WorldWideScience

Sample records for active pixel sensors

  1. Radiation effects on active pixel sensors (APS)

    Active pixel sensor (APS) is a new generation of image sensors which presents several advantages relatively to charge coupled devices (CCDs) particularly for space applications (APS requires only 1 voltage to operate which reduces considerably current consumption). Irradiation was performed using 60Co gamma radiation at room temperature and at a dose rate of 150 Gy(Si)/h. 2 types of APS have been tested: photodiode-APS and photoMOS-APS. The results show that photoMOS-APS is more sensitive to radiation effects than photodiode-APS. Important parameters of image sensors like dark currents increase sharply with dose levels. Nevertheless photodiode-APS sensitivity is one hundred time lower than photoMOS-APS sensitivity

  2. Characterization of active CMOS sensors for capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    Hirono, Toko; Gonella, Laura; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensor is one of the most attractive candidates for detectors of upcoming particle physics experiments. In contrast to conventional sensors of hybrid detectors, signal processing circuit can be integrated in the active CMOS sensor. The characterization and optimization of the pixel circuit are indispensable to obtain a good performance from the sensors. The prototype chips of the active CMOS sensor were fabricated in the AMS 180nm and L-Foundry 150 nm CMOS processes, respectively a high voltage and high resistivity technology. Both chips have a charge sensitive amplifier and a comparator in each pixel. The chips are designed to be glued to the FEI4 pixel readout chip. The signals from 3 pixels of the prototype chips are capacitively coupled to the FEI4 input pads. We have performed lab tests and test beams to characterize the prototypes. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  3. Active pixel sensors with substantially planarized color filtering elements

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Kemeny, Sabrina E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A semiconductor imaging system preferably having an active pixel sensor array compatible with a CMOS fabrication process. Color-filtering elements such as polymer filters and wavelength-converting phosphors can be integrated with the image sensor.

  4. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Star Tracker with Regional Electronic Shutter

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Clark, Christopher; Fossum, Eric

    1996-01-01

    The guidance system in a spacecraft determines spacecraft attitude by matching an observed star field to a star catalog....An APS(active pixel sensor)-based system can reduce mass and power consumption and radiation effects compared to a CCD(charge-coupled device)-based system...This paper reports an APS (active pixel sensor) with locally variable times, achieved through individual pixel reset (IPR).

  5. Active-Pixel Image Sensors With Programmable Resolution

    Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.; Pain, Bedabrata; Nakamura, Junichi; Matthies, Larry H.

    1996-01-01

    Active-pixel image sensors with programmable resolution proposed for use in applications in which speed and efficiency of processing of image data enhanced by providing those data at varying resolutions. Such applications include modeling of biological vision, stereoscopic range-finding, recognition of patterns, tracking targets, and progressive transmission of compressed images. In target-tracking application, sensor initially forms low-resolution image from which area of interest identified, then sensor set at high resolution for examination of identified area. Outputs of contiguous pixels combined. Sensor of this type made to act as though it comprised fewer and larger pixels.

  6. Radiation Tolerance of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors with Self-Biased Pixels

    Deveaux, M; Besson, A; Claus, G; Colledani, C; Dorokhov, M; Dritsa, C; Dulinski, W; Fröhlich, I; Goffe, M; Grandjean, D; Heini, S; Himmi, A; Hu, C; Jaaskelainen, K; Müntz, C; Shabetai, A; Stroth, J; Szelezniak, M; Valin, I; Winter, M

    2009-01-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are proposed as a technology for various vertex detectors in nuclear and particle physics. We discuss the mechanisms of ionizing radiation damage on MAPS hosting the the dead time free, so-called self bias pixel. Moreover, we discuss radiation hardened sensor designs which allow operating detectors after exposing them to irradiation doses above 1 Mrad

  7. Characterization of a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    New monolithic pixel detectors integrating CMOS electronics and sensor on the same silicon substrate are currently explored for particle tracking in future HEP experiments, most notably at the LHC . The innovative concept of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) is based on high resistive silicon bulk material enabling full substrate depletion and the application of an electrical drift field for fast charge collection, while retaining full CMOS capability for the electronics. The technology (150 nm) used offers quadruple wells and allows to implement the pixel electronics with independently isolated N- and PMOS transistors. Results of initial studies on the charge collection and sensor performance are presented

  8. Characterization of a Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (DMAPS) prototype

    Obermann, T.; Havranek, M.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Kishishita, T.; Krüger, H.; Marinas, C.; Wermes, N.

    2015-03-01

    New monolithic pixel detectors integrating CMOS electronics and sensor on the same silicon substrate are currently explored for particle tracking in future HEP experiments, most notably at the LHC . The innovative concept of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) is based on high resistive silicon bulk material enabling full substrate depletion and the application of an electrical drift field for fast charge collection, while retaining full CMOS capability for the electronics. The technology (150 nm) used offers quadruple wells and allows to implement the pixel electronics with independently isolated N- and PMOS transistors. Results of initial studies on the charge collection and sensor performance are presented.

  9. Charged Particle Detection using a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor

    Matis, H. S.; Bieser, F.; Kleinfelder, S.; Rai, G.; Retiere, F.; H.G. Ritter; Singh, K.; Wurzel, S. E.; Wieman, H.; Yamamoto, E.

    2002-01-01

    Active Pixel Sensor (APS) technology has shown promise for next-generation vertex detectors. This paper discusses the design and testing of two generations of APS chips. Both are arrays of 128 by 128 pixels, each 20 by 20 micro-m. Each array is divided into sub-arrays in which different sensor structures (4 in the first version and 16 in the second) and/or readout circuits are employed. Measurements of several of these structures under Fe55 exposure are reported. The sensors have also been ir...

  10. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): developments and future outlook

    R. Turchetta; A. Fant; P. Gasiorek; C. Esbrand; J.A. Griffiths; M.G. Metaxas; G.J. Royle; R. Speller; C. Venanzi; P.F. van der Stelt; H.G.C. Verheij; G. Li; S. Theodoridis; H. Georgiou; D. Cavouras; G. Hall; M. Noy; J. Jones; J. Leaver; D. Machin; S. Greenwood; M. Khaleeq; H. Schulerud; J.M. Østby; F. Triantis; A. Asimidis; D. Bolanakis; N. Manthos; R. Longo; A. Bergamaschi

    2007-01-01

    Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end app

  11. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): developments and future outlook

    R. Turchetta; A. Fant; P. Gasiorek; C. Esbrand; J.A. Griffiths; M.G. Metaxas; G.J. Royle; R. Speller; C. Venanzi; P.F. van der Stelt; H.G.C. Verheij; G. Li; S. Theodoridis; H. Georgiou; D. Cavouras; G. Hall; M. Noy; J. Jones; J. Leaver; D. Machin; S. Greenwood; M. Khaleeq; H. Schulerud; J.M. Østby; F. Triantis; A. Asimidis; D. Bolanakis; N. Manthos; R. Longo; A. Bergamaschi

    2006-01-01

    Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end app

  12. E-Beam Effects on CMOS Active Pixel Sensors

    Three different CMOS active pixel structures manufactured in a deep submicron process have been evaluated with electron beam. The devices were exposed to 1 MeV electron beam up to 5kGy. Dark current increased after E-beam irradiation differently at each pixel structure. Dark current change is dependent on CMOS pixel structures. CMOS image sensors are now good candidates in demanding applications such as medical image sensor, particle detection and space remote sensing. In these situations, CISs are exposed to high doses of radiation. In fact radiation is known to generate trapped charge in CMOS oxides. It can lead to threshold voltage shifts and current leakages in MOSFETs and dark current increase in photodiodes. We studied ionizing effects in three types of CMOS APSs fabricated by 0.25 CMOS process. The devices were irradiated by a Co60 source up to 50kGy. All irradiation took place at room temperature. The dark current in the three different pixels exhibits increase with electron beam exposure. From the above figure, the change of dark current is dependent on the pixel structure. Double junction structure has shown relatively small increase of dark current after electron beam irradiation. The dark current in the three different pixels exhibits increase with electron beam exposure. The contribution of the total ionizing dose to the dark current increase is small here, since the devices were left unbiased during the electron beam irradiation. Radiation hardness in dependent on the pixel structures. Pixel2 is relatively vulnerable to radiation exposure. Pixel3 has radiation hardened structure

  13. Monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) in a VLSI CMOS technology

    Turchetta, R; Manolopoulos, S; Tyndel, M; Allport, P P; Bates, R; O'Shea, V; Hall, G; Raymond, M

    2003-01-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) designed in a standard VLSI CMOS technology have recently been proposed as a compact pixel detector for the detection of high-energy charged particle in vertex/tracking applications. MAPS, also named CMOS sensors, are already extensively used in visible light applications. With respect to other competing imaging technologies, CMOS sensors have several potential advantages in terms of low cost, low power, lower noise at higher speed, random access of pixels which allows windowing of region of interest, ability to integrate several functions on the same chip. This brings altogether to the concept of 'camera-on-a-chip'. In this paper, we review the use of CMOS sensors for particle physics and we analyse their performances in term of the efficiency (fill factor), signal generation, noise, readout speed and sensor area. In most of high-energy physics applications, data reduction is needed in the sensor at an early stage of the data processing before transfer of the data to ta...

  14. New Active Digital Pixel Circuit for CMOS Image Sensor

    2001-01-01

    A new active digital pixel circuit for CMOS image sensor is designed consisting of four components: a photo-transducer, a preamplifier, a sample & hold (S & H) circuit and an A/D converter with an inverter. It is optimized by simulation and adjustment based on 2μm standard CMOS process. Each circuit of the components is designed with specific parameters. The simulation results of the whole pixel circuits show that the circuit has such advantages as low distortion, low power consumption, and improvement of the output performances by using an inverter.

  15. Application-specific architectures of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors

    Szelezniak, Michal; Besson, Auguste; Claus, Gilles; Colledani, Claude; Degerli, Yavuz; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Deveaux, Michael; Dorokhov, Andrei; Dulinski, Wojciech; Fourches, Nicolas; Goffe, Mathieu; Grandjean, Damien; Guilloux, Fabrice; Heini, Sebastien; Himmi, Abdelkader; Hu, Christine; Jaaskelainen, Kimmo; Li, Yan; Lutz, Pierre; Orsini, Fabienne; Pellicioli, Michel; Shabetai, Alexandre; Valin, Isabelle; Winter, Marc

    2006-11-01

    Several development directions intended to adapt and optimize monolithic active pixel sensors for specific applications are presented in this work. The first example, compatible with the STAR microvertex upgrade, is based on a simple two-transistor pixel circuitry. It is suited for a long integration time, room-temperature operation and minimum power dissipation. In another approach for this application, a specific readout method is proposed, allowing optimization of the integration time independently of the full frame-readout time. The circuit consists of an in-pixel front-end voltage amplifier, with a gain on the order of five, followed by two analog memory cells. The extended version of this scheme, based on the implementation of more memory cells per pixel, is the solution considered for the outer layers of a microvertex detector at the international linear collider. For the two innermost layers, a circuit allowing fast frame scans together with on-line, on-chip data sparsification is proposed. The first results of this prototype demonstrate that the fixed pattern dispersion is reduced below a noise level of 15 e -, allowing the use of a single comparator or a low-resolution ADC per pixel column. A common element for most of the mentioned readout schemes is a low-noise, low power consumption, layout efficient in-pixel amplifier. A review of possible solutions for this element together with some experimental results is presented.

  16. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): Developments and future outlook

    Turchetta, R. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)], E-mail: r.turchetta@rl.ac.uk; Fant, A.; Gasiorek, P. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Esbrand, C.; Griffiths, J.A.; Metaxas, M.G.; Royle, G.J.; Speller, R.; Venanzi, C. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London (United Kingdom); Stelt, P.F. van der; Verheij, H.; Li, G. [Academic Centre for Dentistry, Vrije Universiteit and University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); Theodoridis, S.; Georgiou, H. [Department of Informatics and Telecommunications, University of Athens (Greece); Cavouras, D. [Medical Image and Signal Processing Laboratory, Department of Medical Instrument Technology, Technological Education Institution of Athens (Greece); Hall, G.; Noy, M.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Machin, D. [High Energy Physics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)] (and others)

    2007-12-01

    Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end applications, for example web-cams, and is slowly pervading the high-end applications, for example in prosumer digital cameras. Higher specifications are required for scientific applications: very low noise, high speed, high dynamic range, large format and radiation hardness are some of these requirements. This paper will present a brief overview of the CMOS Image Sensor technology and of the requirements for scientific applications. As an example, a sensor for X-ray imaging will be presented. This sensor was developed within a European FP6 Consortium, intelligent imaging sensors (I-ImaS)

  17. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): Developments and future outlook

    Re-invented in the early 1990s, on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology are today the most sold solid-state imaging devices, overtaking the traditional technology of Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). The slow uptake of CMOS MAPS started with low-end applications, for example web-cams, and is slowly pervading the high-end applications, for example in prosumer digital cameras. Higher specifications are required for scientific applications: very low noise, high speed, high dynamic range, large format and radiation hardness are some of these requirements. This paper will present a brief overview of the CMOS Image Sensor technology and of the requirements for scientific applications. As an example, a sensor for X-ray imaging will be presented. This sensor was developed within a European FP6 Consortium, intelligent imaging sensors (I-ImaS)

  18. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors

    Turchetta, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors. MAPS are developed in a standard CMOS technology. In the imaging field, where the technology found its first applications, they are also known as CMOS Image Sensors. The use of MAPS as a detector for particle physics was first proposed at the end of 1999. Since then, their good performance in terms of spatial resolution, efficiency, radiation hardness have been demonstrated and work is now well under way to deliver the first MAPS-based vertex detectors.

  19. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors

    This paper reviews the development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) for future vertex detectors. MAPS are developed in a standard CMOS technology. In the imaging field, where the technology found its first applications, they are also known as CMOS Image Sensors. The use of MAPS as a detector for particle physics was first proposed at the end of 1999. Since then, their good performance in terms of spatial resolution, efficiency, radiation hardness have been demonstrated and work is now well under way to deliver the first MAPS-based vertex detectors

  20. CMOS active pixel sensor for fault tolerance and background illumination subtraction

    Cheung, Yu Hin (Desmond)

    2005-01-01

    As the CMOS active pixel sensor evolves, its weaknesses are being overcome and its strengths start to surpass that of the charge-coupled device. This thesis discusses two novel APS designs. The first novel APS design was a Fault Tolerance Active Pixel Sensor (FTAPS) to increase a pixel's tolerance to defects. By dividing a regular APS pixel into two halves, the reliability of the pixel is increased, resulting in higher fabrication yield, longer pixel life time, and reduction in cost. Photodio...

  1. DEPFET Active Pixel Sensors for the Belle II Experiment

    Vazquez, P

    2010-01-01

    DEPleted Field Effect Transistor (DEPFET) active pixel detectors combine a first amplification stage with a fully depleted sensor in one single device, resulting in a very good signal-to-noise ratio even for thin sensors. DEPFET pixels are produced in MOS technology with two metal and two poly-silicon layers and have been developed for the use in Xray imaging and tracking in particle physics experiments. The sensor concept will be presented and all aspects of operation will be detailed with the focus on its application at the upgraded detector Belle II under preparation for the high-luminosity upgrade of the e+e- KEKB collider in Japan. The stringent requirements on excellent spatial resolution can be met by cell sizes as small as 25x25 um2 and minimal material budget. The readout ASICs attached to the sensors will be described as well as the module design and the thinning technology employed to reduced the active sensor thickness to as little as 50 um. DEPFET prototype performance at lab and beam tests will ...

  2. A Single-Transistor Active Pixel CMOS Image Sensor Architecture

    A single-transistor CMOS active pixel image sensor (1 T CMOS APS) architecture is proposed. By switching the photosensing pinned diode, resetting and selecting can be achieved by diode pull-up and capacitive coupling pull-down of the source follower. Thus, the reset and selected transistors can be removed. In addition, the reset and selected signal lines can be shared to reduce the metal signal line, leading to a very high fill factor. The pixel design and operation principles are discussed in detail. The functionality of the proposed 1T CMOS APS architecture has been experimentally verified using a fabricated chip in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS AMIS technology

  3. CMOS VLSI Active-Pixel Sensor for Tracking

    Pain, Bedabrata; Sun, Chao; Yang, Guang; Heynssens, Julie

    2004-01-01

    An architecture for a proposed active-pixel sensor (APS) and a design to implement the architecture in a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit provide for some advanced features that are expected to be especially desirable for tracking pointlike features of stars. The architecture would also make this APS suitable for robotic- vision and general pointing and tracking applications. CMOS imagers in general are well suited for pointing and tracking because they can be configured for random access to selected pixels and to provide readout from windows of interest within their fields of view. However, until now, the architectures of CMOS imagers have not supported multiwindow operation or low-noise data collection. Moreover, smearing and motion artifacts in collected images have made prior CMOS imagers unsuitable for tracking applications. The proposed CMOS imager (see figure) would include an array of 1,024 by 1,024 pixels containing high-performance photodiode-based APS circuitry. The pixel pitch would be 9 m. The operations of the pixel circuits would be sequenced and otherwise controlled by an on-chip timing and control block, which would enable the collection of image data, during a single frame period, from either the full frame (that is, all 1,024 1,024 pixels) or from within as many as 8 different arbitrarily placed windows as large as 8 by 8 pixels each. A typical prior CMOS APS operates in a row-at-a-time ( grolling-shutter h) readout mode, which gives rise to exposure skew. In contrast, the proposed APS would operate in a sample-first/readlater mode, suppressing rolling-shutter effects. In this mode, the analog readout signals from the pixels corresponding to the windows of the interest (which windows, in the star-tracking application, would presumably contain guide stars) would be sampled rapidly by routing them through a programmable diagonal switch array to an on-chip parallel analog memory array. The

  4. Study of plasma charging-induced white pixel defect increase in CMOS active pixel sensor

    Plasma process-induced 'white pixel defect' (WPD) of CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) is studied for Si3N4 spacer etch back process by using a magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) system. WPD preferably takes place at the wafer edge region when the magnetized plasma is applied to Si3N4 etch. Plasma charging analysis reveals that the plasma charge-up characteristic is well matching the edge-intensive WPD generation, rather than the UV radiation. Plasma charging on APS transfer gate might lead to a gate leakage, which could play a role in generation of signal noise or WPD. In this article the WPD generation mechanism will be discussed from plasma charging point of view

  5. CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS): New 'eyes' for science

    Re-invented in the early 1990s on both sides of the Atlantic, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a CMOS technology have slowly invaded the world of consumer imaging and are now on the edge of becoming the first technology in this field, previously dominated by Charge-Coupled Devices (CCD). Thanks to the advantages brought by the use of standard CMOS technology, MAPS have great potential in many areas including function integration, leading to the concept of a camera-on-a-chip, pixel size, random access to selected region-of-interest, low power, higher speed and radiation resistance. In many ways, MAPS have introduced a new way of doing imaging. Despite their success in the consumer arena, MAPS are still to make a definitive impact in the world of scientific imaging. This paper first briefly reviews the way radiation is detected by a CMOS sensor, before analysing the main noise source and its relationship with the full well capacity and the dynamic range. This paper will also show first examples of scientific results, obtained in the detection of low-energy electrons

  6. Electronic dosimetry and neutron metrology by CMOS active pixel sensor

    This work aims at demonstrating the possibility to use active pixel sensors as operational neutron dosemeters. To do so, the sensor that has been used has to be γ-transparent and to be able to detect neutrons on a wide energy range with a high detection efficiency. The response of the device, made of the CMOS sensor MIMOSA-5 and a converter in front of the sensor (polyethylene for fast neutron detection and 10B for thermal neutron detection), has been compared with Monte Carlo simulations carried out with MCNPX and GEANT4. These codes have been before-hand validated to check they can be used properly for our application. Experiments to characterize the sensor have been performed at IPHC and at IRSN/LMDN (Cadarache). The results of the sensor irradiation to photon sources and mixed field (241AmBe source) show the γ-transparency of the sensor by applying an appropriate threshold on the deposited energy (around 100 keV). The associated detection efficiency is satisfactory with a value of 10-3, in good agreement with MCNPX and GEANT4. Other features of the device have been tested with the same source, like the angular response. The last part of this work deals with the detection of thermal neutrons (eV-neutrons). Assays have been done in Cadarache (IRSN) with a 252Cf source moderated with heavy water (with and without cadmium shell). Results asserted a very high detection efficiency (up to 6*10-3 for a pure 10B converter) in good agreement with GEANT4. (author)

  7. Development of Active Pixel Photodiode Sensors for Gamma Camera Application

    Salahuddin, Nur Sultan; Heruseto, Brahmantyo; Parmentier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    We designed new photodiodes sensors including current mirror amplifiers. These photodiodes have been fabricated using a CMOS 0.6 micrometers process from Austria Micro System (AMS). The Photodiode areas are respectiveley 1mm x 1mm and 0.4mm x 0.4mm with fill factor 98 % and total chip area is 2 square millimetres. The sensor pixels show a logarithmic response in illumination and are capable of detecting very low blue light (less than 0.5 lux) . These results allow to use our sensor in new Gamma Camera solid-state concept.

  8. Monte Carlo Study of the Dosimetry of Small-Photon Beams Using CMOS Active Pixel Sensors

    Jimenez Spang, F.

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is an increasingly common treatment modality that uses very small photon fields. This technique imposes high dosimetric standards and complexities that remain unsolved. In this work the dosimetric performance of CMOS active pixel sensors is presented for the measurement of small-photons beams. A novel CMOS active pixel sensor called Vanilla developed for scientific applications was used. The detector is an array of 520 × 520 pixels on a 25 μm pitch which allows up to...

  9. Enhancing sensitivity for Active Pixel Sensors with fault tolerance and demosaicing

    La Haye, Michelle Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    A key advantage to the Active Pixel Sensor (APS) over the traditional charge coupled device (CCD) is the ability to integrate electronics on chip. As image sensors become larger the number of defective pixels increases. In this thesis, a fault tolerant APS design is investigated that functions even in the presence of defects typical for image sensors, focusing on its sensitivity and a noise analysis with defects. The design has nearly twice the sensitivity and the signal-to-noise ratio only d...

  10. A 128 x 128 CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensor for Highly Integrated Imaging Systems

    Mendis, Sunetra K.; Kemeny, Sabrina E.; Fossum, Eric R.

    1993-01-01

    A new CMOS-based image sensor that is intrinsically compatible with on-chip CMOS circuitry is reported. The new CMOS active pixel image sensor achieves low noise, high sensitivity, X-Y addressability, and has simple timing requirements. The image sensor was fabricated using a 2 micrometer p-well CMOS process, and consists of a 128 x 128 array of 40 micrometer x 40 micrometer pixels. The CMOS image sensor technology enables highly integrated smart image sensors, and makes the design, incorporation and fabrication of such sensors widely accessible to the integrated circuit community.

  11. Evaluation of a single-pixel one-transistor active pixel sensor for fingerprint imaging

    Xu, Man; Ou, Hai; Chen, Jun; Wang, Kai

    2015-08-01

    Since it first appeared in iPhone 5S in 2013, fingerprint identification (ID) has rapidly gained popularity among consumers. Current fingerprint-enabled smartphones unanimously consists of a discrete sensor to perform fingerprint ID. This architecture not only incurs higher material and manufacturing cost, but also provides only static identification and limited authentication. Hence as the demand for a thinner, lighter, and more secure handset grows, we propose a novel pixel architecture that is a photosensitive device embedded in a display pixel and detects the reflected light from the finger touch for high resolution, high fidelity and dynamic biometrics. To this purpose, an amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) dual-gate photo TFT working in both fingerprint-imaging mode and display-driving mode will be developed.

  12. Low Power Camera-on-a-Chip Using CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology

    Fossum, E. R.

    1995-01-01

    A second generation image sensor technology has been developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory as a result of the continuing need to miniaturize space science imaging instruments. Implemented using standard CMOS, the active pixel sensor (APS) technology permits the integration of the detector array with on-chip timing, control and signal chain electronics, including analog-to-digital conversion.

  13. Characterisation of regional variations in a stitched CMOS active pixel sensor

    Stitched, large area, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS), active pixel sensors (APS) show promises for X-ray imaging applications. In this paper we present an investigation of the effects of stitching on uniformity of sensor response for an experimental APS. The sensor, known as LAS (large area sensor), was made by reticular stitching onto a single silicon wafer of a 5x5 array of regions consisting of 270x270 pixels with 40 μm pixel pitch, to yield 1350x1350 pixels and an imaging area of 54x54 mm. Data acquired from two different sensors of the same type were filtered to remove spiking pixels and electromagnetic interference (EMI). The non-linear compensation (NLC) technique for CMOS sensor analysis was used to determine the variation in gain, read noise, full well capacity and dynamic range between stitched regions. Variations across stitched regions were analysed using profiles, analysis of pixel variations at stitch boundaries and using a measurement of non-uniformity within a stitched region. The results showed that non-uniformity variations were present, which increased with signal (1.5-3.5% at dark signal, rising to 3-8%). However, these were found to be smaller than variations caused by differences in readout electronics, particularly at low signal levels. The results suggest these variations should be correctable using standard calibration methods.

  14. Development of a versatile readout and test system and characterization of a capacitively coupled active pixel sensor

    Janssen, Jens; Gonella, Laura; Hemperek, Tomasz; Hirono, Toko; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany); Collaboration: ATLAS-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    With the availability of high voltage and high resistivity CMOS processes, active pixel sensors are becoming increasingly interesting for radiation detection in high energy physics experiments. Although the pixel signal-to-noise ratio and the sensor radiation tolerance were improved, active pixel sensors cannot yet compete with state-of-the-art hybrid pixel detector in a high radiation environment. Hence, active pixel sensors are possible candidates for the outer tracking detector in HEP experiments where production cost plays a role. The investigation of numerous prototyping steps and different technologies is still ongoing and requires a versatile test and readout system, which will be presented in this talk. A capacitively coupled active pixel sensor fabricated in AMS 180 nm high voltage CMOS process is investigated. The sensor is designed to be glued to existing front-end pixel readout chips. Results from the characterization are presented in this talk.

  15. Development of a versatile readout and test system and characterization of a capacitively coupled active pixel sensor

    With the availability of high voltage and high resistivity CMOS processes, active pixel sensors are becoming increasingly interesting for radiation detection in high energy physics experiments. Although the pixel signal-to-noise ratio and the sensor radiation tolerance were improved, active pixel sensors cannot yet compete with state-of-the-art hybrid pixel detector in a high radiation environment. Hence, active pixel sensors are possible candidates for the outer tracking detector in HEP experiments where production cost plays a role. The investigation of numerous prototyping steps and different technologies is still ongoing and requires a versatile test and readout system, which will be presented in this talk. A capacitively coupled active pixel sensor fabricated in AMS 180 nm high voltage CMOS process is investigated. The sensor is designed to be glued to existing front-end pixel readout chips. Results from the characterization are presented in this talk.

  16. Front end optimization for the monolithic active pixel sensor of the ALICE Inner Tracking System upgrade

    ALICE plans to replace its Inner Tracking System during the second long shut down of the LHC in 2019 with a new 10 m2 tracker constructed entirely with monolithic active pixel sensors. The TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS imaging Sensor process has been selected to produce the sensor as it offers a deep pwell allowing full CMOS in-pixel circuitry and different starting materials. First full-scale prototypes have been fabricated and tested. Radiation tolerance has also been verified. In this paper the development of the charge sensitive front end and in particular its optimization for uniformity of charge threshold and time response will be presented

  17. Development of radiation hard CMOS active pixel sensors for HL-LHC

    Pernegger, Heinz

    2016-07-01

    New pixel detectors, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity full CMOS processes, hold promise as next-generation active pixel sensors for inner and intermediate layers of the upgraded ATLAS tracker. The use of commercial CMOS processes allow cost-effective detector construction and simpler hybridisation techniques. The paper gives an overview of the results obtained on AMS-produced CMOS sensors coupled to the ATLAS Pixel FE-I4 readout chips. The SOI (silicon-on-insulator) produced sensors by XFAB hold great promise as radiation hard SOI-CMOS sensors due to their combination of partially depleted SOI transistors reducing back-gate effects. The test results include pre-/post-irradiation comparison, measurements of charge collection regions as well as test beam results.

  18. Characterisation of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for use in the TEAM Microscope

    Battaglia, Marco; Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Duden, Thomas; Krieger, Brad; Giubilato, Piero; Gnani, Dario; Radmilovic, Velimir

    2010-01-01

    A 1M- and a 4M-pixel monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor with 9.5x9.5 micron^2 pixels have been developed for direct imaging in transmission electron microscopy as part of the TEAM project. We present the design and a full characterisation of the detector. Data collected with electron beams at various energies of interest in electron microscopy are used to determine the detector response. Data are compared to predictions of simulation. The line spread function measured with 80 keV and 300 keV...

  19. ALPIDE, the Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Mager, M.

    2016-07-01

    A new 10 m2 inner tracking system based on seven concentric layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors will be installed in the ALICE experiment during the second long shutdown of LHC in 2019-2020. The monolithic pixel sensors will be fabricated in the 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process of TowerJazz. The ALPIDE design takes full advantage of a particular process feature, the deep p-well, which allows for full CMOS circuitry within the pixel matrix, while at the same time retaining the full charge collection efficiency. Together with the small feature size and the availability of six metal layers, this allowed a continuously active low-power front-end to be placed into each pixel and an in-matrix sparsification circuit to be used that sends only the addresses of hit pixels to the periphery. This approach led to a power consumption of less than 40 mWcm-2, a spatial resolution of around 5 μm, a peaking time of around 2 μs, while being radiation hard to some 1013 1 MeVneq /cm2, fulfilling or exceeding the ALICE requirements. Over the last years of R & D, several prototype circuits have been used to verify radiation hardness, and to optimize pixel geometry and in-pixel front-end circuitry. The positive results led to a submission of full-scale (3 cm×1.5 cm) sensor prototypes in 2014. They are being characterized in a comprehensive campaign that also involves several irradiation and beam tests. A summary of the results obtained and prospects towards the final sensor to instrument the ALICE Inner Tracking System are given.

  20. Heavily irradiated N-in-p thin planar pixel sensors with and without active edges

    Terzo, S.; Andricek, L.; Macchiolo, A.; Moser, H. G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Weigell, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present the results of the characterization of silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 150 μm, produced at MPP/HLL, and 100-200 μm thin active edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland. These thin sensors are designed as candidates for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade to be operated at the HL-LHC, as they ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. They are interconnected to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. Moreover, the n-in-p technology only requires a single side processing and thereby it is a cost-effective alternative to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. High precision beam test measurements of the hit efficiency have been performed on these devices both at the CERN SpS and at DESY, Hamburg. We studied the behavior of these sensors at different bias voltages and different beam incident angles up to the maximum one expected for the new Insertable B-Layer of ATLAS and for HL-LHC detectors. Results obtained with 150 μm thin sensors, assembled with the new ATLAS FE-I4 chip and irradiated up to a fluence of 4 × 1015 neq/cm2, show that they are excellent candidates for larger radii of the silicon pixel tracker in the upgrade of the ATLAS detector at HL-LHC. In addition, the active edge technology of the VTT devices maximizes the active area of the sensor and reduces the material budget to suit the requirements for the innermost layers. The edge pixel performance of VTT modules has been investigated at beam test experiments and the analysis after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 × 1015 neq/cm2 has been performed using radioactive sources in the laboratory.

  1. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, AC; Zheng, Y.; Speller, RD; Evans, PM; Allinson, NM; Wells, K.

    2014-01-01

    Recently CMOS Active Pixels Sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous Silicon and Selenium Flat Panel Imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non...

  2. Photon small-field measurements with a CMOS active pixel sensor

    Jiménez Spang, F.; Rosenberg, I.; Hedin, E.; Royle, G.

    2015-06-01

    In this work the dosimetric performance of CMOS active pixel sensors for the measurement of small photon beams is presented. The detector used consisted of an array of 520  × 520 pixels on a 25 µm pitch. Dosimetric parameters measured with this sensor were compared with data collected with an ionization chamber, a film detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The sensor performance for beam profiles measurements was evaluated for field sizes of 0.5  × 0.5 cm2. The high spatial resolution achieved with this sensor allowed the accurate measurement of profiles, beam penumbrae and field size under lateral electronic disequilibrium. Field size and penumbrae agreed within 5.4% and 2.2% respectively with film measurements. Agreements with ionization chambers better than 1.0% were obtained when measuring tissue-phantom ratios. Output factor measurements were in good agreement with ionization chamber and Monte Carlo simulation. The data obtained from this imaging sensor can be easily analyzed to extract dosimetric information. The results presented in this work are promising for the development and implementation of CMOS active pixel sensors for dosimetry applications.

  3. Photon small-field measurements with a CMOS active pixel sensor

    In this work the dosimetric performance of CMOS active pixel sensors for the measurement of small photon beams is presented. The detector used consisted of an array of 520  × 520 pixels on a 25 µm pitch. Dosimetric parameters measured with this sensor were compared with data collected with an ionization chamber, a film detector and GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. The sensor performance for beam profiles measurements was evaluated for field sizes of 0.5  × 0.5 cm2. The high spatial resolution achieved with this sensor allowed the accurate measurement of profiles, beam penumbrae and field size under lateral electronic disequilibrium. Field size and penumbrae agreed within 5.4% and 2.2% respectively with film measurements. Agreements with ionization chambers better than 1.0% were obtained when measuring tissue-phantom ratios. Output factor measurements were in good agreement with ionization chamber and Monte Carlo simulation. The data obtained from this imaging sensor can be easily analyzed to extract dosimetric information. The results presented in this work are promising for the development and implementation of CMOS active pixel sensors for dosimetry applications. (paper)

  4. A CMOS Energy Harvesting and Imaging (EHI) Active Pixel Sensor (APS) Imager for Retinal Prosthesis.

    Ay, S U

    2011-12-01

    A CMOS image sensor capable of imaging and energy harvesting on same focal plane is presented for retinal prosthesis. The energy harvesting and imaging (EHI) active pixel sensor (APS) imager was designed, fabricated, and tested in a standard 0.5 μm CMOS process. It has 54 × 50 array of 21 × 21 μm(2) EHI pixels, 10-bit supply boosted (SB) SAR ADC, and charge pump circuits consuming only 14.25 μW from 1.2 V and running at 7.4 frames per second. The supply boosting technique (SBT) is used in an analog signal chain of the EHI imager. Harvested solar energy on focal plane is stored on an off-chip capacitor with the help of a charge pump circuit with better than 70% efficiency. Energy harvesting efficiency of the EHI pixel was measured at different light levels. It was 9.4% while producing 0.41 V open circuit voltage. The EHI imager delivers 3.35 μW of power was delivered to a resistive load at maximum power point operation. The measured pixel array figure of merit (FoM) was 1.32 pW/frame/pixel while imager figure of merit (iFoM) including whole chip power consumption was 696 fJ/pixel/code for the EHI imager. PMID:23852551

  5. Spectrally tunable pixel sensors

    Langfelder, G.; Buffa, C.; Longoni, A. F.; Zaraga, F.

    2013-01-01

    They are here reported the developments and experimental results of fully operating matrices of spectrally tunable pixels based on the Transverse Field Detector (TFD). Unlike several digital imaging sensors based on color filter arrays or layered junctions, the TFD has the peculiar feature of having electrically tunable spectral sensitivities. In this way the sensor color space is not fixed a priori but can be real-time adjusted, e.g. for a better adaptation to the scene content or for multispectral capture. These advantages come at the cost of an increased complexity both for the photosensitive elements and for the readout electronics. The challenges in the realization of a matrix of TFD pixels are analyzed in this work. First experimental results on an 8x8 (x 3 colors) and on a 64x64 (x 3 colors) matrix will be presented and analyzed in terms of colorimetric and noise performance, and compared to simulation predictions.

  6. Development of CMOS Active Pixel Image Sensors for Low Cost Commercial Applications

    Gee, R.; Kemeny, S.; Kim, Q.; Mendis, S.; Nakamura, J.; Nixon, R.; Ortiz, M.; Pain, B.; Staller, C.; Zhou, Z; Fossum, E.

    1994-01-01

    JPL, under sponsorship from the NASA Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology, has been developing a second-generation solid-state image sensor technology. Charge-coupled devices (CCD) are a well-established first generation image sensor technology. For both commercial and NASA applications, CCDs have numerous shortcomings. In response, the active pixel sensor (APS) technology has been under research. The major advantages of APS technology are the ability to integrate on-chip timing, control, signal-processing and analog-to-digital converter functions, reduced sensitivity to radiation effects, low power operation, and random access readout.

  7. A 512x512 CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor with integrated ADCs for space science

    In the last few years, CMOS sensors have become widely used for consumer applications, but little has been done for scientific instruments. In this paper we present the design and experimental characterisation of a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) intended for a space science application. The sensor incorporates a 525x525 array of pixels on a 25 μm pitch. Each pixel contains a detector together with three transistors that are used for pixel reset, pixel selection and charge-to-voltage conversion. The detector consists of four n-well/p-substrate diodes combining optimum charge collection and low noise performance. The array readout is column-parallel with adjustable gain column amplifiers and a 10-bit single slope ADC. Data conversion takes place simultaneously for all the 525 pixels in one row. The ADC slope can be adjusted in order to give the best dynamic range for a given brightness of a scene. The digitised data are output on a 10-bit bus at 3 MHz. An on-chip state machine generates all of the control signals needed for the readout. All of the bias currents and voltages are generated on chip by a DAC that is programmable through an I2C compatible interface. The sensor was designed and fabricated on a standard 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The overall die size is 16.7 mmx19.9 mm including the associated readout electronics and bond pads. Preliminary test results show that the full-scale design works well, meeting the Star Tracker requirements with less than 1-bit noise, good linearity and good optical performance

  8. A 512×512 CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor with integrated ADCs for space science

    Prydderch, M. L.; Waltham, N. J.; Turchetta, R.; French, M. J.; Holt, R.; Marshall, A.; Burt, D.; Bell, R.; Pool, P.; Eyles, C.; Mapson-Menard, H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last few years, CMOS sensors have become widely used for consumer applications, but little has been done for scientific instruments. In this paper we present the design and experimental characterisation of a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) intended for a space science application. The sensor incorporates a 525×525 array of pixels on a 25 μm pitch. Each pixel contains a detector together with three transistors that are used for pixel reset, pixel selection and charge-to-voltage conversion. The detector consists of four n-well/p-substrate diodes combining optimum charge collection and low noise performance. The array readout is column-parallel with adjustable gain column amplifiers and a 10-bit single slope ADC. Data conversion takes place simultaneously for all the 525 pixels in one row. The ADC slope can be adjusted in order to give the best dynamic range for a given brightness of a scene. The digitised data are output on a 10-bit bus at 3 MHz. An on-chip state machine generates all of the control signals needed for the readout. All of the bias currents and voltages are generated on chip by a DAC that is programmable through an I 2C compatible interface. The sensor was designed and fabricated on a standard 0.5 μm CMOS technology. The overall die size is 16.7 mm×19.9 mm including the associated readout electronics and bond pads. Preliminary test results show that the full-scale design works well, meeting the Star Tracker requirements with less than 1-bit noise, good linearity and good optical performance.

  9. Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Terzo, S.; Macchiolo, A; Nisius, R.; Paschen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 $\\mu$m, produced at CiS, and 100-200 $\\mu$m thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowin...

  10. Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) implemented in LF-150 nm CMOS technology

    We present the recent development of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS), implemented with an LFoundry (LF) 150 nm CMOS process. MAPS detectors based on an epi-layer have been matured in recent years and have attractive features in terms of reducing material budget and handling cost compared to conventional hybrid pixel detectors. However, the obtained signal is relatively small (∼1000 e−) due to the thin epi-layer, and charge collection time is relatively slow, e.g., in the order of 100 ns, because charges are mainly collected by diffusion. Modern commercial CMOS technology, however, offers advanced process options to overcome such difficulties and enable truly monolithic devices as an alternative to hybrid pixel sensors and charge coupled devices. Unlike in the case of the standard MAPS technologies with epi-layers, the LF process provides a high-resistivity substrate that enables large signal and fast charge collection by drift in a ∼50 μm thick depleted layer. Since this process also enables the use of deep n- and p-wells to isolate the collection electrode from the thin active device layer, PMOS and NMOS transistors are available for the readout electronics in each pixel cell. In order to evaluate the sensor and transistor characteristics, several collection electrodes variants and readout architectures have been implemented. In this report, we focus on its design aspect of the LF-DMAPS prototype chip

  11. Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) implemented in LF-150 nm CMOS technology

    Kishishita, T.; Hemperek, T.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.

    2015-03-01

    We present the recent development of Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS), implemented with an LFoundry (LF) 150 nm CMOS process. MAPS detectors based on an epi-layer have been matured in recent years and have attractive features in terms of reducing material budget and handling cost compared to conventional hybrid pixel detectors. However, the obtained signal is relatively small (~1000 e-) due to the thin epi-layer, and charge collection time is relatively slow, e.g., in the order of 100 ns, because charges are mainly collected by diffusion. Modern commercial CMOS technology, however, offers advanced process options to overcome such difficulties and enable truly monolithic devices as an alternative to hybrid pixel sensors and charge coupled devices. Unlike in the case of the standard MAPS technologies with epi-layers, the LF process provides a high-resistivity substrate that enables large signal and fast charge collection by drift in a ~50 μm thick depleted layer. Since this process also enables the use of deep n- and p-wells to isolate the collection electrode from the thin active device layer, PMOS and NMOS transistors are available for the readout electronics in each pixel cell. In order to evaluate the sensor and transistor characteristics, several collection electrodes variants and readout architectures have been implemented. In this report, we focus on its design aspect of the LF-DMAPS prototype chip.

  12. Simulation of monolithic active pixel sensor with high resistivity epitaxial layer

    The time and efficiency of charge collection are the key factors of monolithic active pixel sensor devices for minimum ionizing particles tracking detection. In this paper, 3D models of pixels with different resistivity epitaxial layers (epi-layers) are built and simulated using Synopsys-Sentaurus. The basic characteristics of detectors are evaluated, including electric potential, electric field, and depleted region. Results indicate that the high resistivity (HR) epi-layer is a better choice. Further, simulation results show that the key collection performance is significantly improved owing to a wider and stronger electric field in the N type HR epi-layer. (authors)

  13. Heavily Irradiated N-in-p Thin Planar Pixel Sensors with and without Active Edges

    Terzo, S; Macchiolo, A; Moser, H G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Weigell, P

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of the characterization of silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 150 $\\mathrm{\\mu}$m, produced at MPP/HLL, and 100-200 $\\mathrm{\\mu}$m thin active edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland. These thin sensors are designed as candidates for the ATLAS pixel detector upgrade to be operated at the HL-LHC, as they ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. They are interconnected to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. Moreover, the n-in-p technology only requires a single side processing and thereby it is a cost-effective alternative to the n-in-n pixel technology presently employed in the LHC experiments. High precision beam test measurements of the hit efficiency have been performed on these devices both at the CERN SpS and at DESY, Hamburg. We studied the behavior of these sensors at different bias voltages and different beam incident angles up to the maximum one expected for the new Insertable B-Layer of ATLAS and for HL-LHC detect...

  14. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    Macchiolo, A; Moser, H-G; Nisius, R; Richter, R H; Terzo, S; Weigell, P

    2014-01-01

    We present an R&D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 $\\mu$m thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterized with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of $5\\times 10^{15}$ \

  15. Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 μm, produced at CiS, and 100-200 μm thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowing for a reduced overlap of the modules in the pixel layer close to the beam pipe. The CiS production includes also four chip sensors according to the module geometry planned for the outer layers of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector to be operated at the HL-LHC. The modules have been characterized using radioactive sources in the laboratory and with high precision measurements at beam tests to investigate the hit efficiency and charge collection properties at different bias voltages and particle incidence angles. The performance of the different sensor thicknesses and edge designs are compared before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1.4 × 1016 neq/cm2

  16. Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Terzo, S.; Macchiolo, A.; Nisius, R.; Paschen, B.

    2014-12-01

    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 μm, produced at CiS, and 100-200 μm thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowing for a reduced overlap of the modules in the pixel layer close to the beam pipe. The CiS production includes also four chip sensors according to the module geometry planned for the outer layers of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector to be operated at the HL-LHC. The modules have been characterized using radioactive sources in the laboratory and with high precision measurements at beam tests to investigate the hit efficiency and charge collection properties at different bias voltages and particle incidence angles. The performance of the different sensor thicknesses and edge designs are compared before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 1.4 × 1016 neq/cm2.

  17. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    Macchiolo, A.; Andricek, L.; Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R.; Richter, R. H.; Terzo, S.; Weigell, P.

    2014-11-01

    We present an R&D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 μm thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterised with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5 ×1015neq /cm2. We will also report on the R&D activity to obtain Inter Chip Vias (ICVs) on the ATLAS read-out chip in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT. This step is meant to prove the feasibility of the signal transport to the newly created readout pads on the backside of the chips allowing for four side buttable devices without the presently used cantilever for wire bonding. The read-out chips with ICVs will be interconnected to thin pixel sensors, 75 μm and 150 μm thick, with the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technology, which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding.

  18. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    Macchiolo, A., E-mail: Anna.Macchiolo@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Andricek, L. [Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max-Planck-Society, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Moser, H.-G.; Nisius, R. [Max-Planck-Institut for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Richter, R.H. [Semiconductor Laboratory of the Max-Planck-Society, Otto Hahn Ring 6, D-81739 Munich (Germany); Terzo, S.; Weigell, P. [Max-Planck-Institut for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)

    2014-11-21

    We present an R and D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 μm thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterised with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5×10{sub 15}n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}. We will also report on the R and D activity to obtain Inter Chip Vias (ICVs) on the ATLAS read-out chip in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT. This step is meant to prove the feasibility of the signal transport to the newly created readout pads on the backside of the chips allowing for four side buttable devices without the presently used cantilever for wire bonding. The read-out chips with ICVs will be interconnected to thin pixel sensors, 75 μm and 150 μm thick, with the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technology, which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding.

  19. Development of active edge pixel sensors and four-side buttable modules using vertical integration technologies

    We present an R and D activity focused on the development of novel modules for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system at the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). The modules consist of n-in-p pixel sensors, 100 or 200 μm thick, produced at VTT (Finland) with an active edge technology, which considerably reduces the dead area at the periphery of the device. The sensors are interconnected with solder bump-bonding to the ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips, and characterised with radioactive sources and beam tests at the CERN-SPS and DESY. The results of these measurements will be discussed for devices before and after irradiation up to a fluence of 5×1015neq/cm2. We will also report on the R and D activity to obtain Inter Chip Vias (ICVs) on the ATLAS read-out chip in collaboration with the Fraunhofer Institute EMFT. This step is meant to prove the feasibility of the signal transport to the newly created readout pads on the backside of the chips allowing for four side buttable devices without the presently used cantilever for wire bonding. The read-out chips with ICVs will be interconnected to thin pixel sensors, 75 μm and 150 μm thick, with the Solid Liquid Interdiffusion (SLID) technology, which is an alternative to the standard solder bump-bonding

  20. Active Pixel Sensors for direct detection of soft X-rays

    The imaging of soft X-ray images is typically performed with charge coupled devices (CCDs). However, these can have limited readout speed, dynamic range and can also require significant cooling to obtain the required signal to noise ratio. Active pixel sensors (APS) are able to combine faster readout speeds and higher dynamic range with in-pixel intelligence to allow region of interest readout and adaptive gain. To obtain high detection efficiency and 100% pixel fill factor the sensor is back thinned and illuminated from the backside. We report on the characterization of a back-thinned APS (Vanilla); an array of 512 × 512 pixels of size 25 × 25 microns. The sensor has a 12-bit digital output for full frame mode, as well as being able to be readout in a fully programmable Region-Of-Interest (ROI) analogue mode. In full frame, the sensor can operate at a readout rate of more than 100 frames per second. Characterization of the detector was carried out through the analysis of photon transfer curves to yield measurements of the full well capacity, noise levels, gain constants and device linearity. Spectral response measurements were made to show the improvement in detection efficiency using a backthinned sensor. A typical synchrotron experiment was performed at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) using Soft X-rays ( ∼ 700 eV) to produce a diffraction pattern from a permalloy sample. The pattern was imaged at a range of frame rates, up to 20Hz, and a range of temperatures for both a back-thinned Vanilla and a Princeton PIXIS-XO: 2048B CCD. The results of which are compared. The detection efficiency of the APS is shown to be comparable to the CCD for a given frame rate (0.1Hz), with similar noise levels. We suggest that the back-thinned APS are a viable technology choice for the direct detection of soft X-rays for synchrotron applications.

  1. Thin n-in-p planar pixel sensors and active edge sensors for the ATLAS upgrade at HL-LHC

    Terzo, S; Nisius, R; Paschen, B

    2014-01-01

    Silicon pixel modules employing n-in-p planar sensors with an active thickness of 200 $\\mu$m, produced at CiS, and 100-200 $\\mu$m thin active/slim edge sensor devices, produced at VTT in Finland have been interconnected to ATLAS FE-I3 and FE-I4 read-out chips. The thin sensors are designed for high energy physics collider experiments to ensure radiation hardness at high fluences. Moreover, the active edge technology of the VTT production maximizes the sensitive region of the assembly, allowing for a reduced overlap of the modules in the pixel layer close to the beam pipe. The CiS production includes also four chip sensors according to the module geometry planned for the outer layers of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector to be operated at the HL-LHC. The modules have been characterized using radioactive sources in the laboratory and with high precision measurements at beam tests to investigate the hit efficiency and charge collection properties at different bias voltages and particle incidence angles. The perfo...

  2. On drift fields in CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors with point-like collection diodes

    Deveaux, M; Dorokhov, A; Doering, D; Heymes, J; Kachel, M; Koziel, M; Linnik, B; Müntz, C; Stroth, J

    2016-01-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for charged particle tracking are considered as technology for numerous experiments in heavy ion and particle physics. To match the requirements for those applications in terms of tolerance to non-ionizing radiation, it is being tried to deplete the sensitive volume of the, traditionally non-depleted, silicon sensors. We study the feasibility of this approach for the common case that the collection diodes of the pixel are small as compared to the pixel pitch. An analytic equation predicting the thickness of the depletion depth and the capacity of this point-like junction is introduced. We find that the predictions of this equations differs qualitatively from the usual results for flat PN junctions and that $dC/dU$-measurements are not suited to measure the depletion depth of diodes with point-like geometry. The predictions of the equation is compared with measurements on the depletion depth of CMOS sensors, which were carried out with a novel measurement protocol. It is fo...

  3. Analysis of noise characteristics for the active pixels in CMOS image sensors for X-ray imaging

    Kim, Young Soo; Cho, Gyuseong; Bae, Jun-Hyung

    2006-09-01

    CMOS image sensors have poorer performance compared to conventional charge coupled devices (CCDs). Since CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) in general have higher temporal noise, higher dark current, smaller full well charge capacitance, and lower spectral response, they cannot provide the same wide dynamic range and superior signal to noise ratio as CCDs. In view of electronic noise, the main source for the CMOS APS is the pixel, along with other signal processing blocks such as row and column decoder, analog signal processor (ASP), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and timing and control logic circuitry. Therefore, it is important and necessary to characterize noise of the active pixels in CMOS APSs, and we performed experimental measurements and comparisons with theoretical estimations. To derive noise source of the pixels, we designed and fabricated four types of CMOS active pixels, and each pixel is composed of a photodiode and three MOS transistors. The size of these pixels is 100 μm×100 μm. The test chip was fabricated using ETRI 0.8 μm (2P/2M) standard CMOS process. It was found that the dominant noise in CMOS active pixels is shot noise during integration under normal operating conditions. And, it was also seen that epitaxial type pixels have similar noise level compared to non-epitaxial type, and the noise of diffusion type pixel is larger than for a well type pixel on the same substrate type.

  4. Analysis of noise characteristics for the active pixels in CMOS image sensors for X-ray imaging

    CMOS image sensors have poorer performance compared to conventional charge coupled devices (CCDs). Since CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) in general have higher temporal noise, higher dark current, smaller full well charge capacitance, and lower spectral response, they cannot provide the same wide dynamic range and superior signal to noise ratio as CCDs. In view of electronic noise, the main source for the CMOS APS is the pixel, along with other signal processing blocks such as row and column decoder, analog signal processor (ASP), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), and timing and control logic circuitry. Therefore, it is important and necessary to characterize noise of the active pixels in CMOS APSs, and we performed experimental measurements and comparisons with theoretical estimations. To derive noise source of the pixels, we designed and fabricated four types of CMOS active pixels, and each pixel is composed of a photodiode and three MOS transistors. The size of these pixels is 100 μmx100 μm. The test chip was fabricated using ETRI 0.8 μm (2P/2M) standard CMOS process. It was found that the dominant noise in CMOS active pixels is shot noise during integration under normal operating conditions. And, it was also seen that epitaxial type pixels have similar noise level compared to non-epitaxial type, and the noise of diffusion type pixel is larger than for a well type pixel on the same substrate type

  5. New generation of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle detection

    Vertex detectors are of great importance in particle physics experiments, as the knowledge of the event flavour is becoming an issue for the physics programme at Future Linear Colliders. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on a novel detector structure have been proposed. Their fabrication is compatible with a standard CMOS process. The sensor is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low-resistivity silicon wafer. The basic pixel configuration comprises only three MOS transistors and a diode collecting the charge through thermal diffusion. The charge is generated in the thin non-depleted epitaxial layer underneath the readout electronics. This approach provides, at low cost, a high resolution and thin device with the whole area sensitive to radiation. Device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out to study the charge collection mechanism. In order to demonstrate the viability of the technique, four prototype chips have been fabricated using different submicrometer CMOS processes. The pixel gain has been calibrated using a 55Fe source and the Poisson sequence method. The prototypes have been exposed to high-energy particle beams at CERN. The tests proved excellent detection performances expressed in a single-track spatial resolution of 1.5 μm and detection efficiency close to 100%, resulting from a SNR ratio of more than 30. Irradiation tests showed immunity of MAPS to a level of a few times 1012 n/cm2 and a few hundred kRad of ionising radiation. The ideas for future work, including on-pixel signal amplification, double sampling operation and current mode pixel design are present as well. (author)

  6. Research and Development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Detection of the Elementary Particles

    In order to develop high spatial resolution and readout speed vertex detectors for the future International Linear Collider (ILC), fast CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are studied on this work. Two prototypes of MAPS, MIMOSA 8 and MIMOSA 16, based on the same micro-electronic architecture were developed in CMOS processes with different thickness of epitaxial layer. The size of pixel matrix is 32 x 128: 8 columns of the pixel array are readout directly with analog outputs and the other 24 columns are connected to the column level auto-zero discriminators. The Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) structures are successfully implemented inside pixel and discriminator. The photo diode type pixels with different diode sizes are used in these prototypes. With a 55Fe X-ray radioactive source, the important parameters, such as Temporal Noise, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Charge-to-Voltage conversion Factor (CVF) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE), are studied as function of readout speed and diode size. For MIMOSA 8, the effect of fast neutrons irradiation is also. Two beam tests campaigns were made: at DESY with a 5 GeV electrons beam and at CERN with a 180 GeV pions beam. Detection Efficiency and Spatial Resolution are studied in function of the discriminator threshold. For these two parameters, the influences of diode size and SNR of the central pixel of a cluster are also discussed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the digital outputs, a very compact (25 μm x 1 mm) and low consumption (300 μW) column level ADC is designed in AMS 0.35 μm OPTO process. Based on successive approximation architecture, the auto-offset cancellation structure is integrated. A new column level auto-zero discriminator using static latch is also designed. (author)

  7. Characterisation of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for use in the TEAM Microscope

    Battaglia, Marco; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Duden, Thomas; Krieger, Brad; Giubilato, Piero; Gnani, Dario; Radmilovic, Velimir

    2010-01-01

    A 1M- and a 4M-pixel monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor with 9.5x9.5 micron^2 pixels have been developed for direct imaging in transmission electron microscopy as part of the TEAM project. We present the design and a full characterisation of the detector. Data collected with electron beams at various energies of interest in electron microscopy are used to determine the detector response. Data are compared to predictions of simulation. The line spread function measured with 80 keV and 300 keV electrons is (12.1+/-0.7) micron and (7.4+/-0.6) micron, respectively, in good agreement with our simulation. We measure the detection quantum efficiency to be 0.78+/-0.04 at 80 keV and 0.74+/-0.03 at 300 keV. Using a new imaging technique, based on single electron reconstruction, the line spread function for 80 keV and 300 keV electrons becomes (6.7+/-0.3) micron and (2.4+/-0.2) micron, respectively. The radiation tolerance of the pixels has been tested up to 5 Mrad and the detector is still functional with a decrease o...

  8. Characterisation of a CMOS active pixel sensor for use in the TEAM microscope

    Battaglia, Marco; Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Duden, Thomas; Krieger, Brad; Giubilato, Piero; Gnani, Dario; Radmilovic, Velimir

    2010-10-01

    A 1M- and a 4M-pixel monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor with 9.5×9.5 μm2 pixels have been developed for direct imaging in transmission electron microscopy as part of the TEAM project. We present the design and a full characterisation of the detector. Data collected with electron beams at various energies of interest in electron microscopy are used to determine the detector response. Data are compared to predictions of simulation. The line spread function measured with 80 and 300 keV electrons is (12.1±0.7) and (7.4±0.6) μm, respectively, in good agreement with our simulation. We measure the detection quantum efficiency to be 0.78±0.04 at 80 keV and 0.74±0.03 at 300 keV. Using a new imaging technique, based on single electron reconstruction, the line spread function for 80 and 300 keV electrons becomes (6.7±0.3) and (2.4±0.2) μm, respectively. The radiation tolerance of the pixels has been tested up to 5 Mrad and the detector is still functional with a decrease of dynamic range by ≃30%, corresponding to a reduction in full-well depth from ˜39 to ˜27 primary 300 keV electrons, due to leakage current increase, but identical line spread function performance.

  9. Characterisation of a CMOS active pixel sensor for use in the TEAM microscope

    Battaglia, Marco, E-mail: MBattaglia@lbl.go [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Duden, Thomas; Krieger, Brad [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Giubilato, Piero [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi, Padova I-35131 (Italy); Gnani, Dario; Radmilovic, Velimir [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-10-21

    A 1M- and a 4M-pixel monolithic CMOS active pixel sensor with 9.5x9.5{mu}m{sup 2} pixels have been developed for direct imaging in transmission electron microscopy as part of the TEAM project. We present the design and a full characterisation of the detector. Data collected with electron beams at various energies of interest in electron microscopy are used to determine the detector response. Data are compared to predictions of simulation. The line spread function measured with 80 and 300 keV electrons is (12.1{+-}0.7) and (7.4{+-}0.6){mu}m, respectively, in good agreement with our simulation. We measure the detection quantum efficiency to be 0.78{+-}0.04 at 80 keV and 0.74{+-}0.03 at 300 keV. Using a new imaging technique, based on single electron reconstruction, the line spread function for 80 and 300 keV electrons becomes (6.7{+-}0.3) and (2.4{+-}0.2){mu}m, respectively. The radiation tolerance of the pixels has been tested up to 5 Mrad and the detector is still functional with a decrease of dynamic range by {approx_equal}30%, corresponding to a reduction in full-well depth from {approx}39 to {approx}27 primary 300 keV electrons, due to leakage current increase, but identical line spread function performance.

  10. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  11. Performance of a novel wafer scale CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical imaging.

    Esposito, M; Anaxagoras, T; Konstantinidis, A C; Zheng, Y; Speller, R D; Evans, P M; Allinson, N M; Wells, K

    2014-07-01

    Recently CMOS active pixels sensors (APSs) have become a valuable alternative to amorphous silicon and selenium flat panel imagers (FPIs) in bio-medical imaging applications. CMOS APSs can now be scaled up to the standard 20 cm diameter wafer size by means of a reticle stitching block process. However, despite wafer scale CMOS APS being monolithic, sources of non-uniformity of response and regional variations can persist representing a significant challenge for wafer scale sensor response. Non-uniformity of stitched sensors can arise from a number of factors related to the manufacturing process, including variation of amplification, variation between readout components, wafer defects and process variations across the wafer due to manufacturing processes. This paper reports on an investigation into the spatial non-uniformity and regional variations of a wafer scale stitched CMOS APS. For the first time a per-pixel analysis of the electro-optical performance of a wafer CMOS APS is presented, to address inhomogeneity issues arising from the stitching techniques used to manufacture wafer scale sensors. A complete model of the signal generation in the pixel array has been provided and proved capable of accounting for noise and gain variations across the pixel array. This novel analysis leads to readout noise and conversion gain being evaluated at pixel level, stitching block level and in regions of interest, resulting in a coefficient of variation ⩽1.9%. The uniformity of the image quality performance has been further investigated in a typical x-ray application, i.e. mammography, showing a uniformity in terms of CNR among the highest when compared with mammography detectors commonly used in clinical practice. Finally, in order to compare the detection capability of this novel APS with the technology currently used (i.e. FPIs), theoretical evaluation of the detection quantum efficiency (DQE) at zero-frequency has been performed, resulting in a higher DQE for this

  12. Radiation hardness of a large area CMOS active pixel sensor for bio-medical applications

    Esposito, M; Diaz, O; Wells, K.; Anaxagoras, T; Allinson, NM

    2012-01-01

    A wafer scale CMOS Active Pixel Sensor has been designed employing design techniques of transistor enclosed geometry and P+ doped guard rings to offer ionizing radiation tolerance. The detector was irradiated with 160 kVp X-rays up to a total dose of 94 kGy(Si) and remained functional. The radiation damage produced in the device has been studied, resulting in a dark current density increase per decade of 96±5 pA/cm/decade and a damage threshold of 204 Gy(Si). The damage produced in the detect...

  13. Development of a new electronic personal neutron dosemeter using a CMOS active pixel sensor

    A CMOS active pixel sensor, originally designed for the tracking of minimum ionising charged particles in high-energy physics, has been recently used for the detection of fast neutrons. Data were taken at the IRSN Cadarache facility with a 241Am-Be ISO source and a polyethylene radiator. A high-intrinsic efficiency (1.2 x 10-3) has been obtained. It is in good agreement with both calculations and a MCNPX Monte Carlo simulation. This experiment paves the way for a fully electronic personal neutron dosemeter. (authors)

  14. DMAPS: a fully depleted monolithic active pixel sensor - analog performance characterization

    Havránek, Miroslav; Krüger, Hans; Fu, Yunan; Germic, Leonard; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Obermann, Theresa; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) have been developed since the late 1990s based on silicon substrates with a thin epitaxial layer (thickness of 10-15 $\\mu$m) in which charge is collected on an electrode, albeit by disordered and slow diffusion rather than by drift in a directed electric field. As a consequence, the signal is small ($\\approx$ 1000 e$^-$) and the radiation tolerance is much below the LHC requirements by factors of 100 to 1000. In this paper we present the development of a fully Depleted Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (DMAPS) based on a high resistivity substrate allowing the creation of a fully depleted detection volume. This concept overcomes the inherent limitations of charge collection by diffusion in the standard MAPS designs. We present results from a test chip EPCB01 designed in a commercial 150 nm CMOS technology. The technology provides a thin (50 $\\mu$m) high resistivity n-type silicon substrate as well as an additional deep p-well which allows to integrate full CMOS circuitry i...

  15. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs

  16. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors as energy-range detectors for proton Computed Tomography

    Esposito, M.; Anaxagoras, T.; Evans, P. M.; Green, S.; Manolopoulos, S.; Nieto-Camero, J.; Parker, D. J.; Poludniowski, G.; Price, T.; Waltham, C.; Allinson, N. M.

    2015-06-01

    Since the first proof of concept in the early 70s, a number of technologies has been proposed to perform proton CT (pCT), as a means of mapping tissue stopping power for accurate treatment planning in proton therapy. Previous prototypes of energy-range detectors for pCT have been mainly based on the use of scintillator-based calorimeters, to measure proton residual energy after passing through the patient. However, such an approach is limited by the need for only a single proton passing through the energy-range detector in a read-out cycle. A novel approach to this problem could be the use of pixelated detectors, where the independent read-out of each pixel allows to measure simultaneously the residual energy of a number of protons in the same read-out cycle, facilitating a faster and more efficient pCT scan. This paper investigates the suitability of CMOS Active Pixel Sensors (APSs) to track individual protons as they go through a number of CMOS layers, forming an energy-range telescope. Measurements performed at the iThemba Laboratories will be presented and analysed in terms of correlation, to confirm capability of proton tracking for CMOS APSs.

  17. Design and testing of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle tracking

    Deptuch, G; Claus, G; Colledani, C; Dulinski, W; Gornushkin, Y; Husson, D; Riester, J L; Winter, M

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) for charged particle tracking based on a novel detector structure has been proposed, simulated, fabricated and tested. This detector is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low- resistivity silicon wafer standard for a CMOS process. The individual pixel is comprised of only three MOS transistors and a photodiode collecting the charge created in the thin undepleted epitaxial layer. This approach provides a low cost, high resolution and thin device with the whole detector area sensitive to radiation (100% fill factor). Detailed device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out in order to study the charge. collection mechanism and to validate the proposed idea. In order to demonstrate viability of the technique, two prototype chips were successively fabricated using 0.6 mu m and 0.35 mu m CMOS processes. Both chips have been fully characterized. The pixel conversion gain has been calibrated using a /sup...

  18. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) in a quadruple well technology for nearly 100% fill factor and full CMOS pixels

    Ballin, J A; Dauncey, P D; Magnan, A -M; Mikami, Y; Miller, O D; Noy, M; Rajovic, V; Stanitzki, M M; Stefanov, K D; Turchetta, R; Tyndel, M; Villani, E G; Watson, N K; Wilson, J A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel, quadruple well process developed in a modern 0.18mu CMOS technology called INMAPS. On top of the standard process, we have added a deep P implant that can be used to form a deep P-well and provide screening of N-wells from the P-doped epitaxial layer. This prevents the collection of radiation-induced charge by unrelated N-wells, typically ones where PMOS transistors are integrated. The design of a sensor specifically tailored to a particle physics experiment is presented, where each 50mu pixel has over 150 PMOS and NMOS transistors. The sensor has been fabricated in the INMAPS process and first experimental evidence of the effectiveness of this process on charge collection is presented, showing a significant improvement in efficiency.

  19. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS in a Quadruple Well Technology for Nearly 100% Fill Factor and Full CMOS Pixels

    John Allan Wilson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel, quadruple well process developed in a modern 0.18 mm CMOS technology called INMAPS. On top of the standard process, we have added a deep P implant that can be used to form a deep P-well and provide screening of N-wells from the P-doped epitaxial layer. This prevents the collection of radiation-induced charge by unrelated N-wells, typically ones where PMOS transistors are integrated. The design of a sensor specifically tailored to a particle physics experiment is presented, where each 50 mm pixel has over 150 PMOS and NMOS transistors. The sensor has been fabricated in the INMAPS process and first experimental evidence of the effectiveness of this process on charge collection is presented, showing a significant improvement in efficiency.

  20. Novel Logarithmic Active Pixel Sensor with High Dynamic Range and High Output Swing

    FU Xian-song; YAO Su-ying; YUAN Yi-dong; XU Jiang-tao; DING Ke; YAN Kun-shan

    2008-01-01

    The logarithmic response complementary metal oxide semiconductor(CMOS) image sensor provides a wide dynamic range, but its drawback is the lack of simple fixed pattern noise(FPN) cancellation scheme. Designed is a novel logarithmic active pixel sensor(APS) with high dynamic range and high output swing. Firstly, the operation principle of mixed-model APS is introduced. The pixel can work in three operation modes by choosing the proper control signals. Then, FPN sources of logarithmic APS are analyzed, and double-sampled technique is implemented to reduce FPN. Finally, according to the simulation results, layout is designed and has passed design rule check(DRC), electronic rule check(ERC) and layout versus schematic(LVS) verifications, and the post-simulation results are basically in agreement with the simulation results. Dynamic range of the new logarithmic APS can reach about 140 dB; and the output swing is about 750 mV. Results show that by using double sampled technique, most FPN is eliminated and the dynamic range is enhanced.

  1. 12-inch-wafer-scale CMOS active-pixel sensor for digital mammography

    Heo, Sung Kyn; Kosonen, Jari; Hwang, Sung Ha; Kim, Tae Woo; Yun, Seungman; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the development of an active-pixel sensor (APS) panel, which has a field-of-view of 23.1×17.1 cm and features 70-μm-sized pixels arranged in a 3300×2442 array format, for digital mammographic applications. The APS panel was realized on 12-inch wafers based on the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology without physical tiling processes of several small-area sensor arrays. Electrical performance of the developed panel is described in terms of dark current, full-well capacity and leakage current map. For mammographic imaging, the optimized CsI:Tl scintillator is experimentally determined by being combined with the developed panel and analyzing im aging characteristics, such as modulation-transfer function, noise-power spectrum, detective quantum efficiency, image l ag, and contrast-detail analysis by using the CDMAM 3.4 phantom. With these results, we suggest that the developed CMOS-based detector can be used for conventional and advanced digital mammographic applications.

  2. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    Jarron, P.; Moraes, D.; Despeisse, M.; Dissertori, G.; Dunand, S.; Kaplon. J.; Miazza, C.; Shah, Arvind; Viertel, G M.; Wyrsch, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS)...

  3. Performance of a Fast Binary Readout CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Chip Designed for Charged Particle Detection

    Degerli, Y.; Besancon, M.; Besson, A.; Claus, G; Deptuch, G; Dulinski, W.; Fourches, N.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Li, Y.; Li, Y.; Lutz, P.; Orsini, F.; Szelezniak, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the performance of the MIMOSA8 (HiMAPS1) chip. The chip is a 128$, times ,$32 pixels array where 24 columns have discriminated binary outputs and eight columns analog test outputs. Offset correction techniques are used extensively in this chip to overcome process related mismatches. The array is divided in four blocks of pixels with different conversion factors and is controlled by a serially programmable sequencer. MIMOSA8 is a representative of the CMOS sensors development opti...

  4. Design and implementation of fast and sparsified readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    Torheim, Olav

    2010-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the development of smart pixel readout architectures that should ultimately be targeted for the Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) of the CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter) experiment. The technical challenge of building a pixel detector for this experiment is to design particle sensors capable of meeting at the same time very strict requirements on both spatial resolution, time resolution and radiation hardness. The MVD is required to obtain data for the open ...

  5. A low noise reference generator in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for STAR

    In order to reduce the number of cables and gain a lower material budget, this paper presents an on-chip reference generator to provide the clamping voltage in monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) for the STAR experiment. It is realized by a regulator utilizing a buffer and a serial RC network. The proposed circuits can achieve good stability, low power dissipation and low noise. Moreover, the output voltage is adjustable to compensate the influence of the process. A prototype has been implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS process. Its die area is 327 μm x 119 μm. The power dissipation is 677 μW. The measured results show that 5.3% of the noise in MAPS is induced by the reference generator.

  6. Effect and suppression of parasitic surface damage in neutron irradiated CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    Deveaux, M; Scharrer, P; Stroth, J

    2016-01-01

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) were chosen as sensor technology for the vertex detectors of STAR, CBM and the upgraded ALICE-ITS. They also constitute a valuable option for tracking devices at future e+e- colliders. Those applications require a substantial tolerance to both, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. To allow for a focused optimization of the radiation tolerance, prototypes are tested by irradiating the devices either with purely ionizing radiation (e.g. soft X-rays) or the most pure sources of non-ionizing radiation available (e.g. reactor neutrons). In the second case, it is typically assumed that the impact of the parasitic $\\gamma$-rays found in the neutron beams is negligible. We checked this assumption by irradiating MAPS with $\\gamma$-rays and comparing the radiation damage generated with the one in neutron irradiated sensors. We conclude that the parasitic radiation doses may cause non-negligible radiation damage. Based on the results we propose a procedure to recognize and to ...

  7. Charge collection properties of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor using a HV-SOI process

    Fernandez-Perez, S.; Backhaus, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Gallrapp, C.; Hemperek, T.; Kishishita, T.; Krueger, H.; Moll, M.; Padilla, C.; Pernegger, H.

    2016-01-01

    New pixel detector concepts, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity CMOS processes, are being investigated as a possible candidate to the inner and outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker in the HL-LHC upgrade. A depleted monolithic active pixel sensor on thick film SOI technology is being extensively investigated for that purpose. This particular technology provides a double well structure, which shields the thin gate oxide transistors from the Buried Oxide (BOX). In addition, the distance between transistors and BOX is one order of magnitude bigger than conventional SOI technologies, making the technology promising against its main limitations, as radiation hardness or back gate effects. Its radiation hardness to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and the absence of back gate effect up to 700 Mrad has been measured and published [1]. The process allows the use of high voltages (up to 300V) which are used to partially deplete the substrate. The process allows fabrication in higher resistivity, therefore a fully depleted substrate could be achieved after thinning. This article shows the results on charge collection properties of the silicon bulk below the BOX by different techniques, in a laboratory with radioactive sources and by edge Transient Current Technique, for unirradiated and irradiated samples.

  8. Charge collection properties of a depleted monolithic active pixel sensor using a HV-SOI process

    New pixel detector concepts, based on commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity CMOS processes, are being investigated as a possible candidate to the inner and outer layers of the ATLAS Inner Tracker in the HL-LHC upgrade. A depleted monolithic active pixel sensor on thick film SOI technology is being extensively investigated for that purpose. This particular technology provides a double well structure, which shields the thin gate oxide transistors from the Buried Oxide (BOX). In addition, the distance between transistors and BOX is one order of magnitude bigger than conventional SOI technologies, making the technology promising against its main limitations, as radiation hardness or back gate effects. Its radiation hardness to Total Ionizing Dose (TID) and the absence of back gate effect up to 700 Mrad has been measured and published [1]. The process allows the use of high voltages (up to 300V) which are used to partially deplete the substrate. The process allows fabrication in higher resistivity, therefore a fully depleted substrate could be achieved after thinning. This article shows the results on charge collection properties of the silicon bulk below the BOX by different techniques, in a laboratory with radioactive sources and by edge Transient Current Technique, for unirradiated and irradiated samples

  9. A proposed STAR microvertex detector using Active Pixel Sensors with some relevant studies on APS performance

    A vertex detector that can measure particles with charm or bottom quarks would dramatically expand the physics capability of the STAR detector at RHIC. To accomplish this, we are proposing to build the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) using 2x2 cm Active Pixels Sensors (APS). Ten of these APS chips will be arranged on a ladder (0.28% of a radiation length) at radii of 1.5 and at 5.0 cm. We have examined several properties of APS chips, so that we can characterize the performance of this detector. Using 1.5 GeV/c electrons, we have measured the charge collected and compared it to the expected charge. To achieve high efficiency, we have considered two different cluster finding algorithms and found that the choice of algorithm is dependent on noise level. We have demonstrated that a Scanning Electron Microscope can probe properties of an APS chip. In particular, we studied several position resolution algorithms. Finally, we studied the properties of pixel pitches from 5 to 30 μm

  10. Improved Design of Active Pixel CMOS Sensors for Charged Particle Detection

    The Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear physics program requires developments in detector instrumentation electronics with improved energy, position and timing resolution, sensitivity, rate capability, stability, dynamic range, and background suppression. The current Phase-I project was focused on analysis of standard-CMOS photogate Active Pixel Sensors (APS) as an efficient solution to this challenge. The advantages of the CMOS APS over traditional hybrid approaches (i.e., separate detection regions bump-bonded to readout circuits) include greatly reduced cost, low power and the potential for vastly larger pixel counts and densities. However, challenges remain in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and readout speed (currently on the order of milliseconds), which is the major problem for this technology. Recent work has shown that the long readout time for photogate APS is due to the presence of (interface) traps at the semiconductor-oxide interface. This Phase-I work yielded useful results in two areas: (a) Advanced three-dimensional (3D) physics-based simulation models and simulation-based analysis of the impact of interface trap density on the transient charge collection characteristics of existing APS structures; and (b) Preliminary analysis of the feasibility of an improved photogate pixel structure (i.e., new APS design) with an induced electric field under the charge collecting electrode to enhance charge collection. Significant effort was dedicated in Phase-I to the critical task of implementing accurate interface trap models in CFDRC's NanoTCAD 3D semiconductor device-physics simulator. This resulted in validation of the new NanoTCAD models and simulation results against experimental (published) data, within the margin of uncertainty associated with obtaining device geometry, material properties, and experimentation details. Analyses of the new, proposed photogate APS design demonstrated several promising trends

  11. SMARTPIX, a photon-counting pixel detector for synchrotron applications based on Medipix3RX readout chip and active edge pixel sensors

    Photon-counting pixel detectors are now routinely used on synchrotron beamlines. Many applications benefit from their noiseless mode of operation, single-pixel point spread function and high frame rates. One of their drawbacks is a discontinuous detection area due to the space-consuming wirebonded connections of the readout chips. Moreover, charge sharing limits their efficiency and their energy discrimination capabilities. In order to overcome these issues the ESRF is developing SMARTPIX,a scalable and versatile pixel detector system with minimized dead areas and with energy resolving capabilities based on the MEDIPIX3RX readout chip. SMARTPIX exploits the through-silicon via technology implemented on MEDIPIX3RX, the active edge sensor processing developed in particular at ADVACAM, and the on-chip analog charge summing feature of MEDIPIX3RX. This article reports on system architecture, unit module structure, data acquisition electronics, target characteristics and applications

  12. SMARTPIX, a photon-counting pixel detector for synchrotron applications based on Medipix3RX readout chip and active edge pixel sensors

    Ponchut, C.; Collet, E.; Hervé, C.; Le Caer, T.; Cerrai, J.; Siron, L.; Dabin, Y.; Ribois, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Photon-counting pixel detectors are now routinely used on synchrotron beamlines. Many applications benefit from their noiseless mode of operation, single-pixel point spread function and high frame rates. One of their drawbacks is a discontinuous detection area due to the space-consuming wirebonded connections of the readout chips. Moreover, charge sharing limits their efficiency and their energy discrimination capabilities. In order to overcome these issues the ESRF is developing SMARTPIX,a scalable and versatile pixel detector system with minimized dead areas and with energy resolving capabilities based on the MEDIPIX3RX readout chip. SMARTPIX exploits the through-silicon via technology implemented on MEDIPIX3RX, the active edge sensor processing developed in particular at ADVACAM, and the on-chip analog charge summing feature of MEDIPIX3RX. This article reports on system architecture, unit module structure, data acquisition electronics, target characteristics and applications.

  13. First evidence of phase-contrast imaging with laboratory sources and active pixel sensors

    The aim of the present work is to achieve a first step towards combining the advantages of an innovative X-ray imaging technique-phase-contrast imaging (XPCi)-with those of a new class of sensors, i.e. CMOS-based active pixel sensors (APSs). The advantages of XPCi are well known and include increased image quality and detection of details invisible to conventional techniques, with potential application fields encompassing the medical, biological, industrial and security areas. Vanilla, one of the APSs developed by the MI-3 collaboration (see (http://mi3.shef.ac.uk)), was thoroughly characterised and an appropriate scintillator was selected to provide X-ray sensitivity. During this process, a set of phase-contrast images of different biological samples was acquired by means of the well-established free-space propagation XPCi technique. The obtained results are very encouraging and are in optimum agreement with the predictions of a simulation recently developed by some of the authors thus further supporting its reliability. This paper presents these preliminary results in detail and discusses in brief both the background to this work and its future developments

  14. Active Pixel Sensors in ams H18/H35 HV-CMOS Technology for the ATLAS HL-LHC Upgrade

    Ristic, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Deep sub micron HV-CMOS processes offer the opportunity for sensors built by industry standard techniques while being HV tolerant, making them good candidates for drift-based, fast collecting, thus radiation-hard pixel detectors. For the upgrade of the ATLAS Pixel Detector towards the HL-LHC requirements, active pixel sensors in HV-CMOS technology were investigated. These implement amplifier and discriminator stages directly in insulating deep n-wells, which also act as collecting electrodes. The deep n-wells allow for bias voltages up to 150V leading to a depletion depth of several 10um. Prototype sensors in the ams H18 180nm and H35 350nm HV-CMOS processes have been manufactured, acting as a potential drop-in replacement for the current ATLAS Pixel sensors, thus leaving higher level processing such as trigger handling to dedicated read-out chips. Sensors were thoroughly tested in lab measurements as well as in testbeam experiments. Irradiation with X-rays and protons revealed a tolerance to ionizing doses o...

  15. The ATLAS Silicon Pixel Sensors

    Alam, M S; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Andreazza, A; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Musico, P; Osculati, B; Parodi, F; Rossi, L; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Aleppo, M; Caccia, M; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Brandl, A; Gorfine, G; Hoeferkamp, M; Seidel, SC; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; D'Auria, S; del Papa, C; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been developed. The design of the sensors is guided by the need to operate them in the severe LHC radiation environment at up to several hundred volts while maintaining a good signal-to-noise ratio, small cell size, and minimal multiple scattering. The ability to be operated under full bias for electrical characterization prior to the attachment of the readout integrated circuit electronics is also desired.

  16. A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    Hemperek, Tomasz, E-mail: hemperek@uni-bonn.de; Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2015-10-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffers from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neutron irradiated samples.

  17. A Monolithic active pixel sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180nm HV-SOI process

    Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on Partially Depleted High Voltage SOI technology (PD-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer while FD-SOI MAPS suffer from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The XFAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry witch mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neu...

  18. A Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor for ionizing radiation using a 180 nm HV-SOI process

    An improved SOI-MAPS (Silicon On Insulator Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor) for ionizing radiation based on thick-film High Voltage SOI technology (HV-SOI) has been developed. Similar to existing Fully Depleted SOI-based (FD-SOI) MAPS, a buried silicon oxide inter-dielectric (BOX) layer is used to separate the CMOS electronics from the handle wafer which is used as a depleted charge collection layer. FD-SOI MAPS suffers from radiation damage such as transistor threshold voltage shifts due to charge traps in the oxide layers and charge states created at the silicon oxide boundaries (back gate effect). The X-FAB 180-nm HV-SOI technology offers an additional isolation by deep non-depleted implant between the BOX layer and the active circuitry which mitigates this problem. Therefore we see in this technology a high potential to implement radiation-tolerant MAPS with fast charge collection property. The design and measurement results from a first prototype are presented including charge collection in neutron irradiated samples

  19. A Two-Tier Monolithically Stacked CMOS Active Pixel Sensor to Measure Charged Particle Direction

    Passeri, Daniele; Servoli, L.; Meroli, S.; Magalotti, D; Placidi, P; Marras, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present an innovative approach to particle tracking based on CMOSActive Pixel Sensors (APS) layers, monolithically integrated in an all-in-one chip featuring multiple,stacked, fully functional detector layers capable to provide momentum measurement (particledirection) within a single detector by using multiple layer impact point coordinates. The wholesystem will results in a very low material detector, since each layer can be thinned down to tensof micrometres, thus dramatical...

  20. A digital monolithic active pixel sensor chip in a quadruple-well CIS process

    A CMOS sensor chip for charged particle detection has been developed and submitted for fabrication in a 0.18 m Quadruple-Well (N and P-Wells, Deep N and P-Wells) CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. Improvement of the radiation hardness, the readout speed and the power dissipation of the mainstream CMOS sensors is expected with the exploration of this process. In order to ensure better charge collection and neutron tolerance, wafers with high-resistivity epitaxial layer have been chosen. The chip comprises several sub-chips, and in this paper one of them, a digital CMOS sensor prototype developed in order to validate the key analog blocs (from sensing element to I-bit digital conversion) of a binary MAPS in this process will be presented. The digital sensor prototype comprises four different sub-arrays of 20 μm pitch 64 * 32 pixels, 128 column-level auto-zeroed discriminators, a sequencer and an output digital multiplexer. Laboratory tests results including the charge-to-voltage conversion factor, the charge collection efficiency, the temporal noise and the fixed-pattern noise are presented in details. A 55Fe source is used for calibration of pixels. Some irradiation results will also be given. (authors)

  1. Radiation hardness of a 180 nm SOI monolithic active pixel sensor

    Fernandez-Perez, S.; Backhaus, M.; Pernegger, H.; Hemperek, T.; Kishishita, T.; Krüger, H.; Wermes, N.

    2015-10-01

    The use of Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) technology as a particle detector in a high radiation environment is, at present, limited mostly by radiation effects on the transistor characteristics, back gate effect, and mutual coupling between the Buried Oxide (BOX) and the sensor. We have fabricated and tested a new 0.18 μm SOI CMOS monolithic pixel sensor using the XFAB process. In contrast to the most commonly used SOI technologies, this particular technology uses partially depleted SOI transistors, offering a double well structure, which shields the thin gate oxide transistors from the BOX. In addition, an increased distance between transistors and a thicker BOX than has been previously used offers promising solutions to the performance limitations mentioned above. The process further allows the use of high voltages (up to 200 V), which are used to partially deplete the substrate. Thus, the newly fabricated device in the XFAB process is especially interesting for applications in extremely high radiation environments, such as LHC experiments. A four stage validation programme of the technology and the fabricated monolithic pixel sensor has been performed and its results are shown in this paper. The first targets radiation hardness of the transistor characteristics up to 700 Mrad, the second investigates the existence of the back gate effect, the third one targets the coupling between the BOX and the sensor, and the fourth investigates the characterization of charge collection in the sensor diode below the BOX.

  2. Radiation-hard active CMOS pixel sensors for HL-LHC detector upgrades

    Backhaus, Malte

    2015-02-01

    The luminosity of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be increased during the Long Shutdown of 2022 and 2023 (LS3) in order to increase the sensitivity of its experiments. A completely new inner detector for the ATLAS experiment needs to be developed to withstand the extremely harsh environment of the upgraded, so-called High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). High radiation hardness as well as granularity is mandatory to cope with the requirements in terms of radiation damage as well as particle occupancy. A new silicon detector concept that uses commercial high voltage and/or high resistivity full complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes as active sensor for pixel and/or strip layers has risen high attention, because it potentially provides high radiation hardness and granularity and at the same time reduced price due to the commercial processing and possibly relaxed requirements for the hybridization technique. Results on the first prototypes characterized in a variety of laboratory as well as test beam environments are presented.

  3. Planar pixel sensors in commercial CMOS technologies

    For the upgrade of the ATLAS experiment at the high luminosity LHC, an all-silicon tracker is foreseen to cope with the increased rate and radiation levels. Pixel and strip detectors will have to cover an area of up to 200m2. To produce modules in high number at reduced costs, new sensor and bonding technologies have to be investigated. Commercial CMOS technologies on high resistive substrates can provide significant advantages in this direction. They offer cost effective, large volume sensor production. In addition to this, production is done on 8'' wafers allowing wafer-to-wafer bonding to the electronics, an interconnection technology substantially cheaper than the bump bonding process used for hybrid pixel detectors at the LHC. Both active and passive n-in-p pixel sensor prototypes have been submitted in a 150 nm CMOS technology on a 2kΩ cm substrate. The passive sensor design will be used to characterize sensor properties and to investigate wafer-to-wafer bonding technologies. This first prototype is made of a matrix of 36 x 16 pixels of size compatible with the FE-I4 readout chip (i.e. 50 μm x 250 μm). Results from lab characterization of this first submission are shown together with TCAD simulations. Work towards a full size FE-I4 sensor for wafer-to-wafer bonding is discussed.

  4. High voltage monolithic active pixel sensors for the PANDA luminosity detector

    The PANDA-Experiment will be part of the new FAIR accelerator center at Darmstadt, Germany. It is a fixed target experiment using a antiproton beam with very high resolution for precision measurements. For a variety of measurements like energy-scans the precise determination of the luminosity is needed. The luminosity detector will determine the luminosity by measuring the angular distribution of elastically scattered antiprotons very close to the beam axis (3-8 mrad). To reconstruct antiproton tracks four layers of thinned silicon sensors with smart pixel readout on chip (HV-MAPS) will be used. Those sensors are currently under development by the Mu3e-collaboration. In the talk the concept of the luminosity measurement is shortly introduced before a summary of the status of HV-MAP prototypes and recent test beam results are presented.

  5. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Zhao, C.; Konstantinidis, A. C.; Zheng, Y.; Anaxagoras, T.; Speller, R. D.; Kanicki, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm-1 and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered.

  6. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS) devices. We present results obtained with a-Si:H sensor films deposited on a glass substrate and on ASIC, including the radiation hardness of this material up to a fluence of 3.5x1015 p/cm2

  7. TFA pixel sensor technology for vertex detectors

    Jarron, P. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Pierre.Jarron@cern.ch; Moraes, D. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]. E-mail: Danielle.Moraes@cern.ch; Despeisse, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Dissertori, G. [ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dunand, S. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Kaplon, J. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Miazza, C. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Shah, A. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Viertel, G.M. [ETH-Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wyrsch, N. [IMT, Rue A.-L. Breguet 2, CH-2000 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2006-05-01

    Pixel microvertex detectors at the SLHC and a future linear collider face very challenging issues: extreme radiation hardness, cooling design, interconnections density and fabrication cost. As an alternative approach we present a novel pixel detector based on the deposition of a Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (a-Si:H) film on top of a readout ASIC. The Thin-Film on ASIC (TFA) technology is inspired by an emerging microelectronic technology envisaged for visible light Active Pixel Sensor (APS) devices. We present results obtained with a-Si:H sensor films deposited on a glass substrate and on ASIC, including the radiation hardness of this material up to a fluence of 3.5x10{sup 15} p/cm{sup 2}.

  8. Next-Generation Active-Pixel Sensor Devices With CMOS-avalanche photodiodes

    Modern high-energy physics experiments that explore the fundamental properties of matter rely on large, sophisticated instruments for tracking particle decay events with large detector arrays. The performance of these instruments is limited by the available detector technology. Future progress depends on breakthroughs in the sensitivity, speed and signal-to-noise performance of the detectors. Phase I research successfully developed and tested many different pixel designs. Several different pixel and circuit applications were designed based on previously manufactured chips, but with the vertex detector application in mind. We have characterized the noise performance and sensitivity of CMOS APD pixels using several different types of radiation and selected the best designs. Phase II will were are concerned with transforming our test structures into fully functional detector elements with the appropriate processing and readout electronics integrated with large arrays of pixels. We investigated methods to increase the active area and reduce the noise while implementing an event-driven readout scheme to drastically increase the readout speed and simplify the data stream

  9. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation at room temperature. A traditional readout chip is still needed to receive and organize the data from the active sensor and to handle high-level functionality such as trigger management. HV-CMOS has been designed to be compatible with both pixel and strip readout. In this paper an overview of HV2FEI4, a HV-CMOS prototype in 180 nm AMS technology, will be given. Preliminary results after neutron and X-ray irradiation are shown

  10. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    Miucci, A.; Gonella, L.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Backhaus, M.; Capeans, M.; Feigl, S.; Nessi, M.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Ferrere, D.; Iacobucci, G.; La Rosa, A.; Muenstermann, D.; George, M.; Große-Knetter, J.; Quadt, A.; Rieger, J.; Weingarten, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.; Kreidl, C.; Peric, I.; Breugnon, P.; Pangaud, P.; Godiot-Basolo, S.; Fougeron, D.; Bompard, F.; Clemens, J. C.; Liu, J.; Barbero, M.; Rozanov, A.; HV-CMOS Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation at room temperature. A traditional readout chip is still needed to receive and organize the data from the active sensor and to handle high-level functionality such as trigger management. HV-CMOS has been designed to be compatible with both pixel and strip readout. In this paper an overview of HV2FEI4, a HV-CMOS prototype in 180 nm AMS technology, will be given. Preliminary results after neutron and X-ray irradiation are shown.

  11. 50 μm pixel pitch wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray detector for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Wafer-scale CMOS active pixel sensors (APSs) have been developed recently for x-ray imaging applications. The small pixel pitch and low noise are very promising properties for medical imaging applications such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). In this work, we evaluated experimentally and through modeling the imaging properties of a 50 μm pixel pitch CMOS APS x-ray detector named DynAMITe (Dynamic Range Adjustable for Medical Imaging Technology). A modified cascaded system model was developed for CMOS APS x-ray detectors by taking into account the device nonlinear signal and noise properties. The imaging properties such as modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were extracted from both measurements and the nonlinear cascaded system analysis. The results show that the DynAMITe x-ray detector achieves a high spatial resolution of 10 mm−1 and a DQE of around 0.5 at spatial frequencies  <1 mm−1. In addition, the modeling results were used to calculate the image signal-to-noise ratio (SNRi) of microcalcifications at various mean glandular dose (MGD). For an average breast (5 cm thickness, 50% glandular fraction), 165 μm microcalcifications can be distinguished at a MGD of 27% lower than the clinical value (∼1.3 mGy). To detect 100 μm microcalcifications, further optimizations of the CMOS APS x-ray detector, image aquisition geometry and image reconstruction techniques should be considered. (paper)

  12. A Real-time Auto-detection Method for Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) Noise Detection in CMOS Active pixel sensors

    CMOS Active pixel sensors (CMOS APS) are attractive for use in the innermost layers of charged particle trackers, due to their good tradeoffs among the key performances. However, CMOS APS can be greatly influenced by random telegraph signal (RTS) noise, which can cause particle tracking or energy calculation failures. In-depth research of pixels' RTS behavior stimulates the interest of the methods for RTS noise detection, reconstruction and parameters extraction. In this paper, a real-time auto-detection method is proposed, using real-time Gaussian noise standard deviation as the detection threshold. Experimental results show that, compared with current methods using signal standard deviation as the thresholds, the proposed method is more sensitive in multi-level RTS detection and more effective in the case of RTS noise degradation

  13. Non-linear responsivity characterisation of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor for high resolution imaging of the Jovian system

    The Jovian system is the subject of study for the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer (JUICE), an ESA mission which is planned to launch in 2022. The scientific payload is designed for both characterisation of the magnetosphere and radiation environment local to the spacecraft, as well as remote characterisation of Jupiter and its satellites. A key instrument on JUICE is the high resolution and wide angle camera, JANUS, whose main science goals include detailed characterisation and study phases of three of the Galilean satellites, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa, as well as studies of other moons, the ring system, and irregular satellites. The CIS115 is a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor from e2v technologies selected for the JANUS camera. It is fabricated using 0.18 μ m CMOS imaging sensor process, with an imaging area of 2000 × 1504 pixels, each 7 μ m square. A 4T pixel architecture allows for efficient correlated double sampling, improving the readout noise to better than 8 electrons rms, whilst the sensor is operated in a rolling shutter mode, sampling at up to 10 Mpixel/s at each of the four parallel outputs.A primary parameter to characterise for an imaging device is the relationship that converts the sensor's voltage output back to the corresponding number of electrons that were detected in a pixel, known as the Charge to Voltage Factor (CVF). In modern CMOS sensors with small feature sizes, the CVF is known to be non-linear with signal level, therefore a signal-dependent measurement of the CIS115's CVF has been undertaken and is presented here. The CVF is well modelled as a quadratic function leading to a measurement of the maximum charge handling capacity of the CIS115 to be 3.4 × 104 electrons. If the CIS115's response is assumed linear, its CVF is 21.1 electrons per mV (1/47.5 μ V per electron)

  14. CMOS monolithic pixel sensors research and development at LBNL

    D Contarato; J-M Bussat; P Denes; L Griender; T Kim; T Stezeberger; H Weiman; M Battaglia; B Hooberman; L Tompkins

    2007-12-01

    This paper summarizes the recent progress in the design and characterization of CMOS pixel sensors at LBNL. Results of lab tests, beam tests and radiation hardness tests carried out at LBNL on a test structure with pixels of various sizes are reported. The first results of the characterization of back-thinned CMOS pixel sensors are also reported, and future plans and activities are discussed.

  15. A FPGA-based cluster finder for CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors of the MIMOSA-26 family

    CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) demonstrated excellent performances in the field of charged particle tracking. Among their strong points are an single point resolution few μm, a light material budget of 0.05% X0 in combination with a good radiation tolerance and high rate capability. Those features make the sensors a valuable technology for vertex detectors of various experiments in heavy ion and particle physics. To reduce the load on the event builders and future mass storage systems, we have developed algorithms suited for preprocessing and reducing the data streams generated by the MAPS. This real-time processing employs remaining free resources of the FPGAs of the readout controllers of the detector and complements the on-chip data reduction circuits of the MAPS.

  16. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Yang, P., E-mail: yangping0710@126.com [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps (France); Chanlek, N. [Suranaree University of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand); Collu, A. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Gao, C. [Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kofarago, M. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); University of Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Kim, D. [Dongguk and Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lattuca, A. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); Marin Tobon, C.A. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Marras, D. [University of Cagliari, Cagliari (Italy); INFN (Italy); Mager, M.; Martinengo, P. [CERN, 1210 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mazza, G. [University of Torino, Torino (Italy); INFN (Italy); and others

    2015-06-11

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  17. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  18. Advanced pixel architectures for scientific image sensors

    Coath, R; Godbeer, A; Wilson, M; Turchetta, R

    2009-01-01

    We present recent developments from two projects targeting advanced pixel architectures for scientific applications. Results are reported from FORTIS, a sensor demonstrating variants on a 4T pixel architecture. The variants include differences in pixel and diode size, the in-pixel source follower transistor size and the capacitance of the readout node to optimise for low noise and sensitivity to small amounts of charge. Results are also reported from TPAC, a complex pixel architecture with ~160 transistors per pixel. Both sensors were manufactured in the 0.18μm INMAPS process, which includes a special deep p-well layer and fabrication on a high resistivity epitaxial layer for improved charge collection efficiency.

  19. First use of a high-sensitivity active pixel sensor array as a detector for electron microscopy

    Xuong, Nguyen-Huu; Milazzo, Anna-Clare; LeBlanc, Philippe; Duttweiler, Fred; Bouwer, James; Peltier, Steve; Ellisman, Mark; Denes, Peter; Bieser, Fred; Matis, Howard S.; Wieman, Howard; Kleinfelder, Stuart

    2004-06-01

    There is an urgent need to replace film and CCD cameras as recording instruments for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Film is too cumbersome to process and CCD cameras have low resolution, marginal to poor signal-to-noise ratio for single electron detection and high spatial distortion. To find a replacement device, we have tested a high sensitivity active pixel sensor (APS) array currently being developed for nuclear physics. The tests were done at 120 keV in a JEOL 1200 electron microscope. At this energy, each electron produced on average a signal-tonoise ratio about 20/1. The spatial resolution was also excellent with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) about 20 microns. Since it is very radiation tolerant and has almost no spatial distortion, the above tests showed that a high sensitivity CMOS APS array holds great promise as a direct detection device for electron microscopy.

  20. Synchrotron based planar imaging and digital tomosynthesis of breast and biopsy phantoms using a CMOS active pixel sensor.

    Szafraniec, Magdalena B; Konstantinidis, Anastasios C; Tromba, Giuliana; Dreossi, Diego; Vecchio, Sara; Rigon, Luigi; Sodini, Nicola; Naday, Steve; Gunn, Spencer; McArthur, Alan; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-03-01

    The SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at Elettra is performing the first mammography study on human patients using free-space propagation phase contrast imaging. The stricter spatial resolution requirements of this method currently force the use of conventional films or specialized computed radiography (CR) systems. This also prevents the implementation of three-dimensional (3D) approaches. This paper explores the use of an X-ray detector based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology as a possible alternative, for acquisitions both in planar and tomosynthesis geometry. Results indicate higher quality of the images acquired with the synchrotron set-up in both geometries. This improvement can be partly ascribed to the use of parallel, collimated and monochromatic synchrotron radiation (resulting in scatter rejection, no penumbra-induced blurring and optimized X-ray energy), and partly to phase contrast effects. Even though the pixel size of the used detector is still too large - and thus suboptimal - for free-space propagation phase contrast imaging, a degree of phase-induced edge enhancement can clearly be observed in the images. PMID:25498332

  1. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  2. A novel position and time sensing active pixel sensor with field-assisted electron collection for charged particle tracking and electron microscopy

    De Geronimo, G.; Deptuch, G.; Dragone, A.; Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.; Castoldi, A.; Fazzi, A.; Gatti, E.; Guazzoni, C.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Dulinski, W.; Besson, A.; Deveaux, M.; Winter, M.

    2006-11-01

    A new type of active pixel sensors (APSs) to track charged particles for particle physics experiments or to count number of electrons that cross any pixel at the focal plane of electron microscopes is described. The electric field of desirable shape is created inside the active volume of the pixel introducing the drift component in the movement of the signal electrons towards charge collecting electrodes. The electric field results from the flow of ˜100 mA/cm 2 hole currents within individual pixels of the sensor. The proposed sensor is produced using a standard industrially available complementary metal oxide silicon (CMOS) process. There are two main advantages of the proposed detectors when compared to the present (February 2005) state-of-the-art, i.e. field-free APS sensors. The first advantage of a field-assisted transport mechanism is the reduction of the charge collection time and of the sharing of the signal electrons between adjacent pixels by diffusion. The second advantage is the freedom to use both kinds of MOS transistors within each pixel of the sensor. Thus, the full functional power of CMOS circuits can be embedded in situ. As an example, 16-bit scalers will be implemented in each pixel of the sensor for electron microscopy. The reduced collection time combined with the state-of-the-art electronics within each pixel provides the most complete information about the position and the timing of incident charged particles for particle physics experiments. Position resolution of new sensors was computationally simulated to be a few microns, that is, the same as the resolution of standard APSs. Moreover, the active depth of the sensor and the associate electronics is less than about 20 μm and a thinned down sensor together with its beryllium backing can have a total thickness of less than 0.1% of one radiation length. The reduction of the thickness of the detector reduces the amount of multiple scattering within the detector. The determination of the

  3. Overview of HVCMOS pixel sensors

    High voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) sensors are presently considered for the use in Mu3e experiment, ATLAS and CLIC. These sensors can be implemented in commercial HVCMOS processes. HVCMOS sensors feature fast charge collection by drift and high radiation tolerance. The sensor element is an n-well/p-type diode. This proceeding-paper gives an overview of HVCMOS projects and the recent results

  4. Development of CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the ALICE-ITS Outer Barrel and for the CBM-MVD

    Deveaux, Michael

    2015-01-01

    After more than a decade of R&D;, CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS or CPS) have proven to offer concrete answers to the demanding requirements of subatomic physics experi- ments. Their main advantages result from their low material budget, their very high granularity and their integrated signal processing circuitry, which allows coping with high particle rates. Moreover, they offer a valuable radiation tolerance and may be produced at low cost. Sensors of the MIMOSA series have offered an opportunity for nuclear and particle physics exper- iments to address with improved sensitivity physics studies requiring an accurate reconstruction of short living and soft particles. One of their major applications is the STAR-PXL detector, which is the first vertex detector based on MAPS. While this experiment is successfully taking data since two years, it was found that the 0.35 m CMOS technology used for this purpose is not suited for upcoming applications like the CBM micro-vertex detector (MVD) and the ...

  5. Advanced monolithic pixel sensors using SOI technology

    Miyoshi, Toshinobu; Arai, Yasuo; Asano, Mari; Fujita, Yowichi; Hamasaki, Ryutaro; Hara, Kazuhiko; Honda, Shunsuke; Ikegami, Yoichi; Kurachi, Ikuo; Mitsui, Shingo; Nishimura, Ryutaro; Tauchi, Kazuya; Tobita, Naoshi; Tsuboyama, Toru; Yamada, Miho

    2016-07-01

    We are developing advanced pixel sensors using silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology. A SOI wafer is used; top silicon is used for electric circuit and bottom silicon is used as a sensor. Target applications are high-energy physics, X-ray astronomy, material science, non-destructive inspection, medical application and so on. We have developed two integration-type pixel sensors, FPIXb and INTPIX7. These sensors were processed on single SOI wafers with various substrates in n- or p-type and double SOI wafers. The development status of double SOI sensors and some up-to-date test results of n-type and p-type SOI sensors are shown.

  6. Quality control on planar n-in-n pixel sensors — Recent progress of ATLAS planar pixel sensors

    To extend the physics reach of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), upgrades to the accelerator are planned which will increase the peak luminosity by a factor 5–10. To cope with the increased occupancy and radiation damage, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker with the high luminosity upgrade (HL-LHC). To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensor (PPS) R and D Project was established. Main areas of research are the performance of planar pixel sensors at highest fluences, the exploration of possibilities for cost reduction to enable the instrumentation of large areas, the achievement of slim or active edges to provide low geometric inefficiencies without the need for shingling of modules and the investigation of the operation of highly irradiated sensors at low thresholds to increase the efficiency. The Insertable b-layer (IBL) is the first upgrade project within the ATLAS experiment and will employ a new detector layer consisting of silicon pixel sensors, which were improved and prototyped in the framework of the planar pixel sensor R and D project. A special focus of this paper is the status of the development and testing of planar n-in-n pixel sensors including the quality control of the on-going series production and postprocessing of sensor wafers. A high yield of produced planar sensor wafers and FE-I4 double chip sensors after first steps of post-processing including under bump metallization and dicing is observed. -- Highlights: ► Prototypes of irradiated planar n-in-n sensors have been successfully tested under laboratory conditions. ► A quality assurance programme on the series production of planar sensors for the IBL has started. ► A high yield of double chip sensors during the series production is observed which are compatible to the specifications to this detector component.

  7. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Maneuski, D.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Doonan, K.; Eklund, L.; Gimenez, E. N.; Hynds, D.; Kachkanov, S.; Kalliopuska, J.; McMullen, T.; O'Shea, V.; Tartoni, N.; Plackett, R.; Vahanen, S.; Wraight, K.

    2015-03-01

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects.

  8. The APSEL4D Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor and its Usage in a Single Electron Interference Experiment

    Alberghi, Gian Luigi

    We have realized a Data Acquisition chain for the use and characterization of APSEL4D, a 32 x 128 Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor, developed as a prototype for frontier experiments in high energy particle physics. In particular a transition board was realized for the conversion between the chip and the FPGA voltage levels and for the signal quality enhancing. A Xilinx Spartan-3 FPGA was used for real time data processing, for the chip control and the communication with a Personal Computer through a 2.0 USB port. For this purpose a firmware code, developed in VHDL language, was written. Finally a Graphical User Interface for the online system monitoring, hit display and chip control, based on windows and widgets, was realized developing a C++ code and using Qt and Qwt dedicated libraries. APSEL4D and the full acquisition chain were characterized for the first time with the electron beam of the transmission electron microscope and with 55Fe and 90Sr radioactive sources. In addition, a beam test was performed at ...

  9. A full on-chip, low noise, low power consumption reference generator in monolithic active pixel sensors

    The monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) is a promising choice to track charged particles in high energy physics experiments, such as the solenoidal tracker at RHIC (STAR). In order to achieve a clean reference voltage and simplify the cable placement, a full on-chip reference generator is presented in this paper. By utilizing a buffer and a series RC network, the proposed circuit can achieve good stability, low power and low noise, without any external components. The output voltage is adjustable to compensate the influence of the fabrication process. The generator has been implemented and fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS process. Its silicon area is 327 μm×119 μm. The total power dissipation is 677 μW at a supply voltage of 3.3 V. The measured results show that only 5.84% of the total noise in MAPS is induced by the proposed reference generator. The comparison with the other optional circuit based on a current buffer is also presented.

  10. Development and characterisation of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor prototypes for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    Collu, Alberto

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is dedicated to the study and characterisation of the Quark-­‐Gluon Plasma (QGP), exploiting the unique potential of ultrarelativistic heavy-­‐ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The increase of the LHC luminosity leading up to about 50 kHz Pb-­‐Pb interaction rate after the second long shutdown (in 2018-­‐2019) will offer the possibility to perform high precision measurements of rare probes over a wide range of momenta. These measurements are statistically limited or not even possible with the present experimental set up. For this reason, an upgrade strategy for several ALICE detectors is being pursued. In particular, it is foreseen to replace the Inner Tracking System (ITS) by a new detector which will significantly improve the tracking and vertexing capabilities of ALICE in the upgrade scenario. The new ITS will have a barrel geometry consisting of seven layers of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) with high granularity, which will...

  11. Large area CMOS active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis: Analysis, modeling, and characterization

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronics Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Konstantinidis, Anastasios C. [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom and Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Protection, Christie Medical Physics and Engineering, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Patel, Tushita [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: Large area x-ray imagers based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology have been proposed for various medical imaging applications including digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). The low electronic noise (50–300 e{sup −}) of CMOS APS x-ray imagers provides a possible route to shrink the pixel pitch to smaller than 75 μm for microcalcification detection and possible reduction of the DBT mean glandular dose (MGD). Methods: In this study, imaging performance of a large area (29 × 23 cm{sup 2}) CMOS APS x-ray imager [Dexela 2923 MAM (PerkinElmer, London)] with a pixel pitch of 75 μm was characterized and modeled. The authors developed a cascaded system model for CMOS APS x-ray imagers using both a broadband x-ray radiation and monochromatic synchrotron radiation. The experimental data including modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were theoretically described using the proposed cascaded system model with satisfactory consistency to experimental results. Both high full well and low full well (LFW) modes of the Dexela 2923 MAM CMOS APS x-ray imager were characterized and modeled. The cascaded system analysis results were further used to extract the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for microcalcifications with sizes of 165–400 μm at various MGDs. The impact of electronic noise on CNR was also evaluated. Results: The LFW mode shows better DQE at low air kerma (K{sub a} < 10 μGy) and should be used for DBT. At current DBT applications, air kerma (K{sub a} ∼ 10 μGy, broadband radiation of 28 kVp), DQE of more than 0.7 and ∼0.3 was achieved using the LFW mode at spatial frequency of 0.5 line pairs per millimeter (lp/mm) and Nyquist frequency ∼6.7 lp/mm, respectively. It is shown that microcalcifications of 165–400 μm in size can be resolved using a MGD range of 0.3–1 mGy, respectively. In comparison to a General Electric GEN2 prototype DBT system (at

  12. Electrical Characteristics of Silicon Pixel Sensors

    Gorelov, I; Hoeferkamp, M; Mata-Bruni, V; Santistevan, G; Seidel, S C; Ciocio, A; Einsweiler, K F; Emes, J; Gilchriese, M G D; Joshi, A; Kleinfelder, S A; Marchesini, R; McCormack, F; Milgrome, O; Palaio, N; Pengg, F; Richardson, J; Zizka, G; Ackers, M; Comes, G; Fischer, P; Keil, M; Klasen, V; Kühl, T; Meuser, S; Ockenfels, W; Raith, B; Treis, J; Wermes, N; Gössling, C; Hügging, F G; Klaiber Lodewigs, Jonas M; Krasel, O; Wüstenfeld, J; Wunstorf, R; Barberis, D; Beccherle, R; Caso, Carlo; Cervetto, M; Darbo, G; Gagliardi, G; Gemme, C; Morettini, P; Netchaeva, P; Osculati, B; Rossi, L; Charles, E; Fasching, D; Blanquart, L; Breugnon, P; Calvet, D; Clemens, J-C; Delpierre, P A; Hallewell, G D; Laugier, D; Mouthuy, T; Rozanov, A; Valin, I; Andreazza, A; Caccia, M; Citterio, M; Lari, T; Meroni, C; Ragusa, F; Troncon, C; Vegni, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Richter, R H; Rohe, T; Boyd, GR; Skubic, P L; Sícho, P; Tomasek, L; Vrba, V; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Cauz, D; Cobal-Grassmann, M; D'Auria, S; De Lotto, B; del Papa, C; Grassmann, H; Santi, L; Becks, K H; Lenzen, G; Linder, C

    2001-01-01

    Prototype sensors for the ATLAS silicon pixel detector have been electrically characterized. The current and voltage characteristics, charge collection efficiencies, and resolutions have been examined. Devices were fabricated on oxygenated and standard detector-grade silicon wafers. Results from prototypes which examine p-stop and standard and moderated p-spray isolation are presented for a variety of geometrical options. Some of the comparisons relate unirradiated sensors with those that have received fluences relevant to LHC operation.

  13. Development of a Standardised Readout System for Active Pixel Sensors in HV/HR-CMOS Technologies for ATLAS Inner Detector Upgrades

    The LHC Phase-II Upgrade results in new challenges for tracking detectors for example in terms of cost effectiveness, resolution and radiation hardness. Active Pixel Sensors in HV/HR-CMOS technologies show promising results coping with these challenges. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of hybrid modules with active CMOS sensors and readout chips for the future ATLAS Inner Tracker, ATLAS R and D activities have started. After introducing the basic concepts and the demonstrator program, the development of an ATLAS compatible readout system will be presented as well as tuning procedures and measurements with demonstrator modules to test the readout system

  14. What's A Pixel Particle Sensor Chip?

    2008-01-01

    ATLAS particle physics experiment aided with collaboration ON Semiconductor was recently honored by the European Council for Nuclear Research (CERN), with an Industrial Award recognizing the company's contribution in supplying complex "Pixel Particle Sensor" chips for use in CERN's ATLAS particle physics experiment.

  15. A CMOS active pixel sensor system for laboratory- based x-ray diffraction studies of biological tissue.

    Bohndiek, Sarah E; Cook, Emily J; Arvanitis, Costas D; Olivo, Alessandro; Royle, Gary J; Clark, Andy T; Prydderch, Mark L; Turchetta, Renato; Speller, Robert D

    2008-02-01

    X-ray diffraction studies give material-specific information about biological tissue. Ideally, a large area, low noise, wide dynamic range digital x-ray detector is required for laboratory-based x-ray diffraction studies. The goal of this work is to introduce a novel imaging technology, the CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) that has the potential to fulfil all these requirements, and demonstrate its feasibility for coherent scatter imaging. A prototype CMOS APS has been included in an x-ray diffraction demonstration system. An industrial x-ray source with appropriate beam filtration is used to perform angle dispersive x-ray diffraction (ADXRD). Optimization of the experimental set-up is detailed including collimator options and detector operating parameters. Scatter signatures are measured for 11 different materials, covering three medical applications: breast cancer diagnosis, kidney stone identification and bone mineral density calculations. Scatter signatures are also recorded for three mixed samples of known composition. Results are verified using two independent models for predicting the APS scatter signature: (1) a linear systems model of the APS and (2) a linear superposition integral combining known monochromatic scatter signatures with the input polychromatic spectrum used in this case. Cross validation of experimental, modelled and literature results proves that APS are able to record biologically relevant scatter signatures. Coherent scatter signatures are sensitive to multiple materials present in a sample and provide a means to quantify composition. In the future, production of a bespoke APS imager for x-ray diffraction studies could enable simultaneous collection of the transmitted beam and scattered radiation in a laboratory-based coherent scatter system, making clinical transfer of the technique attainable. PMID:18199908

  16. The Dexela 2923 CMOS X-ray detector: A flat panel detector based on CMOS active pixel sensors for medical imaging applications

    Konstantinidis, A. C.; Szafraniec, M. B.; Speller, R.D.; Olivo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) have been introduced recently in many scientific applications. This work reports on the performance (in terms of signal and noise transfer) of an X-ray detector that uses a novel CMOS APS which was developed for medical X-ray imaging applications. For a full evaluation of the detector's performance, electro-optical and X-ray characterizations were carried out. The former included measuring read noise, full well capacit...

  17. Performance evaluation and calibration issues of large format infrared hybrid active pixel sensors used for ground- and space-based astronomy

    Instruments for large 10-m class telescopes increasingly require high sensitivity large format focal planes. The high spatial resolution achieved with adaptive optics combined with multiple integral field units feeding high resolution spectrographs are driving the pixel performance and require large detector formats. In the infrared spectral range, the array formats have arrived at 2Kx2K pixels with both LPE and MBE grown HgCdTe on CdZnTe substrates. In the optical, fully depleted Si-PIN diodes of the same format are used. The light-sensitive diode arrays are hybridized to CMOS FET switched multiplexers such as the Hawaii-2RG array, which has recently been installed in one of the infrared instruments of the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Basic performance characteristics of the Hawaii-2RG arrays will be discussed such as the noise performance when a special technique of using reference pixels is employed. Larger focal planes are realized as mosaics of 2Kx2K arrays. In order to increase the format of single arrays to 4Kx4K and larger, the limited substrate sizes make it necessary to reduce the pixel size. However, with smaller pixels the coupling between pixels becomes a limiting factor for the detector point spread function. Fundamental calibration issues relevant to photon transfer techniques of modern CMOS active pixel sensors with special regard to the influence of interpixel coupling capacitances will be analyzed in detail. A novel technique will be presented to directly measure the point spread function generated by the capacitive coupling between adjacent pixels

  18. A novel CMOS sensor with in-pixel auto-zeroed discrimination for charged particle tracking

    With the aim of developing fast and granular Monolithic Active Pixels Sensors (MAPS) as new charged particle tracking detectors for high energy physics experiments, a new rolling shutter binary pixel architecture concept (RSBPix) with in-pixel correlated double sampling, amplification and discrimination is presented. The discriminator features auto-zeroing in order to compensate process-related transistor mismatches. In order to validate the pixel, a first monolithic CMOS sensor prototype, including a pixel array of 96 × 64 pixels, has been designed and fabricated in the Tower-Jazz 0.18 μm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. Results of laboratory tests are presented

  19. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging.

    Arvanitis, C D; Bohndiek, S E; Royle, G; Blue, A; Liang, H X; Clark, A; Prydderch, M; Turchetta, R; Speller, R

    2007-12-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525 x 525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25 x 25 microm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10(5) electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 microm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at approximately 0.44 microC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a: Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled

  20. Scaling and Pixel Crosstalk Considerations for CMOS Image Sensor

    JIN Xiang-liang; CHEN Jie(member,IEEE); QIU Yu-lin

    2003-01-01

    With the scaling development of the minimum lithographic size,the scaling trend of CMOS imager pixel size and fill factor has been computed according to the Moore rule.When the CMOS minimum lithographic feature scales down to 0.35 μm,the CCD image pixel size is not so easy to be reduced and but the CMOS image pixel size benefits from the scaling minimum lithographic feature. However, when the CMOS technology is downscaled to or under 0.35 μm,the fabrication of CMOS image sensors will be limited by the standard CMOS process in both ways of shallow trench isolation and source/drain junction,which results in pixel crosstalk.The impact of the crosstalk on the active pixel CMOS image sensor is analyzed based on the technology scaling.Some suppressed crosstalk methods have been reviewed.The best way is that combining the advantages of CMOS and SOI technology to fabricate the image sensors will reduce the pixel crosstalk.

  1. Noise in a CMOS digital pixel sensor

    Zhang Chi; Yao Suying; Xu Jiangtao

    2011-01-01

    Based on the study of noise performance in CMOS digital pixel sensor (DPS),a mathematical model of noise is established with the pulse-width-modulation (PWM) principle.Compared with traditional CMOS image sensors,the integration time is different and A/D conversion is implemented in each PWM DPS pixel.Then,the quantitative calculating formula of system noise is derived.It is found that dark current shot noise is the dominant noise source in low light region while photodiode shot noise becomes significantly important in the bright region.In this model,photodiode shot noise does not vary with luminance,but dark current shot noise does.According to increasing photodiode capacitance and the comparator's reference voltage or optimizing the mismatch in the comparator,the total noise can be reduced.These results serve as a guideline for the design of PWM DPS.

  2. Noise in a CMOS digital pixel sensor

    Based on the study of noise performance in CMOS digital pixel sensor (DPS), a mathematical model of noise is established with the pulse-width-modulation (PWM) principle. Compared with traditional CMOS image sensors, the integration time is different and A/D conversion is implemented in each PWM DPS pixel. Then, the quantitative calculating formula of system noise is derived. It is found that dark current shot noise is the dominant noise source in low light region while photodiode shot noise becomes significantly important in the bright region. In this model, photodiode shot noise does not vary with luminance, but dark current shot noise does. According to increasing photodiode capacitance and the comparator's reference voltage or optimizing the mismatch in the comparator, the total noise can be reduced. These results serve as a guideline for the design of PWM DPS. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  3. Radiation-hard Active Pixel Sensors for HL-LHC Detector Upgrades based on HV-CMOS Technology

    Miucci, A; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; Krüger, H.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Backhaus, M.; Capeans, M.; Feigl, S.; Nessi, M.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Ferrere, D.; Iacobucci, G.; Rosa, A.La; Muenstermann, D.; George, M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Quadt, A.; Rieger, J.; Weingarten, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.; Kreidl, C.; Peric, I.; Breugnon, P.; Pangaud, P.; Godiot-Basolo, S.; Fougeron, D.; Bompard, F.; Clemens, J.C.; Liu, J; Barbero, M.; Rozanov, A

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. 1Corresponding author. c CERN 2014, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License by IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal citation and DOI. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/9/05/C050642014 JINST 9 C05064 A proposal for the next generation of inner detectors is based on HV-CMOS: a new family of silicon sensors based on commercial high-voltage CMOS technology, which enables the fabrication of part of the pixel electronics inside the silicon substrate itself. The main advantages of this technology with respect to the standard silicon sensor technology are: low material budget, fast charge collection time, high radiation tolerance, low cost and operation a...

  4. Edge pixel response studies of edgeless silicon sensor technology for pixellated imaging detectors

    Silicon sensor technologies with reduced dead area at the sensor's perimeter are under development at a number of institutes. Several fabrication methods for sensors which are sensitive close to the physical edge of the device are under investigation utilising techniques such as active-edges, passivated edges and current-terminating rings. Such technologies offer the goal of a seamlessly tiled detection surface with minimum dead space between the individual modules. In order to quantify the performance of different geometries and different bulk and implant types, characterisation of several sensors fabricated using active-edge technology were performed at the B16 beam line of the Diamond Light Source. The sensors were fabricated by VTT and bump-bonded to Timepix ROICs. They were 100 and 200 μ m thick sensors, with the last pixel-to-edge distance of either 50 or 100 μ m. The sensors were fabricated as either n-on-n or n-on-p type devices. Using 15 keV monochromatic X-rays with a beam spot of 2.5 μ m, the performance at the outer edge and corners pixels of the sensors was evaluated at three bias voltages. The results indicate a significant change in the charge collection properties between the edge and 5th (up to 275 μ m) from edge pixel for the 200 μ m thick n-on-n sensor. The edge pixel performance of the 100 μ m thick n-on-p sensors is affected only for the last two pixels (up to 110 μ m) subject to biasing conditions. Imaging characteristics of all sensor types investigated are stable over time and the non-uniformities can be minimised by flat-field corrections. The results from the synchrotron tests combined with lab measurements are presented along with an explanation of the observed effects

  5. New generation of monolithic active pixel sensors for charged particle detection; Developpement d'un capteur de nouvelle generation et son electronique integree pour les collisionneurs futurs

    Deptuch, G

    2002-09-01

    Vertex detectors are of great importance in particle physics experiments, as the knowledge of the event flavour is becoming an issue for the physics programme at Future Linear Colliders. Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) based on a novel detector structure have been proposed. Their fabrication is compatible with a standard CMOS process. The sensor is inseparable from the readout electronics, since both of them are integrated on the same, low-resistivity silicon wafer. The basic pixel configuration comprises only three MOS transistors and a diode collecting the charge through thermal diffusion. The charge is generated in the thin non-depleted epitaxial layer underneath the readout electronics. This approach provides, at low cost, a high resolution and thin device with the whole area sensitive to radiation. Device simulations using the ISE-TCAD package have been carried out to study the charge collection mechanism. In order to demonstrate the viability of the technique, four prototype chips have been fabricated using different submicrometer CMOS processes. The pixel gain has been calibrated using a {sup 55}Fe source and the Poisson sequence method. The prototypes have been exposed to high-energy particle beams at CERN. The tests proved excellent detection performances expressed in a single-track spatial resolution of 1.5 {mu}m and detection efficiency close to 100%, resulting from a SNR ratio of more than 30. Irradiation tests showed immunity of MAPS to a level of a few times 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2} and a few hundred kRad of ionising radiation. The ideas for future work, including on-pixel signal amplification, double sampling operation and current mode pixel design are present as well. (author)

  6. Development of fast and radiation hard Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) optimized for open charm meson detection with the CBM experiment

    The adequacy of CMOS MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors) to provide high spatial resolution while submitted to high particle flux and radiation level is assessed in this work. A 55Fe-source and minimum ionizing particle beams were used to study the performances of MAPS being irradiated either with neutrons and X-rays. As expected, ionizing radiation dominantly causes an increase of the leakage current of the pixels, which translates into increased shot noise. Non-ionizing radiation generates increases in terms of leakage currents but can reduce substantially the lifetime of the signal electrons in the pixel. The latter was found to cause a dramatic drop of the signal if the lifetime of the electrons shrinks below the time required for charge collection. The performances of irradiated detectors were studied as a function of the operation conditions, i.e. in terms of temperature and integration time of the pixel. It was demonstrated that running the detectors at low temperature (7 collisions per second, would shrink the lifetime of the detector to a few days. It was however demonstrated that a balanced configuration exists where, for lower beam interaction rate, enough D0-mesons can be collected and analyzed to investigate their production properties with a satisfactory sensitivity. (A.C.)

  7. Measurements with a CMOS pixel sensor in magnetic fields

    Boer, W. de; Bartsch, V.; Bol, J.; Dierlamm, A.; Grigoriev, E.; Hauler, F.; Herz, O.; Jungermann, L. E-mail: levin.jungermann@cern.ch; Koppenhoefer, M.; Sopczak, A.; Schneider, Th

    2002-07-11

    CMOS technique, which is the standard process used by most of the semiconductor factories worldwide, allows the production of both cheap and highly integrated sensors. The prototypes MIMOSA -I and MIMOSA-II were designed by the IReS-LEPSI collaboration in order to investigate the potential of this new technique for charged particle tracking (Design and Testing of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for Charged Particle Tracking, LEPSI, IN2P3, Strasbourg, France). For this purpose it is necessary to study the effects of magnetic fields as they appear in high-energy physics on these sensors.

  8. Design and tests of offset-compensated in-pixel amplifiers for CMOS pixel sensors

    This paper presents novel in-pixel amplifiers for CMOS pixel sensors. Two kinds of offset-compensated amplifiers allow the sensors to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio. Based on theoretical analysis, the gain of the input offset-compensated amplifier is less sensitive to threshold voltage variation than the output offset-compensated amplifier. A 12μm pitch CMOS pixel sensor with the input offset-compensated amplifier was therefore designed and fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS technology. Measurements indicate that the implementation of this amplifier can result in a high signal-to-noise ratio for a CMOS pixel sensor.

  9. Performance of capacitively coupled active pixel sensors in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology after irradiation to HL-LHC fluences

    Feigl, S.

    2014-03-01

    In this ATLAS upgrade R&D project, we explore the concept of using a deep-submicron HV-CMOS process to produce a drop-in replacement for traditional radiation-hard silicon sensors. Such active sensors contain simple circuits, e.g. amplifiers and discriminators, but still require a traditional (pixel or strip) readout chip. This approach yields most advantages of MAPS (improved resolution, reduced cost and material budget, etc.), without the complication of full integration on a single chip. After outlining the basic design of the HV2FEI4 test ASIC, results after irradiation with X-rays to 862 Mrad and neutrons up to 1016(1 MeV neq)/cm2 will be presented. Finally, a brief outlook on further development plans is given.

  10. Performance of capacitively coupled active pixel sensors in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology after irradiation to HL-LHC fluences

    In this ATLAS upgrade R and D project, we explore the concept of using a deep-submicron HV-CMOS process to produce a drop-in replacement for traditional radiation-hard silicon sensors. Such active sensors contain simple circuits, e.g. amplifiers and discriminators, but still require a traditional (pixel or strip) readout chip. This approach yields most advantages of MAPS (improved resolution, reduced cost and material budget, etc.), without the complication of full integration on a single chip. After outlining the basic design of the HV2FEI4 test ASIC, results after irradiation with X-rays to 862 Mrad and neutrons up to 1016(1 MeV neq)/cm2 will be presented. Finally, a brief outlook on further development plans is given

  11. Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Zhao, Chumin; Kanicki, Jerzy, E-mail: kanicki@eecs.umich.edu [Solid-State Electronic Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67–3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. Methods: The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novel low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. Results: The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31–122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5–20 cm{sup 2}/V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (<10{sup −13} A) and OPD (<10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) leakage currents can further reduce the APS noise. Cascaded system analysis shows that the proposed APS imager with a 75 μm pixel pitch can effectively resolve the Nyquist frequency of 6.67 lp/mm, which can be further improved to ∼10 lp/mm if the pixel pitch is reduced to 50 μm. Moreover, the

  12. Amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor active pixel sensor x-ray imager for digital breast tomosynthesis

    Purpose: The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67–3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. Methods: The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novel low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. Results: The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31–122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5–20 cm2/V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (<10−13 A) and OPD (<10−8 A/cm2) leakage currents can further reduce the APS noise. Cascaded system analysis shows that the proposed APS imager with a 75 μm pixel pitch can effectively resolve the Nyquist frequency of 6.67 lp/mm, which can be further improved to ∼10 lp/mm if the pixel pitch is reduced to 50 μm. Moreover, the detector entrance exposure per

  13. SOI Pixel Sensor for Gamma-Ray Imaging

    Shimazoe, Kenji; Yoshihara, Yuri; Koyama, Akihiko; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Orita, Tadashi; Kamada, Kei; Takeda, Ayaki; Tsuru, Takeshi; Arai, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    SOI (Silicon-On-Insulator) pixel sensor is promising technology for developing the high position resolution detector by integrating the small pixels and circuits in the monolithic way. The event driven (trigger mode) SOI based pixel sensor has also been developed for the application of X-ray astronomy with the purpose of reducing the noise using anti-coincidence event. This trigger mode SOI pixel sensor working with in the rate of kilo Hz is also a promising scatter detector for advanced Compton imaging to track the Compton recoiled electrons.

  14. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.1034 cm-2s-1. A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.1034 cm-2s-1. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.1034 cm-2s-1, twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φeq=2.1016 cm-2 and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1. Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip. The maximum rate experienced by the modules produced in Hamburg will be 120 MHz

  15. Silicon sensors for the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector

    Centis Vignali, Matteo

    2015-12-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The LHC luminosity is constantly increased through upgrades of the accelerator and its injection chain. Two major upgrades will take place in the next years. The first upgrade involves the LHC injector chain and allows the collider to achieve a luminosity of about 2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. A further upgrade of the LHC foreseen for 2025 will boost its luminosity to 5.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. As a consequence of the increased luminosity, the detectors need to be upgraded. In particular, the CMS pixel detector will undergo two upgrades in the next years. The first upgrade (phase I) consists in the substitution of the current pixel detector in winter 2016/2017. The upgraded pixel detector will implement new readout electronics that allow efficient data taking up to a luminosity of 2.10{sup 34} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, twice as much as the LHC design luminosity. The modules that will constitute the upgraded detector are being produced at different institutes. Hamburg (University and DESY) is responsible for the production of 350 pixel modules. The second upgrade (phase II) of the pixel detector is foreseen for 2025. The innermost pixel layer of the upgraded detector will accumulate a radiation damage corresponding to an equivalent fluence of Φ{sub eq}=2.10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and a dose of ∼10 MGy after an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup -1}. Several groups are investigating sensor designs and configurations able to withstand such high doses and fluences. This work is divided into two parts related to important aspects of the upgrades of the CMS pixel detector. For the phase I upgrade, a setup has been developed to provide an absolute energy calibration of the pixel modules that will constitute the detector. The calibration is obtained using monochromatic X-rays. The same setup is used to test the buffering capabilities of the modules' readout chip

  16. Mapping Electrical Crosstalk in Pixelated Sensor Arrays

    Seshadri, Suresh (Inventor); Cole, David (Inventor); Smith, Roger M (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The effects of inter pixel capacitance in a pixilated array may be measured by first resetting all pixels in the array to a first voltage, where a first image is read out, followed by resetting only a subset of pixels in the array to a second voltage, where a second image is read out, where the difference in the first and second images provide information about the inter pixel capacitance. Other embodiments are described and claimed.

  17. A low power and low signal 4 bit 50MS/s double sampling pipelined ADC for monolithie active pixel sensors

    Dahoumane, M; Bouvier, J; Lagorio, E; Hostachy, J Y; Gallin-Martel, L; Hostachy, J Y; Rossetto, O; Hu, Y; Ghazlane, H; Dallet, D

    2007-01-01

    A 4 bit very low power and low incoming signal analog to digital converter (ADC) using a double sampling switched capacitor technique, designed for use in CMOS monolithic active pixels sensor readout, has been implemented in 0.35μm CMOS technology. A non-resetting sample and hold stage is integrated to amplify the incoming signal by 4. This first stage compensates both the amplifier offset effect and the input common mode voltage fluctuations. The converter is composed of a 2.5 bit pipeline stage followed by a 2 bit flash stage. This prototype consists of 4 ADC double-channels; each one is sampling at 50MS/s and dissipates only 2.6mW at 3.3V supply voltage. A bias pulsing stage is integrated in the circuit. Therefore, the analog part is switched OFF or ON in less than 1μs. The size for the layout is 80μm*0.9mm. This corresponds to the pitch of 4 pixel columns, each one is 20μm wide.

  18. A low power and low signal 4 bit 50MS/s double sampling pipelined ADC for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors

    A 4 bit very low power and low incoming signal analog to digital converter (ADC) using a double sampling switched capacitor technique, designed for use in CMOS monolithic active pixels sensor readout, has been implemented in 0.35μm CMOS technology. A non-resetting sample and hold stage is integrated to amplify the incoming signal by 4. This first stage compensates both the amplifier offset effect and the input common mode voltage fluctuations. The converter is composed of a 2.5 bit pipeline stage followed by a 2 bit flash stage. This prototype consists of 4 ADC double-channels; each one is sampling at 50MS/s and dissipates only 2.6mW at 3.3V supply voltage. A bias pulsing stage is integrated in the circuit. Therefore, the analog part is switched OFF or ON in less than 1μs. The size for the layout is 80μm*0.9mm. This corresponds to the pitch of 4 pixel columns, each one is 20μm wide

  19. Ionizing and non Ionizing radiation damage in a large area CMOS active pixel sensor for medical applications

    Esposito, Michela; Anaxagoras, Thalis; Price, Tony; Manolopoulos, Spyros; Evans, Philip; Wells, Kevin; Allinson, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Currently, large-area medical sensors are based on amorphous flat panel technology. Sensors based on monolithic CMOS APS can offer many advantages in terms of image quality and reduced dose requirements. One constraint on the take-up of APS has been their restricted operating life due to radiation damage. Here we present a new wafer scale CMOS APS, designed for medical applications and hardened-by-design with reference to its performance in typical operating environments. The detector was ...

  20. Development of radiation hardened pixel sensors for charged particle detection

    Koziel, Michal

    2014-01-01

    CMOS Pixel Sensors are being developed since a few years to equip vertex detectors for future high-energy physics experiments with the crucial advantages of a low material budget and low production costs. The features simultaneously required are a short readout time, high granularity and high tolerance to radiation. This thesis mainly focuses on the radiation tolerance studies. To achieve the targeted readout time (tens of microseconds), the sensor pixel readout was organized in parallel columns restricting in addition the readout to pixels that had collected the signal charge. The pixels became then more complex, and consequently more sensitive to radiation. Different in-pixel architectures were studied and it was concluded that the tolerance to ionizing radiation was limited to 300 krad with the 0.35- m fabrication process currently used, while the targeted value was several Mrad. Improving this situation calls for implementation of the sensors in processes with a smaller feature size which naturally imp...

  1. Mapping Capacitive Coupling Among Pixels in a Sensor Array

    Seshadri, Suresh; Cole, David M.; Smith, Roger M.

    2010-01-01

    An improved method of mapping the capacitive contribution to cross-talk among pixels in an imaging array of sensors (typically, an imaging photodetector array) has been devised for use in calibrating and/or characterizing such an array. The method involves a sequence of resets of subarrays of pixels to specified voltages and measurement of the voltage responses of neighboring non-reset pixels.

  2. High-voltage pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrade

    Perić, I.; Kreidl, C.; Fischer, P.; Bompard, F.; Breugnon, P.; Clemens, J.-C.; Fougeron, D.; Liu, J.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Barbero, M.; Feigl, S.; Capeans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Muenstermann, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; La Rosa, A.; Miucci, A.; Nessi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Backhaus, M.; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, H.; Hemperek, T.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Quadt, A.; Weingarten, J.; George, M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Rieger, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.

    2014-11-01

    The high-voltage (HV-) CMOS pixel sensors offer several good properties: a fast charge collection by drift, the possibility to implement relatively complex CMOS in-pixel electronics and the compatibility with commercial processes. The sensor element is a deep n-well diode in a p-type substrate. The n-well contains CMOS pixel electronics. The main charge collection mechanism is drift in a shallow, high field region, which leads to a fast charge collection and a high radiation tolerance. We are currently evaluating the use of the high-voltage detectors implemented in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology for the high-luminosity ATLAS upgrade. Our approach is replacing the existing pixel and strip sensors with the CMOS sensors while keeping the presently used readout ASICs. By intelligence we mean the ability of the sensor to recognize a particle hit and generate the address information. In this way we could benefit from the advantages of the HV sensor technology such as lower cost, lower mass, lower operating voltage, smaller pitch, smaller clusters at high incidence angles. Additionally we expect to achieve a radiation hardness necessary for ATLAS upgrade. In order to test the concept, we have designed two HV-CMOS prototypes that can be readout in two ways: using pixel and strip readout chips. In the case of the pixel readout, the connection between HV-CMOS sensor and the readout ASIC can be established capacitively.

  3. Planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade: beam tests results

    The performance of planar silicon pixel sensors, in development for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades, has been examined in a series of beam tests at the CERN SPS facilities since 2009. Salient results are reported on the key parameters, including the spatial resolution, the charge collection and the charge sharing between adjacent cells, for different bulk materials and sensor geometries. Measurements are presented for n+-in-n pixel sensors irradiated with a range of fluences and for p-type silicon sensors with various layouts from different vendors. All tested sensors were connected via bump-bonding to the ATLAS Pixel read-out chip. The tests reveal that both n-type and p-type planar sensors are able to collect significant charge even after the lifetime fluence expected at the HL-LHC.

  4. Study of Silicon Pixel Sensors for Synchrotron Radiation Detection

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors have been successfully employed and widely used in Synchrotron radiation X-ray detection. In this paper, the silicon pixel sensors for single X-ray photon detection, which operate in full-depletion mode have been studied. The pixel sensors were fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320{\\mu}m thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers. The pixel sensors has a p+-in-n structure with varies of pixel size and gap size including guard-ring structures. Later, the pixel sensor was wire bonded to the ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response in the synchrotron beam line (BSRF, 1W2B). From the S-curve scan, we could get the energy resolution and the linear properties between input energy and the equivalent generator amplitude. The pixel sensors we fabricated have a good energy linear and high count rate depending on the ASIC readout circuit. We get the 20% energy resolution above 10 keV photon energy via wire bonding. The energy resolution would get better if we b...

  5. On-chip Phase Locked Loop (PLL) design for clock multiplier in CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS)

    Sun, Q; Valin, I; Claus, G; Hu-Guo, Ch; Hu, Yu

    2009-01-01

    In a detector system, clock distribution to sensors must be controlled at a level allowing proper synchronisation. In order to reach theses requirements for the HFT (Heavy Flavor Tracker) upgrade at STAR (Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC), we have proposed to distribute a low frequency clock at 10 MHz which will be multiplied to 160 MHz in each sensor by a PLL. A PLL has been designed for period jitter less than 20 ps rms, low power consumption and manufactured in a 0.35 μm CMOS process.

  6. Small pitch pixel sensors\\\\ for the CMS Phase II upgrade

    Steinbrueck, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The CMS collaboration has undertaken two sensor R\\&D programs on thin n-in-p planar and 3D silicon sensor technologies. To cope with the increase in instantaneous luminosity, the pixel area has to be reduced to approximately 2500 $\\mu$m$^{2}$ to keep the occupancy at the percent level. Suggested pixel cell geometries to match this requirement are {50$\\times$50 }$\\mu$...

  7. The Dexela 2923 CMOS X-ray detector: A flat panel detector based on CMOS active pixel sensors for medical imaging applications

    Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors (APS) have been introduced recently in many scientific applications. This work reports on the performance (in terms of signal and noise transfer) of an X-ray detector that uses a novel CMOS APS which was developed for medical X-ray imaging applications. For a full evaluation of the detector's performance, electro-optical and X-ray characterizations were carried out. The former included measuring read noise, full well capacity and dynamic range. The latter, which included measuring X-ray sensitivity, presampling modulation transfer function (pMTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and the resulting detective quantum efficiency (DQE), was assessed under three beam qualities (28 kV, 50 kV (RQA3) and 70 kV (RQA5) using W/Al) all in accordance with the IEC standard. The detector features an in-pixel option for switching the full well capacity between two distinct modes, high full well (HFW) and low full well (LFW). Two structured CsI:Tl scintillators of different thickness (a “thin” one for high resolution and a thicker one for high light efficiency) were optically coupled to the sensor array to optimize the performance of the system for different medical applications. The electro-optical performance evaluation of the sensor results in relatively high read noise (∼360 e−), high full well capacity (∼1.5×106 e−) and wide dynamic range (∼73 dB) under HFW mode operation. When the LFW mode is used, the read noise is lower (∼165) at the expense of a reduced full well capacity (∼0.5×106 e−) and dynamic range (∼69 dB). The maximum DQE values at low frequencies (i.e. 0.5 lp/mm) are high for both HFW (0.69 for 28 kV, 0.71 for 50 kV and 0.75 for 70 kV) and LFW (0.69 for 28 kV and 0.7 for 50 kV) modes. The X-ray performance of the studied detector compares well to that of other mammography and general radiography systems, obtained under similar experimental conditions. This demonstrates the

  8. Development and characterization of the latest X-ray SOI pixel sensor for a future astronomical mission

    Nakashima, Shinya, E-mail: shinya@cr.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Gando Ryu, Syukyo; Tanaka, Takaaki; Go Tsuru, Takeshi [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takeda, Ayaki [Department of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Graduate School of High Energy Accelerator Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Arai, Yasuo [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Imamura, Toshifumi; Ohmoto, Takafumi; Iwata, Atsushi [A-R-Tec Corp., Hiroshima Techno Plaza 405, 3-13-26 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-0046 (Japan)

    2013-12-11

    We have been developing active pixel sensors based on silicon-on-insulator technology for future X-ray astronomy missions. Recently we fabricated the new prototype named “XRPIX2”, and investigated its spectroscopic performance. For comparison and evaluation of different chip designs, XRPIX2 consists of 3 pixel types: Small Pixel, Large Pixel 1, and Large Pixel 2. In Small Pixel, we found that the gains of the 68% pixels are within 1.4% of the mean value, and the energy resolution is 656 eV (FWHM) for 8 keV X-rays, which is the best spectroscopic performance in our development. The pixel pitch of Large Pixel 1 and Large Pixel 2 is twice as large as that of Small Pixel. Charge sharing events are successfully reduced for Large Pixel 1. Moreover Large Pixel 2 has multiple nodes for charge collection in a pixel. We confirmed that the multi-nodes structure is effective to increase charge collection efficiency. -- Highlights: •We performed the evaluation of the newly fabricated SOI sensor for X-ray astronomy. •The pixel-to-pixel gain variation is small in the 64 ×144 pixel format. •The energy resolution is improved by the optimization of the pixel design. •The multi charge collection nodes improved the charge collection efficiency.

  9. Development and characterization of the latest X-ray SOI pixel sensor for a future astronomical mission

    We have been developing active pixel sensors based on silicon-on-insulator technology for future X-ray astronomy missions. Recently we fabricated the new prototype named “XRPIX2”, and investigated its spectroscopic performance. For comparison and evaluation of different chip designs, XRPIX2 consists of 3 pixel types: Small Pixel, Large Pixel 1, and Large Pixel 2. In Small Pixel, we found that the gains of the 68% pixels are within 1.4% of the mean value, and the energy resolution is 656 eV (FWHM) for 8 keV X-rays, which is the best spectroscopic performance in our development. The pixel pitch of Large Pixel 1 and Large Pixel 2 is twice as large as that of Small Pixel. Charge sharing events are successfully reduced for Large Pixel 1. Moreover Large Pixel 2 has multiple nodes for charge collection in a pixel. We confirmed that the multi-nodes structure is effective to increase charge collection efficiency. -- Highlights: •We performed the evaluation of the newly fabricated SOI sensor for X-ray astronomy. •The pixel-to-pixel gain variation is small in the 64 ×144 pixel format. •The energy resolution is improved by the optimization of the pixel design. •The multi charge collection nodes improved the charge collection efficiency

  10. Radiation-hard active pixel sensors for HL-LHC detector upgrades based on HV-CMOS technology

    Miucci, A.; Gonella, L.; Hemperek, T.; Hügging, F.; H. Krüger; Obermann, T.; N. Wermes; M. Garcia-Sciveres; Backhaus, M.; Capeans, M.; Feigl, S.; Nessi, M; Pernegger, H.(CERN, Geneva, Switzerland); Ristic, B.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S

    2014-01-01

    Luminosity upgrades are discussed for the LHC (HL-LHC) which would make updates to the detectors necessary, requiring in particular new, even more radiation-hard and granular, sensors for the inner detector region. 1Corresponding author. c CERN 2014, published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License by IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl. Any further distribution of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the published article’s title, journal ci...

  11. Development of CMOS Pixel Sensors with digital pixel dedicated to future particle physics experiments

    Zhao, W.; Wang, T.; Pham, H.; Hu-Guo, C.; Dorokhov, A.; Hu, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Two prototypes of CMOS pixel sensor with in-pixel analog to digital conversion have been developed in a 0.18 μm CIS process. The first design integrates a discriminator into each pixel within an area of 22 × 33 μm2 in order to meet the requirements of the ALICE inner tracking system (ALICE-ITS) upgrade. The second design features 3-bit charge encoding inside a 35 × 35 μm2 pixel which is motivated by the specifications of the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (ILD-VXD). This work aims to validate the concept of in-pixel digitization which offers higher readout speed, lower power consumption and less dead zone compared with the column-level charge encoding.

  12. Testbeam and Laboratory Characterization of CMS 3D Pixel Sensors

    Bubna, M; Krzywda, A; Koybasi, O; Arndt, K; Bortoletto, D; Shipsey, I; Bolla, G; Kok, A; Hansen, T -E; Hansen, T A; Jensen, G U; Brom, J M; Boscardin, M; Chramowicz, J; Cumalat, J; Betta, G F Dalla; Dinardo, M; Godshalk, A; Jones, M; Krohn, M D; Kumar, A; Lei, C M; Moroni, L; Perera, L; Povoli, M; Prosser, A; Rivera, R; Solano, A; Obertino, M M; Kwan, S; Uplegger, L; Via, C D; Vigani, L; Wagner, S

    2014-01-01

    The pixel detector is the innermost tracking device in CMS, reconstructing interaction vertices and charged particle trajectories. The sensors located in the innermost layers of the pixel detector must be upgraded for the ten-fold increase in luminosity expected with the High- Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) phase. As a possible replacement for planar sensors, 3D silicon technology is under consideration due to its good performance after high radiation fluence. In this paper, we report on pre- and post- irradiation measurements for CMS 3D pixel sensors with different electrode configurations. The effects of irradiation on electrical properties, charge collection efficiency, and position resolution of 3D sensors are discussed. Measurements of various test structures for monitoring the fabrication process and studying the bulk and surface properties, such as MOS capacitors, planar and gate-controlled diodes are also presented.

  13. Design and test of pixel sensors for the CMS experiment

    Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Rott, C.; Roy, A.; Kwan, S.; Chien, C. Y.; Cho, H.; Gobbi, B.; Horisberger, R.; Kaufmann, R.

    2001-04-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have a silicon pixel detector as its innermost tracking device. The pixel system will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. Prototype sensors have been designed to meet the specifications of the CMS experiment. The sensors are n +-n devices to allow partial depletion operation after bulk type inversion. The isolation of the n + pixels is provided through a novel double open p-ring design that allows sensors testing before bump bonding and flip chipping. The prototype wafers contain a variety of p-stop designs and are fabricated by two vendors on different bulk substrates including oxygenated silicon. A study of the static measurement of the prototype sensors before irradiation is presented.

  14. Design and test of pixel sensors for the CMS experiment

    Bölla, G; Rott, C; Roy, A; Kwan, S; Chien, C Y; Cho, H; Gobbi, B; Horisberger, R P; Kaufmann, R

    2001-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will have a silicon pixel detector as its innermost tracking device. The pixel system will be exposed to the harsh radiation environment of the LHC. Prototype sensors have been designed to meet the specifications of the CMS experiment. The sensors are n/sup +/-n devices to allow partial depletion operation after bulk type inversion. The isolation of the n/sup +/ pixels is provided through a novel double open p-ring design that allows sensor testing before bump bonding and flip chipping. The prototype wafers contain a variety of p-stop designs and are fabricated by two vendors on different bulk substrates including oxygenated silicon. A study of the static measurement of the prototype sensors before irradiation is presented. (2 refs).

  15. Calculation stellar detection limit for active pixel sensor%有源像素传感器恒星探测极限计算方法

    张晨; 沈绪榜; 陈朝阳

    2005-01-01

    恒星探测极限是星跟踪器的一个关键参数,在导航星库的建立和星图识别过程中起着重要作用.根据恒星辐射模型和CMOS有源像素传感器的噪声计算模型,提出了一种在给定信噪比和有源像素传感器噪声条件下,计算星跟踪器恒星探测极限的方法.该方法利用单位时间内、单位面积上有源像素传感器对0星等恒星的响应来求取恒星探测极限.最后,在信噪比为8的条件下,结合星跟踪器的有关参数给出了一个计算恒星探测极限的具体实例.%The stellar detection limit(SDL) of image sensor is a key parameter of star tracker. It plays an important role in the selection of guide stars and the star pattern identification. In order to calculate the SDL of CMOS active pixel sensor (APS), the model of star influx and the noise model of APS are presented. The main noise sources of APS are analyzed. If SNR and total noise of APS are given, the SDL of APS can be calculated based on the typical response of 0 magnitude visual star per second per mm2. As an example, a specific SDL of APS is provided with given optical parameters and exposure time.

  16. Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration

    This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors. - Highlights: • 3D integration is a promising technology for pixel sensors in high energy physics. • Experimental results on two-layer 3D CMOS pixel sensors are presented. • The outcome of the first run from the 3D-IC consortium is discussed. • The AIDA network is studying via-last 3D integration of heterogeneous layers. • New ideas based on 3D vertically integrated pixels are being developed for HEP

  17. Image Restoration After Pixel Binning in Image Sensors

    LI Hao; ZHANG Hui; GUO Xiaolian; HU Guangshu

    2009-01-01

    A method was developed to restore degraded images to some extent after the pixel binning pro-cess in image sensors to improve the resolution. A pixel binning model was used to approximate the original un-binned image. Then, the least squares error criterion was used as a constraint to reconstruct the re-stored pixel values from the binning model. The technique achieves about a one-decibel increase in the peak signal-to-noise ratio compared with the odginal estimated image. The technique has good detail pre-servation performance as well as low computation load. Thus, this restoration technique provides valuable improvements in practical, real time image processing.

  18. Achievements of the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    Nellist, C

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the HL-LHC upgrade, the ATLAS experiment plans to introduce an all-silicon inner tracker to cope with the elevated occupancy. To investigate the suitability of pixel sensors using the proven planar technology for the upgraded tracker, the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project (PPS) was established comprising 19 institutes and more than 90 scientists. The paper provides an overview of the research and development project and highlights accomplishments, among them: beam test results with planar sensors up to innermost layer fluences (> 10^16 n_eq cm^2); measurements obtained with irradiated thin edgeless n-in-p pixel assemblies; recent studies of the SCP technique to obtain almost active edges by postprocessing already existing sensors based on scribing, cleaving and edge passivation; an update on prototyping efforts for large areas: sensor design improvements and concepts for low-cost hybridisation; comparison between Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry results and TCAD simulations. Togethe...

  19. Improving charge-collection efficiency of SOI pixel sensors for X-ray astronomy

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Tsuru, Takeshi Go; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Nishioka, Yusuke; Takenaka, Ryota; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Nakashima, Shinya; Hatsui, Takaki; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Takei, Dai; Kameshima, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    We have been developing a new type of active pixel sensor, referred to as "XRPIX" for future X-ray astronomy satellites on the basis of silicon-on-insulator CMOS technology. The problem on our previous device, XRPIX1b, was degradation of the charge-collection efficiency (CCE) at pixel borders. In order to investigate the non-uniformity of the CCE within a pixel, we measured sub-pixel response with X-ray beams whose diameters are 10 μmΦ at SPring-8. We found that the X-ray detection efficiency and CCE degrade in the sensor region under the pixel circuitry placed outside the buried p-wells (BPW). A 2D simulation of the electric fields with the semiconductor device simulator HyDeLEOS shows that the isolated pixel circuitry outside the BPW makes local minimums in the electric potentials at the interface between the sensor and buried oxide layers, where a part of charge is trapped and is not collected to the BPW. Based on this result, we modified the placement of the in-pixel circuitry in the next device, XRPIX2b, for the electric fields to be converged toward the BPW, and confirmed that the CCE at pixel borders is successfully improved.

  20. Status and perspectives of pixel sensors based on 3D vertical integration

    Re, V

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the most recent developments of 3D integration in the field of silicon pixel sensors and readout integrated circuits. This technology may address the needs of future high energy physics and photon science experiments by increasing the electronic functional density in small pixel readout cells and by stacking various device layers based on different technologies, each optimized for a different function. Current efforts are aimed at improving the performance of both hybrid pixel detectors and of CMOS sensors. The status of these activities is discussed here, taking into account experimental results on 3D devices developed in the frame of the 3D-IC consortium. The paper also provides an overview of the ideas that are being currently devised for novel 3D vertically integrated pixel sensors.

  1. Optimization of radiation hardness and charge collection of edgeless silicon pixel sensors for photon science

    Recent progress in active-edge technology of silicon sensors enables the development of large-area tiled silicon pixel detectors with small dead space between modules by utilizing edgeless sensors. Such technology has been proven in successful productions of ATLAS and Medipix-based silicon pixel sensors by a few foundries. However, the drawbacks of edgeless sensors are poor radiation hardness for ionizing radiation and non-uniform charge collection by edge pixels. In this work, the radiation hardness of edgeless sensors with different polarities has been investigated using Synopsys TCAD with X-ray radiation-damage parameters implemented. Results show that if no conventional guard ring is present, none of the current designs are able to achieve a high breakdown voltage (typically < 30 V) after irradiation to a dose of ∼ 10 MGy. In addition, a charge-collection model has been developed and was used to calculate the charges collected by the edge pixels of edgeless sensors when illuminated with X-rays. The model takes into account the electric field distribution inside the pixel sensor, the absorption of X-rays, drift and diffusion of electrons and holes, charge sharing effects, and threshold settings in ASICs. It is found that the non-uniform charge collection of edge pixels is caused by the strong bending of the electric field and the non-uniformity depends on bias voltage, sensor thickness and distance from active edge to the last pixel (''edge space). In particular, the last few pixels close to the active edge of the sensor are not sensitive to low-energy X-rays ( < 10 keV), especially for sensors with thicker Si and smaller edge space. The results from the model calculation have been compared to measurements and good agreement was obtained. The model can be used to optimize the edge design. From the edge optimization, it is found that in order to guarantee the sensitivity of the last few pixels to low-energy X-rays, the edge space should be kept at

  2. Intrinsic pixel size variation in an LSST prototype sensor

    The ambitious science goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) have motivated a search for new and unexpected sources of systematic error in the LSST camera. Flat field images are a rich source of data on sensor anomalies, although such effects are typically dwarfed by shot noise in a single flat field. After combining many (0∼50) such images into 'ultraflats' to reduce the impact of shot noise, we perform photon transfer analysis on a pixel-by-pixel basis and observe no spatial structure in pixel linearity or gain at light levels of 100 ke− and below. At 125 ke−, a columnar structure is observed in the gain map—we attribute this to a flux-dependent charge-transfer inefficiency. We also probe small-scale variations in effective pixel size by analyzing pixel-neighbor correlations in ultraflat images, where we observe clear evidence of intrinsic variation in effective pixel size in an LSST prototype sensor near the ∼ .3% level

  3. Intrinsic Pixel Size Variation in an LSST Prototype Sensor

    Baumer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The ambitious science goals of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) have motivated a search for new and unexpected sources of systematic error in the LSST camera. Flat-field images are a rich source of data on sensor anomalies, although such effects are typically dwarfed by shot noise in a single flat field. After combining many ($\\sim 500$) such images into `ultraflats' to reduce the impact of shot noise, we perform photon transfer analysis on a pixel-by-pixel basis and observe no spatial structure in pixel linearity or gain at light levels of 100 ke$^-$ and below. At 125 ke$^-$, a columnar structure is observed in the gain map--we attribute this to a flux-dependent charge transfer inefficiency. We also probe small-scale variations in effective pixel size by analyzing pixel-neighbor correlations in ultraflat images, where we observe clear evidence of intrinsic variation in effective pixel size in an LSST prototype sensor near the $\\sim .3\\%$ level.

  4. Digital Pixel Sensor Array with Logarithmic Delta-Sigma Architecture

    Jing Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs. To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia.

  5. Digital pixel sensor array with logarithmic delta-sigma architecture.

    Mahmoodi, Alireza; Li, Jing; Joseph, Dileepan

    2013-01-01

    Like the human eye, logarithmic image sensors achieve wide dynamic range easily at video rates, but, unlike the human eye, they suffer from low peak signal-to-noise-and-distortion ratios (PSNDRs). To improve the PSNDR, we propose integrating a delta-sigma analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in each pixel. An image sensor employing this architecture is designed, built and tested in 0.18 micron complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. It achieves a PSNDR better than state-of-the-art logarithmic sensors and comparable to the human eye. As the approach concerns an array of many ADCs, we use a small-area low-power delta-sigma design. For scalability, each pixel has its own decimator. The prototype is compared to a variety of other image sensors, linear and nonlinear, from industry and academia. PMID:23959239

  6. Test beam results of 3D silicon pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS inner detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump-bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  7. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera

  8. Electron Pattern Recognition using trigger mode SOI pixel sensor for Advanced Compton Imaging

    Shimazoe, K.; Yoshihara, Y.; Fairuz, A.; Koyama, A.; Takahashi, H.; Takeda, A.; Tsuru, T.; Arai, Y.

    2016-02-01

    Compton imaging is a useful method for localizing sub MeV to a few MeV gamma-rays and widely used for environmental and medical applications. The direction of recoiled electrons in Compton scattering process provides the additional information to limit the Compton cones and increases the sensitivity in the system. The capability of recoiled electron tracking using trigger-mode Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) sensor is investigated with various radiation sources. The trigger-mode SOI sensor consists of 144 by 144 active pixels with 30 μm cells and the thickness of sensor is 500 μm. The sensor generates the digital output when it is hit by gamma-rays and 25 by 25 pixel pattern of surrounding the triggered pixel is readout to extract the recoiled electron track. The electron track is successfully observed for 60Co and 137Cs sources, which provides useful information for future electron tracking Compton camera.

  9. Test Beam Results of 3D Silicon Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS upgrade

    Grenier, P; Barbero, M; Bates, R; Bolle, E; Borri, M; Boscardin, M; Buttar, C; Capua, M; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cobal, M; Cristofoli, A; Dalla Betta, G F; Darbo, G; Da Via, C; Devetak, E; DeWilde, B; Di Girolamo, B; Dobos, D; Einsweiler, K; Esseni, D; Fazio, S; Fleta, C; Freestone, J; Gallrapp, C; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gariano, G; Gemme, C; Giordani, M P; Gjersdal, H; Grinstein, S; Hansen, T; Hansen, T E; Hansson, P; Hasi, J; Helle, K; Hoeferkamp, M; Hugging, F; Jackson, P; Jakobs, K; Kalliopuska, J; Karagounis, M; Kenney, C; Köhler, M; Kocian, M; Kok, A; Kolya, S; Korokolov, I; Kostyukhin, V; Krüger, H; La Rosa, A; Lai, C H; Lietaer, N; Lozano, M; Mastroberardino, A; Micelli, A; Nellist, C; Oja, A; Oshea, V; Padilla, C; Palestri, P; Parker, S; Parzefall, U; Pater, J; Pellegrini, G; Pernegger, H; Piemonte, C; Pospisil, S; Povoli, M; Roe, S; Rohne, O; Ronchin, S; Rovani, A; Ruscino, E; Sandaker, H; Seidel, S; Selmi, L; Silverstein, D; Sjøbaek, K; Slavicek, T; Stapnes, S; Stugu, B; Stupak, J; Su, D; Susinno, G; Thompson, R; Tsung, J W; Tsybychev, D; Watts, S J; Wermes, N; Young, C; Zorzi, N

    2011-01-01

    Results on beam tests of 3D silicon pixel sensors aimed at the ATLAS Insertable-B-Layer and High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC)) upgrades are presented. Measurements include charge collection, tracking efficiency and charge sharing between pixel cells, as a function of track incident angle, and were performed with and without a 1.6 T magnetic field oriented as the ATLAS Inner Detector solenoid field. Sensors were bump bonded to the front-end chip currently used in the ATLAS pixel detector. Full 3D sensors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire wafer thickness and active edge, and double-sided 3D sensors with partially overlapping bias and read-out electrodes were tested and showed comparable performance.

  10. Improving Charge-Collection Efficiency of Kyoto's SOI Pixel Sensors

    Matsumura, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takeda, Ayaki; Ito, Makoto; Ohmura, Syunichi; Arai, Yasuo; Mori, Koji; Nishioka, Yusuke; Takenaka, Ryota; Kohmura, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have been developing X-ray SOIPIXs for next-generation satellites for X-ray astronomy. Their high time resolution ($\\sim10~\\mu$s) and event-trigger-output function enable us to read out without pile-ups and to use anti-coincidence systems. Their performance in imaging spectroscopy is comparable to that in the CCDs. A problem in our previous model was degradation of charge-collection efficiency (CCE) at pixel borders. We measured the response in the sub-pixel scale, using finely collimated X-ray beams at $10~\\mu$m\\Phi$ at SPring-8, and investigated the non-uniformity of the CCE within a pixel. We found that the X-ray detection efficiency and CCE degrade in the sensor region under the pixel circuitry placed outside the buried p-wells (BPW). A 2D simulation of the electric fields shows that the isolated pixel-circuitry outside the BPW creates local minimums in the electric potentials at the interface between the sensor and buried oxide layers. Thus, a part of signal charge is trapped there and is not collecte...

  11. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    Besson, A.; Pérez, A. Pérez; Spiriti, E.; Baudot, J.; Claus, G; Goffe, M.; de Winter, M.

    2016-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming ...

  12. Characterization of a three side abuttable CMOS pixel sensor with digital pixel and data compression for charged particle tracking

    Guilloux, F.; Değerli, Y.; Flouzat, C.; Lachkar, M.; Monmarthe, E.; Orsini, F.; Venault, P.

    2016-02-01

    CMOS monolithic pixel sensor technology has been chosen to equip the new ALICE trackers for HL-LHC . PIXAM is the final prototype from an R&D program specific to the Muon Forward Tracker which intends to push significantly forward the performances of the mature rolling shutter architecture. By implementing a digital pixel allowing to readout of a group of rows in parallel, the PIXAM sensor increases the rolling shutter readout speed while keeping the same power consumption as that of analogue pixel sensors. This paper will describe shortly the ASIC architecture and will focus on the analogue and digital performances of the sensor, obtained from laboratory measurements.

  13. Characterization of a three side abuttable CMOS pixel sensor with digital pixel and data compression for charged particle tracking

    CMOS monolithic pixel sensor technology has been chosen to equip the new ALICE trackers for HL-LHC . PIXAM is the final prototype from an R and D program specific to the Muon Forward Tracker which intends to push significantly forward the performances of the mature rolling shutter architecture. By implementing a digital pixel allowing to readout of a group of rows in parallel, the PIXAM sensor increases the rolling shutter readout speed while keeping the same power consumption as that of analogue pixel sensors. This paper will describe shortly the ASIC architecture and will focus on the analogue and digital performances of the sensor, obtained from laboratory measurements

  14. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Within the R and D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (∼0.3%X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (∼20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a 55Fe X-ray source and 1–5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented

  15. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Cavicchioli, C., E-mail: costanza.cavicchioli@cern.ch [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Chalmet, P.L. [MIND, Archamps Technopole, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Cedex 74166 (France); Giubilato, P. [Università and INFN, Padova (Italy); Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kugathasan, T.; Mager, M. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Marin Tobon, C.A. [Valencia Polytechnic University, Valencia (Spain); Martinengo, P. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Mattiazzo, S. [Università and INFN, Padova (Italy); Mugnier, H. [MIND, Archamps Technopole, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Cedex 74166 (France); Musa, L. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pantano, D. [Università and INFN, Padova (Italy); Rousset, J. [MIND, Archamps Technopole, Saint-Julien-en-Genevois, Cedex 74166 (France); Reidt, F. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Physikalisches Institut, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Van Hoorne, J.W. [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Technische Universitaet Wien, Vienna (Austria); Yang, P. [Central China Normal University CCNU, Wuhan (China)

    2014-11-21

    Within the R and D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (∼0.3%X{sub 0} in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (∼20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity (ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge collection properties of the different pixel variants implemented in Explorer0 have been studied using a {sup 55}Fe X-ray source and 1–5 GeV/c electrons and positrons. The sensor capacitance has been estimated, and the effect of the sensor bias has also been examined in detail. A second version of the Explorer0 chip (called Explorer1) has been submitted for production in March 2013, together with a novel circuit with in-pixel discrimination and a sparsified readout. Results from these submissions are also presented.

  16. Optimization of radiation hardness and charge collection of edgeless silicon pixel sensors for photon science

    Zhang, Jiaguo; Pennicard, David; Sarajlic, Milija; Graafsma, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Recent progress in active-edge technology of silicon sensors enables the development of large-area tiled silicon pixel detectors with small dead space between modules by utilizing edgeless sensors. Such technology has been proven in successful productions of ATLAS and Medipix-based silicon pixel sensors by a few foundries. However, the drawbacks of edgeless sensors are poor radiation hardness for ionizing radiation and non-uniform charge collection by edge pixels. In this work, the radiation hardness of edgeless sensors with different polarities has been investigated using Synopsys TCAD with X-ray radiation-damage parameters implemented. Results show that if no conventional guard ring is present, none of the current designs are able to achieve a high breakdown voltage (typically < 30 V) after irradiation to a dose of ~10 MGy. In addition, a charge-collection model has been developed and was used to calculate the charges collected by the edge pixels of edgeless sensors when illuminated with X-rays. The mode...

  17. Design and TCAD simulation of planar p-on-n active-edge pixel sensors for the next generation of FELs

    Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Batignani, G.; Benkechkache, M. A.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Comotti, D.; Fabris, L.; Forti, F.; Grassi, M.; Latreche, S.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Manghisoni, M.; Mendicino, R.; Morsani, F.; Paladino, A.; Pancheri, L.; Paoloni, E.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Rizzo, G.; Traversi, G.; Vacchi, C.; Verzellesi, G.; Xu, H.

    2016-07-01

    We report on the design and TCAD simulations of planar p-on-n sensors with active edge aimed at a four-side buttable X-ray detector module for future FEL applications. Edge terminations with different number of guard rings were designed to find the best trade-off between breakdown voltage and border gap size. The methodology of the sensor design, the optimization of the most relevant parameters to maximize the breakdown voltage and the final layout are described.

  18. Research and Development of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for the Detection of the Elementary Particles; Recherche et developpement de capteurs actifs monolithiques CMOS pour la detection de particules elementaires

    Li, Y

    2007-09-15

    In order to develop high spatial resolution and readout speed vertex detectors for the future International Linear Collider (ILC), fast CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are studied on this work. Two prototypes of MAPS, MIMOSA 8 and MIMOSA 16, based on the same micro-electronic architecture were developed in CMOS processes with different thickness of epitaxial layer. The size of pixel matrix is 32 x 128: 8 columns of the pixel array are readout directly with analog outputs and the other 24 columns are connected to the column level auto-zero discriminators. The Correlated Double Sampling (CDS) structures are successfully implemented inside pixel and discriminator. The photo diode type pixels with different diode sizes are used in these prototypes. With a {sup 55}Fe X-ray radioactive source, the important parameters, such as Temporal Noise, Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Charge-to-Voltage conversion Factor (CVF) and Charge Collection Efficiency (CCE), are studied as function of readout speed and diode size. For MIMOSA 8, the effect of fast neutrons irradiation is also. Two beam tests campaigns were made: at DESY with a 5 GeV electrons beam and at CERN with a 180 GeV pions beam. Detection Efficiency and Spatial Resolution are studied in function of the discriminator threshold. For these two parameters, the influences of diode size and SNR of the central pixel of a cluster are also discussed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the digital outputs, a very compact (25 {mu}m x 1 mm) and low consumption (300 {mu}W) column level ADC is designed in AMS 0.35 {mu}m OPTO process. Based on successive approximation architecture, the auto-offset cancellation structure is integrated. A new column level auto-zero discriminator using static latch is also designed. (author)

  19. Development and characterization of the latest X-ray SOI pixel sensor for a future astronomical mission

    Nakashima, Shinya; Gando Ryu, Syukyo; Tanaka, Takaaki; Go Tsuru, Takeshi; Takeda, Ayaki; Arai, Yasuo; Imamura, Toshifumi; Ohmoto, Takafumi; Iwata, Atsushi

    2013-12-01

    We have been developing active pixel sensors based on silicon-on-insulator technology for future X-ray astronomy missions. Recently we fabricated the new prototype named “XRPIX2”, and investigated its spectroscopic performance. For comparison and evaluation of different chip designs, XRPIX2 consists of 3 pixel types: Small Pixel, Large Pixel 1, and Large Pixel 2. In Small Pixel, we found that the gains of the 68% pixels are within 1.4% of the mean value, and the energy resolution is 656 eV (FWHM) for 8 keV X-rays, which is the best spectroscopic performance in our development. The pixel pitch of Large Pixel 1 and Large Pixel 2 is twice as large as that of Small Pixel. Charge sharing events are successfully reduced for Large Pixel 1. Moreover Large Pixel 2 has multiple nodes for charge collection in a pixel. We confirmed that the multi-nodes structure is effective to increase charge collection efficiency.

  20. Design and characterization of novel monolithic pixel sensors for the ALICE ITS upgrade

    Cavicchioli, C; Giubilato, P; Hillemanns, H; Junique, A; Kugathasan, T; Mager, M; Marin Tobon, C A; Martinengo, P; Mattiazzo, S; Mugnier, H; Musa, L; Pantano, D; Rousset, J; Reidt, F; Riedler, P; Snoeys, W; Van Hoorne, J W; Yang, P

    2014-01-01

    Within the R&D activities for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) are being developed and studied, due to their lower material budget (~0.3%X0~0.3%X0 in total for each inner layer) and higher granularity (View the MathML source~20μm×20μm pixels) with respect to the present pixel detector. This paper presents the design and characterization results of the Explorer0 chip, manufactured in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor process, based on a wafer with high-resistivity View the MathML source(ρ>1kΩcm) and 18 μm thick epitaxial layer. The chip is organized in two sub-matrices with different pixel pitches (20 μm and 30 μm), each of them containing several pixel designs. The collection electrode size and shape, as well as the distance between the electrode and the surrounding electronics, are varied; the chip also offers the possibility to decouple the charge integration time from the readout time, and to change the sensor bias. The charge c...

  1. Recent Results of the ATLAS Upgrade Planar Pixel Sensors R&D Project

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    To cope with the higher occupancy and radiation damage at the HL-LHC also the LHC experiments will be upgraded. The ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project (PPS) is an international collaboration of 17 institutions and more than 80 scientists, exploring the feasibility of employing planar pixel sensors for this scenario. Depending on the radius, different pixel concepts are investigated using laboratory and beam test measurements. At small radii the extreme radiation environment and strong space constraints are addressed with very thin pixel sensors active thickness in the range of (75-150) mum, and the development of slim as well as active edges. At larger radii the main challenge is the cost reduction to allow for instrumenting the large area of (7-10) m^2. To reach this goal the pixel productions are being transferred to 6 inch production lines. Additionally, investigated are more cost-efficient and industrialised interconnection techniques as well as the n-in-p technology, which, being a single-sided pr...

  2. Signal processing algorithms for staring single pixel hyperspectral sensors

    Manolakis, Dimitris; Rossacci, Michael; O'Donnell, Erin; D'Amico, Francis M.

    2006-08-01

    Remote sensing of chemical warfare agents (CWA) with stand-off hyperspectral sensors has a wide range of civilian and military applications. These sensors exploit the spectral changes in the ambient photon flux produced thermal emission or absorption after passage through a region containing the CWA cloud. In this work we focus on (a) staring single-pixel sensors that sample their field of view at regular intervals of time to produce a time series of spectra and (b) scanning single or multiple pixel sensors that sample their FOV as they scan. The main objective of signal processing algorithms is to determine if and when a CWA enters the FOV of the sensor. We shall first develop and evaluate algorithms for staring sensors following two different approaches. First, we will assume that no threat information is available and we design an adaptive anomaly detection algorithm to detect a statistically-significant change in the observed spectrum. The algorithm processes the observed spectra sequentially-in-time, estimates adaptively the background, and checks whether the next spectrum differs significantly from the background based on the Mahalanobis distance or the distance from the background subspace. In the second approach, we will assume that we know the spectral signature of the CWA and develop sequential-in-time adaptive matched filter detectors. In both cases, we assume that the sensor starts its operation before the release of the CWA; otherwise, staring at a nearby CWA-free area is required for background estimation. Experimental evaluation and comparison of the proposed algorithms is accomplished using data from a long-wave infrared (LWIR) Fourier transform spectrometer.

  3. Design and characterization of high precision in-pixel discriminators for rolling shutter CMOS pixel sensors with full CMOS capability

    In order to exploit the ability to integrate a charge collecting electrode with analog and digital processing circuitry down to the pixel level, a new type of CMOS pixel sensors with full CMOS capability is presented in this paper. The pixel array is read out based on a column-parallel read-out architecture, where each pixel incorporates a diode, a preamplifier with a double sampling circuitry and a discriminator to completely eliminate analog read-out bottlenecks. The sensor featuring a pixel array of 8 rows and 32 columns with a pixel pitch of 80μm×16μm was fabricated in a 0.18μm CMOS process. The behavior of each pixel-level discriminator isolated from the diode and the preamplifier was studied. The experimental results indicate that all in-pixel discriminators which are fully operational can provide significant improvements in the read-out speed and the power consumption of CMOS pixel sensors

  4. A charge pump for driving CMOS active pixel reset

    XU Jiang-tao; LI Bin-qiao; YAO Su-ying; SUN Zhong-yan

    2009-01-01

    To overcome the limitation of low image signal swing range and long reset time in four transistor CMOS active pixel image sensor, a charge pump circuit is presented to improve the pixel reset performance. The charge pump circuit consists of two stage switch capacitor serial voltage doubler. Cross-coupled MOSFET switch structure with well close and open perfor-mance is used in the second stage of the charge pump. The pixel reset transistor with gate voltage driven by output of the pump works in linear region, which can accelerate reset process and complete reset is achieved. The simulation results show that output of the charge pump is enhanced from 1.2 to 4.2 V with voltage tipple lower than 6 inV. The pixel reset time is reduced to 1.14 ns in dark. Image smear due to non-completely reset is eliminated and the image signal swing range is enlarged. The charge pump is successfully embedded in a CMOS image sensor chip with 0.3 ~ 106 pixeis.

  5. Development of a novel pixel-level signal processing chain for fast readout 3D integrated CMOS pixel sensors

    In order to resolve the inherent readout speed limitation of traditional 2D CMOS pixel sensors, operated in rolling shutter readout, a parallel readout architecture has been developed by taking advantage of 3D integration technologies. Since the rows of the pixel array are zero-suppressed simultaneously instead of sequentially, a frame readout time of a few microseconds is expected for coping with high hit rates foreseen in future collider experiments. In order to demonstrate the pixel readout functionality of such a pixel sensor, a 2D proof-of-concept chip including a novel pixel-level signal processing chain was designed and fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS technology. The functionalities of this chip have been verified through experimental characterization

  6. Development of a novel pixel-level signal processing chain for fast readout 3D integrated CMOS pixel sensors

    Fu, Y.; Torheim, O.; Hu-Guo, C. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Degerli, Y. [CEA Saclay, IRFU/SEDI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Hu, Y., E-mail: yann.hu@iphc.cnrs.fr [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien (IPHC), 23 rue du loess, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2013-03-11

    In order to resolve the inherent readout speed limitation of traditional 2D CMOS pixel sensors, operated in rolling shutter readout, a parallel readout architecture has been developed by taking advantage of 3D integration technologies. Since the rows of the pixel array are zero-suppressed simultaneously instead of sequentially, a frame readout time of a few microseconds is expected for coping with high hit rates foreseen in future collider experiments. In order to demonstrate the pixel readout functionality of such a pixel sensor, a 2D proof-of-concept chip including a novel pixel-level signal processing chain was designed and fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS technology. The functionalities of this chip have been verified through experimental characterization.

  7. Recent results of the ATLAS upgrade planar pixel sensors R&D project

    Weigell, Philipp

    2013-12-01

    To extend the physics reach of the LHC experiments, several upgrades to the accelerator complex are planned, culminating in the HL-LHC, which eventually leads to an increase of the peak luminosity by a factor of five to ten compared to the LHC design value. To cope with the higher occupancy and radiation damage also the LHC experiments will be upgraded. The ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project is an international collaboration of 17 institutions and more than 80 scientists, exploring the feasibility of employing planar pixel sensors for this scenario. Depending on the radius, different pixel concepts are investigated using laboratory and beam test measurements. At small radii the extreme radiation environment and strong space constraints are addressed with very thin pixel sensors active thickness in the range of (75-150) μm, and the development of slim as well as active edges. At larger radii the main challenge is the cost reduction to allow for instrumenting the large area of (7-10) m2. To reach this goal the pixel productions are being transferred to 6 in production lines and more cost-efficient and industrialised interconnection techniques are investigated. Additionally, the n-in-p technology is employed, which requires less production steps since it relies on a single-sided process. An overview of the recent accomplishments obtained within the ATLAS Planar Pixel Sensor R&D Project is given. The performance in terms of charge collection and tracking efficiency, obtained with radioactive sources in the laboratory and at beam tests, is presented for devices built from sensors of different vendors connected to either the present ATLAS read-out chip FE-I3 or the new Insertable B-Layer read-out chip FE-I4. The devices, with a thickness varying between 75 μm and 300 μm, were irradiated to several fluences up to 2×1016 neq/cm2. Finally, the different approaches followed inside the collaboration to achieve slim or active edges for planar pixel sensors are presented.

  8. Study of silicon pixel sensor for synchrotron radiation detection

    Li, Zhen-Jie; Jia, Yun-Cong; Hu, Ling-Fei; Liu, Peng; Yin, Hua-Xiang

    2016-03-01

    The silicon pixel sensor (SPS) is one of the key components of hybrid pixel single-photon-counting detectors for synchrotron radiation X-ray detection (SRD). In this paper, the design, fabrication, and characterization of SPSs for single beam X-ray photon detection is reported. The designed pixel sensor is a p+-in-n structure with guard-ring structures operated in full-depletion mode and is fabricated on 4-inch, N type, 320 μm thick, high-resistivity silicon wafers by a general Si planar process. To achieve high energy resolution of X-rays and obtain low dark current and high breakdown voltage as well as appropriate depletion voltage of the SPS, a series of technical optimizations of device structure and fabrication process are explored. With optimized device structure and fabrication process, excellent SPS characteristics with dark current of 2 nA/cm2, full depletion voltage 150 V are achieved. The fabricated SPSs are wire bonded to ASIC circuits and tested for the performance of X-ray response to the 1W2B synchrotron beam line of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The measured S-curves for SRD demonstrate a high discrimination for different energy X-rays. The extracted energy resolution is high (10 keV) and the linear properties between input photo energy and the equivalent generator amplitude are well established. It confirmed that the fabricated SPSs have a good energy linearity and high count rate with the optimized technologies. The technology is expected to have a promising application in the development of a large scale SRD system for the Beijing Advanced Photon Source. Supported by Prefabrication Research of Beijing Advanced Photon Source (R&D for BAPS) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11335010)

  9. From vertex detectors to inner trackers with CMOS pixel sensors

    Besson, A; Spiriti, E; Baudot, J; Claus, G; Goffe, M; Winter, M

    2016-01-01

    The use of CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) for high resolution and low material vertex detectors has been validated with the 2014 and 2015 physics runs of the STAR-PXL detector at RHIC/BNL. This opens the door to the use of CPS for inner tracking devices, with 10-100 times larger sensitive area, which require therefore a sensor design privileging power saving, response uniformity and robustness. The 350 nm CMOS technology used for the STAR-PXL sensors was considered as too poorly suited to upcoming applications like the upgraded ALICE Inner Tracking System (ITS), which requires sensors with one order of magnitude improvement on readout speed and improved radiation tolerance. This triggered the exploration of a deeper sub-micron CMOS technology, Tower-Jazz 180 nm, for the design of a CPS well adapted for the new ALICE-ITS running conditions. This paper reports the R&D results for the conception of a CPS well adapted for the ALICE-ITS.

  10. Radiation Damage of the ATLAS Pixel Sensors Using Leakage Current Measurement System

    Gorelov, I; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The current measurement system measures directly the leakage current in pixel sensors. The system is integrated with the ATLAS Pixel high voltage delivery system. The system runs as a monitor of a radiation damage of the pixel sensors. The leakage current data collected for the completed data taking period are analyzed. The recent status of the sensor's radiation damage and a comparison with the theoretical predictions are presented.

  11. Design and realisation of integrated circuits for the readout of pixel sensors in high-energy physics and biomedical imaging

    Radiation tolerant pixel-readout chip for the ATLAS pixel detector has been designed, implemented in a deep-submicron CMOS technology and successfully tested. The chip contains readout-channels with complex analog and digital circuits. Chip for steering of the DEPFET active-pixel matrix has been implemented in a high-voltage CMOS technology. The chip contains channels which generate fast sequences of high-voltage signals. Detector containing this chip has been successfully tested. Pixel-readout test chip for an X-ray imaging pixel sensor has been designed, implemented in a CMOS technology and tested. Pixel-readout channels are able to simultaneously count the signals generated by passage of individual photons and to sum the total charge generated during exposure time. (orig.)

  12. Design and realisation of integrated circuits for the readout of pixel sensors in high-energy physics and biomedical imaging

    Peric, I.

    2004-08-01

    Radiation tolerant pixel-readout chip for the ATLAS pixel detector has been designed, implemented in a deep-submicron CMOS technology and successfully tested. The chip contains readout-channels with complex analog and digital circuits. Chip for steering of the DEPFET active-pixel matrix has been implemented in a high-voltage CMOS technology. The chip contains channels which generate fast sequences of high-voltage signals. Detector containing this chip has been successfully tested. Pixel-readout test chip for an X-ray imaging pixel sensor has been designed, implemented in a CMOS technology and tested. Pixel-readout channels are able to simultaneously count the signals generated by passage of individual photons and to sum the total charge generated during exposure time. (orig.)

  13. The MOS-type DEPFET pixel sensor for the ILC environment

    Andricek, L. [MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: lca@hll.mpg.de; Fischer, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Heinzinger, K. [MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany)]|[PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Munich (Germany); Herrmann, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Herz, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]|[Mannheim University, D-68159 Mannheim (Germany)]|[Bonn Unversity, D-53112 Bonn (Germany); Karagounis, M.; Kohrs, R.; Krueger, H.; Lechner, P.; Reuen, L.; Sandow, C.; Trimpl, M.; Toerne, E.V.; Velthuis, J.; Wermes, N. [PNSensor GmbH, Roemerstr. 28, 80803 Munich (Germany); Lutz, G. [MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Moser, H.-G. [MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Peric, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Richter, R.H. [MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Schnecke, M. [MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany); Schopper, F.; Strueder, L.; Treis, J.; Woelfel, S. [MPI Halbleiterlabor, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, 81739 Munich (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2006-09-01

    A new generation of MOS-type DEPFET active pixel sensors in double metal/double poly technology with {approx}25 {mu}m pixel size has been developed to meet the requirements of the vertex detector at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The paper presents the design and technology of the new linear MOS-type DEPFET sensors including a module concept and results of a feasibility study on how to build ultra-thin fully depleted sensors. One of the major challenges at the ILC is the dominant e{sup +}e{sup -} pair background from beam-beam interactions. The resulting high occupancy in the first layer of the vertex detector can be reduced by an extremely fast read out of the pixel arrays but the pair-produced electrons will also damage the sensor by ionization. Like all MOS devices, the DEPFET is inherently susceptible to ionizing radiation. The predominant effect of this kind of irradiation is the shift of the threshold voltage to more negative values due to the build up of positive oxide charges. The paper presents the first results of the irradiation of such devices with hard X-rays and gamma rays from a {sup 60}Co source up to 1 Mrad(Si) under various biasing conditions.

  14. Investigation of the Design Boundaries of a 3,072 X 2,048 Image Sensor Pixel Array

    Eid, El-Sayed I.

    2002-09-01

    The practical boundaries surrounding the design of very high resolution image sensors have been studied. The case study used to analyze these practical boundaries is a CMOS photodiode active pixel sensor (APS) image sensor with pixel array format of 3,072 (H) X 2,048 (V). The frame rate of the image sensor is variable up to 30 frames per second (fps), leading to a maximum image data throughput of 180 M pixels per second. The pixel size is 6.0 im, resulting in a pixel fill factor of approximately 48% (implemented in a 0.25 μm CMOS fabrication process) and a 4/3 inch optical format. The resultant die fill factor is approximately 54%. The column-parallel approach, which works well for both the on-chip analog signal processing and analog-to-digital conversion, is adopted. The 10-bit successive approximation ADC was deemed suitable for on-chip integration. The projected total power consumption of the case study image sensor chip is below 200 mW at 3.3-V power supply and below 100 mW at 1.5-V power supply. These power estimates were made for operation at full resolution (6 M pixels per frame) and at maximum frame rate (30 fps), leading to a maximum digital image data throughput of 1.8 G bits per second.

  15. Sensor studies of n+-in-n planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS upgrades

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC is planning upgrades of its pixel detector to cope with the luminosity increase foreseen in the coming years within the transition from LHC to Super-LHC (SLHC/HL-LHC). Associated with an increase in instantaneous luminosity is a rise of the target integrated luminosity from 730 fb-1 to about 3000 fb-1 which directly translates into significantly higher radiation damage. These upgrades consist of the installation of a 4th pixel layer, the insertable b-layer IBL, with a mean sensor radius of only 32 mm from the beam axis, before 2016/17. In addition, the complete pixel detector will be exchanged before 2020/21. Being very close to the beam, the radiation damage of the IBL sensors might be as high as 5.1015neqcm-2 at their end-of-life. The total fluence of the innermost pixel layer after the SLHC upgrade might even reach 2.1016neqcm-2. We have performed systematic measurements of planar pixel detectors based on the current ATLAS readout chip FE-I3 and obtained first experience with the new IBL readout chip FE-I4. First results will be presented.

  16. Design optimization of pixel sensors using device simulations for the phase-II CMS tracker upgrade

    Jain, G.; Bhardwaj, A.; Dalal, R.; Eber, R.; Eichorn, T.; Fernandez, M.; Lalwani, K.; Messineo, A.; Palomo, F. R.; Peltola, T.; Printz, M.; Ranjan, K.; Villa, I.; Hidalgo, S.

    2016-07-01

    In order to address the problems caused by the harsh radiation environment during the high luminosity phase of the LHC (HL-LHC), all silicon tracking detectors (pixels and strips) in the CMS experiment will undergo an upgrade. And so to develop radiation hard pixel sensors, simulations have been performed using the 2D TCAD device simulator, SILVACO, to obtain design parameters. The effect of various design parameters like pixel size, pixel depth, implant width, metal overhang, p-stop concentration, p-stop depth and bulk doping density on the leakage current and critical electric field are studied for both non-irradiated as well as irradiated pixel sensors. These 2D simulation results of planar pixels are useful for providing insight into the behaviour of non-irradiated and irradiated silicon pixel sensors and further work on 3D simulation is underway.

  17. Low noise, low power front end electronics for pixelized TFA sensors

    Poltorak, K; Dabrowski, W; Despeisse, M; Jarron, P; Kaplon, J; Wyrschb, N

    2009-01-01

    Thin Film on ASIC (TFA) technology combines advantages of two commonly used pixel imaging detectors, namely, Monolithic Active Pixels (MAPs) and Hybrid Pixel detectors. Thanks to direct deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a- Si:H) sensor lm on top of the readout ASIC, TFA shows the similarity to MAP imagers, allowing, however, more sophisticated front–end circuitry to extract the signals, like in case of Hybrid Pixel technology. In this paper we present preliminary experimental results of TFA structures, obtained with 10 μm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon sensors, deposited directly on top of integrated circuit optimized for tracking applications at linear collider experiments. The signal charges delivered by such a-Si:H n-i-p diode are small; about 37 e-/μm for minimum ionizing particles, therefore a low noise, high gain and very low power of the front- end are of primary importance. The developed demonstrator chip, designed in 250 nm CMOS technology, comprises an array of 64 by 64 pi...

  18. LePIX: First results from a novel monolithic pixel sensor

    We present a monolithic pixel sensor developed in the framework of the LePIX project aimed at tracking/triggering tasks where high granularity, low power consumption, material budget, radiation hardness and production costs are a concern. The detector is built in a 90 nm CMOS process on a substrate of moderate resistivity. This maintains the advantages usually offered by Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), like a low input capacitance, having a single piece detector and using a standard CMOS production line, but offers charge collection by drift from a depleted region and therefore an excellent signal to noise ratio and a radiation tolerance superior to conventional undepleted MAPS. Measurement results obtained with the first prototypes from laser, radioactive source and beam test experiments are described. The excellent signal-to-noise performance is demonstrated by the capability of the device to separate the peaks in the spectrum of a 55Fe source. We will also highlight the interaction between pixel cell design and architecture which points toward a very precise direction in the development of such depleted monolithic pixel devices for high energy physics

  19. Design of an ultra low power CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter

    Zhang, Y.; Hu-Guo, C.; Husson, D.; Hu, Y. [Institut Pluridisplinaire Hubert Curien IPHC, Univ. of Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, 23 Rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2011-07-01

    Despite a continuously increasing demand, neutron electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) are still far from being completely established because their development is a very difficult task. A low-noise, ultra low power consumption CMOS pixel sensor for a future neutron personal dosimeter has been implemented in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS technology. The prototype is composed of a pixel array for detection of charged particles, and the readout electronics is integrated on the same substrate for signal processing. The excess electrons generated by an impinging particle are collected by the pixel array. The charge collection time and the efficiency are the crucial points of a CMOS detector. The 3-D device simulations using the commercially available Synopsys-SENTAURUS package address the detailed charge collection process. Within a time of 1.9 {mu}s, about 59% electrons created by the impact particle are collected in a cluster of 4 x 4 pixels with the pixel pitch of 80 {mu}m. A charge sensitive preamplifier (CSA) and a shaper are employed in the frond-end readout. The tests with electrical signals indicate that our prototype with a total active area of 2.56 x 2.56 mm{sup 2} performs an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of less than 400 e - and 314 {mu}W power consumption, leading to a promising prototype. (authors)

  20. Simulations of planar pixel sensors for the ATLAS high luminosity upgrade

    Calderini, G; Dinu, N; Lounis, A; Marchiori, G

    2011-01-01

    A physics-based device simulation was used to study the charge carrier distribution and the electric field configuration inside simplified two-dimensional models for pixel layouts based on the ATLAS pixel sensor. In order to study the behavior of such detectors under different levels of irradiation, a three-level defect model was implemented into the simulation. Using these models, the number of guard rings, the dead edge width and the detector thickness were modified to investigate their influence on the detector depletion at the edge and on its internal electric field distribution in order to optimize the layout parameters. Simulations indicate that the number of guard rings can be reduced by a few hundred microns with respect to the layout used for the present ATLAS sensors, with a corresponding extension of the active area of the sensors. A study of the inter-pixel capacitance and of the capacitance between the implants and the high-voltage contact as a function of several parameters affecting the geometr...

  1. Development of n-in-p silicon planar pixel sensors and flip-chip modules for very high radiation environments

    Unno, Y.; Ikegami, Y.; Terada, S.; Mitsui, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Ishida, A.; Ishihara, M.; Inuzuka, T.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Kondo, T.; Kimura, N.; Nakano, I.; Nagai, K.; Takashima, R.; Tojo, J.; Yorita, K.

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we present R&D of n-in-p pixel sensors, aiming for a very high radiation environment up to a fluence of 10 16 n eq/cm 2. To fabricate these sensors, two batches with different mask sets were employed: the first resulted in pixel sensors compatible with the ATLAS pixel readout frontend chip called FE-I3, and the second in FE-I3 and a new frontend chip, FE-I4, compatible sensors; small diodes were employed to investigate the width from the active diode to the dicing edge and the guard rings. Tests involving the diodes showed that the strong increase of leakage current was attributed to the edge current when the lateral depletion zone reaches the dicing edge and the lateral depletion along the silicon surface was correlated with the 'field' width. The onset was observed at a voltage of 1000 V when the width was equal to ˜400 μm. The pixel sensors that were diced at a width of 450 μm could successfully maintain a bias voltage of 1000 V. Hybrid flip-chip pixel modules with dummy and real chips were also fabricated. Lead (PbSn) solder bump bonding proved to be successful. However, lead-free (SnAg) solder bump bonding requires further optimization.

  2. Error Resilient Image Communication with Chaotic Pixel Interleaving for Wireless Camera Sensors

    Duran-Faundez, Cristian; Lecuire, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    New applications of wireless sensor networks require vision capabilities. Considering the high loss rates found in sensor networks, and the limited hardware resources of current sensor nodes, low-complexity robust image transmission must be implemented, avoiding as much as possible the need for retransmission or redundancy. In this paper we propose a pixel interleaving scheme based in Torus Automorphisms, thus, neighboring pixels are transmitted in different packets. Hence, if packets are los...

  3. High Speed, Radiation Hard CMOS Pixel Sensors for Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Contarato, Devis; Denes, Peter; Doering, Dionisio; Joseph, John; Krieger, Brad

    CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors are currently being established as the technology of choice for new generation digital imaging systems in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). A careful sensor design that couples μm-level pixel pitches with high frame rate readout and radiation hardness to very high electron doses enables the fabrication of direct electron detectors that are quickly revolutionizing high-resolution TEM imaging in material science and molecular biology. This paper will review the principal characteristics of this novel technology and its advantages over conventional, optically-coupled cameras, and retrace the sensor development driven by the Transmission Electron Aberration corrected Microscope (TEAM) project at the LBNL National Center for Electron Microscopy (NCEM), illustrating in particular the imaging capabilities enabled by single electron detection at high frame rate. Further, the presentation will report on the translation of the TEAM technology to a finer feature size process, resulting in a sensor with higher spatial resolution and superior radiation tolerance currently serving as the baseline for a commercial camera system.

  4. Characterization and performance studies of high-voltage CMOS based pixel sensors

    Smaranda, Dumitru Dan

    2015-01-01

    The high luminosity upgrade of the LHC will push the limits for detectors, specially the silicon trackers which are closest to the interaction point. The ATLAS CMOS Sensor R&D efort is investigating a new technology using high-voltage CMOS processes for producing pixel and strip sensors. In contrast to the currently used technology these devices implement active electronics on the sensor itself, offering a multitude of tuning parameters for achieving the best performance. My summer project revolved around characterising existing samples along with assembling and debugging hardware required for their improvement and functionality. Other tasks involved writing communication protocols using pyBAR to remotely control injection circuitry on a GPAC card, and helping various members of the group with data collection and analysis. Through the summer student programme I have had the opportunity to be part of a vibrant scientic community at the forefront of research, to create bonds with fellow students from univ...

  5. Development of a highly pixelated direct charge sensor, Topmetal-I, for ionizing radiation imaging

    Fan, Yan; Huang, Guangming; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Pei, Hua; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Dong; Wang, Zhen; Xiao, Le; Yang, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Using industrial standard 0.35{\\mu}m CMOS Integrated Circuit process, we realized a highly pixelated sensor that directly collects charge via metal nodes placed on the top of each pixel and forms two dimensional images of charge cloud distribution. The first version, Topmetal-I, features a 64x64 pixel array of 80{\\mu}m pitch size. Direct charge calibration reveals an average capacitance of 210fF per pixel. The charge collection noise is near the thermal noise limit. With the readout, individual pixel channels exhibit a most probable equivalent noise charge of 330e-.

  6. 1T Pixel Using Floating-Body MOSFET for CMOS Image Sensors

    Guo-Neng Lu; Arnaud Tournier; François Roy; Benoît Deschamps

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-transistor pixel for CMOS image sensors (CIS). It is a floating-body MOSFET structure, which is used as photo-sensing device and source-follower transistor, and can be controlled to store and evacuate charges. Our investigation into this 1T pixel structure includes modeling to obtain analytical description of conversion gain. Model validation has been done by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental results. On the other hand, the 1T pixel structure has been impl...

  7. Characterization of thin irradiated epitaxial silicon sensors for the CMS phase II pixel 2 upgrade

    The high-luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider foreseen around 2023 resulted in the decision to replace the entire tracking system of the CMS experiment. The new pixel detector will be exposed to severe radiation corresponding to 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence up to φeq ∼ 1016 cm-2 and ionizing dose of ∼ 5 MGy after 3000 fb-1. Thin planar silicon sensors are good candidates to build the pixel detector since the degradation of the signal is less severe than for thicker devices. A study has been carried out in order to characterize highly irradiated planar epitaxial silicon sensors with an active thickness of 100 μm, in addition other silicon materials with a thickness of 200 μm have been studied. The investigation includes pad diodes and strip detectors irradiated up to a fluence of φeq = 1.3 x 1016 cm-2. The diodes have been characterized using laboratory measurements, while measurements have been carried out at the DESY II test beam facility to characterize the charge collection of the strip detectors. In this talk, the results obtained for p-bulk sensors are shown.

  8. A High-Speed CMOS Image Sensor with Global Electronic Shutter Pixels Using Pinned Diodes

    Yasutomi, Keita; Tamura, Toshihiro; Furuta, Masanori; Itoh, Shinya; Kawahito, Shoji

    This paper describes a high-speed CMOS image sensor with a new type of global electronic shutter pixel. A global electronic shutter is necessary for imaging fast-moving objects without motion blur or distortion. The proposed pixel has two potential wells with pinned diode structure for two-stage charge transfer that enables a global electronic shuttering and reset noise canceling. A prototype high-speed image sensor fabricated in 0.18μm standard CMOS image sensor process consists of the proposed pixel array, 12-bit column-parallel cyclic ADC arrays and 192-channel digital outputs. The sensor achieves a good linearity at low-light intensity, demonstrating the perfect charge transfer between two pinned diodes. The input referred noise of the proposed pixel is measured to be 6.3 e-.

  9. Development of Edgeless n-on-p Planar Pixel Sensors for future ATLAS Upgrades

    Bomben, M; Boscardin, M; Bosisio, L; Calderini, G; Chauveau, J; Giacomini, G; La Rosa, A; Marchori, G; Zorzi, N

    2012-01-01

    The development of n-on-p "edgeless" planar pixel sensors being fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), aimed at the upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector for the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), is reported. A characterizing feature of the devices is the reduced dead area at the edge, achieved by adopting the "active edge" technology, based on a deep etched trench, suitably doped to make an ohmic contact to the substrate. The project is presented, along with the active edge process, the sensor design for this first n-on-p production and a selection of simulation results, including the expected charge collection efficiency after radiation fluence of $1 \\times 10^{15} {\\rm n_{eq}}/{\\rm cm}^2$ comparable to those expected at HL-LHC (about ten years of running, with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb$^{-1}$) for the outer pixel layers. We show that, after irradiation, more than 50% of the signal should be collected in the edge region; this confirms the validity of the active edge approach.

  10. Development of edgeless n-on-p planar pixel sensors for future ATLAS upgrades

    Bomben, Marco; Bagolini, Alvise; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Giacomini, Gabriele; La Rosa, Alessandro; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2013-06-01

    The development of n-on-p "edgeless" planar pixel sensors being fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), aimed at the upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector for the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), is reported. A characterizing feature of the devices is the reduced dead area at the edge, achieved by adopting the "active edge" technology, based on a deep etched trench, suitably doped to make an ohmic contact to the substrate. The project is presented, along with the active edge process, the sensor design for this first n-on-p production and a selection of simulation results, including the expected charge collection efficiency after radiation fluence of 1×1015 neq/cm2 comparable to those expected at HL-LHC (about ten years of running, with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1) for the outer pixel layers. We show that, after irradiation and at a bias voltage of 500 V, more than 50% of the signal should be collected in the edge region; this confirms the validity of the active edge approach.

  11. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors Based Detector for High-Energy Particle Tracking%基于CMOS集成有源传感器的新型高能物理粒子轨迹追踪器

    李琰; Yavuz De(g)erli; 纪震

    2009-01-01

    本文研究了一个采用标准0.35μm CMOS工艺制造的新型高能物理粒子轨迹追踪器.这个新型的追踪器运用CMOS有源像素传感器技术(CMOS Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors,MAPS)将信号的探测与处理电路集成在一起,在像素的内部实现了相关双次采样操作(Correlated Doubled Sampling,CDS).实验芯片包含一个128行×32列的像素矩阵,其中,像素的大小为25×25μm2.通过采用放射源55Fe的测定,得到像素的等效输入随机噪声(Temporal Noise)仅为12个电子而固定噪声(Fixed Pattern Noise,FPN)仅为4个电子.传感器的电荷-电压转换系数(Charge-to-Voltage conversion Factor,CVF)为60μV/e-.测试中,芯片的信号读取速度达到了12μs/帧.

  12. Power and area efficient 4-bit column-level ADC in a CMOS pixel sensor for the ILD vertex detector

    Zhang, L.; Morel, F.; Hu-Guo, Ch; Hu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A 48 × 64 pixels prototype CMOS pixel sensor (CPS) integrated with 4-bit column-level, self triggered ADCs for the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (VTX) was developed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation. The ADCs accommodating the pixel read out in a rolling shutter mode complete the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. The design was optimised for power saving at sampling frequency. The prototype sensor is currently at the stage of being started testing and evaluation. So what is described is based on post simulation results rather than test data. This 4-bit ADC dissipates, at a 3-V supply and 6.25-MS/s sampling rate, 486 μW in its inactive mode, which is by far the most frequent. This value rises to 714 μW in case of the active mode. Its footprint amounts to 35 × 545 μm2.

  13. Power and area efficient 4-bit column-level ADC in a CMOS pixel sensor for the ILD vertex detector

    A 48 × 64 pixels prototype CMOS pixel sensor (CPS) integrated with 4-bit column-level, self triggered ADCs for the outer layers of the ILD vertex detector (VTX) was developed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a pixel pitch of 35 μm. The pixel concept combines in-pixel amplification with a correlated double sampling (CDS) operation. The ADCs accommodating the pixel read out in a rolling shutter mode complete the conversion by performing a multi-bit/step approximation. The design was optimised for power saving at sampling frequency. The prototype sensor is currently at the stage of being started testing and evaluation. So what is described is based on post simulation results rather than test data. This 4-bit ADC dissipates, at a 3-V supply and 6.25-MS/s sampling rate, 486 μW in its inactive mode, which is by far the most frequent. This value rises to 714 μW in case of the active mode. Its footprint amounts to 35 × 545 μm2.

  14. 1T Pixel Using Floating-Body MOSFET for CMOS Image Sensors.

    Lu, Guo-Neng; Tournier, Arnaud; Roy, François; Deschamps, Benoît

    2009-01-01

    We present a single-transistor pixel for CMOS image sensors (CIS). It is a floating-body MOSFET structure, which is used as photo-sensing device and source-follower transistor, and can be controlled to store and evacuate charges. Our investigation into this 1T pixel structure includes modeling to obtain analytical description of conversion gain. Model validation has been done by comparing theoretical predictions and experimental results. On the other hand, the 1T pixel structure has been implemented in different configurations, including rectangular-gate and ring-gate designs, and variations of oxidation parameters for the fabrication process. The pixel characteristics are presented and discussed. PMID:22389592

  15. Rad Tolerant CMOS Image Sensor Based on Hole Collection 4T Pixel Pinned Photodiode

    Place, Sébastien; Carrere, Jean-Pierre; Allegret, Stephane; Magnan, Pierre; Goiffon, Vincent; Roy, François

    2012-01-01

    1.4μm pixel pitch CMOS Image sensors based on hole collection pinned photodiode (HPD) have been irradiated with 60Co source. The HPD sensors exhibit much lower dark current degradation than equivalent commercial sensors using an Electron collection Pinned Photodiode (EPD). This hardness improvement is mainly attributed to carrier accumulation near the interfaces induced by the generated positive charges in dielectrics. The pre-eminence of this image sensor based on hole collection pinned phot...

  16. Development of Edgeless n-on-p Planar Pixel Sensors for future ATLAS Upgrades

    Bomben, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of n-on-p “edgeless” planar pixel sensors being fabricated at FBK (Trento, Italy), aimed at the upgrade of the ATLAS Inner Detector for the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), is reported. A characterizing feature of the devices is the reduced dead area at the edge, achieved by adopting the “active edge” technology, based on a deep etched trench, suitably doped to make an ohmic contact to the substrate. The project is presented, along with the active edge process, the sensor design for this first n-on-p production and a selection of simulation results, including the expected charge collection efficiency after radiation fluence of View the MathML source1×1015neq/cm2 comparable to those expected at HL-LHC (about ten years of running, with an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb−1) for the outer pixel layers. We show that, after irradiation and at a bias voltage of 500 V, more than 50% of the signal should be collected in the edge region; this confirms the validity...

  17. Study of planar pixel sensors hardener to radiations for the upgrade of the ATLAS vertex detector

    In this work, we present a study, using TCAD (Technology Computer-Assisted Design) simulation, of the possible methods of designing planar pixel sensors by reducing their inactive area and improving their radiation hardness for use in the Insertable B-Layer (IBL) project and for SLHC upgrade phase for the ATLAS experiment. Different physical models available have been studied to develop a coherent model of radiation damage in silicon that can be used to predict silicon pixel sensor behavior after exposure to radiation. The Multi-Guard Ring Structure, a protection structure used in pixel sensor design was studied to obtain guidelines for the reduction of inactive edges detrimental to detector operation while keeping a good sensor behavior through its lifetime in the ATLAS detector. A campaign of measurement of the sensor process parameters and electrical behavior to validate and calibrate the TCAD simulation models and results are also presented. A model for diode charge collection in highly irradiated environment was developed to explain the high charge collection observed in highly irradiated devices. A simple planar pixel sensor digitization model to be used in test beam and full detector system is detailed. It allows for easy comparison between experimental data and prediction by the various radiation damage models available. The digitizer has been validated using test beam data for unirradiated sensors and can be used to produce the first full scale simulation of the ATLAS detector with the IBL that include sensor effects such as slim edge and thinning of the sensor. (author)

  18. Simulations of 3D-Si sensors for the innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade

    Baselga, Marta; Quirion, David

    2016-01-01

    The LHC is expected to reach luminosities up to 3000fb-1 and the innermost layer of the ATLAS upgrade plans to cope with higher occupancy and to decrease the pixel size. 3D-Si sensors are a good candidate for the innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade since they exhibit good performance under high fluences and the new designs will have smaller pixel size to fulfill the electronics expectations. This paper reports TCAD simulations of the 3D-Si sensors designed at IMB-CNM with non passing-through columns that are being fabricated for the next innermost layer of the ATLAS pixel upgrade, shows the charge collection response before and after irradiation, and the response of 3D-Si sensors located at large $\\eta$ angles.

  19. A reticle size CMOS pixel sensor dedicated to the STAR HFT

    Valin, I.; Hu-Guo, C.; Baudot, J.; Bertolone, G.; Besson, A.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; Dorokhov, A.; Dozière, G.; Dulinski, W.; Gelin, M.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Morel, F.; Pham, H.; Santos, C.; Senyukov, S.; Specht, M.; Voutsinas, G.; Wang, J.; Winter, M.

    2012-01-01

    ULTIMATE is a reticle size CMOS Pixel Sensor (CPS) designed to meet the requirements of the STAR pixel detector (PXL). It includes a pixel array of 928 rows and 960 columns with a 20.7 μm pixel pitch, providing a sensitive area of ~ 3.8 cm2. Based on the sensor designed for the EUDET beam telescope, the device is a binary output sensor with integrated zero suppression circuitry featuring a 320 Mbps data throughput capability. It was fabricated in a 0.35 μm OPTO process early in 2011. The design and preliminary test results, including charged particle detection performances measured at the CERN-SPS, are presented.

  20. A reticle size CMOS pixel sensor dedicated to the STAR HFT

    ULTIMATE is a reticle size CMOS Pixel Sensor (CPS) designed to meet the requirements of the STAR pixel detector (PXL). It includes a pixel array of 928 rows and 960 columns with a 20.7 μm pixel pitch, providing a sensitive area of ∼ 3.8 cm2. Based on the sensor designed for the EUDET beam telescope, the device is a binary output sensor with integrated zero suppression circuitry featuring a 320 Mbps data throughput capability. It was fabricated in a 0.35 μm OPTO process early in 2011. The design and preliminary test results, including charged particle detection performances measured at the CERN-SPS, are presented.

  1. A low-noise CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-

    An, Mangmang; Chen, Chufeng; Gao, Chaosong; Han, Mikyung; Ji, Rong; Li, Xiaoting; Mei, Yuan; Sun, Quan; Sun, Xiangming; Wang, Kai; Xiao, Le; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We report the design and characterization of a CMOS pixel direct charge sensor, Topmetal-II-, fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS Integrated Circuit process. The sensor utilizes exposed metal patches on top of each pixel to directly collect charge. Each pixel contains a low-noise charge-sensitive preamplifier to establish the analog signal and a discriminator with tunable threshold to generate hits. The analog signal from each pixel is accessible through time-shared multiplexing over the entire array. Hits are read out digitally through a column-based priority logic structure. Tests show that the sensor achieved a advantages in low background and low rate-density experiments.

  2. Detection of thermal neutrons with a CMOS pixel sensor for a future dosemeter

    Vanstalle, M.; Husson, D.; Higueret, S.; Le, T. D.; Nourreddine, A. M. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, Univ. of Strasbourg, CNRS, 67037 Strasbourg (France)

    2011-07-01

    The RaMsEs group (Radioprotection et Mesures Environnementales) is developing a new compact device for operational neutron dosimetry. The electronic part of the detector is made of an integrated active pixel sensor, originally designed for tracking in particle physics. This device has useful features for neutrons, such as high detection efficiency for charged particles, good radiation resistance, high readout speed, low power consumption and high rejection of photon background. A good response of the device to fast neutrons has already been demonstrated [1]. In order to test the sensibility of the detector to thermal neutrons, experiments have been carried out with a 512 x 512 pixel CMOS sensor on a californium source moderated with heavy water (Cf.D{sub 2}O) on the Van Gogh irradiator at the LMDN, IRSN, Cadarache (France)). A thin boron converter is used to benefit from the significant cross section of the {sup 10}B (n,{alpha}) {sup 7}Li reaction. Results show a high detection efficiency (around 10{sup -3}) of the device to thermal neutrons. Our measurements are in good agreement with GEANT4 Monte Carlo simulations. (authors)

  3. High-resolution hybrid pixel sensors for the e+e- Tesla linear collider vertex tracker

    In order to fully exploit the physics potential of a future high-energy e+e- linear collider, a Vertex Tracker, providing high-resolution track reconstruction, is required. Hybrid silicon pixel sensors are an attractive option, for the sensor technology, due to their read-out speed and radiation hardness, favoured in the high-rate environment of the TESLA e+e- linear collider design, but have been so far limited by the achievable single point space resolution. In this paper, a conceptual design of the TESLA Vertex Tracker, based on a novel layout of hybrid pixel sensors with interleaved cells to improve their spatial resolution, is presented

  4. Testbeam Measurements with Pixel Sensors for the ATLAS Insertable b-Layer Project

    George, Matthias; Quadt, Arnulf

    During the current long machine shutdown of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN (Geneva), the innermost part of the ATLAS experiment, the pixel detector, is upgraded. The existing ATLAS pixel system is equipped with silicon sensors, organized in three barrel layers and three end cap disks on either side. To cope with the higher instantaneous luminosity in the future and for compensation of radiation damages due to past and near future running time of the experiment, a new fourth pixel detector layer is inserted into the existing system. This additional pixel layer is called “Insertable b-Layer” (IBL). The IBL is a detector system, based on silicon pixel sensors. Due to the smaller radius, compared to all other detectors of the ATLAS experiment, it has to be more radiation tolerant, than e.g. the current pixel layers. Furthermore, a reduced pixel size is necessary to cope with the expected higher particle flux. During the planning phase for the IBL upgrade, three different sensor technologies were comp...

  5. 320×240 Pixels CMOS Digital Image Sensor with Wide Dynamic Range

    FANG Jie; WANG Jing-guang; HONG Zhi-liang

    2004-01-01

    A 320×240 CMOS image sensor is demonstrated,which is implemented by a standard 0.6 μm 2P2M CMOS process.For reducing the chip area,each 2×2-pixel block shares a sample/hold circuit,analog-to-digital converter and 1-b memory.The 2×2 pixel pitch has an area of 40 μm×40 μm and the fill factor is about 16%.While operating at a low frame rate,the sensor dissipates a very low power by power-management circuit making pixel-level comparators in an idle state.A digital correlated double sampling,which eliminates fixed pattern noise,improves SNR of the sensor, and multiple sampling operations make the sensor have a wide dynamic range.

  6. Performance of Edgeless Silicon Pixel Sensors on p-type substrate for the ATLAS High-Luminosity Upgrade

    Bomben, Marco; Boscardin, Maurizio; Bosisio, Luciano; Calderini, Giovanni; Chauveau, Jacques; Ducourthial, Audrey; Giacomini, Gabriele; Marchiori, Giovanni; Zorzi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In view of the LHC upgrade phases towards the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), the ATLAS experiment plans to upgrade the Inner Detector with an all-silicon system. The n-on-p silicon technology is a promising candidate to achieve a large area instrumented with pixel sensors, since it is radiation hard and cost effective. The paper reports on the performance of novel n-on-p edgeless planar pixel sensors produced by FBK-CMM, making use of the active trench for the reduction of the dead area at the periphery of the device. After discussing the sensor technology an overview of the first beam test results will be given.

  7. Active Pixel Sensors for electron microscopy

    Denes, P.; Bussat, J.-M.; Lee, Z.; Radmillovic, V.

    2007-09-01

    The technology used for monolithic CMOS imagers, popular for cell phone cameras and other photographic applications, has been explored for charged particle tracking by the high-energy physics community for several years. This technology also lends itself to certain imaging detector applications in electron microscopy. We have been developing such detectors for several years at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and we and others have shown that this technology can offer excellent point-spread function, direct detection and high readout speed. In this paper, we describe some of the design constraints peculiar to electron microscopy and summarize where such detectors could play a useful role.

  8. Development of thin sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    Beimforde, Michael

    2010-07-19

    To extend the discovery potential of the experiments at the LHC accelerator a two phase luminosity upgrade towards the super LHC (sLHC) with a maximum instantaneous luminosity of 10{sup 35}/cm{sup 2}s{sup 1} is planned. Retaining the reconstruction efficiency and spatial resolution of the ATLAS tracking detector at the sLHC, new pixel modules have to be developed that have a higher granularity, can be placed closer to the interaction point, and allow for a cost-efficient coverage of a larger pixel detector volume compared to the present one. The reduced distance to the interaction point calls for more compact modules that have to be radiation hard to supply a sufficient charge collection efficiency up to an integrated particle fluence equivalent to that of (1-2).10{sup 16} 1-MeV-neutrons per square centimeter (n{sub eq}/cm{sup 2}). Within this thesis a new module concept was partially realised and evaluated for the operation within an ATLAS pixel detector at the sLHC. This module concept utilizes a novel thin sensor production process for thin n-in-p silicon sensors which potentially allow for a higher radiation hardness at a reduced cost. Furthermore, the new 3D-integration technology ICV-SLID is explored which will allow for increasing the active area of the modules from 71% to about 90% and hence, for employing the modules in the innermost layer of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector. A semiconductor simulation and measurements of irradiated test sensors are used to optimize the implantation parameters for the inter-pixel isolation of the thin sensors. These reduce the crosstalk between the pixel channels and should allow for operating the sensors during the whole runtime of the experiment without causing junction breakdowns. The characterization of the first production of sensors with active thicknesses of 75 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m proved that thin pixel sensors can be successfully produced with the new process technology. Thin pad sensors with a reduced inactive

  9. Development of thin sensors and a novel interconnection technology for the upgrade of the ATLAS pixel system

    To extend the discovery potential of the experiments at the LHC accelerator a two phase luminosity upgrade towards the super LHC (sLHC) with a maximum instantaneous luminosity of 1035/cm2s1 is planned. Retaining the reconstruction efficiency and spatial resolution of the ATLAS tracking detector at the sLHC, new pixel modules have to be developed that have a higher granularity, can be placed closer to the interaction point, and allow for a cost-efficient coverage of a larger pixel detector volume compared to the present one. The reduced distance to the interaction point calls for more compact modules that have to be radiation hard to supply a sufficient charge collection efficiency up to an integrated particle fluence equivalent to that of (1-2).1016 1-MeV-neutrons per square centimeter (neq/cm2). Within this thesis a new module concept was partially realised and evaluated for the operation within an ATLAS pixel detector at the sLHC. This module concept utilizes a novel thin sensor production process for thin n-in-p silicon sensors which potentially allow for a higher radiation hardness at a reduced cost. Furthermore, the new 3D-integration technology ICV-SLID is explored which will allow for increasing the active area of the modules from 71% to about 90% and hence, for employing the modules in the innermost layer of the upgraded ATLAS pixel detector. A semiconductor simulation and measurements of irradiated test sensors are used to optimize the implantation parameters for the inter-pixel isolation of the thin sensors. These reduce the crosstalk between the pixel channels and should allow for operating the sensors during the whole runtime of the experiment without causing junction breakdowns. The characterization of the first production of sensors with active thicknesses of 75 μm and 150 μm proved that thin pixel sensors can be successfully produced with the new process technology. Thin pad sensors with a reduced inactive edge demonstrate that the active sensor

  10. Development of Fast and High Precision CMOS Pixel Sensors for an ILC Vertex Detector

    Hu-Guo, Christine; Collaboration, IPHC; Collaboration, IRFU

    2010-01-01

    The development of CMOS pixel sensors with column parallel read-out and integrated zero-suppression has resulted in a full size, nearly 1 Megapixel, prototype with ~100 \\mu s read-out time. Its performances are quite close to the ILD vertex detector specifications, showing that the sensor architecture can presumably be evolved to meet these specifications exactly. Starting from the existing architecture and achieved performances, the paper will expose the details of how the sensor will be evo...