne

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skeletal-muscle differentiation is required for the regeneration of myofibers after injury. The differentiation capacity of satellite cells is impaired in settings of old age, which is at least one factor in the onset of sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal-muscle mass and major cause of frailty. One important cause of impaired regeneration is increased levels of transforming growth factor (TGF-β accompanied by reduced Notch signaling. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are also upregulated in aging, which led us hypothesize that they might potentially contribute to impaired regeneration in sarcopenia. Thus, in this study, we further analyzed the muscle differentiation-inhibition pathway mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines in human skeletal muscle cells (HuSKMCs. Methods We studied the modulation of HuSKMC differentiation by the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1α and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α The grade of differentiation was determined by either imaging (fusion index or creatine kinase (CK activity, a marker of muscle differentiation. Secretion of TGF-β proteins during differentiation was assessed by using a TGF-β-responsive reporter-gene assay and further identified by means of pharmacological and genetic inhibitors. In addition, signaling events were monitored by western blotting and reverse transcription PCR, both in HuSKMC cultures and in samples from a rat sarcopenia study. Results The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1α and TNF-α block differentiation of human myoblasts into myotubes. This anti-differentiation effect requires activation of TGF-β-activated kinase (TAK-1. Using pharmacological and genetic inhibitors, the TAK-1 pathway could be traced to p38 and NFκB. Surprisingly, the anti-differentiation effect of the cytokines required the transcriptional upregulation of Activin A, which in turn acted through its established signaling pathway: ActRII/ALK/SMAD. Inhibition of Activin A signaling was

  11. Mutations in endoglin and in activin receptor-like kinase 1 among Danish patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Brusgaard, K; Kjeldsen, A D; Poulsen, L;

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a rare disorder with one per 6000-10,000 affected individuals in the general Caucasian population. HHT is genetically heterogeneous, involving at least two loci HHT1 mapping to chromosome 9q34.1 and HHT2 mapping to chromosome 12q31. The loci have be...... presumed spontaneous mutation was characterized. The method developed proved to be very sensitive for mutation detection in both ENG and ALK1. Genetic screening in HHT families facilitates an early treatment strategy for silent HHT manifestations in first degree relatives....

  12. Mutation Detection in Activin A Receptor, Type I (ACVR1) Gene in Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva in An Iranian Family

    Ziba Morovvati; Saeid Morovvati; Gholamhossein Alishiri; Seyed Hossein Moosavi; Reza Ranjbar; Yaser Bolouki Moghaddam

    2014-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP, MIM 135100) is a rare genetic disease that is often inherited sporadically in an autosomal dominant pattern. The disease manifests in early life with malformed great toes and, its episodic and progressive bone formation in skeletal muscle after trauma is led to extra-articular ankylosis. In this study, a 17 year-old affected girl born to a father with chemical injury due to exposure to Mustard gas during the Iran-Iraq war, and her first degree relat...

  13. Stimulation of Activin A/Nodal signaling is insufficient to induce definitive endoderm formation of cord blood-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells

    Filby, Caitlin E.; Williamson, Robert; van Kooy, Peter; Pébay, Alice; Dottori, Mirella; Elwood, Ngaire J.; Zaibak, Faten

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC) derived from umbilical cord blood are an attractive alternative to human embryonic stem cells (hESC) for cellular therapy. USSC are capable of forming cells representative of all three germ line layers. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of USSC to form definitive endoderm following induction with Activin A, a protein known to specify definitive endoderm formation of hESC. Methods USSC were cultured for (1) three days with ...

  14. Bioinformatic Characterization of Promoters of Two Activin-βSubunit Genes in Paralichthys olivaceus%牙鲆(Paralichthys olivaceus) Activin 基因两种β亚基的启动子克隆及生物信息学分析

    刘蒙蒙; 王晶; 高金宁; 马丽曼; 张全启

    2015-01-01

    以牙鲆为研究对象,利用染色体步移(Genome walking)获得了 Activin 两个β亚基基因的上游部分启动子序列,并对其进行了转录调控元件的生物信息学预测分析。获得了 Activin βA 和βB两个亚基的启动子部分序列,长度分别约为2.7 kb 和2.4 kb;在预测的 Activin βB 转录起始位点(+1位)的上游31 bp 处有1个典型的 TATA box,而在 Activin βA 中未发现 TATA box 的存在。两个基因的启动子上发现了多个转录因子 Sp1、Oct-1、C/EBP、CREB、GATA-1、HNF-3、HNF-1、USF 等结合位点,还发现了与内分泌相关的 Pit-1、ER、PR、GR、RAR、RXR 等结合位点,但肌性转录因子 MyoD、myogenin 和雄性的性别决定基因 SRY 结合位点仅在 Activin βA 启动子中发现。生物信息学分析显示,牙鲆 Activin βA 和βB 表达受到多种潜在因子的调控,二者在调控上有所差异。%Activin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and regulates sex hormones. It was originally discovered in pig ovarian follicular fluid. Activin contains two β subunits and plays a vital role in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis (HPG). It regulates the secretion of pituitary gonadotropin, the production of steroid hormones and the maturation of oocyte in ovary. Paralichthys olivaceus is a type of important commercial fish species that has advantageous traits in aquaculture such as the fast growth rate. Better understanding of its reproduction mechanism is essential for the guidance of the breeding of P. olivaceus. In this study, we analyzed the expression and regulation of Activin gene related to the reproductive endocrinology of P. olivaceus. Our data should provide important information for future studies on biological functions of Activin and for the practice in the culture of P. olivaceus. We used the genome walking method to obtain the partial sequence of promoters located in the upstream of Activin βA and βB genes

  15. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques

    O’Connell, Karyn E.; Guo, Wen; Serra, Carlo; Beck, Matthew; Wachtman, Lynn; Hoggatt, Amber; Xia, Dongling; Pearson, Chris; Knight, Heather; O’Connell, Micheal; Andrew D. Miller; Westmoreland, Susan V.; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-01-01

    There are no approved therapies for muscle wasting in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which portends poor disease outcomes. To determine whether a soluble ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein (ActRIIB.Fc), a ligand trap for TGF-β/activin family members including myostatin, can prevent or restore loss of lean body mass and body weight in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Fourteen pair-housed, juvenile male rhesus ma...

  16. Differential effect of Activin A and WNT3a on definitive endoderm differentiation on electrospun nanofibrous PCL scaffold.

    Hoveizi, Elham; Massumi, Mohammad; Ebrahimi-barough, Somayeh; Tavakol, Shima; Ai, Jafar

    2015-05-01

    The first step in the formation of hepatocytes and beta cells is the generation of definitive endoderm (DE) which involves a central issue in developmental biology. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have the pluripotency to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and have been considered potent candidates for regenerative medicine as an unlimited source of cells for therapeutic applications. In this study, we investigated the differentiating potential of hiPSCs on poly (ε-caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous scaffold into DE cells. Here, we demonstrate directed differentiation of hiPSCs by factors such as Activin A and Wnt3a. The differentiation was determined by immunofluoresence staining with Sox17, FoxA2 and Goosecoid (Gsc) and also by qRT-PCR analysis. The results of this study showed that hiPSCs, as a new cell source, have the ability to differentiate into DE cells with a high capacity and also demonstrate that three dimension (3D) culture provides a suitable nanoenviroment for growth, proliferation and differentiation of hiPSCs. PCL nanofibrous scaffold with essential supplements, stimulating factors and EB-derived cells is able to provide a novel method for enhancing functional differentiation of hiPSCs into DE cells. PMID:25640312

  17. Development of a small-molecule screening method for inhibitors of cellular response to myostatin and activin A.

    Cash, Jennifer N; Angerman, Elizabeth B; Kirby, R Jason; Merck, Lisa; Seibel, William L; Wortman, Matthew D; Papoian, Ruben; Nelson, Sandra; Thompson, Thomas B

    2013-08-01

    Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β family of secreted ligands, is a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. As such, therapeutic inhibitors of myostatin are actively being investigated for their potential in the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases such as muscular dystrophy and sarcopenia. Here, we sought to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) method for small-molecule inhibitors that target myostatin. We created a HEK293 stable cell line that expresses the (CAGA)12-luciferase reporter construct and robustly responds to signaling of certain classes of TGF-β family ligands. After optimization and miniaturization of the assay to a 384-well format, we successfully screened a library of compounds for inhibition of myostatin and the closely related activin A. Selection of some of the tested compounds was directed by in silico screening against myostatin, which led to an enrichment of target hits as compared with random selection. Altogether, we present an HTS method that will be useful for screening potential inhibitors of not only myostatin but also many other ligands of the TGF-β family. PMID:23543431

  18. Changes in intrafollicular concentrations of free IGF-1, activin A, inhibin A, VEGF, estradiol, and prolactin before ovulation in mares.

    Bashir, S T; Ishak, G M; Gastal, M O; Roser, J F; Gastal, E L

    2016-05-01

    Changes in intrafollicular growth factors and hormones were evaluated in vivo in postdeviation and impending ovulation follicles. Mares (n = 30) were randomly assigned to five experimental groups based on target diameters of 25, 30, 35, 40 mm, and impending signs of ovulation. Furthermore, data belonging to two or more proximal diameter groups that were not different were combined and regrouped for each factor separately. Follicular fluid-free insulin-like growth factor 1 was highest (P  0.05) among groups. Additionally, follicular fluid activin A tended (P < 0.06) to be higher in impending ovulation follicles when compared with the 25- to 40-mm follicle group. Concentrations of intrafollicular estradiol were higher (P < 0.0001) in 40-mm and impending ovulation follicles than in the other follicle groups. Follicular fluid concentrations of inhibin A and vascular endothelial growth factor were lower (P < 0.05) in the 40-mm and the impending ovulation follicle group when compared with the 25- to 35-mm follicle group. Systemic and intrafollicular prolactin levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the impending ovulation group when compared with the 25- to 40-mm follicle group. Prolactin concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) in the follicular fluid than in the plasma. The novel findings of this study, a decrease in intrafollicular-free insulin-like growth factor 1, inhibin A, vascular endothelial growth factor, and prolactin during the final stages of follicular growth, document for the first time the occurrence of dynamic changes among intrafollicular factors and hormones during the stages of follicle dominance and as ovulation approaches. PMID:26895618

  19. The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding

    Cash, Jennifer N.; Rejon, Carlis A; McPherron, Alexandra C.; Bernard, Daniel J; Thompson, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288). We find that the prehelix region of myostatin very closely resembles that of TGF-β class members and that this region alone can be swapped into activin A to confer signalling through the non-canonical type I receptor Alk5. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of Fst2...

  20. Angiomodulin is required for cardiogenesis of embryonic stem cells and is maintained by a feedback loop network of p63 and Activin-A

    Zohar Wolchinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transcription factor p63, member of the p53 gene family, encodes for two main isoforms, TAp63 and ΔNp63 with distinct functions on epithelial homeostasis and cancer. Recently, we discovered that TAp63 is essential for in vitro cardiogenesis and heart development in vivo. TAp63 is expressed by embryonic endoderm and acts on cardiac progenitors by a cell-non-autonomous manner. In the present study, we search for cardiogenic secreted factors that could be regulated by TAp63 and, by ChIP-seq analysis, identified Angiomodulin (AGM, also named IGFBP7 or IGFBP-rP1. We demonstrate that AGM is necessary for cardiac commitment of embryonic stem cells (ESCs and its regulation depends on TAp63 isoform. TAp63 directly activates both AGM and Activin-A during ESC cardiogenesis while these secreted factors modulate TAp63 gene expression by a feedback loop mechanism. The molecular circuitry controlled by TAp63 on AGM/Activin-A signaling pathway and thus on cardiogenesis emphasizes the importance of p63 during early cardiac development.

  1. Activin A’s promotion of definitive endoderm differentiation from human embryonic stem cells%Activin A特异性对人胚胎干细胞向限定性内胚层诱导分化的促进作用

    孙懿; 周静; 林戈; 卢光琇

    2012-01-01

    【目的】研究Activin A对人胚胎干细胞(hESCs)向限定性内胚层(DE)诱导分化的促进作用及其信号通路分子,为hESCs向DE诱导分化体系的优化提供参考。【方法】在人饲养层体系培养的hESCs中,收集100ng/mL Activin A分别诱导0,6,12,24,48,72,96,120h的细胞,用实时荧光定量RT-PCR检测原条标记Gsc和Mixl1、中内胚层共同前体标记Brachyury、内胚层标记Foxa2和Sox17、中胚层标记Flk1、外胚层基因Pax6、多能性相关基因Oct4与Nanog表达水平的变化,用细胞免疫荧光检测Brachyury和Sox17蛋白表达水平的变化。【结果】在人饲养层(HEF)培养体系上,高浓度Activin A能更快地促进中内胚层基因的表达并提高其表达水平;Brachyury和Sox17蛋白的细胞免疫荧光检测表明,Activin A诱导12和48h就可检测二者的表达明显增加,且二者的表达水平分别在诱导48和96h时达到高峰;hESCs高效分化为限定性内胚层细胞,DE细胞分化率为(81.7±5.4)%,并且体外的内胚层分化过程遵循从原条开始、经过中内胚层共同前体阶段、再到内胚层的发育过程,与体内发育规律相似。【结论】Activin A能特异性地诱导人胚胎干细胞向限定性内胚层分化,转录调控Brachyury和Sox17蛋白的表达。%【Objective】 The study was conducted to confirm the affection and the signaling pathway molecules of Activin in promotion of the definitive endoderm(DE) differentiation from human embryonic stem cells(hESCs),which will provide reference for induction optimization of DE differentiation from hESC.【Method】 Cells were cultured on human embryonic fibroblast cells(HEF).Real-time quantitative RT-PCR were preformed to detect the expression of prime streak related genes(Gsc,Mixl1),mesoendoderm precursor related gene Brachyury,endodermal genes(Foxa2,Sox17),mesodermal marker Flk1,ectoderm gene Pax6,pluripotent genes(Oct4,Nanog).Brachyury and Sox17

  2. Dual Inhibition of Activin/Nodal/TGF-β and BMP Signaling Pathways by SB431542 and Dorsomorphin Induces Neuronal Differentiation of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells

    Vedavathi Madhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the nervous system can cause devastating diseases or musculoskeletal dysfunctions and transplantation of progenitor stem cells can be an excellent treatment option in this regard. Preclinical studies demonstrate that untreated stem cells, unlike stem cells activated to differentiate into neuronal lineage, do not survive in the neuronal tissues. Conventional methods of inducing neuronal differentiation of stem cells are complex and expensive. We therefore sought to determine if a simple, one-step, and cost effective method, previously reported to induce neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells, can be applied to adult stem cells. Indeed, dual inhibition of activin/nodal/TGF-β and BMP pathways using SB431542 and dorsomorphin, respectively, induced neuronal differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs as evidenced by formation of neurite extensions, protein expression of neuron-specific gamma enolase, and mRNA expression of neuron-specific transcription factors Sox1 and Pax6 and matured neuronal marker NF200. This process correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of p38, Erk1/2, PI3K, and Akt1/3. Additionally, in vitro subcutaneous implants of SB431542 and dorsomorphin treated hADSCs displayed significantly higher expression of active-axonal-growth-specific marker GAP43. Our data offers novel insights into cell-based therapies for the nervous system repair.

  3. Tsh receptor

    Frauman, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The TSH receptor is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor(GPCR)family. It is one of the glycoprotein hormone receptors, which also includes the FSH and LH/CG receptors. The TSH receptor mediates the action of the pituitary-derived glycoprotein, TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone, thyrotropin or thyrotrophin). TSH binds to the TSH receptor which is located on thyroid follicular cells (but is also expressed in extrathyroidal sites). Glycosylation of the TSH receptor occurs, as does cleavage ...

  4. The effects of a single intravenous injection of novel activin A/BMP-2 (AB204) on toxicity and the respiratory and central nervous systems.

    Yoon, Byung-Hak; Lee, Jae Hyup; Na, Kyuheum; Ahn, Chihoon; Cho, Jongho; Ahn, Hyun Chan; Choi, Jungyoun; Oh, Hyosun; Kim, Byong Moon; Choe, Senyon

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a single intravenous injection of a novel osteoinductive material, activin A/BMP-2 (AB204), to rodents on toxicity and their respiratory functions and central nervous system (CNS). A single intravenous injection of AB204 was given to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in doses of 0, 0.625, 2.5 and 10 mg/kg to observe the mortality rate, the general symptoms for 14 days. The experimental groups were also given 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively, and the respiration rate, the tidal volume and the minute volume were measured for 240 min. The experimental groups of imprinting control region (ICR) mice were given a single intravenous injection of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg of AB204, respectively. Their body temperature was taken and general behaviors were observed to evaluate the effect of AB204 on the CNS for 240 min. The study on toxicity of a single intravenous injection found no death or abnormal symptoms, abnormal findings from autopsy, or abnormal body weight gain or loss in all the experimental groups. No abnormal variation associated with the test substance was observed in the respiration rate, the tidal volume, the minute volume, body temperature or the general behaviors. On the basis of these results, the approximate lethal dose of AB204 for a single intravenous injection exceeds 10 mg/kg for SD rats and a single intravenous injection of ≤0.8 mg/kg AB204 has no effect on their respiratory system for SD rat and no effect on their CNS for ICR mice. PMID:26446865

  5. Multiple roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein, fibroblast growth factor and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in the anterior neural patterning of adherent human embryonic stem cell cultures

    Lupo, Giuseppe; Novorol, Claire; Smith, Joseph R.; Vallier, Ludovic; Miranda, Elena; Alexander, Morgan; Biagioni, Stefano; Pedersen, Roger A.; Harris, William A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have successfully produced a variety of neural cell types from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), but there has been limited systematic analysis of how different regional identities are established using well-defined differentiation conditions. We have used adherent, chemically defined cultures to analyse the roles of Activin/Nodal, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and Wnt/β-catenin signalling in neural induction, anteroposterior patterning and eye field specification in hESCs. We show that either BMP inhibition or activation of FGF signalling is required for effective neural induction, but these two pathways have distinct outcomes on rostrocaudal patterning. While BMP inhibition leads to specification of forebrain/midbrain positional identities, FGF-dependent neural induction is associated with strong posteriorization towards hindbrain/spinal cord fates. We also demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is activated during neural induction and promotes acquisition of neural fates posterior to forebrain. Therefore, inhibition of this pathway is needed for efficient forebrain specification. Finally, we provide evidence that the levels of Activin/Nodal and BMP signalling have a marked influence on further forebrain patterning and that constitutive inhibition of these pathways represses expression of eye field genes. These results show that the key mechanisms controlling neural patterning in model vertebrate species are preserved in adherent, chemically defined hESC cultures and reveal new insights into the signals regulating eye field specification. PMID:23576785

  6. Matrigel and Activin A promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in cultured human retinal pigment epithelium cells.

    Guo, Xiaoling; Zhu, Deliang; Lian, Ruiling; Han, Yuting; Guo, Yonglong; Li, Zhijie; Tang, Shibo; Chen, Jiansu

    2016-06-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness among the aging population. Currently, replacement of diseased retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with transplanted healthy RPE cells could be a feasible approach for AMD therapy. However, maintaining cell-cell contact and good viability of RPE cells cultured in vitro is difficult and fundamentally determines the success of RPE cell transplantation. This study was conducted to examine the role of Matrigel and Activin A (MA) in regulating cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in human RPE (hRPE) cells, as assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis, Annexin V/propidium iodide (PI) analysis, mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψ m) assays, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays and Western blotting. hRPE cells cultured in vitro could maintain their epithelioid morphology after MA treatment over at least 4 passages. The contact of N-cadherin to the lateral cell border was promoted in hRPE cells at P2 by MA. MA treatment also enhanced the expression of tight junction-associated genes and proteins, such as Claudin-1, Claudin-3, Occludin and ZO-1, as well as polarized ZO-1 protein distribution and barrier function, in cultured hRPE cells. Moreover, MA treatment decreased apoptotic cells, ROS and Bax and increased △Ψ m and Bcl2 in hRPE cells under serum withdrawal-induced apoptosis. In addition, MA treatment elevated the protein expression levels of β-catenin and its target proteins, including Cyclin D1, c-Myc and Survivin, as well as the gene expression levels of ZO-1, β-catenin, Survivin and TCF-4, all of which could be down-regulated by the Wnt/β-catenin pathway inhibitor XAV-939. Taken together, MA treatment could effectively promote cell-cell contact and anti-apoptotic activity in hRPE cells, partly involving the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. This study

  7. Toward a better understanding of the interaction between TGF-β family members and their ALK receptors

    Romano, Valentina

    2012-02-22

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) proteins are a family of structurally related extracellular proteins that trigger their signaling functions through interaction with the extracellular domains of their cognate serine/threonine kinase receptors. The specificity of TGF-β/receptor binding is complex and gives rise to multiple functional roles. Additionally, it is not completely understood at the atomic level. Here, we use the most reliable computational methods currently available to study systems involving activin-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4 and ALK7 and their multiple TGF-β ligands. We built models for all these proteins and their complexes for which experimental structures are not available. By analyzing the surfaces of interaction in six different TGF-β/ALK complexes we could infer which are the structural distinctive features of the ligand-receptor binding mode. Furthermore, this study allowed us to rationalize why binding of the growth factors GDF3 and Nodal to the ALK4 receptor requires the Cripto co-factor, whilst binding to the ALK7 receptor does not. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  8. Activin receptor-like kinase receptors ALK5 and ALK1 are both required for TGFβ-induced chondrogenic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells

    L.M.G. De Kroon (Laurie M.G.); R. Narcisi (Roberto); E.N. Blaney Davidson (Esmeralda); M.A. Cleary (Mairéad); H.M. van Beuningen (Henk); W.J.L.M. Koevoet (Wendy J.L.M.); G.J.V.M. van Osch (Gerjo); P.M. van der Kraan (Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for cartilage regeneration because BMSCs can differentiate into cartilage tissue-producing chondrocytes. Transforming Growth Factor beta; (TGFbeta;) is crucial for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs

  9. Activin Receptor-Like Kinase Receptors ALK5 and ALK1 Are Both Required for TGFbeta-Induced Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Kroon, L.M.G. de; Narcisi, R.; Davidson, E.N.; Cleary, M.A.; Beuningen, H.M. van; Koevoet, W.J.; Osch, G.J. van; Kraan, P.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are promising for cartilage regeneration because BMSCs can differentiate into cartilage tissue-producing chondrocytes. Transforming Growth Factor beta (TGFbeta) is crucial for inducing chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs and is known

  10. Lipoxin Receptors

    Mario Romano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipoxins (LXs represent a class of arachidonic acid (AA metabolites that carry potent immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, LXA4 and LXB4 being the main components of this series. LXs are generated by cooperation between 5-lipoxygenase (LO and 12- or 15-LO during cell-cell interactions or by single cell types. LX epimers at carbon 15, the 15-epi-LXs, are formed by aspirin-acetylated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in cooperation with 5-LO. 15-epi-LXA4 is also termed aspirin-triggered LX (ATL. In vivo studies with stable LX and ATL analogs have established that these eicosanoids possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. A LXA4 receptor has been cloned. It belongs to the family of chemotactic receptors and clusters with formyl peptide receptors on chromosome 19. Therefore, it was initially denominated formyl peptide receptor like 1 (FPRL1. This receptor binds with high affinity and stereoselectivity LXA4 and ATL. It also recognizes a variety of peptides, synthetic, endogenously generated, or disease associated, but with lower affinity compared to LXA4. For this reason, this receptor has been renamed ALX. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ALX expression, signaling, and potential pathophysiological role. The involvement of additional recognition sites in LX bioactions is also discussed.

  11. Glutamate receptors

    Kristensen, Anders S; Geballe, Matthew T; Snyder, James P;

    2006-01-01

    Fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS relies almost entirely on the neurotransmitter glutamate and its family of ion channel receptors. An appreciation of the coupling between agonist binding and channel opening has advanced rapidly during the past five years, largely as a result of ne...

  12. Somatostatin receptors

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2003-01-01

    In 1972, Brazeau et al. isolated somatostatin (somatotropin release-inhibiting factor, SRIF), a cyclic polypeptide with two biologically active isoforms (SRIF-14 and SRIF-28). This event prompted the successful quest for SRIF receptors. Then, nearly a quarter of a century later, it was announced...

  13. The structure of myostatin:follistatin 288: insights into receptor utilization and heparin binding

    Cash, Jennifer N.; Rejon, Carlis A.; McPherron, Alexandra C.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Thompson, Thomas B.; (UCIN); (McGill); (NIH)

    2009-09-29

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) family and a strong negative regulator of muscle growth. Here, we present the crystal structure of myostatin in complex with the antagonist follistatin 288 (Fst288). We find that the prehelix region of myostatin very closely resembles that of TGF-{beta} class members and that this region alone can be swapped into activin A to confer signalling through the non-canonical type I receptor Alk5. Furthermore, the N-terminal domain of Fst288 undergoes conformational rearrangements to bind myostatin and likely acts as a site of specificity for the antagonist. In addition, a unique continuous electropositive surface is created when myostatin binds Fst288, which significantly increases the affinity for heparin. This translates into stronger interactions with the cell surface and enhanced myostatin degradation in the presence of either Fst288 or Fst315. Overall, we have identified several characteristics unique to myostatin that will be paramount to the rational design of myostatin inhibitors that could be used in the treatment of muscle-wasting disorders.

  14. The androgen receptor and estrogen receptor

    Oosterkamp, H.M.; Bernards, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) and the estrogen receptors (ER) are members of the nuclear receptor (NR) family. These NRs are distinguished from the other transcription factors by their ability to control gene expression upon ligand binding (steroids, retinoids, thyroid hormone, vitamin D, fatty acids, and other small hydrophobic molecules). Their combined effects are vast, influencing virtually every fundamental biological process, from development and homeostasis, to proliferation and different...

  15. The GnRH receptor and the response of gonadotrope cells to GnRH pulse frequency code. A story of an atypical adaptation of cell function relying on a lack of receptor homologous desensitization.

    Christian Bleux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain control of the reproductive system is mediated through hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH which activates specific receptors (GnRHR present at the surface of the pituitary gonadotropes to trigger secretion of the two gonadotropins LH and FSH. A unique feature of this system is the high dependence on the secretion mode of GnRH, which is basically pulsatile but undergoes considerable fluctuations in pulse frequency pattern in response to endogenous or external factors. How the physiological fluctuations of GnRH secretion that orchestrate normal reproduction are decoded by the gonadotrope cell machinery to ultimately control gonadotropin release and/or subunit gene transcription has been the subject of intensive studies during the past decades. Surprisingly, the mammalian GnRHR is unique among G protein-coupled receptor family as it lacks the carboxy-terminal tail usually involved in classical endocytotic process. Accordingly, it does not desensitize properly and internalizes very poorly. Both this atypical intrinsic property and post-receptor events may thus contribute to decode the GnRH signal. This includes the participation of a network of signaling pathways that differently respond to GnRH together with a growing amount of genes differentially sensitive to pulse frequency. Among these are two pairs of genes, the transcription factors EGR-1 and NAB, and the regulatory factors activin and follistatin, that function as intracellular autoregulatory feedback loops controlling respectively LHbeta and FSHbeta gene expression and hence, LH and FSH synthesis. Pituitary gonadotropes thus represent a unique model of cells functionally adapted to respond to a considerably fluctuating neuroendocrine stimulation, from short individual pulses to sustained GnRH as observed at the proestrus of ovarian cycle. Altogether, the data emphasize the adaptative reciprocal complementarity of hypothalamic GnRH neurones and pituitary gonadotropes to

  16. Rat liver insulin receptor

    Using insulin affinity chromatography, the authors have isolated highly purified insulin receptor from rat liver. When evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, the rat liver receptor contained the M/sub r/ 125,000 α-subunit, the M/sub r/ 90,000 β-subunit, and varying proportions of the M/sub r/ 45,000 β'-subunit. The specific insulin binding of the purified receptor was 25-30 μg of 125I-insulin/mg of protein, and the receptor underwent insulin-dependent autophosphorylation. Rat liver and human placental receptors differ from each other in several functional aspects: (1) the adsorption-desorption behavior from four insulin affinity columns indicated that the rat liver receptor binds less firmly to immobilized ligands; (2) the 125I-insulin binding affinity of the rat liver receptor is lower than that of the placental receptor; (3) partial reduction of the rat liver receptor with dithiothreitol increases its insulin binding affinity whereas the binding affinity of the placental receptor is unchanged; (4) at optimal insulin concentration, rat liver receptor autophosphorylation is stimulated 25-50-fold whereas the placental receptor is stimulated only 4-6-fold. Conversion of the β-subunit to β' by proteolysis is a major problem that occurs during exposure of the receptor to the pH 5.0 buffer used to elute the insulin affinity column. Proteolytic destruction and the accompanying loss of insulin-dependent autophosphorylation can be substantially reduced by proteolysis inhibitors. In summary, rat liver and human placental receptors differ functionally in both α- and β-subunits. Insulin binding to the α-subunit of the purified rat liver receptor communicates a signal that activates the β-subunit; however, major proteolytic destruction of the β-subunit does not affect insulin binding to the α-subunit

  17. P2X receptors.

    North, R Alan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2X receptors have a widespread tissue distribution. On some smooth muscle cells, P2X receptors mediate the fast excitatory junction potential that leads to depolarization and contraction. In the central nervous system, activation of P2X receptors allows calcium to enter neurons and this can evoke slower neuromodulatory responses such as the trafficking of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. In primary afferent nerves, P2X receptors are critical for the initiation of action potentials when they respond to ATP released from sensory cells such as taste buds, chemoreceptors or urothelium. In immune cells, activation of P2X receptors triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β. The development of selective blockers of different P2X receptors has led to clinical trials of their effectiveness in the management of cough, pain, inflammation and certain neurodegenerative diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377721

  18. GABA receptor imaging

    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABAA-receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABAB-receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABAA-receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABAA-receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with 11C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, 18F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome 11C's short half-life. 18F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '11C-FMZ PET instead of 18F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABAA receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas

  19. GABA receptor imaging

    Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABA{sub A}-receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABA{sub B}-receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABA{sub A}-receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABA{sub A}-receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with {sup 11}C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, {sup 18}F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome {sup 11}C's short half-life. {sup 18}F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '1{sup 1}C-FMZ PET instead of {sup 18}F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABA{sub A} receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas.

  20. Novel cannabinoid receptors

    Brown, A J

    2007-01-01

    Cannabinoids have numerous physiological effects. In the years since the molecular identification of the G protein-coupled receptors CB1 and CB2, the ion channel TRPV1, and their corresponding endogenous ligand systems, many cannabinoid-evoked actions have been shown conclusively to be mediated by one of these specific receptor targets. However, there remain several examples where these classical cannabinoid receptors do not explain observed pharmacology. Studies using mice genetically delete...

  1. [Nuclear receptors PPARalpha].

    Soska, V

    2006-06-01

    Mechanism of the fibrates action is mediated by nuclear PPARalpha receptors (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor). These receptors regulate a number of genes that are involved both in lipids and lipoproteins metabolism and other mediators (e.g. inflammatory mediatores). Due to PPARalpha activation by fibrates, triglycerides and small dense LDL concentration is decreased, HDL cholesterol is increased and both inflammation and prothrombotic status are reduced. These effects are very important in patients with metabolic syndrom. PMID:16871768

  2. The effects of an ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein ligand trap in juvenile simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques.

    O'Connell, Karyn E; Guo, Wen; Serra, Carlo; Beck, Matthew; Wachtman, Lynn; Hoggatt, Amber; Xia, Dongling; Pearson, Chris; Knight, Heather; O'Connell, Micheal; Miller, Andrew D; Westmoreland, Susan V; Bhasin, Shalender

    2015-04-01

    There are no approved therapies for muscle wasting in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which portends poor disease outcomes. To determine whether a soluble ActRIIb receptor Fc fusion protein (ActRIIB.Fc), a ligand trap for TGF-β/activin family members including myostatin, can prevent or restore loss of lean body mass and body weight in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected juvenile rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Fourteen pair-housed, juvenile male rhesus macaques were inoculated with SIVmac239 and, 4 wk postinoculation (WPI) treated with intramuscular injections of 10 mg ⋅ kg(-1) ⋅ wk(-1) ActRIIB.Fc or saline placebo. Body weight, lean body mass, SIV titers, and somatometric measurements were assessed monthly for 16 wk. Age-matched SIV-infected rhesus macaques were injected with saline. Intervention groups did not differ at baseline. Gains in lean mass were significantly greater in the ActRIIB.Fc group than in the placebo group (P fat mass in juvenile SIV-infected rhesus macaques. PMID:25466897

  3. Activated type I TGFbeta receptor (Alk5) kinase confers enhancedsurvival to mammary epithelial cells and accelerates mammary tumorprogression

    Muraoka-Cook, Rebecca S.; Shin, Incheol; Yi, Jae Youn; Easterly,Evangeline; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Zent, Roy; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2005-01-02

    The transforming growth factor-betas (TGF{beta}s) are members of a large superfamily of pleiotropic cytokines that also includes the activins and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Members of the TGF{beta} family regulate complex physiological processes such cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, motility, and cell death, among others (Massague, 1998). Dysregulation of TGF{beta} signaling contributes to several pathological processes including cancer, fibrosis, and auto-immune disorders (Massague et al., 2000). The TGF{beta}s elicit their biological effects by binding to type II and type I transmembrane receptor serine-threonine kinases (T{beta}RII and T{beta}RI) which, in turn, phosphorylated Smad 2 and Smad 3. Phosphorylated Smad 2/3 associate with Smad 4 and, as a heteromeric complex, translocate to the nucleus where they regulate gene transcription. The inhibitory Smad7 down regulates TGF{beta} signaling by binding to activated T{beta}RI and interfering with its ability to phosphorylate Smad 2/3 (Derynck and Zhang, 2003; Shi and Massague, 2003). Signaling is also regulated by Smad proteolysis. TGF{beta} receptor-mediated activation results in multi-ubiquitination of Smad 2 in the nucleus and subsequent degradation of Smad 2 by the proteasome (Lo and Massague, 1999). Activation of TGF{beta} receptors also induces mobilization of a Smad 7-Smurf complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; this complex recognizes the activated receptors and mediates their ubiquitination and internalization via caveolin-rich vesicles, leading to termination of TGF{beta} signaling (Di Guglielmo et al., 2003). Other signal transducers/pathways have been implicated in TGF{beta} actions. These include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein phosphatase PP2A, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and the family of Rho GTPases [reviewed in

  4. Serotonin Receptors in Hippocampus

    Laura Cristina Berumen; Angelina Rodríguez; Ricardo Miledi; Guadalupe García-Alcocer

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus. Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, considering that they can be localized as autosynaptic, presynaptic, and postsynaptic receptors, even colocalized within the same cell and being target of homo- and heterodimerization. Neurons and glia, including immune cells, integrate a fu...

  5. Androgen receptor mutations

    Brinkmann, Albert; Jenster, Guido; Ris-Stalpers, Carolyn; Korput, J. A G M; Brüggenwirth, Hennie; Boehmer, A.L.; Trapman, Jan

    1995-01-01

    textabstractMale sexual differentiation and development proceed under direct control of androgens. Androgen action is mediated by the intracellular androgen receptor, which belongs to the superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. At least three pathological situations are associated with abnormal androgen receptor structure and function: androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) and prostate cancer. In the X-linked androgen insensitivity syn...

  6. Imidazoline receptors ligands

    Agbaba Danica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive biochemical and pharmacological studies have determined three different subtypes of imidazoline receptors: I1-imidazoline receptors (I1-IR involved in central inhibition of sympathicus that produce hypotensive effect; I2-imidazoline receptors (I2-IR modulate monoamine oxidase B activity (MAO-B; I3-imidazoline receptors (I3-IR regulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, the I1/I2/I3 imidazoline receptors are selected as new, interesting targets for drug design and discovery. Novel selective I1/I2/I3 agonists and antagonists have been recently developed. In the present review, we provide a brief update to the field of imidazoline research, highlighting some of the chemical diversity and progress made in the 2D-QSAR, 3D-QSAR and quantitative pharmacophore development studies of I1-IR and I2-IR imidazoline receptor ligands. Theoretical studies of I3-IR ligands are not yet performed because of insufficient number of synthesized I3-IR ligands.

  7. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  8. Olfactory receptor signaling.

    Antunes, Gabriela; Simoes de Souza, Fabio Marques

    2016-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily represents the largest class of membrane protein in the human genome. More than a half of all GPCRs are dedicated to interact with odorants and are termed odorant-receptors (ORs). Linda Buck and Richard Axel, the Nobel Prize laureates in physiology or medicine in 2004, first cloned and characterized the gene family that encode ORs, establishing the foundations to the understanding of the molecular basis for odor recognition. In the last decades, a lot of progress has been done to unravel the functioning of the sense of smell. This chapter gives a general overview of the topic of olfactory receptor signaling and reviews recent advances in this field. PMID:26928542

  9. Selective orexin receptor antagonists.

    Lebold, Terry P; Bonaventure, Pascal; Shireman, Brock T

    2013-09-01

    The orexin, or hypocretin, neuropeptides (orexin-A and orexin-B) are produced on neurons in the hypothalamus which project to key areas of the brain that control sleep-wake states, modulation of food intake, panic, anxiety, emotion, reward and addictive behaviors. These neuropeptides exert their effects on a pair of G-protein coupled receptors termed the orexin-1 (OX1) and orexin-2 (OX2) receptors. Emerging biology suggests the involvement of these receptors in psychiatric disorders as they are thought to play a key role in the regulation of multiple systems. This review is intended to highlight key selective OX1 or OX2 small-molecule antagonists. PMID:23891187

  10. Estrogen receptor scintigraphy.

    Scheidhauer, K; Scharl, A; Schicha, H

    1998-03-01

    Radio-labeled estrogen receptor ligands are tracers that can be used for functional receptor diagnosis. Their specificity towards receptors, together with the fact that only 50-70% of mammary carcinomas are receptor positive, renders them unsuitable for detection of primary tumors or metastases, and this means that estrogen receptor scintigraphy can be used neither for tumor screening nor for staging. However, both 18F-labeled and 123I-labeled estradiol derivatives are suitable for in vivo imaging of estrogen receptors. Their high specificity, established in animal experiments and in vitro studies has been reproduced in in vivo applications in humans. Tracers with positron radiation emitters are, however, hardly suitable for broad application owing to the short half-life of 18F, which would mean that users would need to be situated close to a cyclotron and a correspondingly equipped radiochemical laboratory. The number of available PET scanners, on the other hand, has increased over the last few years, especially in Germany, so that this, at least, does not present a limiting factor. All the same, 123I-labeled estradiol derivatives will find more widespread application, since the number of gamma-cameras incorporating modern multi-head systems is several times greater. The results of studies with 123I-E2-scintigraphy published to date are very promising, even given the initial technical problems mentioned above. As a method of examination, it could be optimised by using improved tracers with a higher tumor contrast and less disturbance from overlapping in diagnostically relevant locations, for instance, by selecting tracers with higher activities whose excretion is more renal than hepatobiliary. The use of modern multi-head camera systems can also be expected to improve the photon yield. PMID:9646642

  11. Biomimetic Receptors and Sensors

    Franz L. Dickert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In biomimetics, living systems are imitated to develop receptors for ions, molecules and bioparticles. The most pertinent idea is self-organization in analogy to evolution in nature, which created the key-lock principle. Today, modern science has been developing host-guest chemistry, a strategy of supramolecular chemistry for designing interactions of analytes with synthetic receptors. This can be realized, e.g., by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs or molecular imprinting. The strategies are used for solid phase extraction (SPE, but preferably in developing recognition layers of chemical sensors.

  12. Chemokine Receptors and Transplantation

    Jinquan Tan; Gang Zhou

    2005-01-01

    A complex process including both the innate and acquired immune responses results in allograft rejection. Some chemokine receptors and their ligands play essential roles not only for leukocyte migration into the graft but also in facilitating dendritic and T cell trafficking between lymph nodes and the transplant in the early and late stage of the allogeneic response. This review focuses on the impact of these chemoattractant proteins on transplant outcome and novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for antirejection therapy based on targeting of chemokine receptors and/or their ligands. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  13. Beyond the Receptor

    Russell Jones

    2008-01-01

    @@ Had this Special Issue on plant hormones been published 5 years ago,it is likely that details about biosynthetic pathways would have taken center stage.As articles in this issue show,however,the field of plant hormone research has progressed rapidly and is now moving beyond the search for receptors.Progress in research on the mechanism of action of plant hormones has been rapid;receptors for the main classes of hormones have been identified;and the search is on for players downstream in signal-transduction chains.

  14. Somatostatin receptor imaging

    The intention of the meeting was to present: 1.Results from large-scale diagnositc imaging studies, carried out in various somatostatin receptorpositive tumors by Germany nuclear medicine specialists; 2. Potential clinical indications for somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in gastroenterology, endocrinology, and other clinical disciplines. These presentations were balanced by the reports of distinguished clinicians on their experience with somatostatin analogs in therapeutic settings and by the comments of a number of investigators on the basic mechanisms of somatostatin-receptor/ligand-system(s) and on peptide radiopharmacology. Separate entries are proposed for 8 of the 11 individual papers presented at the conference. (orig./MG). 48 figs., 22 tabs

  15. Taste receptors for umami: the case for multiple receptors1234

    Chaudhari, Nirupa; Pereira, Elizabeth; Roper, Stephen D.

    2009-01-01

    Umami taste is elicited by many small molecules, including amino acids (glutamate and aspartate) and nucleotides (monophosphates of inosinate or guanylate, inosine 5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate). Mammalian taste buds respond to these diverse compounds via membrane receptors that bind the umami tastants. Over the past 15 y, several receptors have been proposed to underlie umami detection in taste buds. These receptors include 2 glutamate-selective G protein–coupled receptors,...

  16. AT1 receptors as mechanosensors.

    Mederos y Schnitzler, Michael; Storch, Ursula; Gudermann, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors are appreciated as central components of neurohormonal signaling. Recently, it turned out that they may also play a role in mechanotransduction. The angiotensin II AT(1) receptor was the first G-protein-coupled receptor claimed to be a mechanosensor. In the meantime, several other G(q/11)-coupled receptors were found to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, there is first evidence to support the concept that G(i/o)-coupled receptors are susceptible to mechanical stimulation as well. Mechanical receptor activation appears to be agonist-independent and is initiated by a conformational change of the receptor protein discernible from agonist-bound conformations. Mechanically induced receptor activation plays a physiological role for myogenic vasoconstriction and is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:21147033

  17. Vasopressin and Vasopressin Receptor Antagonists

    Oh, Yun Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Vasopressin, a neurohypophyseal peptide hormone, is the endogenous agonist at V1a, V1b, and V2 receptors. The most important physiological function of vasopressin is the maintenance of water homeostasis through interaction with V2 receptors in the kidney. Vasopressin binds to V2 receptor and increases the number of aquaporin-2 at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct principal cells. That induces high water permeability across the membrane. Several non-peptide vasopressin receptor ant...

  18. Nuclear Receptors and Inflammatory Diseases

    Wang, Kun; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the steroid hormone glucocorticoid and its nuclear receptor regulate the inflammatory process, a crucial component in the pathophysiological process related to human diseases that include atherosclerosis, obesity and type II diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and liver tumors. Growing evidence demonstrates that orphan and adopted orphan nuclear receptors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, liver × receptors, t...

  19. G Protein-coupled receptors

    Ross, Elliott M.

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins can diffuse laterally in the plasma membrane such that one receptor can catalyze the activation (GDP/GTP exchange) of multiple G proteins. In some cases, these processes are fast enough to support molecular signal amplification, where a single receptor maintains the activation of multiple G proteins at steady-state. Amplification in cells is probably highly regulated. It depends upon the identities of the G receptor and G protein - som...

  20. Glutamate receptor ligands

    Guldbrandt, Mette; Johansen, Tommy N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Stensbøl, Tine B; Nielsen, Birgitte; Karla, Rolf; Santi, Flavio; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Madsen, Ulf

    2002-01-01

    Homologation and substitution on the carbon backbone of (S)-glutamic acid [(S)-Glu, 1], as well as absolute stereochemistry, are structural parameters of key importance for the pharmacological profile of (S)-Glu receptor ligands. We describe a series of methyl-substituted 2-aminoadipic acid (AA...

  1. AMPA receptor ligands

    Strømgaard, Kristian; Mellor, Ian

    2004-01-01

    polyamines are known to modulate the function of these receptors in vivo. In this study, recent developments in the medicinal chemistry of polyamine-based ligands are given, particularly focusing on the use of solid-phase synthesis (SPS) as a tool for the facile generation of libraries of polyamine toxin...

  2. Ginkgolides and glycine receptors

    Jaracz, Stanislav; Nakanishi, Koji; Jensen, Anders A.;

    2004-01-01

    Ginkgolides from the Ginkgo biloba tree are diterpenes with a cage structure consisting of six five-membered rings and a unique tBu group. They exert a variety of biological properties. In addition to being antagonists of the platelet activating factor receptor (PAFR), it has recently been shown...

  3. Metformin and insulin receptors

    The authors evaluated the effect of metformin (N,N-dimethylbiguanide), a biguanide known to be less toxic than phenformin, on insulin binding to its receptors, both in vitro and in vivo. Specific 125I-insulin binding to cultured IM-9 human lymphocytes and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells was determined after preincubation with metformin. Specific 125I-insulin binding to circulating monocytes was also evaluated in six controls, eight obese subjects, and six obese type II diabetic patients before and after a short-term treatment with metformin. Plasma insulin levels and blood glucose were also measured on both occasions. Metformin significantly increased insulin binding in vitro to both IM-9 lymphocytes and MCF-7 cells; the maximum increment was 47.1% and 38.0%, respectively. Metformin treatment significantly increased insulin binding in vivo to monocytes of obese subjects and diabetic patients. Scatchard analysis indicated that the increased binding was mainly due to an increase in receptor capacity. Insulin binding to monocytes of normal controls was unchanged after metformin as were insulin levels in all groups; blood glucose was significantly reduced after metformin only in diabetic patients. These data indicate that metformin increases insulin binding to its receptors in vitro and in vivo. The effect in vivo is observed in obese subjects and in obese type II diabetic patients, paralleling the clinical effectiveness of this antidiabetic agent, and is not due to receptor regulation by circulating insulin, since no variation in insulin levels was recorded

  4. Meeting report: nuclear receptors

    Tuckermann, Jan; Bourguet, William; Mandrup, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    The biannual European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) conference on nuclear receptors was organized by Beatrice Desvergne and Laszlo Nagy and took place in Cavtat near Dubrovnik on the Adriatic coast of Croatia September 25-29, 2009. The meeting brought together researchers from all over th...

  5. Prostaglandin Receptor Signaling in Disease

    Toshiyuki Matsuoka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostanoids, consisting of the prostaglandins (PGs and the thromboxanes (TXs, are a group of lipid mediators formed in response to various stimuli. They include PGD2, PGE2, PGF2α, PGI2, and TXA2. They are released outside of the cells immediately after synthesis, and exert their actions by binding to a G-protein coupled rhodopsin-type receptor on the surface of target cells. There are eight types of the prostanoid receptors conserved in mammals from mouse to human. They are the PGD receptor (DP, four subtypes of the PGE receptor (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4, the PGF receptor (FP, PGI receptor (IP, and TXA receptor (TP. Recently, mice deficient in each of these prostanoid receptors were generated and subjected to various experimental models of disease. These studies have revealed the roles of PG receptor signaling in various pathological conditions, and suggest that selective manipulation of the prostanoid receptors may be beneficial in treatment of the pathological conditions. Here we review these recent findings of roles of prostanoid receptor signaling and their therapeutic implications.

  6. Ligand-Receptor Interactions

    Bongrand, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The formation and dissociation of specific noncovalent interactions between a variety of macromolecules play a crucial role in the function of biological systems. During the last few years, three main lines of research led to a dramatic improvement of our understanding of these important phenomena. First, combination of genetic engineering and X ray cristallography made available a simultaneous knowledg of the precise structure and affinity of series or related ligand-receptor systems differing by a few well-defined atoms. Second, improvement of computer power and simulation techniques allowed extended exploration of the interaction of realistic macromolecules. Third, simultaneous development of a variety of techniques based on atomic force microscopy, hydrodynamic flow, biomembrane probes, optical tweezers, magnetic fields or flexible transducers yielded direct experimental information of the behavior of single ligand receptor bonds. At the same time, investigation of well defined cellular models raised the ...

  7. Angiotensin type 2 receptors

    Sumners, Colin; de Kloet, Annette D; Krause, Eric G;

    2015-01-01

    In most situations, the angiotensin AT2-receptor (AT2R) mediates physiological actions opposing those mediated by the AT1-receptor (AT1R), including a vasorelaxant effect. Nevertheless, experimental evidence vastly supports that systemic application of AT2R-agonists is blood pressure neutral....... However, stimulation of AT2R locally within the brain or the kidney apparently elicits a systemic blood pressure lowering effect. A systemic effect of AT2R stimulation on blood pressure can also be achieved, when the prevailing effect of continuous background AT1R-stimulation is attenuated by low-dose AT1......R blockade. Despite a lack of effect on blood pressure, AT2R stimulation still protects from hypertensive end-organ damage. Current data and evidence therefore suggest that AT2R agonists will not be suitable as future anti-hypertensive drugs, but that they may well be useful for end-organ protection...

  8. Glutamate Receptors in Plants

    Davenport, Romola

    2002-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors function in animals as glutamate‐gated non‐selective cation channels. Numerous glutamate receptor‐like (GLR) genes have been identified in plant genomes, and plant GLRs are predicted, on the basis of sequence homology, to retain ligand‐binding and ion channel activity. Non‐selective cation channels are ubiquitous in plant membranes and may function in nutrient uptake, signalling and intra‐plant transport. However, there is little evidence for amino acid gating o...

  9. Sensory receptors in monotremes.

    Proske, U; Gregory, J E; Iggo, A.

    1998-01-01

    This is a summary of the current knowledge of sensory receptors in skin of the bill of the platypus, Ornithorhynchus anatinus, and the snout of the echidna, Tachyglossus aculeatus. Brief mention is also made of the third living member of the monotremes, the long-nosed echidna, Zaglossus bruijnii. The monotremes are the only group of mammals known to have evolved electroreception. The structures in the skin responsible for the electric sense have been identified as sensory mucous glands with a...

  10. Somatostatin receptor skintigrafi

    Rasmussen, Karin; Nielsen, Jørn Theil; Rehling, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) is a very valuable imaging technique for visualisation of a diversity of neuroendocrine tumours. The sensitivity for localisation of carcinoid tumours is high, but somewhat lower for other neuroendocrine tumours. The methodology, multiple clinical aspects...... and limitations of the examination are described. The value of the method in patients with non-neuroendocrine tumours has yet to be established. The development of new radio-labelled somatostatin analogues for diagnosis and treatment is briefly discussed....

  11. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  12. An inhibitor of transforming growth factor beta type I receptor ameliorates muscle atrophy in a mouse model of caveolin 3-deficient muscular dystrophy.

    Ohsawa, Yutaka; Okada, Tadashi; Nishimatsu, Shin-Ichiro; Ishizaki, Masatoshi; Suga, Tomohiro; Fujino, Masahiro; Murakami, Tatsufumi; Uchino, Makoto; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Noji, Sumihare; Hinohara, Atsushi; Shimizu, Toshiyuki; Shimizu, Kiyoshi; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2012-08-01

    Skeletal muscle expressing Pro104Leu mutant caveolin 3 (CAV3(P104L)) in mouse becomes atrophied and serves as a model of autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 1C. We previously found that caveolin 3-deficient muscles showed activated intramuscular transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signals. However, the cellular mechanism by which loss of caveolin 3 leads to muscle atrophy is unknown. Recently, several small-molecule inhibitors of TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) kinase have been developed as molecular-targeting drugs for cancer therapy by suppressing intracellular TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3 signaling. Here, we show that a TβRI kinase inhibitor, Ki26894, restores impaired myoblast differentiation in vitro caused by activin, myostatin, and TGF-β1, as well as CAV3(P104L). Oral administration of Ki26894 increased muscle mass and strength in vivo in wild-type mice, and improved muscle atrophy and weakness in the CAV3(P104L) mice. The inhibitor restored the number of satellite cells, the resident stem cells of adult skeletal muscle, with suppression of the increased phosphorylation of Smad2, an effector, and the upregulation of p21 (also known as Cdkn1a), a target gene of the TGF-β family members in muscle. These data indicate that both TGF-β-dependent reduction in satellite cells and impairment of myoblast differentiation contribute to the cellular mechanism underlying caveolin 3-deficient muscle atrophy. TβRI kinase inhibitors could antagonize the activation of intramuscular anti-myogenic TGF-β signals, thereby providing a novel therapeutic rationale for the alternative use of this type of anticancer drug in reversing muscle atrophy in various clinical settings. PMID:22584670

  13. Teaching old receptors new tricks: biasing seven-transmembrane receptors

    Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Rajagopal, Keshava; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs; also known as G protein-coupled receptors) are the largest class of receptors in the human genome and are common targets for therapeutics. Originally identified as mediators of 7TMR desensitization, β-arrestins (arrestin 2 and arrestin 3) are now recognized as true adaptor proteins that transduce signals to multiple effector pathways. Signalling that is mediated by β-arrestins has distinct biochemical and functional consequences from those mediated by G p...

  14. Endothelin receptor-mediated vasodilatation

    Nilsson, David; Wackenfors, Angelica; Gustafsson, Lotta;

    2008-01-01

    Culture of intact arteries is a frequently employed experimental model for investigating the mechanisms governing the regulation of vascular endothelin receptors. Endothelin type A (ET(A)) and type B (ET(B)) receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells are up-regulated in organ culture and the...... enhanced vasoconstriction mimics the changes that occur in cardiovascular disease. The effect of organ culture on endothelial dilatory endothelin ET(B) receptors is not known. We hypothesize that organ culture decreases the endothelin receptor-mediated dilatation and that this is one possible mechanism by...... denudation. The increase in sarafotoxin 6c contraction after removal of the endothelium was more pronounced before than after organ culture, suggesting down-regulated endothelial endothelin ET(B) receptors. Also, the immunofluorescence staining intensities for endothelial endothelin ET(B) receptors were...

  15. Tubular crystals of acetylcholine receptor

    1984-01-01

    Well-ordered tubular crystals of acetylcholine receptor were obtained from suspensions of Torpedo marmorata receptor-rich vesicles. They are composed of pairs of oppositely oriented molecules arranged on the surface lattice with the symmetry of the plane group p2 (average unit cell dimensions: a = 90 A, b = 162 A, gamma = 117 degrees). The receptor in this lattice has an asymmetric distribution of mass around its perimeter, yet a regular pentagonal shape; thus its five transmembrane subunits ...

  16. Receptors of mammalian trace amines

    Lewin, Anita H.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of a family of G-protein coupled receptors, some of which bind and are activated by biogenic trace amines, has prompted speculation as to the physiological role of these receptors. Observations associated with the distribution of these trace amine associated receptors (TAARs) suggest that they may be involved in depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, eating disorders, migraine headaches, and Parkinson's disease. Preliminary in vitro data, obtained using cloned rec...

  17. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    Villalón, Carlos; De Vries, Peter; Saxena, Pramod Ranjan

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT receptor classification, the authors reanalyse the cardiovascular responses mediated by 5-HT receptors and discuss the established and potential therapeutic applications of 5-HT ligands in the trea...

  18. Flavonoid modulation of GABAA receptors

    Jane R. Hanrahan; Chebib, Mary; Johnston, Graham A. R.

    2011-01-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in synthetic and plant-derived flavonoids as modulators of γ-amino butyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor function influencing inhibition mediated by the major inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA in the brain. Areas of interest include (i) flavonoids that show subtype selectivity in recombinant receptor studies in vitro consistent with their behavioural effects in vivo, (ii) flumazenil-insensitive modulation of GABAA receptor function by flavonoids, (iii) the abi...

  19. Immunobiology of the TAM receptors

    Lemke, Greg; Rothlin, Carla V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the TAM receptor protein tyrosine kinases — TYRO3, AXL and MER — have pivotal roles in innate immunity. They inhibit inflammation in dendritic cells and macrophages, promote the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and membranous organelles, and stimulate the maturation of natural killer cells. Each of these phenomena may depend on a cooperative interaction between TAM receptor and cytokine receptor signalling systems. Although its importance was previously unreco...

  20. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R; Schwartz, T W

    2001-01-01

    A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...... expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....

  1. Kinins and peptide receptors.

    Regoli, Domenico; Gobeil, Fernand

    2016-04-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first contains the essential elements of the opening lecture presented by Pr. Regoli to the 2015 International Kinin Symposium in S. Paulo, Brazil on June 28th and the second is the celebration of Dr. Regoli's 60 years of research on vasoactive peptides. The cardiovascular homeostasis derives from a balance of two systems, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). The biologically active effector entity of RAS is angiotensin receptor-1 (AT-1R), and that of KKS is bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). The first mediates vasoconstriction, the second is the most potent and efficient vasodilator. Thanks to its complex and multi-functional mechanism of action, involving nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelial hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). B2R is instrumental for the supply of blood, oxygen and nutrition to tissues. KKS is present on the vascular endothelium and functions as an autacoid playing major roles in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. KKS exerts a paramount role in the prevention of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Such knowledge emphasizes the already prominent value of the ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) for the treatment of CVDs and diabetes. Indeed, the ACEIs, thanks to their double action (block of the RAS and potentiation of the KKS) are the ideal agents for a rational treatment of these diseases. PMID:26408609

  2. Role of iso-receptors in receptor-receptor interactions with a focus on dopamine iso-receptor complexes.

    Agnati, Luigi F; Guidolin, Diego; Cervetto, Chiara; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular and intracellular communication processes consist of signals and recognition/decoding apparatuses of these signals. In humans, the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family represents the largest family of cell surface receptors. More than 30 years ago, it has been proposed that GPCR could form dimers or higher-order oligomers (receptor mosaics [RMs] at the plasma membrane level and receptor-receptor interactions [RRIs] have been proposed as a new integrative mechanism for chemical signals impinging on cell plasma membranes). The basic phenomena involved in RRIs are allostery and cooperativity of membrane receptors, and the present paper provides basic information concerning their relevance for the integrative functions of RMs. In this context, the possible role of iso-receptor RM is discussed (with a special focus on dopamine receptor subtypes and on some of the RMs they form with other dopamine iso-receptors), and it is proposed that two types of cooperativity, namely, homotropic and heterotropic cooperativity, could allow distinguishing two types of functionally different RMs. From a general point of view, the presence of iso-receptors and their topological organization within RMs allow the use of a reduced number of signals for the intercellular communication processes, since the target cells can recognize and decode the same signal in different ways. This theoretical aspect is further analyzed here by means of an analogy with artificial information systems. Thus, it is suggested that the 'multiplexer' and 'demultiplexer' concepts could, at least in part, model the role of RMs formed by iso-receptors in the information handling by the cell. PMID:26418645

  3. Receptor studies in biological psychiatry

    Recent advances in the pharmacological treatment of endogenous psychosis have led to the development of biological studies in psychiatry. Studies on neurotransmitter receptors were reviewed in order to apply positron-emission tomograph (PET) for biological psychiatry. The dopamine (DA) hypothesis for schizophrenia was advanced on the basis of the observed effects of neuroleptics and methamphetamine, and DA(D2) receptor supersensitivity measured by PET and receptor binding in the schizophrenic brain. The clinical potencies of neuroleptics for schizophrenia were correlated with their abilities to inhibit the D2 receptor, and not other receptors. The σ receptor was expected to be a site of antipsychotic action. However, the potency of drugs action on it was not correlated with clinical efficacy. Haloperidol binds with high affinity to the σ receptor, which may mediate acute dystonia, an extrapyramidal side effect of neuroleptics. Behavioral and neurochemical changes induced by methamphetamine treatment were studied as an animal model of schizophrenia, and both a decrease of D2 receptor density and an increase of DA release were detected. The monoamine hypothesis for manic-depressive psychosis was advanced on the basis of the effect of reserpine, monoamine oxidase inhibitor and antidepressants. 3H-clonidine binding sites were increased in platelet membranes of depressive patients, 3H-imipramine binding sites were decreased. The GABAA receptor is the target site for the action of anxiolytics and antiepileptics such as benzodiazepines and barbiturates. Recent developments in molecular biology techniques have revealed the structure of receptor proteins, which are classified into two receptor families, the G-protein coupled type (D2) and the ion-channel type (GABAA). (J.P.N.)

  4. Genetics Home Reference: leptin receptor deficiency

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions leptin receptor deficiency leptin receptor deficiency Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... boxes. Print All Open All Close All Description Leptin receptor deficiency is a condition that causes severe ...

  5. STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY: A moving story of receptors

    Schwartz, Thue W; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    2008-01-01

    Animals sense light and chemical signals through proteins called G-protein-coupled receptors. The crystal structure of one such receptor in complex with a G-protein fragment shows how these receptors are activated.

  6. Coronavirus spike-receptor interactions

    Mou, H.

    2015-01-01

    Coronaviruses cause important diseases in humans and animals. Coronavirus infection starts with the virus binding with its spike proteins to molecules present on the surface of host cells that act as receptors. This spike-receptor interaction is highly specific and determines the virus’ cell, tissue

  7. *601007 LEPTIN RECEPTOR; LEPR [OMIM

    Full Text Available FIELD NO 601007 FIELD TI 601007 LEPTIN RECEPTOR; LEPR ;;OBR FIELD TX DESCRIPTION Leptin (LEP; 16 ... ession of the OBR gene in hypothalamic tissue from lean ... and obese humans. The tissue was obtained shortly ... ference in the amount of leptin-receptor mRNA in 7 lean ... and 8 obese subjects as determined by RT-PCR. A se ...

  8. Dopamine Receptors and Parkinson's Disease

    Shin Hisahara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a progressive extrapyramidal motor disorder. Pathologically, this disease is characterized by the selective dopaminergic (DAergic neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Correcting the DA deficiency in PD with levodopa (L-dopa significantly attenuates the motor symptoms; however, its effectiveness often declines, and L-dopa-related adverse effects emerge after long-term treatment. Nowadays, DA receptor agonists are useful medication even regarded as first choice to delay the starting of L-dopa therapy. In advanced stage of PD, they are also used as adjunct therapy together with L-dopa. DA receptor agonists act by stimulation of presynaptic and postsynaptic DA receptors. Despite the usefulness, they could be causative drugs for valvulopathy and nonmotor complication such as DA dysregulation syndrome (DDS. In this paper, physiological characteristics of DA receptor familyare discussed. We also discuss the validity, benefits, and specific adverse effects of pharmaceutical DA receptor agonist.

  9. MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

    Faoro, Leonardo; Cervantes, Gustavo M.; El-Hashani, Essam; Salgia, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) have become important therapeutic target in oncology, especially lung cancer. MET RTK is involved in cancer cell growth/survival, motility/migration, invasion/metastasis, and in angiogenesis. MET can be overexpressed in lung cancer, sometimes mutated, and sometimes amplified. Not only can MET be overexpressed, there are subsets of lung cancer tumors that have HGF overexpression. The mutations of MET can occur in the semaphorin and/or juxtamembrane domain in a majority of times. Amplification of MET can occur de novo in primary/metastatic tumors, as well arise in the context of therapeutic inhibition. There are a number of clinical inhibitors that have been developed against MET/HGF. Small molecule inhibitors such as XL184 and PF02341066 have come to clinical fruition, as well as antibodies against MET (such as MetMAb). These inhibitors will be discussed. PMID:19861919

  10. The lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81/hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1

    Morland, Cecilie; Lauritzen, Knut Huso; Puchades, Maja;

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed that lactate is a “volume transmitter” in the brain and underpinned this by showing that the lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81, also known as HCA1 or HCAR1), which promotes lipid storage in adipocytes, is also active in the mammalian brain. This includes the ...

  11. Discoidin domain receptors in disease.

    Borza, Corina M; Pozzi, Ambra

    2014-02-01

    Discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, lie at the intersection of two large receptor families, namely the extracellular matrix and tyrosine kinase receptors. As such, DDRs are uniquely positioned to function as sensors for extracellular matrix and to regulate a wide range of cell functions from migration and proliferation to cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix homeostasis/remodeling. While activation of DDRs by extracellular matrix collagens is required for normal development and tissue homeostasis, aberrant activation of these receptors following injury or in disease is detrimental. The availability of mice lacking DDRs has enabled us to identify key roles played by these receptors in disease initiation and progression. DDR1 promotes inflammation in atherosclerosis, lung fibrosis and kidney injury, while DDR2 contributes to osteoarthritis. Furthermore, both DDRs have been implicated in cancer progression. Yet the mechanisms whereby DDRs contribute to disease progression are poorly understood. In this review we highlight the mechanisms whereby DDRs regulate two important processes, namely inflammation and tissue fibrosis. In addition, we discuss the challenges of targeting DDRs in disease. Selective targeting of these receptors requires understanding of how they interact with and are activated by extracellular matrix, and whether their cellular function is dependent on or independent of receptor kinase activity. PMID:24361528

  12. Radioiodinated ligands for dopamine receptors

    The dopamine receptor system is important for normal brain function; it is also the apparent action site for various neuroleptic drugs for the treatment of schizophrenia and other metal disorders. In the past few years radioiodinated ligands for single photon emission tomography (SPECT) have been successfully developed and tested in humans: [123I]TISCH for D1 dopamine receptors; [123I]IBZM, epidepride, IBF and FIDA2, four iodobenzamide derivatives, for D2/D3 dopamine receptors. In addition, [123I]β-CIT (RTI-55) and IPT, cocaine derivatives, for the dopamine reuptake site are potentially useful for diagnosis of loss of dopamine neurons. The first iodinated ligand, (R)trans-7-OH-PIPAT, for D3 dopamine receptors, was synthesized and characterized with cloned cell lines (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) expressing the D2 and D3 dopamine receptors and with rat basal forebrain membrane preparations. Most of the known iodobenzamides displayed similar potency in binding to both D2 and D3 dopamine receptors expressed in the cell lines. Initial studies appear to suggest that by fine tuning the structures it may be possible to develop agents specific for D2 and D3 dopamine receptors. It is important to investigate D2/D3 selectivity for this series of potent ligands

  13. Purinergic receptors in psychiatric disorders.

    Krügel, Ute

    2016-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders describe different mental or behavioral patterns, causing suffering or poor coping of ordinary life with manifold presentations. Multifactorial processes can contribute to their development and progression. Purinergic neurotransmission and neuromodulation in the brain have attracted increasing therapeutic interest in the field of psychiatry. Purine nucleotides and nucleosides are well recognized as signaling molecules mediating cell to cell communication. The actions of ATP are mediated by ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptor subfamilies, whilst the actions of adenosine are mediated by P1 (A1 or A2) adenosine receptors. Purinergic mechanisms and specific receptor subtypes have been shown to be linked to the regulation of many aspects of behavior and mood and to dysregulation in pathological processes of brain function. In this review the recent knowledge on the role of purinergic receptors in the two most frequent psychiatric diseases, major depression and schizophrenia, as well as on related animal models is summarized. At present the most promising data for therapeutic strategies derive from investigations of the adenosine system emphasizing a unique function of A2A receptors at neurons and astrocytes in these disorders. Among the P2 receptor family, in particular P2X7 and P2Y1 receptors were related to disturbances in major depression and schizophrenia, respectively. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Purines in Neurodegeneration and Neuroregeneration'. PMID:26518371

  14. Immunisation with Torpedo acetylcholine receptor.

    Elfman, L

    1984-01-01

    Acetylcholine mediates the transfer of information between neurons in the electric organ of, for example, Torpedo as well as in vertebrate skeletal muscle. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex translates the binding of acetylcholine into ion permeability changes. This leads to an action potential in the muscle fibre. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein has been purified from Torpedo by use of affinity chromatography. The receptor is an intrinsic membrane glycoprotein composed of five polypeptide chains. When various animals are immunised with the receptor they demonstrate clinical signs of severe muscle weakness coincident with high antibody titres in their sera. The symptoms resemble those found in the autoimmune neuromuscular disease myasthenia gravis in humans. This animal model has constituted a unique model for studying autoimmune diseases. This paper reviews some of the work using Torpedo acetylcholine receptor in order to increase the understanding of the motor nervous system function and myasthenia gravis. It is now known that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protein is the antigen involved in myasthenia gravis. The mechanism of immune damage involves a direct block of the receptor function. This depends on the presence of antibodies which crosslink the postsynaptic receptors leading to their degradation. The questions to be answered in the future are; (a) what initiates or triggers the autoimmune response, (b) how do the antibodies cause the symptoms--is there a steric hindrance of the interaction of acetylcholine and the receptor, (c) why is there not a strict relationship between antibody titre and severity of symptoms, and (d) why are some muscles affected and other spared? With help of the experimental model, answers to these questions may result in improved strategies for the treatment of the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. PMID:6097937

  15. Hemoglobin and heme scavenger receptors

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Heme, the functional group of hemoglobin, myoglobin, and other hemoproteins, is a highly toxic substance when it appears in the extracellular milieu. To circumvent potential harmful effects of heme from hemoproteins released during physiological or pathological cell damage (such as hemolysis and......-binding haptoglobin and the receptor CD163, and b) the heme-binding hemopexin and the receptor low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein/CD91. Apart from the disclosure of the molecular basis for these important heme scavenging systems by identifying the functional link between the carrier proteins and the...

  16. Chlorogenic acid reduces liver inflammation and fibrosis through inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathway

    Highlights: ► Chlorogenic acid decreased serum transaminase level and increased albumin level. ► Chlorogenic acid attenuated CCl4-induced liver collagen deposition. ► Chlorogenic acid ameliorated CCl4-induced inflammatory response. ► Chlorogenic acid inhibited the activation of TLR4/NF-κB signaling in liver. -- Abstract: Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a type of polyphenol with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities. Our previous studies showed CGA could efficiently inhibit carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. However, the specific underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of CGA on liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl4 and whether they are related to inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administrated CCl4 together with or without CGA for 8 weeks. Histopathological and biochemical analyses were carried out. The mRNA and protein expression levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic mediators were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. CGA significantly attenuated CCl4-induced liver damage and symptoms of liver fibrosis, accompanied by reduced serum transaminase levels, collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. As compared with the CCl4-treated group, the expression levels of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were reduced in the treatment group of CCl4 and CGA, whereas bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (Bambi) expression was increased. CGA also suppressed CCl4 induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Moreover, the hepatic mRNA expression and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly increased in CCl4-treated rats and attenuated by co

  17. Follistatin Alleviates Synovitis and Articular Cartilage Degeneration Induced by Carrageenan

    Yamada, Jun; Abula, Kahaer; Inoue, Makiko; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Activins are proinflammatory cytokines which belong to the TGFβ superfamily. Follistatin is an extracellular decoy receptor for activins. Since both activins and follistatin are expressed in articular cartilage, we hypothesized that activin-follistatin signaling participates in the process of joint inflammation and cartilage degeneration. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of follistatin in a carrageenan-induced mouse arthritis model. Synovitis induced by intra-articular injection of carrageenan was significantly alleviated by preinjection with follistatin. Macrophage infiltration into the synovial membrane was significantly reduced in the presence of follistatin. In addition, follistatin inhibited proteoglycan erosion induced by carrageenan in articular cartilage. These data indicate that activin-follistatin signaling is involved in joint inflammation and cartilage homeostasis. Our data suggest that follistatin can be a new therapeutic target for inflammation-induced articular cartilage degeneration. PMID:25574420

  18. Quantitative receptor radioautography in the study of receptor-receptor interactions in the nucleus tractus solitarii

    Fior-Chadi D.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS in the dorsomedial medulla comprises a wide range of neuropeptides and biogenic amines. Several of them are related to mechanisms of central blood pressure control. Angiotensin II (Ang II, neuropeptide Y (NPY and noradrenaline (NA are found in the NTS cells, as well as their receptors. Based on this observation we have evaluated the modulatory effect of these peptide receptors on a2-adrenoceptors in the NTS. Using quantitative receptor radioautography, we observed that NPY and Ang II receptors decreased the affinity of a2-adrenoceptors for their agonists in the NTS of the rat. Cardiovascular experiments agreed with the in vitro data. Coinjection of a threshold dose of Ang II or of the NPY agonists together with an ED50 dose of adrenergic agonists such as NA, adrenaline and clonidine counteracted the depressor effect produced by the a2-agonist in the NTS. The results provide evidence for the existence of an antagonistic interaction between Ang II at1 receptors and NPY receptor subtypes with the a2-adrenoceptors in the NTS. This receptor interaction may reduce the transduction over the a2-adrenoceptors which can be important in central cardiovascular regulation and in the development of hypertension

  19. Profiling Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Heregulin Receptor 3 Heteromerization Using Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Heteromer Investigation Technology

    Mohammed Akli Ayoub; Heng B See; Seeber, Ruth M.; Armstrong, Stephen P.; Pfleger, Kevin D.G.

    2013-01-01

    Heteromerization can play an important role in regulating the activation and/or signal transduction of most forms of receptors, including receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). The study of receptor heteromerization has evolved extensively with the emergence of resonance energy transfer based approaches such as bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Here, we report an adaptation of our Receptor-Heteromer Investigation Technology (Receptor-HIT) that has recently been published as the G p...

  20. Receptor-targeted metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Final technical report

    Copper (II) and platinum (II) coordination complexes were prepared and characterized. These complexes were designed to afford structural homology with steroidal and non-steroidal estrogens for possible use as receptor-targeted radiopharmaceuticals. While weak affinity for the estrogen receptor was detectable, none would appear to have sufficient receptor-affinity for estrogen-receptor-targeted imaging or therapy

  1. Receptor antibodies as novel therapeutics for diabetes

    Ussar, Siegfried; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Kahn, C Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Antibodies to receptors can block or mimic hormone action. Taking advantage of receptor isoforms, co-receptors, and other receptor modulating proteins, antibodies and other designer ligands can enhance tissue specificity and provide new approaches to the therapy of diabetes and other diseases....

  2. A threading receptor for polysaccharides.

    Mooibroek, Tiddo J; Casas-Solvas, Juan M; Harniman, Robert L; Renney, Charles M; Carter, Tom S; Crump, Matthew P; Davis, Anthony P

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (K(a) up to 19,000 M(-1)), and is shown--by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy--to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules. PMID:26673266

  3. A threading receptor for polysaccharides

    Mooibroek, Tiddo J.; Casas-Solvas, Juan M.; Harniman, Robert L.; Renney, Charles M.; Carter, Tom S.; Crump, Matthew P.; Davis, Anthony P.

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose, chitin and related polysaccharides are key renewable sources of organic molecules and materials. However, poor solubility tends to hamper their exploitation. Synthetic receptors could aid dissolution provided they are capable of cooperative action, for example by multiple threading on a single polysaccharide molecule. Here we report a synthetic receptor designed to form threaded complexes (polypseudorotaxanes) with these natural polymers. The receptor binds fragments of the polysaccharides in aqueous solution with high affinities (Ka up to 19,000 M-1), and is shown—by nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy—to adopt the threading geometry. Evidence from induced circular dichroism and atomic force microscopy implies that the receptor also forms polypseudorotaxanes with cellulose and its polycationic analogue chitosan. The results hold promise for polysaccharide solubilization under mild conditions, as well as for new approaches to the design of biologically active molecules.

  4. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    consequence of the environmental conditions olfactory receptor genes have explored during evolution. The association of odorant patterns with specific environmental or contextual situations makes their relationship semiotically triadic, due to the emergence of an interpretant capable of perceiving odorants as...

  5. Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas (NURSA) is designed to foster the development of a comprehensive understanding of the structure, function, and role in disease...

  6. Glycine receptors and brain development

    Avila, Ariel; Nguyen, Laurent; Rigo, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are ligand-gated chloride ion channels that mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and the brainstem. There, they are mainly involved in motor control and pain perception in the adult. However, these receptors are also expressed in upper regions of the central nervous system, where they participate in different processes including synaptic neurotransmission. Moreover, GlyRs are present since early stages of brain development and might influence ...

  7. Dopamine D4 Receptors in Psychostimulant Addiction

    Di Ciano, Patricia; Grandy, David; Le Foll, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Since the cloning of the D4 receptor in the 1990s, interest has been building in the role of this receptor in drug addiction, given the importance of dopamine in addiction. Like the D3 receptor, the D4 receptor has limited distribution within the brain suggesting it may have a unique role in drug abuse. However, compared to the D3 receptor, few studies have evaluated the importance of the D4 receptor. This may be due, in part, to the relative lack of compounds selective for the D4 receptor; t...

  8. Nuclear Receptors, RXR, and the Big Bang.

    Evans, Ronald M; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-03-27

    Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D, and thyroid hormone and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors and, in particular, of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the "Big Bang" of molecular endocrinology. This Review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multicellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. PMID:24679540

  9. Thermostabilisation of the neurotensin receptor NTS1

    Shibata, Yoko; White, Jim F.; Serrano-Vega, Maria J.; Magnani, Francesca; Aloia, Amanda L.; Grisshammer, Reinhard; Tate, Christopher G.

    2009-01-01

    Structural studies on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been hampered for many years by their instability in detergent solution and by the number of potential conformations that receptors can adopt. Recently, the structures of the β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors and the adenosine A2a receptor were determined with antagonist bound, a receptor conformation that is thought to be more stable than the agonist-bound state. In contrast to these receptors, the neurotensin receptor NTS1 is much ...

  10. Expression of GABAergic receptors in mouse taste receptor cells.

    Margaret R Starostik

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple excitatory neurotransmitters have been identified in the mammalian taste transduction, with few studies focused on inhibitory neurotransmitters. Since the synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is expressed in a subset of mouse taste cells, we hypothesized that other components of the GABA signaling pathway are likely expressed in this system. GABA signaling is initiated by the activation of either ionotropic receptors (GABA(A and GABA(C or metabotropic receptors (GABA(B while it is terminated by the re-uptake of GABA through transporters (GATs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR analysis, we investigated the expression of different GABA signaling molecules in the mouse taste system. Taste receptor cells (TRCs in the circumvallate papillae express multiple subunits of the GABA(A and GABA(B receptors as well as multiple GATs. Immunocytochemical analyses examined the distribution of the GABA machinery in the circumvallate papillae. Both GABA(A-and GABA(B- immunoreactivity were detected in the peripheral taste receptor cells. We also used transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP in either the Type II taste cells, which can respond to bitter, sweet or umami taste stimuli, or in the Type III GAD67 expressing taste cells. Thus, we were able to identify that GABAergic receptors are expressed in some Type II and Type III taste cells. Mouse GAT4 labeling was concentrated in the cells surrounding the taste buds with a few positively labeled TRCs at the margins of the taste buds. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The presence of GABAergic receptors localized on Type II and Type III taste cells suggests that GABA is likely modulating evoked taste responses in the mouse taste bud.

  11. Toll-like receptors in neonatal sepsis.

    O'Hare, Fiona M

    2013-06-01

    Toll-like receptors are vital transmembrane receptors that initiate the innate immune response to many micro-organisms. The discovery of these receptors has improved our understanding of host-pathogen interactions, and these receptors play an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple neonatal conditions such as sepsis and brain injury. Toll-like receptors, especially TLRs 2 and 4, are associated with necrotizing enterocolitis, periventricular leukomalacia and sepsis.

  12. Structure, function, and regulation of adrenergic receptors.

    Strosberg, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors for adrenaline and noradrenaline belong to the large multigenic family of receptors coupled to GTP-binding proteins. Three pharmacologic types have been identified: alpha 1-, alpha 2-, and beta-adrenergic receptors. Each of these has three subtypes, characterized by both structural and functional differences. The alpha 2 and beta receptors are coupled negatively and positively, respectively, to adenylyl cyclase via Gi or Gs regulatory proteins, and the alpha 1 receptors m...

  13. Pharmacology of benzodiazepine receptors: an update.

    Sieghart, W.

    1994-01-01

    Benzodiazepine receptors are allosteric modulatory sites on GABAA receptors. GABAA receptors are probably composed of five protein subunits, at least some of which belong to different subunit classes. So far six alpha-, four beta-, three gamma-, and delta- and two rho = p subunits of GABAA receptors have been identified. A large number of different subunit combinations, each of which will result in a GABAA receptor with distinct electrophysiological and pharmacological properties, are therefo...

  14. Studies on insulin receptor, 2

    The present study is to investigate an influence of starvation and high fat diet on insulin receptor of the plasma membrane by means of radioreceptor assay using 125I-labelled insulin. Male guinea pigs of Hartley strain were employed for the starvation study, and 125I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver and kidney was determined at 24, 48 and 72 hours of the fast after the last meal. Male rats of Wistar strain were employed for the high fat study where the diet containing 35% of butter was fed ad libitum for 38 or 68 days. The animals were killed at the fast of 12 hours, and 125I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver was determined. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1) An increase in 125I-insulin binding capacity on the plasma membrane of the liver and kidney was observed by the starvation for 24 to 72 hours. 2) The mechanism of the increase by starvation was considered to be different by the organs; it was due to an increase in number of insulin receptor in the liver, and due to an increase in affinity of insulin receptor in the kidney. 3) In non-obese rats fed with high fat diet, the number of insulin receptor on the liver plasma membrane showed a decrease, and this observation clearly indicated that the decrease in number of the receptor did not depend on the obesity. 4) Obese rats also fed with high fat diet presented a decrease in number of insulin receptor without an elevation of insulin levels in the circulating blood. This indicated that at least in the obese rats fed with high fat diet, the decrease in number of the receptor was not due to hyperinsulinemia. (author)

  15. Identification and mechanism of ABA receptor antagonism

    Melcher, Karsten; Xu, Yong; Ng, Ley-Moy; Zhou, X. Edward; Soon, Fen-Fen; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Kovach, Amanda; Tham, Fook S.; Cutler, Sean R.; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Xu, H. Eric (NU Sinapore); (Van Andel); (UCR)

    2010-11-11

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) functions through a family of fourteen PYR/PYL receptors, which were identified by resistance to pyrabactin, a synthetic inhibitor of seed germination. ABA activates these receptors to inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases, such as ABI1, yet it remains unclear whether these receptors can be antagonized. Here we demonstrate that pyrabactin is an agonist of PYR1 and PYL1 but is unexpectedly an antagonist of PYL2. Crystal structures of the PYL2-pyrabactin and PYL1-pyrabactin-ABI1 complexes reveal the mechanism responsible for receptor-selective activation and inhibition, which enables us to design mutations that convert PYL1 to a pyrabactin-inhibited receptor and PYL2 to a pyrabactin-activated receptor and to identify new pyrabactin-based ABA receptor agonists. Together, our results establish a new concept of ABA receptor antagonism, illustrate its underlying mechanisms and provide a rational framework for discovering novel ABA receptor ligands.

  16. Purinergic Receptors in Ocular Inflammation

    Ana Guzman-Aranguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a complex process that implies the interaction between cells and molecular mediators, which, when not properly “tuned,” can lead to disease. When inflammation affects the eye, it can produce severe disorders affecting the superficial and internal parts of the visual organ. The nucleoside adenosine and nucleotides including adenine mononucleotides like ADP and ATP and dinucleotides such as P1,P4-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A, and P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A are present in different ocular locations and therefore they may contribute/modulate inflammatory processes. Adenosine receptors, in particular A2A adenosine receptors, present anti-inflammatory action in acute and chronic retinal inflammation. Regarding the A3 receptor, selective agonists like N6-(3-iodobenzyl-5′-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (CF101 have been used for the treatment of inflammatory ophthalmic diseases such as dry eye and uveoretinitis. Sideways, diverse stimuli (sensory stimulation, large intraocular pressure increases can produce a release of ATP from ocular sensory innervation or after injury to ocular tissues. Then, ATP will activate purinergic P2 receptors present in sensory nerve endings, the iris, the ciliary body, or other tissues surrounding the anterior chamber of the eye to produce uveitis/endophthalmitis. In summary, adenosine and nucleotides can activate receptors in ocular structures susceptible to suffer from inflammatory processes. This involvement suggests the possible use of purinergic agonists and antagonists as therapeutic targets for ocular inflammation.

  17. How calcium makes endocytic receptors attractive

    Andersen, Christian B F; Moestrup, Søren K

    2014-01-01

    receptor. Endosomal acidification and calcium efflux lead to the essential ligand-receptor affinity switch and separation. Recent data, including crystal structures of receptor-ligand complexes, now reveal how calcium, in different types of domain scaffolds, functions in a common way as a removable...... 'lynchpin' that stabilizes favorable positioning of ligand-attractive receptor residues. In addition to explaining how calcium depletion can cause ligand-receptor dissociation, the new data add further insight into how acidification contributes to dissociation through structural changes that affect the...... receptor calcium sites....

  18. Host receptors for bacteriophage adsorption.

    Bertozzi Silva, Juliano; Storms, Zachary; Sauvageau, Dominic

    2016-02-01

    The adsorption of bacteriophages (phages) onto host cells is, in all but a few rare cases, a sine qua non condition for the onset of the infection process. Understanding the mechanisms involved and the factors affecting it is, thus, crucial for the investigation of host-phage interactions. This review provides a survey of the phage host receptors involved in recognition and adsorption and their interactions during attachment. Comprehension of the whole infection process, starting with the adsorption step, can enable and accelerate our understanding of phage ecology and the development of phage-based technologies. To assist in this effort, we have established an open-access resource--the Phage Receptor Database (PhReD)--to serve as a repository for information on known and newly identified phage receptors. PMID:26755501

  19. Monoallelic expression of olfactory receptors.

    Monahan, Kevin; Lomvardas, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    The sense of smell collects vital information about the environment by detecting a multitude of chemical odorants. Breadth and sensitivity are provided by a huge number of chemosensory receptor proteins, including more than 1,400 olfactory receptors (ORs). Organizing the sensory information generated by these receptors so that it can be processed and evaluated by the central nervous system is a major challenge. This challenge is overcome by monogenic and monoallelic expression of OR genes. The single OR expressed by each olfactory sensory neuron determines the neuron's odor sensitivity and the axonal connections it will make to downstream neurons in the olfactory bulb. The expression of a single OR per neuron is accomplished by coupling a slow chromatin-mediated activation process to a fast negative-feedback signal that prevents activation of additional ORs. Singular OR activation is likely orchestrated by a network of interchromosomal enhancer interactions and large-scale changes in nuclear architecture. PMID:26359778

  20. Receptor Proteins in Selective Autophagy

    Christian Behrends

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy has long been thought to be an essential but unselective bulk degradation pathway. However, increasing evidence suggests selective autophagosomal turnover of a broad range of substrates. Bifunctional autophagy receptors play a key role in selective autophagy by tethering cargo to the site of autophagosomal engulfment. While the identity of molecular components involved in selective autophagy has been revealed at least to some extent, we are only beginning to understand how selectivity is achieved in this process. Here, we summarize the mechanistic and structural basis of receptor-mediated selective autophagy.

  1. Nuclear receptors and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Cave, Matthew C; Clair, Heather B; Hardesty, Josiah E; Falkner, K Cameron; Feng, Wenke; Clark, Barbara J; Sidey, Jennifer; Shi, Hongxue; Aqel, Bashar A; McClain, Craig J; Prough, Russell A

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear receptors are transcription factors which sense changing environmental or hormonal signals and effect transcriptional changes to regulate core life functions including growth, development, and reproduction. To support this function, following ligand-activation by xenobiotics, members of subfamily 1 nuclear receptors (NR1s) may heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) to regulate transcription of genes involved in energy and xenobiotic metabolism and inflammation. Several of these receptors including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), the pregnane and xenobiotic receptor (PXR), the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), the liver X receptor (LXR) and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are key regulators of the gut:liver:adipose axis and serve to coordinate metabolic responses across organ systems between the fed and fasting states. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease and may progress to cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD is associated with inappropriate nuclear receptor function and perturbations along the gut:liver:adipose axis including obesity, increased intestinal permeability with systemic inflammation, abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance. Environmental chemicals may compound the problem by directly interacting with nuclear receptors leading to metabolic confusion and the inability to differentiate fed from fasting conditions. This review focuses on the impact of nuclear receptors in the pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD. Clinical trials including PIVENS and FLINT demonstrate that nuclear receptor targeted therapies may lead to the paradoxical dissociation of steatosis, inflammation, fibrosis, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and obesity. Novel strategies currently under development (including tissue-specific ligands and dual receptor agonists) may be required to separate the beneficial effects of nuclear receptor activation from unwanted metabolic

  2. Transcriptional Corepressor SMILE Recruits SIRT1 to Inhibit Nuclear Receptor Estrogen Receptor-related Receptor γ Transactivation*

    Xie, Yuan-Bin; Park, Jeong-Hoh; Kim, Don-Kyu; Hwang, Jung Hwan; Oh, Sangmi; Park, Seung Bum; Shong, Minho; Lee, In-Kyu; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2009-01-01

    SMILE (small heterodimer partner interacting leucine zipper protein) has been identified as a corepressor of the glucocorticoid receptor, constitutive androstane receptor, and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α. Here we show that SMILE also represses estrogen receptor-related receptor γ (ERRγ) transactivation. Knockdown of SMILE gene expression increases ERRγ activity. SMILE directly interacts with ERRγ in vitro and in vivo. Domain mapping analysis showed that SMILE binds to the AF2 domain of ERRγ....

  3. Mechanism for the activation of glutamate receptors

    Scientists at the NIH have used a technique called cryo-electron microscopy to determine a molecular mechanism for the activation and desensitization of ionotropic glutamate receptors, a prominent class of neurotransmitter receptors in the brain and spina

  4. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists for hepatic encephalopathy

    Als-Nielsen, B; Gluud, L L; Gluud, C

    2004-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy.......Hepatic encephalopathy may be associated with accumulation of substances that bind to a receptor-complex in the brain resulting in neural inhibition. Benzodiazepine receptor antagonists may have a beneficial effect on patients with hepatic encephalopathy....

  5. Beta adrenergic receptors in pigmented ciliary processes.

    Trope, G. E.; Clark, B.

    1982-01-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors from membrane fragments of pigmented sheep eyes were studied and characterised by ligand binding techniques after the removal of melanin. In a representative experiment the beta max (total number of beta receptors) was 394.9 fmol/mg protein. The receptor affinity (Ka) was 440 pM. The potency series of drugs to displace 125I-HYP from the receptors was timolol = (-) propranolol greater than (+) propranolol greater than salbutamol greater than practolol. beta 1 Recepto...

  6. Evolution of the nuclear receptor gene superfamily.

    Laudet, V; Hänni, C; Coll, J.; F. Catzeflis; Stéhelin, D

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear receptor genes represent a large family of genes encoding receptors for various hydrophobic ligands such as steroids, vitamin D, retinoic acid and thyroid hormones. This family also contains genes encoding putative receptors for unknown ligands. Nuclear receptor gene products are composed of several domains important for transcriptional activation, DNA binding (C domain), hormone binding and dimerization (E domain). It is not known whether these genes have evolved through gene duplica...

  7. Thrombopoietin Receptor Agonists in Primary ITP

    Siegal, Deborah; Crowther, Mark; Cuker, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) regulates thrombopoiesis through activation of TPO receptors on the megakaryocyte cell surface, resulting in increased platelet production. The TPO receptor agonists are novel treatments for patients with chronic ITP aimed at increasing platelet production through interactions with the TPO receptor on megakaryocytes. Two TPO receptor agonists, romiplostim and eltrombopag, have received regulatory approval. In patients with chronic ITP who remain at risk of bleeding follow...

  8. Uncompetitive antagonism of AMPA receptors

    Andersen, Trine F; Tikhonov, Denis B; Bølcho, Ulrik;

    2006-01-01

    Philanthotoxins are uncompetitive antagonists of Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors presumed to bind to the pore-forming region, but a detailed molecular mechanism for this interaction is missing. Here a small library of novel philanthotoxins was designed and synthesized using a solid-phase strategy. ...

  9. Excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists

    Johansen, T N; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea; Ebert, B;

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that (RS)-2-amino-2-(5-tert-butyl-3-hydroxyisoxazol-4-yl)acetic acid (ATAA) is an antagonist at N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) and (RS)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. We have now resolved ATAA via diastereomeric salt formation...

  10. Serotonin receptors as cardiovascular targets

    C.M. Villalón (Carlos); P.A.M. de Vries (Peter); P.R. Saxena (Pramod Ranjan)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractSerotonin exerts complex effects in the cardiovascular system, including hypotension or hypertension, vasodilatation or vasoconstriction, and/or bradycardia or tachycardia; the eventual response depends primarily on the nature of the 5-HT receptors involved. In the light of current 5-HT

  11. Cannabinoid receptor localization in brain

    Herkenham, M.; Lynn, A.B.; Little, M.D.; Johnson, M.R.; Melvin, L.S.; de Costa, B.R.; Rice, K.C. (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-03-01

    (3H)CP 55,940, a radiolabeled synthetic cannabinoid, which is 10-100 times more potent in vivo than delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was used to characterize and localize a specific cannabinoid receptor in brain sections. The potencies of a series of natural and synthetic cannabinoids as competitors of (3H)CP 55,940 binding correlated closely with their relative potencies in several biological assays, suggesting that the receptor characterized in our in vitro assay is the same receptor that mediates behavioral and pharmacological effects of cannabinoids, including human subjective experience. Autoradiography of cannabinoid receptors in brain sections from several mammalian species, including human, reveals a unique and conserved distribution; binding is most dense in outflow nuclei of the basal ganglia--the substantia nigra pars reticulata and globus pallidus--and in the hippocampus and cerebellum. Generally high densities in forebrain and cerebellum implicate roles for cannabinoids in cognition and movement. Sparse densities in lower brainstem areas controlling cardiovascular and respiratory functions may explain why high doses of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol are not lethal.

  12. Polypharmacology of dopamine receptor ligands.

    Butini, S; Nikolic, K; Kassel, S; Brückmann, H; Filipic, S; Agbaba, D; Gemma, S; Brogi, S; Brindisi, M; Campiani, G; Stark, H

    2016-07-01

    Most neurological diseases have a multifactorial nature and the number of molecular mechanisms discovered as underpinning these diseases is continuously evolving. The old concept of developing selective agents for a single target does not fit with the medical need of most neurological diseases. The development of designed multiple ligands holds great promises and appears as the next step in drug development for the treatment of these multifactorial diseases. Dopamine and its five receptor subtypes are intimately involved in numerous neurological disorders. Dopamine receptor ligands display a high degree of cross interactions with many other targets including G-protein coupled receptors, transporters, enzymes and ion channels. For brain disorders like Parkinsońs disease, schizophrenia and depression the dopaminergic system, being intertwined with many other signaling systems, plays a key role in pathogenesis and therapy. The concept of designed multiple ligands and polypharmacology, which perfectly meets the therapeutic needs for these brain disorders, is herein discussed as a general ligand-based concept while focusing on dopaminergic agents and receptor subtypes in particular. PMID:27234980

  13. Radioligand Binding at Muscarinic Receptors

    El-Fakahany, E. E.; Jakubík, Jan

    New York: Springer, 2016 - (Mysliveček, J.; Jakubík, J.), s. 37-68. (Neuromethods. 107). ISBN 978-1-4939-2857-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic acetylcholine receptors * radioligand binding Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  14. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Receptors

    Jakubík, Jan; El-Fakahany, E. E.

    New York: Springer, 2016 - (Mysliveček, J.; Jakubík, J.), s. 95-130. (Neuromethods. 107). ISBN 978-1-4939-2857-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * allosteric modulation * radioligand binding functional response Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  15. Localization of CGRP receptor components and receptor binding sites in rhesus monkey brainstem

    Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Roberts, Rhonda; Chen, Tsing-Bau;

    2016-01-01

    -like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1), respectively. To define CGRP receptor binding sites, in vitro autoradiography was performed with [(3)H]MK-3207 (a CGRP receptor antagonist). CLR and RAMP1 mRNA and protein expression were detected in the pineal gland, medial mammillary...

  16. Agonism and antagonism at the insulin receptor

    Knudsen, Louise; Hansen, Bo Falck; Jensen, Pia; Pedersen, Thomas Åskov; Vestergaard, Kirsten; Schäffer, Lauge; Blagoev, Blagoy; Oleksiewicz, Martin B; Kiselyov, Vladislav V; De Meyts, Pierre Marcel Joseph

    2012-01-01

    insulin analogues. The occurrence of ligand agonism and antagonism is well described for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and other receptors but in general, with the exception of antibodies, not for receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). In the case of the IR, no natural ligand or insulin analogue has been...

  17. Estrogen receptors in human vaginal tissue

    Wiegerinck, M.A.H.M.; Poortman, J.; Agema, A.R.; Thijssen, J.H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of specific estrogen receptors could be demonstrated in vaginal tissue, obtained during operation from 38 women, age 27–75 yr. In 23 premenopausal women the receptor concentration in the vaginal tissue varied between 12 and 91 fmol/mg protein, no significant difference in the receptor

  18. Internalization and desensitization of adenosine receptors.

    Klaasse, E.C.; IJzerman, A.P.; Grip, W.J. de; Beukers, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Until now, more than 800 distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the human genome. The four subtypes of the adenosine receptor (A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3) receptor) belong to this large family of GPCRs that represent the most widely targeted pharmacological protein clas

  19. Characterization of the thyrotropin receptor

    Scatchard analysis of the binding of [125I]TSH to thyroid plasma membranes results in a curvilinear, concave-upward plot. This phenomenon could be indicative of several conditions, including radioligand heterogeneity, negative cooperativity, or multiple binding sites. To investigate the first of these possibilities, [125I]TSH was purified by chromatography on Sepharose 6B. The receptor active [125I]TSH continued to yield a curvilinear Scatchard plot in equilibrium binding analyses, indicating that this phenomenon was not the result of radioligand impurities of heterogeneity. To determine the contribution of the receptor to this complex behavior, the TSH receptor was solubilized and subjected to concanavalin A chromatography. Two populations of binding sites were recovered. The pass-through fraction contained 70% of the total sites and exhibited a linear Scatchard plot with a K/sub D/ of 67 nM, while 0.2 M methylmannoside eluted 10% of the sites which exhibited a single K/sub D/ of 0.3 nM. To characterize its structure, the TSH receptor was labeled with [125I]TSH and cross-linked with disuccinimidyl suberate. Analysis by electrophoresis and autoradiography demonstrated the labeling of two hormone-receptor complexes with M/sub r/ of 80,000 and 68,000. These two bands were demonstrated to be TSH-specific and were present in plasma membranes from thyroid, but not from muscle or liver. Furthermore, antibodies isolated from the sera of Graves' disease patients, which inhibit the bindings of [125I]TSH, blocked the labeling of the two complexes. When the separated high and low affinity TSH binding components were similarly analyzed, both components exhibited the 80,000 and 68,000 bands. Furthermore, the autoantibodies from Graves' disease sera inhibited the binding of [125I]TSH to both the high and low affinity species

  20. Dimerization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor potentiates hormone-dependent receptor phosphorylation

    Song, Gyun Jee; Jones, Brian W.; Hinkle, Patricia M.

    2007-01-01

    The G protein-coupled thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor forms homodimers. Regulated receptor dimerization increases TRH-induced receptor endocytosis. These studies test whether dimerization increases receptor phosphorylation, which could potentiate internalization. Phosphorylation at residues 355–365, which is critical for internalization, was measured with a highly selective phospho-site-specific antibody. Two strategies were used to drive receptor dimerization. Dimerization...

  1. A Rapid and Efficient Immunoenzymatic Assay to Detect Receptor Protein Interactions: G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Elisa Zappelli; Simona Daniele; Abbracchio, Maria P.; Claudia Martini; Maria Letizia Trincavelli

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent one of the largest families of cell surface receptors, and are the target of at least one-third of the current therapeutic drugs on the market. Along their life cycle, GPCRs are accompanied by a range of specialized GPCR-interacting proteins (GIPs), which take part in receptor proper folding, targeting to the appropriate subcellular compartments and in receptor signaling tasks, and also in receptor regulation processes, such as desensitization and...

  2. σ1 Receptor Modulation of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling: Potentiation of Opioid Transduction Independent from Receptor Binding

    Kim, Felix J.; Kovalyshyn, Ivanka; Burgman, Maxim; Neilan, Claire; Chien, Chih-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    σ Ligands modulate opioid actions in vivo, with agonists diminishing morphine analgesia and antagonists enhancing the response. Using human BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells that natively express opioid receptors and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells transfected with a cloned μ opioid receptor, we now demonstrate a similar modulation of opioid function, as assessed by guanosine 5′-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPγS) binding, by σ1 receptors. σ Ligands do not compete opioid receptor binding. Administered alone, neither σ agonists nor antagonists significantly stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding. Yet σ receptor selective antagonists, but not agonists, shifted the EC50 of opioid-induced stimulation of [35S]GTPγS binding by 3- to 10-fold to the left. This enhanced potency was seen without a change in the efficacy of the opioid, as assessed by the maximal stimulation of [35S]GTPγS binding. σ1 Receptors physically associate with μ opioid receptors, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation studies in transfected HEK cells, implying a direct interaction between the proteins. Thus, σ receptors modulate opioid transduction without influencing opioid receptor binding. RNA interference knockdown of σ1 in BE(2)-C cells also potentiated μ opioid-induced stimulation of [35S]GTPγS binding. These modulatory actions are not limited to μ and δ opioid receptors. In mouse brain membrane preparations, σ1-selective antagonists also potentiated both opioid receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated stimulation of [35S]GTPγS binding, suggesting a broader role for σ receptors in modulating G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. PMID:20089882

  3. Sigma 1 receptor modulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling: potentiation of opioid transduction independent from receptor binding.

    Kim, Felix J; Kovalyshyn, Ivanka; Burgman, Maxim; Neilan, Claire; Chien, Chih-Cheng; Pasternak, Gavril W

    2010-04-01

    sigma Ligands modulate opioid actions in vivo, with agonists diminishing morphine analgesia and antagonists enhancing the response. Using human BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells that natively express opioid receptors and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells transfected with a cloned mu opioid receptor, we now demonstrate a similar modulation of opioid function, as assessed by guanosine 5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio)triphosphate ([(35)S]GTP gamma S) binding, by sigma(1) receptors. sigma Ligands do not compete opioid receptor binding. Administered alone, neither sigma agonists nor antagonists significantly stimulated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. Yet sigma receptor selective antagonists, but not agonists, shifted the EC(50) of opioid-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding by 3- to 10-fold to the left. This enhanced potency was seen without a change in the efficacy of the opioid, as assessed by the maximal stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. sigma(1) Receptors physically associate with mu opioid receptors, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation studies in transfected HEK cells, implying a direct interaction between the proteins. Thus, sigma receptors modulate opioid transduction without influencing opioid receptor binding. RNA interference knockdown of sigma(1) in BE(2)-C cells also potentiated mu opioid-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. These modulatory actions are not limited to mu and delta opioid receptors. In mouse brain membrane preparations, sigma(1)-selective antagonists also potentiated both opioid receptor and muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated stimulation of [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding, suggesting a broader role for sigma receptors in modulating G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. PMID:20089882

  4. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Progenitor Cells in Phenotypic Screening: A Transforming Growth Factor-β Type 1 Receptor Kinase Inhibitor Induces Efficient Cardiac Differentiation.

    Drowley, Lauren; Koonce, Chad; Peel, Samantha; Jonebring, Anna; Plowright, Alleyn T; Kattman, Steven J; Andersson, Henrik; Anson, Blake; Swanson, Bradley J; Wang, Qing-Dong; Brolen, Gabriella

    2016-02-01

    Several progenitor cell populations have been reported to exist in hearts that play a role in cardiac turnover and/or repair. Despite the presence of cardiac stem and progenitor cells within the myocardium, functional repair of the heart after injury is inadequate. Identification of the signaling pathways involved in the expansion and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) will broaden insight into the fundamental mechanisms playing a role in cardiac homeostasis and disease and might provide strategies for in vivo regenerative therapies. To understand and exploit cardiac ontogeny for drug discovery efforts, we developed an in vitro human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CPC model system using a highly enriched population of KDR(pos)/CKIT(neg)/NKX2.5(pos) CPCs. Using this model system, these CPCs were capable of generating highly enriched cultures of cardiomyocytes under directed differentiation conditions. In order to facilitate the identification of pathways and targets involved in proliferation and differentiation of resident CPCs, we developed phenotypic screening assays. Screening paradigms for therapeutic applications require a robust, scalable, and consistent methodology. In the present study, we have demonstrated the suitability of these cells for medium to high-throughput screens to assess both proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Using this CPC model system and a small directed compound set, we identified activin-like kinase 5 (transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor kinase) inhibitors as novel and potent inducers of human CPC differentiation to cardiomyocytes. Significance: Cardiac disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, with no treatment available that can result in functional repair. This study demonstrates how differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells can be used to identify and isolate cell populations of interest that can translate to the adult human heart. Two separate examples of phenotypic

  5. Glucocorticoid receptor transformation and DNA binding

    The overall goal is to probe the mechanism whereby glucocorticoid receptors are transformed from a non-DNA-binding form to their active DNA-binding form. The author has examined the effect of an endogenous inhibitor purified from rat liver cytosol on receptor binding to DNA. The inhibitor binds to transformed receptors in whole cytosol and prevent their binding to DNA. He also examined the role of sulfhydryl groups in determining the DNA binding activity of the transformed receptor and in determining the transformation process. Treatment of rat liver cytosol containing temperature-transformed, [3H]dexamethasone-bound receptors at 00C with the sulfhydryl modifying reagent methyl methanethiosulfonate inhibits the DNA-binding activity of the receptor, and DNA-binding activity is restored after addition of dithiothreitol. In addition, he has examined the relationship between receptor phosphorylation and DNA binding. Untransformed receptor complexes purified from cytosol prepared from mouse L cells grown in medium containing [32P]orthophosphate contain two components, a 100 k-Da and a 90-kDa subunit, both of which are phosphoproteins. On transformation, the receptor dissociates from the 90-kDa protein. Transformation of the complex under cell free conditions does not result in a dephosphorylation of the 100-kDa steroid-binding protein. Transformed receptor that has been bound to DNA and purified by monoclonal antibody is still in a phosphorylated form. These results suggest that dephosphorylation is not required for receptor binding to DNA

  6. Hormone activation of baculovirus expressed progesterone receptors.

    Elliston, J F; Beekman, J M; Tsai, S Y; O'Malley, B W; Tsai, M J

    1992-03-15

    Human and chicken progesterone receptors (A form) were overproduced in a baculovirus expression system. These recombinant progesterone receptors were full-length bound progesterone specifically and were recognized by monoclonal antibodies, AB52 and PR22, specific for human and chicken progesterone receptor, respectively. In gel retardation studies, binding of recombinant human and chicken progesterone receptors to their progesterone response element (PRE) was specific and was enhanced in the presence of progesterone. Binding of human progesterone receptor to the PRE was also enhanced in the presence of the antiprogestin, RU486, but very little effect was observed in the presence of estradiol, dexamethasone, testosterone, and vitamin D. In our cell-free transcription system, human progesterone receptor induced transcription in a receptor-dependent and hormone-activable manner. Receptor-stimulated transcription required the presence of the PRE in the test template and could be specifically inhibited by excess PRE oligonucleotides. Furthermore, chicken progesterone receptor also induced in vitro transcription in a hormone-activable manner. These results demonstrate that steroid receptors overexpressed in a baculovirus expression system are functional and exhibit steroid-responsive binding and transcription. These observations support our present understanding of the mechanism of steroid receptor-regulated gene expression and provide a technological format for studies of the role of hormone and antihormone in altering gene expression. PMID:1544902

  7. Structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity

    The structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity have been evaluated by examining a wide range of compounds related to opioids, neuroleptics, and phenylpiperidine dopaminergic structures for affinity at sigma receptor-binding sites labeled with (+)-[3H]3-PPP. Among opioid compounds, requirements for sigma receptor affinity differ strikingly from the determinants of affinity for conventional opiate receptors. Sigma sites display reverse stereoselectivity to classical opiate receptors. Multi-ringed opiate-related compounds such as morphine and naloxone have negligible affinity for sigma sites, with the highest sigma receptor affinity apparent for benzomorphans which lack the C ring of opioids. Highest affinity among opioids and other compounds occurs with more lipophilic N-substituents. This feature is particularly striking among the 3-PPP derivatives as well as the opioids. The butyrophenone haloperidol is the most potent drug at sigma receptors we have detected. Among the series of butyrophenones, receptor affinity is primarily associated with the 4-phenylpiperidine moiety. Conformational calculations for various compounds indicate a fairly wide range of tolerance for distances between the aromatic ring and the amine nitrogen, which may account for the potency at sigma receptors of structures of considerable diversity. Among the wide range of structures that bind to sigma receptor-binding sites, the common pharmacophore associated with high receptor affinity is a phenylpiperidine with a lipophilic N-substituent

  8. Structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity

    Largent, B.L.; Wikstroem, H.G.; Gundlach, A.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1987-12-01

    The structural determinants of sigma receptor affinity have been evaluated by examining a wide range of compounds related to opioids, neuroleptics, and phenylpiperidine dopaminergic structures for affinity at sigma receptor-binding sites labeled with (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP. Among opioid compounds, requirements for sigma receptor affinity differ strikingly from the determinants of affinity for conventional opiate receptors. Sigma sites display reverse stereoselectivity to classical opiate receptors. Multi-ringed opiate-related compounds such as morphine and naloxone have negligible affinity for sigma sites, with the highest sigma receptor affinity apparent for benzomorphans which lack the C ring of opioids. Highest affinity among opioids and other compounds occurs with more lipophilic N-substituents. This feature is particularly striking among the 3-PPP derivatives as well as the opioids. The butyrophenone haloperidol is the most potent drug at sigma receptors we have detected. Among the series of butyrophenones, receptor affinity is primarily associated with the 4-phenylpiperidine moiety. Conformational calculations for various compounds indicate a fairly wide range of tolerance for distances between the aromatic ring and the amine nitrogen, which may account for the potency at sigma receptors of structures of considerable diversity. Among the wide range of structures that bind to sigma receptor-binding sites, the common pharmacophore associated with high receptor affinity is a phenylpiperidine with a lipophilic N-substituent.

  9. The heat response of hydrocortisone receptors

    The sensitivity of hydrocortisone (HC) receptors to heat damage has been measured in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The impetus for the study came from three observations: A. Hormone receptors (e.g. insulin) are very heat sensitizer and may be a primary target for heat damage (BBA 756, 1 (1983)). B. HC induces a receptor-mediated heat resistance in CHO cells (J. Cell. Physiol. 128, 127 (1986)). C. The HC receptor is a soluble protein complex, which, in its unactivated state, contains HSP 89 (EMBO J. 4, 3131 (1985); JBC 260 12398 (1985)). Upon binding of the ligand, HSP 89 dissociates and the activated receptor enters the nucleus and binds DNA. The current study reveals that the HC receptor is also very heat sensitive, losing 50% of its activity after 5 min at 450C, 10 min at 440C or 20 min at 430C. Receptor activity recovers quickly after heat, returning to levels close to normal within 2-4 hours after a treatment of 10 min at 450C which initially reduces receptor activity to less than 20% of control. Pretreatment with HC, using conditions that induce heat resistance, depresses receptor activity to 10-20% of control, but residual receptors display a heat sensitivity similar to that of control cells. So far, the authors have been unable to demonstrate any heat protection of HC receptors in thermotolerant cells

  10. Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics

    Zwicker, David; Brenner, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information-theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor...

  11. CGRP receptor antagonism and migraine therapy

    Edvinsson, Lars; Warfvinge, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is the most prevalent of the neurological disorders and can affect the patient throughout the lifetime. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is now 2 decades since it was proposed to be involved in...... migraine pathophysiology. The cranial sensory system contains C-fibers storing CGRP and trigeminal nerve activation and acute migraine attacks result in release of CGRP. The CGRP receptor consists of a complex of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), receptor activity-modifying protein 1 (RAMP1) and....... CGRP receptor antagonists have been developed as novel antimigraine drugs and found to be effective in the treatment of acute migraine attacks. Other ways to stop CGRP activity has been introduced recently through antibodies against CGRP and the CGRP receptor. While the CGRP receptors are expressed...

  12. A new family of insect tyramine receptors

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Klærke, Dan Arne; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P

    2005-01-01

    The Drosophila Genome Project database contains a gene, CG7431, annotated to be an "unclassifiable biogenic amine receptor." We have cloned this gene and expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells. After testing various ligands for G protein-coupled receptors, we found that the receptor was...... specifically activated by tyramine (EC(50), 5x10(-7)M) and that it showed no cross-reactivity with beta-phenylethylamine, octopamine, dopa, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, tryptamine, serotonin, histamine, and a library of 20 Drosophila neuropeptides (all tested in concentrations up to 10(-5) or 10(-4)M......-like receptor genes in the genomic databases from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the honeybee Apis mellifera. These four tyramine or tyramine-like receptors constitute a new receptor family that is phylogenetically distinct from the previously identified insect octopamine/tyramine receptors. The...

  13. Ligands for Ionotropic Glutamate Receptors

    Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Sakai, Ryuichi

    Marine-derived small molecules and peptides have played a central role in elaborating pharmacological specificities and neuronal functions of mammalian ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the primary mediators of excitatory syn-aptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). As well, the pathological sequelae elicited by one class of compounds (the kainoids) constitute a widely-used animal model for human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). New and existing molecules could prove useful as lead compounds for the development of therapeutics for neuropathologies that have aberrant glutamatergic signaling as a central component. In this chapter we discuss natural source origins and pharmacological activities of those marine compounds that target ionotropic glutamate receptors.

  14. Dopamine Receptors and Parkinson's Disease

    Shin Hisahara; Shun Shimohama

    2011-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive extrapyramidal motor disorder. Pathologically, this disease is characterized by the selective dopaminergic (DAergic) neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Correcting the DA deficiency in PD with levodopa (L-dopa) significantly attenuates the motor symptoms; however, its effectiveness often declines, and L-dopa-related adverse effects emerge after long-term treatment. Nowadays, DA receptor agonists are useful medication even regarded as first ...

  15. Plant hormone receptors: new perceptions

    Spartz, Angela K.; William M Gray

    2008-01-01

    Plant growth and development require the integration of a variety of environmental and endogenous signals that, together with the intrinsic genetic program, determine plant form. Central to this process are several growth regulators known as plant hormones or phytohormones. Despite decades of study, only recently have receptors for several of these hormones been identified, revealing novel mechanisms for perceiving chemical signals and providing plant biologists with a much clearer picture of...

  16. The vanilloid receptor and hypertension

    Donna H WANG

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian transient receptor potential (TRP) channels consist of six related protein sub-families that are involved in a variety of pathophysiological function, and disease development. The TRPV1 channel, a member of the TRPV sub-family, is identified by expression cloning using the "hot" pepper-derived vanilloid compound capsaicin as a ligand. Therefore, TRPV1 is also referred as the vanilloid receptor (VR1) or the capsaicin receptor. VR1 is mainly expressed in a subpopulation of primary afferent neurons that project to cardiovascular and renal tissues.These capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent neurons are not only involved in the perception of somatic and visceral pain, but also have a "sensory-effector" function.Regarding the latter, these neurons release stored neuropeptides through a calcium-dependent mechanism via the binding of capsaicin to VR1. The most studied sensory neuropeptides are calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP), which are potent vasodilators and natriuretic/diuretic factors. Recent evidence using the model of neonatal degeneration of capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves revealed novel mechanisms that underlie increased salt sensitivity and several experimental models of hypertension. These mechanisms include insufficient suppression of plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone levels subsequent to salt loading, enhancement of sympathoexcitatory response in the face of a salt challenge, activation of the endothelin- 1 receptor, and impaired natriuretic response to salt loading in capsaicin-pretreated rats. These data indicate that sensory nerves counterbalance the prohypertensive effects of several neurohormonal systems to maintain normal blood pressure when challenged with salt loading. The therapeutic utilities of vanilloid compounds, endogenous agonists,and sensory neuropeptides are also discussed.

  17. Endothelin receptors and their antagonists.

    Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2015-03-01

    All three members of the endothelin (ET) family of peptides, ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3, are expressed in the human kidney, with ET-1 being the predominant isoform. ET-1 and ET-2 bind to two G-protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, whereas at physiological concentrations ET-3 has little affinity for the ET(A) receptor. The human kidney is unusual among the peripheral organs in expressing a high density of ET(B). The renal vascular endothelium only expresses the ET(B) subtype and ET-1 acts in an autocrine or paracrine manner to release vasodilators. Endothelial ETB in kidney, as well as liver and lungs, also has a critical role in scavenging ET-1 from the plasma. The third major function is ET-1 activation of ET(B) in in the nephron to reduce salt and water re-absorption. In contrast, ET(A) predominate on smooth muscle, causing vasoconstriction and mediating many of the pathophysiological actions of ET-1. The role of the two receptors has been delineated using highly selective ET(A) (BQ123, TAK-044) and ET(B) (BQ788) peptide antagonists. Nonpeptide antagonists, bosentan, macitentan, and ambrisentan, that are either mixed ET(A)/ET(B) antagonists or display ET(A) selectivity, have been approved for clinical use but to date are limited to pulmonary hypertension. Ambrisentan is in clinical trials in patients with type 2 diabetic nephropathy. This review summarizes ET-receptor antagonism in the human kidney, and considers the relative merits of selective versus nonselective antagonism in renal disease. PMID:25966344

  18. Autophagy selectivity through receptor clustering

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Brown, Aidan

    Substrate selectivity in autophagy requires an all-or-none cellular response. We focus on peroxisomes, for which autophagy receptor proteins NBR1 and p62 are well characterized. Using computational models, we explore the hypothesis that physical clustering of autophagy receptor proteins on the peroxisome surface provides an appropriate all-or-none response. We find that larger peroxisomes nucleate NBR1 clusters first, and lose them due to competitive coarsening last, resulting in significant size-selectivity. We then consider a secondary hypothesis that p62 inhibits NBR1 cluster formation. We find that p62 inhibition enhances size-selectivity enough that, even if there is no change of the pexophagy rate, the volume of remaining peroxisomes can significantly decrease. We find that enhanced ubiquitin levels suppress size-selectivity, and that this effect is more pronounced for individual peroxisomes. Sufficient ubiquitin allows receptor clusters to form on even the smallest peroxisomes. We conclude that NBR1 cluster formation provides a viable physical mechanism for all-or-none substrate selectivity in pexophagy. We predict that cluster formation is associated with significant size-selectivity. Now at Simon Fraser University.

  19. Insulin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    Petruzzelli, L.; Herrera, R.; Rosen, O.

    1986-05-01

    A specific, high affinity insulin receptor is present in both adult Drosophila and in Drosophila embryos. Wheat germ lectin-enriched extracts of detergent-solubilized membranes from embryos and adults bind insulin with a K/sub d/ of 15 nM. Binding is specific for insulin; micromolar concentrations of proinsulin, IGFI, and IGFII are required to displace bound /sup 125/I-insulin. Insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase activity appears during embryogenesis. It is evident between 6 and 12 hours of development, peaks between 12 and 18 hours and falls in the adult. During 0-6 hours of embryogenesis, and in the adult, a specific protein band (Mr = 135,000) is crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. During 6-12 and 12-18 hours of embryogenesis stages in which insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase is high, an additional band (Mr = 100,000) becomes crosslinked to /sup 125/I-insulin. Isolation and DNA sequence analysis of genomic clones encoding the Drosophila insulin receptor will be presented as will the characterization of insulin receptor mRNA's during development.

  20. Insulin receptor in Drosophila melanogaster

    A specific, high affinity insulin receptor is present in both adult Drosophila and in Drosophila embryos. Wheat germ lectin-enriched extracts of detergent-solubilized membranes from embryos and adults bind insulin with a K/sub d/ of 15 nM. Binding is specific for insulin; micromolar concentrations of proinsulin, IGFI, and IGFII are required to displace bound 125I-insulin. Insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase activity appears during embryogenesis. It is evident between 6 and 12 hours of development, peaks between 12 and 18 hours and falls in the adult. During 0-6 hours of embryogenesis, and in the adult, a specific protein band (Mr = 135,000) is crosslinked to 125I-insulin. During 6-12 and 12-18 hours of embryogenesis stages in which insulin-dependent protein tyrosine kinase is high, an additional band (Mr = 100,000) becomes crosslinked to 125I-insulin. Isolation and DNA sequence analysis of genomic clones encoding the Drosophila insulin receptor will be presented as will the characterization of insulin receptor mRNA's during development

  1. Lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin

    We have investigated human T-lymphocyte receptors for pertussis toxin by affinity isolation and photoaffinity labeling procedures. T lymphocytes were obtained from peripheral human blood, surface iodinated, and solubilized in Triton X-100. The iodinated mixture was then passed through pertussis toxin-agarose, and the fractions were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Autoradiography of the fixed, dried gels revealed several bands in the pertussis toxin-bound fraction that were not observed in fractions obtained from histone or fetuin-agarose. Further investigations employed a photoaffinity labeling reagent, sulfosuccinimidyl 2-(p-azido-salicylamido)-1,3'-dithiopropionate, to identify pertussis toxin receptors in freshly isolated peripheral blood monocytic cells, T lymphocytes, and Jurkat cells. In all three cell systems, the pertussis toxin affinity probe specifically labeled a single protein species with an apparent molecular weight of 70,000 that was not observed when the procedure was performed in the presence of excess unmodified pertussis toxin. A protein comparable in molecular weight to the one detected by the photoaffinity labeling technique was also observed among the species that bound to pertussis toxin-agarose. The results suggest that pertussis toxin may bind to a 70,000-Da receptor in human T lymphocytes

  2. Dimerization of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor potentiates hormone-dependent receptor phosphorylation.

    Song, Gyun Jee; Jones, Brian W; Hinkle, Patricia M

    2007-11-13

    The G protein-coupled thyrotropin (TSH)-releasing hormone (TRH) receptor forms homodimers. Regulated receptor dimerization increases TRH-induced receptor endocytosis. These studies test whether dimerization increases receptor phosphorylation, which could potentiate internalization. Phosphorylation at residues 355-365, which is critical for internalization, was measured with a highly selective phospho-site-specific antibody. Two strategies were used to drive receptor dimerization. Dimerization of a TRH receptor-FK506-binding protein (FKBP) fusion protein was stimulated by a dimeric FKBP ligand. The chemical dimerizer caused a large increase in TRH-dependent phosphorylation within 1 min, whereas a monomeric FKBP ligand had no effect. The dimerizer did not alter phoshorylation of receptors lacking the FKBP domain. Dimerization of receptors containing an N-terminal HA epitope also was induced with anti-HA antibody. Anti-HA IgG strongly increased TRH-induced phosphorylation, whereas monomeric Fab fragments had no effect. Anti-HA antibody did not alter phosphorylation in receptors lacking an HA tag. Furthermore, two phosphorylation-defective TRH receptors functionally complemented one another and permitted phosphorylation. Receptors with a D71A mutation in the second transmembrane domain do not signal, whereas receptors with four Ala mutations in the 355-365 region signal normally but lack phosphorylation sites. When D71A- and 4Ala-TRH receptors were expressed alone, neither underwent TRH-dependent phosphorylation. When they were expressed together, D71A receptor was phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases in response to TRH. These results suggest that the TRH receptor is phosphorylated preferentially when it is in dimers or when preexisting receptor dimers are driven into microaggregates. Increased receptor phosphorylation may amplify desensitization. PMID:17989235

  3. Characterization of astrocytic and neuronal benzodiazepine receptors

    Bender, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    Primary cultures of astrocytes and neurons express benzodiazepine receptors. Neuronal benzodiazepine receptors were of high-affinity, K{sub D} values were 7.5-43 nM and the densities of receptors (B{sub max}) were 924-4131 fmol/mg protein. Astrocytes posses a high-affinity benzodiazepine receptor, K{sub D} values were 6.6-13 nM. The B{sub max} values were 6,033-12,000 fmol/mg protein. The pharmacological profile of the neuronal benzodiazepine receptor was that of the central-type benzodiazepine receptor, where clonazepam has a high-affinity and Ro 5-4864 (4{prime}-chlorodiazepam) has a low-affinity. Whereas astrocytic benzoidazepine receptor was characteristic of the so called peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptors, which shows a high-affinity towards Ro 5-4863, and a low-affinity towards clonazepam. The astrocytic benzodiazepine receptors was functionally correlated with voltage dependent calcium channels, since dihydropyridines and benzodiazepines interacted with ({sup 3}H) diazepam and ({sup 3}H) nitrendipine receptors with the same rank order of potency, showing a statistically significant correlation. No such correlation was observed in neurons.

  4. Protein Connectivity in Chemotaxis Receptor Complexes.

    Stephan Eismann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The chemotaxis sensory system allows bacteria such as Escherichia coli to swim towards nutrients and away from repellents. The underlying pathway is remarkably sensitive in detecting chemical gradients over a wide range of ambient concentrations. Interactions among receptors, which are predominantly clustered at the cell poles, are crucial to this sensitivity. Although it has been suggested that the kinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW are integral for receptor connectivity, the exact coupling mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present a statistical-mechanics approach to model the receptor linkage mechanism itself, building on nanodisc and electron cryotomography experiments. Specifically, we investigate how the sensing behavior of mixed receptor clusters is affected by variations in the expression levels of CheA and CheW at a constant receptor density in the membrane. Our model compares favorably with dose-response curves from in vivo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET measurements, demonstrating that the receptor-methylation level has only minor effects on receptor cooperativity. Importantly, our model provides an explanation for the non-intuitive conclusion that the receptor cooperativity decreases with increasing levels of CheA, a core signaling protein associated with the receptors, whereas the receptor cooperativity increases with increasing levels of CheW, a key adapter protein. Finally, we propose an evolutionary advantage as explanation for the recently suggested CheW-only linker structures.

  5. Localization of mineralocorticoid receptors at mammalian synapses.

    Eric M Prager

    Full Text Available In the brain, membrane associated nongenomic steroid receptors can induce fast-acting responses to ion conductance and second messenger systems of neurons. Emerging data suggest that membrane associated glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors may directly regulate synaptic excitability during times of stress when adrenal hormones are elevated. As the key neuron signaling interface, the synapse is involved in learning and memory, including traumatic memories during times of stress. The lateral amygdala is a key site for synaptic plasticity underlying conditioned fear, which can both trigger and be coincident with the stress response. A large body of electrophysiological data shows rapid regulation of neuronal excitability by steroid hormone receptors. Despite the importance of these receptors, to date, only the glucocorticoid receptor has been anatomically localized to the membrane. We investigated the subcellular sites of mineralocorticoid receptors in the lateral amygdala of the Sprague-Dawley rat. Immunoblot analysis revealed the presence of mineralocorticoid receptors in the amygdala. Using electron microscopy, we found mineralocorticoid receptors expressed at both nuclear including: glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons and extra nuclear sites including: presynaptic terminals, neuronal dendrites, and dendritic spines. Importantly we also observed mineralocorticoid receptors at postsynaptic membrane densities of excitatory synapses. These data provide direct anatomical evidence supporting the concept that, at some synapses, synaptic transmission is regulated by mineralocorticoid receptors. Thus part of the stress signaling response in the brain is a direct modulation of the synapse itself by adrenal steroids.

  6. Alternative splicing of human and mouse NPFF2 receptor genes: Implications to receptor expression.

    Ankö, Minna-Liisa; Ostergård, Maria; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Panula, Pertti

    2006-12-22

    Alternative splicing has an important role in the tissue-specific regulation of gene expression. Here we report that similar to the human NPFF2 receptor, the mouse NPFF2 receptor is alternatively spliced. In human the presence of three alternatively spliced receptor variants were verified, whereas two NPFF2 receptor variants were identified in mouse. The alternative splicing affected the 5' untranslated region of the mouse receptor and the variants in mouse were differently distributed. The mouse NPFF system may also have species-specific features since the NPFF2 receptor mRNA expression differs from that reported for rat. PMID:17157836

  7. Identification and Characterization of Novel Renal Sensory Receptors

    Rajkumar, Premraj; Aisenberg, William H.; Acres, Omar W; Protzko, Ryan J.; Pluznick, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important roles that “sensory” receptors (olfactory receptors, taste receptors, and orphan “GPR” receptors) play in a variety of tissues, including the kidney. Although several studies have identified important roles that individual sensory receptors play in the kidney, there has not been a systematic analysis of the renal repertoire of sensory receptors. In this study, we identify novel renal sensory receptors belonging to the GPR (n = 76), olfactory recep...

  8. Transcriptional targets shared by estrogen receptor- related receptors (ERRs) and estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, but not by ERbeta.

    Vanacker, J M; K. Pettersson; Gustafsson, J.A.; Laudet, V

    1999-01-01

    The physiological activities of estrogens are thought to be mediated by specific nuclear receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. However, certain tissues, such as the bone, that are highly responsive to estrogens only express a low level of these receptors. Starting from this apparent contradiction, we have evaluated the potentials of two related receptors ERRalpha and ERRbeta to intervene in estrogen signaling. ERalpha, ERRalpha and ERRbeta bind to and activate transcription through both the classica...

  9. Allosteric Modulation of Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Esam E. El-Fakahany

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available An allosteric modulator is a ligand that binds to an allosteric site on the receptor and changes receptor conformation to produce increase (positive cooperativity or decrease (negative cooperativity in the binding or action of an orthosteric agonist (e.g., acetylcholine. Since the identification of gallamine as the first allosteric modulator of muscarinic receptors in 1976, this unique mode of receptor modulation has been intensively studied by many groups. This review summarizes over 30 years of research on the molecular mechanisms of allosteric interactions of drugs with the receptor and for new allosteric modulators of muscarinic receptors with potential therapeutic use. Identification of positive modulators of acetylcholine binding and function that enhance neurotransmission and the discovery of highly selective allosteric modulators are mile-stones on the way to novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease and other disorders involving impaired cognitive function.

  10. Characterization of antisera to prolactin receptors

    Studies were conducted to improve the techniques of obtaining purified prolactin receptors and to immunize several species of animals with the partially purified receptor in order to increase the yield of antisera and to characterize the specific of these antisera in different target organs. Prolactin receptors were partially purified from crude microsomal fractions of lactating mammary glands, using affinity chromatography. For the assay of solubilized extracts of mammary gland samples at various stages of purification, 125I-labelled human growth hormone or ovine prolactin were used as labelled hormones. Antisera produced from partially purified prolactin receptors are able to inhibit binding of labelled hormone to its receptors in sera from sheep, goats, and guinea pigs. The antisera also inhibit the binding of prolactin to a number of tissues containing receptors in rabbits and rats