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Sample records for active kinematic constraint

  1. GNSS Precise Kinematic Positioning for Multiple Kinematic Stations Based on A Priori Distance Constraints

    He, Kaifei; Xu, Tianhe; Förste, Christoph; Petrovic, Svetozar; Barthelmes, Franz; Jiang, Nan; Flechtner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    When applying the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) for precise kinematic positioning in airborne and shipborne gravimetry, multiple GNSS receiving equipment is often fixed mounted on the kinematic platform carrying the gravimetry instrumentation. Thus, the distances among these GNSS antennas are known and invariant. This information can be used to improve the accuracy and reliability of the state estimates. For this purpose, the known distances between the antennas are applied as a priori constraints within the state parameters adjustment. These constraints are introduced in such a way that their accuracy is taken into account. To test this approach, GNSS data of a Baltic Sea shipborne gravimetric campaign have been used. The results of our study show that an application of distance constraints improves the accuracy of the GNSS kinematic positioning, for example, by about 4 mm for the radial component. PMID:27043580

  2. Inverse Kinematic Control of Humanoids Under Joint Constraints

    Inhyeok Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an inverse kinematic control framework for a position controlled humanoid robot with bounded joint range, velocity, and acceleration limits. The proposed framework comprises two components, an inverse kinematics algorithm and a damping controller. The proposed IKTC (Inverse Kinematics with Task Corrections algorithm is based on the second order task‐ priority method in order to ensure the velocity‐continuity of the solution. When the minimum norm solution exceeds the joint bounds, the problem is treated as a quadratic optimization problem with box constraints; an optimal task correction that lets the solution satisfy the constraints is found. In order to express the three kinds of joint constraints as a second order box constraint, a novel method is also proposed. The joint stiffness of a position controlled humanoid robot necessitates a damping controller to attenuate jolts caused by repeated contacts. We design a damping controller by using an inverted pendulum model with a compliant joint that takes into account the compliance around the foot. By using ZMP [20] measurement, the proposed damping controller is applicable not only in SSP (Single Support Phase but also in DSP (Double Support Phase. The validity of the proposed methods is shown by imitating a captured whole‐body human motion with a position controlled humanoid robot.

  3. Updated Kinematic Constraints on a Dark Disk

    Kramer, Eric David; Randall, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    We update the method of the Holmberg & Flynn study, including an updated model of the Milky Way’s interstellar gas, radial velocities, an updated reddening map, and a careful statistical analysis, to bound the allowed surface density and scale height of a dark disk. We pay careful attention to the self-consistency of the model, including the gravitational influence of the dark disk on other disk components, and to the net velocity of the tracer stars. We find that the data set exhibits a non-zero bulk velocity in the vertical direction as well as a displacement from the expected location at the Galactic midplane. If not properly accounted for, these features would bias the bound toward low dark disk mass. We therefore perform our analysis two ways. In the first, using the traditional method, we subtract the mean velocity and displacement from the tracers’ phase space distributions. In the second method, we perform a non-equilibrium version of the HF method to derive a bound on the dark disk parameters for an oscillating tracer distribution. Despite updates in the mass model and reddening map, the traditional method results remain consistent with those of HF2000. The second, non-equilibrium technique, however, allows a surface density as large as 14 {M}ȯ {{{pc}}}-2 (and as small as 0 {M}ȯ {{{pc}}}-2), demonstrating much weaker constraints. For both techniques, the bound on surface density is weaker for larger scale height. In future analyses of Gaia data it will be important to verify whether the tracer populations are in equilibrium.

  4. Adding Image Constraints to Inverse Kinematics for Human Motion Capture

    Jaume-i-Capó Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study human motion in biomechanical applications, a critical component is to accurately obtain the 3D joint positions of the user's body. Computer vision and inverse kinematics are used to achieve this objective without markers or special devices attached to the body. The problem of these systems is that the inverse kinematics is "blinded" with respect to the projection of body segments into the images used by the computer vision algorithms. In this paper, we present how to add image constraints to inverse kinematics in order to estimate human motion. Specifically, we explain how to define a criterion to use images in order to guide the posture reconstruction of the articulated chain. Tests with synthetic images show how the scheme performs well in an ideal situation. In order to test its potential in real situations, more experiments with task specific image sequences are also presented. By means of a quantitative study of different sequences, the results obtained show how this approach improves the performance of inverse kinematics in this application.

  5. Constraints on the active tectonics of the Friuli/NW Slovenia area from CGPS measurements and three-dimensional kinematic modeling

    Bechtold, M.; Battaglia, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Zuliani, D.

    2009-03-01

    We use site velocities from continuous GPS (CGPS) observations and kinematic modeling to investigate the active tectonics of the Friuli/NW Slovenia area. Data from 42 CGPS stations around the Adriatic indicate an oblique collision, with southern Friuli moving NNW toward northern Friuli at the relative speed of 1.6 to 2.2 mm/a. We investigate the active tectonics using 3DMove, a three-dimensional kinematic model tool. The model consists of one indenter-shaped fault plane that approximates the Adriatic plate boundary. Using the "fault-parallel flow" deformation algorithm, we move the hanging wall along the fault plane in the direction indicated by the GPS velocities. The resulting strain field is used for structural interpretation. We identify a pattern of coincident strain maxima and high vorticity that correlates well with groups of hypocenters of major earthquakes (including their aftershocks) and indicates the orientation of secondary, active faults. The pattern reveals structures both parallel and perpendicular to the strike of the primary fault. In the eastern sector, which shows more complex tectonics, these two sets of faults probably form an interacting strike-slip system.

  6. Multiple populations in globular clusters: constraints from kinematics and dynamics

    Hénault-Brunet, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We discuss constraints on the formation of multiple populations in globular clusters (GCs) imposed by their present-day kinematics (velocity dispersion and anisotropy) and spatial distribution. We argue that the observational evidence collected so far in the outer parts of clusters is generally consistent with an enriched population forming more centrally concentrated compared to the primordial population, in agreement with all the scenarios proposed to date (in some cases by design), but not sufficient to favour a particular scenario. We highlight that the differential rotation of subpopulations is a signature that may provide crucial new constraints and allow us to distinguish between various scenarios. Finally, we discuss the spatial distribution of subpopulations in the central regions of GCs and speculate that mass segregation between subpopulations may be due to a difference in their binary fraction.

  7. Resolving kinematic redundancy with constraints using the FSP (Full Space Parameterization) approach

    A solution method is presented for the motion planning and control of kinematically redundant serial-link manipulators in the presence of motion constraints such as joint limits or obstacles. Given a trajectory for the end-effector, the approach utilizes the recently proposed Full Space Parameterization (FSP) method to generate a parameterized expression for the entire space of solutions of the unconstrained system. At each time step, a constrained optimization technique is then used to analytically find the specific joint motion solution that satisfies the desired task objective and all the constraints active during the time step. The method is applicable to systems operating in a priori known environments or in unknown environments with sensor-based obstacle detection. The derivation of the analytical solution is first presented for a general type of kinematic constraint and is then applied to the problem of motion planning for redundant manipulators with joint limits and obstacle avoidance. Sample results using planar and 3-D manipulators with various degrees of redundancy are presented to illustrate the efficiency and wide applicability of constrained motion planning using the FSP approach

  8. A Novel Analytical Solution Method for Constraint Forces of the Kinematic Pair and Its Applications

    Changjian Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Constraint forces of the kinematic pair are the basis of the kinematics and dynamics analysis of mechanisms. Exploring the solution method for constraint forces is a hot issue in the mechanism theory fields. Based on the observation method and the theory of reciprocal screw system, the solution method of reciprocal screw system is improved and its solution procedures become easier. This method is also applied to the solution procedure of the constraint force. The specific expressions of the constraint force are represented by the reciprocal screw system of twist. The transformation formula of twist under different coordinates is given and it make the expression of the twist of kinematic pair more facility. A slider-crank mechanism and a single loop spatial RUSR mechanism are taken as examples. It confirms that this method can be used to solve the constraint force of the planar and spatial mechanism.

  9. New GPS constraints on the kinematics of the Apennines subduction

    Devoti, R.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Riguzzi, F.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione CNT, Roma, Italia; Cuffaro, M.; Igag, CNR; Doglioni, C.; La Sapienza University

    2008-01-01

    We present the velocity field of the Italian area derived from continuous GPS observations from 2003 to 2007. The GPS sites were installed by different institutions and for different purposes; they cover the whole country with a mean inter-site distance of about 60 km and provide a valuable source of data to map the present day kinematics of the region. The absolute ITRF2005 rotation poles and rates of Eurasia, Africa and Adriatic plates are estimated, to study the kinematics a...

  10. Stellar Kinematic Constraints on Galactic Structure Models Revisited: Bar and Spiral Arm Resonances

    Antoja, T; Pichardo, B; Moreno, E; Figueras, F; Fernández, D

    2009-01-01

    We study the phase space available to the local stellar distribution using a Galactic potential consistent with several recent observational constraints. We find that the induced phase space structure has several observable consequences. The spiral arm contribution to the kinematic structure in the solar neighborhood may be as important as the one produced by the Galactic bar. We suggest that some of the stellar kinematic groups in the solar neighborhood, like the Hercules structure and the kinematic branches, can be created by the dynamical resonances of self-gravitating spiral arms and not exclusively by the Galactic bar. A structure coincident with the Arcturus kinematic group is developed when a hot stellar disk population is considered, which introduces a new perspective on the interpretation of its extragalactic origin. A bar-related resonant mechanism can modify this kinematic structure.We show that particles in the dark matter disk-like structure predicted by recent LCDM galaxy formation experiments, ...

  11. Three-dimensional ocular kinematics during eccentric rotations: evidence for functional rather than mechanical constraints

    Angelaki, Dora E.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that the translational vestibuloocular reflex (TVOR) follows a three-dimensional (3D) kinematic behavior that is more similar to visually guided eye movements, like pursuit, rather than the rotational VOR (RVOR). Accordingly, TVOR rotation axes tilted with eye position toward an eye-fixed reference frame rather than staying relatively fixed in the head like in the RVOR. This difference arises because, contrary to the RVOR where peripheral image stability is functionally important, the TVOR like pursuit and saccades cares to stabilize images on the fovea. During most natural head and body movements, both VORs are simultaneously activated. In the present study, we have investigated in rhesus monkeys the 3D kinematics of the combined VOR during yaw rotation about eccentric axes. The experiments were motivated by and quantitatively compared with the predictions of two distinct hypotheses. According to the first (fixed-rule) hypothesis, an eye-position-dependent torsion is computed downstream of a site for RVOR/TVOR convergence, and the combined VOR axis would tilt through an angle that is proportional to gaze angle and independent of the relative RVOR/TVOR contributions to the total eye movement. This hypothesis would be consistent with the recently postulated mechanical constraints imposed by extraocular muscle pulleys. According to the second (image-stabilization) hypothesis, an eye-position-dependent torsion is computed separately for the RVOR and the TVOR components, implying a processing that takes place upstream of a site for RVOR/TVOR convergence. The latter hypothesis is based on the functional requirement that the 3D kinematics of the combined VOR should be governed by the need to keep images stable on the fovea with slip on the peripheral retina being dependent on the different functional goals of the two VORs. In contrast to the fixed-rule hypothesis, the data demonstrated a variable eye-position-dependent torsion for the

  12. Online Minimum-acceleration Tra jectory Planning with the Kinematic Constraints

    WANG Ying-Shi; SUN Lei; ZHOU Lu; LIU Jing-Tai

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach based on a type of simplified motion planning (SMP) is presented in this paper to generate online trajectory for manipulator systems with multiple degrees of freedom (DOFs). The key issue is to find minimum-acceleration trajectory planning (MATP) to optimize the arm motion to reduce disturbance. Moreover, necessary and sufficient conditions for solution0s existence subject to all the kinematic constraints of joint position, velocity, acceleration and jerk are devised. Besides, this new method can be activated online from the arbitrary initial state to the arbitrary target state so that it enables the robot to change the original path at any time. Finally, the approach is applied to a real humanoid robot arm with seven DOFs to show its efficiency.

  13. Kinematic Constraints on Absorption of Ultraintense Laser Light

    Levy, M C; Tabak, M; Libby, S B; Baring, M G

    2013-01-01

    We derive upper and lower bounds on the absorption of ultraintense laser light by solids as a function of fundamental laser and plasma parameters. These limits emerge naturally from constrained optimization techniques applied to a generalization of the laser-solid interaction as a strongly-driven, relativistic, two degree of freedom Maxwell-Vlasov system. We demonstrate that the extrema and the phase-space-averaged absorption must always increase with intensity, and increase most rapidly when $10^{18} < I_L \\ \\lambda_L^2 < 10^{20}$ W $\\mu$m$^2/$cm$^{2}$. Our results indicate that the fundamental empirical trend towards increasing fractional absorption with irradiance therefore reflects the underlying phase space constraints.

  14. Human Hand Kinematic Modeling Based on Robotic Concepts for Digit Animation with Dynamic Constraints

    Tondu, Bertrand

    The recent development of highly anthropomorphic avatars in computer graphics has emphasized the importance of accurate hand kinematic models. Although kinematic methods derived from robotics have recently been applied to the modeling of hands, we consider that original/new and relevant results can be brought into play with the use of more advanced applications of robotic techniques to human hand kinematic modeling. Our chapter analyses some of these questions both in the non-differential and differential fields. More specifically, we study how to integrate the peculiar natural digit movement constraints into robotics-based inverse kinematic modeling. As a result, we propose an original approach based on an interpretation of each joint dynamic constraint as a linear joint synergy. This leads to defining the considered digit as a serial chain kinematically redundant in position and reducing the dimension of its joint space by associated joint synergies. The method is applied to the Cartesian positioning simulation of a 4 d.o.f. index model; a comparison with a Jacobian pseudo-inverse-based approach emphasizes its relevance.

  15. Impact mitigation using kinematic constraints and the full space parameterization method

    Morgansen, K.A.; Pin, F.G.

    1996-02-01

    A new method for mitigating unexpected impact of a redundant manipulator with an object in its environment is presented. Kinematic constraints are utilized with the recently developed method known as Full Space Parameterization (FSP). System performance criterion and constraints are changed at impact to return the end effector to the point of impact and halt the arm. Since large joint accelerations could occur as the manipulator is halted, joint acceleration bounds are imposed to simulate physical actuator limitations. Simulation results are presented for the case of a simple redundant planar manipulator.

  16. Collective behaviour of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints

    Ratushna, Valeriya Igorivna

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I considered the dynamics of self-propelling particles (SPP). Flocking of living organisms like birds, fishes, ants, bacteria etc. is an area where the theory of the collective behaviour of SPP can be applied. One can often see how these animals develop coherent motion, amazing the observer by the diversity of its forms and shapes. In this thesis a hydrodynamic model with so-called kinematic constraints, which are imposed on the orientations of the velocities of the particles, ...

  17. Hydrodynamic model for a system of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints

    Kulinskii, V. L.; Ratushnaya, V. I.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.; Bedeaux, D.

    2005-07-01

    We consider the dynamics of systems of self-propelling particles with kinematic constraints on the velocities. A continuum model for a discrete algorithm used in works by Vicsek et al. is proposed. For a case of planar geometry, finite-flocking behavior is obtained. The circulation of the velocity field is found not to be conserved. The stability of ordered motion with respect to noise is discussed.

  18. Constraint Study for a Hand Exoskeleton: Human Hand Kinematics and Dynamics

    Fai Chen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, the number of projects studying the human hand from the robotic point of view has increased rapidly, due to the growing interest in academic and industrial applications. Nevertheless, the complexity of the human hand given its large number of degrees of freedom (DoF within a significantly reduced space requires an exhaustive analysis, before proposing any applications. The aim of this paper is to provide a complete summary of the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of the human hand as a preliminary step towards the development of hand devices such as prosthetic/robotic hands and exoskeletons imitating the human hand shape and functionality. A collection of data and constraints relevant to hand movements is presented, and the direct and inverse kinematics are solved for all the fingers as well as the dynamics; anthropometric data and dynamics equations allow performing simulations to understand the behavior of the finger.

  19. Stability properties of the collective stationary motion of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints

    Ratushnaya, V I [Colloid and Interface Science group, LIC, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Bedeaux, D [Colloid and Interface Science group, LIC, Leiden University, PO Box 9502, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Kulinskii, V L [Department for Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Dvoryanskaya 2, 65026 Odessa (Ukraine); Zvelindovsky, A V [Department of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-09

    In our previous papers we proposed a continuum model for the dynamics of the systems of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints on the velocities. We have determined a class of stationary solutions of this hydrodynamic model and have shown that two types of stationary flow, linear and axially symmetric (vortical) flow, are possible. In this paper we consider the stability properties of these stationary flows. We show, using a linear stability analysis, that the linear solutions are neutrally stable with respect to the imposed velocity and density perturbations. A similar analysis of the stability of the vortical solution is found to be not conclusive.

  20. Stability properties of the collective stationary motion of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints

    Ratushnaya, V. I.; Bedeaux, D.; Kulinskii, V. L.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.

    2007-03-01

    In our previous papers we proposed a continuum model for the dynamics of the systems of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints on the velocities. We have determined a class of stationary solutions of this hydrodynamic model and have shown that two types of stationary flow, linear and axially symmetric (vortical) flow, are possible. In this paper we consider the stability properties of these stationary flows. We show, using a linear stability analysis, that the linear solutions are neutrally stable with respect to the imposed velocity and density perturbations. A similar analysis of the stability of the vortical solution is found to be not conclusive.

  1. Stability properties of the collective stationary motion of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints

    Ratushnaya, V I; Kulinskii, V L; Zvelindovsky, A V

    2006-01-01

    In our previous papers we proposed a continuum model for the dynamics of the systems of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints on the velocities. We have determined a class of stationary solutions of this hydrodynamic model and have shown that two types of stationary flow, linear and radially symmetric (vortical) flow, are possible. In this paper we consider the stability properties of these stationary flows. We show, using a linear stability analysis, that the linear solutions are neutrally stable with respect to the imposed velocity and density perturbations. A similar analysis of the stability of the vortical solution is found to be not conclusive.

  2. Tracking the motion of hidden segments using kinematic constraints and Kalman filtering.

    Halvorsen, Kjartan; Johnston, Christopher; Back, Willem; Stokes, Virgil; Lanshammar, Håkan

    2008-02-01

    Motion capture for biomechanical applications involves in almost all cases sensors or markers that are applied to the skin of the body segments of interest. This paper deals with the problem of estimating the movement of connected skeletal segments from 3D position data of markers attached to the skin. The use of kinematic constraints has been shown previously to reduce the error in estimated segment movement that are due to skin and muscles moving with respect to the underlying segment. A kinematic constraint reduces the number of degrees of freedom between two articulating segments. Moreover, kinematic constraints can help reveal the movement of some segments when the 3D marker data otherwise are insufficient. Important cases include the human ankle complex and the phalangeal segments of the horse, where the movement of small segments is almost completely hidden from external observation by joint capsules and ligaments. This paper discusses the use of an extended Kalman filter for tracking a system of connected segments. The system is modeled using rigid segments connected by simplified joint models. The position and orientation of the mechanism are specified by a set of generalized coordinates corresponding to the mechanism's degrees of motion. The generalized coordinates together with their first time derivatives can be used as the state vector of a state space model governing the kinematics of the mechanism. The data collected are marker trajectories from skin-mounted markers, and the state vector is related to the position of the markers through a nonlinear function. The Jacobian of this function is derived. The practical use of the method is demonstrated on a model of the distal part of the limb of the horse. Monte Carlo simulations of marker data for a two-segment system connected by a joint with three degrees of freedom indicate that the proposed method gives significant improvement over a method, which does not make use of the joint constraint, but the

  3. A Smooth Tour Construction Approach for a Mobile Robot with Kinematic Constraints

    Ahmet Yazici

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mobile robots are increasingly used for service-like applications in which the service points are known and the mobile robot starts from a starting location, visits all the service points requested and returns to the starting location. The tour construction problem in these applications can be treated as a Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP. Classical tour construction algorithms that are proposed for the TSP find tours do not consider robot kinematic constraints. These tours may have sharp turns at some service points. When a mobile robot follows such a tour, it stops, turns and speeds up again. Therefore, the robots waste a considerable amount of power and time. In these cases, tour smoothing can be used to overcome this problem. However, smoothing an existing tour may result in unnecessarily long tours. In this study, a Smooth Tour Construction (STC approach is proposed for mobile robots with kinematic constraints. The STC approach considers tour construction and tour smoothing concurrently. The logic behind the tour construction part of the approach is based on the Savings Algorithm (SA. The tour smoothing is based on Dubins’ arc-line approach. Experiments are conducted for P3-DX robots in a laboratory environment. Comparisons are also drawn with various tour smoothing algorithms in simulation environments to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed STC approach.

  4. Sampling-based exploration of folded state of a protein under kinematic and geometric constraints

    Yao, Peggy

    2011-10-04

    Flexibility is critical for a folded protein to bind to other molecules (ligands) and achieve its functions. The conformational selection theory suggests that a folded protein deforms continuously and its ligand selects the most favorable conformations to bind to. Therefore, one of the best options to study protein-ligand binding is to sample conformations broadly distributed over the protein-folded state. This article presents a new sampler, called kino-geometric sampler (KGS). This sampler encodes dominant energy terms implicitly by simple kinematic and geometric constraints. Two key technical contributions of KGS are (1) a robotics-inspired Jacobian-based method to simultaneously deform a large number of interdependent kinematic cycles without any significant break-up of the closure constraints, and (2) a diffusive strategy to generate conformation distributions that diffuse quickly throughout the protein folded state. Experiments on four very different test proteins demonstrate that KGS can efficiently compute distributions containing conformations close to target (e.g., functional) conformations. These targets are not given to KGS, hence are not used to bias the sampling process. In particular, for a lysine-binding protein, KGS was able to sample conformations in both the intermediate and functional states without the ligand, while previous work using molecular dynamics simulation had required the ligand to be taken into account in the potential function. Overall, KGS demonstrates that kino-geometric constraints characterize the folded subset of a protein conformation space and that this subset is small enough to be approximated by a relatively small distribution of conformations. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Kinematic adaptations in sprint acceleration performances without and with the constraint of holding a field hockey stick.

    Wdowski, Maximilian M; Gittoes, Marianne J R

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the technique adaptations made when performing sprint-based tasks without (free condition) and with (constrained condition) the constraints of carrying a field hockey stick. Three free and three constrained maximal sprint accelerations were performed by 18 experienced university male field hockey players (age = 20 +/- 1 years, body mass = 73.3 +/- 7.1 kg, and stature = 1.78 +/- 0.05 m). An automatic motion analysis system tracked sagittal plane active marker locations (200 Hz). M sprint velocity during the 18-22 m (free: 8.03 +/- 0.43 m/s; constrained: 7.93 +/- 0.36 m/s) interval was significantly (p = 0.03) different between free and constrained conditions. While the M stride length and stride frequency was similar between free and constrained conditions in the 2-13 m capture volume, the free condition elicited a 0.10 m/s faster (p = 0.03) stride velocity. Further significant differences were found between free and constrained kinematic profiles (p < or = 0.05) for the hip angular velocity at touchdown during the 2-12 m interval of the sprints and in the overall sprint technique coordination between free and constrained conditions. Performance and technique adaptations indicated that sprint-training protocols for field sports should integrate specific equipment constraints to ensure explicit replication of the mechanical demands of the skills underpinning superior performance. PMID:23898687

  6. The overmassive black hole in NGC 1277: new constraints from molecular gas kinematics

    Scharwächter, J.; Combes, F.; Salomé, P.; Sun, M.; Krips, M.

    2016-04-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) emission from NGC 1277, a lenticular galaxy in the Perseus Cluster. NGC 1277 has previously been proposed to host an overmassive black hole (BH) compared to the galaxy bulge luminosity (mass), based on stellar-kinematic measurements. The CO(1-0) emission, observed with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) using both, a more compact (2.9-arcsec resolution) and a more extended (1-arcsec resolution) configuration, is likely to originate from the dust lane encompassing the galaxy nucleus at a distance of 0.9 arcsec (˜320 pc). The double-horned CO(1-0) profile found at 2.9-arcsec resolution traces 1.5 × 108 M⊙ of molecular gas, likely orbiting in the dust lane at ˜550 km s-1, which suggests a total enclosed mass of ˜2 × 1010 M⊙. At 1-arcsec resolution, the CO(1-0) emission appears spatially resolved along the dust lane in east-west direction, though at a low signal-to-noise ratio. In agreement with the previous stellar-kinematic measurements, the CO(1-0) kinematics is found to be consistent with an ˜1.7 × 1010 M⊙ BH for a stellar mass-to-light ratio of M/LV = 6.3, while a less massive BH of ˜5 × 109 M⊙ is possible when assuming a larger M/LV = 10. While the molecular gas reservoir may be associated with a low level of star formation activity, the extended 2.6-mm continuum emission is likely to originate from a weak AGN, possibly characterized by an inverted radio-to-millimetre spectral energy distribution. Literature radio and X-ray data indicate that the BH in NGC 1277 is also overmassive with respect to the Fundamental Plane of BH activity.

  7. Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity

    Andrew David Vigotsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

  8. Collective Behavior of Self Propelling Particles with Kinematic Constraints; The relation between the discrete and the continuous description

    Ratushnaya, V. I.; Bedeaux, D.; Kulinskii, V. L.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    In two papers we proposed a continuum model for the dynamics of systems of self propelling particles with kinematic constraints on the velocities and discussed some of its properties. The model aims to be analogous to a discrete algorithm used in works by T. Vicsek et al. In this paper we derive the continuous hydrodynamic model from the discrete description. The similarities and differences between the resulting model and the hydrodynamic model postulated in our previous papers are discussed...

  9. Geotectonic Elements, Stuctural Constraints and Current Problems for a Kinematic Reconstruction of the Caribbean Plate Margins during the Cretaceous.

    Giunta, G.

    2001-12-01

    blocks; (2) the sinking direction of the previously subducted oceanic slabs; (3) the locations of and relationships between the intraoceanic and sub-continental subduction zones. Taking this points into account and on the basis of the new geological constraints, some alternative tectonic models can be elaborated, each of which needs kinematic releases (strike-slip faults) allowing either the simultaneous activation of intraoceanic and sub-continental collisions, or the progressive insertion by tectonic erosion of the rifted continental portions in the subduction complexes. In a whole transpressional regime the different subduction zones can be inferred to dip either eastward with a later flip westward below the oceanic plateau, or continuously westward; this last case is a better fit for the Northern margin than the Southern margin of the Caribbean plate, where a much more complicated kinematic mechanism should be envisaged. * Researches carried-out in the framework of the IGCP 433 "Caribbean Plate Tectonics".

  10. A four-dimensional lambda CDM-type cosmological model induced from higher dimensions using a kinematical constraint

    Dereli, Tekin; Akarsu, Özgür

    2013-01-01

    arXiv:1201.4545v3 [gr-qc] 31 Mar 2013 A four-dimensional CDM-type cosmological model induced from higher dimensions using a kinematical constraint Özgür Akarsu, Tekin Dereli Department of Physics, Koç University, 34450 Sarıyer, İstanbul, Turkey Abstract A class of cosmological solutions of higher dimensional Einstein field equations with the energy-momentum tensor of a homogeneous, isotropic fluid as the source are considered with an anisotropic metric that includes t...

  11. Hydrodynamic Model for the System of Self Propelling Particles with Conservative Kinematic Constraints; Two dimensional stationary solutions

    Ratushnaya, V. I.; Kulinskii, V. L.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.; Bedeaux, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider a continuum model for the dynamics of systems of self propelling particles with kinematic constraints on the velocities. The model aims to be analogous to a discrete algorithm used in works by T. Vicsek et al. In this paper we prove that the only types of the stationary planar solutions in the model are either of translational or axial symmetry of the flow. Within the proposed model we differentiate between finite and infinite flocking behavior by the finiteness of the kinetic ene...

  12. Collective behavior of self-propelling particles with kinematic constraints: The relation between the discrete and the continuous description

    Ratushnaya, V. I.; Bedeaux, D.; Kulinskii, V. L.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.

    2007-07-01

    In two papers we proposed a continuum model for the dynamics of systems of self propelling particles with kinematic constraints on the velocities and discussed some of its properties. The model aims to be analogous to a discrete algorithm used in works by T. Vicsek et al. In this paper we derive the continuous hydrodynamic model from the discrete description. The similarities and differences between the resulting model and the hydrodynamic model postulated in our previous papers are discussed. The results clarify the assumptions used to obtain a continuous description.

  13. Collective Behavior of Self Propelling Particles with Kinematic Constraints; The relation between the discrete and the continuous description

    Ratushnaya, V I; Kulinskii, V L; Zvelindovsky, A V

    2006-01-01

    In two papers we proposed a continuum model for the dynamics of systems of self propelling particles with kinematic constraints on the velocities and discussed some of its properties. The model aims to be analogous to a discrete algorithm used in works by T. Vicsek et al. In this paper we derive the continuous hydrodynamic model from the discrete description. The similarities and differences between the resulting model and the hydrodynamic model postulated in our previous papers are discussed. The results clarify the assumptions used to obtain a continuous description.

  14. Hydrodynamic Model for the System of Self Propelling Particles with Conservative Kinematic Constraints; Two dimensional stationary solutions

    Ratushnaya, V I; Zvelindovsky, A V; Bedeaux, D

    2005-01-01

    We consider a continuum model for the dynamics of systems of self propelling particles with kinematic constraints on the velocities. The model aims to be analogous to a discrete algorithm used in works by T. Vicsek et al. In this paper we prove that the only types of the stationary planar solutions in the model are either of translational or axial symmetry of the flow. Within the proposed model we differentiate between finite and infinite flocking behavior by the finiteness of the kinetic energy functional.

  15. Fingerprinting differential active site constraints of ATPases

    Hacker, Stephan M.; Hardt, Norman; Buntru, Alexander; Pagliarini, Dana; Möckel, Martin; Mayer, Thomas U; Scheffner, Martin; Hauck, Christof R.; Marx, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The free energy provided by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis is central to many cellular processes and, therefore, the number of enzymes utilizing ATP as a substrate is almost innumerable. Modified analogues of ATP are a valuable means to understand the biological function of ATPases. Although these enzymes have evolved towards binding to ATP, large differences in active site architectures were found. In order to systematically access the specific active site constraints of different A...

  16. Comparative gait initiation kinematics between simulated unilateral and bilateral ankle hypomobility: Does bilateral constraint improve speed performance?

    Delafontaine, A; Honeine, J-L; Do, M-C; Gagey, O; Chong, R K

    2015-08-31

    Improvement of motor performance in unilateral upper limb motor disability has been shown when utilizing inter-limb coupling strategies during physical rehabilitation. This suggests that 'default' bilateral central motor commands are facilitated. Here, we tested whether this bilateral motor control principle may be generalized to the lower limbs during gait initiation, which involves alternate bilateral actions. Disability was simulated by strapping to produce ankle hypomobility. Healthy adult subjects initiated gait at a self-paced speed with no ankle constraint (control), or with the stance, swing or bilateral ankles strapped. The duration of the anticipatory postural adjustments lengthened and the center of mass instantaneous progression velocity at foot-off decreased when the ankle was strapped. During the step execution phase, progression velocity at foot-contact was higher when both ankles were strapped compared to unilateral strapping of the stance ankle. These findings suggest that bilateral central motor commands are favored during walking tasks. Indeed, unilateral constraint of the stance ankle should compel the central nervous system to adapt specific commands to the constraint and normal sides whereas the 'default' bilateral motor commands would be utilized when both ankles are strapped leading to better kinematics performance. Bilateral in-phase upper limb coordination and bilateral alternating lower limb locomotor movements may share similar control mechanisms. PMID:26197055

  17. High-Redshift Galaxy Kinematics: Constraints on Models of Disk Formation

    Robertson, Brant E

    2008-01-01

    Integral field spectroscopy of galaxies at redshift z~2 has revealed a population of early-forming, rotationally-supported disks. These high-redshift systems provide a potentially important clue to the formation processes that build disk galaxies in the universe. A particularly well-studied example is the z=2.38 galaxy BzK-15504, which was shown by Genzel et al. (2006) to be a rotationally supported disk despite the fact that its high star formation rate and short gas consumption timescale require a very rapid acquisition of mass. Previous kinematical analyses have suggested that z~2 disk galaxies like BzK-15504 did not form through mergers because their line-of-sight velocity fields display low levels of asymmetry. We perform the same kinematical analysis on a set of simulated disk galaxies formed in gas-rich mergers of the type that may be common at high redshift, and show that the remnant disks display low velocity field asymmetry and satisfy the criteria that have been used to classify high-redshift galax...

  18. Institutional Constraints, Legislative Activism, and Policy Change

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    This paper studies how institutional constraints affect legislative activism, and how legislative activism affects policy change, analyzing the case of the European Union’s legislative process. Our argument revolves around the key role of the Commission in advancing policy change, and emphasizes...... that the Commission can successfully push for increased policy change by increasing its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space widens. Using a novel panel dataset covering eight policy sectors from 1984--‐2012, we find that the number of legislative proposals significantly...... affects the extent of regulatory reform in the EU. The rise in the number of legislative proposal, in turn, is affected by the extent of gridlock between the EU’s legislative bodies. These findings show that the Commission steps up its legislative activity when the institutional opportunity space allows...

  19. Geomorphic signal of active faulting at the northern edge of Lut Block: Insights on the kinematic scenario of Central Iran

    Calzolari, Gabriele; Della Seta, Marta; Rossetti, Federico; Nozaem, Reza; Vignaroli, Gianluca; Cosentino, Domenico; Faccenna, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Recent works documented Neogene to Quaternary dextral strike-slip tectonics along the Kuh-e-Sarhangi and Kuh-e-Faghan intraplate strike-slip faults at the northern edge of the Lut Block of Central Iran, previously thought to be dominated by sinistral strike-slip deformation. This work focuses on the evidence of Quaternary activity of one of these fault systems, in order to provide new spatiotemporal constraints on their role in the active regional kinematic scenario. Through geomorphological and structural investigation, integrated with optically stimulated luminescence dating of three generations of alluvial fans and fluvial terraces (at ~53, ~25, and ~6 ka), this study documents (i) the topographic inheritance of the long-term (Myr) punctuated history of fault nucleation, propagation, and exhumation along the northern edge of Lut Block; (ii) the tectonic control on drainage network evolution, pediment formation, fluvial terraces, and alluvial fan architecture; (iii) the minimum Holocene age of Quaternary dextral strike-slip faulting; and (iv) the evidence of Late Quaternary fault-related uplift localized along the different fault strands. The documented spatial and temporal constraints on the active dextral strike-slip tectonics at the northern edge of Lut Block provide new insights on the kinematic model for active faulting in Central Iran, which has been reinterpreted in an escape tectonic scenario.

  20. Upper Extremity Kinematics and Muscle Activation Patterns in Subjects With Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy

    Bergsma, Arjen; Murgia, Alessio; Cup, Edith H.; Verstegen, Paul P.; Meijer, Kenneth; de Groot, Imelda J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the kinematics and muscle activity of subjects with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) and healthy control subjects during the performance of standardized upper extremity tasks. Design: Exploratory case-control study. Setting: A movement laboratory. Participants: Subjects (N=

  1. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: Unveiling the nature of kinematically offset active galactic nuclei

    Allen, J T; Scott, N; Fogarty, L M R; Ho, I -T; Medling, A M; Leslie, S K; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bryant, J J; Croom, S M; Goodwin, M; Green, A W; Konstantopoulos, I S; Lawrence, J S; Owers, M S; Richards, S N; Sharp, R

    2015-01-01

    We have observed two kinematically offset active galactic nuclei (AGN), whose ionised gas is at a different line-of-sight velocity to their host galaxies, with the SAMI integral field spectrograph (IFS). One of the galaxies shows gas kinematics very different to the stellar kinematics, indicating a recent merger or accretion event. We demonstrate that the star formation associated with this event was triggered within the last 100 Myr. The other galaxy shows simple disc rotation in both gas and stellar kinematics, aligned with each other, but in the central region has signatures of an outflow driven by the AGN. Other than the outflow, neither galaxy shows any discontinuity in the ionised gas kinematics at the galaxy's centre. We conclude that in these two cases there is no direct evidence of the AGN being in a supermassive black hole binary system. Our study demonstrates that selecting kinematically offset AGN from single-fibre spectroscopy provides, by definition, samples of kinematically peculiar objects, bu...

  2. Optimizing Computation of Repairs from Active Integrity Constraints

    Cruz-Filipe, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Active integrity constraints (AICs) are a form of integrity constraints for databases that not only identify inconsistencies, but also suggest how these can be overcome. The semantics for AICs defines different types of repairs, but deciding whether an inconsistent database can be repaired and fi...

  3. Kinematic Evidence for Superbubbles in I Zw 18: Constraints on the Star Formation History and Chemical Evolution

    Martin, Crystal L.

    1996-01-01

    We have combined measurements of the kinematics, morphology, and oxygen abundance of the ionized gas in \\IZw18, one of the most metal-poor galaxies known, to examine the star formation history and chemical mixing processes.

  4. Phonotactic Constraints Are Activated across Languages in Bilinguals

    Freeman, Max R.; Blumenfeld, Henrike K.; Marian, Viorica

    2016-01-01

    During spoken language comprehension, auditory input activates a bilingual’s two languages in parallel based on phonological representations that are shared across languages. However, it is unclear whether bilinguals access phonotactic constraints from the non-target language during target language processing. For example, in Spanish, words with s+ consonant onsets cannot exist, and phonotactic constraints call for epenthesis (addition of a vowel, e.g., stable/estable). Native Spanish speakers may produce English words such as estudy (“study”) with epenthesis, suggesting that these bilinguals apply Spanish phonotactic constraints when speaking English. The present study is the first to examine whether bilinguals access Spanish phonotactic constraints during English comprehension. In an English cross-modal priming lexical decision task, Spanish–English bilinguals and English monolinguals heard English cognate and non-cognate primes containing s+ consonant onsets or controls without s+ onsets, followed by a lexical decision on visual targets with the /e/ phonotactic constraint or controls without /e/. Results revealed that bilinguals were faster to respond to /es/ non-word targets preceded by s+ cognate primes and /es/ and /e/ non-word targets preceded by s+ non-cognate primes, confirming that English primes containing s+ onsets activated Spanish phonotactic constraints. These findings are discussed within current accounts of parallel activation of two languages during bilingual spoken language comprehension, which may be expanded to include activation of phonotactic constraints from the irrelevant language. PMID:27242615

  5. The perception and constraints towards recreational activity among female students

    Azlan Ahmad Kamal; Mohd. Syukran Abdul Khadir; Farhana Wan Yunus

    2010-01-01

    More often than not, male students are seen to be more active in recreation activity than female students. To investigate this matter, a study was done on the female recreational activity participation. This study investigated the perception and constraints towards recreation activity among female students in a university in Malaysia. This study used a questionnaire regarding the recreation activity to collect the findings. Sixty respondents have been selected randomly as the subject for this...

  6. KINEMATICS AND CHEMISTRY OF STARS ALONG THE SAGITTARIUS TRAILING TIDAL TAIL AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE MILKY WAY MASS DISTRIBUTION

    We present three-dimensional (3D) kinematics of Sagittarius (Sgr) trailing tidal debris in six fields located 70°-130° along the stream from the Sgr dwarf galaxy core. The data are from our proper-motion (PM) survey of Kapteyn's Selected Areas, in which we have measured accurate PMs to faint magnitudes in ∼40' × 40' fields evenly spaced across the sky. The radial velocity (RV) signature of Sgr has been identified among our follow-up spectroscopic data in four of the six fields and combined with mean PMs of spectroscopically confirmed members to derive space motions of Sgr debris based on ∼15-64 confirmed stream members per field. These kinematics are compared to predictions of the Law and Majewski model of Sgr disruption; we find reasonable agreement with model predictions in RVs and PMs along Galactic latitude. However, an upward adjustment of the local standard of rest velocity (ΘLSR) from its standard 220 km s–1 to at least 232 ± 14 km s–1 (and possibly as high as 264 ± 23 km s–1) is necessary to bring 3D model debris kinematics and our measurements into agreement. Satisfactory model fits that simultaneously reproduce known position, distance, and RV trends of the Sgr tidal streams, while significantly increasing ΘLSR, could only be achieved by increasing the Galactic bulge and disk mass while leaving the dark matter halo fixed to the best-fit values from Law and Majewski. We derive low-resolution spectroscopic abundances along this stretch of the Sgr stream and find a constant [Fe/H] ∼ –1.15 (with ∼0.5 dex scatter in each field—typical for dwarf galaxy populations) among the four fields with reliable measurements. A constant metallicity suggests that debris along the ∼60° span of this study was all stripped from Sgr on the same orbital passage.

  7. Relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on Taiwanese breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities

    Chow, Hsueh-wen; Dong, Yin-Han

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation in leisure activities strongly associates with health and well-being. Little research has explored the relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities. The purposes of this study are: 1) to investigate constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities and participation in leisure activities; 2) to investigate the differences between preferences for leisure activities and actual pa...

  8. Constraints on leisure time physical activity at a public university

    Kubilay Öcal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on understanding constraints on leisure time physical activity (LTPA on a university campus. The survey study was conducted with public university students (n=563 living in dormitories. The 38-item, 8-dimension Leisure Time Physical Activity Constraints (LTPA-C Scale was used to investigate factors limiting LTPA. Age, gender, working status (i.e. part-time, non-working, program type (i.e. morning education, evening education, relationship status (i.e. in a relationship, not in a relationship, monthly expenses and body mass index (BMI category (i.e. underweight, normal weight, overweight, obese are key variables believed to affect LTPA-C. An initial confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to validate the structure of the scale, and frequency analysis, Pearson’s Correlation and t-tests were conducted to analyze the survey responses. Results showed the hierarchy of constraints for males (from high to low to be as follows: society, income, time, facility, willpower, skill perception, family, body perception. The hierarchy was nearly identical for females, except ‘willpower’ was found to be a greater constraint than ‘facility’; moreover, the differences in the rates at which males and females perceived ‘facility’ and ‘willpower’ to be constraints were statistically significant.The study findings indicate that by taking steps to improve the infrastructure of university campus facilities and organize group activities, university management can provide motivation and social support that can help to increase university student participation in LTPA.

  9. CONSTRAINTS ON THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS' INTERACTION FROM THE DISTRIBUTION OF OB STARS AND THE KINEMATICS OF GIANTS

    Young, OB-type candidates are identified in a ∼7900 deg2 region encompassing the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds (LMC/SMC) periphery, the Bridge, part of the Magellanic Stream (MS), and Leading Arm (LA). Selection is based on UV, optical, and IR photometry from existing large-area surveys and proper motions from the Southern Proper Motion 4 (SPM4) catalog. The spatial distribution of these young star candidates shows (1) a well-populated SMC wing which continues westward with two branches partially surrounding the SMC, (2) a rather narrow path from the SMC wing eastward toward the LMC which is offset by 1°-2° from the high-density H I ridge in the Bridge, (3) a well-populated periphery of the LMC dominated by clumps of stars at the ends of the LMC bar, and (4) a few scattered candidates in the MS and two overdensities in the LA regions above and below the Galactic plane. Additionally, a proper-motion analysis is made of a radial-velocity-selected sample of red giants and supergiants in the LMC, previously shown to be a kinematically and chemically distinct subgroup, most likely captured from the SMC. SPM4 proper motions of these stars also indicate they are distinct from the LMC population. The observational results presented here, combined with the known orbits of the Clouds and other aspects of the LMC morphology, suggest an off-center, moderate to highly inclined collision between the SMC and the LMC's disk that took place between 100 and 200 Myr ago.

  10. Shaping tissues by balancing active forces and geometric constraints

    The self-organization of cells into complex tissues during growth and regeneration is a combination of physical–mechanical events and biochemical signal processing. Cells actively generate forces at all stages in this process, and according to the laws of mechanics, these forces result in stress fields defined by the geometric boundary conditions of the cell and tissue. The unique ability of cells to translate such force patterns into biochemical information and vice versa sets biological tissues apart from any other material. In this topical review, we summarize the current knowledge and open questions of how forces and geometry act together on scales from the single cell to tissues and organisms, and how their interaction determines biological shape and structure. Starting with a planar surface as the simplest type of geometric constraint, we review literature on how forces during cell spreading and adhesion together with geometric constraints impact cell shape, stress patterns, and the resulting biological response. We then move on to include cell–cell interactions and the role of forces in monolayers and in collective cell migration, and introduce curvature at the transition from flat cell sheets to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. Fibrous 3D environments, as cells experience them in the body, introduce new mechanical boundary conditions and change cell behaviour compared to flat surfaces. Starting from early work on force transmission and collagen remodelling, we discuss recent discoveries on the interaction with geometric constraints and the resulting structure formation and network organization in 3D. Recent literature on two physiological scenarios—embryonic development and bone—is reviewed to demonstrate the role of the force-geometry balance in living organisms. Furthermore, the role of mechanics in pathological scenarios such as cancer is discussed. We conclude by highlighting common physical principles guiding cell mechanics, tissue patterning

  11. Shaping tissues by balancing active forces and geometric constraints

    Foolen, Jasper; Yamashita, Tadahiro; Kollmannsberger, Philip

    2016-02-01

    The self-organization of cells into complex tissues during growth and regeneration is a combination of physical-mechanical events and biochemical signal processing. Cells actively generate forces at all stages in this process, and according to the laws of mechanics, these forces result in stress fields defined by the geometric boundary conditions of the cell and tissue. The unique ability of cells to translate such force patterns into biochemical information and vice versa sets biological tissues apart from any other material. In this topical review, we summarize the current knowledge and open questions of how forces and geometry act together on scales from the single cell to tissues and organisms, and how their interaction determines biological shape and structure. Starting with a planar surface as the simplest type of geometric constraint, we review literature on how forces during cell spreading and adhesion together with geometric constraints impact cell shape, stress patterns, and the resulting biological response. We then move on to include cell-cell interactions and the role of forces in monolayers and in collective cell migration, and introduce curvature at the transition from flat cell sheets to three-dimensional (3D) tissues. Fibrous 3D environments, as cells experience them in the body, introduce new mechanical boundary conditions and change cell behaviour compared to flat surfaces. Starting from early work on force transmission and collagen remodelling, we discuss recent discoveries on the interaction with geometric constraints and the resulting structure formation and network organization in 3D. Recent literature on two physiological scenarios—embryonic development and bone—is reviewed to demonstrate the role of the force-geometry balance in living organisms. Furthermore, the role of mechanics in pathological scenarios such as cancer is discussed. We conclude by highlighting common physical principles guiding cell mechanics, tissue patterning and

  12. Constraints from GPS on Block Kinematics of the Transition between the Southern Walker Lane and the Basin and Range Province

    Jha, S.; Hammond, W. C.; Kreemer, C.; Blewitt, G.

    2008-12-01

    The southern Walker Lane (SWL) is a part of the Eastern California Shear Zone that lies north of the Mojave region, bounded by the Garlock Fault to the south, the Sierra Nevada to the west, the Basin and Range to the east and by Mono Lake to the north. The region includes many northwest striking right-lateral strike slip and sub-parallel normal faults (e.g. Death Valley/Furnace Creek, Fish Lake Valley, Owens Valley), which together accommodate ~25% of the Pacific/North American relative motion. For many of these faults, and the system as a whole, there appears to be a discrepancy between geodetically and geologically inferred fault slip rates. Since the installation of the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), and the Nevada Earthquake Response Network (NEARNET) of the University of Nevada, Reno, many recently obtained high- precision GPS data are now available to place improved constraints on the pattern and rates of crustal deformation of this region. In this study we use a block modeling methodology to estimate block motions and fault slip rates from GPS velocities of PBO, NEARNET and BARGEN continuous sites. Time series were obtained from raw RINEX data that we processed using the GIPSY-OASIS II software from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory together with the Ambizap software for ambiguity resolution. We have additionally included earlier published campaign-style velocities, in those areas where we do not have better coverage from other continuous/semi-continuous networks. Geologic slip rates have been obtained from the published literature. We solve for the motion of blocks using the GPS velocities that have been adjusted based on the viscoelastic modeling to estimate long term motion. To evaluate the consistency between the geologic and geodetic data, we compare long-term fault slip to slip rates inferred from geodetic results obtained over Basin and Range. The preliminary results obtained from the block model indicate significant slip at the easternmost

  13. The perception and constraints towards recreational activity among female students

    Azlan Ahmad Kamal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available More often than not, male students are seen to be more active in recreation activity than female students. To investigate this matter, a study was done on the female recreational activity participation. This study investigated the perception and constraints towards recreation activity among female students in a university in Malaysia. This study used a questionnaire regarding the recreation activity to collect the findings. Sixty respondents have been selected randomly as the subject for this study. All the information that is obtained from the questionnaire has been collected and analyzed using SPSS. It was found recreation is most often perceived as ‘extreme sports’ by female students. Moreover, most of the female students perceived themselves as participating regularly in recreational activity. The reasons for not participating in recreational activity are of lack of time, low energy level, lack of participants, lack of facilities and money. It was also found female students prefer outdoor activities such as camping, abseiling and wall climbing. Future studies should compare the perception of male and female students’ on recreational activity.

  14. Congruence between muscle activity and kinematics in a convergently derived prey-processing behavior.

    Konow, Nicolai; Camp, Ariel L; Sanford, Christopher P J

    2008-08-01

    Quantification of anatomical and physiological characteristics of the function of a musculoskeletal system may yield a detailed understanding of how the organizational levels of morphology, biomechanics, kinematics, and muscle activity patterns (MAPs) influence behavioral diversity. Using separate analyses of these organizational levels in representative study taxa, we sought patterns of congruence in how organizational levels drive behavioral modulation in a novel raking prey-processing behavior found in teleosts belonging to two evolutionarily distinct lineages. Biomechanically divergent prey (elusive, robust goldfish and sedentary, malleable earthworms) were fed to knifefish, Chitala ornata (Osteoglossomorpha) and brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis (Salmoniformes). Electromyography recorded MAPs from the hyoid protractor, jaw adductor, sternohyoideus, epaxialis, and hypaxialis musculature, while sonomicrometry sampled deep basihyal kinesis and contractile length dynamics in the basihyal protractor and retractor muscles. Syntheses of our results with recent analyses of cranial morphology and raking kinematics showed that raking in Salvelinus relies on an elongated cranial out lever, extensive cranial elevation and a curved cleithrobranchial ligament (CBL), and that both raking MAPs and kinematics remain entirely unmodulated-a highly unusual trait, particularly among feeding generalists. Chitala had a shorter CBL and a raking power stroke involving increased retraction of the elongated pectoral girdle during raking on goldfish. The raking MAP was also modulated in Chitala, involving an extensive overlap between muscle activity of the preparatory and power stroke phases, driven by shifts in hypaxial timing and recruitment of the hyoid protractor muscle. Sonomicrometry revealed that the protractor hyoideus muscle stored energy from retraction of the pectoral girdle for ca. 5-20 ms after onset of the power stroke and then hyper-extended. This mechanism of elastic

  15. Kinematic matrix theory and universalities in self-propellers and active swimmers.

    Nourhani, Amir; Lammert, Paul E; Borhan, Ali; Crespi, Vincent H

    2014-06-01

    We describe an efficient and parsimonious matrix-based theory for studying the ensemble behavior of self-propellers and active swimmers, such as nanomotors or motile bacteria, that are typically studied by differential-equation-based Langevin or Fokker-Planck formalisms. The kinematic effects for elementary processes of motion are incorporated into a matrix, called the "kinematrix," from which we immediately obtain correlators and the mean and variance of angular and position variables (and thus effective diffusivity) by simple matrix algebra. The kinematrix formalism enables us recast the behaviors of a diverse range of self-propellers into a unified form, revealing universalities in their ensemble behavior in terms of new emergent time scales. Active fluctuations and hydrodynamic interactions can be expressed as an additive composition of separate self-propellers. PMID:25019773

  16. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization. PMID:10350791

  17. Extracting kinematic parameters for monkey bipedal walking from cortical neuronal ensemble activity

    Nathan Fitzsimmons

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to walk may be critically impacted as the result of neurological injury or disease. While recent advances in brain-machine interfaces (BMIs have demonstrated the feasibility of upper-limb neuroprostheses, BMIs have not been evaluated as a means to restore walking. Here, we demonstrate that chronic recordings from ensembles of cortical neurons can be used to predict the kinematics of bipedal walking in rhesus macaques – both offline and in real-time. Linear decoders extracted 3D coordinates of leg joints and leg muscle EMGs from the activity of hundreds of cortical neurons. As more complex patterns of walking were produced by varying the gait speed and direction, larger neuronal populations were needed to accurately extract walking patterns. Extraction was further improved using a switching decoder which designated a submodel for each walking paradigm. We propose that BMIs may one day allow severely paralyzed patients to walk again.

  18. Impact of an incremental running test on jumping kinematics in endurance runners: can jumping kinematic explain the post-activation potentiation phenomenon?

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Molina-Molina, Alejandro; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether kinematic data during countermovement jump (CMJ) might explain post-activation potentiation (PAP) phenomenon after an exhausting running test. Thirty-three trained endurance runners performed the Léger Test; an incremental test which consists of continuous running between two lines 20 m apart. CMJ performance was determined before (pre-test) and immediately after the protocol (post-test). Sagittal plane, video of CMJs was recorded and kinematic data were obtained throughout 2-Dimensional analysis. In addition to the duration of eccentric and concentric phases of CMJ, hip, knee and ankle angles were measured at four key points during CMJ: the lowest position of the squat, take-off, landing, and at the lowest position after landing. Additionally, heart rate was monitored, and rate of perceived exertion was recorded at post-test. Analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement in CMJ (p = 0.002) at post-test. Cluster analysis grouped according to whether PAP was experienced (responders group: RG, n = 25) or not (non-responders group: NRG, n = 8) relative to CMJ change from rest to post-test. RG significantly improved (p PAP phenomenon after intensive running exercises in endurance athletes. PMID:27052545

  19. Knee and Hip Joint Kinematics Predict Quadriceps and Hamstrings Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Drop Jump Landings

    Malfait, Bart; Dingenen, Bart; Smeets, Annemie; Staes, Filip; Pataky, Todd; Robinson, Mark A.; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Verschueren, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to assess if variation in sagittal plane landing kinematics is associated with variation in neuromuscular activation patterns of the quadriceps-hamstrings muscle groups during drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Methods Fifty female athletes performed three DVJ. The relationship between peak knee and hip flexion angles and the amplitude of four EMG vectors was investigated with trajectory-level canonical correlation analyses over the entire time period of the landing phase. EMG vectors consisted of the {vastus medialis(VM),vastus lateralis(VL)}, {vastus medialis(VM),hamstring medialis(HM)}, {hamstring medialis(HM),hamstring lateralis(HL)} and the {vastus lateralis(VL),hamstring lateralis(HL)}. To estimate the contribution of each individual muscle, linear regressions were also conducted using one-dimensional statistical parametric mapping. Results The peak knee flexion angle was significantly positively associated with the amplitudes of the {VM,HM} and {HM,HL} during the preparatory and initial contact phase and with the {VL,HL} vector during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak knee flexion angles were significantly associated with higher HM amplitudes during the preparatory and initial contact phase (p<0.001). The amplitudes of the {VM,VL} and {VL,HL} were significantly positively associated with the peak hip flexion angle during the peak loading phase (p<0.05). Small peak hip flexion angles were significantly associated with higher VL amplitudes during the peak loading phase (p = 0.001). Higher external knee abduction and flexion moments were found in participants landing with less flexed knee and hip joints (p<0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated clear associations between neuromuscular activation patterns and landing kinematics in the sagittal plane during specific parts of the landing. These findings have indicated that an erect landing pattern, characterized by less hip and knee flexion, was significantly associated with an

  20. An Ungrounded Hand-Held Surgical Device Incorporating Active Constraints with Force-Feedback

    Payne, Christopher J; Kwok, Ka-Wai; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an ungrounded, hand-held surgical device that incorporates active constraints and force-feedback. Optical tracking of the device and embedded actuation allow for real-time motion compensation of a surgical tool as an active constraint is encountered. The active constraints can be made soft, so that the surgical tool tip motion is scaled, or rigid, so as to altogether prevent the penetration of the active constraint. Force-feedback is also provided to the operator so as to ...

  1. Shoulder kinematics and spatial pattern of trapezius electromyographic activity in real and virtual environments.

    Afshin Samani

    Full Text Available The design of an industrial workstation tends to include ergonomic assessment steps based on a digital mock-up and a virtual reality setup. Lack of interaction and system fidelity is often reported as a main issue in such virtual reality applications. This limitation is a crucial issue as thorough ergonomic analysis is required for an investigation of the biomechanics. In the current study, we investigated the biomechanical responses of the shoulder joint in a simulated assembly task for comparison with the biomechanical responses in virtual environments. Sixteen male healthy novice subjects performed the task on three different platforms: real (RE, virtual (VE, and virtual environment with force feedback (VEF with low and high precision demands. The subjects repeated the task 12 times (i.e., 12 cycles. High density electromyography from the upper trapezius and rotation angles of the shoulder joint were recorded and split into the cycles. The angular trajectories and velocity profiles of the shoulder joint angles over a cycle were computed in 3D. The inter-subject similarity in terms of normalized mutual information on kinematics and electromyography was investigated. Compared with RE the task in VE and VEF was characterized by lower kinematic maxima. The inter-subject similarity in RE compared with intra-subject similarity across the platforms was lower in terms of movement trajectories and greater in terms of trapezius muscle activation. The precision demand resulted in lower inter- and intra-subject similarity across platforms. The proposed approach identifies biomechanical differences in the shoulder joint in both VE and VEF compared with the RE platform, but these differences are less marked in VE mostly due to technical limitations of co-localizing the force feedback system in the VEF platform.

  2. Kinematics of a giant slow-moving landslide in Northwest China: Constraints from high resolution remote sensing imagery and GPS monitoring

    Jiang, Shu; Wen, Bao-Ping; Zhao, Cheng; Li, Rui-Dong; Li, Zhi-Heng

    2016-06-01

    Slow-moving landslides generally are long-lived and characterized by continuous movement with some fluctuation in sliding rate following changes of environmental factors, such as rainfall and earthquake. Analysis on kinematics of this type of landslide is essential for understanding its mechanism and identifying causal factors controlling its movement behavior. This paper presents a study on kinematics of a giant slow-moving landslide in northwest China, called the Xieliupo landslide, which is about 72 × 106 m3 in volume and has been slowly moving for more than 100 years. This study is conducted using archival high resolution remote sensing images from multi-sources over a period about 43 years and the data from 15-month GPS monitoring. Six sets of multi-source remote sensing images in 1969, 1971, 2004, 2008, 2010 and 2012 with spatial resolution higher than 2.5 m were used, and GPS monitoring data were recorded from September 2012 to December 2013. Obvious geomorphologic changes identified from the images in 1971 and 2004 confirm that this landslide did move slowly in the past. Quantitative analysis reveals that movement of the landslide was persistent and behaved in a block by block mode with the greatest and the least velocities in its middle and lower parts, respectively. Distance measurement between the homologous point pairs on the orthorectified images in 2005, 2010 and 2012 indicates that annual ground displacement of the landslide ranged from 0.52 m to 6.54 m in the seven years. GPS monitoring data shows that the landslide ground displacement in the 15 months varied from 0.49 m to 2.91 m, and annually between 0.39 m and 2.33 m, with a rather uniform movement pattern as identified using the remote sensing images. GPS monitoring results also reveal that the landslide movement is intermittent inter-annually. It is further discussed that movement behavior of the landslide is largely controlled by its topography with great influence of the active fault along

  3. Kinematic frames and "active longitudes": does the Sun have a face?

    Pelt, J.; Brooke, J. M.; Korpi, M. J.; Tuominen, I.

    2006-12-01

    Context: .It has recently been claimed that analysis of Greenwich sunspot data over 120 years reveals that sunspot activity clusters around two longitudes separated by 180° ("active longitudes") with clearly defined differential rotation during activity cycles. In previous work we demonstrated that such effects can be observed in synthetic data without such features, as an artefact of the method of analysis. Aims: .In the present work we extend this critical examination of methodology to the actual Greenwich sunspot data and also consider newly proposed methods of analysis claiming to confirm the original identification of active longitudes. Methods: .We performed fits of different kinematic frames onto the actual sunspot data. Firstly, a cell-counting statistic was used to analyse a comoving system of frames and show that such frames extract useful information from the data. Secondly, to check the claim of century-scale persistent active longitudes in a contramoving frame system, we made a comprehensive exploration of parameter space following the original methodology as closely as possible. Results: .Our analysis revealed that values obtained for the parameters of differential rotation are not stable across different methods of analysis proposed to track persistent active longitudes. Also, despite a very thorough search in parameter space, we were unable to reproduce results claiming to reveal the century-persistent active longitudes. Previous parameter space exploration has been restricted to frames whose latitudinal profile is opposite to solar surface differential rotation. Relaxing this restriction we found that the highest values of nonaxisymmetry occur for frames comoving with the solar surface flow. Further analysis indicates that even these solutions are the result of purely statistical fluctuations. Conclusions: .We can therefore say that strong and well substantiated evidence for an essential and century-scale persistent nonaxisymmetry in the sunspot

  4. Differences between kinematic synergies and muscle synergies during two-digit grasping

    Thomas Brochier

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The large number of mechanical degrees of freedom of the hand is not fully exploited during actual movements such as grasping. Usually, angular movements in various joints tend to be coupled, and EMG activities in different hand muscles tend to be correlated. The occurrence of covariation in the former was termed kinematic synergies, in the latter muscle synergies. This study addresses two questions: (i Whether kinematic and muscle synergies can simultaneously accommodate for kinematic and kinetic constraints. (ii If so, whether there is an interrelation between kinematic and muscle synergies. We used a reach-grasp-and-pull paradigm and recorded the hand kinematics as well as 8 surface EMGs. Subjects had to either perform a precision grip or side grip and had to modify their grip force in order to displace an object against a low or high load. The analysis was subdivided into three epochs: reach, grasp-and-pull, and static hold. Principal component analysis (PCA, temporal or static was performed separately for all three epochs, in the kinematic and in the EMG domain. PCA revealed that (i Kinematic- and muscle-synergies can simultaneously accommodate kinematic (grip type and kinetic task constraints (load condition. (ii Upcoming grip and load conditions of the grasp are represented in kinematic- and muscle-synergies already during reach. Phase plane plots of the principal muscle-synergy against the principal kinematic synergy revealed (iii that the muscle-synergy is linked (correlated, and in phase advance to the kinematic synergy during reach and during grasp-and-pull. Furthermore (iv, pair-wise correlations of EMGs during hold suggest that muscle-synergies are (in part implemented by coactivation of muscles through common input. Together, these results suggest that kinematic synergies have (at least in part their origin not just in muscular activation, but in synergiestic muscle activation. In short: kinematic synergies may result from muscle

  5. Effects of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis on Kinematics and Kinetics of the Lower Extremities Call for Consequences in Physical Activities Recommendations

    M. Hartmann; Kreuzpointner, F; Haefner, R.; Michels, H.; Schwirtz, A; Haas, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients (n = 36) with symmetrical polyarticular joint involvement of the lower extremities and healthy controls (n = 20) were compared concerning differences in kinematic, kinetic, and spatio-temporal parameters with 3D gait analysis. The aims of this study were to quantify the differences in gait between JIA patients and healthy controls and to provide data for more detailed sport activities recommendations. JIA-patients showed reduced walking speed and s...

  6. Trade-off between frequency and precision during stepping movements: Kinematic and BOLD brain activation patterns.

    Martínez, Martin; Valencia, Miguel; Vidorreta, Marta; Luis, Elkin O; Castellanos, Gabriel; Villagra, Federico; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Pastor, Maria A

    2016-05-01

    The central nervous system has the ability to adapt our locomotor pattern to produce a wide range of gait modalities and velocities. In reacting to external pacing stimuli, deviations from an individual preferred cadence provoke a concurrent decrease in accuracy that suggests the existence of a trade-off between frequency and precision; a compromise that could result from the specialization within the control centers of locomotion to ensure a stable transition and optimal adaptation to changing environment. Here, we explore the neural correlates of such adaptive mechanisms by visually guiding a group of healthy subjects to follow three comfortable stepping frequencies while simultaneously recording their BOLD responses and lower limb kinematics with the use of a custom-built treadmill device. In following the visual stimuli, subjects adopt a common pattern of symmetric and anti-phase movements across pace conditions. However, when increasing the stimulus frequency, an improvement in motor performance (precision and stability) was found, which suggests a change in the control mode from reactive to predictive schemes. Brain activity patterns showed similar BOLD responses across pace conditions though significant differences were observed in parietal and cerebellar regions. Neural correlates of stepping precision were found in the insula, cerebellum, dorsolateral pons and inferior olivary nucleus, whereas neural correlates of stepping stability were found in a distributed network, suggesting a transition in the control strategy across the stimulated range of frequencies: from unstable/reactive at lower paces (i.e., stepping stability managed by subcortical regions) to stable/predictive at higher paces (i.e., stability managed by cortical regions). Hum Brain Mapp 37:1722-1737, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26857613

  7. Active constraints selection based semi-supervised dimensionality in ensemble subspaces

    Jie Zeng; Wei Nie; Yong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Semi-supervised dimensionality reduction (SSDR) has attracted an increasing amount of attention in this big-data era. Many algorithms have been developed with a smal number of pairwise constraints to achieve performances comparable to those of ful y supervised methods. However, one chal enging problem with semi-supervised approaches is the appropriate choice of the constraint set, including the cardinality and the composition of the constraint set, which to a large extent, affects the performance of the resulting algorithm. In this work, we address the problem by incorporating ensemble subspace and active learning into dimen-sionality reduction and propose a new algorithm, termed as global and local scatter based SSDR with active pairwise constraints selection in ensemble subspaces (SSGL-ESA). Unlike traditional methods that select the supervised information in one subspace, we pick up pairwise constraints in ensemble subspace, where a novel active learning algorithm is designed with both exploration and filtering to generate informative pairwise constraints. The auto-matic constraint selection approach proposed in this paper can be generalized to be used with al constraint-based semi-supervised learning algorithms. Comparative experiments are conducted on two face database and the results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. III. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND CONSTRAINTS ON FORMATION SCENARIOS

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Boselli, A.; Boissier, S. [Aix Marseille Universit, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Peletier, R. F. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Emsellem, E. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lisker, T. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Van de Ven, G. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Simon, J. D.; Adams, J. J.; Benson, A. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Den Brok, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Gorgas, J. [Departamento de Astrofísica y Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Hensler, G. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Janz, J. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H. [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Paudel, S., E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-01

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum λ{sub Re} and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo Cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner 3° (D < 1 Mpc) of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disk-like structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo Cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between λ{sub Re} and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram-pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs.

  9. Mid-J CO shock tracing observations of infrared dark clouds II Low-J CO constraints on excitation, depletion, and kinematics

    Pon, A; Caselli, P; Fontani, F; Palau, A; Butler, M J; Kaufman, M; Jiménez-Serra, I; Tan, J C

    2015-01-01

    Infrared dark clouds are kinematically complex molecular structures in the interstellar medium that can host sites of massive star formation. We present 4 square arcminute maps of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 3 to 2 lines from selected locations within the C and F (G028.37+00.07 and G034.43+00.24) infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), as well as single pointing observations of the 13CO and C18O J = 2 to 1 lines towards three cores within these clouds. We derive CO gas temperatures throughout the maps and find that CO is significantly frozen out within these IRDCs. We find that the CO depletion tends to be the highest near column density peaks, with maximum depletion factors between 5 and 9 in IRDC F and between 16 and 31 in IRDC C. We also detect multiple velocity components and complex kinematic structure in both IRDCs. Therefore, the kinematics of IRDCs seem to point to dynamically evolving structures yielding dense cores with considerable depletion factors.

  10. Mid-J CO shock tracing observations of infrared dark clouds. II. Low-J CO constraints on excitation, depletion, and kinematics

    Pon, A.; Johnstone, D.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Palau, A.; Butler, M. J.; Kaufman, M.; Jiménez-Serra, I.; Tan, J. C.

    2016-03-01

    Infrared dark clouds are kinematically complex molecular structures in the interstellar medium that can host sites of massive star formation. We present maps measuring 4 square arcminutes of the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J = 3 to 2 lines from selected locations within the C and F (G028.37+00.07 and G034.43+00.24) infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), as well as single pointing observations of the 13CO and C18O J = 2 to 1 lines towards three cores within these clouds. We derive CO gas temperatures throughout the maps and find that CO is significantly frozen out within these IRDCs. We find that the CO depletion tends to be the highest near column density peaks with maximum depletion factors between 5 and 9 in IRDC F and between 16 and 31 in IRDC C. We also detect multiple velocity components and complex kinematic structure in both IRDCs. Therefore, the kinematics of IRDCs seem to point to dynamically evolving structures yielding dense cores with considerable depletion factors. Based on observations carried out with the JCMT and IRAM 30 m Telescopes. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).IRAM CO observations are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A96

  11. New kinematic constraints on the Cantabrian orocline: A paleomagnetic study from the Peñalba and Truchas synclines, NW Spain

    Fernández-Lozano, Javier; Pastor-Galán, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Alonso, Gabriel; Franco, Piedad

    2016-06-01

    The Cantabrian orocline is a large structure that bends the Variscan orogen of Western Europe in NW Iberia. The extensively studied kinematics of its core, the foreland of the orogen, indicates that the structure is secondary, i.e. acquired after the formation of the orogenic edifice. However, the extent of the Cantabrian orocline away from its core is under debate. In this paper we study the kinematics of the Cantabrian orocline beyond the foreland. We collected and analyzed samples from the northern and central parts of the Truchas syncline, which provides new data within the hinterland of the orogen in NW Iberia. The analysis of 320 samples shows a late Carboniferous remagnetization with an E to NE declination and shallow downward inclinations. These results suggest a counter-clockwise rotation of ~ 60° and peri-equatorial but still southern hemisphere latitude for Iberia during the uppermost Carboniferous-Early Permian. This rotation fits with the expected kinematic evolution of the Truchas syncline if it indeed was part of the Cantabrian orocline.

  12. STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. III. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND CONSTRAINTS ON FORMATION SCENARIOS

    We analyze the stellar kinematics of 39 dwarf early-type galaxies (dEs) in the Virgo Cluster. Based on the specific stellar angular momentum λRe and the ellipticity, we find 11 slow rotators and 28 fast rotators. The fast rotators in the outer parts of the Virgo Cluster rotate significantly faster than fast rotators in the inner parts of the cluster. Moreover, 10 out of the 11 slow rotators are located in the inner 3° (D < 1 Mpc) of the cluster. The fast rotators contain subtle disk-like structures that are visible in high-pass filtered optical images, while the slow rotators do not exhibit these structures. In addition, two of the dEs have kinematically decoupled cores and four more have emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. These properties suggest that Virgo Cluster dEs may have originated from late-type star-forming galaxies that were transformed by the environment after their infall into the cluster. The correlation between λRe and the clustercentric distance can be explained by a scenario where low luminosity star-forming galaxies fall into the cluster, their gas is rapidly removed by ram-pressure stripping, although some of it can be retained in their core, their star formation is quenched but their stellar kinematics are preserved. After a long time in the cluster and several passes through its center, the galaxies are heated up and transformed into slow rotating dEs

  13. Walking while Performing Working Memory Tasks Changes the Prefrontal Cortex Hemodynamic Activations and Gait Kinematics

    Lin, Ming-I B.; Lin, Kuan-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence suggests that walking while performing a concurrent task negatively influences gait performance. However, it remains unclear how higher-level cognitive processes and coordination of limb movements are altered in challenging walking environments. This study investigated the influence of cognitive task complexity and walking road condition on the neutral correlates of executive function and postural control in dual-task walking. Methods: Twenty-four healthy young adults completed a series of overground walks with three walking road conditions (wide, narrow, with obstacles) with and without the concurrent n-back working memory tasks of two complexity levels (1-back and 3-back). Prefrontal brain activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used simultaneously to measure gait performance and lower-extremity kinematics. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed to examine the differences between the conditions. Results: In comparison with standing still, participants showed lower n-back task accuracy while walking, with the worst performance from the road with obstacles. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, lower-extremity joint movements, and the relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO) concentration levels were all significantly different across the task complexity and walking path conditions. While dual-tasking participants were found to flex their hips and knees less, leading to a slower gait speed, longer stride time, shorter step length, and greater gait variability than during normal walking. For narrow-road walking, smaller ankle dorsiflexion and larger hip flexion were observed, along with a reduced gait speed. Obstacle negotiation was mainly characterized by increased gait variability than other conditions. HbO levels appeared to be lower during dual-task walking than normal walking. Compared to wide and obstacle conditions, walking on the narrow

  14. Walking while performing working memory tasks changes the prefrontal cortex hemodynamic activations and gait kinematics

    Ming-I Brandon Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIncreasing evidence suggests that walking while performing a concurrent task negatively influences gait performance. However, it remains unclear how higher-level cognitive processes and coordination of limb movements are altered in challenging walking environments. This study investigated the influence of cognitive task complexity and walking road condition on the neutral correlates of executive function and postural control in dual-task walking. MethodsTwenty-four healthy young adults completed a series of overground walks with three walking road conditions (wide, narrow, with obstacles with and without the concurrent n-back working memory tasks of two complexity levels (1-back and 3-back. Prefrontal brain activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used simultaneously to measure gait performance and lower-extremity kinematics. Repeated measures analysis of variance were performed to examine the differences between the conditions. ResultsIn comparison with standing still, participants showed lower n-back task accuracy while walking, with the worst performance from the road with obstacles. Spatiotemporal gait parameters, lower-extremity joint movements, and the relative changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO concentration levels were all significantly different across the task complexity and walking path conditions. While dual-tasking participants were found to flex their hips and knees less, leading to a slower gait speed, longer stride time, shorter step length, and greater gait variability than during normal walking. For narrow-road walking, smaller ankle dorsiflexion and larger hip flexion were observed, along with a reduced gait speed. Obstacle negotiation was mainly characterized by increased gait variability than other conditions. HbO levels appeared to be lower during dual-task walking than normal walking. Compared to wide and obstacle conditions, walking on

  15. Modelling Activities In Kinematics Understanding quantitative relations with the contribution of qualitative reasoning

    Orfanos, Stelios

    2010-01-01

    In Greek traditional teaching a lot of significant concepts are introduced with a sequence that does not provide the students with all the necessary information required to comprehend. We consider that understanding concepts and the relations among them is greatly facilitated by the use of modelling tools, taking into account that the modelling process forces students to change their vague, imprecise ideas into explicit causal relationships. It is not uncommon to find students who are able to solve problems by using complicated relations without getting a qualitative and in-depth grip on them. Researchers have already shown that students often have a formal mathematical and physical knowledge without a qualitative understanding of basic concepts and relations." The aim of this communication is to present some of the results of our investigation into modelling activities related to kinematical concepts. For this purpose, we have used ModellingSpace, an environment that was especially designed to allow students from eleven to seventeen years old to express their ideas and gradually develop them. The ModellingSpace enables students to build their own models and offers the choice of observing directly simulations of real objects and/or all the other alternative forms of representations (tables of values, graphic representations and bar-charts). The students -in order to answer the questions- formulate hypotheses, they create models, they compare their hypotheses with the representations of their models and they modify or create other models when their hypotheses did not agree with the representations. In traditional ways of teaching, students are educated to utilize formulas as the most important strategy. Several times the students recall formulas in order to utilize them, without getting an in-depth understanding on them. Students commonly use the quantitative type of reasoning, since it is primarily used in teaching, although it may not be fully understood by them

  16. Relativistic Kinematics

    Sahoo, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    This lecture note covers Relativistic Kinematics, which is very useful for the beginners in the field of high-energy physics. A very practical approach has been taken, which answers "why and how" of the kinematics useful for students working in the related areas.

  17. Motion constraint

    Raunhardt, Daniel; Boulic, Ronan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a hybrid postural control approach taking advantage of data-driven and goal-oriented methods while overcoming their limitations. In particular, we take advantage of the latent space characterizing a given motion database. We introduce a motion constraint operating in the latent space to benefit from its much smaller dimension compared to the joint space. This allows its transparent integration into a Prioritized Inverse Kinematics framework. If its priority is high t...

  18. A DOUBLE-RING ALGORITHM FOR MODELING SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: UNIFYING KINEMATIC DYNAMO MODELS AND SURFACE FLUX-TRANSPORT SIMULATIONS

    The emergence of tilted bipolar active regions (ARs) and the dispersal of their flux, mediated via processes such as diffusion, differential rotation, and meridional circulation, is believed to be responsible for the reversal of the Sun's polar field. This process (commonly known as the Babcock-Leighton mechanism) is usually modeled as a near-surface, spatially distributed α-effect in kinematic mean-field dynamo models. However, this formulation leads to a relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed which is opposite to that suggested by physical insight and predicted by surface flux-transport simulations. With this in mind, we present an improved double-ring algorithm for modeling the Babcock-Leighton mechanism based on AR eruption, within the framework of an axisymmetric dynamo model. Using surface flux-transport simulations, we first show that an axisymmetric formulation-which is usually invoked in kinematic dynamo models-can reasonably approximate the surface flux dynamics. Finally, we demonstrate that our treatment of the Babcock-Leighton mechanism through double-ring eruption leads to an inverse relationship between polar field strength and meridional flow speed as expected, reconciling the discrepancy between surface flux-transport simulations and kinematic dynamo models.

  19. Routine activities and alcohol use: constraints on outlet utilization.

    Gruenewald, P J; Treno, A J; Nephew, T M; Ponicki, W R

    1995-02-01

    Studies of consumers' use of alcohol beverage outlets have provided a basis for understanding drinking behaviors in different drinking environments. These studies have shown that drinking environments are related to both demographic and drinking pattern measures. Absent from these studies has been a theoretical basis on which to make predictions regarding drinking patterns and choices of drinking environments under the various social, economic, and environmental constraints typically confronting alcohol consumers. This study presents one such theoretical approach. The approach assumes that, in the context of individual preferences for alcohol, drinking choices are constrained by consumers' economic and time-energy budgets for consumption. All other things being equal, it is suggested that greater budgets for consumption will be related to greater alcohol use, quality of beverages purchased, amenity values of purchase locations, or all three. Because on-premise drinking entails greater economic costs, greater drinking levels will be related to lower utilization of on-premise establishments. The predictions of this approach were tested using data obtained from telephone surveys of consumers conducted in 1990 and 1991. The results showed that controlling for income, variables related to greater time-energy budgets for consumption (i.e., marital status and household composition) were related to greater consumption levels and greater utilization of on-premise establishments. Controlling for demographic measures, greater income was related to greater utilization of restaurants and increased beverage quality. Controlling for all other measures, frequencies of consumption were inversely related to consumption at on-premise establishments, reflecting the expected moderation in costs for heavier consumers on a limited alcohol budget. PMID:7771662

  20. Constraints on Braneworld Gravity Models from a Kinematic Limit on the Age of the Black Hole XTE J1118+480

    In braneworld gravity models with a finite anti-de Sitter space (AdS) curvature in the extra dimension, the AdS/conformal field theory correspondence leads to a prediction for the lifetime of astrophysical black holes that is significantly smaller than the Hubble time, for asymptotic curvatures that are consistent with current experiments. Using the recent measurements of the position, three-dimensional spatial velocity, and mass of the black hole XTE J1118+480, I calculate a lower limit on its kinematic age of ≥11 Myr (95% confidence). This translates into an upper limit for the asymptotic AdS curvature in the extra dimensions of <0.08 mm, which significantly improves the limit obtained by table top experiments of sub mm gravity

  1. Constraints on braneworld gravity models from a kinematic limit on the age of the black hole XTE J1118+480.

    Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2007-05-01

    In braneworld gravity models with a finite anti-de Sitter space (AdS) curvature in the extra dimension, the AdS/conformal field theory correspondence leads to a prediction for the lifetime of astrophysical black holes that is significantly smaller than the Hubble time, for asymptotic curvatures that are consistent with current experiments. Using the recent measurements of the position, three-dimensional spatial velocity, and mass of the black hole XTE J1118+480, I calculate a lower limit on its kinematic age of > or =11 Myr (95% confidence). This translates into an upper limit for the asymptotic AdS curvature in the extra dimensions of <0.08 mm, which significantly improves the limit obtained by table top experiments of sub mm gravity. PMID:17501556

  2. A self-centering active probing technique for kinematic parameter identification and verification of articulated arm coordinate measuring machines

    A crucial task in the procedure of identifying the parameters of a kinematic model of an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) or robot arm is the process of capturing data. In this paper a capturing data method is analyzed using a self-centering active probe, which drastically reduces the capture time and the required number of positions of the gauge as compared to the usual standard and manufacturer methods. The mathematical models of the self-centering active probe and AACMM are explained, as well as the mathematical model that links the AACMM global reference system to the probe reference system. We present a self-calibration method that will allow us to determine a homogeneous transformation matrix that relates the probe's reference system to the AACMM last reference system from the probing of a single sphere. In addition, a comparison between a self-centering passive probe and self-centering active probe is carried out to show the advantages of the latter in the procedures of kinematic parameter identification and verification of the AACMM

  3. On Implicit Active Constraints in Linear Semi-Infinite Programs with Unbounded Coefficients

    Goberna, M. A., E-mail: mgoberna@ua.es [Alicante University, Dep. of Statistics and Operations Research (Spain); Lancho, G. A., E-mail: lanchoga@mixteco.utm.mx [Universidad Tecnologica de Mixteca, Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas (Mexico); Todorov, M. I., E-mail: maxim.todorov@udlap.mx [UDLA, Dep. of Physics and Mathematics (Mexico); Vera de Serio, V. N., E-mail: vvera@uncu.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas, Instituto de Ciencias Basicas (Argentina)

    2011-04-15

    The concept of implicit active constraints at a given point provides useful local information about the solution set of linear semi-infinite systems and about the optimal set in linear semi-infinite programming provided the set of gradient vectors of the constraints is bounded, commonly under the additional assumption that there exists some strong Slater point. This paper shows that the mentioned global boundedness condition can be replaced by a weaker local condition (LUB) based on locally active constraints (active in a ball of small radius whose center is some nominal point), providing geometric information about the solution set and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type conditions for the optimal solution to be strongly unique. The maintaining of the latter property under sufficiently small perturbations of all the data is also analyzed, giving a characterization of its stability with respect to these perturbations in terms of the strong Slater condition, the so-called Extended-Nuernberger condition, and the LUB condition.

  4. Structure and kinematics of the broad-line regions in active galaxies from IUE variability data

    IUE archival data are used here to investigate the structure and kinematics of the broad-line regions (BLRs) in nine AGN. It is found that the centroid of the line-continuum cross-correlation functions (CCFs) can be determined with reasonable reliability. The errors in BLR size estimates from CCFs for irregularly sampled light curves are fairly well understood. BLRs are found to have small luminosity-weighted radii, and lines of high ionization tend to be emitted closer to the central source than lines of low ionization, especially for low-luminosity objects. The motion of the gas is gravity-dominated with both pure inflow and pure outflow of high-velocity gas being excluded at a high confidence level for certain geometries. 66 refs

  5. An Active Constraint Method for Distributed Routing, and Power Control in Wireless Networks

    Söllner Michael

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently transmitting data in wireless networks requires joint optimization of routing, scheduling, and power control. As opposed to the universal dual decomposition we present a method that solves this optimization problem by fully exploiting our knowledge of active constraints. The method still maintains main requirements such as optimality, distributed implementation, multiple path routing and per-hop error performance. To reduce the complexity of the whole problem, we separate scheduling from routing and power control, including it instead in the constraint set of the joint optimization problem. Apart from the mathematical framework we introduce a routing and power control decomposition algorithm that uses the active constraint method, and we give further details on its distributed application. For verification, we apply the distributed RPCD algorithm to examples of wireless mesh backhaul networks with fixed nodes. Impressive convergence results indicate that the distributed RPCD algorithm calculates the optimum solution in one decomposition step only.

  6. Modelado de Materiales Compuestos por Elementos Finitos usando Restricciones Cinemáticas Finite Element Modeling of Composite Materials using Kinematic Constraints

    Oscar E. Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este artículo es presentar simulaciones del comportamiento de materiales compuestos basado en restricciones cinemáticas entre las mismas fibras y entre las fibras y la resina circundante. En la revisión de literatura, los autores han encontrado que las restricciones cinemáticas no han sido plenamente explotadas para modelar materiales compuestos, probablemente debido a su alto costo computacional. El propósito de este articulo es exponer la implementación y resultados de tal modelo, usando Análisis por Elementos Finitos de restricciones geométricas prescritas a los nodos de la resina y las fibras. Las descripciones analíticas del comportamiento de materiales compuestos raramente aparecen. Muchas aproximaciones para describir materiales compuestos en capas son basadas en la teoría de funciones C1Z y C0 Z, tal como la Teoría Clásica de Capas (CLT. Estas teorías de funciones contienen significativas simplificaciones del material, especialmente para compuestos tejidos. Una aproximación hibrida para modelar materiales compuestos con Elementos Finitos (FEA fue desarrollada por Sidhu y Averill y adaptada por Li y Sherwood para materiales compuestos tejidos con polipropileno de vidrio.The purpose of this article is to present simulations of the behavior of composite materials based on kinematic restrictions among the fibers themselves and among fibers and the surrounding resine. In the literature review the authors have found that the kinematic restrictions have not been fully exploited for modeling composite materials, probably due to their high computational expense. The purpose of this article is to show the implementation and results of such a model, by using a Finite Element Analysis of geometric restrictions prescribed to the resine and fiber nodes. Closed analytic descriptions on behavior of layered composite materials are very rare. Many approaches to describe layered composite material are based on the theory of

  7. Determining inclinations of active galactic nuclei via their narrow-line region kinematics. II. Correlation with observed properties

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are axisymmetric systems to first order; their observed properties are likely strong functions of inclination with respect to our line of sight, yet the specific inclinations of all but a few AGNs are generally unknown. By determining the inclinations and geometries of nearby Seyfert galaxies using the kinematics of their narrow-line regions (NLRs) and comparing them with observed properties, we find strong correlations between inclination and total hydrogen column density, infrared color, and Hβ FWHM. These correlations provide evidence that the orientation of AGNs with respect to our line of sight affects how we perceive them beyond the Seyfert 1/2 dichotomy. They can also be used to constrain three-dimensional models of AGN components such as the broad-line region and torus. Additionally, we find weak correlations between AGN luminosity and several modeled NLR parameters, which suggests that the NLR geometry and kinematics are dependent to some degree on the AGN's radiation field.

  8. Barefoot vs common footwear: A systematic review of the kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity differences during walking.

    Franklin, Simon; Grey, Michael J; Heneghan, Nicola; Bowen, Laura; Li, François-Xavier

    2015-09-01

    Habitual footwear use has been reported to influence foot structure with an acute exposure being shown to alter foot position and mechanics. The foot is highly specialised thus these changes in structure/position could influence functionality. This review aims to investigate the effect of footwear on gait, specifically focussing on studies that have assessed kinematics, kinetics and muscle activity between walking barefoot and in common footwear. In line with PRISMA and published guidelines, a literature search was completed across six databases comprising Medline, EMBASE, Scopus, AMED, Cochrane Library and Web of Science. Fifteen of 466 articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in the review. All articles were assessed for methodological quality using a modified assessment tool based on the STROBE statement for reporting observational studies and the CASP appraisal tool. Walking barefoot enables increased forefoot spreading under load and habitual barefoot walkers have anatomically wider feet. Spatial-temporal differences including, reduced step/stride length and increased cadence, are observed when barefoot. Flatter foot placement, increased knee flexion and a reduced peak vertical ground reaction force at initial contact are also reported. Habitual barefoot walkers exhibit lower peak plantar pressures and pressure impulses, whereas peak plantar pressures are increased in the habitually shod wearer walking barefoot. Footwear particularly affects the kinematics and kinetics of gait acutely and chronically. Little research has been completed in older age populations (50+ years) and thus further research is required to better understand the effect of footwear on walking across the lifespan. PMID:26220400

  9. Self–reported constraints to physical activity participation among university students

    M. Dhurup; Garnett, A.

    2011-01-01

    Engagement in physical activity is recognised as an important factor contributing to positive health benefits. Despite the benefits associated with regular physical activity and its ability to improve health, there is little evidence to suggest that the prevalence of physical inactivity among university students is increasing. The objective of this study was to investigate students' participation in and constraints to participation in physical activity. The secondary objective of the study wa...

  10. A Constraint Satisfaction Neural Network and Heuristic Combined Approach for Concurrent Activities Scheduling

    YAN JiHong(闫纪红); WU Cheng(吴澄)

    2003-01-01

    Scheduling activities in concurrent product development process is of great sig-nificance to shorten development lead time and minimize the cost. Moreover, it can eliminate theunnecessary redesign periods and guarantee that serial activities can be executed as concurrently aspossible. This paper presents a constraint satisfaction neural network and heuristic combined ap-proach for concurrent activities scheduling. In the combined approach, the neural network is usedto obtain a feasible starting time of all the activities based on sequence constraints, the heuris-tic algorithm is used to obtain a feasible solution of the scheduling problem based on resourceconstraints. The feasible scheduling solution is obtained by a gradient optimization function. Sim-ulations have shown that the proposed combined approach is efficient and feasible with respect toconcurrent activities scheduling.

  11. Rational kinematics

    Angeles, Jorge

    1988-01-01

    A rational study of kinematics is a treatment of the subject based on invariants, i.e., quantities that remain essentially unchanged under a change of observer. An observer is understood to be a reference frame supplied with a clock (Truesdell 1966). This study will therefore include an introduction to invariants. The language of these is tensor analysis and multilinear algebra, both of which share many isomorphic relations, These subjects are treated in full detail in Ericksen (1960) and Bowen and Wang (1976), and hence will not be included here. Only a short account of notation and definitions will be presented. Moreover, definitions and basic concepts pertaining to the kinematics of rigid bodies will be also included. Although the kinematics of rigid bodies can be regarded as a particular case of the kinematics of continua, the former deserves attention on its own merits for several reasons. One of these is that it describes locally the motions undergone by continua. Another reason is that a whole area of ...

  12. Kinematic activity of gray wolf (Canis lupus) sperm in different extenders, added before or after centrifugation.

    Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Wang, Chong; Bauman, Karen; Agnew, Mary K; Lorton, Steven P; Callahan, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    We evaluated two approaches to improving in vitro wolf sperm survival. Both approaches aimed to reduce the exposure of sperm to prostatic fluid resulting from electroejaculation: (1) use of extender formulations recently developed for the domestic dog (the most closely related domestic species); and (2) dilution of ejaculate shortly after semen collection. Three commercial extenders were compared with the TRIS-based extender we had previously used. We also compared the effects on motility of adding extender immediately after collection to our previous protocol in which extender was added after centrifugation. Both subjective and objective (computer-assisted semen analysis program) kinematic measurements were made. Relatively minor differences were noted (and not in total or progressive motility) between the centrifugation protocols. Two of the commercial extenders resulted in significant improvement in motility over the TRIS-based extender and one of the other commercial extenders at 8 hours after collection (mean ± SEM; total motility was 68.3 ± 4.0% and 70.0 ± 4.0% compared with 53.3 ± 4.0% and 55.0 ± 4.0%, respectively; progressive motility 58.6 ± 5.4% and 57.1 ± 5.4% compared with 32.8 ± 5.4% and 39.3 ± 5.4%; P < 0.05). We inferred that components in two of the commercial dog extenders might provide more protection for wolf sperm, prolonging their motility. PMID:23427939

  13. Kinematics and excitation of the nuclear spiral in the active galaxy Arp 102B

    Couto, Guilherme S; Axon, David J; Robinson, Andrew; Kharb, Preeti; Riffel, Rogemar A

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional analysis of the gaseous excitation and kinematics of the inner 2.5 x 1.7 kpc^2 of the LINER/Seyfert 1 galaxy Arp 102B, from optical spectra obtained with the GMOS integral field spectrograph on the Gemini North telescope at a spatial resolution of 250 pc. Emission-line flux maps show the same two-armed nuclear spiral we have discovered in previous observations with the HST-ACS camera. One arm reaches 1 kpc to the east and the other 500 pc to the west, with a 8.4 GHz VLA bent radio jet correlating with the former. The gas density is highest (500 - 900 cm^(-3)) at the nucleus and in the northern border of the east arm, at a region where the radio jet seems to be deflected. Channel maps show blueshifts but also some redshifts at the eastern arm and jet location which can be interpreted as originated in the front and back walls of an outflow pushed by the radio jet, suggesting also that the outflow is launched close to the plane of the sky. We estimate a mass outflow rate along the ea...

  14. Joint kinematic calculation based on clinical direct kinematic versus inverse kinematic gait models.

    Kainz, H; Modenese, L; Lloyd, D G; Maine, S; Walsh, H P J; Carty, C P

    2016-06-14

    Most clinical gait laboratories use the conventional gait analysis model. This model uses a computational method called Direct Kinematics (DK) to calculate joint kinematics. In contrast, musculoskeletal modelling approaches use Inverse Kinematics (IK) to obtain joint angles. IK allows additional analysis (e.g. muscle-tendon length estimates), which may provide valuable information for clinical decision-making in people with movement disorders. The twofold aims of the current study were: (1) to compare joint kinematics obtained by a clinical DK model (Vicon Plug-in-Gait) with those produced by a widely used IK model (available with the OpenSim distribution), and (2) to evaluate the difference in joint kinematics that can be solely attributed to the different computational methods (DK versus IK), anatomical models and marker sets by using MRI based models. Eight children with cerebral palsy were recruited and presented for gait and MRI data collection sessions. Differences in joint kinematics up to 13° were found between the Plug-in-Gait and the gait 2392 OpenSim model. The majority of these differences (94.4%) were attributed to differences in the anatomical models, which included different anatomical segment frames and joint constraints. Different computational methods (DK versus IK) were responsible for only 2.7% of the differences. We recommend using the same anatomical model for kinematic and musculoskeletal analysis to ensure consistency between the obtained joint angles and musculoskeletal estimates. PMID:27139005

  15. Interactive inverse kinematics for human motion estimation

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Hauberg, Søren; Lapuyade, Jerome; Erleben, Kenny; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    We present an application of a fast interactive inverse kinematics method as a dimensionality reduction for monocular human motion estimation. The inverse kinematics solver deals efficiently and robustly with box constraints and does not suffer from shaking artifacts. The presented motion...... estimation system uses a single camera to estimate the motion of a human. The results show that inverse kinematics can significantly speed up the estimation process, while retaining a quality comparable to a full pose motion estimation system. Our novelty lies primarily in use of inverse kinematics to...

  16. [Interrelation of the kinematics of hindlimb movement and efferent activity in the decerebrate cat during scratching].

    Esipenko, V B

    1987-01-01

    Statistical dependence between parameters of hindlimb scratching movements and muscle electrical activity was studied in decerebrated cat during real scratching. Power of electrical signal to scratching and aiming muscles and duration of aiming muscle activity are determining factors of movement parameters (amplitude, velocity and phase duration). Experiments with limb deafferentation had shown that statistical dependences between movement parameters and muscle electrical activity reflect the peculiarities of the scratch generator functioning. Some investigated statistical dependences change under the afferent signal influence. PMID:3658041

  17. On Implicit Active Constraints in Linear Semi-Infinite Programs with Unbounded Coefficients

    The concept of implicit active constraints at a given point provides useful local information about the solution set of linear semi-infinite systems and about the optimal set in linear semi-infinite programming provided the set of gradient vectors of the constraints is bounded, commonly under the additional assumption that there exists some strong Slater point. This paper shows that the mentioned global boundedness condition can be replaced by a weaker local condition (LUB) based on locally active constraints (active in a ball of small radius whose center is some nominal point), providing geometric information about the solution set and Karush-Kuhn-Tucker type conditions for the optimal solution to be strongly unique. The maintaining of the latter property under sufficiently small perturbations of all the data is also analyzed, giving a characterization of its stability with respect to these perturbations in terms of the strong Slater condition, the so-called Extended-Nürnberger condition, and the LUB condition.

  18. EXAMINATION OF CONSTRAINTS ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITY PROGRAMS PARTICIPATION TO INDIVIDUALS WITH AUTISM

    İsmail AYDIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine perceptions of constraints on physical activity participation among people with autism. This qualitative study was conducted on 9 different family of people with autism who participating in physical activity program. The data were collected by using semi - structured interview form. The literature review was done with the purpose of preparing the interview questions and creating conceptual framework. A semi - structured form was developed that consists of 7 items and 7 themes. The data were collected by using face to face interview methods. The descriptive analyses were used to analyze the collected data. The analysis indicated that the most important co nstraints were the economical factors on physical activity participation. The most important reason for this occurring was the lack of such programs in the public schools or in institutions. In addition to, this services carried by only the private sector was the other important factor that affected this reason. Analysis also revealed that central government policies of individuals with autism was insufficient for the participation in such programs in the state (government contact and also does not meet t heir needs. As a result, economic difficulties of individuals with autism to participate in physical activity programs was considered the most important constraints. However, it can be concluded that state (government policies were inadequate that in the social life of individuals with autism use their potential in educational activities that support participation in physical activity programs .

  19. An Activity- Based Costing and Theory of Constraints Model for Product- Mix Decisions

    Gurses, Ayse Pinar

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to demonstrate the use of the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) approach together with the Theory of Constraints (TOC) philosophy in determining the optimal product-mix and restrictive bottlenecks of a company. The contribution of this thesis is a new product-mix decision model that uses activity-based cost information. This new model is proposed to be used with the TOC philosophy in order to improve the financial performance of a company. Four case studies, al...

  20. Robust fault-tolerant H∞ control of active suspension systems with finite-frequency constraint

    Wang, Rongrong; Jing, Hui; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Chen, Nan

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the robust fault-tolerant (FT) H∞ control problem of active suspension systems with finite-frequency constraint is investigated. A full-car model is employed in the controller design such that the heave, pitch and roll motions can be simultaneously controlled. Both the actuator faults and external disturbances are considered in the controller synthesis. As the human body is more sensitive to the vertical vibration in 4-8 Hz, robust H∞ control with this finite-frequency constraint is designed. Other performances such as suspension deflection and actuator saturation are also considered. As some of the states such as the sprung mass pitch and roll angles are hard to measure, a robust H∞ dynamic output-feedback controller with fault tolerant ability is proposed. Simulation results show the performance of the proposed controller.

  1. Singular divergence instability thresholds of kinematically constrained circulatory systems

    Static instability or divergence threshold of both potential and circulatory systems with kinematic constraints depends singularly on the constraints' coefficients. Particularly, the critical buckling load of the kinematically constrained Ziegler's pendulum as a function of two coefficients of the constraint is given by the Plücker conoid of degree n=2. This simple mechanical model exhibits a structural instability similar to that responsible for the Velikhov–Chandrasekhar paradox in the theory of magnetorotational instability.

  2. Lower Extremity Muscle Activation and Kinematics of Catchers When Throwing Using Various Squatting and Throwing Postures

    Yi-Chien Peng, Kuo-Cheng Lo, Lin-Hwa Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the differences in joint motions and muscle activities of the lower extremities involved in various squatting postures. The motion capture system with thirty-one reflective markers attached on participants was used for motion data collection. The electromyography system was applied over the quadriceps, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius muscles of the pivot and stride leg. The joint extension and flexion in wide squatting are greater than in general squatting (p = 0.005. Knee joint extension and flexion in general squatting are significantly greater than in wide squatting (p = 0.001. The adduction and abduction of the hip joint in stride passing are significantly greater than in step squatting (p = 0.000. Furthermore, the adduction and abduction of the knee joint in stride passing are also significantly greater than in step squatting (p = 0.000. When stride passing is performed, the muscle activation of the hamstring of the pivot foot in general squatting is significantly greater than in wide squatting (p < 0.05, and this difference continues to the stride period. Most catchers use a general or wide squatting width, exclusive of a narrow one. Therefore, the training design for strengthening the lower extremity muscles should consider the appropriateness of the common squat width to enhance squat-up performance. For lower limb muscle activation, wide squatting requires more active gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles. Baseball players should extend the knee angle of the pivot foot before catching the ball.

  3. Predicted knee kinematics and kinetics during functional activities using motion capture and musculoskeletal modelling in healthy older people

    Worsley, Peter; Stokes, Maria; Taylor, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of joint forces and moments is essential for comparisons between healthy people and those with pathological conditions, with observed changes at joints providing basis for a particular intervention. Currently the literature analysing both kinematics and kinetics at the knee has been limited to small samples, typically of young subjects or those who have undergone joint arthroplasty. In this study, we examined tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) kinematics and kinetics during gait, sit-stand-si...

  4. Validation of an electrogoniometry system as a measure of knee kinematics during activities of daily living

    Urwin, Samuel; Kader, Deiary; Caplan, Nick; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Stewart, Su

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The increasing use of electrogoniometry (ELG) in clinical research requires the validation of different instrumentation. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the concurrent validity of an ELG system during activities of daily living. Methods: Ten asymptomatic participants gave informed consent to participate. A Biometrics SG150 electrogoniometer was directly compared to a 12 camera three dimensional motion analysis system during walking, stair ascent, stair descent, s...

  5. Dynamics and causality constraints

    The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Causality in field theory are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equation, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away with deep implications to the nature of physicals interactions. (author)

  6. Dynamics and causality constraints

    De Souza, M M

    2000-01-01

    The physical meaning and the geometrical interpretation of causality implementation in classical field theories are discussed. Local causality are kinematical constraints dynamically implemented via solutions of the field equations, but in a limit of zero-distance from the field sources part of these constraints carries a dynamical content that explains old problems of classical electrodynamics away and implies on deep implications to the nature of physical interactions.

  7. Effects of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis on Kinematics and Kinetics of the Lower Extremities Call for Consequences in Physical Activities Recommendations

    M. Hartmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA patients (n=36 with symmetrical polyarticular joint involvement of the lower extremities and healthy controls (n=20 were compared concerning differences in kinematic, kinetic, and spatio-temporal parameters with 3D gait analysis. The aims of this study were to quantify the differences in gait between JIA patients and healthy controls and to provide data for more detailed sport activities recommendations. JIA-patients showed reduced walking speed and step length, strongly anterior tilted pelvis, reduced maximum hip extension, reduced knee extension during single support phase and reduced plantar flexion in push off. Additionally the roll-off procedure of the foot was slightly decelerated. The reduced push off motion in the ankle was confirmed by lower peaks in ankle moment and power. The gait of JIA-patients can be explained as a crouch-like gait with hyperflexion in hip and knee joints and less plantar flexion in the ankle. A preventive mobility workout would be recommendable to reduce these restrictions in the future. Advisable are sports with emphasis on extension in hip, knee, and ankle plantar flexion.

  8. Updated Kinematic Constraints on a Dark Disk

    Kramer, Eric David

    2016-01-01

    We update the method of the Holmberg & Flynn (2000) study, including an updated model of the Milky Way's interstellar gas, radial velocities, an updated reddening map, and a careful statistical analysis, to bound the allowed surface density and scale height of a dark disk. We pay careful attention to the self-consistency of the model, including the gravitational influence of the dark disk on other disk components, and to the net velocity of the tracer stars. We find that the data set exhibits a non-zero bulk velocity in the vertical direction as well as a displacement from the expected location at the Galactic midplane. If not properly accounted for, these features would bias the bound toward low dark disk mass. We therefore perform our analysis two ways. In the first, traditional method, we subtract the mean velocity and displacement from the tracers' phase space distributions. In the second method, we perform a non-equilibrium version of the HF method to derive a bound on the dark disk parameters for an...

  9. Accretion/Jet Activity and Narrow [O III] Kinematics in Young Radio Galaxies

    Wu, Qingwen; Humphrey, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We estimate black hole masses and Eddington ratios for a sample of 81 young radio galaxies (42 CSS +39 GPS). We find that the average black hole (BH) mass of these young radio galaxies is ~8.3, which is less than that of radio loud QSOs and low redshift radio galaxies. The CSS/GPS sources have relatively high Eddington ratios, with an average value of =-0.75, which are similar to those of narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies (NLS1s). This suggests that young radio galaxies may not only be in the early stages of their radio activity, but also in the early stage of their accretion activity. We find that the young radio galaxies as a class deviate systematically from M_bh-\\sigma relation defined by nearby inactive galaxies, when using [O III] as a surrogate for stellar velocity dispersion, \\sigma_* . We also find that the deviation of the [O III] line width is correlated with the Eddington ratio and sources with Lbol/LEdd~1 have the largest deviations, which are similar to those of radio quiet QSOs/NLS1s (radio jets i...

  10. Decoupled Closed-Form Solution for Humanoid Lower Limb Kinematics

    Alejandro Said

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an explicit, omnidirectional, analytical, and decoupled closed-form solution for the lower limb kinematics of the humanoid robot NAO. The paper starts by decoupling the position and orientation analysis from the overall Denavit-Hartenberg (DH transformation matrices. Here, the joint activation sequence for the DH matrices is based on the geometry of a triangle. Furthermore, the implementation of a forward and a reversed kinematic analysis for the support and swing phase equations is developed to avoid matrix inversion. The allocation of constant transformations allows the position and orientation end-coordinate systems to be aligned with each other. Also, the redefinition of the DH transformations and the use of constraints allow decoupling the shared DOF between the legs and the torso. Finally, a geometric approach to avoid the singularities during the walking process is indicated. Numerical data is presented along with an experimental implementation to prove the validity of the analytical results.

  11. Constraints on the outer radius of the broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei

    Landt, Hermine; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Here we present observational evidence that the broad emission line region (BELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally has an outer boundary. This was already clear for sources with an obvious transition between the broad and narrow components of their emission lines. We show that the narrow component of the higher-order Paschen lines is absent in all sources, revealing a broad emission line profile with a broad, flat top. This indicates that the BELR is kinematically separate from the narrow emission line region. We use the virial theorem to estimate the BELR outer radius from the flat top width of the unblended profiles of the strongest Paschen lines, Pa alpha and Pa beta, and find that it scales with the ionising continuum luminosity roughly as expected from photoionisation theory. The value of the incident continuum photon flux resulting from this relationship corresponds to that required for dust sublimation. A flat-topped broad emission line profile is produced by both a spherical gas distribution ...

  12. Parallel kinematics type, kinematics, and optimal design

    Liu, Xin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Parallel Kinematics- Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design presents the results of 15 year's research on parallel mechanisms and parallel kinematics machines. This book covers the systematic classification of parallel mechanisms (PMs) as well as providing a large number of mechanical architectures of PMs available for use in practical applications. It focuses on the kinematic design of parallel robots. One successful application of parallel mechanisms in the field of machine tools, which is also called parallel kinematics machines, has been the emerging trend in advanced machine tools. The book describes not only the main aspects and important topics in parallel kinematics, but also references novel concepts and approaches, i.e. type synthesis based on evolution, performance evaluation and optimization based on screw theory, singularity model taking into account motion and force transmissibility, and others.   This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and postgraduates or above with interes...

  13. The Origin of Double-peaked Narrow Lines in Active Galactic Nuclei II: Kinematic Classifications for the Population at z < 0.1

    Nevin, Rebecca; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Barrows, R Scott; Cooper, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present optical longslit observations of the complete sample of 71 Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked narrow emission lines at $z < 0.1$ in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Double-peaked emission lines are produced by a variety of mechanisms including disk rotation, kpc-scale dual AGNs, and NLR kinematics (outflows or inflows). We develop a novel kinematic classification technique to determine the nature of these objects using longslit spectroscopy alone. We determine that 86% of the double-peaked profiles are produced by moderate luminosity AGN outflows, 6% are produced by rotation, and 8% are ambiguous. While we are unable to directly identify dual AGNs with longslit data alone, we explore their potential kinematic classifications with this method. We also find a positive correlation between the narrow-line region (NLR) size and luminosity of the AGN NLRs (R$_{\\mathrm{NLR}}\\propto \\; {\\mathrm{L}_{\\mathrm{[OIII]}}}^{0.21 \\pm 0.05}$), indicating a clumpy two-zone ionization model for t...

  14. 3D musculo-skeletal finite element analysis of the foot kinematics under muscle activation with and without ankle arthrodesis

    Perrier, Antoine; Bucki, Marek; Luboz, Vincent; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Payan, Yohan

    2015-01-01

    The choice between arthrodesis and arthroplasty in the context of advanced ankle arthrosis remains a highly disputed topic in the field of foot and ankle surgery. Arthrodesis, however, represents the most popular option. Biomechanical modeling has been widely used to investigate static loading of cadaveric feet as well as consequences of arthrodesis on bony structures. Although foot kinematics has been studied using motion analysis, this approach lacks accuracy in capturing internal joints mo...

  15. Geometric and kinematic variations along the active Pernicana fault: Implication for the dynamics of Mount Etna NE flank (Italy)

    Bonforte, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Branca, S.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia; Palano, M.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Catania, Catania, Italia

    2007-01-01

    Geological and structural analyses and ground deformation measurements performed along the eastern portion of the Pernicana fault system and its splay segments allow the structural setting and the kinematic behaviour of the fault to be defined. In addition, the interrelationship between the deformation style of fault segments and the variations of the volcanic pile thickness along the fault strike are investigated using detailed sedimentary basement data. Brittle deformation dominate...

  16. About the kinematics of spinning particles

    Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of the 4-velocity vμ for spinning particles entails new kinematical properties for v2. The well-know constraint (identically true for scalar particles, but entering also the Dirac theory, and assumed a priori in all spinning particle models) Pμvμ=m is here derived in a self-consistent way

  17. Effectiveness of a passive-active vibration isolation system with actuator constraints

    Sun, Lingling; Sun, Wei; Song, Kongjie; Hansen, Colin H.

    2014-05-01

    In the prediction of active vibration isolation performance, control force requirements were ignored in previous work. This may limit the realization of theoretically predicted isolation performance if control force of large magnitude cannot be supplied by actuators. The behavior of a feed-forward active isolation system subjected to actuator output constraints is investigated. Distributed parameter models are developed to analyze the system response, and to produce a transfer matrix for the design of an integrated passive-active isolation system. Cost functions comprising a combination of the vibration transmission energy and the sum of the squared control forces are proposed. The example system considered is a rigid body connected to a simply supported plate via two passive-active isolation mounts. Vertical and transverse forces as well as a rotational moment are applied at the rigid body, and resonances excited in elastic mounts and the supporting plate are analyzed. The overall isolation performance is evaluated by numerical simulation. The simulation results are then compared with those obtained using unconstrained control strategies. In addition, the effects of waves in elastic mounts are analyzed. It is shown that the control strategies which rely on unconstrained actuator outputs may give substantial power transmission reductions over a wide frequency range, but also require large control force amplitudes to control excited vibration modes of the system. Expected power transmission reductions for modified control strategies that incorporate constrained actuator outputs are considerably less than typical reductions with unconstrained actuator outputs. In the frequency range in which rigid body modes are present, the control strategies can only achieve 5-10 dB power transmission reduction, when control forces are constrained to be the same order of the magnitude as the primary vertical force. The resonances of the elastic mounts result in a notable increase

  18. JFKengine: A Jacobian and Forward Kinematics Generator

    Fischer, K.N.

    2003-02-13

    During robot path planning and control the equations that describe the robot motions are determined and solved. Historically these expressions were derived analytically off-line. For robots that must adapt to their environment or perform a wide range of tasks, a way is needed to rapidly re-derive these expressions to take into account the robot kinematic changes, such as when a tool is added to the end-effector. The JFKengine software was developed to automatically produce the expressions representing the manipulator arm motion, including the manipulator arm Jacobian and the forward kinematic expressions. Its programming interface can be used in conjunction with robot simulation software or with robot control software. Thus, it helps to automate the process of configuration changes for serial robot manipulators. If the manipulator undergoes a geometric change, such as tool acquisition, then JFKengine can be invoked again from the control or simulation software, passing it parameters for the new arm configuration. This report describes the automated processes that are implemented by JFKengine to derive the kinematic equations and the programming interface by which it is invoked. Then it discusses the tree data structure that was chosen to store the expressions, followed by several examples of portions of expressions as represented in the tree. The C++ classes and their methods that implement the expression differentiation and evaluation operations are described. The algorithms used to construct the Jacobian and forward kinematic equations using these basic building blocks are then illustrated. The activity described in this report is part of a larger project entitled ''Multi-Optimization Criteria-Based Robot Behavioral Adaptability and Motion Planning'' that focuses on the development of a methodology for the generalized resolution of robot motion equations with time-varying configurations, constraints, and task objective criteria. A specific

  19. Effects of soft tissue artifacts on differentiating kinematic differences between natural and replaced knee joints during functional activity.

    Lin, Cheng-Chung; Lu, Tung-Wu; Lu, Hsuan-Lun; Kuo, Mei-Ying; Hsu, Horng-Chaung

    2016-05-01

    Functional performance of total knee replacement (TKR) is often assessed using skin marker-based stereophotogrammetry, which can be affected by soft tissue artifacts (STA). The current study aimed to compare the STA and their effects on the kinematics of the knee between twelve patients with TKR and twelve healthy controls during sit-to-stand, and to assess the effects of STA on the statistical between-group comparisons. Each subject performed the sit-to-stand task while motions of the skin markers and the knees were measured by a motion capture system integrated with a three-dimensional fluoroscopy technique. The bone motions measured by the three-dimensional fluoroscopy were taken as the gold standard, with respect to which the STA of the markers were obtained. The STA were found to affect the calculated segmental poses and knee kinematics between the groups differently. The STA resulted in artefactual posterior displacements of the knee joint center, with magnitudes significantly greater in TKR than controls (ptrue between-group differences in the anterior-posterior translation and internal/external rotation of knee while leading to false significant between-group differences in the abduction/adduction and proximal-distal translation. PMID:27131194

  20. Phase development in conventional and active belite cement pastes by Rietveld analysis and chemical constraints

    High belite cements may be an alternative to reduce CO2 emissions. Although CO2 emissions may be depleted up to 10%, unfortunately, the hydration reactivity of belite phases is slow which leads to low mechanical strengths at early ages. In order to enhance their hydraulic reactivity, the activation of these cements by doping with alkaline oxides has been proposed. Here, we have synthesised a laboratory belite clinker without activation (47 wt.% of β-C2S and 19 wt.% of αH'-C2S) and two alkaline oxide activated clinkers (one with 13 wt.% of β-C2S, 24 wt.% of αH'-C2S and 19 wt.% of α-C2S; and the second with 12 wt.% of β-C2S, 42 wt.% of αH'-C2S and 5 wt.% of α-C2S). We have also developed a methodology to analyse quantitatively the phase evolution of cement pastes and we have applied it to these high belite cements. Rietveld quantitative phase analysis of synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data, together with chemical constraints, is used to determine the phase development up to 1 year of hydration in the belite cement pastes. β-C2S almost does not react during the first 3 months, meanwhile αH'-C2S reacts on average more than 50% in the same period. Moreover, the degree of reaction of α-C2S is slightly larger (on average about 70% after three months) than that of αH'-C2S. Full phase analyses are reported and discussed including the time evolution of amorphous phases and free water.

  1. Kinematics, Dynamics, and the Structure of Physical Theory

    Curiel, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Every physical theory has (at least) two different forms of mathematical equations to represent its target systems: the dynamical (equations of motion) and the kinematical (kinematical constraints). Kinematical constraints are differentiated from equations of motion by the fact that their particular form is fixed once and for all, irrespective of the interactions the system enters into. By contrast, the particular form of a system's equations of motion depends essentially on the particular interaction the system enters into. All contemporary accounts of the structure and semantics of physical theory treat dynamics, i.e., the equations of motion, as the most important feature of a theory for the purposes of its philosophical analysis. I argue to the contrary that it is the kinematical constraints that determine the structure and empirical content of a physical theory in the most important ways: they function as necessary preconditions for the appropriate application of the theory; they differentiate types of p...

  2. Kinematically Detected Halo Streams

    Smith, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Clues to the origins and evolution of our Galaxy can be found in the kinematics of stars around us. Remnants of accreted satellite galaxies produce over- densities in velocity-space, which can remain coherent for much longer than spatial over-densities. This chapter reviews a number of studies that have hunted for these accretion relics, both in the nearby solar-neighborhood and the more-distant stellar halo. Many observational surveys have driven this field forwards, from early work with the Hipparcos mission, to contemporary surveys like RAVE & SDSS. This active field continues to flourish, providing many new discoveries, and will be revolutionised as the Gaia mission delivers precise proper motions for a billion stars in our Galaxy.

  3. Anticipatory kinematics and muscle activity preceding transitions from level-ground walking to stair ascent and descent.

    Peng, Joshua; Fey, Nicholas P; Kuiken, Todd A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2016-02-29

    The majority of fall-related accidents are during stair ambulation-occurring commonly at the top and bottom stairs of each flight, locations in which individuals are transitioning to stairs. Little is known about how individuals adjust their biomechanics in anticipation of walking-stair transitions. We identified the anticipatory stride mechanics of nine able-bodied individuals as they approached transitions from level ground walking to stair ascent and descent. Unlike prior investigations of stair ambulation, we analyzed two consecutive "anticipation" strides preceding the transitions strides to stairs, and tested a comprehensive set of kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) data from both the leading and trailing legs. Subjects completed ten trials of baseline overground walking and ten trials of walking to stair ascent and descent. Deviations relative to baseline were assessed. Significant changes in mechanics and EMG occurred in the earliest anticipation strides analyzed for both ascent and descent transitions. For stair descent, these changes were consistent with observed reductions in walking speed, which occurred in all anticipation strides tested. For stair ascent, subjects maintained their speed until the swing phase of the latest anticipation stride, and changes were found that would normally be observed for decreasing speed. Given the timing and nature of the observed changes, this study has implications for enhancing intent recognition systems and evaluating fall-prone or disabled individuals, by testing their abilities to sense upcoming transitions and decelerate during locomotion. PMID:26830440

  4. Highly damped kinematic coupling for precision instruments

    Hale, Layton C. (Livermore, CA); Jensen, Steven A. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A highly damped kinematic coupling for precision instruments. The kinematic coupling provides support while causing essentially no influence to its nature shape, with such influences coming, for example, from manufacturing tolerances, temperature changes, or ground motion. The coupling uses three ball-cone constraints, each combined with a released flexural degree of freedom. This arrangement enables a gain of higher load capacity and stiffness, but can also significantly reduce the friction level in proportion to the ball radius divided by the distance between the ball and the hinge axis. The blade flexures reduces somewhat the stiffness of the coupling and provides an ideal location to apply constrained-layer damping which is accomplished by attaching a viscoelastic layer and a constraining layer on opposite sides of each of the blade flexures. The three identical ball-cone flexures provide a damped coupling mechanism to kinematically support the projection optics system of the extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system, or other load-sensitive apparatus.

  5. Determination of active units with different kinematic property and their activity pattern in North China based on the data from GPS remeasurements

    杨国华; 韩月萍; 张凤兰

    2001-01-01

    Based on the high-accuracy data obtained from the GPS measurements carried out in 1992, 1995 and 1996, the isochronous active units with different kinematic property inside the North China area have been distinguished, 4 active units and 1 transition zone with distinct differential movement have been determined. They are Ordos-Yinshan unit, Yanshan unit, Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong (Jin-Ji-Lu) unit, Jiaodong-Liaoning-Shandong (Jiao-Liao-Lu) unit and Yanshan-Hebei (Yan-Ji) transition zone. The relative movements among the neighboring units in this period have been given. ① The compressive movement between Ordos-Yinshan unit and Yanshan unit is not obvious with an amount of 0.4±1.3 mm/a. ② Jin-Ji-Lu unit moves E40°S off the Ordos-Yinshan unit and the magnitude is 4.4±1.0 mm/a. ③ Relative to the Yan-Ji transition zone of differential movement, Yanshan unit shifts W38°N with a value of 2.4±1.3 mm/a and Jin-Ji-Lu unit moves eastward 35° by south with an amount of 2.3±0.9 mm/a. ④ Jin-Ji-Lu unit has a tensional left-lateral movement of 4.7±1.4 mm/a in the direction of E37°S relative to Yanshan unit. ⑤ Some area near Tanlu belt which is located in the southern part of Jin-Ji-Lu block has a southward movement 14° by west with a magnitude of 1.5±1.1 mm/a off the Jin-Ji-Lu unit. ⑥ Relative to Jin-Ji-Lu unit, Jiao-Liao-Lu unit has a trend of clockwise movement with a tensional right-lateral motion at the north end which neighbors Yanshan unit and a compressive motion at the south end. It should be noted that the errors given in the paper are obtained based on the divergence among the displacements of the sites in the unit, rather than the value calculated from the displacement error of the sites. The analyzed results indicate that: ① Shanxi tectonic zone and Yan-Ji transition zone are the major tectonic active zones to show the frame and magnitude of interior relative movement in North China area, and others are the secondary tectonic active zones; ② The

  6. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: An explorative study

    Marieke G . M. Kloosterman, PT, MSc

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI use arm support (gravity compensation; however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5° during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°. Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%, anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%, posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%, and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%. Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy should be further investigated with a larger population.

  7. Influence of gravity compensation on kinematics and muscle activation patterns during reach and retrieval in subjects with cervical spinal cord injury: an explorative study.

    Kloosterman, Marieke G M; Snoek, Govert J; Kouwenhoven, Mirjam; Nene, Anand V; Jannink, Michiel J A

    2010-01-01

    Many interventions in upper-limb rehabilitation after cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI) use arm support (gravity compensation); however, its specific effects on kinematics and muscle activation characteristics in subjects with a CSCI are largely unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional explorative study to study these effects. Nine subjects with a CSCI performed two goal-directed arm movements (maximal reach, reach and retrieval) with and without gravity compensation. Angles at elbow and shoulder joints and muscle activation were measured and compared. Seven subjects reduced elbow extension (range 1.8°-4.5°) during the maximal reaching task with gravity compensation. In the reach and retrieval task with gravity compensation, all subjects decreased elbow extension (range 0.1°-11.0°). Eight subjects executed movement closer to the body. Regarding muscle activation, gravity compensation did not influence timing; however, the amplitude of activation decreased, especially in antigravity muscles, namely mean change +/- standard deviation of descending part of trapezius (18.2% +/- 37.5%), anterior part of deltoid (37.7% +/- 16.7%), posterior part of deltoid (32.0% +/- 13.9%), and long head biceps (49.6% +/- 20.0%). Clinical implications for the use of gravity compensation in rehabilitation (during activities of daily living or exercise therapy) should be further investigated with a larger population. PMID:21110258

  8. SOME DUAL KINEMATIC FORMULAS

    2007-01-01

    In this article, some kinematic formulas for dual quermassintegral of star bodies and for chord power integrals of convex bodies are established by using dual mixed volumes. These formulas are the extensions of the fundamental kinematic formula involving quermassintegral to the case of dual quermassintegral and chord power integrals.

  9. Inverse Kinematics using Quaternions

    Henriksen, Knud; Erleben, Kenny; Engell-Nørregård, Morten

    In this project I describe the status of inverse kinematics research, with the focus firmly on the methods that solve the core problem. An overview of the different methods are presented Three common methods used in inverse kinematics computation have been chosen as subject for closer inspection....

  10. Kinematics theory and applications

    Wittenburg, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The book deals with kinematics of mechanisms. It focuses on a solid theoretical foundation and on mathematical methods applicable to the solution of problems of very diverse nature. Applications are demonstrated in a large number of fully worked-out problems.  In kinematics a wide variety of mathematical tools is applicable. In this book, wherever possible vector equations are formulated instead of lengthy scalar coordinate equations. The principle of transference is applied to problems of very diverse nature. 15 chapters of the book are devoted to spatial kinematics and three chapters to planar kinematics. In Chapt. 19 nonlinear dynamics equations of motion are formulated for general spatial mechanisms. Nearly one half of the book is dealing with position theory and the other half with motion. The book is intended for use as reference book for researchers and as textbook in advanced courses on kinematics of mechanisms.

  11. About the kinematics of spinning particles

    Salesi, Giovanni; Recami, Erasmo

    1996-01-01

    Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of the 4-velocity v^mu for spinning particles entails new kinematical properties for v^2. The well-known constraint (identically true for scalar particles, but entering also the Dirac theory, and assumed a priori in all spinning particle models) p_mu v^mu = m is here derived in a self-consistent way.

  12. Kinematics of syn- and post-exhumational shear zones at Lago di Cignana (Western Alps, Italy): constraints on the exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (ultra)high-pressure rocks and deformation along the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust

    Kirst, Frederik; Leiss, Bernd

    2016-03-01

    Kinematic analyses of shear zones at Lago di Cignana in the Italian Western Alps were used to constrain the structural evolution of units from the Piemont-Ligurian oceanic realm (Zermatt-Saas and Combin zones) and the Adriatic continental margin (Dent Blanche nappe) during Palaeogene syn- and post-exhumational deformation. Exhumation of Zermatt-Saas (U)HP rocks to approximately lower crustal levels at ca. 39 Ma occurred during normal-sense top-(S)E shearing under epidote-amphibolite-facies conditions. Juxtaposition with the overlying Combin zone along the Combin Fault at mid-crustal levels occurred during greenschist-facies normal-sense top-SE shearing at ca. 38 Ma. The scarcity of top-SE kinematic indicators in the hanging wall of the Combin Fault probably resulted from strain localization along the uppermost Zermatt-Saas zone and obliteration by subsequent deformation. A phase of dominant pure shear deformation around 35 Ma affected units in the direct footwall and hanging wall of the Combin Fault. It is interpreted to reflect NW-SE crustal elongation during updoming of the nappe stack as a result of underthrusting of European continental margin units and the onset of continental collision. This phase was partly accompanied and followed by ductile bulk top-NW shearing, especially at higher structural levels, which transitioned into semi-ductile to brittle normal-sense top-NW deformation due to Vanzone phase folding from ca. 32 Ma onwards. Our structural observations suggest that syn-exhumational deformation is partly preserved within units and shear zones exposed at Lago di Cignana but also that the Combin Fault and Dent Blanche Basal Thrust experienced significant post-exhumational deformation reworking and overprinting earlier structures.

  13. Global-local optimization of flapping kinematics in hovering flight

    Ghommem, Mehdi

    2013-06-01

    The kinematics of a hovering wing are optimized by combining the 2-d unsteady vortex lattice method with a hybrid of global and local optimization algorithms. The objective is to minimize the required aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. The hybrid optimization is used to efficiently navigate the complex design space due to wing-wake interference present in hovering aerodynamics. The flapping wing is chosen so that its chord length and flapping frequency match the morphological and flight properties of two insects with different masses. The results suggest that imposing a delay between the different oscillatory motions defining the flapping kinematics, and controlling the way through which the wing rotates at the end of each half stroke can improve aerodynamic power under a lift constraint. Furthermore, our optimization analysis identified optimal kinematics that agree fairly well with observed insect kinematics, as well as previously published numerical results.

  14. Scheduling a maintenance activity under skills constraints to minimize total weighted tardiness and late tasks

    Djalal Hedjazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Skill management is a key factor in improving effectiveness of industrial companies, notably their maintenance services. The problem considered in this paper concerns scheduling of maintenance tasks under resource (maintenance teams constraints. This problem is generally known as unrelated parallel machine scheduling. We consider the problem with a both objectives of minimizing total weighted tardiness (TWT and number of tardiness tasks. Our interest is focused particularly on solving this problem under skill constraints, which each resource has a skill level. So, we propose a new efficient heuristic to obtain an approximate solution for this NP-hard problem and demonstrate his effectiveness through computational experiments. This heuristic is designed for implementation in a static maintenance scheduling problem (with unequal release dates, processing times and resource skills, while minimizing objective functions aforementioned.

  15. Integrating active sensing into reactive synthesis with temporal logic constraints under partial observations

    Fu, Jie; Topcu, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of online reactive planning with sensing actions for systems with temporal logic constraints in partially observable and dynamic environments. With incomplete information on the dynamic environment, reactive controller synthesis amounts to solving a two-player game with partial observations, which has impractically computational complexity. To alleviate the high computational burden, online replanning via sensing actions avoids solving the strategy in the reactive syst...

  16. Constraint Differentiation

    Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander; Basin, David; Viganò, Luca

    2010-01-01

    We introduce constraint differentiation, a powerful technique for reducing search when model-checking security protocols using constraint-based methods. Constraint differentiation works by eliminating certain kinds of redundancies that arise in the search space when using constraints to represent...... experimentation. Our results show that constraint differentiation substantially reduces search and considerably improves the performance of OFMC, enabling its application to a wider class of problems....

  17. Rates and kinematics of active shortening along the eastern Qilian Shan, China, inferred from deformed fluvial terraces

    Hu, Xiaofei; Pan, Baotian; Kirby, Eric; Gao, Hongshan; Hu, Zhenbo; Cao, Bo; Geng, Haopeng; Li, Qingyang; Zhang, Guoliang

    2015-12-01

    In the eastern Qilian Shan, a flight of fluvial terraces developed along the Jinta River valley are deformed across the Nanying anticline. Four individual fluvial terraces are preserved at different elevations above the river, and higher terrace treads are draped by systematically thicker aeolian loess. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of deposits at the base of the loess provides constraints on the timing of surface abandonment; terraces were abandoned at 69 ± 4 ka B.P. (T4), 57 ± 4 ka B.P. (T3), and between 34 ± 3 ka B.P. (T2), respectively. Differential GPS measurement of the terrace profile across the anticline allows reconstruction of subsurface fault geometry; we model terrace deformation above a listric thrust fault with a tip line at 2.2 ± 0.1 km depth and whose dip shallows systematically to 23 ± 3° at depth of 5.8 ± 1.1 km. Combining terrace ages with this model of fault geometry, we estimate a shortening rate of 0.8 ± 0.2 mm/a across the Nanying fold and a shortening rate of ~0.1 mm/a across the mountain front fault since ~70 ka B.P. This rate suggests that the frontal fault system along the eastern Qilian Shan accomplishes crustal shortening at rates of approximately 0.9 ± 0.3 mm/a during late Pleistocene time.

  18. Advances in robot kinematics

    Khatib, Oussama

    2014-01-01

    The topics addressed in this book cover the whole range of kinematic analysis, synthesis and design and consider robotic systems possessing serial, parallel and cable driven mechanisms. The robotic systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained.  The fifty-six contributions report the latest results in robot kinematics with emphasis on emerging areas such as design and control of humanoids or humanoid subsystems. The book is of interest to researchers wanting to bring their knowledge up to date regarding modern topics in one of the basic disciplines in robotics, which relates to the essential property of robots, the motion of mechanisms.

  19. Computational neural learning formalisms for manipulator inverse kinematics

    Gulati, Sandeep; Barhen, Jacob; Iyengar, S. Sitharama

    1989-01-01

    An efficient, adaptive neural learning paradigm for addressing the inverse kinematics of redundant manipulators is presented. The proposed methodology exploits the infinite local stability of terminal attractors - a new class of mathematical constructs which provide unique information processing capabilities to artificial neural systems. For robotic applications, synaptic elements of such networks can rapidly acquire the kinematic invariances embedded within the presented samples. Subsequently, joint-space configurations, required to follow arbitrary end-effector trajectories, can readily be computed. In a significant departure from prior neuromorphic learning algorithms, this methodology provides mechanisms for incorporating an in-training skew to handle kinematics and environmental constraints.

  20. Are communication activities shaped by environmental constraints in reverberating and absorbing forest habitats?

    Mathevon, Nicolas; Aubin, Thierry; Dabelsteen, Torben;

    2004-01-01

    energy as well as qualitative modifications. The aim of this paper is to briefly review the different strategies used by birds to manage with these constraints. At the emitter’s level, an adapted emission behavior which takes into account both the physical heterogeneities of the forest environment and......In the dense vegetation of temperate or tropical forests, communication processes are constrained by propagation-induced modifications of the transmitted sounds. The presence of leaves, trunks and branches induces important sound reverberation and absorption leading to diminution of the signal...... behavior (listening post) and a great tolerance to sound degradation during the decoding process are the keys to an optimal communication process....

  1. Symbolic derivation of bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels

    Wang Everett X.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bicycle kinematics with toroidal wheels is presented in this paper. Using symbolic mathematic tool Maple, we obtain two holonomic and four nonholonomic constraint equations due to front and rear wheels of a bicycle. We show that the two holonomic constraints cannot be expressed in quartic form for bicycle rear body pitch angle unless the minor (crown radius of the torus are the same for both the front and rear wheels. In addition, we show that all the constraints can be written in differential form, from which a constraint matrix is constructed, according to standard procedure for developing dynamics in robotics.

  2. The effects on Kinematics and Muscle Activity of Walking in a Robotic Gait Trainer During Zero-Force Control

    Asseldonk, van Edwin H.F.; Veneman, Jan F.; Ekkelenkamp, Ralf; Buurke, Jaap H.; Helm, van der Frans C.T.; Kooij, van der Herman

    2008-01-01

    “Assist as needed” control algorithms promote activity of patients during robotic gait training. Implementing these requires a free walking mode of a device, as unassisted motions should not be hindered. The goal of this study was to assess the normality of walking in the free walking mode of the LO

  3. Inverse relationship between the complexity of midfoot kinematics and muscle activation in patients with medial tibial stress syndrome

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Samani, Afshin; Olesen, Christian Gammelgaard; Kersting, Uwe G.; Madeleine, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a common overuse injury characterized by pain located on the medial side of the lower leg during weight bearing activities such as gait. The purpose of this study was to apply linear and nonlinear methods to compare the structure of variability of midfoot kinemati...

  4. Sub-milliarcsecond Imaging of Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei III. Kinematics of Parsec-Scale Radio Jets

    Kellermann, K I; Homan, D C; Vermeulen, R C; Cohen, M H; Ros, E; Kadler, M; Zensus, J A; Kovalev, Y Y

    2004-01-01

    We report the results of a 15 GHz (2 cm) multi-epoch VLBA program, begun in 1994 to study the outflow in radio jets ejected from quasars and active galaxies. The observed flow of 208 distinct features measured in 110 quasars, active galaxies, and BL Lac objects shows highly collimated relativistic motion with apparent transverse velocities typically between zero and about 15c, with a tail extending up to about 34c. Within individual jets, different features appear to move with a similar characteristic velocity which may represent an underlying continuous jet flow, but we also see some stationary and even apparently inward moving features which co-exist with the main features. Comparison of our observations with published data at other wavelengths suggests that there is a systematic decrease in apparent velocity with increasing wavelength, probably because the observations at different wavelengths sample different parts of the jet structure. The observed distribution of linear velocities is not consistent with...

  5. A Tale of Two Narrow-Line Regions: Ionization, Kinematics, and Spectral Energy Distributions for a Local Pair of Merging Obscured Active Galaxies

    Hainline, Kevin N; Chen, Chien-Ting; Carroll, Christopher M; Jones, Mackenzie L; Zervos, Alexandros S; Goulding, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    We explore the gas ionization and kinematics, as well as the optical--IR spectral energy distributions for UGC 11185, a nearby pair of merging galaxies hosting obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs), also known as SDSS J181611.72+423941.6 and J181609.37+423923.0 (J1816NE and J1816SW, $z \\approx 0.04$). Due to the wide separation between these interacting galaxies ($\\sim 23$ kpc), observations of these objects provide a rare glimpse of the concurrent growth of supermassive black holes at an early merger stage. We use BPT line diagnostics to show that the full extent of the narrow line emission in both galaxies is photoionized by an AGN and confirm the existence of a 10-kpc-scale ionization cone in J1816NE, while in J1816SW the AGN narrow-line region is much more compact (1--2 kpc) and relatively undisturbed. Our observations also reveal the presence of ionized gas that nearly spans the entire distance between the galaxies which is likely in a merger-induced tidal stream. In addition, we carry out a spectral an...

  6. Planet Host Stars: Mass, Age and Kinematics

    2002-01-01

    We determine the mass, age and kinematics of 51 extra-solar planet host stars. The results are then used to search for signs of connection of the data with metallicity and to investigate the population nature. We find that the increase in mean metallicity with stellar mass is similar to that in normal field stars, so it seems unsuitable to use this relation as a constraint on the theory of planet formation. The age and kinematic distributions seem to favour the metallicity of extra-solar planet host stars being initial. Although the kinematic data of these stars indicate their origin from two populations - the thin and the thick disks, kinematics may not help in the maintenance of the planet around the host. Stars with planets, brown dwarfs or stellar companions are sorted into three groups and re-investigated separately for their formation mechanism. The main results indicate that stars with M2 < 25MJ have [Fe/H] > -0.1 and a wide period range, but there are no other differences.Thus, there does not seem to be any physically distinguishable characteristics among the three star groups.

  7. Kinematic Characteristics of 3-UPU Parallel Manipulator in Singularity and Its Application

    Peng Binbin; Li Zengming; Wu Kai; Sun Yu

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the kinematic characteristics of the 3‐UPU (universal‐prismatic‐ universal) parallel manipulator in one of singular configurations. The motion of the moving platform is analyzed by changing the layout of the universal joints. A layout of universal joints in the singular configuration is discussed in detail by deriving the kinematic and constraint equations. Solving the equations, the kinematic characteristics in such case is obtained. At the same time t...

  8. Kinematic Fitting in the Presence of ISR at the ILC

    List, Jenny; List, Benno

    2009-01-01

    Kinematic fitting is a well-established tool to improve jet energy and invariant mass resolutions by fitting the measured values under constraints (e.g. energy conservation). However, in the presence of substantial ISR and Beamstrahlung, naive energy and (longitudinal) momentum constraints fail due to the a priori unknown amount of undetected momentum carried away by collinear photons. It is possible to take care of those two effects and thus obtain significantly higher mass resolutions.

  9. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Chi, Hsin-Chang; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C.-P.; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T.; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-05-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile neutrino can give rise to its conversion to an active neutrino through radiative decay or nonstandard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic x-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with low-threshold low-background germanium detectors, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from astrophysical observations.

  10. Decoupling Kinematic Loops for Real-Time Multibody Dynamic Simulations

    Omar Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth moving equipment are typically equipped with hydraulic cylinder actuators to perform the designated tasks. Multibody modelling of such systems results in models with kinematic loops that couples the motion variables of the loop bodies. Iterative solutions will be needed to satisfy the loop constraints and the applied constraints, which require evaluation of the constraint Jacobean matrix. The size of the Jacobean matrix and the associated projections depends on the number of motion variables in each kinematic loop. Consequently, the computational cost significantly increases as the number of variables in the kinematic loop increases. Real-time control and hybrid hardware-in-the-loop systems both require efficient and fast computational algorithms. Eliminating the kinematic loops can improve the computational efficiency and effectiveness of the control algorithms. This paper presents an efficient approach to eliminate the coupling due to the cylinder-rod connections and consequently the kinematic loops in the multibody models leading to efficient simulation. The proposed approach calculates the spatial accelerations and inertia forces of the actuator bodies and the interaction forces with other components. The actuator forces are then projected onto the connecting bodies leading to exact dynamics of the system.

  11. Biquaternions and relativistic kinematics

    The problems concerning the use of quaternion interpretation of the Lorentz group vector parametrization are considered for solving relativistic kinematics problems. A vector theory convenient for describing the characteristic features of the Lobachevsky space is suggested. The kinematics of elementary particle scattering is investigated on the basis of this theory. A synthesis of vector parametrization and of quaternion calculation has been shown to lead to natural formulation of the theory of vectors in the three-dimensional Lobachevsky space, realized on mass hyperboloids of relativistic particles

  12. The Modular Robots Kinematics

    Claudiu Pozna

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper intention is to develop a kinematical foundation for our nextworks in industrial robots (IR modular design. The goal of this works is todevelop cheap and improved robots which are adapted to the costumer needs. Inorder to achieve the mentioned goal, in [43], we have started a bibliographicalresearch of the main modular design aspects. The mentioned analyze of the actualresults in modular robots design gives us the possibility to establish our researchprogram. The idea of this paper is to develop a kinematical formalism which willbe use in the next dedicated to this subject.

  13. Bayesian kinematic earthquake source models

    Minson, S. E.; Simons, M.; Beck, J. L.; Genrich, J. F.; Galetzka, J. E.; Chowdhury, F.; Owen, S. E.; Webb, F.; Comte, D.; Glass, B.; Leiva, C.; Ortega, F. H.

    2009-12-01

    Most coseismic, postseismic, and interseismic slip models are based on highly regularized optimizations which yield one solution which satisfies the data given a particular set of regularizing constraints. This regularization hampers our ability to answer basic questions such as whether seismic and aseismic slip overlap or instead rupture separate portions of the fault zone. We present a Bayesian methodology for generating kinematic earthquake source models with a focus on large subduction zone earthquakes. Unlike classical optimization approaches, Bayesian techniques sample the ensemble of all acceptable models presented as an a posteriori probability density function (PDF), and thus we can explore the entire solution space to determine, for example, which model parameters are well determined and which are not, or what is the likelihood that two slip distributions overlap in space. Bayesian sampling also has the advantage that all a priori knowledge of the source process can be used to mold the a posteriori ensemble of models. Although very powerful, Bayesian methods have up to now been of limited use in geophysical modeling because they are only computationally feasible for problems with a small number of free parameters due to what is called the "curse of dimensionality." However, our methodology can successfully sample solution spaces of many hundreds of parameters, which is sufficient to produce finite fault kinematic earthquake models. Our algorithm is a modification of the tempered Markov chain Monte Carlo (tempered MCMC or TMCMC) method. In our algorithm, we sample a "tempered" a posteriori PDF using many MCMC simulations running in parallel and evolutionary computation in which models which fit the data poorly are preferentially eliminated in favor of models which better predict the data. We present results for both synthetic test problems as well as for the 2007 Mw 7.8 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake, the latter of which is constrained by InSAR, local high

  14. Int\\'egration de contraintes cin\\'ematiques pour le calcul de l'orientation optimis\\'ee de l'axe de l'outil en usinage 5 axes Optimisation of tool axis orientation in 5 axis machining taking into account kinematical constraints

    Lavernhe, Sylvain; Lartigue, Claire; 10.1051/meca:2007064

    2010-01-01

    Apr\\`es avoir d\\'etaill\\'e les principales difficult\\'es li\\'ees \\`a l'usinage 5 axes UGV, nous pr\\'esentons un mod\\`ele de repr\\'esentation des trajectoires 5 axes sous forme surfacique permettant de prendre en compte des contraintes g\\'eom\\'etriques et cin\\'ematiques. Ce mod\\`ele est int\\'egr\\'e dans d'optimisation des trajets 5 axes afin de maximiser la productivit\\'e tout en garantissant la qualit\\'e g\\'eom\\'etrique attendue. Un cas d'application est d\\'etaill\\'e, illustrant la modification de l'orientation de l'axe de l'outil afin d'am\\'eliorer le comportement cin\\'ematique des axes lors du suivi des trajectoires. After presenting the main difficulties related to machining 5 axes machining within the context of HSM, we present a surface model of 5-axis trajectories allowing taking into account geometrical and kinematical constraints. This model is integrated in an optimization scheme in order to maximize the productivity while ensuring the expected geometrical quality. A case of application is detailed, ...

  15. The effects of powered ankle-foot orthoses on joint kinematics and muscle activation during walking in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury

    Domingo Antoinette

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Powered lower limb orthoses could reduce therapist labor during gait rehabilitation after neurological injury. However, it is not clear how patients respond to powered assistance during stepping. Patients might allow the orthoses to drive the movement pattern and reduce their muscle activation. The goal of this study was to test the effects of robotic assistance in subjects with incomplete spinal cord injury using pneumatically powered ankle-foot orthoses. Methods Five individuals with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (ASIA C-D participated in the study. Each subject was fitted with bilateral ankle-foot orthoses equipped with artificial pneumatic muscles to power ankle plantar flexion. Subjects walked on a treadmill with partial bodyweight support at four speeds (0.36, 0.54, 0.72 and 0.89 m/s under three conditions: without wearing orthoses, wearing orthoses unpowered (passively, and wearing orthoses activated under pushbutton control by a physical therapist. Subjects also attempted a fourth condition wearing orthoses activated under pushbutton control by them. We measured joint angles, electromyography, and orthoses torque assistance. Results A therapist quickly learned to activate the artificial pneumatic muscles using the pushbuttons with the appropriate amplitude and timing. The powered orthoses provided ~50% of peak ankle torque. Ankle angle at stance push-off increased when subjects walked with powered orthoses versus when they walked with passive-orthoses (ANOVA, p Two of the five subjects were able to control the orthoses themselves using the pushbuttons. The other three subjects found it too difficult to coordinate pushbutton timing. Orthoses assistance and maximum ankle angle at push-off were smaller when the subject controlled the orthoses compared to when the therapist-controlled the orthoses (p Conclusion Mechanical assistance from powered ankle-foot orthoses improved ankle push-off kinematics without

  16. Mass transfer constraints on the chemical evolution of an active hydrothermal system, Valles caldera, New Mexico

    White, A.F.; Chuma, N.J.; Goff, F.

    1992-01-01

    Partial equilibrium conditions occur between fluids and secondary minerals in the Valles hydrothermal system, contained principally in the Tertiary rhyolitic Bandelier Tuff. The mass transfer processes are governed by reactive phase compositions, surface areas, water-rock ratios, reaction rates, and fluid residence times. Experimental dissolution of the vitric phase of the tuff was congruent with respect to Cl in the solid and produced reaction rates which obeyed a general Arrhenius release rate between 250 and 300??C. The 18O differences between reacted and unreacted rock and fluids, and mass balances calculations involving Cl in the glass phase, produced comparable water-rock ratios of unity, confirming the importance of irreversible reaction of the vitric tuff. A fluid residence time of approximately 2 ?? 103 years, determined from fluid reservoir volume and discharge rates, is less than 0.2% of the total age of the hydrothermal system and denotes a geochemically and isotopically open system. Mass transfer calculations generally replicated observed reservoir pH, Pco2, and PO2 conditions, cation concentrations, and the secondary mineral assemblage between 250 and 300??C. The only extraneous component required to maintain observed calcite saturation and high Pco2 pressures was carbon presumably derived from underlying Paleozoic limestones. Phase rule constraints indicate that Cl was the only incompatible aqueous component not controlled by mineral equilibrium. Concentrations of Cl in the reservoir directly reflect mass transport rates as evidenced by correlations between anomalously high Cl concentrations in the fluids and tuff in the Valles caldera relative to other hydrothermal systems in rhyolitic rocks. ?? 1992.

  17. Choice set formation with multiple flexible activities under space-time constraints

    Chen, X.; Kwan, M.P.

    2012-01-01

    In classical time geography, an individual travel path is composed of a chain of visits, with each visit being a flexible activity between two fixed activities at two known stations. In reality, individuals tend to carry out trips with much variation and complexity, with multipurpose trips being a p

  18. Multiplanar breast kinematics during different exercise modalities

    Risius, Debbie; Milligan, Alexandra; Mills, Chris; Scurr, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Multiplanar breast movement reduction is crucial to increasing physical activity participation amongst women. To date, research has focused on breast movement during running, but until breast movement is understood during different exercise modalities, the breast support requirements for specific activities are unknown. To understand breast support requirements during different exercise modalities, this study aimed to determine multiplanar breast kinematics during running, jumping and agility...

  19. The winter day as a constraint for human activity in Western Europe

    Martín-Olalla, José-María

    2016-01-01

    Time use surveys in Denmark, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy and United Kingdom are analyzed to provide start, noon and end times for the main activities of a society: labor (the focus of this preprint), sleeping and eating. Also, the location at home is analyzed. Local times are converted into mean solar times and compared to latitude. Observed trends allow to unveil the winter day as a restriction for the human activity. Alternatively, apparently large time differences set forth by clocks, be...

  20. Multi-Dimensional Interacting Constraints on Physical Activity Behaviours in the Finnish Population.

    Karjalainen, Aki; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kokko, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo

    2016-07-01

    Finnish sports organisations, local and federal government, and healthcare organisations have widely adopted the World Health Organization and national recommendations for physical activity for different age groups. However, studies have indicated that only 46 % of 3-year-old preschool children, approximately 50 % of primary school students (7-12 years), 10-17 % of secondary school students (13-15 years) and 16 % of Finnish adults (20-54 years) attain those recommendations. In Finland there are 33,620 built sports facilities and over 9000 sport clubs, meaning there are many possibilities for physical activity, yet people are still rather inactive. In this paper we argue that availability of facilities, although an important element, is not enough to promote physical activity. It is possible that the current built physical environmental design does not fulfil people's needs regarding participation in physical activity. More emphasis should be placed on the design and operation of the facilities to develop new affordances for physical activity. PMID:27245059

  1. The winter day as a constraint for human activity in Western Europe

    Martín-Olalla, José-María

    2016-01-01

    Time use surveys in Denmark, Spain, France, Ireland, Italy and United Kingdom are analyzed to provide start, noon and end times for the main activities of a society: labor (the focus of this preprint), sleeping and eating. Also, the location at home is analyzed. Local times are converted into mean solar times and compared to latitude. Observed trends allow to unveil the winter day as a restriction for the human activity. Alternatively, apparently large time differences set forth by clocks, becomes smaller when observed as a time distance to winter sunrise or sunset.

  2. Active fault tolerant control of piecewise affine systems with reference tracking and input constraints

    Gholami, M.; Cocquempot, V.; Schiøler, H.; Bak, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    An active fault tolerant control (AFTC) method is proposed for discrete-time piecewise affine (PWA) systems. Only actuator faults are considered. The AFTC framework contains a supervisory scheme, which selects a suitable controller in a set of controllers such that the stability and an acceptable...

  3. Constraints on active galactic nucleus accretion disc viscosity derived from continuum variability

    R.L.C. Starling; A. Siemiginowska; P. Uttley; R. Soria

    2004-01-01

    We estimate a value of the viscosity parameter in active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion discs for the Palomar-Green quasar sample. We assume that optical variability on time-scales of months to years is caused by local instabilities in the inner accretion disc. Comparing the observed variability t

  4. Vector analysis of ecoenzyme activities reveal constraints on coupled C, N and P dynamics

    We developed a quantitative method for estimating resource allocation strategies of microbial communities based on the proportional activities of four, key extracellular enzymes, 1,4-ß-glucosidase (BG), leucine amino-peptidase (LAP), 1,4-ß-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG...

  5. Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, excess volumes and excess Gibbs energies of activation for viscous flow in the ternary mixture {1- propanol+ N,N-dimethylformamide + chloroform} at temperatures between 293.15 K and 323.15 K

    Hassein-bey-Larouci, A., E-mail: hasseinbey@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Modélisation Moléculaire, Faculté de Chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Igoujilen, O.; Aitkaci, A. [Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Modélisation Moléculaire, Faculté de Chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Segovia, J.J.; Villamañán, M.A. [TERMOCAL Research Group, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • Many engineering applications require quantitative thermodynamic data of the fluids. • Excess properties of mixtures are important in the understanding of mixing process. • The results are used to explain the molecular interaction in the mixtures. - Abstract: Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, and densities of the ternary mixture {x_1 propanol + x_2 DMF + x_3 chloroform} and of the three corresponding binary systems have been measured at 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The thermophysical properties, viscosity deviations (Δη), kinematic viscosity (γ), excess Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow (G*{sup E}) and excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) have been calculated from experimental values of dynamic viscosity, η, and density, ρ. The different results have been correlated by the Redlich–Kister equation for the binary mixtures and the Cibulka equation for equation for the ternary ones.

  6. Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, excess volumes and excess Gibbs energies of activation for viscous flow in the ternary mixture {1- propanol+ N,N-dimethylformamide + chloroform} at temperatures between 293.15 K and 323.15 K

    Highlights: • Many engineering applications require quantitative thermodynamic data of the fluids. • Excess properties of mixtures are important in the understanding of mixing process. • The results are used to explain the molecular interaction in the mixtures. - Abstract: Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, and densities of the ternary mixture {x1 propanol + x2 DMF + x3 chloroform} and of the three corresponding binary systems have been measured at 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The thermophysical properties, viscosity deviations (Δη), kinematic viscosity (γ), excess Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow (G*E) and excess molar volumes (VE) have been calculated from experimental values of dynamic viscosity, η, and density, ρ. The different results have been correlated by the Redlich–Kister equation for the binary mixtures and the Cibulka equation for equation for the ternary ones

  7. Income-generating activities for young people in southern Africa: Exploring AIDS and other constraints

    Hajdu, F; Ansell, N; Robson, E; van Blerk, L; Chipeta, L

    2011-01-01

    Copyright @ 2010 The Authors. The Geographical Journal © 2010 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers). The published version of the article can be accessed via the link below. This paper reports on a study with rural young people (aged 10–24 years) in Malawi and Lesotho, focusing on their opportunities to learn skills and access capital and assets to engage in incomegenerating activities (IGAs). Participatory group exercises and individual interviews provide ...

  8. Multi-Dimensional Interacting Constraints on Physical Activity Behaviours in the Finnish Population

    Karjalainen, Aki; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kokko, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Finnish sports organisations, local and federal government, and healthcare organisations have widely adopted the World Health Organization and national recommendations for physical activity for different age groups. However, studies have indicated that only 46 % of 3-year-old preschool children, approximately 50 % of primary school students (7–12 years), 10–17 % of secondary school students (13–15 years) and 16 % of Finnish adults (20–54 years) attain those recommendations. In Finland there a...

  9. Determining the Errors in Output Kinematic Parameters of Planar Mechanisms with a Complex Structure

    Trzaska W.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study is focused on determining the errors in output kinematic parameters (position, velocity, acceleration, jerk of entire links or their selected points in complex planar mechanisms. The number of DOFs of the kinematic system is assumed to be equal to the number of drives and the rigid links are assumed to be connected by ideal, clearance-free geometric constraints. Input data include basic parameters of the mechanism with the involved errors as well as kinematic parameters of driving links and the involved errors. Output errors in kinematic parameters are determined basing on the linear theory of errors.

  10. Earthquake doublet in an active shear zone, southwest Japan: Constraints from geophysical and geochemical findings

    Umeda, Koji; Asamori, Koichi; Makuuchi, Ayumu; Kobori, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    In 1997, the Kagoshima earthquake doublet, consisting of two closely associated Mw ~ 6 strike-slip events, five km and 48 days apart, has occurred in southwest Japan. The location is where an E-W trending discontinuity along 32°N latitude on southern Kyushu Island is clearly defined in GPS velocities, indicating the presence of a highly active left-lateral shear zone. However, there have not been any obvious indications of active faulting at the surface prior to the earthquake doublet, which could be associated with this shear zone. Three-dimensional inversion of magnetotelluric sounding data obtained in the source region of the earthquake doublet reveals a near-vertical conductive zone with a width of 20 km, extending down to the base of the crust and perhaps into the upper mantle toward the Okinawa trough. The prominent conductor corresponds to the western part of the active shear zone. Elevated 3He/4He ratios in groundwaters sampled from hot spring and drinking water wells suggest the emission of mantle-derived helium from the seismic source region. The geophysical and geochemical observations are significant indications that the invasion of mantle fluids into the crust, driven by upwelling asthenosphere from the Okinawa trough, triggers the notable left-lateral shearing in the zone in the present-day subduction system. In addition, the existence of aqueous fluids in and below the seismogenic layer could change the strength of the zones, and alter the local stress regime, resulting in the occurrence of the 1997 earthquake doublet.

  11. Calcite precipitation on glass substrates and active stalagmites in Katerloch Cave (Austria): Constraints from environmental monitoring

    Sakoparnig, Marlene; Boch, Ronny; Wang, Xianfeng; Lin, Ke; Spötl, Christoph; Leis, Albrecht; Gollowitsch, Anna; Dietzel, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Located near Graz at the SE-rim of the Alps Katerloch is well-known for its impressive dripstone decoration, e.g. several metres tall and relatively fast growing (0.2-0.7 mm/yr on average) candle-stick-type stalagmites. In the course of an ongoing multi-annual and partially high-resolution cave monitoring program we study modern (active) sites of carbonate deposition focusing on the site-specific growth dynamics and connection of modern regional and cave environmental conditions with petrographic, chemical and stable isotopic information captured in the speleothems. Fresh calcite precipitates on artificial (glass) substrates underneath active drip sites were collected continuously from 2006 to 2014 (eight years!). The samples (up to 7 mm thick) represent cave sections of different temperature and drip sites of partially different characteristics (e.g. drip rate). We also recovered short drill cores (up to 3 cm length, 1 cm diameter) from the top of active stalagmites probably representing the last decades to centuries of calcite crystallization. Moreover, an actively growing stalagmite (K10) comprising both modern and past calcite deposition was collected. 238U-234U-230Th dating using MC-ICP-MS of K10 (71 cm long) revealed several distinct growth intervals (separated by growth interruptions) starting at 129.1 ±1.2 kyr BP (Last Interglacial) up to now, mostly reflecting warm and humid climate intervals. High-resolution (100 μm) isotope profiles micromilled from the multi-annual modern calcite precipitates on artificial substrates revealed low δ13C values of -12.8 to -8.3 ‰ (VPDB) and relatively high δ18O of -6.9 to -4.9 ‰Ṫhe δ18O curves from all collection sites (different growth rate) record a pronounced decrease during their most recent growth period most likely corresponding to a significant decrease towards lower oxygen isotope values observed in drip waters collected in the year 2014 compared with samples from 2005 to 2007. Drip water δ2H /δ18O

  12. An enhanced nonlinear damping approach accounting for system constraints in active mass dampers

    Venanzi, Ilaria; Ierimonti, Laura; Ubertini, Filippo

    2015-11-01

    Active mass dampers are a viable solution for mitigating wind-induced vibrations in high-rise buildings and improve occupants' comfort. Such devices suffer particularly when they reach force saturation of the actuators and maximum extension of their stroke, which may occur in case of severe loading conditions (e.g. wind gust and earthquake). Exceeding actuators' physical limits can impair the control performance of the system or even lead to devices damage, with consequent need for repair or substitution of part of the control system. Controllers for active mass dampers should account for their technological limits. Prior work of the authors was devoted to stroke issues and led to the definition of a nonlinear damping approach, very easy to implement in practice. It consisted of a modified skyhook algorithm complemented with a nonlinear braking force to reverse the direction of the mass before reaching the stroke limit. This paper presents an enhanced version of this approach, also accounting for force saturation of the actuator and keeping the simplicity of implementation. This is achieved by modulating the control force by a nonlinear smooth function depending on the ratio between actuator's force and saturation limit. Results of a numerical investigation show that the proposed approach provides similar results to the method of the State Dependent Riccati Equation, a well-established technique for designing optimal controllers for constrained systems, yet very difficult to apply in practice.

  13. Petroleum activity in the Russian Barents Sea: constraints and options for Norwegian offshore and shipping companies

    Moe, Arild; Rowe, Lars

    2008-09-15

    Presently most attention in the Barents Sea is given to the Shtokman project. Experience from development of this field, where there are still many uncertainties, will have large consequences for the further development program and relations with foreign companies. The exploration activity going on is fairly limited, but over the last few years there has been a struggle over licenses and control over exploration capacity. In the medium term the goal of rapid development of the Arctic continental shelf has become intertwined with a comprehensive government effort to modernise the domestic shipbuilding industry to make it able to cover most of the needs offshore. With the shipbuilding industry in a deep crisis these goals are not fully reconcilable. Russia will either have to accept more foreign involvement, or scale down its offshore ambitions. We believe a combination of the two alternatives is likely. This means that there will still be room for foreign offshore and shipping companies, but that the total amount of activity on the continental shelf will not be as great as stated in official plans. (author). 100 refs., map

  14. Atomic ionization by sterile-to-active neutrino conversion and constraints on dark matter sterile neutrinos with germanium detectors

    Chen, Jiunn-Wei; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, C -P; Singh, Lakhwinder; Wong, Henry T; Wu, Chih-Liang; Wu, Chih-Pan

    2016-01-01

    The transition magnetic moment of a sterile-to-active neutrino conversion gives rise to not only radiative decay of a sterile neutrino, but also its non-standard interaction (NSI) with matter. For sterile neutrinos of keV-mass as dark matter candidates, their decay signals are actively searched for in cosmic X-ray spectra. In this work, we consider the NSI that leads to atomic ionization, which can be detected by direct dark matter experiments. It is found that this inelastic scattering process for a nonrelativistic sterile neutrino has a pronounced enhancement in the differential cross section at energy transfer about half of its mass, manifesting experimentally as peaks in the measurable energy spectra. The enhancement effects gradually smear out as the sterile neutrino becomes relativistic. Using data taken with germanium detectors that have fine energy resolution in keV and sub-keV regimes, constraints on sterile neutrino mass and its transition magnetic moment are derived and compared with those from ast...

  15. Active tectonics in Central Italy: Constraint from surface wave tomography and source moment tensor inversion

    We make a multiscale investigation of the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure and of the active tectonics along a stripe from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast, with emphasis on the Umbria-Marche area, by means of surface-wave tomography and inversion experiments for structure and seismic moment tensor retrieval. The data include: a large number of new local and regional group velocity measurements sampling the Umbria-Marche Apennines and the Adria margin respectively; new and published phase velocity measurements sampling Italy and surroundings; deep seismic soundings which, crossing the whole Peninsula from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coasts, go through the Umbria-Marche area. The local group velocity maps cover the area reactivated by the 1997-1998 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence. These maps suggest an intimate relation between the lateral variations and distribution of the active fault systems and related sedimentary basins. Such relation is confirmed by the non-linear inversion of the local dispersion curves. To image the structure of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system from the Tyrrhenian to the Adriatic coast, we fix the upper crust parameters consistently with our Umbria-Marche models and with pertinent deep seismic sounding data and invert the regional long period dispersion measurements. At a local scale, in the Umbria-Marche area, the retrieved models for the upper crust reveal the importance of the inherited compressional tectonics on the ongoing extensional deformation and related seismic activity. The lateral and in-depth structural changes in the upper crust are likely controlling fault segmentation and seismogenesis. Source inversion studies of the large crustal events of the 1997 earthquake sequence show the dominance of normal faulting mechanisms, whereas selected aftershocks between the fault segments reveal that the prevailing deformation at the step-over is of strike-slip faulting type and may control the lateral fault extent. At the

  16. Active faulting in the Inner California Borderlands: new constraints from high-resolution multichannel seismic and multibeam bathymetric data.

    Bormann, J. M.; Holmes, J. J.; Sahakian, V. J.; Klotsko, S.; Kent, G.; Driscoll, N. W.; Harding, A. J.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2014-12-01

    Geodetic data indicate that faults offshore of Southern California accommodate 6-8 mm/yr of dextral Pacific-North American relative plate motion. In the Inner California Borderlands (ICB), modern strike-slip deformation is overprinted on topography formed during plate boundary reorganization 30-15 Ma. Despite its proximity to urban Southern California, the hazard posed by active faults in the ICB remains poorly understood. We acquired a 4000-line-km regional grid of high-resolution, 2D multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection data and multibeam bathymetry to examine the fault architecture and tectonic evolution of the ICB. We interpret the MCS data using a sequence stratigraphic approach to establish a chronostratigraphy and identify discrete episodes of deformation. We present our results in a regional fault model that distinguishes active deformation from older structures. Significant differences exist between our model of ICB deformation and existing models. Mounting evidence suggests a westward temporal migration of slip between faults in the ICB. In the eastern ICB, slip on the Newport-Inglewood/Rose Canyon fault and the neighboring Coronado Bank fault (CBF) diminishes to the north and appears to decrease over time. Undeformed Late Pliocene sediments overlie the northern extent of the CBF and the breakaway zone of the purported Oceanside Blind Thrust. Therefore, CBF slip rate estimates based on linkage with the Palos Verdes fault to the north are unwarranted. Deformation along the San Mateo, San Onofre, and Carlsbad trends is best explained as localized deformation resulting from geometrical complexities in a dextral strike-slip fault system. In the western ICB, the San Diego Trough fault (SDTF) offsets young sediments between the US/Mexico border and the eastern margin of Avalon Knoll, where the fault is spatially coincident with the San Pedro Basin fault (SPBF). Farther west, the San Clemente fault (SCF) has a strong linear bathymetric expression. The length

  17. Constitutional Constraints

    Fallon, Richard Henry

    2009-01-01

    The main ambition of "Constitutional Constraints" is to open up the subject of constitutional constraints on government officials, including Presidents and Supreme Court Justices, as a topic for discussion within the field of Constitutional Theory. The subject has so far received little comprehensive discussion in the law reviews, in part because of a division between scholarly approaches that treat constitutional law as a system of norms and political scientific theories that portray judges ...

  18. Emergent Dead Vegetation and Paired Cosmogenic Isotope Constraints on Ice Cap Activity, Baffin Island, Arctic Canada

    Pendleton, S.; Miller, G. H.

    2014-12-01

    Recent summer warming has now raised the equilibrium line above almost all ice caps on Baffin Island, resulting in surface lowering and marginal recession everywhere. As cold-based ice recedes it frequently exposes in situ tundra plants that were living at the time ice expanded across the site. Radiocarbon dates for each plant records when cold summers dropped regional snowline below the site, killing the plants, and snowline remained below the site until the collection date. The kill dates also represent the last time that the climate was warm enough to expose the sampling location. Seventy-six vegetation samples collected in 2013 from the Penny Ice Cap region have been dated, with significant age populations at ~0.5, 1.8, 2.3, and 3.6 ka. The absence of ages around ~1, 2, 3, 4.5, and 5.5 ka suggest periods of either no snowline depression or stability. Sixteen vegetation samples returned ages of >45 ka (2 revisited sites from 2010, 14 new). It is postulated that these radiocarbon dead samples were last exposed during the last interglaciation (~120 ka), the last time climate was as warm as present. In addition to plant collections, bedrock exposures at the ice margins were sampled for 26Al/10Be cosmogenic nuclide dating. Seven samples from and around the Penny Ice cap have returned maximum exposure ages from ~ 0.6-0.9 ma and total histories of ~0.6-1.5 ma. In general, samples from the larger Penny Ice Cap exhibited lower amounts of exposure (~20% of total history) than those samples from smaller, localized ice caps (~55%). Radiocarbon dead sites north of the Penny Ice cap experienced significantly more exposure over their lifetimes than their counterparts east of the Penny Ice cap, suggesting significant differences in local and regional land ice fluctuations over the last 2 million years. Utilizing both the method of in situ moss and 26Al/10Be dating provides new insight into both the recent activity and long-term evolution of ice on Baffin Island. In particular

  19. Teacher Trainers' and Trainees' Perceptions, Practices, and Constraints to Active Learning Methods: The Case of English Department in Bahir Dar University

    Engidaw, Berhanu

    2014-01-01

    This study is on teacher trainers and teacher trainees' perceptions and practices of active learning and the constraints to implementing them in the English Department of Bahir Dar University. A mixed study approach that involves a quantitative self administered questionnaire, a semi-structured lesson observation guide, and qualitative in…

  20. Kinematic Analysis Of Tricept Parallel Manipulator

    Mir Amin Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Parallel manipulators consist of fixed and moving platforms connected to each other with some actuated links. They have some significant advantages over their serial counterparts. While, they suffer from relatively small workspaces, complex kinematics relations and highly singular points within their workspaces. In this paper, forward kinematics of Tricept parallel manipulator is solved analytically and its workspace optimization is performed. This parallel manipulator has a complex degree of freedom, therefore leads to dimensional in-homogeneous Jacobian matrices. Thus, we divide some entries of the Jacobian by units of length, thereby producing a new Jacobian that is dimensionally homogeneous. Moreover, its workspace is parameterized using some design parameters. Then, using GA method, the workspace is optimized subjects to some geometric constraints. Finally, dexterity of the design is evaluated. Keywords- Kinematic, Workspace, Singularity, TriceptABSTRAK - Manipulator selari terdiri daripada platform tetap dan bergerak yang bersambung antara satu sama lain dengan beberapa pautan bergerak. Manipulator selari mempunyai beberapa kebaikan tertentu dibandingkan dengan yang bersamaan dengannya. Walaupun ia mempunyai ruang kerja yang sempit, hubungan kinematik kompleks dan titik tunggal tinggi dalam linkungan ruang kerjanya. Dalam kajian ini, kinematik ke hadapan manipulator selari Tricept diselesaikan secara analisa dan pengoptimuman ruang kerja dijalankan. Manipulator selari ini mempunyai darjah kebebasan yang kompleks, yang menyebabkan ia mendorong kepada kehomogenan dimensi matriks Jacobian. Catatan Jacobian dibahagikan kepada unit panjang, dimana ia menghasilkan Jacobian baru yang homogen dimensinya. Tambahan, ruang kerjanya diparameterkan dengan menggunakan beberapa parameter reka bentuk. Kemudian, dengan kaedah GA, ruang kerja mengoptimakan subjek kepada beberapa kekangan geometrik. Akhirnya, kecakatan reka bentuk dinilaikan

  1. Kinematic Constraints on Absorption of Ultraintense Laser Light

    Levy, M. C.; Wilks, S. C.; Tabak, M.; Libby, S. B.; Baring, M. G.

    2013-01-01

    We derive upper and lower bounds on the absorption of ultraintense laser light by solids as a function of fundamental laser and plasma parameters. These limits emerge naturally from constrained optimization techniques applied to a generalization of the laser-solid interaction as a strongly-driven, relativistic, two degree of freedom Maxwell-Vlasov system. We demonstrate that the extrema and the phase-space-averaged absorption must always increase with intensity, and increase most rapidly when...

  2. Shotput kinematics made simple

    We show that some results in the kinematics of a point particle can be easily recalled by introducing simple definitions. In particular, in the parabolic motion of a particle thrown from a height h above the origin O at an angle θ from the horizontal direction, the optimum angle θ* for reaching the maximum distance Rmax on the ground, measured from the origin, can be found by calculating the inverse tangent of the ratio between the initial velocity V0 and the final velocity Vf. The value of Rmax is itself found to be easily expressed as V0Vf/g, g being the acceleration due to gravity. (paper)

  3. Kinematic geometry of gearing

    Dooner, David B

    2012-01-01

    Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat

  4. Kinematics grounded on light

    Neda, Zoltan

    2015-01-01

    The space-time of modern physics is tailored on light. We rigorously construct the basic entities needed by kinematics: geometry of the physical space and time, using as tool electromagnetic waves, and particularly light-rays. After such a mathematically orthodox construction, the special theory of relativity will result naturally. One will clearly understand and easily accept all those puzzling consequences that makes presently the special theory of relativity hard to digest. Such an approach is extremely rewarding in teaching the main ideas of Einstein's relativity theory for high-school and/or university students. Interesting speculations regarding the fundaments and future of physics are made.

  5. GPS kinematic field in Central and Northern Italy

    Cenni, Nicola; Baldi, Paolo; Mantovani, Enzo; Viti, Marcello; Babbucci, Daniele

    2013-04-01

    The GPS observation of more than 350 continuous GPS stations located in the Central and Northern Italian peninsula have been analyzed in order to reconstruct the present kinematic pattern in the area. Several sites (about 100) are managed by public companies and scientific research institutions aimed at performing accurate monitoring of earth surface movements, other sites are managed by public institutions and private agencies to support mapping activities, rescue and emergency services and real-time positioning (VRS and RTK).We have processed with GAMIT software all the available data for the period 2001-2012. The network is divided into 21 sub-networks, each including at least the six common stations. The IGS precise ephemerides have been included in the processing with tight constraints, such as the Earth Orientation Parameter (EOP). The daily loosely constrained solutions of the 21 clusters have been combined into a unique solution by the GLOBK software. Such solution has been then aligned into the ITRF2008 reference frame by a weighted six parameters transformation (three translation and three rotation), using the ITRF2008 coordinates and velocities of the five high quality common IGS stations (CAGL, GRAZ, MATE, WTZR and ZIMM). The sites with an observation time span less than two years have been excluded from the analysis of kinematic pattern, because it is hard to get a robust estimate of rate, seasonal signals and steps with less than two years of observation. The horizontal kinematic pattern has been analyzed in order to gain information about the present short term deformation pattern of this region. This analysis may have significant implications for the recognition of seismic zones most prone to next strong earthquakes. The vertical velocity field has been also considered in this study. It is largely recognized that vertical movements in the Central - Northern Italy may be considered as the overall result of three main causes: tectonic processes

  6. Kinematics of Strong Discontinuities

    Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice motion and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the spatial coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with strong discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice motion from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess motion data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.

  7. Kinematic Performances of a Novel TLPM Parallel Robot

    Fu Jianxun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the kinematic performances of kinematics, Jacobian, singularity and interferences of a novel six-degree-of freedom (DOF parallel manipulator. Analytical solutions of the forward position kinematics have been worked out. Three-dimensional Cartesian space generated by a stroke interval from lmin to lmax fulfils the point workspace are illustrated, and the reachable workspaces are obtained. The notion of pure translational Jacobian of constraint matrix is introduced, and two types of conventional singularities are analyzed. Finally, auxiliary vectors are introduced to determine the link interferences, shown that there are two kinds of interferences in the system, one is angle-interference in one limb, and the other is distance-interference in adjacent limbs.

  8. Apples, oranges, and angles: Comparative kinematic analysis of disparate limbs.

    Gatesy, Stephen M; Pollard, Nancy S

    2011-08-01

    Tetrapod limbs exhibit diverse postures and movements during terrestrial locomotion. As with morphological traits, the history of kinematic evolution should be accessible to reconstruction through analysis of limb motion patterns in a phylogenetic framework. However, the angular data comprising most kinematic descriptions appear to suffer from limitations that preclude meaningful comparison among disparate species. Using simple planar models, we discuss how geometric constraints render joint and elevation angles independent of neither morphology, degree of crouch, nor one another during the stance phase of locomotion. The implicit null hypothesis of potential similarity is invalidated because angular data are not viably transferable among limbs of dissimilar proportion and/or degree of crouch. Overlooking or dismissing the effect of constraints on angular parameterization hampers efforts to quantitatively elucidate the evolution of locomotion. We advocate a search for alternative methods of measuring limb movement that can decouple intersegmental coordination from morphology and posture. PMID:21600220

  9. Altered Perceptual Sensitivity to Kinematic Invariants in Parkinson's Disease

    Dayan, Eran; Inzelberg, Rivka; Flash, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Ample evidence exists for coupling between action and perception in neurologically healthy individuals, yet the precise nature of the internal representations shared between these domains remains unclear. One experimentally derived view is that the invariant properties and constraints characterizing movement generation are also manifested during motion perception. One prominent motor invariant is the “two-third power law,” describing the strong relation between the kinematics of motion and th...

  10. Dose exposure work planning using DMU kinematics tools

    The study on the possibility of using DMU Kinematics module in CAE tools for dose exposure work planning was carried out. A case scenario was created using 3D CAD software and transferred to DMU Kinematics module in CAE software. A work plan was created using DMU Kinematics tools and animated to simulate a real time scenario. Data on the phantom position against the radioactive source was collected by activating positioning sensors in the module. The data was used to estimate dose rate exposure for the phantom. The results can be used to plan the safest and optimum procedures in carrying out the radiation related task. (author)

  11. Kinematics and Workspace Analysis of a Three-Axis Parallel Manipulator: the Orthoglide

    Pashkevich, Anatoly; Wenger, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses kinematic and geometrical aspects of the Orthoglide, a three-DOF parallel mechanism. This machine consists of three fixed linear joints, which are mounted orthogonally, three identical legs and a mobile platform, which moves in the Cartesian x-y-z space with fixed orientation. New solutions to solve inverse/direct kinematics are proposed and we perform a detailed workspace and singularity analysis, taking into account specific joint limit constraints.

  12. Kinematics of novel 6-HTRT parallel robot

    2002-01-01

    A parallel robot featwes low inertia moment of end effector,high mechanical rigitity,high mobility,no accumulation of motion error at end effector and high capacity of load,and it has found a wide applications in various fields such as automobile assembly line,earth-digging machine,conjuncture of aircraft and flight simulator.In this paper the kinematics of a novel style 6-HTRT Parallel Robot is studied.The algorithm for an inverse kinematic problem of the parallel robot considering the constraint condition is presented.By the use of vector cross product method,the comprehensive coefficient of the parallel mechanism is introduced and the Jacobian matrix of a 6-HTRT parallel robot is presented.The relationship between the velocity of end manipulator and the generalized velocity is also studied with the method of Jacobian matrix.Using the result of study in mechanical dimension synthesis,better performance is achieved with the parallel robot.In motion control,it will be helpful for us to simplify the control algorithm and make more efficient trajectory planning.

  13. Bayesian Kinematic Finite Fault Source Models (Invited)

    Minson, S. E.; Simons, M.; Beck, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Finite fault earthquake source models are inherently under-determined: there is no unique solution to the inverse problem of determining the rupture history at depth as a function of time and space when our data are only limited observations at the Earth's surface. Traditional inverse techniques rely on model constraints and regularization to generate one model from the possibly broad space of all possible solutions. However, Bayesian methods allow us to determine the ensemble of all possible source models which are consistent with the data and our a priori assumptions about the physics of the earthquake source. Until now, Bayesian techniques have been of limited utility because they are computationally intractable for problems with as many free parameters as kinematic finite fault models. We have developed a methodology called Cascading Adaptive Tempered Metropolis In Parallel (CATMIP) which allows us to sample very high-dimensional problems in a parallel computing framework. The CATMIP algorithm combines elements of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms with the Metropolis algorithm to dynamically optimize the algorithm's efficiency as it runs. We will present synthetic performance tests of finite fault models made with this methodology as well as a kinematic source model for the 2007 Mw 7.7 Tocopilla, Chile earthquake. This earthquake was well recorded by multiple ascending and descending interferograms and a network of high-rate GPS stations whose records can be used as near-field seismograms.

  14. Voigt kinematics and electrodynamic consequences

    Gluckman, A.G.

    1976-06-01

    It was established that the kinematics of the Voigt transformation, which lacks group structure, is different from that of the Lorentz transformation, and that the apparent kinematic asymmetry of the Voigt coordinate transformations may be understood as a conformally symmetric kinematics. Phenomena such as the kinetic energy of a moving body and the Doppler effect are not quite the same under the conformal Voigt transformation as they are for the usual theory developed with respect to the Lorentz group. Yet the mass-energy conservation law under the Voigt coordinate transformations and the mass-energy conservation law under the group of Lorentz transformations are identically the same.

  15. Kinematics and kinetics of an accidental lateral ankle sprain

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2011-01-01

    Ankle sprains are common during sporting activities and can have serious consequences. Understanding of injury mechanisms is essential to prevent injuries, but only two previous studies have provided detailed descriptions of the kinematics of lateral ankle sprains and measures of kinetics are missing. In the present study a female handball player accidentally sprained her ankle during sidestep cutting in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated from 240 Hz recordi...

  16. Geometrically constrained kinematic global navigation satellite systems positioning: Implementation and performance

    Asgari, Jamal; Mohammadloo, Tannaz H.; Amiri-Simkooei, Ali Reza

    2015-09-01

    GNSS kinematic techniques are capable of providing precise coordinates in extremely short observation time-span. These methods usually determine the coordinates of an unknown station with respect to a reference one. To enhance the precision, accuracy, reliability and integrity of the estimated unknown parameters, GNSS kinematic equations are to be augmented by possible constraints. Such constraints could be derived from the geometric relation of the receiver positions in motion. This contribution presents the formulation of the constrained kinematic global navigation satellite systems positioning. Constraints effectively restrict the definition domain of the unknown parameters from the three-dimensional space to a subspace defined by the equation of motion. To test the concept of the constrained kinematic positioning method, the equation of a circle is employed as a constraint. A device capable of moving on a circle was made and the observations from 11 positions on the circle were analyzed. Relative positioning was conducted by considering the center of the circle as the reference station. The equation of the receiver's motion was rewritten in the ECEF coordinates system. A special attention is drawn onto how a constraint is applied to kinematic positioning. Implementing the constraint in the positioning process provides much more precise results compared to the unconstrained case. This has been verified based on the results obtained from the covariance matrix of the estimated parameters and the empirical results using kinematic positioning samples as well. The theoretical standard deviations of the horizontal components are reduced by a factor ranging from 1.24 to 2.64. The improvement on the empirical standard deviation of the horizontal components ranges from 1.08 to 2.2.

  17. Tachyon Kinematics and causality

    The chronological order of the events along a space-like path is not invariant under Lorentz transformations, as wellknown. This led to an early conviction that tachyons would give rise to causal anomalies. A relativistic version of the Stuckelberg-Feynman switching procedure (SWP) has been invoked as the suitable tool to eliminate those anomalies. The application of the SWP does eliminate the motions backwards in time, but interchanges the roles of source and dector. This fact triggered the proposal of a host of causal paradoxes. Till now, however, it has not been recognized that such paradoxes can be sensibly discussed (and completely solved, at least in microphysics) only after having properly developed the tachyon relativistic mechanics. We start by showing how to apply the SWP, both in the case of ordiry Special Relativity, and in the case with tachyons. Then, we carefully exploit the kinematics of the tachyon-exchange between to (ordinary) bodies. Being finally able to tackle the tachyon-causality problem, we successively solve the paradoxes: (i) by Tolman-Regge; (ii) by Pirani; (iii) by Edmonds; (iv) by Bell. At last, we discuss a further, new paradox associated with the transmission of signals by modulated tachyon beams

  18. Why Teach Kinematics?

    Dykstra, Dewey

    2002-05-01

    The development of two new units for the Powerful Ideas in Physical Science (PIPS) Project of the American Association of Physics Teachers, funded by the National Science Foundation has motivated another look at the learning and teaching of kinematics and force. These and some of the other units of the PIPS Project are unique in that they advocate and model a particular student understanding driven approach to instruction as opposed to the more common content driven approach. Several novel ways to view the results of using these new motion and force materials are introduced and made possible by a diagnostic capable of indicating the degree of presence of multiple views (the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation by Thornton and Sokoloff). The performance of individuals on pre and post diagnostic measures ranges widely from almost no change to more than 6 standard deviations. Factors are identified which appear to differentiate the student performances. The identification of these factors motivated additional rounds of modifications to the materials, departing even further from a content driven orientation toward an even more student understanding driven approach. The resulting instruction appears to induce routinely even under adverse teaching and learning conditions 2.5 standard deviations change in the class average on the pre to the post instruction diagnostic scores.

  19. Data reporting constraints for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration activities in two districts in Ghana: A qualitative study

    da-Costa Vroom, Frances Baaba; Aryeetey, Richmond; Boateng, Richard; Anto, Francis; Aikins, Moses; Gyapong, Margaret; Gyapong, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Timely and accurate health data are important for objective decision making and policy formulation. However, little evidence exists to explain why poor quality routine health data persist. This study examined the constraints to data reporting for the lymphatic filariasis mass drug administration programme in two districts in Ghana. This qualitative study focused on timeliness and accuracy of mass drug administration reports submitted by community health volunteers. Methods: The st...

  20. Kinematics of Haro11 - the miniature Antennae

    Östlin, Göran; Cumming, Robert; Fathi, Kambiz; Bergvall, Nils; Adamo, Angela; Amram, Philippe; Hayes, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) Luminous blue compact galaxies are among the most active galaxies in the local universe in terms of their star formation rate per unit mass. They may be seen as the local analogs of higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies. Studies of their kinematics is key to understanding what triggers their unusually active star formation In this work we investigate the kinematics of stars and ionised gas in Haro11, one of the most luminous blue compact galaxies in the local universe. Previous works have indicated that many such galaxies may be triggered by galaxy mergers. We have employed Fabry-Perot interferometry, long-slit spectroscopy and Integral Field Unit (IFU) spectroscopy to explore the kinematics of Haro11. We target the near infrared Calcium triplet to derive the stellar velocity field and velocity dispersion. Ionised gas is analysed through emission lines from hydrogen, [OIII] , and [SIII]. When spectral resolution and signal to noise allows we investigate the the line profile in detail and identify mu...

  1. Elementary introduction to relativistic kinematics

    This paper includes the most important results and applications of the theory of special relativity to high energy phenomena; it provides an analysis of the kinematics of particle decays and reactions as well as an introduction to the Lorentz group

  2. Tensor Networks from Kinematic Space

    Czech, Bartlomiej; McCandlish, Samuel; Sully, James

    2015-01-01

    We point out that the MERA network for the ground state of a 1+1-dimensional conformal field theory has the same structural features as kinematic space---the geometry of CFT intervals. In holographic theories kinematic space becomes identified with the space of bulk geodesics studied in integral geometry. We argue that in these settings MERA is best viewed as a discretization of the space of bulk geodesics rather than of the bulk geometry itself. As a test of this kinematic proposal, we compare the MERA representation of the thermofield-double state with the space of geodesics in the two-sided BTZ geometry, obtaining a detailed agreement which includes the entwinement sector. We discuss how the kinematic proposal can be extended to excited states by generalizing MERA to a broader class of compression networks.

  3. GPS kinematics measurements accuracy testing

    Miroslav Šimčák; Vladimír Sedlák; Gabriela Nemcová

    2007-01-01

    In the paper accuracy of GPS kinematics measurements is analyzed. GPS (Global Positioning System) apparatus Stratus (Sokkia) and Pro Mark2 (Aschtech) were tested. Testing was realized on the points of the geodetic network – the testing station Badín stabilized in the Central Slovak Region nearby Banská Bystrica. The semikinematics method STOP and GO was realized from the kinematics GPS methods. The terrestrial geodetic measurements by means of using the total station Nicon 352 were also reali...

  4. Aero-optimum hovering kinematics.

    Nabawy, Mostafa R A; Crowther, William J

    2015-08-01

    Hovering flight for flapping wing vehicles requires rapid and relatively complex reciprocating movement of a wing relative to a stationary surrounding fluid. This note develops a compact analytical aero-kinematic model that can be used for optimization of flapping wing kinematics against aerodynamic criteria of effectiveness (maximum lift) and efficiency (minimum power for a given amount of lift). It can also be used to make predictions of required flapping frequency for a given geometry and basic aerodynamic parameters. The kinematic treatment is based on a consolidation of an existing formulation that allows explicit derivation of flapping velocity for complex motions whereas the aerodynamic model is based on existing quasi-steady analysis. The combined aero-kinematic model provides novel explicit analytical expressions for both lift and power of a hovering wing in a compact form that enables exploration of a rich kinematic design space. Good agreement is found between model predictions of flapping frequency and observed results for a number of insects and optimal hovering kinematics identified using the model are consistent with results from studies using higher order computational models. For efficient flight, the flapping angle should vary using a triangular profile in time leading to a constant velocity flapping motion, whereas for maximum effectiveness the shape of variation should be sinusoidal. For both cases the wing pitching motion should be rectangular such that pitch change at stroke reversal is as rapid as possible. PMID:26248884

  5. BASALT 1: Extravehicular Activity Science Operations Concepts under Communication Latency and Bandwidth Constraints at Craters of the Moon, Idaho

    Chappell, Steven P.; Beaton, Kara; Miller, Matthew J.; Lim, Darlene S. S.; Abercromby, Andrew F. J.

    2017-01-01

    An over-arching goal of the multi-year Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains (BASALT) project is to iteratively develop, implement, and evaluate concepts of operations (ConOps) and supporting capabilities intended to enable and enhance human exploration of Mars. Geological and biological scientific fieldwork is being conducted during four total deployments at two high-fidelity Mars analogs, all within simulated Mars mission conditions that are based on current architectural assumptions for Mars exploration missions. Specific capabilities being evaluated include the use of mobile science platforms, extravehicular informatics, communication and navigation packages, advanced science mission planning tools, and scientifically-relevant instrument packages to achieve the project goals. This paper describes the planning, execution, and results of the first field deployment, referred to as BASALT 1, which consisted of a series of 12 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs) on the lava terrains of Craters of the Moon, Idaho. Scientific objectives of the EVAs related to determination of how microbial communities and habitability correlate with the physical and geochemical characteristics of chemically-altered basalt environments. The concept of operations (ConOps) and capabilities deployed and tested during BASALT 1 were based on extensive data from previous NASA trade studies and analog testing, and the primary research question was whether those ConOps and capabilities would work acceptably when performing real (non-simulated) biological and geological scientific exploration under four different communication scenarios. Specifically, communication latencies of 5 and 15 minutes one-way light time (OWLT) were tested; these delays fall within the range of 4 to 22 minute OWLT delays that would be experienced during a Mars mission. Science operations were also conducted under low bandwidth conditions (0.512 Mb/s uplink, 1.54 Mb/s downlink), representing a

  6. Freeform correction polishing for optics with semi-kinematic mounting

    Huang, Chien-Yao; Kuo, Ching-Hsiang; Peng, Wei-Jei; Yu, Zong-Ru; Ho, Cheng-Fang; Hsu, Ming-Ying; Hsu, Wei-Yao

    2015-10-01

    Several mounting configurations could be applied to opto-mechanical design for achieving high precise optical system. The retaining ring mounting is simple and cost effective. However, it would deform the optics due to its unpredictable over-constraint forces. The retaining ring can be modified to three small contact areas becoming a semi-kinematic mounting. The semi-kinematic mounting can give a fully constrained in lens assembly and avoid the unpredictable surface deformation. However, there would be still a deformation due to self-weight in large optics especially in vertical setup applications. The self-weight deformation with a semi-kinematic mounting is a stable, repeatable and predictable combination of power and trefoil aberrations. This predictable deformation can be pre-compensated onto the design surface and be corrected by using CNC polisher. Thus it is a freeform surface before mounting to the lens cell. In this study, the freeform correction polishing is demonstrated in a Φ150 lens with semi-kinematic mounting. The clear aperture of the lens is Φ143 mm. We utilize ANSYS simulation software to analyze the lens deformation due to selfweight deformation with semi-kinematic mounting. The simulation results of the self-weight deformation are compared with the measurement results of the assembled lens cell using QED aspheric stitching interferometer (ASI). Then, a freeform surface of a lens with semi-kinematic mounting due to self-weight deformation is verified. This deformation would be corrected by using QED Magnetorheological Finishing (MRF® ) Q-flex 300 polishing machine. The final surface form error of the assembled lens cell after MRF figuring is 0.042 λ in peak to valley (PV).

  7. Conserved quantities in kinematic dynamo theory

    Using a Lagrangian approach to the magnetic induction equation in an infinite medium, it is demonstrated that there exist seven conserved quantities which, by analogy with classical mechanics, labeled as ''energy,'' ''momentum,'' and ''angular momentum.'' For prescribed fluid motions the detailed conservation equations are spelled out. For a fluid motion which is turbulent one also gives the average conserved quantities. In a pragmatic sense it is expected that these conservation laws will be of use in attempts to obtain numerically accurate solutions to the turbulent kinematic dynamo equations. Since the magnetic induction equation is not self-adjoint, numerical attempts to date have to impose some extraneous ad hoc ''criteria of goodness'' at any given level of numerical truncation. The conserved quantities given provide an internal check of the accuracy of any numerical calculation without the necessity for arbitrarily imposed external criteria of accuracy. As such they should be a powerful tool in rapidly increasing the accuracy of numerical solutions to the kinematic dynamo equations. It is also pointed out that the conserved quantities can be used to indicate the possibility of kinematic dynamo activity ahead of any detailed calculations

  8. Mg II & C IV Kinematics vs. Stellar Kinematics in Galaxies

    Churchill, C W; Churchill, Chris; Steidel, Chuck

    2002-01-01

    Comparisons of the kinematics of Mg II absorbing gas and the stellar rotation curves in 0.5 < z < 1.0 spiral galaxies suggests that, at least in some cases, the extended gaseous envelopes may be dynamically coupled to the stellar matter. A strong correlation exists between the overall kinematic spread of Mg II absorbing gas and C IV absorption strength, and therefore kinematics of the higher-ionization gas. Taken together, the data may suggest a "halo/disk connection" between z~1 galaxies and their extended gaseous envelopes. Though the number of galaxies in our sample are few, there are no clear examples that suggest the gas is accreting/infalling isotropically about the galaxies from the intergalactic medium.

  9. Apatite fission-track data from upper Cretaceous formations in the Yuan'an Graben (China): Constraints on the timing of synsedimentary fault activity

    Apatite fission-track signatures of upper Cretaceous Formations in the Yuan'an Graben are made to constraint on the timing of the Yuan'an and Tongchenghe synsedimentary fault activity. The apatite fission-track ages range from 102.0 ± 14.6 to 84.1 ± 3.7 Ma with P(χ2) >0.05; the mean confined track lengths of 14.18 ± 0.09 and 14.16 ± 0.08 μm with mean Dpar values of 2.25 ± 0.02 and 2.26 ± 0.03 μm, respectively. These data are interpreted as dating their source-area exhumation, recording the exhumation and cooling of the footwall during major normal faulting. The results indicate that the timing of the Yuan'an and Tongchenghe synsedimentary fault activity occurred at 117–82 Ma and the intensive movement at 100–82 Ma; the onset time of extension in Jianghan Basin is ca. 117 Ma, which is related to the lithospheric extension associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Asian Plate. - Highlights: ► Apatite fission-track dating is used to constraint on the timing of fault activity. ► The onset time of extension in Jianghan Basin is ca. 117 Ma. ► Combination of AFT and ESR to determine a Graben evolution

  10. Automatic Design Theory and Realization of Kinematic Schemes for Mechanism System

    YE Zhi-gang; ZOU Hui-jun; GUO Wei-zhong; HU Song; TIAN Yong-li; XU Yong

    2006-01-01

    Based on an analysis of mechanism combination methods of a current mechanism system kinematic scheme,inpuf/output kinematic behavior and their constraint relations were proposed to represent the kinematic behavior knowledge of a mechanism system.Furthermore,a tree stmcture of a kinematic behavior decomposition process for a mechanism system was provided.Considering multiple outputs for a mechanism system,the matching algorithm and the attributes propagation method of kinematic behavior were used to generate a mechanism combination scheme.Its intermediate design solution and the constraint relations between input and output are generated to fill the common blackboard.Moreover,using information in the blackboard as input motion.the behavior attributes of other process actions are transmitted to attribute items of the blackboard,which finally enables a computer-aided automatic design process of a mechanism system kinematic scheme.To avoid the problem of schemes combination explosion caused by unbounded depth in the search process,bounded depth-first search was used to control the number of expanded hierarchies for a design tree.Finally.an example was given to show its feasibility and solution efficiency.

  11. Clifford Fibrations and Possible Kinematics

    Alan S. McRae

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following Herranz and Santander [Herranz F.J., Santander M., Mem. Real Acad. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Natur. Madrid 32 (1998, 59-84, physics/9702030] we will construct homogeneous spaces based on possible kinematical algebras and groups [Bacry H., Levy-Leblond J.-M., J. Math. Phys. 9 (1967, 1605-1614] and their contractions for 2-dimensional spacetimes. Our construction is different in that it is based on a generalized Clifford fibration: Following Penrose [Penrose R., Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., New York, 2005] we will call our fibration a Clifford fibration and not a Hopf fibration, as our fibration is a geometrical construction. The simple algebraic properties of the fibration describe the geometrical properties of the kinematical algebras and groups as well as the spacetimes that are derived from them. We develop an algebraic framework that handles all possible kinematic algebras save one, the static algebra.

  12. General expression of manipulator kinematics

    In this paper, a general description for kinematic modelling of all types of manipulators is presented by expanding the concept of the homogeneous transformation (Ai-matrix) based on Denavit-Hartenberg notation. Unlike the previous matrix method, the expression of recursive relationships which is suitable for computer-aided design makes it possible to derive automatically the position and orientation of manipulator hand. Two algorithms which take into consideration of the order of operation result in identical relations with respect to the kinematics between the reference system and the final link, which was proved by an application to a six-link manipulator. (author)

  13. Latest Advances in Robot Kinematics

    Husty, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    This book is  of interest to researchers inquiring about modern topics and methods in the kinematics, control and design of robotic manipulators. It considers the full range of robotic systems, including serial, parallel and cable driven manipulators, both planar and spatial. The systems range from being less than fully mobile to kinematically redundant to overconstrained. In addition to recognized areas, this book also presents recent advances in emerging areas such as the design and control of humanoids and humanoid subsystems, and the analysis, modeling and simulation of human body motions, as well as the mobility analysis of protein molecules and the development of machines which incorporate man.

  14. A constrained generalised- method for coupling rigid parallel chain kinematics and elastic bodies

    Gransden, Derek I.; Bornemann, P. Burkhard; Rose, Michael; Nitzsche, Fred

    2015-03-01

    A problem arises from combining flexible rotorcraft blades with stiffer mechanical links, which form a parallel kinematic chain. This paper introduces a method for solving index-3 differential algebraic equations for coupled stiff and elastic body systems with closed-loop kinematics. Rigid body dynamics and elastic body mechanics are independently described according to convenient mathematical measures. Holonomic constraint equations couple both the parallel chain kinematics and describe the coupling between the rigid and continuum bodies. Lagrange multipliers enforce the kinetic conditions for both sets of constraints. Additionally, to prevent numerical inaccuracy from inverting stiff mechanical matrices, a scaling factor normalises the dynamic tangential stiffness matrix. Finally, example tests show the verification of the algorithm with respect to existing computational tests and the accuracy of the model for cases relevant to the problem definition.

  15. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  16. Top quark mass and kinematics

    Barberis, Emanuela; /Northeastern U.

    2006-05-01

    A summary of the results on the measurement of the Top Quark mass and the study of the kinematics of the t{bar t} system at the Tevatron collider is presented here. Results from both the CDF and D0 collaborations are reported.

  17. Kinematic mounting systems for NSLS beamlines and experiments

    Methods for kinematically mounting equipment are well established, but applications at synchrotron radiation facilities are subject to constraints not always encountered in more traditional laboratory settings. Independent position adjustment of beamline components can have significant benefits in terms of minimizing time spent aligning, and maximizing time spent acquiring data. In this paper, we use examples taken from beamlines at the NSLS to demonstrate approaches for optimization of the reproducibility, stability, excursion, and set-up time for various situations. From our experience, we extract general principles which we hope will be useful for workers at other synchrotron radiation facilities. 7 refs., 4 figs

  18. A kinematic comparison of alterations to knee and ankle angles from resting measures to active pedaling during a graded exercise protocol.

    Peveler, Willard W; Shew, Brandy; Johnson, Samantha; Palmer, Thomas G

    2012-11-01

    Saddle height is one of the most researched areas of bike fit. The current accepted method for adjusting saddle height involves the use of a goniometer to adjust saddle height so that a knee angle between 25° and 35° is obtained. This measurement is taken while the cyclist maintains a static position with the pedal at the 6-o'-clock position. However, the act of pedaling is dynamic, and angles may alter during movement. The purpose of this study was to examine the alterations to knee and ankle angle occurring from static measures to active pedaling across intensities experienced by cyclists during a graded exercise protocol. Thirty-four recreational to highly trained cyclists were evaluated using 2D analysis of stationary position and 3 active levels (level 1, respiratory exchange ratio of 1.00, and max). Dependent measures were compared using repeated measures analysis of variance (p = 0.05). When examining the results, it is evident that significant alterations to pedal stroke occur from stationary measures to active pedaling and as intensity increases toward maximal. Plantar flexion increased when moving from stationary measures to active pedaling, which resulted in an increase in knee angle. Although still greater than stationary measures, less plantar flexion occurred at higher intensities when compared with lower intensity cycling. Less plantar flexion at higher intensities is most likely a result of application of a larger downward torque occurring because of greater power requirements at higher intensities. There appeared to be greater variability in angle when examining novice cyclists in relation to more experienced cyclists. Although stationary measures are where a bike fit session will begin, observation during the pedal cycle may be needed to fine-tune the riders' fit. PMID:22158094

  19. Algebraic analysis of kinematics of multibody systems

    S. Piipponen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The constructive commutative algebra is very useful in the kinematical analysis of the mechanisms because a large class of systems can be described using polynomial equations. We show that one can analyze quite complicated systems using a sort of divide and conquer strategy to decompose the system, and hence the configuration space, into simpler parts. The key observation is that it seems that typically systems indeed have a lot of distinct components, but usually only one of them is physically relevant. Hence if one finds the equations describing the component of interest the analysis of this system can be surprisingly simple compared to the original system. In particular typically the possible singularities of the original system disappear when one restricts the attention to the relevant component. On the technical side we show that some basic constraints used to define joints in 3 dimensional mechanisms can be decomposed to simpler parts. This has significant practical consequences because using these fundamental decompositions when writing the equations for complicated mechanisms decreases dramatically the complexity of the required computations.

  20. Classical Nonminimal Lagrangians and Kinematic Tests of Special Relativity

    Schreck, M

    2016-01-01

    This article gives a brief summary on recently obtained classical lagrangians for the nonminimal fermion sector of the Standard-Model Extension (SME). Such lagrangians are adequate descriptions of classical particles that are subject to a Lorentz-violating background field based on the SME. Explicitly, lagrangians were obtained for the leading nonminimal contributions of the m, a, c, e, and f coefficients. These results were then used to interpret classical, kinematic tests of Special Relativity in the framework of the nonminimal SME. This led to new constraints on certain nonminimal controlling coefficients. Although the experiments were very sophisticated in the era when they were carried out, their sensitivities for detecting Lorentz violation were still far away from the Planck scale. Obtaining the novel constraints can be considered as a proof-of-principle demonstrating the applicability of the classical lagrangians computed.

  1. Constraints from Cosmography in various parameterizations

    Aviles, Alejandro; Luongo, Orlando; Quevedo, Hernando

    2013-01-01

    We use cosmography to present constraints on the kinematics of the Universe without postulating any underlying theoretical model a priori. To this end, we use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to perform comparisons to the supernova Ia union 2 compilation, combined with the Hubble Space Telescope measurements of the Hubble constant, and the Hubble parameter datasets. The cosmographic approach to our analysis is revisited and extended for new notions of redshift presented as alternatives to the redshift z. Furthermore, we introduce a new set of fitting parameters describing the kinematical evolution of the Universe in terms of the equation of state of the Universe and derivatives of the total pressure. Our results are consistent with the \\Lambda CDM model, although alternative models, with nearly constant pressure and no cosmological constant, match the results accurately as well.

  2. Exploring MaNGA's kinematic maps

    Weijmans, Anne-Marie; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    Different galaxy formation processes leave different imprints on the gas and stellar kinematic patterns for a galaxy. With MaNGA, we now have after one year of observations an unprecedented sample of 1400 nearby galaxies for which we can study gas and stellar kinematics in much detail, based on integral-field spectroscopy. We are measuring kinematic quantities such as LambdaR (angular momentum) and their (possible) correlations with other galaxy properties such as mass, morphology and environment. By quantifying the kinematic (sub)structures in velocity and dispersion maps, we will construct a kinematic galaxy classification that can be linked to their formation processes.

  3. Sex Differences in Tibiocalcaneal Kinematics

    Sinclair Jonathan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Female runners typically suffer more from chronic running injuries than age-matched males, although the exact biome-chanical mechanisms behind the increased susceptibility of female runners are unknown. This study aimed to compare sex differences in tibiocalcaneal kinematics during the stance phase of running. Methods. Twenty male and twenty female participants ran at 4.0 m · s–1. Tibiocalcaneal kinematics were measured using an eight-camera motion analysis system and compared using independent samples t tests. Results. Peak eversion and tibial internal rotation angles were shown to be significantly greater in female runners. Conclusions. based on these observations, it was determined that female runners may be at increased risk from chronic injury development in relation to excessive tibiocalcaneal motions in the coronal and transverse planes.

  4. Contact kinematics of biomimetic scales

    Dermal scales, prevalent across biological groups, considerably boost survival by providing multifunctional advantages. Here, we investigate the nonlinear mechanical effects of biomimetic scale like attachments on the behavior of an elastic substrate brought about by the contact interaction of scales in pure bending using qualitative experiments, analytical models, and detailed finite element (FE) analysis. Our results reveal the existence of three distinct kinematic phases of operation spanning linear, nonlinear, and rigid behavior driven by kinematic interactions of scales. The response of the modified elastic beam strongly depends on the size and spatial overlap of rigid scales. The nonlinearity is perceptible even in relatively small strain regime and without invoking material level complexities of either the scales or the substrate

  5. Measurement of reed valve kinematics

    Fenkl Michael

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of key kinematic parameters of a reed valve movement is necessary for the further development of the reed valve system. These parameters are dependent on the geometry and material properties of the valve. As they directly affect the quantity of air flowing around the valve, a simple and easy to implement measurement of various valve configuration based on the air flow has been devised and is described in this paper, along with its technical parameters and drawbacks when evaluating reed valves used in reciprocating air compressors. Results are presented for a specimen of a compressor under examination. All kinematic parameters, and timing of the opening and closing of the valve, obtained from the measurement are presented and discussed.

  6. Measurement of reed valve kinematics

    Fenkl, Michael; Dvořák, Václav; Vít, Tomáš

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of key kinematic parameters of a reed valve movement is necessary for the further development of the reed valve system. These parameters are dependent on the geometry and material properties of the valve. As they directly affect the quantity of air flowing around the valve, a simple and easy to implement measurement of various valve configuration based on the air flow has been devised and is described in this paper, along with its technical parameters and drawbacks when evaluating reed valves used in reciprocating air compressors. Results are presented for a specimen of a compressor under examination. All kinematic parameters, and timing of the opening and closing of the valve, obtained from the measurement are presented and discussed.

  7. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Paul Mattione

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  8. Buried active faults in the Zafferana Etnea territory (south-eastern flank of Mt. Etna: geometry and kinematics by earthquake relocation and focal mechanisms

    Salvatore Alparone

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We relocated seismicity that occurred from 2000 to 2005 inside a sector of Mt. Etna, comprising the town of Zafferana Etnea, using the double-difference technique. This approach revealed some spatial clusters of events at depths of 3.0 km to 5.5 km b.s.l., which suggested NE-SW-oriented and NNW-SSE-oriented active structures located west and north-west with respect to Zafferana Etnea. We also calculated 64 fault plane solutions, and azimuth and dip distributions of maximum compression P axes. The data include eight events with magnitudes between 3.1 and 3.7 that caused damage to Zafferana Etnea. This approach has allowed the definition of the geometry of structures that show no surface evidence, but are potentially hazardous for this territory. These faults might be linked to the regional tectonics, although they were activated by stress changes related to a general pressurizing of the Mt. Etna magma system between 2000 and 2005.

  9. Kinematic Downsizing at z~2

    Simons, Raymond C; Trump, Jonathan R; Weiner, Benjamin J; Heckman, Timothy M; Barro, Guillermo; Koo, David C; Guo, Yicheng; Pacifici, Camilla; Koekemoer, Anton; Stephens, Andrew W

    2016-01-01

    We present results from a survey of the internal kinematics of 49 star-forming galaxies at z$\\,\\sim\\,$2 in the CANDELS fields with the Keck/MOSFIRE spectrograph (SIGMA, Survey in the near-Infrared of Galaxies with Multiple position Angles). Kinematics (rotation velocity $V_{rot}$ and integrated gas velocity dispersion $\\sigma_g$) are measured from nebular emission lines which trace the hot ionized gas surrounding star-forming regions. We find that by z$\\,\\sim\\,$2, massive star-forming galaxies ($\\log\\,M_*/M_{\\odot}\\gtrsim10.2$) have assembled primitive disks: their kinematics are dominated by rotation, they are consistent with a marginally stable disk model, and they form a Tully-Fisher relation. These massive galaxies have values of $V_{rot}/\\sigma_g$ which are factors of 2-5 lower than local well-ordered galaxies at similar masses. Such results are consistent with findings by other studies. We find that low mass galaxies ($\\log\\,M_*/M_{\\odot}\\lesssim10.2$) at this epoch are still in the early stages of disk...

  10. Scapular kinematic is altered after electromyography biofeedback training.

    San Juan, Jun G; Gunderson, Samantha R; Kane-Ronning, Kai; Suprak, David N

    2016-06-14

    Electromyography (EMG) biofeedback training affords patients a better sense of the different muscle activation patterns involved in the movement of the shoulder girdle. It is important to address scapular kinematics with labourers who have daily routines involving large amounts of lifting at shoulder level or higher. This population is at a heightened risk of developing subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of scapular stabilization exercises with EMG biofeedback training on scapular kinematics. Twenty-three healthy subjects volunteered for the study. Electrodes were placed on the upper and lower trapezius, serratus anterior, and lumbar paraspinals to measure EMG activity. Subjects underwent scapular kinematic testing, which consisted of humeral elevation in the scapular plane, before and after biofeedback training. The latter consisted of 10 repetitions of the I, W, T, and Y scapular stabilization exercises. Subjects were told to actively reduce the muscle activation shown on the screen for the upper trapezius during the exercises. The scapular external rotation had a statistically significant difference at all humeral elevation angles (porientation with a mean difference of 6.5°. There were no significant differences found with scapular upward rotation, or posterior tilt at all humeral elevation angles following biofeedback. Scapular kinematics are altered by EMG biofeedback training utilizing scapular stabilization exercises. However, only scapular external rotation was affected by the exercises. PMID:27161990

  11. Constraints on magma transfers and structures involved in the 2003 activity at Piton de La Fournaise from displacement data

    PELTIER, A.; Staudacher, T.; Bachèlery, P

    2007-01-01

    Piton de La Fournaise (Réunion Island) had shown 8 months of high activity during 2003, including four eruptions and one intrusion. The monitoring networks, provided by the Volcanological Observatory of Piton de La Fournaise, show two different kinds of behavior: strong and rapid deformations linked with the magma injections and a slight continuous intereruptive inflation of the summit area. Inversed modeling based on the deformation data, using a three-dimensional elastostatic boundary eleme...

  12. Theoretical and Numerical Experiences on a Test Rig for Active Vibration Control of Mechanical Systems with Moving Constraints

    M. Rinchi; Gambini, E.

    2004-01-01

    Active control of vibrations in mechanical systems has recently benefited of the remarkable development of robust control techniques. These control techniques are able to guarantee performances in spite of unavoidable modeling errors. They have been successfully codified and implemented for vibrating structures whose uncertain parameters could be assumed to be time-invariant. Unfortunately a wide class of mechanical systems, such as machine tools with carriage motion realized by a ball-screw,...

  13. SUMOylation Is an Inhibitory Constraint that Regulates the Prion-like Aggregation and Activity of CPEB3

    Bettina Drisaldi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein synthesis is crucial for the maintenance of long-term-memory-related synaptic plasticity. The prion-like cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 3 (CPEB3 regulates the translation of several mRNAs important for long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Here, we provide evidence that the prion-like aggregation and activity of CPEB3 is controlled by SUMOylation. In the basal state, CPEB3 is a repressor and is soluble. Under these circumstances, CPEB3 is SUMOylated in hippocampal neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Following neuronal stimulation, CPEB3 is converted into an active form that promotes the translation of target mRNAs, and this is associated with a decrease of SUMOylation and an increase of aggregation. A chimeric CPEB3 protein fused to SUMO cannot form aggregates and cannot activate the translation of target mRNAs. These findings suggest a model whereby SUMO regulates translation of mRNAs and structural synaptic plasticity by modulating the aggregation of the prion-like protein CPEB3.

  14. The SINS/zC-SINF survey of z ∼ 2 galaxy kinematics: Evidence for powerful active galactic nucleus-driven nuclear outflows in massive star-forming galaxies

    We report the detection of ubiquitous powerful nuclear outflows in massive (≥1011 M ☉) z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies (SFGs), which are plausibly driven by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). The sample consists of the eight most massive SFGs from our SINS/zC-SINF survey of galaxy kinematics with the imaging spectrometer SINFONI, six of which have sensitive high-resolution adaptive optics-assisted observations. All of the objects are disks hosting a significant stellar bulge. The spectra in their central regions exhibit a broad component in Hα and forbidden [N II] and [S II] line emission, with typical velocity FWHM ∼ 1500 km s–1, [N II]/Hα ratio ≈ 0.6, and intrinsic extent of 2-3 kpc. These properties are consistent with warm ionized gas outflows associated with Type 2 AGN, the presence of which is confirmed via independent diagnostics in half the galaxies. The data imply a median ionized gas mass outflow rate of ∼60 M ☉ yr–1 and mass loading of ∼3. At larger radii, a weaker broad component is detected but with lower FWHM ∼485 km s–1 and [N II]/Hα ≈ 0.35, characteristic for star formation-driven outflows as found in the lower-mass SINS/zC-SINF galaxies. The high inferred mass outflow rates and frequent occurrence suggest that the nuclear outflows efficiently expel gas out of the centers of the galaxies with high duty cycles and may thus contribute to the process of star formation quenching in massive galaxies. Larger samples at high masses will be crucial in confirming the importance and energetics of the nuclear outflow phenomenon and its connection to AGN activity and bulge growth.

  15. Polarimetric Observations of 15 Active Galactic Nuclei at High Frequencies: Jet Kinematics from Bimonthly Monitoring with the Very Long Baseline Array

    Jorstad, S G; Lister, M L; Stirling, A M; Cawthorne, T V; Gear, W K; Gómez, J L; Stevens, J A; Smith, P S; Forster, J R; Gabuzda, D C; Robson, E I; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Lister, Matthew L.; Stirling, Alastair M.; Cawthorne, Timothy V.; Gear, Walter K.; Gomez, Jose L.; Stevens, Jason A.; Smith, Paul S.; Forster, James R.; Gabuzda, Denise C.

    2005-01-01

    We present total and polarized intensity images of 15 active galactic nuclei obtained with the Very Long Baseline Array at 7 mm at 17 epochs from 1998 March to 2001 April. At some epochs the images are accompanied by nearly simultaneous polarization measurements at 3 mm, 1.35/0.85 mm, and optical wavelengths. Here we analyze the 7 mm images to define the properties of the jets of two radio galaxies, five BL Lac objects, and eight quasars on angular scales $\\gtrsim 0.1$ milliarcseconds. We determine the apparent velocities of 109 features in the jets; for many of the features we derive Doppler factors using a new method based on comparison of timescale of decline in flux density with the light-travel time across the emitting region. This allows us to estimate the Lorentz factors, intrinsic brightness temperatures, and viewing angles of 77 superluminal knots, as well as the opening angle of the jet for each source. We analyze the derived physical parameters of the jets. In nine sources we detect statistically m...

  16. MUSE three-dimensional spectroscopy and kinematics of the gigahertz peaked spectrum radio galaxy PKS 1934-63: interaction, recently triggered active galactic nucleus and star formation

    Roche, Nathan; Humphrey, Andrew; Lagos, Patricio; Papaderos, Polychronis; Silva, Marckelson; Cardoso, Leandro S. M.; Gomes, Jean Michel

    2016-07-01

    We observe the radio galaxy PKS 1934-63 (at z = 0.1825) using the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) on the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The radio source is a gigahertz peaked spectrum source and is compact (0.13 kpc), implying an early stage of evolution (≤104 yr). Our data show an interacting pair of galaxies, with projected separation 9.1 kpc and velocity difference Δ(v) = 216 km s-1. The larger galaxy is a M* ≃ 1011 M⊙ spheroidal with the emission-line spectrum of a high-excitation young radio active galactic nucleus (AGN; e.g. strong [O I]6300 and [O III]5007). Emission-line ratios indicate a large contribution to the line luminosity from high-velocity shocks (≃ 550 km s-1). The companion is a non-AGN disc galaxy, with extended Hα emission from which its star formation rate is estimated as 0.61 M⊙ yr-1. Both galaxies show rotational velocity gradients in Hα and other lines, with the interaction being prograde-prograde. The SE-NW velocity gradient of the AGN host is misaligned from the E-W radio axis, but aligned with a previously discovered central ultraviolet source, and a factor of 2 greater in amplitude in Hα than in other (forbidden) lines (e.g. [O III]5007). This could be produced by a fast rotating (100-150 km s-1) disc with circumnuclear star formation. We also identify a broad component of [O III]5007 emission, blueshifted with a velocity gradient aligned with the radio jets, and associated with outflow. However, the broad component of [O I]6300 is redshifted. In spectral fits, both galaxies have old stellar populations plus ˜0.1 per cent of very young stars, consistent with the galaxies undergoing first perigalacticon, triggering infall and star formation from ˜40 Myr ago followed by the radio outburst.

  17. SUMOylation Is an Inhibitory Constraint that Regulates the Prion-like Aggregation and Activity of CPEB3

    Bettina Drisaldi; Luca Colnaghi; Luana Fioriti; Nishta Rao; Cory Myers; Anna M. Snyder; Daniel J. Metzger; Jenna Tarasoff; Edward Konstantinov; Paul E. Fraser; James L. Manley; Eric R. Kandel

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is crucial for the maintenance of long-term-memory-related synaptic plasticity. The prion-like cytoplasmic polyadenylation element-binding protein 3 (CPEB3) regulates the translation of several mRNAs important for long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Here, we provide evidence that the prion-like aggregation and activity of CPEB3 is controlled by SUMOylation. In the basal state, CPEB3 is a repressor and is soluble. Under these circumstances, CPEB3 is SUMOylated i...

  18. Data assimilation with inequality constraints

    Thacker, W. C.

    If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.

  19. Kinematic Characteristics of 3-UPU Parallel Manipulator in Singularity and Its Application

    Peng Binbin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the kinematic characteristics of the 3‐UPU (universal‐prismatic‐ universal parallel manipulator in one of singular configurations. The motion of the moving platform is analyzed by changing the layout of the universal joints. A layout of universal joints in the singular configuration is discussed in detail by deriving the kinematic and constraint equations. Solving the equations, the kinematic characteristics in such case is obtained. At the same time the kinematic characteristics is simulated by the commercial software and the results of the simulation verify it. Based on the kinematics characteristics of it, the application of the singular configuration is presented. And a compound limb which can translate freely along a circular path is presented. Finally, the some new 2‐DOF (degree of freedom planar parallel translating manipulators whose orientation can remain constant are put forward by the compound limb. The passive joints of the new 2‐DOF planar parallel translating manipulators are universal joint and the struts of it do not bear the bending moment. It gives the planar parallel manipulator a good architecture to resist the force which is perpendicular to the kinematics plane.

  20. Methodological constraints in interpreting serum paraoxonase-1 activity measurements: an example from a study in HIV-infected patients

    Joven Jorge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Paraoxonase-1 (PON1 is an antioxidant enzyme that attenuates the production of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in vitro. Although oxidation and inflammation are closely related processes, the association between PON1 and MCP-1 has not been completely characterised due, probably, to that the current use of synthetic substrates for PON1 measurement limits the interpretation of the data. In the present study, we explored the relationships between the circulating levels of PON1 and MCP-1 in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in relation to the multifunctional capabilities of PON1. Methods We measured selected variables in 227 patients and in a control group of 409 participants. Serum PON1 esterase and lactonase activities were measured as the rates of hydrolysis of paraoxon and of 5-(thiobutyl-butyrolactone, respectively. Oxidised LDL and MCP-1 concentrations were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High-density lipoproteins cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I, and C-reactive protein concentrations were measured by standard automated methods. Results There were significant relationships between PON1 activity and several indices of oxidation and inflammation in control subjects and in infected patients. However, these relationships varied not only with disease status but also on the type of substrate used for PON1 measurement. Conclusion The present study is a cautionary tale highlighting that results of clinical studies on PON1 may vary depending on the methods used as well as the disease studied. Until more specific methods using physiologically-akin substrates are developed for PON1 measurement, we suggest the simultaneous employment of at least two different substrates in order to improve the reliability of the results obtained.

  1. Quaternary tectonic activity of the Carboneras Fault in the La Serrata range (SE Iberia): Geomorphological and chronological constraints

    Moreno, Ximena; Masana, Eulàlia; Pallàs, Raimon; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Rodés, Ángel; Bordonau, Jaume

    2015-11-01

    The Eastern Betic Shear Zone (EBSZ) in Southern Iberia is known to accommodate part of the 4-5 mm/yr convergence between Africa and Iberia, but its seismic hazard is not sufficiently understood for an accurate risk assessment. One of the main structures of the EBSZ, the left-lateral 150 km-long Carboneras Fault, displays no clear instrumental and historical activity despite being morphologically expressive. Detailed geomorphological mapping, geochronological analysis, and structural observation on the La Serrata segment of the Carboneras Fault were designed to investigate its recent evolution. Quaternary sediments and geomorphic features were targeted and 42 new numerical ages were obtained based on 66 samples (thermoluminescence, U-series, 14C, 10Be). The chronological framework of La Serrata was constructed by combining these numerical ages with a conceptual model previously developed in the region, which assumes that alluvial fan aggradation was produced during cold and dry periods (glacials and stadials), whereas stability and phases of calcrete formation were favored during warm and wetter periods (interglacials and interstadials). The spatial distribution of dated alluvial fans suggests an early phase of uplift that probably occurred between 1 Ma and 56.6 ka in the northeastern portion of the study area, whereas in the southwest sector the main uplift phase occurred later than 110.3 ka. A decline in fault activity would have taken place after 30.8 ka. Vertically offset dated units indicate minimum dip-slip rates of 0.05 mm/yr and 0.18 mm/yr, averaged for the last 1 Ma and the last 110.3 ka, respectively. Deflected channels and associated dated units yield a minimum left-lateral strike-slip rate of 1.31 mm/yr, averaged for the last 110.3 ka. The most recent fault movement of the fault could be younger than AD 637. Our results suggest therefore that the Carboneras Fault is among the fastest in Iberia, and should be considered in future hazard analyses.

  2. Constraints on Feedback in the local Universe: The relation between star formation and AGN activity in early type galaxies

    Vaddi, Sravani; Baum, Stefi A; Whitmore, Samantha; Ahmed, Rabeea; Pierce, Katherine; Leary, Sara

    2016-01-01

    We address the relation between star formation and AGN activity in a sample of 231 nearby ($0.0002

  3. Constraints on Two Active Galactic Nuclei in the Merger Remnant COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2

    Wrobel, J M; Middelberg, E

    2014-01-01

    COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2 is a merger remnant at z = 0.36 with two optical nuclei, NW and SE, offset by 500 mas (2.5 kpc). Prior studies suggest two competing scenarios for these nuclei: (1) SE is an active galactic nucleus (AGN) lost from NW due to a gravitational-wave recoil. (2) NW and SE each contain an AGN, signaling a gravitational-slingshot recoil or inspiralling AGNs. We present new images from the Very Large Array (VLA) at a frequency nu = 9.0 GHz and a FWHM resolution theta = 320 mas (1.6 kpc), and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at nu = 1.52 GHz and theta = 15 mas (75 pc). The VLA imaging is sensitive to emission driven by AGNs and/or star formation, while the VLBA imaging is sensitive only to AGN-driven emission. No radio emission is detected at these frequencies. Folding in prior results, we find: (a) The properties of SE and its adjacent X-ray feature resemble those of the unobscured AGN in NGC 4151, albeit with a much higher narrow emission-line luminosity. (b) The properties of NW are con...

  4. Constraints on the broad line region from regularized linear inversion: Velocity-delay maps for five nearby active galactic nuclei

    Skielboe, Andreas; Treu, Tommaso; Park, Daeseong; Barth, Aaron J; Bentz, Misty C

    2015-01-01

    Reverberation mapping probes the structure of the broad emission-line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGN). The radius of the BLR along with the virial velocity of the BLR gas can be used to measure the mass of the supermassive black hole. The main systematic uncertainty affecting reverberation mapping is the unknown structure of the BLR. We develop a new method for analysing reverberation mapping data based on regularized linear inversion (RLI) that includes statistical modelling of the AGN continuum light curves. This method enables fast, flexible, and robust calculation of velocity-resolved response maps to probe BLR structure. Contrary to other methods, RLI allows for negative response in the BLR, such as when some areas of the BLR respond in inverse proportion to a change in ionizing continuum luminosity. We present time delays, integrated response functions, and velocity-delay maps for the H{\\beta} broad emission line in five nearby AGN, as well as H{\\alpha} and H{\\gamma} broad emission lines in...

  5. Constraints on two active galactic nuclei in the merger remnant cosmos J100043.15+020637.2

    COSMOS J100043.15+020637.2 is a merger remnant at z = 0.36 with two optical nuclei, NW and SE, offset by 500 mas (2.5 kpc). Prior studies suggest two competing scenarios for these nuclei: (1) SE is an active galactic nucleus (AGN) lost from NW due to a gravitational-wave recoil. (2) NW and SE each contain an AGN, signaling a gravitational-slingshot recoil or inspiralling AGNs. We present new images from the Very Large Array (VLA) at a frequency ν = 9.0 GHz and a FWHM resolution θ = 320 mas (1.6 kpc), and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at ν = 1.52 GHz and θ = 15 mas (75 pc). The VLA imaging is sensitive to emission driven by AGNs and/or star formation, while the VLBA imaging is sensitive only to AGN-driven emission. No radio emission is detected at these frequencies. Folding in prior results, we find: (a) The properties of SE and its adjacent X-ray feature resemble those of the Type 1 AGN in NGC 4151, albeit with a much higher narrow emission-line luminosity. (b) The properties of NW are consistent with it hosting a Compton-thick AGN that warms ambient dust, photoionizes narrow emission-line gas, and is free-free absorbed by that gas. Finding (a) is consistent with scenarios (a) and (b). Finding (b) weakens the case for scenario (a) and strengthens the case for scenario (b). Follow-up observations are suggested.

  6. Present-day kinematics of the eastern Tibetan Plateau and Sichuan Basin: Implications for lower crustal rheology

    Rui, X.; Stamps, D. S.

    2016-05-01

    The Sichuan Province comprises the cratonic Sichuan Basin and the eastern Tibetan Plateau separated by the recently activated Longmen Shan fault zone, thus providing a natural laboratory to study interseismic and postseismic processes. In this work we compute a new regional geodetic velocity solution from most of the continuous Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)/GPS data available in the Sichuan Province that we assess for transient postseismic deformation. For 11 continuous sites in close proximity to the Wenchuan 2008 event epicenter that were operational during the Wenchuan event we find an average short-term relaxation time of 11 days with maximum amplitude of 6.6 mm for the postseismic transient and no resolvable long-term transient. Using tests for block rigidity guided by previous kinematic studies we elucidate a longer-term transient in GNSS/GPS observations collected after the Wenchuan event that spans an extensive region of the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We correct for transients, produce an updated secular velocity field, and revise the kinematics of the region using elastic block modeling. Our results indicate that predicted slip rates are in good agreement with both geological and GNSS/GPS velocity profile-derived results, and we resolve two independent blocks with the expanded GNSS/GPS data set. Our constraints on the spatial extent of long-term postseismic deformation support models of ductile lower crust in the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau.

  7. Kinematics Analysis of Two Parallel Locomotion Mechanisms

    Ren, Ping

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents the kinematics study on two cases of parallel locomotion mechanisms. A parallel locomotion mechanism can be defined as â a mechanism with parallel configuration and discrete contact with respect to the ground which renders a platform the ability to moveâ . The first case is a tripedal robot and the second case is an actuated spoke wheel robot. The kinematics study on these two mobile robots mainly includes mobility, inverse and forward kinematics, i...

  8. Paleoseismologic and geomorphic constraints to the deformation style and activity of the Cittanova Fault (southern Calabria, Italy)

    Peronace, Edoardo; Della Seta, Marta; Fredi, Paola; Galli, Paolo; Giaccio, Biagio; Messina, Paolo; Troiani, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    The western side of Southern Calabria is the epicentral region of the strongest earthquakes of Italy. These are mainly generated by extensional faults which are still poorly investigated and/or parameterized. In this study, we explore the potential of the combined analysis of geomorphic markers, stream network morphometry and paleosimological investigations, aimed at identifying and time-constraining the surface effects of the Calabrian seismogenic faults. In this perspective, we presents results from i) plano-altimetric analysis of geomorphic markers related to active tectonics (such as marine and fluvial terraces), ii) paleoseismological investigations, and iii) time-dependent river basin and long-profile metrics of the Cittanova Fault (CF). The CF, responsible for the catastrophic Mw 7.0 earthquake of 5 February 1783, is a N220° striking, 30 km-long normal fault that downthrows the crystalline-metamorphic basement of the Aspromonte massif (~1000 m asl) below the Gioia Tauro Plain, to elevations of ~500-800 m bsl. Radiocarbon dating allowed us to ascribe the depostion of a major terraced alluvial fan (Cittanova-Taurianova terrace, TAC) to the early Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and to date the avulsion of the depositional top surface of TAC to 28 ka. As we have found remnants of the TAC also in the CF footwall offset by 12-17 m, we estimate a vertical slip rate of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm/yr for the past 28 ka. Paleoseismological data across the fault scarp evidenced at least three surface ruptures associated to ~Mw 7.0 paleoearthquakes prior to the 1783 event. The recurrence time (~3.2 kyr) is rather longer than other Apennine normal faults (0.3-2.4 kyr), whereas it is consistent with the low slip rate of CF for the late Upper Pleistocene (0.6 mm/yr). On a longer time scale, the spatial configuration of river basin morphometry evidenced the morphodynamic rensponse to the higher slip in the central sector of CF. Furthermore, long-profile metrics, and in particular the spatial

  9. The Soft Cumulative Constraint

    Petit, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This research report presents an extension of Cumulative of Choco constraint solver, which is useful to encode over-constrained cumulative problems. This new global constraint uses sweep and task interval violation-based algorithms.

  10. Kinematic Solar Dynamo with Spot Deposition

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Miesch, Mark S.

    2016-05-01

    We have recently developed a kinematic dynamo model by including the observed differential rotation and the meridional flow. This model includes the emergence of sunspots from the deep-seated toroidal field and their subsequent decay at the surface, i.e., the Babcock-Leighton process for the generation of poloidal field.We shall show that this model reproduces most of the basic features of the solar magnetic cycle including the polarity reversals, 11 years periodicity, equatorward migration of sunspots at low latitudes and the poleward migration of the radial field at the surface. This model also produces the observed cycle variations when the fluctuations in the active-region tilt are included. North-south asymmetries of cycles from this model will also be demonstrated.

  11. Kinematical Analysis of an Articulated Mechanism

    Fleischfresser, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work is twofold: to present mathematical expressions for the kinematics of an articulated mechanism and to perform numerical experiments with the implemented Fortran code. The system of rigid parts is made of two slender bars and a disk. A constant 2 rad/s counterclockwise rotation rate is imposed on the disk triggering the planar motion of the longer bar (link) and the rotation of the shorter one (output). Angular relations, velocities and accelerations are analyzed for a 90-degree turn of the disk. The inversion of the linking bar sense of rotation is well captured by the simulation, and the paper and pencil solutions that may lead to wrong conclusions are explained. Equations are derived from first principles and the Fortran code is placed under version control (currently, v.0.8-beta). This computer project is relevant for those in charge of vector dynamics courses and wishing to expose students to project-based learning activities.

  12. A New Decoupling Method for Explicit Stiffness Analysis of Kinematically Redundant Planar Parallel Kinematic Mechanism

    Hyun-Pyo Shin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization and control of stiffness for parallel kinematic mechanisms (PKM are critical issues because stiffness is directly related to the precision and response characteristics of the end-effector of PKMs. Unlike nonredundant PKMs, redundant PKMs have additional actuators exceeding their essential degrees-of-freedom (DOF, resulting in an increase in the redundancy of control. The stiffness of redundant PKMs is divided into passive and active stiffness. Active stiffness is changeable even in cases of fixed kinematic parameters and end-effector posture. However, it is not easy and intuitive to control the active stiffness of redundant PKMs for the complexity of Hessian matrix operations. This paper describes a new decoupling method for explicit stiffness analysis of redundant PKM with the well-known two-DOF and one-redundant planar five-bar PKM. Three actuating joints are decoupled to three groups containing two actuating joints. With this mathematical configuration, the stiffness matrix for one-redundant actuation is also divided into three stiffness matrices for nonredundant actuation, and the contribution of each actuator can be intuitively investigated. Stiffness matrices for the original and decoupled cases are compared in detail. In particular, this decoupling method is applicable to redundant PKMs with many passive joints. Finding optimal joints for one- or two-redundant actuation with various candidates is more intuitive with this decoupling method.

  13. Generation of dynamic motion for anthropomorphic systems under prioritized equality and inequality constraints

    Saab, Layale; Mansard, Nicolas; Keith, François; Fourquet, Jean-Yves; Souères, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a solution to compute full-dynamic motions for a humanoid robot, accounting for various kinds of constraints such as dynamic balance or joint limits. As a first step, we propose a unification of task-based control schemes, in inverse kinematics or inverse dynamics. Based on this unification, we generalize the cascade of quadratic programs that were developed for inverse kinematics only. Then, we apply the solution to generate, in simulation, wholebody motions for a h...

  14. Computing broadband accelerograms using kinematic rupture modeling

    In order to make the broadband kinematic rupture modeling more realistic with respect to dynamic modeling, physical constraints are added to the rupture parameters. To improve the slip velocity function (SVF) modeling, an evolution of the k-2 source model is proposed, which consists to decompose the slip as a sum of sub-events by band of k. This model yields to SVF close to the solution proposed by Kostrov for a crack, while preserving the spectral characteristics of the radiated wave field, i.e. a w2 model with spectral amplitudes at high frequency scaled to the coefficient of directivity Cd. To better control the directivity effects, a composite source description is combined with a scaling law defining the extent of the nucleation area for each sub-event. The resulting model allows to reduce the apparent coefficient of directivity to a fraction of Cd, as well as to reproduce the standard deviation of the new empirical attenuation relationships proposed for Japan. To make source models more realistic, a variable rupture velocity in agreement with the physics of the rupture must be considered. The followed approach that is based on an analytical relation between the fracture energy, the slip and the rupture velocity, leads to higher values of the peak ground acceleration in the vicinity of the fault. Finally, to better account for the interaction of the wave field with the geological medium, a semi-empirical methodology is developed combining a composite source model with empirical Green functions, and is applied to the Yamaguchi, Mw 5.9 earthquake. The modeled synthetics reproduce satisfactorily well the observed main characteristics of ground motions. (author)

  15. Kinematic analysis of rope skipper's stability

    Ab Ghani, Nor Atikah; Rambely, Azmin Sham

    2014-06-01

    There are various kinds of jumping that can be done while performing rope skipping activity. This activity was always associated with injury. But, if the rope skipper can perform the activity in a right way, it is believed that the injury might be reduced. The main purpose of this paper is to observe the stability of rope skipper from a biomechanics perspective, which are the centre of mass, angle at the ankle, knee and hip joints and also the trajectory for the ipsilateral leg between the two types of skip which is one leg and two legs. Six healthy, physically active subject, two males and four females (age: 8.00±1.25 years, weight: 17.90±6.85 kg and height: 1.22±0.08 m) participated in this study. Kinematic data of repeated five cycles of rope skipping activity was captured by using Vicon Nexus system. Based on the data collected, skipping with two legs shows more stable behavior during preparation, flight and landing phases. It is concluded that landing on the balls of the feet, lowering the trajectory positions of the feet from the ground as well as flexion of each joint which would reduce the injury while landing.

  16. Chemical Tagging of FGK Stars: Testing Membership to Young Stellar Kinematics Groups

    Montes, D; Hernandez, J I Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution talk we summarize the results of our ongoing project of detailed analysis of the chemical content (chemical tagging) as a promising powerful method to provide clear constraints on the membership of FGK kinematic candidates to stellar kinematic groups of different ages that can be used as an alternative or complementary to the methods that use kinematics, photometry or age indicators. This membership information is very important to better understand the star formation history in the solar neighborhood discerning between field-like stars (associated with dynamical resonances (bar) or spiral structure) and real physical structures of coeval stars with a common origin (debris of star-forming aggregates in the disk). We have already applied the chemical tagging method to constrain the membership of FGK candidate stars to the Hyades supercluster and the Ursa Major moving group and in this contribution we present the preliminary results of our study of the Castor moving group.

  17. A Concept for Extending the Applicability of Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy through Motor Cortex Activity Feedback Using a Neural Prosthesis

    Fiachra Matthews

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a concept for the extension of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT through the use of feedback of primary motor cortex activity. CIMT requires residual movement to act as a source of feedback to the patient, thus preventing its application to those with no perceptible movement. It is proposed in this paper that it is possible to provide feedback of the motor cortex effort to the patient by measurement with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Significant changes in such effort may be used to drive rehabilitative robotic actuators, for example. This may provide a possible avenue for extending CIMT to patients hitherto excluded as a result of severity of condition. In support of such a paradigm, this paper details the current status of CIMT and related attempts to extend rehabilitation therapy through the application of technology. An introduction to the relevant haemodynamics is given including a description of the basic technology behind a suitable NIRS system. An illustration of the proposed therapy is described using a simple NIRS system driving a robotic arm during simple upper-limb unilateral isometric contraction exercises with healthy subjects.

  18. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    C. Heine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. While the relative motions between South America and Africa for post-breakup times are well resolved, many issues pertaining to the fit reconstruction and particular the relation between kinematics and lithosphere dynamics during pre-breakup remain unclear in currently published plate models. We have compiled and assimilated data from these intraplated rifts and constructed a revised plate kinematic model for the pre-breakup evolution of the South Atlantic. Based on structural restoration of the conjugate South Atlantic margins and intracontinental rift basins in Africa and South America, we achieve a tight fit reconstruction which eliminates the need for previously inferred large intracontinental shear zones, in particular in Patagonian South America. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we have been able to indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the São Paulo High. We model an initial E–W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times (≈126 Ma when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial ≈17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Brazilian and West African margins is generated. An intermediate stage between 126.57 Ma and Base Aptian is characterised by strain localisation, rapid lithospheric weakening in the

  19. Effect of Auditory Constraints on Motor Learning Depends on Stage of Recovery Post Stroke

    Viswanath eAluru

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop evidence-based rehabilitation protocols post stroke, one must first reconcile the vast heterogeneity in the post-stroke population and develop protocols to facilitate motor learning in the various subgroups. The main purpose of this study is to show that auditory constraints interact with the stage of recovery post stroke to influence motor learning. We characterized the stages of upper limb recovery using task-based kinematic measures in twenty subjects with chronic hemiparesis, and used a bimanual wrist extension task using a custom-made wrist trainer to facilitate learning of wrist extension in the paretic hand under four auditory conditions: 1 without auditory cueing; 2 to non-musical happy sounds; 3 to self-selected music; and 4 to a metronome beat set at a comfortable tempo. Two bimanual trials (15 s each were followed by one unimanual trial with the paretic hand over six cycles under each condition. Clinical metrics, wrist and arm kinematics and electromyographic activity were recorded. Hierarchical cluster analysis with the Mahalanobis metric based on baseline speed and extent of wrist movement stratified subjects into three distinct groups which reflected their stage of recovery: spastic paresis, spastic co-contraction, and minimal paresis. In spastic paresis, the metronome beat increased wrist extension, but also increased muscle co-activation across the wrist. In contrast, in spastic co-contraction, no auditory stimulation increased wrist extension and reduced co-activation. In minimal paresis, wrist extension did not improve under any condition. The results suggest that auditory task constraints interact with stage of recovery during motor learning after stroke, perhaps due to recruitment of distinct neural substrates over the course of recovery. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms of progression of motor recovery and lay the foundation for personalized treatment algorithms post stroke.

  20. Effect of auditory constraints on motor performance depends on stage of recovery post-stroke.

    Aluru, Viswanath; Lu, Ying; Leung, Alan; Verghese, Joe; Raghavan, Preeti

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop evidence-based rehabilitation protocols post-stroke, one must first reconcile the vast heterogeneity in the post-stroke population and develop protocols to facilitate motor learning in the various subgroups. The main purpose of this study is to show that auditory constraints interact with the stage of recovery post-stroke to influence motor learning. We characterized the stages of upper limb recovery using task-based kinematic measures in 20 subjects with chronic hemiparesis. We used a bimanual wrist extension task, performed with a custom-made wrist trainer, to facilitate learning of wrist extension in the paretic hand under four auditory conditions: (1) without auditory cueing; (2) to non-musical happy sounds; (3) to self-selected music; and (4) to a metronome beat set at a comfortable tempo. Two bimanual trials (15 s each) were followed by one unimanual trial with the paretic hand over six cycles under each condition. Clinical metrics, wrist and arm kinematics, and electromyographic activity were recorded. Hierarchical cluster analysis with the Mahalanobis metric based on baseline speed and extent of wrist movement stratified subjects into three distinct groups, which reflected their stage of recovery: spastic paresis, spastic co-contraction, and minimal paresis. In spastic paresis, the metronome beat increased wrist extension, but also increased muscle co-activation across the wrist. In contrast, in spastic co-contraction, no auditory stimulation increased wrist extension and reduced co-activation. In minimal paresis, wrist extension did not improve under any condition. The results suggest that auditory task constraints interact with stage of recovery during motor learning after stroke, perhaps due to recruitment of distinct neural substrates over the course of recovery. The findings advance our understanding of the mechanisms of progression of motor recovery and lay the foundation for personalized treatment algorithms post-stroke. PMID

  1. Kinematics of the free throw in basketball

    Tan, A.; Miller, G.

    1981-06-01

    The kinematics of the two basic styles of free throw in basketball are discussed. It is shown that from a purely kinematic and trajectory point of view, the overhand push shot is preferable to the underhand loop shot. The advantages of the underhand shot lie in the actual execution of the shot.

  2. Kinematics of multigrid Monte Carlo

    We study the kinematics of multigrid Monte Carlo algorithms by means of acceptance rates for nonlocal Metropolis update proposals. An approximation formula for acceptance rates is derived. We present a comparison of different coarse-to-fine interpolation schemes in free field theory, where the formula is exact. The predictions of the approximation formula for several interacting models are well confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. The following rule is found: For a critical model with fundametal Hamiltonian Η(φ), absence of critical slowing down can only be expected if the expansion of (Η(φ+ψ)) in terms of the shift ψ contains no relevant (mass) term. We also introduce a multigrid update procedure for nonabelian lattice gauge theory and study the acceptance rates for gauge group SU(2) in four dimensions. (orig.)

  3. Implementation of A Geometric Constraint Regularization For Multibody System Models

    Müller Andreas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Redundant constraints in MBS models severely deteriorate the computational performance and accuracy of any numerical MBS dynamics simulation method. Classically this problem has been addressed by means of numerical decompositions of the constraint Jacobian within numerical integration steps. Such decompositions are computationally expensive. In this paper an elimination method is discussed that only requires a single numerical decomposition within the model preprocessing step rather than during the time integration. It is based on the determination of motion spaces making use of Lie group concepts. The method is able to reduce the set of loop constraints for a large class of technical systems. In any case it always retains a sufficient number of constraints. It is derived for single kinematic loops.

  4. Automated kinematic generator for surgical robotic systems.

    Jung, David L; Dixon, Warren E; Pin, François G

    2004-01-01

    Unlike traditional assembly line robotic systems that have a fixed kinematic structure associated with a single tool for a structured task, next-generation robotic surgical assist systems will be required to use an array of end-effector tools. Once a robot is connected with a tool, the kinematic equations of motion are altered. Given the need to accommodate evolving surgical challenges and to alleviate the restrictions imposed by the confined minimally invasive environment, new surgical tools may resemble small flexible snakes rather than rigid, cable driven instruments. Connecting to these developing articulated tools will significantly alter the overall kinematic structure of a robotic system. In this paper we present a technique for real-time automated generation and evaluation of manipulator kinematic equations that exhibits the combined advantages of existing methods-speed and flexibility to kinematic change--without their disadvantages. PMID:15544260

  5. Efficient kinematics for jet-propelled swimming

    Alben, Silas; Miller, Laura; Peng, Jifeng

    2013-11-01

    We use vortex sheet and viscous simulations and an analytical model to search for efficient jet-propelled swimming kinematics at large Reynolds numbers (1000 and above). We prescribe different power-law kinematics for the bell contraction and expansion. In the simulations, two types of efficient kinematics are found: a bell radius velocity which is a nearly linear function of time, and a ``burst-and-coast'' kinematics. The analytical model studies the contraction phase only, and finds that the efficiency-optimizing kinematics transition from a nearly linear bell radius velocity (similar to the numerics) for small-to-moderate output power to an exponentially-decaying bell radius velocity for large output power.

  6. MANIPULATION KINEMATICS ON DEXTEROUS HANDS CONSIDERING PURE ROLLING CONTACTS AS PASSIVE JOINTS

    Yang Yang; Tamio Arai

    2005-01-01

    The manipulation and constraint equations are established by considering the pure rolling motion in a dexterous hand as two passive joints. According to mapping relation among the motion of the system, the differential kinematics and mobility are studied. The minimal structure for realizing the task motion of the object is obtained, and the conditions for dexterous manipulation are presented. Finally, some rolling manipulations are used as examples to demonstrate the applicability of approach proposed.

  7. Kinematic Parameters Auto-Calibration of Redundant Planar 2-DOF Parallel Manipulator

    Cong, Shuang; Feng, Chunshi; Zhang, Yaoxin; Li, Zexiang; Jiang, Shilon

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we implemented the kinematic auto-calibration of a redundant planar 2-dof parallel manipulator. In this process, we first calibrated the error of the sensor zero positions by optimizing an projected tracking error function, and also the robustness of this method has been proved. Furthermore, in order to calibrate the other parameters of this parallel manipulator, we gave another error function based on the closed-loop constraint equations. By decoupling the product items in t...

  8. The kinematics modeling based on Spinor theory for CT-guided hybrid robot

    Tang Can; Liu Da; Wang Tianmiao; Yun Chao

    2009-01-01

    This paper focused on a simplified method for solving the hybrid robot kinematics in CT-guided (computerized tomography, CT) surgery. By position constraint introduced, the hybrid robot can be transformed as a redundant serial 7-DOF robot. The forward displacement calculation was developed based on the product-of-exponential formula (POE). Because of the kinematics complexity of the hybrid and redundant robot, the combination technique of Ulrich two-step iteration method and paul variables detachment method (UTI-PVD) was introduced to fulfill the inverse kinematics of redundant robot, the novelty of which lay in the flexibility of various robots structures and in high calculation efficiency for real-time control. The process of solving the inverse displacement was analyzed. The UTI-PVD method can be applicable to kinematics of many robots, especially for redundant robots with more than 6DOF. The kinematics simulation was provided, and robot dexterity analysis was presented. The results indicated that the hybrid robot could implement the minimally invasive CT-guided surgery.

  9. Variations in fluid transport and seismogenic properties in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone: constraints from joint active-source and local earthquake tomography

    Paulatto, M.; Laigle, M.; Charvis, P.; Galve, A.

    2015-12-01

    The degree of coupling and the seismogenic properties of the plate interface at subduction zones are affected by the abundance of slab fluids and subducted sediments. High fluid input can cause high pore-fluid pressures in the subduction channel and decrease coupling leading to aseismic behaviour. Constraining fluid input and transfer is therefore important for understanding plate coupling and large earthquake hazard, particularly in places where geodetic and seismological constraints are scarce. We use P-wave traveltimes from several active source seismic experiments and P- and S-wave traveltimes from shallow and intermediate depth (ratio (> 1.80) on the top of the slab, at depths of up to 100 km. We interpret this high Vp/Vs ratio anomaly as evidence of elevated fluid content either as free fluids or as bound fluids in hydrated minerals (e.g. serpentinite). The strength and depth extent of the anomaly varies strongly from south to north along the subduction zone and correlates with variations in forearc morphology and with sediment input constrained by multi-channel seismic reflection profiles. The anomaly is stronger and extends to greater depth in the south, offshore Martinique, where sediment input is elevated due to the vicinity of the Orinoco delta. The gently dipping forearc slope observed in this region may be the result of weak coupling of the plate interface. A high Vp/Vs ratio is also observed in the forearc likely indicating a fractured and water-saturated overriding plate. On the other hand the anomaly is weaker and shallower offshore Guadeloupe, where sediment input is low due to subduction of the Barracuda ridge. Here a strong plate coupling is likely responsible for uplifting the inner forearc and formation of the Karukera spur. We infer that variations in plate coupling modulated by slab fluid transport and release are a major factor in determining the distribution of seismic slip in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone.

  10. Kinematic analysis of a novel 3-CRU translational parallel mechanism

    Li, B; Li, Y. M.; Zhao, X. H.; W. M. Ge

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a modified 3-DOF (degrees of freedom) translational parallel mechanism (TPM) three-CRU (C, R, and U represent the cylindrical, revolute, and universal joints, respectively) structure is proposed. The architecture of the TPM is comprised of a moving platform attached to a base through three CRU jointed serial linkages. The prismatic motions of the cylindrical joints are considered to be actively actuated. Kinematics and performance of the TPM are studied system...

  11. On Constraint Programming

    Mathieu, Philippe; Keisu, Torbjörn

    1990-01-01

    This short note aims to present foundations for constraint logic programming. By logic programming, we understand in this paper the PROLOG paradigm. But it will be clear that we do reduce the problem to adding a new package to PROLOG. We argue that constraint logic programming should be defined as a new paradigm for programming: the LOGIC PROGRAMMING + SYMBOLIC COMPUTATION paradigm. Our system incorporates as a very basic, all the existing systems incorporating constraints i...

  12. Memoization of Coroutined Constraints

    Johnson, M; Johnson, Mark; Dörre, Jochen

    1995-01-01

    Some linguistic constraints cannot be effectively resolved during parsing at the location in which they are most naturally introduced. This paper shows how constraints can be propagated in a memoizing parser (such as a chart parser) in much the same way that variable bindings are, providing a general treatment of constraint coroutining in memoization. Prolog code for a simple application of our technique to Bouma and van Noord's (1994) categorial grammar analysis of Dutch is provided.

  13. Constraints on Anaphoric Determiners

    Zuber, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Some constraints on functions from sets and relations to sets are studied. Such constraints are satisfied by anaphoric functions, that is functions denoted by anaphoric determiners. These constraints are generalisations of anaphor conditions known from the study of simpler cases of nominal anaphors. In addition a generalisation of the notion of conservativity as applied to anaphoric functions is proposed. Two classes of anaphoric determiners found in NLs are discussed as examples.

  14. Effect of the mandible on mouthguard measurements of head kinematics.

    Kuo, Calvin; Wu, Lyndia C; Hammoor, Brad T; Luck, Jason F; Cutcliffe, Hattie C; Lynall, Robert C; Kait, Jason R; Campbell, Kody R; Mihalik, Jason P; Bass, Cameron R; Camarillo, David B

    2016-06-14

    Wearable sensors are becoming increasingly popular for measuring head motions and detecting head impacts. Many sensors are worn on the skin or in headgear and can suffer from motion artifacts introduced by the compliance of soft tissue or decoupling of headgear from the skull. The instrumented mouthguard is designed to couple directly to the upper dentition, which is made of hard enamel and anchored in a bony socket by stiff ligaments. This gives the mouthguard superior coupling to the skull compared with other systems. However, multiple validation studies have yielded conflicting results with respect to the mouthguard׳s head kinematics measurement accuracy. Here, we demonstrate that imposing different constraints on the mandible (lower jaw) can alter mouthguard kinematic accuracy in dummy headform testing. In addition, post mortem human surrogate tests utilizing the worst-case unconstrained mandible condition yield 40% and 80% normalized root mean square error in angular velocity and angular acceleration respectively. These errors can be modeled using a simple spring-mass system in which the soft mouthguard material near the sensors acts as a spring and the mandible as a mass. However, the mouthguard can be designed to mitigate these disturbances by isolating sensors from mandible loads, improving accuracy to below 15% normalized root mean square error in all kinematic measures. Thus, while current mouthguards would suffer from measurement errors in the worst-case unconstrained mandible condition, future mouthguards should be designed to account for these disturbances and future validation testing should include unconstrained mandibles to ensure proper accuracy. PMID:27155744

  15. Torque exerted on the side of crustal blocks controls the kinematics of Ethiopian Rift

    Muluneh, Ameha A.; Kidane, Tesfaye; Cuffaro, Marco; Doglioni, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Plate tectonic stress at active plate boundary can arises from 1) a torque applied on the side of lithospheric blocks and 2) a torque at the base of the lithosphere due to the flow of the underlying mantle. In this paper we use a simple force balance analysis to compare side and basal shear stresses and their contribution in driving kinematics and deformation in the Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of the East African Rift System (EARS). Assuming the constraints of the ER given by the dimension of the lithospheric blocks, the strain rate, the viscosity of the low velocity zone (LVZ) and the depth of the brittle-ductile transition zone, the lateral torque is several orders of magnitude higher than the basal torque. The minor contribution of basal torque might be due to low viscosity in the LVZ. Both Africa and Somalia plates are moving to the "west" relative to the mantle and there are not slabs that can justify this pull and consequent motion. Therefore, we invoke that westerly oriented tidal torque on Africa and Somalia plates in providing the necessary side torque in the region. This plate motion predicts significant sinistral transtension along the ER and rift parallel strike-slip faulting similar to the estimated angular velocity vector for tectonic blocks and GPS observations. Vertical axis block rotations are observed in areas where the lithospheric mantle is removed and strain is widely distributed.

  16. COLOR-MAGNITUDE RELATIONS OF ACTIVE AND NON-ACTIVE GALAXIES IN THE CHANDRA DEEP FIELDS: HIGH-REDSHIFT CONSTRAINTS AND STELLAR-MASS SELECTION EFFECTS

    We extend color-magnitude relations for moderate-luminosity X-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) hosts and non-AGN galaxies through the galaxy formation epoch (z ∼ 1-4) in the Chandra Deep Field-North and Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-N and CDF-S, respectively; jointly CDFs) surveys. This study was enabled by the deepest available X-ray data from the 2 Ms CDF surveys as well as complementary ultradeep multiwavelength data in these regions. We utilized analyses of color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) to assess the role of moderate-luminosity AGNs in galaxy evolution. First, we confirm some previous results and extend them to higher redshifts, finding, for example, that (1) there is no apparent color bimodality (i.e., the lack of an obvious red sequence and blue cloud) for AGN hosts from z ∼ 0to2, but non-AGN galaxy color bimodality exists up to z ∼ 3 and the relative fraction of red-sequence galaxies generally increases as the redshift decreases (consistent with a blue-to-red migration of galaxies), (2) most AGNs reside in massive hosts and the AGN fraction rises strongly toward higher stellar mass, up to z ∼ 2-3, and (3) the colors of both AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies become redder as the stellar mass increases, up to z ∼ 2-3. Second, we point out that, in order to obtain a complete and reliable picture, it is critical to use mass-matched samples to examine color-magnitude relations of AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies. We show that for mass-matched samples up to z ∼ 2-3, AGN hosts lie in the same region of the CMD as non-AGN galaxies; i.e., there is no specific clustering of AGN hosts in the CMD around the red sequence, the top of the blue cloud, or the green valley in between. The AGN fraction (∼ 10%) is mostly independent of host-galaxy color, providing an indication of the duty cycle of supermassive black hole growth in typical massive galaxies. These results are in contrast to those obtained with non-mass-matched samples where there is apparent AGN

  17. Edge-driven microplate kinematics

    Schouten, Hans; Klitgord, Kim D.; Gallo, David G.

    1993-01-01

    It is known from plate tectonic reconstructions that oceanic microplates undergo rapid rotation about a vertical axis and that the instantaneous rotation axes describing the microplate's motion relative to the bounding major plates are frequently located close to its margins with those plates, close to the tips of propagating rifts. We propose a class of edge-driven block models to illustrate how slip across the microplate margins, block rotation, and propagation of rifting may be related to the relative motion of the plates on either side. An important feature of these edge-driven models is that the instantaneous rotation axes are always located on the margins between block and two bounding plates. According to those models the pseudofaults or traces of disrupted seafloor resulting from the propagation of rifting between microplate and major plates may be used independently to approximately trace the continuous kinematic evolution of the microplate back in time. Pseudofault geometries and matching rotations of the Easter microplate show that for most of its 5 m.y. history, block rotation could be driven by the drag of the Nazca and Pacific plates on the microplate's edges rather than by a shear flow of mantle underneath.

  18. Star cluster kinematics with AAOmega

    Kiss, L L; Szabo, Gy M; Parker, Q A; Frew, D J

    2008-01-01

    The high-resolution setup of the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope makes it a beautiful radial velocity machine, with which one can measure velocities of up to 350-360 stars per exposure to +/-1--2 km/s in a 2-degree field of view. Here we present three case studies of star cluster kinematics, each based on data obtained on three nights in February 2008. The specific aims included: (i) cluster membership determination for NGC 2451A and B, two nearby open clusters in the same line-of-sight; (ii) a study of possible membership of the planetary nebula NGC 2438 in the open cluster M46; and (iii) the radial velocity dispersion of M4 and NGC 6144, a pair of two globular clusters near Antares. The results which came out of only three nights of AAT time illustrate very nicely the potential of the instrument and, for example, how quickly one can resolve decades of contradiction in less than two hours of net observing time.

  19. Robot Kinematics, using Dual Quaternions

    Mahmoud Gouasmi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of classical mechanics, deriving the equations of motion for systems of coupled rigid bodies is regarded as a straightforward procedure: once a suitable set of generalized coordinates and reference frames have been chosen, what remains is to either apply Lagrange’s equations or Newton and Euler’s equations to obtain the differential equations of motion. As the complexity of multibody system increases, the need for more elegant formulation of the equation of motion becomes an issue of paramount importance. Our primary focus is on the kinematic analysis of rigid bodies and serial manipulators (robotic systems  using simultaneously, both homogeneous transformations (4x4 matrices and Dual Quaternions, for the sake of results comparisons (cost,complexity,storage capacity etc. . This paper has been done mainly for educational and peadagogical purposes, hoping that the scientific community will finally adopt and use Dual Quaternions at least when dealing with multibody systems and specially robotics.

  20. Warm ionized gas in CALIFA early-type galaxies. 2D emission-line patterns and kinematics for 32 galaxies

    Gomes, J. M.; Papaderos, P.; Kehrig, C.; Vílchez, J. M.; Lehnert, M. D.; Sánchez, S. F.; Ziegler, B.; Breda, I.; Dos Reis, S. N.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Bomans, D. J.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Walcher, C. J.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; García-Benito, R.; Márquez, I.; Del Olmo, A.; Masegosa, J.; Mollá, M.; Marino, R. A.; González Delgado, R. M.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    Context. The morphological, spectroscopic, and kinematical properties of the warm interstellar medium (wim) in early-type galaxies (ETGs) hold key observational constraints to nuclear activity and the buildup history of these massive, quiescent systems. High-quality integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data with a wide spectral and spatial coverage, such as those from the CALIFA survey, offer an unprecedented opportunity for advancing our understanding of the wim in ETGs. Aims: This article centers on a 2D investigation of the wim component in 32 nearby (≲150 Mpc) ETGs from CALIFA, complementing a previous 1D analysis of the same sample. Methods: The analysis presented here includes Hα intensity and equivalent width (EW) maps and radial profiles, diagnostic emission-line ratios, and ionized-gas and stellar kinematics. It is supplemented by τ-ratio maps, which are a more efficient means to quantify the role of photoionization by the post-AGB stellar component than alternative mechanisms (e.g., AGN, low-level star formation). Results: Confirming and strengthening our previous conclusions, we find that ETGs span a broad continuous sequence in the properties of their wim, exemplified by two characteristic classes. The first (type i) comprises systems with a nearly constant EW(Hα) in their extranuclear component, which quantitatively agrees with (but is no proof of) the hypothesis that photoionization by the post-AGB stellar component is the main driver of extended wim emission. The second class (type ii) stands for virtually wim-evacuated ETGs with a very low (≤0.5 Å), outwardly increasing EW(Hα). These two classes appear indistinguishable from one another by their LINER-specific emission-line ratios in their extranuclear component. Here we extend the tentative classification we proposed previously by the type i+, which is assigned to a subset of type i ETGs exhibiting ongoing low-level star-forming activity in their periphery. This finding along with faint

  1. Theory of Constraints (TOC)

    Michelsen, Aage U.

    2004-01-01

    Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process.......Tankegangen bag Theory of Constraints samt planlægningsprincippet Drum-Buffer-Rope. Endvidere skitse af The Thinking Process....

  2. Credit Constraints in Education

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  3. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  4. Evaluating Distributed Timing Constraints

    Kristensen, C.H.; Drejer, N.

    In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems.......In this paper we describe a solution to the problem of implementing time-optimal evaluation of timing constraints in distributed real-time systems....

  5. Constraint Reasoning Over Strings

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.

  6. The Antigone Constraint.

    Tuggy, David

    This paper presents a class of sentences that certain syntactic rules of English would be expected to produce, but that are not grammatical. The sentences all involve the raising of a sentential Noun Phrase (NP) and the subsequent application of some syntactic rule to that senential NP. A constraint, referred to as the Antigone Constraint, is…

  7. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Nielsen, Mogens; Palamidessi, Catuscia; Valencia, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied...

  8. VRACK: measuring pedal kinematics during stationary bike cycling.

    Farjadian, Amir B; Kong, Qingchao; Gade, Venkata K; Deutsch, Judith E; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2013-06-01

    Ankle impairment and lower limb asymmetries in strength and coordination are common symptoms for individuals with selected musculoskeletal and neurological impairments. The virtual reality augmented cycling kit (VRACK) was designed as a compact mechatronics system for lower limb and mobility rehabilitation. The system measures interaction forces and cardiac activity during cycling in a virtual environment. The kinematics measurement was added to the system. Due to the constrained problem definition, the combination of inertial measurement unit (IMU) and Kalman filtering was recruited to compute the optimal pedal angular displacement during dynamic cycling exercise. Using a novel benchmarking method the accuracy of IMU-based kinematics measurement was evaluated. Relatively accurate angular measurements were achieved. The enhanced VRACK system can serve as a rehabilitation device to monitor biomechanical and physiological variables during cycling on a stationary bike. PMID:24187270

  9. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... parameters which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping...... conditions for real chain drives. Examples are presented of both decoupled and coupled motion. Together, the kinematic and dynamic model and analytical results provides a framework for numerical and experimental investigations of roller chain drive motion and deepens the understanding of roller chain drive...

  10. Kinematic analysis of spatial parallel manipulator

    In this work we analyses a particularly spatial manipulator, establish initial data and based on fixed geometrical link parameters we conduct a kinematic analysis of manipulator by Denavit-Hartenberg matrix way. (author)

  11. Heavy baryon spectroscopy with relativistic kinematics

    We present a comparative Faddeev study of heavy baryon spectroscopy with nonrelativistic and relativistic kinematics. We show results for different standard hyperfine interactions with both kinematics in an attempt to learn about the light quark dynamics. We highlight the properties of particular states accessible in nowadays laboratories that would help in discriminating between different dynamical models. The advance in the knowledge of light quark dynamics is a key tool for the understanding of the existence of exotic hadrons.

  12. Kinematic Analysis Of Tricept Parallel Manipulator

    2012-01-01

    Parallel manipulators consist of fixed and moving platforms connected to each other with some actuated links. They have some significant advantages over their serial counterparts. While, they suffer from relatively small workspaces, complex kinematics relations and highly singular points within their workspaces. In this paper, forward kinematics of Tricept parallel manipulator is solved analytically and its workspace optimization is performed. This parallel manipulator has a complex degree of...

  13. Quantum gravity kinematics from extended TQFTs

    Dittrich, Bianca; Geiller, Marc

    2016-01-01

    We show how extended topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) can be used to obtain a kinematical setup for quantum gravity, i.e. a kinematical Hilbert space together with a representation of the observable algebra including operators of quantum geometry. In particular, we consider the holonomy-flux algebra of (2+1)-dimensional Euclidean loop quantum gravity, and construct a new representation of this algebra that incorporates a positive cosmological constant. The vacuum state underlying ou...

  14. DIDACTIC AUTOMATED STATION OF COMPLEX KINEMATICS

    Mariusz Sosnowski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design, control system and software that controls the automated station of complex kinematics. Control interface and software has been developed and manufactured in the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin in the Department of Automated Manufacturing Systems Engineering and Quality. Conducting classes designed to teach programming and design of structures and systems for monitoring the robot kinematic components with non-standard structures was the reason for installation of the control system and software.

  15. DIDACTIC AUTOMATED STATION OF COMPLEX KINEMATICS

    Mariusz Sosnowski; Jędrzej Jaskowski

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the design, control system and software that controls the automated station of complex kinematics. Control interface and software has been developed and manufactured in the West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin in the Department of Automated Manufacturing Systems Engineering and Quality. Conducting classes designed to teach programming and design of structures and systems for monitoring the robot kinematic components with non-standard structures was the reaso...

  16. Kinematical coincidence method in transfer reactions

    Acosta, L.; Amorini, F. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); Auditore, L. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Messina and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Messina (Italy); Berceanu, I. [Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cardella, G., E-mail: cardella@ct.infn.it [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Chatterjiee, M.B. [Saha Institute for Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); De Filippo, E. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Francalanza, L.; Gianì, R. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); Grassi, L. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Grzeszczuk, A. [Institut of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland); La Guidara, E. [INFN—Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Centro Siciliano di Fisica Nucleare e Struttura della Materia, Catania (Italy); Lanzalone, G. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); Facoltà di Ingegneria e Architettura, Università Kore, Enna (Italy); Lombardo, I. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Università Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Loria, D.; Minniti, T. [INFN Gruppo Collegato di Messina and Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Messina (Italy); Pagano, E.V. [INFN—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via S. Sofia, Catania (Italy); and others

    2013-07-01

    A new method to extract high resolution angular distributions from kinematical coincidence measurements in binary reactions is presented. Kinematics is used to extract the center of mass angular distribution from the measured energy spectrum of light particles. Results obtained in the case of {sup 10}Be+p→{sup 9}Be+d reaction measured with the CHIMERA detector are shown. An angular resolution of few degrees in the center of mass is obtained. The range of applicability of the method is discussed.

  17. Kinematical coincidence method in transfer reactions

    Acosta, L; Auditore, L; Berceanu, I; Cardella, G; Chatterjiee, M B; De Filippo, E; FrancalanzA, L; Gianì, R; Grassi, L; Grzeszczuk, A; La Guidara, E; Lanzalone, G; Lombardo, I; Loria, D; Minniti, T; Pagano, E V; Papa, M; Pirrone, S; Politi, G; Pop, A; Porto, F; Rizzo, F; Rosato, E; Russotto, P; Santoro, S; Trifirò, A; Trimarchi, M; Verde, G; Vigilante, M

    2012-01-01

    A new method to extract high resolution angular distributions from kinematical coincidence measurements in binary reactions is presented. Kinematic is used to extract the center of mass angular distribution from the measured energy spectrum of light particles. Results obtained in the case of 10Be+p-->9Be+d reaction measured with the CHIMERA detector are shown. An angular resolution of few degrees in the center of mass is obtained.

  18. A kinematical analysis of NGC 2992

    Marquez, I.; Boisson, C.; Durret, F.; P. Petitjean

    1998-01-01

    We present long slit spectroscopy for the [OIII] and H$\\alpha$ wavelength ranges along nine different position angles for the Sa Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992. Double profiles are present in several regions, suggesting that the gas is not simply following galaxy rotation. A simple kinematical model, which takes into account circular rotation together with a constant radial outflow, seems to be a good approximation to account for the observed kinematics.

  19. Dynamic Control of Kinematically Redundant Robotic Manipulators

    Erling Lunde

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Several methods for task space control of kinematically redundant manipulators have been proposed in the literature. Most of these methods are based on a kinematic analysis of the manipulator. In this paper we propose a control algorithm in which we are especially concerned with the manipulator dynamics. The algorithm is particularly well suited for the class of redundant manipulators consisting of a relatively small manipulator mounted on a larger positioning part.

  20. Kinematic Deviations In Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Sangeux, Morgan; ARMAND, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    In gait analysis, a large portion of the work consists in finding the underlying causes of the abnormal movement observed during walking. The patient’s kinematics of walking is compared to that of typically developed children and the deviations are further analysed. Over the years, clinicians have observed multiple-joints kinematics deviations that were frequent in children with cerebral palsy and devised gait patterns in order to group patients and support management algorithms. However, the...

  1. Intervertebral anticollision constraints improve out-of-plane translation accuracy of a single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method for measuring spinal motion

    Lin, Cheng-Chung; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Hsu, Shih-Jung [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 10051 (China); Lu, Tung-Wu [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 10051, Republic of China and Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 10617 (China); Shih, Ting-Fang [Department of Medical Imaging, National Taiwan University, Taiwan 10051 (China); Wang, Ting-Ming [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan 10051 (China)

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: The study aimed to propose a new single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method integrated with intervertebral anticollision constraints for measuring three-dimensional (3D) intervertebral kinematics of the spine; and to evaluate the performance of the method without anticollision and with three variations of the anticollision constraints via an in vitro experiment. Methods: The proposed fluoroscopy-to-CT registration approach, called the weighted edge-matching with anticollision (WEMAC) method, was based on the integration of geometrical anticollision constraints for adjacent vertebrae and the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method that matched the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the CT models of the vertebrae and the measured single-plane fluoroscopy images. Three variations of the anticollision constraints, namely, T-DOF, R-DOF, and A-DOF methods, were proposed. An in vitro experiment using four porcine cervical spines in different postures was performed to evaluate the performance of the WEMS and the WEMAC methods. Results: The WEMS method gave high precision and small bias in all components for both vertebral pose and intervertebral pose measurements, except for relatively large errors for the out-of-plane translation component. The WEMAC method successfully reduced the out-of-plane translation errors for intervertebral kinematic measurements while keeping the measurement accuracies for the other five degrees of freedom (DOF) more or less unaltered. The means (standard deviations) of the out-of-plane translational errors were less than -0.5 (0.6) and -0.3 (0.8) mm for the T-DOF method and the R-DOF method, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method reduced the out-of-plane translation errors for intervertebral kinematic measurements while keeping the measurement accuracies for the other five DOF more or less unaltered. With the submillimeter and subdegree accuracy, the WEMAC method was

  2. Intervertebral anticollision constraints improve out-of-plane translation accuracy of a single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method for measuring spinal motion

    Purpose: The study aimed to propose a new single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method integrated with intervertebral anticollision constraints for measuring three-dimensional (3D) intervertebral kinematics of the spine; and to evaluate the performance of the method without anticollision and with three variations of the anticollision constraints via an in vitro experiment. Methods: The proposed fluoroscopy-to-CT registration approach, called the weighted edge-matching with anticollision (WEMAC) method, was based on the integration of geometrical anticollision constraints for adjacent vertebrae and the weighted edge-matching score (WEMS) method that matched the digitally reconstructed radiographs of the CT models of the vertebrae and the measured single-plane fluoroscopy images. Three variations of the anticollision constraints, namely, T-DOF, R-DOF, and A-DOF methods, were proposed. An in vitro experiment using four porcine cervical spines in different postures was performed to evaluate the performance of the WEMS and the WEMAC methods. Results: The WEMS method gave high precision and small bias in all components for both vertebral pose and intervertebral pose measurements, except for relatively large errors for the out-of-plane translation component. The WEMAC method successfully reduced the out-of-plane translation errors for intervertebral kinematic measurements while keeping the measurement accuracies for the other five degrees of freedom (DOF) more or less unaltered. The means (standard deviations) of the out-of-plane translational errors were less than −0.5 (0.6) and −0.3 (0.8) mm for the T-DOF method and the R-DOF method, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed single-plane fluoroscopy-to-CT registration method reduced the out-of-plane translation errors for intervertebral kinematic measurements while keeping the measurement accuracies for the other five DOF more or less unaltered. With the submillimeter and subdegree accuracy, the WEMAC method was

  3. Kinematics of the South Atlantic rift

    Heine, Christian; Müller, R Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    The South Atlantic rift basin evolved as branch of a large Jurassic-Cretaceous intraplate rift zone between the African and South American plates during the final breakup of western Gondwana. By quantitatively accounting for crustal deformation in the Central and West African rift zone, we indirectly construct the kinematic history of the pre-breakup evolution of the conjugate West African-Brazilian margins. Our model suggests a causal link between changes in extension direction and velocity during continental extension and the generation of marginal structures such as the enigmatic Pre-salt sag basin and the S\\~ao Paulo High. We model an initial E-W directed extension between South America and Africa (fixed in present-day position) at very low extensional velocities until Upper Hauterivian times ($\\approx$126 Ma) when rift activity along in the equatorial Atlantic domain started to increase significantly. During this initial $\\approx$17 Myr-long stretching episode the Pre-salt basin width on the conjugate Br...

  4. Kernels for Global Constraints

    Gaspers, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Bessiere et al. (AAAI'08) showed that several intractable global constraints can be efficiently propagated when certain natural problem parameters are small. In particular, the complete propagation of a global constraint is fixed-parameter tractable in k - the number of holes in domains - whenever bound consistency can be enforced in polynomial time; this applies to the global constraints AtMost-NValue and Extended Global Cardinality (EGC). In this paper we extend this line of research and introduce the concept of reduction to a problem kernel, a key concept of parameterized complexity, to the field of global constraints. In particular, we show that the consistency problem for AtMost-NValue constraints admits a linear time reduction to an equivalent instance on O(k^2) variables and domain values. This small kernel can be used to speed up the complete propagation of NValue constraints. We contrast this result by showing that the consistency problem for EGC constraints does not admit a reduction to a polynomial...

  5. Constraint-based reachability

    Arnaud Gotlieb

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Iterative imperative programs can be considered as infinite-state systems computing over possibly unbounded domains. Studying reachability in these systems is challenging as it requires to deal with an infinite number of states with standard backward or forward exploration strategies. An approach that we call Constraint-based reachability, is proposed to address reachability problems by exploring program states using a constraint model of the whole program. The keypoint of the approach is to interpret imperative constructions such as conditionals, loops, array and memory manipulations with the fundamental notion of constraint over a computational domain. By combining constraint filtering and abstraction techniques, Constraint-based reachability is able to solve reachability problems which are usually outside the scope of backward or forward exploration strategies. This paper proposes an interpretation of classical filtering consistencies used in Constraint Programming as abstract domain computations, and shows how this approach can be used to produce a constraint solver that efficiently generates solutions for reachability problems that are unsolvable by other approaches.

  6. Running accuracy analysis of a 3-RRR parallel kinematic machine considering the deformations of the links

    Wang, Liping; Jiang, Yao; Li, Tiemin

    2014-09-01

    Parallel kinematic machines have drawn considerable attention and have been widely used in some special fields. However, high precision is still one of the challenges when they are used for advanced machine tools. One of the main reasons is that the kinematic chains of parallel kinematic machines are composed of elongated links that can easily suffer deformations, especially at high speeds and under heavy loads. A 3-RRR parallel kinematic machine is taken as a study object for investigating its accuracy with the consideration of the deformations of its links during the motion process. Based on the dynamic model constructed by the Newton-Euler method, all the inertia loads and constraint forces of the links are computed and their deformations are derived. Then the kinematic errors of the machine are derived with the consideration of the deformations of the links. Through further derivation, the accuracy of the machine is given in a simple explicit expression, which will be helpful to increase the calculating speed. The accuracy of this machine when following a selected circle path is simulated. The influences of magnitude of the maximum acceleration and external loads on the running accuracy of the machine are investigated. The results show that the external loads will deteriorate the accuracy of the machine tremendously when their direction coincides with the direction of the worst stiffness of the machine. The proposed method provides a solution for predicting the running accuracy of the parallel kinematic machines and can also be used in their design optimization as well as selection of suitable running parameters.

  7. Kinematic restoration of the Mediterranean region since the Triassic

    van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Matenco, Liviu; Schmid, Stefan; Maffione, Marco; Spakman, Wim

    2014-05-01

    platform for kinematic reconstructions is the freely available GPlates plate kinematic reconstruction software (http://www.gplates.org). We provide the first fully quantitatively described GPlates-based kinematic reconstruction of the Mediterranean region back to Triassic time. Classic plate reconstructions assume plate rigidity, and motion concentrated along discrete plate boundaries. Convergence between Africa-Europe plate boundary in the Mediterranean region is, however, associated with regionally distributed deformation. In this reconstruction, we attempt to restore this distributed deformation, which in practice means that we allow for polygons to change shape and area over time. This reconstruction may (i) be used as input for numerical models that aim to constrain the geodynamic evolution of (parts of) the Mediterranean history, (ii) allow comparing relative tectonic motions of the Mediterranean region to the mantle using mantle reference frames, and (iii) provide regional kinematic context for future geological studies. Upon final publication, all shape and rotation files of this reconstruction will be made publically available, which may serve as a platform for further improvement when new constraints demand so, or when the reader wishes to test different tectonic scenarios.

  8. A constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangians subjected to nonholonomic constraints

    We construct a constraint algorithm for singular Lagrangian systems subjected to nonholonomic constraints which generalizes that of Dirac for constrained Hamiltonian systems. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Cosmological constraints on neutrino oscillations

    Solar, atmospheric and terrestrial neutrino experiments have provided evidence for neutrino oscillations. These neutrino anomalies were successfully explained in terms of neutrino oscillations, the dominant channels being flavour neutrino oscillations. The role of sterile neutrinos and the active-sterile subdominant channels are being explored presently. Therefore, we discuss all cosmological effects of active-sterile neutrino oscillations on the early Universe evolution, and particularly the effects on the nucleosynthesis epoch. Numerical analysis of the cosmological production of He-4, Yp in the presence of νe ↔ νs, effective after νe decoupling from the equilibrium, was provided for the full neutrino oscillations parameter range. These neutrino oscillations lead always to an overproduction of He-4. We have obtained isohelium contours corresponding to different levels of He-4 overproduction, δYp/Yp, for initial population of the sterile state in the range 0 ≤ δNs ≤ 0.5. Cosmological constraints on oscillation parameters, obtained on the base of the calculated isohelium contours and Yp observational data, are discussed. We present the constraints corresponding toδNs = 0.0 and 0.5, and helium overproduction δYp/Yp = 3%. These cosmological constraints, being more stringent than the ones provided from the neutrino experimental data, provide valuable information for the impact of sterile neutrino in the neutrino anomalies and for the neutrino physics in general. (author)

  10. Kinematics and kinetics of an accidental lateral ankle sprain.

    Kristianslund, Eirik; Bahr, Roald; Krosshaug, Tron

    2011-09-23

    Ankle sprains are common during sporting activities and can have serious consequences. Understanding of injury mechanisms is essential to prevent injuries, but only two previous studies have provided detailed descriptions of the kinematics of lateral ankle sprains and measures of kinetics are missing. In the present study a female handball player accidentally sprained her ankle during sidestep cutting in a motion analysis laboratory. Kinematics and kinetics were calculated from 240 Hz recordings with a full-body marker setup. The injury trial was compared with two previous (non-injury) trials. The injury trial showed a sudden increase in inversion and internal rotation that peaked between 130 and 180 ms after initial contact. We observed an attempted unloading of the foot from 80 ms after initial contact. As the inversion and internal rotation progressed, the loads were likely to exceed injury threshold between 130 and 180 ms. There was a considerable amount of dorsiflexion in the injury trial compared to neutral flexion in the control trials, similar to the previously published kinematical descriptions of lateral ankle sprains. The present study also adds valuable kinetic information that improves understanding of the injury mechanism. PMID:21824618

  11. Software Architecture: Architecture Constraints

    Tibermacine, Chouki

    2014-01-01

    International audience In this chapter, we introduce an additional, yet essential, concept in describing software architectures : architecture constraints. We explain the precise role of these entities and their importance in object-oriented, component-based or service-oriented software engi-neering. We then describe the way in which they are specified and interpreted. An architect can define architecture constraints and then associate them to architectural descriptions to limit their stru...

  12. Essays on Collateral Constraints

    Brumm, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This thesis consists of three self-contained papers. Chapter 1 provides a general introduction. In Chapter 2, I study the impact of collateral constraints on producers and thereby on aggregate output. In a theoretical paper, Kiyotaki and Moore (1997) show that collateral constraints that restrict the investment decisions of producers can strongly amplify and propagate aggregate shocks. However, the subsequent quantitative literature tends to find rather weak and non-robust effects of collater...

  13. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia Posso, Frank Dan

    2002-01-01

    The ntcc calculus is a model of non-deterministic temporal concurrent constraint programming. In this paper we study behavioral notions for this calculus. In the underlying computational model, concurrent constraint processes are executed in discrete time intervals. The behavioral notions studied....... Furthermore, the expressive power of this fragment is illustrated by examples. Basic Research in Computer Science, Centre of the Danish National Research Foundation....

  14. Spectroscopic signatures of youth in low-mass kinematic candidates of young moving groups

    Gálvez-Ortiz, M C; Clarke, J R A; Pavlenko, Ya V; Folkes, S L; Pinfield, D J; Jones, H R A; Jenkins, J S; Barnes, J R; Burningham, B; Day-Jones, A C; Martín, E L; Pérez, A E García; del Burgo, C; Pokorny, R S

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of age-related spectral signatures observed in 25 young low-mass objects that we have previously determined as possible kinematic members of five young moving groups: the Local Association (Pleiades moving group, age=20 - 150 Myr), the Ursa Major group (Sirius supercluster, age=300 Myr), the Hyades supercluster (age=600 Myr), IC 2391 supercluster (age=35--55 Myr) and the Castor moving group (age=200 Myr). In this paper we characterize the spectral properties of observed high or low resolution spectra of our kinematic members by fitting theoretical spectral distributions. We study signatures of youth, such as lithium {\\sc i} 6708 \\AA, H$\\alpha$ emission and other age-sensitive spectroscopic signatures in order to confirm the kinematic memberships through age constraints. We find that 21 ($84\\%$) targets show spectroscopic signatures of youth in agreement with the age ranges of the moving group to which membership is implied. For two further objects, age-related constraints remain difficult t...

  15. The warm ionized gas in CALIFA early-type galaxies: 2D emission-line patterns and kinematics for 32 galaxies

    Gomes, J M; Kehrig, C; Vílchez, J M; Lehnert, M D; Sánchez, S F; Ziegler, B; Breda, I; Reis, S N dos; Iglesias-Páramo, J; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Galbany, L; Bomans, D J; Rosales-Ortega, F F; Fernandes, R Cid; Walcher, C J; Falcón-Barroso, J; García-Benito, R; Márquez, I; del Olmo, A; Masegosa, J; Mollá, M; Marino, R A; Delgado, R M González; López-Sánchez, Á R

    2015-01-01

    The morphological, spectroscopic and kinematical properties of the warm interstellar medium (wim) in early-type galaxies (ETGs) hold key observational constraints to nuclear activity and the buildup history of these massive, quiescent systems. High-quality integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data with a wide spectral and spatial coverage, such as those from the CALIFA survey, offer an unprecedented opportunity for advancing our understanding of the wim in ETGs. This article centers on a 2D investigation of the wim component in 32 nearby (<~150Mpc) ETGs from CALIFA, complementing a previous 1D analysis of the same sample (Papaderos et al. 2013; P13). We include here H\\alpha\\ intensity and equivalent width (EW) maps and radial profiles, diagnostic emission-line ratios, besides ionized-gas and stellar kinematics. This study is supplemented by \\tau-ratio maps as an efficient means to quantify the role of photoionization by pAGB stars, as compared to other mechanisms (e.g., AGN, low-level star formation). Additio...

  16. Stochastic Image Registration with User Constraints

    Kolesov, Ivan; Lee, JeHoon; Vela, Patricio; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2013-01-01

    Constrained registration is an active area of research and is the focus of this work. This note describes a non-rigid image registration framework for incorporating landmark constraints. Points that must remain stationary are selected, the user chooses the spatial extent of the inputs, and an automatic step computes the deformable registration, respecting the constraints. Parametrization of the deformation field is by an additive composition of a similarity transformation and a set of Gaussia...

  17. Constraint Programming and Combinatorial Optimisation in Numberjack

    Hébrard, Emmanuel; Eoin, O'Mahony; Barry, O'Sullivan

    2010-01-01

    Python benets from a large and active programming com- munity. Numberjack is a modelling package written in Python for embed- ding constraint programming and combinatorial optimisation into larger applications. It has been designed to seamlessly and efficiently support a number of underlying combinatorial solvers. Currently, Numberjack supports three constraint programming solvers, one MIP solver, and one satisability solver -- all available as open-source software. This paper illustrates man...

  18. Digital video, learning styles, and student understanding of kinematics graphs

    Hein, Teresa Lee

    1997-12-01

    Student ability to analyze and interpret motion graphs following laboratory instruction that utilized interactive digital video as well as traditional instructional techniques was investigated. Research presented suggested that digital video tools serve to motivate students and may be an effective mechanism to enhance student understanding of motion concepts. Two laboratory exercises involving motion concepts were developed for this study. Students were divided into two instructional groups. The treatment group used digital video techniques and the control group used traditional techniques to perform the laboratory exercises. Student understanding of motion concepts were assessed, in part, using the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Other assessment measures included student responses to a set of written graphical analysis questions and two post-lab activities. Possible relationships between individual learning style preferences and student understanding of motion concepts were also addressed. Learning style preferences were assessed using the Productivity Environmental Preference Survey prior to the instructional treatments. Students were asked to comment in writing about their learning styles before and after they were given the learning style assessment. Student comments revealed that the results they received from Productivity Environmental Preference Survey accurately reflected their learning styles. Results presented in this study showed that no significant relationship exists between students' learning style preferences and their ability to interpret motion graphs as measured by scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. In addition, the results showed no significant difference between instructional treatment and mean scores on the Test of Understanding Graphs-Kinematics. Analysis of writing activities revealed that students in the treatment group responded more effectively than students in the control group to graphical interpretation

  19. Inverse kinematic-based robot control

    Wolovich, W. A.; Flueckiger, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    A fundamental problem which must be resolved in virtually all non-trivial robotic operations is the well-known inverse kinematic question. More specifically, most of the tasks which robots are called upon to perform are specified in Cartesian (x,y,z) space, such as simple tracking along one or more straight line paths or following a specified surfacer with compliant force sensors and/or visual feedback. In all cases, control is actually implemented through coordinated motion of the various links which comprise the manipulator; i.e., in link space. As a consequence, the control computer of every sophisticated anthropomorphic robot must contain provisions for solving the inverse kinematic problem which, in the case of simple, non-redundant position control, involves the determination of the first three link angles, theta sub 1, theta sub 2, and theta sub 3, which produce a desired wrist origin position P sub xw, P sub yw, and P sub zw at the end of link 3 relative to some fixed base frame. Researchers outline a new inverse kinematic solution and demonstrate its potential via some recent computer simulations. They also compare it to current inverse kinematic methods and outline some of the remaining problems which will be addressed in order to render it fully operational. Also discussed are a number of practical consequences of this technique beyond its obvious use in solving the inverse kinematic question.

  20. Implementation of Complex Projects Using Constraint Programming

    Miodrag Strak

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available During the implementation of the complex projects, all planned activities and resources must be taken into account. In general, it is necessary to assign the resources to the activities, but to also avoid simultaneous engagement of resources for multiple activities. In order to solve these problems, various techniques and methods are used. Mathematic and integer programming, genetic algorithms, simulated annealing, or taboo search are just some of the techniques used for solving this problem. Constraint programming comes from artificial intelligence i.e. papers from this area that occurred in 1960s and 1970s. Constraints exist in every segment of human environment. They represent a natural medium for expressing relations that exist in the physical world. Fulfilment of constraints is used in many different areas. Problems such as scheduling, allocations etc. are typical examples of constraints problems, where the basic concept of constraint programming can be applied. This paper considered implementation of the Bor Regional Development Project. Development of constraint programming was followed by the development of appropriate tools. B-Prolog was used in this paper. Many systems, including B-Prolog, enable interface with classic object-oriented languages, such as C++ or Java. One of the greatest advantages is the possibility of simple modelling, even for beginners in planning and implementation of the project.

  1. Effects of robotically modulating kinematic variability on motor skill learning and motivation.

    Duarte, Jaime E; Reinkensmeyer, David J

    2015-04-01

    It is unclear how the variability of kinematic errors experienced during motor training affects skill retention and motivation. We used force fields produced by a haptic robot to modulate the kinematic errors of 30 healthy adults during a period of practice in a virtual simulation of golf putting. On day 1, participants became relatively skilled at putting to a near and far target by first practicing without force fields. On day 2, they warmed up at the task without force fields, then practiced with force fields that either reduced or augmented their kinematic errors and were finally assessed without the force fields active. On day 3, they returned for a long-term assessment, again without force fields. A control group practiced without force fields. We quantified motor skill as the variability in impact velocity at which participants putted the ball. We quantified motivation using a self-reported, standardized scale. Only individuals who were initially less skilled benefited from training; for these people, practicing with reduced kinematic variability improved skill more than practicing in the control condition. This reduced kinematic variability also improved self-reports of competence and satisfaction. Practice with increased kinematic variability worsened these self-reports as well as enjoyment. These negative motivational effects persisted on day 3 in a way that was uncorrelated with actual skill. In summary, robotically reducing kinematic errors in a golf putting training session improved putting skill more for less skilled putters. Robotically increasing kinematic errors had no performance effect, but decreased motivation in a persistent way. PMID:25673732

  2. Misconceptions and constraints

    In theory, the sterile insect technique (SIT) is applicable to a wide variety of invertebrate pests. However, in practice, the approach has been successfully applied to only a few major pests. Chapters in this volume address possible reasons for this discrepancy, e.g. Klassen, Lance and McInnis, and Robinson and Hendrichs. The shortfall between theory and practice is partly due to the persistence of some common misconceptions, but it is mainly due to one constraint, or a combination of constraints, that are biological, financial, social or political in nature. This chapter's goal is to dispel some major misconceptions, and view the constraints as challenges to overcome, seeing them as opportunities to exploit. Some of the common misconceptions include: (1) released insects retain residual radiation, (2) females must be monogamous, (3) released males must be fully sterile, (4) eradication is the only goal, (5) the SIT is too sophisticated for developing countries, and (6) the SIT is not a component of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) strategy. The more obvious constraints are the perceived high costs of the SIT, and the low competitiveness of released sterile males. The perceived high up-front costs of the SIT, their visibility, and the lack of private investment (compared with alternative suppression measures) emerge as serious constraints. Failure to appreciate the true nature of genetic approaches, such as the SIT, may pose a significant constraint to the wider adoption of the SIT and other genetically-based tactics, e.g. transgenic genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Lack of support for the necessary underpinning strategic research also appears to be an important constraint. Hence the case for extensive strategic research in ecology, population dynamics, genetics, and insect behaviour and nutrition is a compelling one. Raising the competitiveness of released sterile males remains the major research objective of the SIT. (author)

  3. Computer Assisted Mechanical Axis and Kinematic TKA

    McEwen, Peter; Mahoharan, Varaguna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has traditionally been and largely continues to be aligned mechanically, that being with a neutral coronal plane mechanical tibiofemoral axis and a joint line orientated at 900 to this axis. Femoral component rotation is set by gap balancing or by externally rotating 30 from any of a number femoral reference lines. This produces a rectangular flexion gap and relaxes patellar tracking. Kinematic alignment (KA) is an alternative technique that aims to restore premorbid alignment, joint orientation and ligament tension. The basic premise for this technique is based on evidence that the medial and lateral femoral condyles consistently equate to cylinders of equal or near equal size and that therefore with a fixed radius, cruciate retaining implant, matched distal femoral, posterior femoral and proximal tibial resections, accounting for bone and cartilage already lost will reproduce the premorbid joint line and restore native premorbid kinematics. Femoral rotation is therefore referenced off the prearthritic posterior condylar axis (PCA) that is on average internally rotated to the AP axis. Kinematic alignment therefore has the potential to challenge patellar tracking, increase patellar load and potentially increase patellar complications. Method: Case control study – level of evidence III-2. Between November 2012 and June 2013 the senior author completed 104 consecutive computer assisted (CAS) kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasties (TKA) with a cruciate retaining, fixed bearing, single radius implant. The results of these surgeries were compared with the results of 91 consecutive CAS mechanically aligned TKA done between November 2011 and October 2012 using the same navigation system and implant Implant sizing and positioning as well as gap measurement and ligament balance was done with computer assistance in all cases. Data was collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively. Results: The Oxford Knee Score

  4. Hand kinematics of piano playing.

    Furuya, Shinichi; Flanders, Martha; Soechting, John F

    2011-12-01

    Dexterous use of the hand represents a sophisticated sensorimotor function. In behaviors such as playing the piano, it can involve strong temporal and spatial constraints. The purpose of this study was to determine fundamental patterns of covariation of motion across joints and digits of the human hand. Joint motion was recorded while 5 expert pianists played 30 excerpts from musical pieces, which featured ∼50 different tone sequences and fingering. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis using an expectation-maximization algorithm revealed that joint velocities could be categorized into several patterns, which help to simplify the description of the movements of the multiple degrees of freedom of the hand. For the thumb keystroke, two distinct patterns of joint movement covariation emerged and they depended on the spatiotemporal patterns of the task. For example, the thumb-under maneuver was clearly separated into two clusters based on the direction of hand translation along the keyboard. While the pattern of the thumb joint velocities differed between these clusters, the motions at the metacarpo-phalangeal and proximal-phalangeal joints of the four fingers were more consistent. For a keystroke executed with one of the fingers, there were three distinct patterns of joint rotations, across which motion at the striking finger was fairly consistent, but motion of the other fingers was more variable. Furthermore, the amount of movement spillover of the striking finger to the adjacent fingers was small irrespective of the finger used for the keystroke. These findings describe an unparalleled amount of independent motion of the fingers. PMID:21880938

  5. Kinematics and Control of Robot Manipulators

    Paden, Bradley Evan

    This dissertation focuses on the kinematics and control of robot manipulators. The contribution to kinematics is a fundamental theorem on the design of manipulators with six revolute joints. The theorem states, roughly speaking, that manipulators which have six revolute joints and are modeled after the human arm are optimal and essentially unique. In developing the mathematical framework to prove this theorem, we define precisely the notions of length of a manipulator, well-connected-workspace, and work-volume. We contribute to control a set of analysis techniques for the design of variable structure (sliding mode) controllers for manipulators. The organization of the dissertation is the following. After introductory remarks in chapter one, the group of proper rigid motions, G, is introduced in chapter two. The tangent bundle of G is introduced and it is shown that the velocity of a rigid body can be represented by an element in the Lie algebra of G (commonly called a twist). Further, rigid motions which are exponentials of twists are used to describe four commonly occurring subproblems in robot kinematics. In chapter three, the exponentials of twists are used to write the forward kinematic map of robot manipulators and the subproblems of chapter two are used to solve the Stanford manipulator and an elbow manipulator. Chapter four focuses on manipulator singularities. Twist coordinates are used to find critical points of the forward kinematic map. The contribution to kinematics is contained in chapter five where a mathematical framework for studying the relationship between the design of 6R manipulators and their performance is developed. Chapter seven contains the contribution to control. The work of A. F. Filippov on differential equations with discontinuous right-hand-side and the work of F. H. Clarke on generalized gradients are combined to obtain a calculus for analyzing nonsmooth gradient systems. The techniques developed are applied to design a simple

  6. Consideration of Photon Radiation in Kinematic Fits for Future e+ e- Colliders

    Beckmann, Moritz; List, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic fitting is an important tool to improve the resolution in high-energy physics experiments. At future e+e- colliders, photon radiation parallel to the beam carrying away large amounts of energy and momentum will become a challenge for kinematic fitting. A photon with longitudinal momentum pz({\\eta}) is introduced, which is parametrized such that {\\eta} follows a normal distribution. In the fit, {\\eta} is treated as having a measured value of zero, which corresponds to pz = 0. As a result, fits with constraints on energy and momentum conservation converge well even in the presence of a highly energetic photon, while the resolution of fits without such a photon is retained. A fully simulated and reconstructed e+e- -> qqqq event sample at sqrt(s) = 500 GeV is used to investigate the performance of this method under realistic conditions, as expected at the International Linear Collider.

  7. Space reconstruction of the morphology and kinematics of axisymmetric radio sources

    Diep, P N; Hoai, D T; Nhung, P T; Thao, N T; Tuan-Anh, P; Darriulat, P

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented quality of the observations available from the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) calls for analysis methods making the best of them. Reconstructing in space the morphology and kinematics of radio sources is an underdetermined problem that requires imposing additional constraints for its solution. The hypothesis of rotational invariance about a well-defined star axis, which is a good approximation to the description of the gas envelopes of many evolved stars and protostars, is particularly efficient in this role. In the first part of the article, a systematic use of simulated observations allows for identifying the main problems and for constructing quantities aimed at solving them. In particular the evaluation of the orientation of the star axis in space and the differentiation between expansion along the star axis and rotation about it are given special attention. The use of polar rather than Cartesian sky coordinates is shown to better match the morphology and kinematics...

  8. Null Space Integration Method for Constrained Multibody Systems with No Constraint Violation

    A method for integrating equations of motion of constrained multibody systems with no constraint violation is presented. A mathematical model, shaped as a differential-algebraic system of index 1, is transformed into a system of ordinary differential equations using the null-space projection method. Equations of motion are set in a non-minimal form. During integration, violations of constraints are corrected by solving constraint equations at the position and velocity level, utilizing the metric of the system's configuration space, and projective criterion to the coordinate partitioning method. The method is applied to dynamic simulation of 3D constrained biomechanical system. The simulation results are evaluated by comparing them to the values of characteristic parameters obtained by kinematics analysis of analyzed motion based unmeasured kinematics data

  9. Kinematic transitions and streams in galaxy halos

    Romanowsky, A J; Brodie, J P; Foster, C; Forbes, D A; Lux, H; Martinez-Delgado, D; Strader, J; Zibetti, S

    2014-01-01

    The chemo-dynamics of galaxy halos beyond the Local Group may now be mapped out through the use of globular clusters and planetary nebulae as bright tracer objects, along with deep multi-slit spectroscopy of the integrated stellar light. We present results from surveying nearby early-type galaxies, including evidence for kinematically distinct halos that may reflect two-phase galaxy assembly. We also demonstrate the utility of the tracer approach in measuring the kinematics of stellar substructures around the Umbrella Galaxy, which allow us to reconstruct the progenitor properties and stream orbit.

  10. Kinematic Issues of GPDs in DVCS

    Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) in Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) have been widely recognized and used as a useful tool to explore the quark and gluon structure of the target hadrons. However, we recently pointed out treacherous kinematic issues in analyzing DVCS in terms of GPDs. We present our key findings in the simplest possible level of complete amplitude including the lepton current. We also discuss an implication on theoretical frameworks to cover the kinematic region of DVCS experiment with the 12 GeV upgrade at Jefferson Lab

  11. Controlling chaotic robots with kinematical redundancy

    Li, Li; Liu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Dengcai; Zhang, H.

    2006-03-01

    Robots with kinematical redundancy under the pseudoinverse control exhibit undesirable chaotic joint motion, which leads to erratic behaviors. In this study, we used the delayed feedback method to control chaotic motions of a planar 3R rigid and a planar 3R flexible redundant robot under the pseudoinverse control when the end-effector traces a closed-path repeatedly in the work space. It was demonstrated that chaotic motions of robots with kinematical redundancy can be turned into regular motion when the delayed feedback method was applied with some appropriate parameters. This study provides a new insight helpful to solve the repeatability problem of redundant manipulators.

  12. H$\\alpha$ kinematics of KPG 390

    Repetto, P; Fuentes-Carrera, R Gabbasov I

    2009-01-01

    In this work we present scanning Fabry-Perot H$\\alpha$ observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/79 obtained with the PUMA Fabry-Perot interferometer. We derived velocity fields, various kinematic parameters and rotation curves for both galaxies. Our kinematical results together with the fact that dust lanes have been detected in both galaxies, as well as the analysis of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis, allowed us to determine that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals.

  13. Inverse Kinematics of a Serial Robot

    Amici Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a technique to treat the inverse kinematics of a serial manipulator. The inverse kinematics is obtained through the numerical inversion of the Jacobian matrix, that represents the equation of motion of the manipulator. The inversion is affected by numerical errors and, in different conditions, due to the numerical nature of the solver, it does not converge to a reasonable solution. Thus a soft computing approach is adopted to mix different traditional methods to obtain an increment of algorithmic convergence.

  14. The Kinematic Theory of Solar Dynamo

    2003-01-01

    Generation of the Sun's magnetic fields by self-inductive processes inthe solar electrically conducting interior, the solar dynamo theory, is a fundamen-tally important subject in astrophysics. The kinematic dynamo theory concernshow the magnetic fields are produced by kinematically possible flows without beingconstrained by the dynamic equation. We review a number of basic aspects of thekinematic dynamo theory, including the magnetohydrodynamic approximation forthe dynamo equation, the impossibility of dynamo action with the solar differentialrotation, the Cowling's anti-dynamo theorem in the solar context, the turbulent al-pha effect and recently constructed three-dimensional interface dynamos controlledby the solar tachocline at the base of the convection zone.

  15. Task constraints and minimization of muscle effort result in a small number of muscle synergies during gait

    Friedl De Groote

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Finding muscle activity generating a given motion is a redundant problem, since there are many more muscles than degrees of freedom. The control strategies determining muscle recruitment from a redundant set are still poorly understood. One theory of motor control suggests that motion is produced through activating a small number of muscle synergies, i.e. muscle groups that are activated in a fixed ratio by a single input signal. Because of the reduced number of input signals, synergy-based control is low dimensional. But a major criticism on the theory of synergy-based control of muscles is that muscle synergies might reflect task constraints rather than a neural control strategy. Another theory of motor control suggests that muscles are recruited by optimizing performance. Optimization of performance has been widely used to calculate muscle recruitment underlying a given motion while assuming independent recruitment of muscles. If synergies indeed determine muscle recruitment underlying a given motion, optimization approaches that do not model synergy-based control could result in muscle activations that do not show the synergistic muscle action observed through electromyography (EMG. If, however, synergistic muscle action results from performance optimization and task constraints (joint kinematics and external forces, such optimization approaches are expected to result in low-dimensional synergistic muscle activations that are similar to EMG-based synergies. We calculated muscle recruitment underlying experimentally measured gait patterns by optimizing performance assuming independent recruitment of muscles. We found that the muscle activations calculated without any reference to synergies can be accurately explained by on average four synergies. These synergies are similar to EMG-based synergies. We therefore conclude that task constraints and performance optimization explain synergistic muscle recruitment from a redundant set of muscles.

  16. The cycling of climatically active dimethyl sulfide (DMS) in the marine euphotic zone: Biological and chemical constraints on the flux to the atmosphere

    In this study, the author used a series of linked carbon-sulfur budget models to examine possible constraints on DMS production and sea-air flux. The results suggest that the cycling of DMS within the water column is complex and still poorly understood, with multiple biological processes controlling its production from DMSP, and rapid biological consumptions as well. It appears that there is often a much larger cycling of DMS within the water column than is evident from its flux to the atmosphere. Approximately 0.5% of the sulfate-S originally assimilated by phytoplankton was lost to the atmosphere as DMS. Although the constraint on DMS abundance may involve a near-balance between its biological production and consumption, there is still not adequate data to demonstrate this, and production of DMSP and its conversion to DMS remain one of the key rates to be measured in situ. 14C-DMS was consumed biologically with CO2 and particulate (cell) material the main products, in ratios typically about 2:1, suggestive of methylotrophy. Saturation was not observed up to 20 nM. Compared to a chloroform-inhibition method this method gave somewhat lower rate estimates. It was used to confirm that chloroform addition inhibits DMS consumption by 70-90%. The author found no evidence for production of methane or other volatile gases from DMS, and 100 μM trimethylamine did not appear to inhibit consumption

  17. Calibration of parallel kinematic devices using sequential determination of kinematic parameters

    JOKIEL JR.,BERNHARD; BIEG,LOTHAR F.; ZIEGERT,JOHN C.

    2000-04-06

    In PKM Machines, the Cartesian position and orientation of the tool point carried on the platform is obtained from a kinematic model of the particular machine. Accurate positioning of these machines relies on the accurate knowledge of the parameters of the kinematic model unique to the particular machine. The parameters in the kinematic model include the spatial locations of the joint centers on the machine base and moving platform, the initial strut lengths, and the strut displacements. The strut displacements are readily obtained from sensors on the machine. However, the remaining kinematic parameters (joint center locations, and initial strut lengths) are difficult to determine when these machines are in their fully assembled state. The size and complexity of these machines generally makes it difficult and somewhat undesirable to determine the remaining kinematic parameters by direct inspection such as in a coordinate measuring machine. In order for PKMs to be useful for precision positioning applications, techniques must be developed to quickly calibrate the machine by determining the kinematic parameters without disassembly of the machine. A number of authors have reported techniques for calibration of PKMs (Soons, Masory, Zhuang et. al., Ropponen). In two other papers, the authors have reported on work recently completed by the University of Florida and Sandia National Laboratories on calibration of PKMs, which describes a new technique to sequentially determine the kinematic parameters of an assembled parallel kinematic device. The technique described is intended to be used with a spatial coordinate measuring device such as a portable articulated CMM measuring arm (Romer, Faro, etc.), a Laser Ball Bar (LBB), or a laser tracker (SMX< API, etc.). The material to be presented is as follows: (1) methods to identify the kinematic parameters of 6--6 variant Stewart platform manipulators including joint center locations relative to the workable and spindle nose

  18. Psychological constraints on egalitarianism

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Debates over egalitarianism for the most part are not concerned with constraints on achieving an egalitarian society, beyond discussions of the deficiencies of egalitarian theory itself. This paper looks beyond objections to egalitarianism as such and investigates the relevant psychological...... processes motivating people to resist various aspects of egalitarianism. I argue for two theses, one normative and one descriptive. The normative thesis holds that egalitarians must take psychological constraints into account when constructing egalitarian ideals. I draw from non-ideal theories in political...... philosophy, which aim to construct moral goals with current social and political constraints in mind, to argue that human psychology must be part of a non-ideal theory of egalitarianism. The descriptive thesis holds that the most fundamental psychological challenge to egalitarian ideals comes from what are...

  19. More general BBN constraints on neutrino oscillations

    Stringent constraints on active-sterile neutrino oscillations were obtained from cosmology. However, mainly the case of initially zero νs state δNs = 0 was considered. We study cosmological constraints on νe ↔ νs oscillations for the case when νe is partially filled initially, i.e. 0 2 4He, in the presence of νe ↔ νs oscillations, effective after neutrino decoupling. We account for all known oscillations effects on cosmological nucleosynthesis. We calculate the cosmological constraints on oscillation parameters corresponding to non-zero initial population of the sterile state and 5% 4He overproduction. These generalized cosmological constraints corresponding to δN2 > 0 are relaxed in comparison to the δN2 = 0 case and the relaxation is proportional to δN2. (author)

  20. Two-dimensional kinematics of SLACS lenses - III. Mass structure and dynamics of early-type lens galaxies beyond z similar or equal to 0.1

    Barnabe, Matteo; Czoske, Oliver; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Treu, Tommaso; Bolton, Adam S.

    2011-01-01

    We combine in a self-consistent way the constraints from both gravitational lensing and stellar kinematics to perform a detailed investigation of the internal mass distribution, amount of dark matter, and dynamical structure of the 16 early-type lens galaxies from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey (SLACS Su

  1. Kinematic measurements for the characterization of the dynamics of hopping

    The study of human movement requires the accurate measurement of the forces and of the kinematic quantities involved. Here we consider hopping, that deserves great attention in the literature, since it combines the activation of a complex sensorimotor control with the relative simplicity of the gesture. The movement of the center of mass and the contact conditions are of special interest. Thus a measuring system that combines digital image acquisition, force measurement based on a force plate and extensive use of inertial sensors, for linear and rotational motion, has been developed and characterized. The results concerning the accurate measurement of contact conditions are specially outlined

  2. Ionized gas kinematics of galaxies in the CALIFA survey I: Velocity fields, kinematic parameters of the dominant component, and presence of kinematically distinct gaseous systems

    Garcia-Lorenzo, B; Barrera-Ballesteros, J K; Masegosa, J; Husemann, B; Falcón-Barroso, J; Lyubenova, M; Sanchez, S F; Walcher, J; Mast, D; Garcia-Benito, R; Mendez-Abreu, J; van de Ven, G; Spekkens, K; Holmes, L; Monreal-Ibero, A; del Olmo, A; Ziegler, B; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Sanchez-Blazquez, P; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Aguerri, J A L; Papaderos, P; Gomes, J M; Marino, R A; Delgado, R M Gonzalez; Cortijo-Ferrero, C; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Bekeraite, S; Wisotzki, L; Bomans, D

    2014-01-01

    This work provides an overall characterization of the kinematic behavior of the ionized gas of the galaxies included in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral field Area (CALIFA), offering kinematic clues to potential users of this survey for including kinematical criteria for specific studies. From the first 200 galaxies observed by CALIFA, we present the 2D kinematic view of the 177 galaxies satisfying a gas detection threshold. After removing the stellar contribution, we used the cross-correlation technique to obtain the radial velocity of the dominant gaseous component. The main kinematic parameters were directly derived from the radial velocities with no assumptions on the internal motions. Evidence of the presence of several gaseous components with different kinematics were detected by using [OIII] profiles. Most objects in the sample show regular velocity fields, although the ionized-gas kinematics are rarely consistent with simple coplanar circular motions. 35% of the objects present evidence of a displacemen...

  3. The Kinematics of Treadmill Locomotion in Space

    Thornton, W. E.; Cavanagh, P. R.; Buczek, F. L.; Burgess-Milliron, M. J.; Davis, B. L.

    1997-01-01

    Locomotion on a treadmill in 0 G will probably remain a centerpiece of NASA's exercise countermeasures programme. This form of physical activity has the potential to cause large bone and muscle forces as well as loading during a period of continuous treadmill exercise. A critical concern is the provision of a treadmill which can approximate 1 G performance in space. At this point, no adequate objective measurements of in-flight treadmill kinetics or of the human response to this activity have been made. Interpretation of the results obtained in the present study is limited by the following: (1) bungee tensions were not measured; (2) ground reaction forces were not measured in parallel with the kinematic measurements; and (3) the instrumentation used to film the astronauts could itself have been affected by microgravity. Despite these shortcomings, what is apparent is that exercise during NASA missions STS 7 and STS 8 resulted in leg motions that were similar to those found during 1 G locomotion on an inclined passive treadmill and on an active treadmill at an even steeper grade. In addition, it was apparent that the majority of the loads were transmitted through the forefoot, and one can surmise that this style of running would result in physiologically significant tensions in the calf musculature and resultant ankle compressive loading. Further speculation regarding limb loading is complicated by the fact that varying amounts of force are transmitted through (1) the treadmill handle and (2) bungee cords that act as a tether. New generations of treadmills are being manufactured that could provide I important information for planners of long-duration space missions. If these types of treadmill are flown on future missions, it will be possible to control bungee tensions more precisely, control for grade and speed, and, most importantly, provide data on the rates and magnitudes of limb loading. These data could then be incorporated into biomechanical models of the

  4. The complexity of South China Sea kinematics

    Sibuet, Jean-Claude; Gao, Jinyao; Zhao, Minghui; Wu, Jonny; Ding, Weiwei; Yeh, Yi-Ching; Lee, Chao-Shing

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic modeling shows that the age of the youngest South China Sea (SCS) oceanic crust is controversial (e.g. 15.5 Ma, Briais et al., JGR 1993 and 20.5 Ma, Barckhausen et al., MPG 2014). Close to the rift axis of the East sub-basin, Ar-Ar age dating of oceanic crustal rocks collected during IODP Leg 349 gives ages of 15 and 15.2 +/- 0.2 Ma (Koppers, Fall AGU meeting, 2014), which seems to favor the 15.5 Ma age given by Briais et al. modeling. However, basaltic samples might belong to a sill and not to the typical oceanic crust. As post-spreading magmatic activity (~8-13 Ma) largely masks the spreading fabric, in particular near the previously identified E-W portion of the extinct ridge axis of the East sub-basin, the published locations of the axial magnetic anomaly and spreading rates are incorrect. The compilation of available swath bathymetric data shows that if post-spreading volcanics hide the seafloor spreading magnetic fabric mostly along and near the extinct spreading axis, the whole SCS is globally characterized by rift directions following three directions: N055°in the youngest portion of the SCS, N065° and N085° in the oldest portions of the SCS (Sibuet et al., Tectonophysics 2016) suggesting the extinct ridge axis is N055° trending instead of E-W. We present an updated version of the whole SCS structural sketch based on previously published swath bathymetric trends and new detailed magnetic lineations trends compiled from an extremely dense set of magnetic data. The new structural sketch shows: - The distribution of conjugate kinematic domains, - The early opening of the NW and East sub-basins, before a jump of the rift axis, - A second ridge jump in the East basin, - The different expressions of the post-spreading magmatism in the East and SW sub-basins. In the East sub-basin, crustal magmatic intrusions led to the formation of extrusive basalts associated with the presence of numerous volcanoes (Wang et al., Geological Journal 2016). In the SW

  5. Constraint-based scheduling applying constraint programming to scheduling problems

    Baptiste, Philippe; Nuijten, Wim

    2001-01-01

    Constraint Programming is a problem-solving paradigm that establishes a clear distinction between two pivotal aspects of a problem: (1) a precise definition of the constraints that define the problem to be solved and (2) the algorithms and heuristics enabling the selection of decisions to solve the problem. It is because of these capabilities that Constraint Programming is increasingly being employed as a problem-solving tool to solve scheduling problems. Hence the development of Constraint-Based Scheduling as a field of study. The aim of this book is to provide an overview of the most widely used Constraint-Based Scheduling techniques. Following the principles of Constraint Programming, the book consists of three distinct parts: The first chapter introduces the basic principles of Constraint Programming and provides a model of the constraints that are the most often encountered in scheduling problems. Chapters 2, 3, 4, and 5 are focused on the propagation of resource constraints, which usually are responsibl...

  6. Compton Effect with Non-Relativistic Kinematics

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2011-01-01

    In deducing the change of wavelength of x-rays scattered by atomic electrons, one normally makes use of relativistic kinematics for electrons. However, recoiling energies of the electrons are of the order of a few keV which is less than 0.2% of their rest energies. Hence the authors may ask whether relativistic formulae are really necessary. In…

  7. KINEMATICS OF STELLAR POPULATIONS IN POSTSTARBURST GALAXIES

    Poststarburst galaxies host a population of early-type stars (A or F) but simultaneously lack indicators of ongoing star formation such as [O II] emission. Two distinct stellar populations have been identified in these systems: a young poststarburst population superimposed on an older host population. We present a study of nine poststarburst galaxies with the following objectives: (1) to investigate whether and how kinematical differences between the young and old populations of stars can be measured, and (2) to gain insight into the formation mechanism of the young population in these systems. We fit high signal-to-noise spectra with two independent populations in distinct spectral regions: the Balmer region, the Mg IB region, and the Ca triplet when available. We show that the kinematics of the two populations largely track one another if measured in the Balmer region with high signal-to-noise data. Results from examining the Faber-Jackson relation and the fundamental plane indicate that these objects are not kinematically disturbed relative to more evolved spheroids. A case study of the internal kinematics of one object in our sample shows it to be pressure supported and not rotationally dominated. Overall our results are consistent with merger-induced starburst scenarios where the young population is observed during the later stages of the merger

  8. Compton's Kinematics and Einstein - Ehrenfest's radiation theory

    The Compton Kinematic relations are obtained from entirely classical arguments, that is, without the corpuscular concept of the photon. The calculations are nonrelativistic and result from Einstein and Ehrenfest's radiation theory modified in order to introduce the effects of the classical zero-point fileds characteristic of Stochastic Electrodynamics. (author)

  9. The kinematic algebras from the scattering equations

    We study kinematic algebras associated to the recently proposed scattering equations, which arise in the description of the scattering of massless particles. In particular, we describe the role that these algebras play in the BCJ duality between colour and kinematics in gauge theory, and its relation to gravity. We find that the scattering equations are a consistency condition for a self-dual-type vertex which is associated to each solution of those equations. We also identify an extension of the anti-self-dual vertex, such that the two vertices are not conjugate in general. Both vertices correspond to the structure constants of Lie algebras. We give a prescription for the use of the generators of these Lie algebras in trivalent graphs that leads to a natural set of BCJ numerators. In particular, we write BCJ numerators for each contribution to the amplitude associated to a solution of the scattering equations. This leads to a decomposition of the determinant of a certain kinematic matrix, which appears naturally in the amplitudes, in terms of trivalent graphs. We also present the kinematic analogues of colour traces, according to these algebras, and the associated decomposition of that determinant

  10. Geometric configuration in robot kinematic design

    Rooney, Joe

    2006-01-01

    A lattice of geometries is presented and compared for representing some geometrical aspects of the kinematic design of robot systems and subsystems. Three geometries (set theory, topology and projective geometry) are briefly explored in more detail in the context of three geometric configurations in robotics (robot groupings, robot connectivities and robot motion sensor patterns).

  11. Kinematic Measurements from YouTube Videos

    Ruiz, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Video analysis of motion has been in use now for some time. However, some teachers may not have video equipment or may be looking for innovative ways to engage students with interesting applications at no cost. The recent advent of YouTube offers opportunities for students to measure kinematic properties of real-life events using their computers.…

  12. Action experience changes attention to kinematic cues

    Courtney eFilippi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study used remote corneal reflection eye-tracking to examine the relationship between motor experience and action anticipation in 13-month-old infants. To measure online anticipation of actions infants watched videos where the actor’s hand provided kinematic information (in its orientation about the type of object that the actor was going to reach for. The actor’s hand orientation either matched the orientation of a rod (congruent cue or did not match the orientation of the rod (incongruent cue. To examine relations between motor experience and action anticipation, we used a 2 (reach first vs. observe first x 2 (congruent kinematic cue vs. incongruent kinematic cue between-subjects design. We show that 13-month-old infants in the observe first condition spontaneously generate rapid online visual predictions to congruent hand orientation cues and do not visually anticipate when presented incongruent cues. We further demonstrate that the speed that these infants generate predictions to congruent motor cues is correlated with their own ability to pre-shape their hands. Finally, we demonstrate that following reaching experience, infants generate rapid predictions to both congruent and incongruent hand shape cues—suggesting that short-term experience changes attention to kinematics.

  13. Modelling of kinematics of biped robot

    Grepl, Robert; Zezula, P.

    Prague: Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, 2006 - (Pešek, L.), s. 17-23 ISBN 80-85918-97-8. [Dynamics of machines 2006 : colloquium. Praha (CZ), 07.02.2006-08.02.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : biped robot * spatial kinematics * simmechanics Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  14. Ecosystems emerging. 5: Constraints

    Patten, B. C.; Straškraba, Milan; Jorgensen, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 222, č. 16 (2011), s. 2945-2972. ISSN 0304-3800 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : constraint * epistemic * ontic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304380011002274

  15. Mining Matters : Natural Resource Extraction and Local Business Constraints

    de Haas, Ralph; Poelhekke, Steven

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the impact of local mining activity on the business constraints experienced by 22,150 firms across eight resource-rich countries. We find that with the presence of active mines, the business environment in the immediate vicinity (<20 km) of a firm deteriorates but business constraints of

  16. The Maiden Voyage of a Kinematics Robot

    Greenwolfe, Matthew L.

    2015-04-01

    In a Montessori preschool classroom, students work independently on tasks that absorb their attention in part because the apparatus are carefully designed to make mistakes directly observable and limit exploration to one aspect or dimension. Control of error inheres in the apparatus itself, so that teacher intervention can be minimal.1 Inspired by this example, I created a robotic kinematics apparatus that also shapes the inquiry experience. Students program the robot by drawing kinematic graphs on a computer and then observe its motion. Exploration is at once limited to constant velocity and constant acceleration motion, yet open to complex multi-segment examples difficult to achieve in the lab in other ways. The robot precisely and reliably produces the motion described by the students' graphs, so that the apparatus itself provides immediate visual feedback about whether their understanding is correct as they are free to explore within the hard-coded limits. In particular, the kinematic robot enables hands-on study of multi-segment constant velocity situations, which lays a far stronger foundation for the study of accelerated motion. When correction is anonymous—just between one group of lab partners and their robot—students using the kinematic robot tend to flow right back to work because they view the correction as an integral part of the inquiry learning process. By contrast, when correction occurs by the teacher and/or in public (e.g., returning a graded assignment or pointing out student misconceptions during class), students all too often treat the event as the endpoint to inquiry. Furthermore, quantitative evidence shows a large gain from pre-test to post-test scores using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K).

  17. Kinematic MR imaging of the ankle - initial results with ultra-fast sequence imaging

    Muhle, C.; Brinkmann, G.; Brossmann, J.; Wesner, F.; Heller, M. [Christian Albrechts Univ., Kiel (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology

    1997-09-01

    Purpose: In order to evaluate the advantages of ultra-fast MR sequences, kinematic MR imaging studies were performed in 4 patients with osteochondritis dissecans of the talus and in 12 healthy volunteers. Material and Methods: The patients and volunteers were placed inside a custom-made positioning device. Sagittal ultra-fast T2-weighted turbo gradient-echo sequences and HASTE sequences were obtained during active joint motion from dorsiflexion to plantar flexion. Eight sagittal slices were scanned separately to cover this ankle motion. In each slice, 8 to 10 images were obtained in 12-s or 18-s periods. Results: Adequate image quality for analyzing the normal kinematics of the ankle was obtained in all subjects. At surgery, the osteochondral fragment was found to be mobile in 3 of the 4 of the patients. In none of these cases was fragment mobility observed on kinematic MR imaging. No motion of the fragments was observed in the fourth patient, neither at surgery nor on kinematic MR imaging. Conclusion: Ultra-fast MR imaging sequences made it possible to produce kinematic MR imaging studies of active joint motion. The positioning device was useful for guiding joint motion in patients and for obtaining adequate image quality. (orig.).

  18. Kinematic MR imaging of the ankle - initial results with ultra-fast sequence imaging

    Purpose: In order to evaluate the advantages of ultra-fast MR sequences, kinematic MR imaging studies were performed in 4 patients with osteochondritis dissecans of the talus and in 12 healthy volunteers. Material and Methods: The patients and volunteers were placed inside a custom-made positioning device. Sagittal ultra-fast T2-weighted turbo gradient-echo sequences and HASTE sequences were obtained during active joint motion from dorsiflexion to plantar flexion. Eight sagittal slices were scanned separately to cover this ankle motion. In each slice, 8 to 10 images were obtained in 12-s or 18-s periods. Results: Adequate image quality for analyzing the normal kinematics of the ankle was obtained in all subjects. At surgery, the osteochondral fragment was found to be mobile in 3 of the 4 of the patients. In none of these cases was fragment mobility observed on kinematic MR imaging. No motion of the fragments was observed in the fourth patient, neither at surgery nor on kinematic MR imaging. Conclusion: Ultra-fast MR imaging sequences made it possible to produce kinematic MR imaging studies of active joint motion. The positioning device was useful for guiding joint motion in patients and for obtaining adequate image quality. (orig.)

  19. Kinematic mounting systems for National Synchrotron Light Source beamlines and experiments

    Methods for kinematically mounting equipment are well established, but applications at synchrotron radiation facilities are subject to constraints not always encountered in more traditional laboratory settings. Independent position adjustment of beamline components can have significant benefits in terms of minimizing time spent aligning, and maximizing time spent acquiring data. In this article, we use examples taken from beamlines at the National Synchrotron Light Source to demonstrate approaches for optimization of the reproducibility, stability, excursion, and set-up time for various situations. From our experience, we extract general principles which we hope will be useful for workers at other synchrotron radiation facilities

  20. Position-Specific Hip and Knee Kinematics in NCAA Football Athletes

    Deneweth, Jessica M.; Pomeroy, Shannon M.; Russell, Jason R.; McLean, Scott G.; Zernicke, Ronald F.; Bedi, Asheesh; Goulet, Grant C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Femoroacetabular impingement is a debilitating hip condition commonly affecting athletes playing American football. The condition is associated with reduced hip range of motion; however, little is known about the range-of-motion demands of football athletes. This knowledge is critical to effective management of this condition. Purpose: To (1) develop a normative database of game-like hip and knee kinematics used by football athletes and (2) analyze kinematic data by playing position. The hypothesis was that kinematics would be similar between running backs and defensive backs and between wide receivers and quarterbacks, and that linemen would perform the activities with the most erect lower limb posture. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Forty National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football athletes, representing 5 playing positions (quarterback, defensive back, running back, wide receiver, offensive lineman), executed game-like maneuvers while lower body kinematics were recorded via optical motion capture. Passive hip range of motion at 90° of hip flexion was assessed using a goniometer. Passive range of motion, athlete physical dimensions, hip function, and hip and knee rotations were submitted to 1-way analysis of variance to test for differences between playing positions. Correlations between maximal hip and knee kinematics and maximal hip kinematics and passive range of motion were also computed. Results: Hip and knee kinematics were similar across positions. Significant differences arose with linemen, who used lower maximal knee flexion (mean ± SD, 45.04° ± 7.27°) compared with running backs (61.20° ± 6.07°; P < .001) and wide receivers (54.67° ± 6.97°; P = .048) during the cut. No significant differences were found among positions for hip passive range of motion (overall means: 102° ± 15° [flexion]; 25° ± 9° [internal rotation]; 25° ± 8° [external rotation]). Several maximal hip measures were found

  1. A New Topological Description Method of Kinematic Chain

    Ding Huafeng; Huang Zhen; Cao Yi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the description of kinematic chains, namely the canonical description of kinematic chains including the synthetic degree-sequences and the canonical adjacency matrices sets of kinematic chains. The most important characteristic of this new description method is its uniqueness. Based on the new principle the isomorphism identification becomes easy and the structures of all kinds of kinematic chains can be stored in computer for the benefits of the realization of automation and intelligence of machine design.

  2. Constraints on Natal Kicks in Galactic Double Neutron Star Systems

    Wong, Tsing-Wai; Willems, Bart; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2010-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first double neutron star (DNS) system in 1975 by Hulse and Taylor, there are currently 8 confirmed DNS in our galaxy. For every system, the masses of both neutron stars, the orbital semi- major axis and eccentricity are measured, and proper motion is known for half of the systems. Using the orbital parameters and kinematic information, if available, as constraints for all system, we investigate the immediate progenitor mass of the second-born neutron star and the m...

  3. Kinematics of steep bedrock permafrost

    Hasler, Andreas; Gruber, Stephan; Beutel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that control climate-dependent rockfall from permafrost mountain slopes are currently poorly understood. In this study, we present the results of an extensive rock slope monitoring campaign at the Matterhorn (Switzerland) with a wireless sensor network. A negative dependency of cleft expansion relative to temperature was observed at all clefts for the dominant part of the year. At many clefts this process is interrupted by a period with increased opening and shearing activity i...

  4. Kinematic description of crystal plasticity in the finite kinematic framework: A micromechanical understanding of F=FeFp

    Reina, C.; Conti, S.

    2014-07-01

    The plastic component of the deformation gradient plays a central role in finite kinematic models of plasticity. However, its characterization has been the source of extended debates in the literature and many important issues still remain unresolved. Some examples are the micromechanical understanding of F=FeFp with multiple active slip systems, the uniqueness of the decomposition, or the characterization of the plastic deformation without reference to the so-called intermediate configuration. In this paper, we shed some light to these issues via a two-dimensional kinematic analysis of the plastic deformation induced by discrete slip surfaces and the corresponding dislocation structures. In particular, we supply definitions for the elastic and plastic components of the deformation gradient as a function of the active slip systems without any a priori assumption on the decomposition of the total deformation gradient. These definitions are explicitly and uniquely given from the microstructure and do not make use of any unrealizable intermediate configuration. The analysis starts from a semi-continuous mathematical description of the deformation at the microscale, where the displacements are considered continuous everywhere in the domain except at the discrete slip surfaces, over which there is a displacement jump. At this scale, where the microstructure is resolved, the deformation is uniquely characterized from purely kinematic considerations and the elastic and plastic components of the deformation gradient can be defined based on physical arguments. These quantities are then passed to the continuous limit via homogenization, i.e. by increasing the number of slip surfaces to infinity and reducing the lattice parameter to zero. This continuum limit is computed for several illustrative examples, where the well-known multiplicative decomposition of the total deformation gradient is recovered. Additionally, by similar arguments, an expression of the dislocation

  5. Autonomous gliding entry guidance with geographic constraints

    Guo Jie; Wu Xuzhong; Tang Shengjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel three-dimensional autonomous entry guidance for relatively high lift-to-drag ratio vehicles satisfying geographic constraints and other path constraints. The guidance is composed of onboard trajectory planning and robust trajectory tracking. For trajectory planning, a longitudinal sub-planner is introduced to generate a feasible drag-versus-energy profile by using the interpolation between upper boundary and lower boundary of entry corridor to get the desired trajectory length. The associated magnitude of the bank angle can be specified by drag profile, while the sign of bank angle is determined by lateral sub-planner. Two-reverse mode is utilized to satisfy waypoint constraints and dynamic heading error corridor is utilized to satisfy no-fly zone constraints. The longitudinal and lateral sub-planners are iteratively employed until all of the path constraints are satisfied. For trajectory tracking, a novel tracking law based on the active disturbance rejection control is introduced. Finally, adaptability tests and Monte Carlo simulations of the entry guidance approach are performed. Results show that the proposed entry guidance approach can adapt to different entry missions and is able to make the vehicle reach the prescribed target point precisely in spite of geographic constraints.

  6. Upper Limb Assessment in Tetraplegia: Clinical, Functional and Kinematic Correlations

    Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; de Oliveira, Roberta; Ortolan, Rodrigo L.; Varoto, Renato; Cliquet, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and functional evaluations with kinematic variables of upper limp reach-to-grasp movement in patients with tetraplegia. Twenty chronic patients were selected to perform reach-to-grasp kinematic assessment using a target placed at a distance equal to the arm's length. Kinematic variables (hand peak…

  7. A submillimetre survey of the kinematics of the Perseus molecular cloud - III. Clump kinematics

    Curtis, Emily I.; Richer, John S.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the kinematic properties of dense continuum clumps in the Perseus molecular cloud, derived from our wide-field C18O J = 3 → 2 data across four regions - NGC 1333, IC 348/HH 211, L1448 and L1455. Two distinct populations are examined, identified using the automated algorithms CLFIND (85 clumps) and GAUSSCLUMPS (122 clumps) on existing SCUBA 850-μm data. These kinematic signatures are compared to the clumps' dust continuum properties. We calculate each clump's non-thermal linewidth and virial mass from the associated C18O J = 3 → 2 spectrum. The clumps have supersonic linewidths, = 1.76 ± 0.09 (CLFIND population) and 1.71 ± 0.05 (with GAUSSCLUMPS). The linewidth distributions suggest the C18O line probes a lower density `envelope' rather than a dense inner core. Similar linewidth distributions for protostellar and starless clumps imply protostars do not have a significant impact on their immediate environment. The proximity to an active young stellar cluster seems to affect the linewidths: those in NGC 1333 are greater than elsewhere. In IC 348 the proximity to the old infrared cluster has little influence, with the linewidths being the smallest of all. The virial analysis suggests that the clumps are bound and close to equipartition, with virial masses similar to the masses derived from the continuum emission. In particular, the starless clumps occupy the same parameter space as the protostars, suggesting they are true stellar precursors and will go on to form stars. We also search for ordered C18O velocity gradients across the face of each core. Approximately one-third have significant detections, which we mainly interpret in terms of rotation. However, we note a correlation between the directions of the identified gradients and outflows across the protostars, indicating we may not have a purely rotational signature. The fitted gradients are in the range ? to 16 km s-1 pc-1, larger than found in previous work, probably as a result of the higher

  8. Small Scale Parallel Manipulator Kinematics for Flexible Snake Robot Application

    Raisuddin Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A small-scale parallel manipulator is designed in this paper. The kinematic analysis of the manipulator is also elucidated for the development of multilinked snake robot. A compliant central colum is used to connect two parallel platforms of Incompletely Restrained Positioning Mechanism (IRPM. The compliant column allows the configuration to achieve 3 DOFs with 3 tendons of active materials connected between the upper and loer platform of the mechanism. In particular, this investigation focuses on the angular deflection of the upper platform with respect to the lower platform. The application here is aimed at developing an active linkable module that can be connected to one another so as to form a “snake robot” of sorts. For an arbitrary angular displacement of the platforms, the corresponding length of each tendon can be determined through inverse kinematics. From the experimental result, the extreme bending of the central column plane of 30° angular displacement with the of the horizontal axis.

  9. Motor resonance facilitates movement execution: an ERP and kinematic study

    Mathilde Ménoret

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Action observation, simulation and execution share neural mechanisms that allow for a common motor representation. It is known that when these overlapping mechanisms are simultaneously activated by action observation and execution, motor performance is influenced by observation and vice versa. To understand the neural dynamics underlying this influence and to measure how variations in brain activity impact the precise kinematics of motor behaviour, we coupled kinematics and electrophysiological recordings of participants while they performed and observed congruent or non-congruent actions or during action execution alone. We found that movement velocities and the trajectory deviations of the executed actions increased during the observation of congruent actions compared to the observation of non-congruent actions or action execution alone. This facilitation was also discernible in the motor-related potentials of the participants; the motor-related potentials were transiently more negative in the congruent condition around the onset of the executed movement, which occurred 300 ms after the onset of the observed movement. This facilitation seemed to depend not only on spatial congruency but also on the optimal temporal relationship of the observation and execution events.

  10. Observational Constraints on the Disk Size and Kinematics of HD 327083*

    Andruchow, I.; Cidale, L.S.; Chesneau, O.; Kanaan, S.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Kraus, Michaela; Arias, M.L.; Curé, M.; Granada, A.

    San Francisco: Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2012 - (Carciofi, A.), s. 319-322. (ASP Conference Series. 464). ISBN 9781583818107. [Circumstellar Dynamics at High Resolution. Foz do Iguaçu (BR), 27.02.2012-02.03.2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : high angular resolution * observations * B[e] supergiant HD 327083 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  11. New kinematic constraints of the western Doruneh fault, northeastern Iran, from interseismic deformation analysis

    Pezzo, Giuseppe; Tolomei, Cristiano; Atzori, Simone; Salvi, Stefano; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Bellier, Olivier; Farbod, Yassaman

    2012-07-01

    We used the SBAS DInSAR analysis technique to estimate the interseismic deformation along the western part of the Doruneh fault system (DFS), northeastern Iran. We processed 90 ENVISAT images from four different frames from ascending and descending orbits. Three of the ground velocity maps show a significant interseismic signal. Using a simple dislocation approach we model 2-D velocity profiles concerning three InSAR data set relative to the western part of the DFS, obtaining a good fit to the observations. The resulting model indicates that a slip rate of ˜5 mm yr-1 accumulates on the fault below 10 km depth, and that in its western sector the Doruneh fault is not purely strike-slip (left-lateral) as in its central part, but shows a significant thrust component. Based on published geological observations, and assuming that all interseismic deformation is recovered with a single event, we can estimate a characteristic recurrence interval between 630 and 1400 yr.

  12. InSAR constraints on the kinematics and magnitude of the 2001 Bhuj earthquake

    Schmidt, D.; Bürgmann, R.

    2005-12-01

    The Mw 7.6 Bhuj intraplate event occurred along a blind thrust within the Kutch Rift basin of western India in January of 2001. The lack of any surface rupture and limited geodetic data have made it difficult to place the event on a known fault and constrain its source parameters. Moment tensor solutions and aftershock relocations indicate that the earthquake was a reverse event along an east-west striking, south dipping fault. In an effort to image the surface deformation, we have processed a total of 9 interferograms that span the coseismic event. Interferometry has proven difficult for the region because of technical difficulties experienced by the ERS Satellite around the time of the earthquake and because of low coherence. The stabilization of the orbital control by the European Space Agency beginning in 2002 has allowed us to interfere more recent SAR data with pre-earthquake data. Therefore, all available interferograms of the event include the first year of any postseismic deformation. The source region is characterized by broad floodplains interrupted by isolated highlands. Coherence is limited to the surrounding highlands and no data is available directly over the epicenter. Using the InSAR data along two descending and one ascending tracks, we perform a gridded search for the optimal source parameters of the earthquake. The deformation pattern is modeled assuming uniform slip on an elastic dislocation. Since the highland regions are discontinuous, the coherent InSAR phase is isolated to several individual patches. For each iteration of the gridded search algorithm, we optimize the fit to the data by solving for number of 2π phase cycles between coherent patches and the orbital gradient across each interferogram. Since the look angle varies across a SAR scene, a variable unit vector is calculated for each track. Inversion results place the center of the fault plane at 70.33° E/23.42° N at a depth of 21 km, and are consistent with the strike and dip suggested by the relocated aftershocks. The data also constrain the magnitude, rake, and finiteness of the event.

  13. Collective behaviour of self-propelling particles with conservative kinematic constraints

    Ratushna, Valeriya Igorivna

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I considered the dynamics of self-propelling particles (SPP). Flocking of living organisms like birds, fishes, ants, bacteria etc. is an area where the theory of the collective behaviour of SPP can be applied. One can often see how these animals develop coherent motion, amazing the ob

  14. Constraints on kinematic model from recent cosmic observations: SN Ia, BAO and observational Hubble data

    In this paper, linear first order expansion of deceleration parameter q(z) = q0+q1(1−a) (M1), constant jerk j = j0 (M2) and third order expansion of luminosity distance (M3) are confronted with cosmic observations: SCP 307 SN Ia, BAO and observational Hubble data (OHD). Likelihood is implemented to find the best fit model parameters. All these models give the same prediction of the evolution of the universe which is undergoing accelerated expansion currently and experiences a transition from decelerated expansion to accelerated expansion. But, the transition redshift depends on the concrete parameterized form of the model assumed. M1 and M2 give value of transition redshift about zt ∼ 0.6. M3 gives a larger one, say zt ∼ 1. The χ2/dof implies almost the same goodness of the models. But, for its badness of evolution of deceleration parameter at high redshift z > 1, M3 can not be reliable. M1 and M2 are compatible with ΛCDM model at the 2σ and 1σ confidence levels respectively. M3 is not compatible with ΛCDM model at 2σ confidence level. From M1 and M2 models, one can conclude that the cosmic data favor a cosmological model having j0 < −1

  15. The Lyman alpha reference sample. VII. Spatially resolved Hα kinematics

    Herenz, Edmund Christian; Gruyters, Pieter; Orlitova, Ivana; Hayes, Matthew; Östlin, Göran; Cannon, John M.; Roth, Martin M.; Bik, Arjan; Pardy, Stephen; Otí-Floranes, Héctor; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter; Melinder, Jens; Puschnig, Johannes; Rivera-Thorsen, Thøger E.; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne

    2016-03-01

    We present integral field spectroscopic observations with the Potsdam Multi-Aperture Spectrophotometer of all 14 galaxies in the z ~ 0.1 Lyman Alpha Reference Sample (LARS). We produce 2D line-of-sight velocity maps and velocity dispersion maps from the Balmer α (Hα) emission in our data cubes. These maps trace the spectral and spatial properties of the LARS galaxies' intrinsic Lyα radiation field. We show our kinematic maps that are spatially registered onto the Hubble Space Telescope Hα and Lyman α (Lyα) images. We can conjecture a causal connection between spatially resolved Hα kinematics and Lyα photometry for individual galaxies, however, no general trend can be established for the whole sample. Furthermore, we compute the intrinsic velocity dispersion σ0, the shearing velocity vshear, and the vshear/σ0 ratio from our kinematic maps. In general LARS galaxies are characterised by high intrinsic velocity dispersions (54 km s-1 median) and low shearing velocities (65 km s-1 median). The vshear/σ0 values range from 0.5 to 3.2 with an average of 1.5. It is noteworthy that five galaxies of the sample are dispersion-dominated systems with vshear/σ0 1. Our result indicates that turbulence in actively star-forming systems is causally connected to interstellar medium conditions that favour an escape of Lyα radiation. Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto, operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC).The reduced data cubes (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A78

  16. Kinematics of treadmill locomotion in mice raised in hypergravity.

    Bojados, Mickael; Herbin, Marc; Jamon, Marc

    2013-05-01

    The study compared the motor performance of adult C57Bl/6J mice previously exposed to a 2G gravity environment during different periods of their development. 12 mice were housed in a large diameter centrifuge from the conception to Postnatal day 10 (P10). Another group of 10 mice was centrifuged form P10 to P30, and a third group of 9 mice was centrifuged from conception to P30. Their gait parameters, and kinematics of joint excursions were compared with 11 control mice, at the age of 2 months using a video-radiographic apparatus connected to a motorized treadmill. The mice that returned to Earth gravity level at the age of P10 showed a motor pattern similar to control mice. At variance the two groups that were centrifuged from P10 to P30 showed a different motor pattern with smaller and faster strides to walk at the same velocity as controls. On the other hand all the centrifuged mice showed significant postural changes, particularly with a more extended ankle joint, but the mice centrifuged during the whole experimental period differed even more. Our results showed that the exposure to hypergravity before P10 sufficed to modify the posture, suggesting that postural control starts before the onset of locomotion, whereas the gravity constraint perceived between P10 and P30 conditioned the tuning of quadruped locomotion with long term consequences. These results support the existence of a critical period in the acquisition of locomotion in mice. PMID:23352767

  17. Kinematics and trajectory synthesis of manipulation robots

    Vukobratović, Miomir

    1986-01-01

    A few words about the series "Scientific Fundamentals of Robotics" should be said on the occasion of publication of the present monograph. This six-volume series has been conceived so as to allow the readers to master a contemporary approach to the construction and synthesis of con­ trol for manipulation ~obots. The authors' idea was to show how to use correct mathematical models of the dynamics of active spatial mecha­ nisms for dynamic analysis of robotic systems, optimal design of their mechanical parts based on the accepted criteria and imposed constraints, optimal choice of actuators, synthesis of dynamic control algorithms and their microcomputer implementation. In authors' oppinion this idea has been relatively successfully realized within the six-volume mono­ graphic series. Let us remind the readers of the books of this series. Volumes 1 and 2 are devoted to the dynamics and control algorithms of manipulation ro­ bots, respectively. They form the first part of the series which has a certain topic...

  18. Segmentation with Area Constraints

    Niethammer, Marc; Zach, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Image segmentation approaches typically incorporate weak regularity conditions such as boundary length or curvature terms, or use shape information. High-level information such as a desired area or volume, or a particular topology are only implicitly specified. In this paper we develop a segmentation method with explicit bounds on the segmented area. Area constraints allow for the soft selection of meaningful solutions, and can counteract the shrinking bias of length-based regularization. We ...

  19. Overcoming Participation Constraints

    Hanming Fang; Peter Norman

    2005-01-01

    In incomplete information environments with transferable utility, efficient outcomes are generally implementable unless interim or ex post participation constraints are imposed on the problem. In this paper we show that linking a sufficiently large number of independent but possibly unrelated social decisions, a slightly perturbed Groves mechanism can implement an efficient outcome with probability arbitrarily close to one, while respecting all participation, incentive and balanced budget con...

  20. System reliability analysis for kinematic performance of planar mechanisms

    ZHANG YiMin; HUANG XianZhen; ZHANG XuFang; HE XiangDong; WEN BangChun

    2009-01-01

    Based on the reliability and mechanism kinematic accuracy theories, we propose a general methodology for system reliability analysis of kinematic performance of planar mechanisms. The loop closure equations are used to estimate the kinematic performance errors of planar mechanisms. Reliability and system reliability theories are introduced to develop the limit state functions (LSF) for failure of kinematic performance qualities. The statistical fourth moment method and the Edgeworth series technique are used on system reliability analysis for kinematic performance of planar mechanisms, which relax the restrictions of probability distribution of design variables. Finally, the practicality, efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical examples.

  1. Towards a better understanding of foot and ankle kinematics in rheumatoid arthritis : the effects of walking speed and structural impairments

    Dubbeldam, Rosemary

    2012-01-01

    From an early stage of the disease 40% to 60% of the Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients suffer from walking impairments such as pain, diminished mobility and problems with daily activities. With the recent development of optical recording technologies and detailed foot and ankle computer models, typical RA foot and ankle kinematic measures have been assessed and reported. However, the relationships between kinematics and walking impairments or pathological changes of foot and ankle structures...

  2. The NCL natural constraint language

    Zhou, Jianyang

    2012-01-01

    This book presents the Natural Constraint Language (NCL) language, a description language in conventional mathematical logic for modeling and solving constraint satisfaction problems. It uses illustrations and tutorials to detail NCL and its applications.

  3. Franco-Japanese Research Collaboration on Constraint Programming

    Benhamou, Frédéric; Ceberio, Martine; Codognet, Philippe; Hosobe, Hiroshi; Jermann, Christophe; Satoh, Ken; Ueda, Kazunori

    2006-01-01

    Constraint programming is an emergent technology that allows modeling and solving various problems in many areas such as artificial intelligence, computer programming, computer-aided design, computer graphics, and user interfaces. In this report, we provide recent activities of research collaboration on constraint programming conducted by the authors and other researchers in France and Japan. First, we outline our joint research projects on constraint programming, and then present the backgro...

  4. Kinematic measurements using an infrared sensor

    Marinho, F

    2016-01-01

    The use of an infrared sensor as a new alternative to measure position as a function of time in kinematic experiments was investigated using a microcontroller as data acquisition and control device. These are versatile sensors that offer advantages over the typical ultrasound devices. The setup described in this paper enables students to develop their own experiments promoting opportunities for learning physical concepts such as the different types of forces that can act on a body (gravitational, elastic, drag, etc.) and the resulting types of movements with good sensitivity within the $\\rm 4-30~cm$ range. As proof of concept we also present the application of a prototype designed to record the kinematics of mass-spring systems.

  5. 6th International Workshop on Computational Kinematics

    Gracia, Alba

    2014-01-01

    Computational kinematics is an enthralling area of science with a rich spectrum of problems at the junction of mechanics, robotics, computer science, mathematics, and computer graphics. The covered topics include design and optimization of cable-driven robots, analysis of parallel manipulators, motion planning, numerical methods for mechanism calibration and optimization, geometric approaches to mechanism analysis and design, synthesis of mechanisms, kinematical issues in biomechanics, construction of novel mechanical devices, as well as detection and treatment of singularities. The results should be of interest for practicing and research engineers as well as Ph.D. students from the fields of mechanical and electrical engineering, computer science, and computer graphics. Indexed in Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S).

  6. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  7. Plasma electron-hole kinematics: momentum conservation

    Hutchinson, I H

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, that behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside it, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.

  8. Quantum gravity kinematics from extended TQFTs

    Dittrich, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    We show how extended topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) can be used to obtain a kinematical setup for quantum gravity, i.e. a kinematical Hilbert space together with a representation of the observable algebra including operators of quantum geometry. In particular, we consider the holonomy-flux algebra of (2+1)-dimensional Euclidean loop quantum gravity, and construct a new representation of this algebra that incorporates a positive cosmological constant. The vacuum state underlying our representation is defined by the Turaev-Viro TQFT. We therefore construct here a generalization, or more precisely a quantum deformation at root of unity, of the previously-introduced SU(2) BF representation. The extended Turaev-Viro TQFT provides a description of the excitations on top of the vacuum, which are essential to allow for a representation of the holonomies and fluxes. These excitations agree with the ones induced by massive and spinning particles, and therefore the framework presented here allows automatical...

  9. A Kinematical Calibration of the Galactocentric Distance

    Ming Shen; Zi Zhu

    2007-01-01

    We present a new determination of the Galactocentric distance by a pure kinematical model. Two subgroups of components from the Galactic thin disk, the O-B5 stars and the Galactic open clusters, were selected for our analysis. On the basis of kinematical data of around 1200 O-B5 stars, we obtained an estimated value of R0=8.25±0.79 kpc, while a similar evaluation from 270 Galactic open clusters gives R0=7.95±0.62 kpc. Considering the scatter of R0 given by individual investigators with different methods, our present determinations agree well with the best value proposed by Reid.

  10. Kinematic Analysis of a Hybrid Structure

    Duan Q.J.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kinematic analysis and simulation of a hybrid structure applied to the new design cable‐suspended feed structure (CSFS for the next generation of large spherical radio telescopes. First, considering the requirement that feeds should be tilted from 40° to 60° and that the tracking precision in steady state is 4mm, a novel design of the feed supporting structure including a cable‐cabin structure, an AB axis structure and a Stewart platform is performed. Next, kinematic analysis and the simulation of the CSFS are done. Simulations have been developed in combination with the 50m CSFS model, which demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed three‐level cable‐suspended feed system.

  11. The kinematic component of the cosmological redshift

    Chodorowski, Michał

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift. However, Bunn & Hogg have recently pointed out that to settle properly this problem, one has to transport parallelly the velocity four-vector of a distant galaxy to the observer's position. Performing such a transport along the null geodesic of photons arriving from the galaxy, they found that the cosmological redshift is purely kinematic. Here we argue that one should rather transport the velocity four-vector along the geodesic connecting the points of intersection of the world-lines of the galaxy and the observer with the hypersurface of constant COSMIC TIME. We find that the resulting relation between the transported velocity and the redshift of arriving photons is NOT given by a relativistic Doppler formula. Instead, for small redshifts it coincides with the well known non-relativistic decomposition of the redshift into a Doppler (kinematic) component and a gravitational component. We perform such a decomposition for arbitrar...

  12. Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution

    Moulton, Derek E.

    2012-11-18

    A mathematical framework is developed to model the kinematics of surface growth for objects that can be generated by evolving a curve in space, such as seashells and horns. Growth is dictated by a growth velocity vector field defined at every point on a generating curve. A local orthonormal basis is attached to each point of the generating curve and the velocity field is given in terms of the local coordinate directions, leading to a fully local and elegant mathematical structure. Several examples of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying growth process. Direct access to cell tracks and local orientation enables for connections to be made to the underlying growth process. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  13. A classification of finite quantum kinematics

    Quantum mechanics in Hilbert spaces of finite dimension N is reviewed from the number theoretic point of view. For composite numbers N possible quantum kinematics are classified on the basis of Mackey's Imprimitivity Theorem for finite Abelian groups. This yields also a classification of finite Weyl-Heisenberg groups and the corresponding finite quantum kinematics. Simple number theory gets involved through the fundamental theorem describing all finite discrete Abelian groups of order N as direct products of cyclic groups, whose orders are powers of not necessarily distinct primes contained in the prime decomposition of N. The representation theoretic approach is further compared with the algebraic approach, where the basic object is the corresponding operator algebra. The consideration of fine gradings of this associative algebra then brings a fresh look on the relation between the mathematical formalism and physical realizations of finite quantum systems

  14. The kinematic origin of the cosmological redshift

    Bunn, Emory F

    2008-01-01

    A common belief among cosmologists is that the cosmological redshift cannot be properly viewed as a Doppler shift (that is, as evidence for a recession velocity), but must instead be viewed in terms of the stretching of space. We argue that the most natural interpretation of the redshift is in fact as a Doppler shift, or rather as the accumulation of many infinitesimal Doppler shifts. The stretching-of-space interpretation obscures a central idea of relativity, namely that of coordinate freedom, specifically the idea that it is always valid to choose a coordinate system that is locally Minkowski. We show that, in any spacetime, an observed frequency shift can be interpreted either as a kinematic (Doppler) shift or a gravitational shift by imagining a family of observers along the photon's path. In the context of the expanding Universe, the kinematic interpretation corresponds to a family of comoving observers and hence seems to be the more natural one.

  15. Kinematical uniqueness of homogeneous isotropic LQC

    Engle, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    In a paper by Ashtekar and Campiglia, invariance under volume preserving residual diffeomorphisms has been used to single out the standard representation of the reduced holonomy-flux algebra in homogeneous loop quantum cosmology (LQC). In this paper, we use invariance under all residual diffeomorphisms to single out the standard kinematical Hilbert space of homogeneous isotropic LQC for both the standard configuration space $\\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$, as well as for the Fleischhack one $\\mathbb{R} \\sqcup \\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$. We first determine the scale invariant Radon measures on these spaces, and then show that the Haar measure on $\\mathbb{R}_{\\mathrm{Bohr}}$ is the only such measure for which the momentum operator is hermitian w.r.t. the corresponding inner product. In particular, the measure is forced to be identically zero on $\\mathbb{R}$ in the Fleischhack case, so that for both approaches, the standard kinematical LQC-Hilbert space is singled out.

  16. Knee Kinematics Estimation Using Multi-Body Optimisation Embedding a Knee Joint Stiffness Matrix: A Feasibility Study

    Richard, Vincent; Lamberto, Giuliano; Lu, Tung-Wu; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    The use of multi-body optimisation (MBO) to estimate joint kinematics from stereophotogrammetric data while compensating for soft tissue artefact is still open to debate. Presently used joint models embedded in MBO, such as mechanical linkages, constitute a considerable simplification of joint function, preventing a detailed understanding of it. The present study proposes a knee joint model where femur and tibia are represented as rigid bodies connected through an elastic element the behaviour of which is described by a single stiffness matrix. The deformation energy, computed from the stiffness matrix and joint angles and displacements, is minimised within the MBO. Implemented as a “soft” constraint using a penalty-based method, this elastic joint description challenges the strictness of “hard” constraints. In this study, estimates of knee kinematics obtained using MBO embedding four different knee joint models (i.e., no constraints, spherical joint, parallel mechanism, and elastic joint) were compared against reference kinematics measured using bi-planar fluoroscopy on two healthy subjects ascending stairs. Bland-Altman analysis and sensitivity analysis investigating the influence of variations in the stiffness matrix terms on the estimated kinematics substantiate the conclusions. The difference between the reference knee joint angles and displacements and the corresponding estimates obtained using MBO embedding the stiffness matrix showed an average bias and standard deviation for kinematics of 0.9±3.2° and 1.6±2.3 mm. These values were lower than when no joint constraints (1.1±3.8°, 2.4±4.1 mm) or a parallel mechanism (7.7±3.6°, 1.6±1.7 mm) were used and were comparable to the values obtained with a spherical joint (1.0±3.2°, 1.3±1.9 mm). The study demonstrated the feasibility of substituting an elastic joint for more classic joint constraints in MBO. PMID:27314586

  17. Terrain modelling by kinematical GPS survey

    Nico, G.; P. Rutigliano; Benedetto, C.; F. Vespe

    2005-01-01

    This work presents the first results of an experiment aiming to derive a high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM) by kinematic GPS surveying. The accuracy of the DTM depends on both the operational GPS precision and the density of GPS samples. The operational GPS precision, measured in the field, is about 10cm. A Monte Carlo analysis is performed to study the dependence of the DTM error on the sampling procedure. The outcome of this analysis is that the accuracy of the to...

  18. Analyzing Robotic Kinematics Via Computed Simulations

    Carnahan, Timothy M.

    1992-01-01

    Computing system assists in evaluation of kinematics of conceptual robot. Displays positions and motions of robotic manipulator within work cell. Also displays interactions between robotic manipulator and other objects. Results of simulation displayed on graphical computer workstation. System includes both off-the-shelf software originally developed for automotive industry and specially developed software. Simulation system also used to design human-equivalent hand, to model optical train in infrared system, and to develop graphical interface for teleoperator simulation system.

  19. Scapulothoracic kinematics during tennis forehand drive

    ROGOWSKI, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; CHEZE, Laurence; Dumas, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Scapular dyskinesis is recognized as an abnormality in the kinetic chain; yet, there has been little research quantifying scapular motion during sport tasks. Tennis forehand drives of eight highly skilled tennis players were studied to assess the scapulothoracic kinematics and evaluate repeatability using video-based motion analysis. Scapulothoracic downward/upward rotation, posterior/anterior tilt, and internal/external rotation were computed using an acromial marker cluster. On average, the...

  20. Kinematics of Hooke universal joint robot wrists

    Mckinney, William S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The singularity problem associated with wrist mechanisms commonly found on industrial manipulators can be alleviated by redesigning the wrist so that it functions as a three-axis gimbal system. This paper discussess the kinematics of gimbal robot wrists made of one and two Hooke universal joints. Derivations of the resolved rate motion control equations for the single and double Hooke universal joint wrists are presented using the three-axis gimbal system as a theoretical wrist model.

  1. Modelling of Bipedal Robot : Kinematical Numerical Models

    Grepl, Robert

    Brno: VUT Brno, FSI ÚMTMB, 2005 - (Houfek, L.; Šlechtová, M.; Náhlík, L.; Fuis, V.), s. 27-29 ISBN 80-214-2373-0. [International Scientific Conference Applied mechanics 2005 /7./. Hrotovice (CZ), 29.03.2005-01.04.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : kinematics of robot * walking robot Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics

  2. Memoization in Constraint Logic Programming

    Johnson, Mark

    1994-01-01

    This paper shows how to apply memoization (caching of subgoals and associated answer substitutions) in a constraint logic programming setting. The research is is motivated by the desire to apply constraint logic programming (CLP) to problems in natural language processing that involve (constraint) interleaving or coroutining, such as GB and HPSG parsing.

  3. Kinematics of Straight Right Punch in Boxing

    Mahdi Cheraghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe biomechanical parameters of head, upper and lower body extremities during a straight right punch throw related to performance and injury mechanism. Subjects were eight elite right-handed male (age 20.4 ± 2.1yrs; height 177.4 ± 8.5 cm; mass 70.4 ± 16.8 kg amateur boxers. 3D motion analysis was used to assess the kinematics of the right side extremities and head. Ensemble averaging of time normalized kinematic parameters was used to have better visual inspection. Results showed a similar pattern between subjects with some considerable variation in some parameters that pointed out to individualized pattern in elite boxers. Investigation of lower body joints kinematics explained boxers throw punch using leg drive. Stretch-shortening cycle detected in the technique implies potential for performance enhancing using plyometrics. Head velocity measured in anterior-posterior and medial-lateral direction would intensify potential head injuries.

  4. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    Gabriela C.A. Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female, aged between 2 and 4 years, weighing 21.5 to 28 kg, clinically normal. Flexion and extension were described for shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, femorotibialis and tarsal joints. The gait was characterized lateral and had accepted hypothesis of normality for all variables, except for the stance of hip and elbow, considering a confidence level of 95%, significance level α = 0.05. Variations have been attributed to displacement of the stripes during movement and the duplicated number of reviews. The kinematic analysis proved to be a consistent method of evaluation of the movement during canine gait and the data can be used in the diagnosis and evaluation of canine gait in comparison to other studies and treatment of dogs with musculoskeletal disorders.

  5. Brain dopamine and kinematics of graphomotor functions.

    Lange, Klaus W; Mecklinger, Lara; Walitza, Susanne; Becker, Georg; Gerlach, Manfred; Naumann, Markus; Tucha, Oliver

    2006-10-01

    Three experiments were performed in an attempt to achieve a better understanding of the effect of dopamine on handwriting. In the first experiment, kinematic aspects of handwriting movements were compared between healthy participants and patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) on their usual dopaminergic treatment and following withdrawal of dopaminergic medication. In the second experiment, the writing performance of healthy participants with a hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra as detected by transcranial sonography (TCS) was compared with the performance of healthy participants with low echogenicity of the substantia nigra. The third experiment examined the effect of central dopamine reduction on kinematic aspects of handwriting movements in healthy adults using acute phenylalanine and tyrosine depletion (APTD). A digitising tablet was used for the assessment of handwriting movements. Participants were asked to perform a simple writing task. Movement time, distance, velocity, acceleration and measures of fluency of handwriting movements were measured. The kinematic analysis of handwriting movements revealed that alterations of central dopaminergic neurotransmission adversely affect movement execution during handwriting. In comparison to the automatic processing of handwriting movements displayed by control participants, participants with an altered dopaminergic neurotransmission shifted from an automatic to a controlled processing of movement execution. Central dopamine appears to be of particular importance with regard to the automatic execution of well-learned movements. PMID:16859791

  6. A CP-Violating Kinematic Structure

    Ahluwalia, D V

    2000-01-01

    A CP violating kinematic structure is presented. The essential physical input is to question the textbook wisdom, ``Now when a particle is at rest, one cannot define its spin as either left- or right-handed, so phi_R(0) = phi_L(0),'' as found, e.g., in Lewis Ryder's Quantum Field Theory, and in many other books on the representations of the Lorentz group. It is suggested that this equality is true only up to a phase. The demand of C, P, and T covariances, separately, fixes this phase to be pm 1. If these conditions are relaxed, a natural CP-violating kinematic structure emerges. Having established a CP-violating kinematic structure, we then discuss how Planck scale physics necessarily invokes non-commutative space-time and that such changes in the structure of space-time will force upon us additional violations/deformations of the CPT structure of space-time, and a violation of the principle of equivalence via a violation of the Lorentz symmetries. The latter may carry significant consequences for understandi...

  7. Scapula Kinematics of Youth Baseball Players

    Oliver Gretchen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152.4 + 9.0 cm; body mass 47.5 + 11.3 kg, with no history of injury, participated in the study. Scapular kinematics at the events of maximum humeral external rotation (MER and maximum humeral internal rotation (MIR during the pitching motion were assessed three-dimensionally while pitching fastballs for strikes. Results revealed that at the event of MER, the scapula was in a position of retraction, upward rotation and a posterior tilt. While at the event of MIR, the scapula was protracted, upward rotated and tilted anteriorly.

  8. Resolved rate and torque control schemes for large scale space based kinematically redundant manipulators

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.

    1991-01-01

    Resolved rate control of kinematically redundant ground based manipulators is a challenging problem. The structural, actuator, and control loop frequency characteristics of industrial grade robots generally allow operation with resolved rate control; a rate command is achievable with good accuracy. However, space based manipulators are different, typically have less structural stiffness, more motor and joint friction, and lower control loop cycle frequencies. These undesirable characteristics present a considerable Point of Resolution (POR) control problem for space based, kinematically redundant manipulators for the following reason: a kinematically redundant manipulator requires an arbitrary constraint to solve for the joint rate commands. A space manipulator will not respond to joint rate commands because of these characteristics. A space based manipulator simulation, including free end rigid body dynamics, motor dynamics, motor striction/friction, gearbox backlash, joint striction/friction, and Space Station Remote Manipulator System type configuration parameters, is used to evaluate the performance of a documented resolved rate control law. Alternate schemes which include torque control are also evaluated.

  9. The Incidence, Geometry, and Kinematics of Extraplanar Gas in MaNGA Galaxies

    Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; MaNGA Team

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of star formation in galaxies is regulated by the cycle of accretion and feedback processes in the circumgalactic medium. The geometry, kinematics, and multi-phase structure of circumgalactic gas are not well predicted by numerical simulations, so there is motivation to characterize these properties empirically by observing ionized gas around galaxies in both emission and absorption. Absorption-line studies are quite sensitive to diffuse gas at low column densities, but they are limited in scope because they require bright background sources, which are rare and offer pencil-beam probes of gas properties for individual galaxies. A complementary approach is to use optical emission lines to study extraplanar diffuse ionized gas, which can trace the spatial extent and kinematics of outflowing and inflowing gas. Using the unique dataset of spatially resolved spectroscopy from MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory), we are developing techniques to identify galaxies with extraplanar gas on the basis of optical emission lines that extend above and below the plane of disk galaxies. Our initial results suggest that extraplanar gas is quite common among galaxies in the MaNGA sample, particularly among star-forming galaxies with inclination angles greater than 45 degrees, for which it is more straightforward to separate extraplanar gas from emission associated with the disk. These results on the incidence, geometry, and kinematics of extraplanar gas as a function of global galaxy properties provide important constraints on models of accretion and feedback in the circumgalactic medium.

  10. TP-Space RRT – Kinematic Path Planning of Non-Holonomic Any-Shape Vehicles

    Jose Luis Blanco

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The autonomous navigation of vehicles typically combines two kinds of methods: a path is first planned, and then the robot is driven by a local obstacle-avoidance controller. The present work, which focuses on path planning, proposes an extension to the well-known rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT algorithm to allow its integration with a trajectory parameter-space (TP-space as an efficient method to detect collision-free, kinematically feasible paths for arbitrarily-shaped vehicles. In contrast to original RRT, this proposal generates navigation trees, with poses as nodes, whose edges are all kinematically-feasible paths, suitable to being accurately followed by vehicles driven by pure reactive algorithms. Initial experiments demonstrate the suitability of the method with an Ackermann-steering vehicle model whose severe kinematic constraints cannot be obviated. An important result that sets this work apart from previous research is the finding that employing several families of potential trajectories to expand the tree, which can be done efficiently under the TP-space formalism, improves the optimality of the planned trajectories. A reference C++ implementation has been released as open-source.

  11. The Stellar Kinematic Fields of NGC 3379

    Statler, Thomas S.; Smecker-Hane, Tammy

    1999-02-01

    We have measured the stellar kinematic profiles of NGC 3379 along four position angles, using absorption lines in spectra obtained with the Multiple Mirror Telescope. We derive a far more detailed description of the kinematic fields through the main body of the galaxy than could be obtained from previous work. Our data extend 90" from the center, at essentially seeing-limited resolution out to 17". The derived mean velocities and dispersions have total errors (internal and systematic) better than +/-10 km s^-1, and frequently better than 5 km s^-1, out to 55". We find very weak (3 km s^-1) rotation on the minor axis interior to 12" and no detectable rotation above 6 km s^-1 from 12" to 50" or above 16 km s^-1 out to 90" (95% confidence limits). However, a Fourier reconstruction of the mean velocity field from all four sampled PAs does indicate a ~5 deg twist of the kinematic major axis, in the direction opposite to the known isophotal twist. The h_3 and h_4 parameters are found to be generally small over the entire observed region. The azimuthally averaged dispersion profile joins smoothly at large radii with the velocity dispersions of planetary nebulae. Unexpectedly, we find sharp bends in the major axis rotation curve, also visible (though less pronounced) on the diagonal position angles. The outermost bend closely coincides in position with other sharp kinematic features: an abrupt flattening of the dispersion profile, and local peaks in h_3 and h_4. All of these features are in a photometrically interesting region in which the surface brightness profile departs significantly from an r^1/4 law. Features such as these are not generally known in elliptical galaxies owing to a lack of data at comparable resolution. Very similar behavior, however, is seen the kinematics of the edge-on S0 galaxy NGC 3115. We discuss the suggestion that NGC 3379 could be a misclassified S0 galaxy; preliminary results from dynamical modeling indicate that it may be a flattened, weakly

  12. Treatment of Photon Radiation in Kinematic Fits at Future e+ e- Colliders

    Beckmann, Moritz; List, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Kinematic fitting, where constraints such as energy and momentum conservation are imposed on measured four-vectors of jets and leptons, is an important tool to improve the resolution in high-energy physics experiments. At future e+ e- colliders, photon radiation parallel to the beam carrying away large amounts of energy and momentum will become a challenge for kinematic fitting. A photon with longitudinal momentum p_z^\\gamma (\\eta) is introduced, which is parametrized such that \\eta ~follows a normal distribution. In the fit, \\eta ~is treated as having a measured value of zero, which corresponds to p_z^\\gamma (\\eta)=0. As a result, fits with constraints on energy and momentum conservation converge well even in the presence of a highly energetic photon, while the resolution of fits without such a photon is retained. A fully simulated and reconstructed e+ e- -> qqqq event sample at \\sqrt{s}=500 GeV is used to investigate the performance of this method under realistic conditions, as expected at the International...

  13. Treatment of photon radiation in kinematic fits at future e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Beckmann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); List, B., E-mail: Benno.List@desy.d [University of Hamburg, Institute for Experimental Physics, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); List, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-12-01

    Kinematic fitting, where constraints such as energy and momentum conservation are imposed on measured four-vectors of jets and leptons, is an important tool to improve the resolution in high-energy physics experiments. At future e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders, photon radiation parallel to the beam carrying away large amounts of energy and momentum will become a challenge for kinematic fitting. A photon with longitudinal momentum p{sub z,{gamma}({eta})} is introduced, which is parametrized such that {eta} follows a normal distribution. In the fit, {eta} is treated as having a measured value of zero, which corresponds to p{sub z,{gamma}=}0. As a result, fits with constraints on energy and momentum conservation converge well even in the presence of a highly energetic photon, while the resolution of fits without such a photon is retained. A fully simulated and reconstructed e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}qq-bar qq-bar event sample at {radical}(s)=500GeV is used to investigate the performance of this method under realistic conditions, as expected at the International Linear Collider.

  14. Treatment of photon radiation in kinematics fits at future e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders

    Beckmann, M.; List, J. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); List, B. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    2010-05-15

    Kinematic fitting, where constraints such as energy and momentum conservation are imposed on measured four-vectors of jets and leptons, is an important tool to improve the resolution in high-energy physics experiments. At future e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders, photon radiation parallel to the beam carrying away large amounts of energy and momentum will become a challenge for kinematic fitting. A photon with longitudinal momentum p{sub z,{gamma}} ({eta}) is introduced, which is parametrized such that {eta} follows a normal distribution. In the fit, {eta} is treated as having a measured value of zero, which corresponds to p{sub z,{gamma}}, = 0. As a result, fits with constraints on energy and momentum conservation converge well even in the presence of a highly energetic photon, while the resolution of fits without such a photon is retained. A fully simulated and reconstructed e{sup +}e{sup -}{yields}q anti qq anti q event sample at {radical}(s)=500 GeV is used to investigate the performance of this method under realistic conditions, as expected at the International Linear Collider. (orig.)

  15. APOGEE Kinematics I: Overview of the Kinematics of the Galactic Bulge as Mapped by APOGEE

    Ness, M; Johnson, J A; Athanassoula, E; Majewski, S R; Perez, A E Garcia; Bird, J; Nidever, D; Schneider, Donald P; Sobeck, J; Frinchaboy, P; Pan, Kaike; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Oravetz, Daniel; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar kinematics across the Galactic bulge and into the disk at positive longitudes from the SDSS-III APOGEE spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way. APOGEE includes extensive coverage of the stellar populations of the bulge along the mid-plane and near-plane regions. From these data, we have produced kinematic maps of 10,000 stars across longitudes 0 deg -0.5 have dispersion and rotation profiles that are similar to that of N-body models of boxy/peanut bulges. There is a smooth kinematic transition from the thin bar and boxy bulge (l,|b|) -1.0, and the chemodynamics across (l,b) suggests the stars in the inner Galaxy with [Fe/H] > -1.0 have an origin in the disk.

  16. Constraints on Rindler Hydrodynamics

    Meyer, Adiel

    2013-01-01

    We study uncharged Rindler hydrodynamics at second order in the derivative expansion. The equation of state of the theory is given by a vanishing equilibrium energy density. We derive relations among the transport coefficients by employing two frameworks. First, by the requirement of having an entropy current with a non-negative divergence, second by studying the thermal partition function on stationary backgrounds. The relations derived by these two methods are consistent with each other. However, we find that the entropy current yields stronger constraints than the thermal partition function. We verify the results by studying explicit examples in flat and curved space-time geometries.

  17. Temporal Concurrent Constraint Programming

    Valencia, Frank Dan

    Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a formalism for concurrency in which agents interact with one another by telling (adding) and asking (reading) information in a shared medium. Temporal ccp extends ccp by allowing agents to be constrained by time conditions. This dissertation studies...... structures, robotic devises, multi-agent systems and music applications. The calculus is provided with a denotational semantics that captures the reactive computations of processes in the presence of arbitrary environments. The denotation is proven to be fully-abstract for a substantial fragment...

  18. How realistic are flat-ramp-flat fault kinematic models? Comparing mechanical and kinematic models

    Cruz, L.; Nevitt, J. M.; Hilley, G. E.; Seixas, G.

    2015-12-01

    Rock within the upper crust appears to deform according to elasto-plastic constitutive rules, but structural geologists often employ kinematic descriptions that prescribe particle motions irrespective of these physical properties. In this contribution, we examine the range of constitutive properties that are approximately implied by kinematic models by comparing predicted deformations between mechanical and kinematic models for identical fault geometric configurations. Specifically, we use the ABAQUS finite-element package to model a fault-bend-fold geometry using an elasto-plastic constitutive rule (the elastic component is linear and the plastic failure occurs according to a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion). We varied physical properties in the mechanical model (i.e., Young's modulus, Poisson ratio, cohesion yield strength, internal friction angle, sliding friction angle) to determine the impact of each on the observed deformations, which were then compared to predictions of kinematic models parameterized with identical geometries. We found that a limited sub-set of physical properties were required to produce deformations that were similar to those predicted by the kinematic models. Specifically, mechanical models with low cohesion are required to allow the kink at the bottom of the flat-ramp geometry to remain stationary over time. Additionally, deformations produced by steep ramp geometries (30 degrees) are difficult to reconcile between the two types of models, while lower slope gradients better conform to the geometric assumptions. These physical properties may fall within the range of those observed in laboratory experiments, suggesting that particle motions predicted by kinematic models may provide an approximate representation of those produced by a physically consistent model under some circumstances.

  19. Step kinematic calibration of a 3-DOF planar parallel kinematic machine tool

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel step kinematic calibration method for a 3 degree-of-freedom(DOF) planar parallel kinematic machine tool,based on the minimal linear combinations(MLCs) of error parameters.The method using mapping of linear combinations of parameters in error transfer multi-parameters coupling system changes the modeling,identification and error compensation of geometric parameters in the general kinematic calibration into those of linear combinations of parameters.By using the four theorems of the MLCs,the sets of the MLCs that are respectively related to the relative precision and absolute precision are determined.All simple and feasible measurement methods in practice are given,and identification analysis of the set of the MLCs for each measurement is carried out.According to the identification analysis results,a step calibration including step measurement,step identification and step error compensation is determined by taking into account both measurement costs and observability.The experiment shows that the proposed method has the following merits:(1) the parameter errors that cannot influence precision are completely avoided;(2) it reflects the mapping of linear combinations of parameters more accurately and enhances the precision of identification;and(3) the method is robust,efficient and effective,so that the errors in position and orientation are kept at the same order of the measurement noise.Due to these merits,the present method is attractive for the 3-DOF planar parallel kinematic machine tool and can be also applied to other parallel kinematic machine tools with weakly nonlinear kinematics.

  20. Wave kinematics and response of slender offshore structures. Vol 4: Wave kinematics

    Riber, H.J.

    1999-08-01

    The kinematics of large surface waves has been measured by means of sonar's placed on the sea floor at the Tyra field. Measurements from the most severe storm are analysed and extreme wave velocity profiles are compared to Stoke wave velocity profiles. Statistical distributions of crest velocity and wave celerity are presented. The analysis shows how the deviation from the Stokes prediction varies with wave heights and steepness. Analyses of the directional wave field leads to the conclusion that the extreme waves are three-dimensional. It is shown that the peculiar kinematics of extreme waves is of great relevance to the design of jacket type structures. (au)

  1. Asteroseismic constraints for Gaia

    Creevey, O L

    2012-01-01

    Distances from the Gaia mission will no doubt improve our understanding of stellar physics by providing an excellent constraint on the luminosity of the star. However, it is also clear that high precision stellar properties from, for example, asteroseismology, will also provide a needed input constraint in order to calibrate the methods that Gaia will use, e.g. stellar models or GSP_phot. For solar-like stars (F, G, K IV/V), asteroseismic data delivers at the least two very important quantities: (1) the average large frequency separation and (2) the frequency corresponding to the maximum of the modulated-amplitude spectrum nu_max. Both of these quantities are related directly to stellar parameters (radius and mass) and in particular their combination (gravity and density). We show how the precision in , nu_max, and atmospheric parameters T_eff and [Fe/H] affect the determination of gravity (log g) for a sample of well-known stars. We find that log g can be determined within less than 0.02 dex accuracy for ou...

  2. Searching for genomic constraints

    The authors have analyzed general properties of very long DNA sequences belonging to simple and complex organisms, by using different correlation methods. They have distinguished those base compositional rules that concern the entire genome which they call 'genomic constraints' from the rules that depend on the 'external natural selection' acting on single genes, i. e. protein-centered constraints. They show that G + C content, purine / pyrimidine distributions and biological complexity of the organism are the most important factors which determine base compositional rules and genome complexity. Three main facts are here reported: bacteria with high G + C content have more restrictions on base composition than those with low G + C content; at constant G + C content more complex organisms, ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes (e.g. human) display an increase of repeats 10-20 nucleotides long, which are also partly responsible for long-range correlations; work selection of length 3 to 10 is stronger in human and in bacteria for two distinct reasons. With respect to previous studies, they have also compared the genomic sequence of the archeon Methanococcus jannaschii with those of bacteria and eukaryotes: it shows sometimes an intermediate statistical behaviour

  3. Design with Nonlinear Constraints

    Tang, Chengcheng

    2015-12-10

    Most modern industrial and architectural designs need to satisfy the requirements of their targeted performance and respect the limitations of available fabrication technologies. At the same time, they should reflect the artistic considerations and personal taste of the designers, which cannot be simply formulated as optimization goals with single best solutions. This thesis aims at a general, flexible yet e cient computational framework for interactive creation, exploration and discovery of serviceable, constructible, and stylish designs. By formulating nonlinear engineering considerations as linear or quadratic expressions by introducing auxiliary variables, the constrained space could be e ciently accessed by the proposed algorithm Guided Projection, with the guidance of aesthetic formulations. The approach is introduced through applications in different scenarios, its effectiveness is demonstrated by examples that were difficult or even impossible to be computationally designed before. The first application is the design of meshes under both geometric and static constraints, including self-supporting polyhedral meshes that are not height fields. Then, with a formulation bridging mesh based and spline based representations, the application is extended to developable surfaces including origami with curved creases. Finally, general approaches to extend hard constraints and soft energies are discussed, followed by a concluding remark outlooking possible future studies.

  4. WORK CONTINUITY CONSTRAINTS IN PROJECT SCHEDULING

    Vanhoucke, M.

    2004-01-01

    Repetitive projects involve the repetition of activities along the stages of the project. Since the resources required to perform these activities move from one stage to the other, a main objective of scheduling these projects is to maintain the continuity of work of these resources so as to minimize the idle time of resources. This requirement, often referred to as work continuity constraints, involves a trade-off between total project duration and the resource idle time. The contribution of...

  5. A Joint-Constraint Model for Human Joints using Signed Distance-Fields

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Niebe, Sarah Maria; Erleben, Kenny

    2012-01-01

    We present a local joint-constraint model for a single joint which is based on distance fields. Our model is fast, general, and well suited for modeling human joints. In this work, we take a geometric approach and model the geometry of the boundary of the feasible region, i.e., the boundary of all...... allowed poses. A region of feasible poses can be built by embedding motion captured data points in a signed distance field. The only assumption is that the feasible poses form a single connected set of angular values. We show how signed distance fields can be used to generate fast and general joint......-constraint models for kinematic figures. Our model is compared to existing joint-constraint models, both in terms of generality and computational cost. The presented method supports joint-constraints of up to three degrees of freedom and works well with sampled motion data. Our model can be extended to handle inter...

  6. The rules of tool incorporation: Tool morpho-functional & sensori-motor constraints.

    Cardinali, L; Brozzoli, C; Finos, L; Roy, A C; Farnè, A

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies showed that using tools modifies the agent's body and space representation. However, it is still not clear which rules govern those remapping processes. Here, we studied the differential role played by the morpho-functional characteristics of a tool and the sensori-motor constraints that a tool imposes on the hand. To do so, we asked a group of participants to reach and grasp an object using, in different conditions, two different tools: Pliers, to be acted upon by the index and thumb fingertips, and Sticks, taped to the same two digits. The two tools were equivalent in terms of morpho-functional characteristics, providing index finger and thumb with the same amount of elongation. Crucially, however, they imposed different sensori-motor constraints on the acting fingers. We measured and compared the kinematic profile of free-hand movements performed before and after the use of both devices. As predicted on the basis of their equivalent morpho-functional characteristics, both tools induced similar changes in the fingers (but not the arm) kinematics compatible with the hand being represented as bigger. Furthermore, the different sensori-motor constraints imposed by Pliers and Sticks over the hand, induced differential updates of the hand representation. In particular, the Sticks selectively affected the kinematics of the two fingers they were taped on, whereas Pliers had a more global effect, affecting the kinematics of hand movements not performed during the use of the tool. These results suggest that tool-use induces a rapid update of the hand representation in the brain, not only on the basis of the morpho-functional characteristics of the tool, but also depending on the specific sensori-motor constraints imposed by the tool. PMID:26774102

  7. Kinematics of transition during human accelerated sprinting

    Ryu Nagahara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated kinematics of human accelerated sprinting through 50 m and examined whether there is transition and changes in acceleration strategies during the entire acceleration phase. Twelve male sprinters performed a 60-m sprint, during which step-to-step kinematics were captured using 60 infrared cameras. To detect the transition during the acceleration phase, the mean height of the whole-body centre of gravity (CG during the support phase was adopted as a measure. Detection methods found two transitions during the entire acceleration phase of maximal sprinting, and the acceleration phase could thus be divided into initial, middle, and final sections. Discriminable kinematic changes were found when the sprinters crossed the detected first transition—the foot contacting the ground in front of the CG, the knee-joint starting to flex during the support phase, terminating an increase in step frequency—and second transition—the termination of changes in body postures and the start of a slight decrease in the intensity of hip-joint movements, thus validating the employed methods. In each acceleration section, different contributions of lower-extremity segments to increase in the CG forward velocity—thigh and shank for the initial section, thigh, shank, and foot for the middle section, shank and foot for the final section—were verified, establishing different acceleration strategies during the entire acceleration phase. In conclusion, there are presumably two transitions during human maximal accelerated sprinting that divide the entire acceleration phase into three sections, and different acceleration strategies represented by the contributions of the segments for running speed are employed.

  8. Locomotion of Gymnarchus Niloticus: Experiment and Kinematics

    Li Fei; Hu Tian-jiang; Wang Guang-ming; Shen Lin-cheng

    2005-01-01

    In addition to forward undulatory swimming, Gymnarchus niloticus can swim via undulations of the dorsal fin while the body axis remains straight; furthermore, it swims forward and backward in a similar way, which indicates that the undulation of the dorsal fin can simultaneously provide bidirectional propulsive and maneuvering forces with the help of the tail fin. A high-resolution Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) imaging camera system is used to record kinematics of steady swimming as well as maneuvering in G. niloticus. Based on experimental data, this paper discusses the kinematics ( cruising speed, wave speed, cycle frequency, amplitude, lateral displacement) of forward as well as backward swimming and maneuvering.During forward swimming, the propulsive force is generated mainly by undulations of the dorsal fin while the body axis remains straight. The kinematic parameters (wave speed, wavelength, cycle frequency, amplitude ) have statistically significant correlations with cruising speed. In addition, the yaw at the head is minimal during steady swimming. From experimental data, the maximal lateral displacement of head is not more than 1% of the body length, while the maximal lateral displacement of the whole body is not more than 5% of the body length. Another important feature is that G. niloticus swims backwards using an undulatory mechanism that resembles the forward undulatory swimming mechanism. In backward swimming, the increase of lateral displacement of the head is comparatively significant; the amplitude profiles of the propulsive wave along the dorsal fin are significantly different from those in forward swimming. When G. niloticus does fast maneuvering, its body is first bent into either a C shape or an S shape, then it is rapidly unwound in a travelling wave fashion. It rarely maneuvers without the help of the tail fin and body bending.

  9. A Novel Algorithm for the Generation of Distinct Kinematic Chain

    Medapati, Sreenivasa Reddy; Kuchibhotla, Mallikarjuna Rao; Annambhotla, Balaji Srinivasa Rao

    2016-07-01

    Generation of distinct kinematic chains is an important topic in the design of mechanisms for various industrial applications i.e., robotic manipulator, tractor, crane etc. Many researchers have intently focused on this area and explained various processes of generating distinct kinematic chains which are laborious and complex. It is desirable to enumerate the kinematic chains systematically to know the inherent characteristics of a chain related to its structure so that all the distinct chains can be analyzed in depth, prior to the selection of a chain for a purpose. This paper proposes a novel and simple method with set of rules defined to eliminate isomorphic kinematic chains generating distinct kinematic chains. Also, this method simplifies the process of generating distinct kinematic chains even at higher levels i.e., 10-link, 11-link with single and multiple degree of freedom.

  10. Theory of gearing kinematics, geometry, and synthesis

    Radzevich, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    The first book of its kind, Theory of Gearing: Kinematics, Geometry, and Synthesis systematically develops a scientific theory of gearing that makes it possible to synthesize novel gears with the desired performance. Written by a leading gearing expert who holds more than 200 patents, it presents a modern methodology for gear design. The proposed theory is based on a key postulate: all the design parameters for an optimal gear pair for a particular application can be derived from (a) a given configuration of the rotation vectors of the driving and driven shafts and (b) the power transmitted by

  11. Spectral gaps, inertial manifolds and kinematic dynamos

    Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es

    2005-10-17

    Inertial manifolds are desirable objects when ones wishes a dynamical process to behave asymptotically as a finite-dimensional ones. Recently [Physica D 194 (2004) 297] these manifolds are constructed for the kinematic dynamo problem with time-periodic velocity. It turns out, however, that the conditions imposed on the fluid velocity to guarantee the existence of inertial manifolds are too demanding, in the sense that they imply that all the solutions tend exponentially to zero. The inertial manifolds are meaningful because they represent different decay rates, but the classical dynamos where the magnetic field is maintained or grows are not covered by this approach, at least until more refined estimates are found.

  12. Geneva University - Kinematics at Hadron Colliders - POSTPONED!!!

    2007-01-01

    The seminar is postponed.Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 12 décembre 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Kinematics at Hadron Colliders by Prof. Drew Baden, University of Maryland Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer: J.-S. Graulich

  13. Quantum simulation of noncausal kinematic transformations.

    Alvarez-Rodriguez, U; Casanova, J; Lamata, L; Solano, E

    2013-08-30

    We propose the implementation of Galileo group symmetry operations or, in general, linear coordinate transformations in a quantum simulator. With an appropriate encoding, unitary gates applied to our quantum system give rise to Galilean boosts or spatial and time parity operations in the simulated dynamics. This framework provides us with a flexible toolbox that enhances the versatility of quantum simulation theory, allowing the direct access to dynamical quantities that would otherwise require full tomography. Furthermore, this method enables the study of noncausal kinematics and phenomena beyond special relativity in a quantum controllable system. PMID:24033011

  14. A kinematical approach to dark energy studies

    Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger D.

    2006-01-01

    We present and employ a new kinematical approach to cosmological `dark energy' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q_0 and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all LCDM models have j(t)=1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the LCDM paradigm. Applying our...

  15. Kinematic analysis for the implementation of landslide mitigation measures

    Delmonaco, Giuseppe; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele

    2010-05-01

    The present work is finalised at the implementation of a landslide risk mitigation master plan of the ancient citadel of Machu Picchu. After the warning launched in March 2001, by the scientific community on potential collapse of the citadel from a near-disastrous landslide event different studies have been promoted to reconstruct landslide activity and suggest landslide risk mitigation measures for the protection and conservation of Machu Picchu cultural heritage. A site-scale analysis has been implemented following the application and integration of geomechanical classifications, ambient noise measurements and structural and kinematical analysis. The geology of the area is characterized by granitoid bodies that had been emplaced in the axial zones of the main rift system that are now exposed at the highest altitudes, together with country rocks (Precambrian and Lower Paleozoic metamorphics) originally constituting the rift ‘roots'. The bedrock of the Inca citadel of Machu Picchu is mainly composed by granite and subordinately granodiorite. This is mainly located in the lower part of the slopes. Superficially, the granite is jointed in blocks with variable dimensions, promoted by local structural setting. Single blocks vary from 10-1 to about 200 m3. Soil cover, widely outcropping in the area, is mainly composed by individual blocks and subordinately by coarse materials originated by chemical and physical weathering of minerals. Regional tectonic uplift and structural setting rule the general morphological features of the area and as a consequence, landslide type and evolution. Rock falls, rock slides, debris flows and debris slides are the main landslide typologies affecting the citadel slopes. In the last mission in May 2009, elastic and deformation rock parameters have been collected using a passive seismic innovative technique based on natural microtremor measurements and geostructural scan lines elaboration. A landslide zoning of the citadel has been

  16. Tephrochronology of the Mont-Dore volcanic Massif (Massif Central, France): new 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene activity

    Nomade, Sébastien; Pastre, Jean-François; Nehlig, Pierre; Guillou, Hervé; Scao, Vincent; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2014-03-01

    The Mont-Dore Massif (500 km2), the youngest stratovolcano of the French Massif Central, consists of two volcanic edifices: the Guéry and the Sancy. To improve our knowledge of the oldest explosive stages of the Mont-Dore Massif, we studied 40Ar/39Ar-dated (through single-grain laser and step-heating experiments) 11 pyroclastic units from the Guéry stratovolcano. We demonstrate that the explosive history of the Guéry can be divided into four cycles of explosive eruption activity between 3.09 and 1.46 Ma (G.I to G.IV). We have also ascertained that deposits associated with the 3.1-3.0-Ma rhyolitic activity, which includes the 5-km3 "Grande Nappe" ignimbrite, are not recorded in the central part of the Mont-Dore Massif. All the pyroclastites found in the left bank of the Dordogne River belong to a later explosive phase (2.86-2.58 Ma, G.II) and were channelled down into valleys or topographic lows where they are currently nested. This later activity also gave rise to most of the volcanic products in the Perrier Plateau (30 km east of the Mont-Dore Massif); three quarters of the volcano-sedimentary sequence (up to 100 m thick) was emplaced within less than 20 ky, associated with several flank collapses in the northeastern part of the Guéry. The age of the "Fournet flora" (2.69 ± 0.01 Ma) found within an ash bed belonging to G.II suggests that temperate forests already existed in the French Massif Central before the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. The Guéry's third explosive eruption activity cycle (G.III) lasted between 2.36 and 1.91 Ma. It encompassed the Guéry Lake and Morangie pumice and ash deposits, as well as seven other important events recorded as centimetric ash beds some 60 to 100 km southeast of the Massif in the Velay region. We propose a general tephrochronology for the Mont-Dore stratovolcano covering the last 3.1 My. This chronology is based on 44 40Ar/39Ar-dated events belonging to eight explosive eruption cycles each lasting between 100 and 200

  17. Static And Kinematic Formulation Of Planar Reciprocal Assemblies

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed by extending the work on pin-jointed assemblies by...... Pellegrino & Calladine [1986]. This formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices....

  18. Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies

    Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Napoli, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed extending the theory of pin-jointed assemblies. This...... formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices...

  19. Kinematic Modeling, Linearization and First-Order Error Analysis

    Pott, Andreas; Hiller, Manfred

    2008-01-01

    The contribution describes a general method for kinematic modeling of many wide-spread parallel kinematic machines, i.e. for the Stewart-Gough-platform, the Delta-robot, and Linaglide machines. The kinetostatic method is applied for a comprehensive kinematic analysis of these machines. Based on that model, a general method is proposed to compute the linearization of the transmission behaviour from geometric parameters to the endeffector motion of these machines. By applying the force transmis...

  20. THE KINEMATIC AND INERTIAL SOIL-PILE INTERACTIONS: CENTRIFUGE MODELLING

    Chenaf, Nawel; CHAZELAS, Jean-Louis

    2008-01-01

    International audience Piles supporting superstructures undergo with the soil two interactions during an earthquake: the kinematic interaction and the inertial interaction. The kinematic soil-pile interaction is the pile loading by the soil displacement produced by the seismic waves propagating. Inertial superstructure-pile-soil interaction results from forces due to the superstructure actuation by the kinematic interaction. These two interactions are superimposed in seismic events and the...

  1. Direct Kinematic modeling of 6R Robot using Robotics Toolbox

    Prashant Badoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The traditional approaches are insufficient to solve the complex kinematics problems of the redundant robotic manipulators. To overcome such intricacy, Peter Corke’s Robotics Toolbox [1] is utilized in the present study. This paper aims to model the direct kinematics of a 6 degree of freedom (DOF Robotic arm. The Toolbox uses the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH Methodology [2] to compute the kinematic model of the robot.

  2. Kinematic Analysis of 3-UCR Parallel Robot Leg

    Gang, Cheng; Shi-rong, Ge

    2010-01-01

    Based on principal screw theory and imaginary manipulator method, the kinematic characteristics of 3-UCR spatial parallel robot leg with three DOF were analyzed. According to the topologic structure of limbs, the screw coordinate system was obtained and the kinematics of limbs was studied. By the relation of the matrices of influence coefficient between limbs and moving platform, the kinematic model with the screw coordinates was established. It shows that the matrices of influence coefficien...

  3. Direct Kinematic modeling of 6R Robot using Robotics Toolbox

    Prashant Badoni

    2016-01-01

    The traditional approaches are insufficient to solve the complex kinematics problems of the redundant robotic manipulators. To overcome such intricacy, Peter Corke’s Robotics Toolbox [1] is utilized in the present study. This paper aims to model the direct kinematics of a 6 degree of freedom (DOF) Robotic arm. The Toolbox uses the Denavit-Hartenberg (DH) Methodology [2] to compute the kinematic model of the robot.

  4. Kinematics and Workspace of a 4-DOF Hybrid Palletizing Robot

    Yong Tao; Fang Chen; Hegen Xiong

    2014-01-01

    We presented the kinematical analysis of a 4-DOF hybrid palletizing robot. The palletizing robot structure was proposed and the arm model of the robot was presented. The kinematical analysis of the end robotic manipulator was given. As a result, the position, velocity, and acceleration curves as well as the maximum workspace were demonstrated by simulation in Matlab. This study would be useful for the kinematical characteristics of the 4-DOF palletizing robot in space.

  5. In Vivo Healthy Knee Kinematics during Dynamic Full Flexion

    Satoshi Hamai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthy knee kinematics during dynamic full flexion were evaluated using 3D-to-2D model registration techniques. Continuous knee motions were recorded during full flexion in a lunge from 85° to 150°. Medial and lateral tibiofemoral contacts and femoral internal-external and varus-valgus rotations were analyzed as a function of knee flexion angle. The medial tibiofemoral contact translated anteroposteriorly, but remained on the center of the medial compartment. On the other hand, the lateral tibiofemoral contact translated posteriorly to the edge of the tibial surface at 150° flexion. The femur exhibited external and valgus rotation relative to the tibia over the entire activity and reached 30° external and 5° valgus rotations at 150° flexion. Kinematics’ data during dynamic full flexion may provide important insight as to the designing of high-flexion total knee prostheses.

  6. Analysis of the kinematic characteristics of a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion: Mobility, kinematics, and singularity

    Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun

    2016-05-01

    This study introduces a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion. This robot exhibits a promising prospect in realizing high-speed pick-andplace manipulation for packaging production lines. The robot has four identical limbs and a single platform. Its compact structure and single-platform concept provides this robot with good dynamic response potential. A line graph method based on Grassmann line geometry is used to investigate the mobility characteristics of the proposed robot. A generalized Blanding rule is also introduced into this procedure to realize mutual conversion between the line graphs for motions and constraints. Subsequently, the inverse kinematics is derived, and the singularity issue of the robot is investigated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Input and output transmission singularity indices are defined based on the reciprocal product in screw theory and the virtual coefficient by considering motion/force transmission performance. Thereafter, the singular loci of the proposed robot with specific geometric parameters are derived. The mobility analysis, inverse kinematics modeling, and singularity analysis conducted in this study are helpful in developing the robot.

  7. Analysis of the kinematic characteristics of a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion: Mobility, kinematics, and singularity

    Xie, Fugui; Liu, Xin-Jun

    2016-06-01

    This study introduces a high-speed parallel robot with Schönflies motion. This robot exhibits a promising prospect in realizing high-speed pick-andplace manipulation for packaging production lines. The robot has four identical limbs and a single platform. Its compact structure and single-platform concept provides this robot with good dynamic response potential. A line graph method based on Grassmann line geometry is used to investigate the mobility characteristics of the proposed robot. A generalized Blanding rule is also introduced into this procedure to realize mutual conversion between the line graphs for motions and constraints. Subsequently, the inverse kinematics is derived, and the singularity issue of the robot is investigated using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Input and output transmission singularity indices are defined based on the reciprocal product in screw theory and the virtual coefficient by considering motion/force transmission performance. Thereafter, the singular loci of the proposed robot with specific geometric parameters are derived. The mobility analysis, inverse kinematics modeling, and singularity analysis conducted in this study are helpful in developing the robot.

  8. Constraint Propagation as Information Maximization

    Abdallah, A Nait

    2012-01-01

    Dana Scott used the partial order among partial functions for his mathematical model of recursively defined functions. He interpreted the partial order as one of information content. In this paper we elaborate on Scott's suggestion of regarding computation as a process of information maximization by applying it to the solution of constraint satisfaction problems. Here the method of constraint propagation can be interpreted as decreasing uncertainty about the solution -- that is, as gain in information about the solution. As illustrative example we choose numerical constraint satisfaction problems to be solved by interval constraints. To facilitate this approach to constraint solving we formulate constraint satisfaction problems as formulas in predicate logic. This necessitates extending the usual semantics for predicate logic so that meaning is assigned not only to sentences but also to formulas with free variables.

  9. Constraints On Cosmic Dynamics

    Mbonye, M R

    2003-01-01

    Observationally, the universe appears virtually critical. Yet, there is no simple explanation for this state. In this article we advance and explore the premise that the dynamics of the universe always seeks equilibrium conditions. Vacuum-induced cosmic accelerations lead to creation of matter-energy modes at the expense of vacuum energy. Because they gravitate, such modes constitute inertia against cosmic acceleration. On the other extreme, the would-be ultimate phase of local gravitational collapse is checked by a phase transition in the collapsing matter fields leading to a de Sitter-like fluid deep inside the black hole horizon, and at the expense of the collapsing matter fields. As a result, the universe succumbs to neither vacuum-induced run-away accelerations nor to gravitationally induced spacetime curvature singularities. Cosmic dynamics is self-regulating. We discuss the physical basis for these constraints and the implications, pointing out how the framework relates and helps resolve standing puzzl...

  10. Tephrochronology of the Mont-Dore volcanic Massif (Massif Central, France): new 40Ar/39Ar constraints on the Late Pliocene and Early Pleistocene activity

    Nomade, Sébastien; Pastre, Jean-François; Nehlig, Pierre; Guillou, Hervé; Scao, Vincent; Scaillet, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The Mont-Dore Massif (500 km2), the youngest stratovolcano of the French Massif Central, consists of two volcanic edifices: the Guéry and the Sancy. To improve our knowledge of the oldest explosive stages of the Mont-Dore Massif, we studied 40Ar/39Ar-dated (through single-grain laser and step-heating experiments) 11 pyroclastic units from the Guéry stratovolcano. We demonstrate that the explosive history of the Guéry can be divided into four cycles of explosive eruption activity between 3.09 ...

  11. Kinematical analysis on the several linkage drives for mechanical presses

    Ham, Kyung Chun; Jang, Dong Hwan [Inha Technical College, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    In this paper, a kinematical analysis is preformed to see mechanical characteristics of various linkage drives for a mechanical press. Mechanical characteristics of conventional and newly designed drives are investigated and compared in terms of slide velocity, productivity, load capacity and possible work-piece size. A crank-slider mechanism with arc crank-pin guide is introduced and analyzed particularly for kinematical performance using kinematical analysis software. The new linkage drive turns out to be effective in terms of load and velocity characteristics and productivity. Kinematical performance also provides a basis for the proper selection of mechanical presses

  12. Collateral constraints and macroeconomic asymmetries

    Luca Guerrieri; Matteo Iacoviello

    2013-01-01

    We show that a simple macroeconomic model with collateral constraints displays strong asymmetric responses to boom and bust periods. In a boom triggered by a rise in asset values, constraints become more and more relaxed, the collateral channel is weaker, and the response of aggregate consumption (and output) to a wealth shock is positive but small. In a recession, collateral constraints get tighter and tighter, the collateral channel gets stronger, and the response in consumption from a give...

  13. Adaptive constraints for feature tracking

    K. I. Hodges

    1999-01-01

    In this paper extensions to an existing tracking algorithm are described. These extensions implement adaptive tracking constraints in the form of regional upper-bound displacements and an adaptive track smoothness constraint. Together, these constraints make the tracking algorithm more flexible than the original algorithm (which used fixed tracking parameters) and provide greater confidence in the tracking results. The result of applying the new algorithm to high-resolution ...

  14. Effect of two different kinesio taping techniques on knee kinematics and kinetics in young females

    Guner, Senem; Alsancak, Serap; Koz, Mitat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The application of kinesio taping may improve strength and performance, inhibit and facilitate motor activity, and increase range of motion. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of kinesio taping facilitation and inhibition applications on spatiotemporal knee kinematics and kinetics during walking activity in healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] A three-dimensional quantitative gait evaluation was performed without tape and with, facilitation and inhibition kinesio t...

  15. Kinematics of M51-type interacting galaxies

    Gunthardt, G; Aguero, M P

    2016-01-01

    We present a kinematic catalogue for 21 M51-type galaxies. It consists of radial velocity distributions both from main and satellite components, along different position angles, which we obtained from long-slit spectroscopy. We detect deviations from circular motion in most of the main galaxies of each pair, due to the gravitational perturbation produced by the satellite galaxy. However somesystems do not show significant distortions in their radial velocity curves. We found some differences between the directions of photometric and kinematic major axes in main galaxies with a bar subsystem. The Tully-Fisher relation in the B-band and Ks-band for the present sample of M51-type systems is flatter when compared with isolated galaxies. Using the radial velocity data set, we built a synthetic normalized radial velocity distribution, as a reference for future modeling of these peculiar systems. The relative position angles between main galaxy major axis and companion location, as well as the velocity difference am...

  16. Terrain modelling by kinematical GPS survey

    G. Nico

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the first results of an experiment aiming to derive a high resolution Digital Terrain Model (DTM by kinematic GPS surveying. The accuracy of the DTM depends on both the operational GPS precision and the density of GPS samples. The operational GPS precision, measured in the field, is about 10cm. A Monte Carlo analysis is performed to study the dependence of the DTM error on the sampling procedure. The outcome of this analysis is that the accuracy of the topographic reconstruction is less than 1m even in areas with a density of samples as low as one sample per 100m2, and becomes about 30cm in areas with at least one sample per 10m2. The kinematic GPS technique gives a means for a fast and accurate mapping of terrain surfaces with an extension of a few km2. Examples of application are the investigation of archaeological sites and the stability analysis of landslide prone areas.

  17. A mechanical simulator of cardiac wall kinematics.

    Cutrì, Elena; Bagnoli, Paola; Marcelli, Emanuela; Biondi, Federico; Cercenelli, Laura; Costantino, Maria Laura; Plicchi, Gianni; Fumero, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Aim of this study is to develop a mechanical simulator (MS) reproducing cardiac wall kinematics [i.e., radial (R), longitudinal (L) and rotational (RT) motions] to test piezoelectric gyroscopic sensors (GS) that are able to measure cardiac torsion that has proved to be a sensitive index of cardiac performance. The MS consists of three brushless motors controlled by a dedicated software either separately or simultaneously reproducing the three main cardiac wall movements (R, L, RT) obtained by implementing different physiologic or pathologic velocity profiles derived from in vivo data. GS accuracy (max % error) was experimentally tested by connecting it to the MS driven in velocity in different working conditions [i.e., cardiac period (515-1030 ms), RT angle (4-16 degrees), GS axis inclination (0-90 degrees) with respect to the cardiac rotation axis]. The MS reproduced the tested velocity profiles well. The GS showed high accuracy in measuring both physiologic and pathologic RT velocity profiles, whereas they proved insensitive to R and L motions. GS axis inclination influenced measurements; however, it was possible to correct this taking the inclination angle cosine into account. The MS proved to be a useful tool to study cardiac wall kinematics and test GS reliability with a view to in vivo application. PMID:20404720

  18. Friction Stir Welding at MSFC: Kinematics

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    In 1991 The Welding Institute of the United Kingdom patented the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process. In FSW a rotating pin-tool is inserted into a weld seam and literally stirs the faying surfaces together as it moves up the seam. By April 2000 the American Welding Society International Welding and Fabricating Exposition featured several exhibits of commercial FSW processes and the 81st Annual Convention devoted a technical session to the process. The FSW process is of interest to Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as a means of avoiding hot-cracking problems presented by the 2195 aluminum-lithium alloy, which is the primary constituent of the Lightweight Space Shuttle External Tank. The process has been under development at MSFC for External Tank applications since the early 1990's. Early development of the FSW process proceeded by cut-and-try empirical methods. A substantial and complex body of data resulted. A theoretical model was wanted to deal with the complexity and reduce the data to concepts serviceable for process diagnostics, optimization, parameter selection, etc. A first step in understanding the FSW process is to determine the kinematics, i.e., the flow field in the metal in the vicinity of the pin-tool. Given the kinematics, the dynamics, i.e., the forces, can be targeted. Given a completed model of the FSW process, attempts at rational design of tools and selection of process parameters can be made.

  19. Kinematics and Aerodynamics of Backward Flying Dragonflies

    Bode-Oke, Ayodeji; Zeyghami, Samane; Dong, Haibo

    2015-11-01

    Highly maneuverable insects such as dragonflies have a wide range of flight capabilities; precise hovering, fast body reorientations, sideways flight and backward takeoff are only a few to mention. In this research, we closely examined the kinematics as well as aerodynamics of backward takeoff in dragonflies and compared them to those of forward takeoff. High speed videography and accurate 3D surface reconstruction techniques were employed to extract details of the wing and body motions as well as deformations during both flight modes. While the velocities of both forward and backward flights were similar, the body orientation as well as the wing kinematics showed large differences. Our results indicate that by tilting the stroke plane angle of the wings as well as changing the orientation of the body relative to the flight path, dragonflies control the direction of the flight like a helicopter. In addition, our detailed analysis of the flow in these flights shows important differences in the wake capture phenomena among these flight modes. This work is supported by NSF CBET-1313217.

  20. Kinematical Structure of the Magellanic System

    van der Marel, Roeland P; Besla, Gurtina

    2008-01-01

    We review our understanding of the kinematics of the LMC and the SMC, and their orbit around the Milky Way. The line-of-sight velocity fields of both the LMC and SMC have been mapped with high accuracy using thousands of discrete traces, as well as HI gas. The LMC is a rotating disk for which the viewing angles have been well-established using various methods. The disk is elliptical in its disk plane. The disk thickness varies depending on the tracer population, with V/sigma ranging from 2-10 from the oldest to the youngest population. For the SMC, the old stellar population resides in a spheroidal distribution with considerable line-of-sight depth and low V/sigma. Young stars and HI gas reside in a more irregular rotating disk. Mass estimates based on the kinematics indicate that each Cloud is embedded in a dark halo. Proper motion measurements with HST show that both galaxies move significantly more rapidly around the Milky Way than previously believed. This indicates that for a canonical 10^12 solar mass M...

  1. About kinematics and hydrodynamics of spinning particles: some simple considerations

    In the first part (Sections 1 and 2) of this paper - starting from the Pauli current, in the ordinary tensorial language - we obtain the decomposition of the non-relativistic field velocity into two orthogonal parts: the classical part, that is the velocity w p/m of the center-of-mass (CM), and the so-called quantum part, that is, the velocity V of the motion in the CM frame (namely, the integral spin motion or Zitterbewegung). By inserting such a complete, composite expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the non-relativistic classical (Newtonian) Lagrangian, we straightforwardly get the appearance of the so-called quantum potential associated, as it is know, with the Madelueng fluid. This result carries further evidence that the quantum behaviour of micro-systems can be a direct consequence of the fundamental existence of spin. In the second part (Sections 3 and 4), we fix our attention on the total velocity vector v vector w + vector V, being now necessary to pass to relativistic (classical) physics; and we show that the proper time entering the definition of the four-velocity vμ for spinning particles has to be the proper time τ of the CM frame. Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of vμ leads to completely new kinematical properties for v2. The important constraint pμ vμ identically true for scalar particles, but just assumed a priori in all previous spinning particle theories, is herein derived in a self-consistent way. (author). 24 refs

  2. About kinematics and hydrodynamics of spinning particles: some simple considerations

    Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada; Salesi, Giovanni [Universita Statale di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1995-12-01

    In the first part (Sections 1 and 2) of this paper - starting from the Pauli current, in the ordinary tensorial language - we obtain the decomposition of the non-relativistic field velocity into two orthogonal parts: the classical part, that is the velocity w p/m of the center-of-mass (CM), and the so-called quantum part, that is, the velocity V of the motion in the CM frame (namely, the integral spin motion or Zitterbewegung). By inserting such a complete, composite expression of the velocity into the kinetic energy term of the non-relativistic classical (Newtonian) Lagrangian, we straightforwardly get the appearance of the so-called quantum potential associated, as it is know, with the Madelueng fluid. This result carries further evidence that the quantum behaviour of micro-systems can be a direct consequence of the fundamental existence of spin. In the second part (Sections 3 and 4), we fix our attention on the total velocity vector v vector w + vector V, being now necessary to pass to relativistic (classical) physics; and we show that the proper time entering the definition of the four-velocity v{sup {mu}} for spinning particles has to be the proper time {tau} of the CM frame. Inserting the correct Lorentz factor into the definition of v{sup {mu}} leads to completely new kinematical properties for v{sup 2}. The important constraint p{mu} v{sup {mu}} identically true for scalar particles, but just assumed a priori in all previous spinning particle theories, is herein derived in a self-consistent way. (author). 24 refs.

  3. Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Nazario, Rafael; Sousa, Marisa; Pelarigo, Jailton Gregório; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA), allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%): stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation). However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity. Key Points In MLSS swimming intensity, stability of the stroke length and stroke frequency occurs after an initial adaptation. Efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to possible changes occurring through time at MLSS intensity. MLSS is a useful and practical swimming intensity to be maintained for a long period of time, but some constraints in technique can occur. PMID:25177189

  4. Altered perceptual sensitivity to kinematic invariants in Parkinson's disease.

    Dayan, Eran; Inzelberg, Rivka; Flash, Tamar

    2012-01-01

    Ample evidence exists for coupling between action and perception in neurologically healthy individuals, yet the precise nature of the internal representations shared between these domains remains unclear. One experimentally derived view is that the invariant properties and constraints characterizing movement generation are also manifested during motion perception. One prominent motor invariant is the "two-third power law," describing the strong relation between the kinematics of motion and the geometrical features of the path followed by the hand during planar drawing movements. The two-thirds power law not only characterizes various movement generation tasks but also seems to constrain visual perception of motion. The present study aimed to assess whether motor invariants, such as the two thirds power law also constrain motion perception in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Patients with PD and age-matched controls were asked to observe the movement of a light spot rotating on an elliptical path and to modify its velocity until it appeared to move most uniformly. As in previous reports controls tended to choose those movements close to obeying the two-thirds power law as most uniform. Patients with PD displayed a more variable behavior, choosing on average, movements closer but not equal to a constant velocity. Our results thus demonstrate impairments in how the two-thirds power law constrains motion perception in patients with PD, where this relationship between velocity and curvature appears to be preserved but scaled down. Recent hypotheses on the role of the basal ganglia in motor timing may explain these irregularities. Alternatively, these impairments in perception of movement may reflect similar deficits in motor production. PMID:22363430

  5. Principles of Constraint Programming and Constraint Processing: A Review

    Van Der Beek, Peter; Walsh, Toby

    2004-01-01

    Review of Apt, Krzysztof. "Principles of Constraint Programming. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 0- 521-825830. 420 pages, $50.00. Publication Date: August 2003. Review also of Dechter, Rina. "Constraint Processing. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. ISBN 1-55860-890-7. 481 pages, $65.95. Publication Date: May 2003.

  6. Generalizing Consistency and other Constraint Properties to Quantified Constraints

    Bordeaux, Lucas; Mancini, Toni

    2007-01-01

    Quantified constraints and Quantified Boolean Formulae are typically much more difficult to reason with than classical constraints, because quantifier alternation makes the usual notion of solution inappropriate. As a consequence, basic properties of Constraint Satisfaction Problems (CSP), such as consistency or substitutability, are not completely understood in the quantified case. These properties are important because they are the basis of most of the reasoning methods used to solve classical (existentially quantified) constraints, and one would like to benefit from similar reasoning methods in the resolution of quantified constraints. In this paper, we show that most of the properties that are used by solvers for CSP can be generalized to quantified CSP. This requires a re-thinking of a number of basic concepts; in particular, we propose a notion of outcome that generalizes the classical notion of solution and on which all definitions are based. We propose a systematic study of the relations which hold be...

  7. New Quaternary geochronometric constraints on river incision in the Virginia Piedmont: Relative contributions of climate, base-level fall, knickpoint retreat, and active tectonics

    Malenda, Helen Fitzgerald

    River terraces are fluvial landforms that represent flood plains abandoned through river incision and, when accurately correlated and dated, can serve as paleogeodetic markers, indicating the elevation and location of past channels and the subsequent fluvial and tectonic processes shaping the landscape. Fluvial terraces are most useful when the incision processes that caused their abandonment and formation are better understood. This thesis studies river incision reconstructed from fluvial terraces of the South Anna River in the central Virginia Piedmont, USA. The South Anna River flows directly above an active fault, on which large, but infrequent seismic events have occurred, and the most recent event was the 23 August 2011 Mineral earthquake. Two conceptual incision models are tested to better understand the fluvial response to active tectonics in this region: 1) spatially-uniform vertical incision and 2) diachronous horizontal knickpoint retreat. Here, terraces and incision were evaluated in the context of a 1:24,000 scale surficial map of alluvial deposits, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared luminescence (IRSL) geochronology, and knickpoint celerity modeling. The South Anna River and its tributaries traverse across the geologic, topographic and structural grain of central Virginia Piedmont, USA, a region known for Late Cenozoic base-level fall, high amplitude climate changes, and historic seismicity. Litho- and pedostratigraphically correlative deposits are found to form five groups of terraces (Qt1-Qt5) with similar, but not exact relative elevations above modern channel. Within these groups, the terraces have similar OSL/IRSL ages that do not systematically decrease in age upstream towards knickpoint in the modern channel. Similarly, the modeled rate of knickpoint retreat through the South Anna channel of ~7-14km/Ma is too slow to explain the time-transgressive OSL/IRSL dates for any terrace group. Terrace formation by knickpoint migration

  8. Oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotopic constraints on timing and sources of crustal fluids in an active orogen : South Island, New Zealand

    Active deformation on New Zealand's South Island can be divided into four tectonic zones: Inboard, Main Divide, Outboard, and Marlborough strike-slip. On the basis of stable isotope data (δ13C and δ18O) we suggest that calcite veins are formed from a mixed meteoric and metamorphic water in the Inboard and Main Divide tectonic zones, as well as the Alpine-Wairau Fault of the Marlborough strike-slip zone. We suggest that the metamorphic waters are derived from the breakdown of biotite at c. 25 km, a depth which corresponds to a conductive zone identified by a recent magnetotelluric study across central South Island. These metamorphic fluids exit the orogen along the steep faults that border the Southern Alps. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of vein and fault-zone calcite suggest that calcite formation is associated with young tectonically driven hydrothermal fluid flow in the Inboard, Main Divide, and Wairau Fault zones. The age of calcite formation in the Outboard, Awatere, and Hope Fault zones could not be explicitly determined. (author). 49 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  9. Thermodynamic Constraints in Using AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) Alloys as N2 Dissociation Catalysts: Functionalizing a Plasmon-Active Metal.

    Martirez, John Mark P; Carter, Emily A

    2016-02-23

    The Haber-Bosch process for NH3 synthesis is arguably one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, with a massive footprint in agriculture and, historically, warfare. Current catalysts for this reaction use Fe for N2 activation, conducted at high temperatures and pressures to improve conversion rate and efficiency. A recent finding shows that plasmonic metal nanoparticles can either generate highly reactive electrons and holes or induce resonant surface excitations through plasmonic decay, which catalyze dissociation and redox reactions under mild conditions. It is therefore appealing to consider AuM (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Mo) alloys to combine the strongly plasmonic nature of Au and the catalytic nature of M metals toward N2 dissociation, which together might facilitate ammonia production. To this end, through density functional theory, we (i) explore the feasibility of forming these surface alloys, (ii) find a pathway that may stabilize/deactivate surface M substituents during fabrication, and (iii) define a complementary route to reactivate them under operational conditions. Finally, we evaluate their reactivity toward N2, as well as their ability to support a pathway for N2 dissociation with a low thermodynamic barrier. We find that AuFe possesses similar appealing qualities, including relative stability with respect to phase separation, reversibility of Fe oxidation and reduction, and reactivity toward N2. While AuMo achieves the best affinity toward N2, its strong propensity toward oxidation could greatly limit its use. PMID:26831377

  10. Tissue-Mimicking Geometrical Constraints Stimulate Tissue-Like Constitution and Activity of Mouse Neonatal and Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiac Myocytes

    Pilarczyk, Götz; Raulf, Alexandra; Gunkel, Manuel; Fleischmann, Bernd K.; Lemor, Robert; Hausmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The present work addresses the question of to what extent a geometrical support acts as a physiological determining template in the setup of artificial cardiac tissue. Surface patterns with alternating concave to convex transitions of cell size dimensions were used to organize and orientate human-induced pluripotent stem cell (hIPSC)-derived cardiac myocytes and mouse neonatal cardiac myocytes. The shape of the cells, as well as the organization of the contractile apparatus recapitulates the anisotropic line pattern geometry being derived from tissue geometry motives. The intracellular organization of the contractile apparatus and the cell coupling via gap junctions of cell assemblies growing in a random or organized pattern were examined. Cell spatial and temporal coordinated excitation and contraction has been compared on plain and patterned substrates. While the α-actinin cytoskeletal organization is comparable to terminally-developed native ventricular tissue, connexin-43 expression does not recapitulate gap junction distribution of heart muscle tissue. However, coordinated contractions could be observed. The results of tissue-like cell ensemble organization open new insights into geometry-dependent cell organization, the cultivation of artificial heart tissue from stem cells and the anisotropy-dependent activity of therapeutic compounds. PMID:26751484

  11. Discrimination in the dark. Resolving the interplay between metabolic and physical constraints to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity during the crassulacean acid metabolism cycle.

    Griffiths, Howard; Cousins, Asaph B; Badger, Murray R; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2007-02-01

    A model defining carbon isotope discrimination (delta13C) for crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants was experimentally validated using Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and instantaneous CO2 discrimination (for 13C and 18O) were made from late photoperiod (phase IV of CAM), throughout the dark period (phase I), and into the light (phase II). Measurements of CO2 response curves throughout the dark period revealed changing phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) capacity. These systematic changes in PEPC capacity were tracked by net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, and online delta13C signal; all declined at the start of the dark period, then increased to a maximum 2 h before dawn. Measurements of delta13C were higher than predicted from the ratio of intercellular to external CO2 (p(i)/p(a)) and fractionation associated with CO2 hydration and PEPC carboxylations alone, such that the dark period mesophyll conductance, g(i), was 0.044 mol m(-2) s(-1) bar(-1). A higher estimate of g(i) (0.085 mol m(-2) s(-1) bar(-1)) was needed to account for the modeled and measured delta18O discrimination throughout the dark period. The differences in estimates of g(i) from the two isotope measurements, and an offset of -5.5 per thousand between the 18O content of source and transpired water, suggest spatial variations in either CO2 diffusion path length and/or carbonic anhydrase activity, either within individual cells or across a succulent leaf. Our measurements support the model predictions to show that internal CO2 diffusion limitations within CAM leaves increase delta13C discrimination during nighttime CO2 fixation while reducing delta13C during phase IV. When evaluating the phylogenetic distribution of CAM, carbon isotope composition will reflect these diffusive limitations as well as relative contributions from C3 and C4 biochemistry. PMID:17142488

  12. Kinematics and kinetics with an adaptive ankle foot system during stair ambulation of transtibial amputees.

    Alimusaj, Merkur; Fradet, Laetitia; Braatz, Frank; Gerner, Hans J; Wolf, Sebastian I

    2009-10-01

    Conventional prosthetic feet cannot adapt to specific conditions such as walking on stairs or ramps. Amputees are therefore forced to compensate their prosthetic deficits by modifying the kinematics and kinetics of their lower limbs. The Proprio-Foot (Ossur) intends to reduce these compensation mechanisms by automatically increasing dorsiflexion during stair ambulation thanks to an adaptive microprocessor-controlled ankle. The present investigation proposes to analyze the biomechanical effects of the dorsiflexion adaptation in transtibial (TT) amputees during stair ambulation. Sixteen TT amputees and sixteen healthy controls underwent conventional 3D gait analysis. Kinematics and kinetics of the lower limbs were compared during stair ascent and descent performed by patients with the prosthetic foot set to a neutral ankle angle and with an adapted dorsiflexion ankle angle of 4 degrees . Norm distance as well as minimum and maximal values of sagittal kinematics and kinetics were calculated for comparisons between patients and control subjects. For both stair ascent and descent, an improvement of the knee kinematics and kinetics could particularly be noticed on the involved side with an increase of the knee flexion and an increase of the knee moment during stance. Therefore, despite its additional weight compared to a conventional prosthetic ankle, the Proprio-Foot should be beneficial to active TT amputees whose knee musculature strength does not constitute a handicap. PMID:19616436

  13. Gender effect on the scapular 3D posture and kinematic in healthy subjects.

    Schwartz, C; Croisier, J L; Rigaux, E; Brüls, O; Denoël, V; Forthomme, B

    2016-05-01

    Populations considered for shoulder analysis are often composed of various ratios of men and women. It is consequently hypothesized that gender has no significant effect on the joint kinematic. However, the literature reports, for the shoulder, differences in the range of motion between genders. The specific influence of gender on the scapulo-thoracic kinematics has not been studied yet. The dominant shoulder of two populations of men and women composed of 11 subjects each were evaluated in three dimensions for three distinct motions: flexion in the sagittal plane, abduction in the frontal plane and gleno-humeral internal/external rotation with the arm abducted at 90°. Posture, kinematics and range of motion were studied separately. For flexion and abduction and with regard to the scapular kinematic, external rotation was significantly larger for women than men. The differences were of at least 5° at 120° of humeral elevation. Upward rotations were identical. Women also showed larger average active humero-thoracic range of motion. The mean differences were of 13°, 7°, 12° and 5° for abduction, flexion, internal rotation and external rotation, respectively. No difference was observed between the scapular resting positions of both populations. The observed differences concerning both the scapular and humeral patterns would indicate that the shoulder behaviour of men and women should not be expected to be similar. PMID:25382377

  14. Design and Coordination Kinematics of an Insertable Robotic Effectors Platform for Single-Port Access Surgery.

    Ding, Jienan; Goldman, Roger E; Xu, Kai; Allen, Peter K; Fowler, Dennis L; Simaan, Nabil

    2013-10-01

    Single port access surgery (SPAS) presents surgeons with added challenges that require new surgical tools and surgical assistance systems with unique capabilities. To address these challenges, we designed and constructed a new insertable robotic end-effectors platform (IREP) for SPAS. The IREP can be inserted through a Ø15 mm trocar into the abdomen and it uses 21 actuated joints for controlling two dexterous arms and a stereo-vision module. Each dexterous arm has a hybrid mechanical architecture comprised of a two-segment continuum robot, a parallelogram mechanism for improved dual-arm triangulation, and a distal wrist for improved dexterity during suturing. The IREP is unique because of the combination of continuum arms with active and passive segments with rigid parallel kinematics mechanisms. This paper presents the clinical motivation, design considerations, kinematics, statics, and mechanical design of the IREP. The kinematics of coordination between the parallelogram mechanisms and the continuum arms is presented using the pseudo-rigid-body model of the beam representing the passive segment of each snake arm. Kinematic and static simulations and preliminary experiment results are presented in support of our design choices. PMID:23963105

  15. Human Body Parts Tracking and Kinematic Features Assessment Based on RSSI and Inertial Sensor Measurements

    Gaddi Blumrosen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Acquisition of patient kinematics in different environments plays an important role in the detection of risk situations such as fall detection in elderly patients, in rehabilitation of patients with injuries, and in the design of treatment plans for patients with neurological diseases. Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI measurements in a Body Area Network (BAN, capture the signal power on a radio link. The main aim of this paper is to demonstrate the potential of utilizing RSSI measurements in assessment of human kinematic features, and to give methods to determine these features. RSSI measurements can be used for tracking different body parts’ displacements on scales of a few centimeters, for classifying motion and gait patterns instead of inertial sensors, and to serve as an additional reference to other sensors, in particular inertial sensors. Criteria and analytical methods for body part tracking, kinematic motion feature extraction, and a Kalman filter model for aggregation of RSSI and inertial sensor were derived. The methods were verified by a set of experiments performed in an indoor environment. In the future, the use of RSSI measurements can help in continuous assessment of various kinematic features of patients during their daily life activities and enhance medical diagnosis accuracy with lower costs.

  16. Credit Constraints for Higher Education

    Solis, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper exploits a natural experiment that produces exogenous variation on credit access to determine the effect on college enrollment. The paper assess how important are credit constraints to explain the gap in college enrollment by family income, and what would be the gap if credit constraints are eliminated. Progress in college and dropout…

  17. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and...

  18. CONCURRENT ENGINEERING WITH CONSTRAINT NETWORKS

    Steve Minnaar; Robert Reinecke

    2012-01-01

    Concurrent engineering is a systematic approach to the integrated, concurrent design of products and their related processes, including manufacture and support. It allows the consideration of all elements of the product's life cycle, from conception through disposal, including quality, cost, manufacturing, and customer requirements. Constraint networks as an approach to concurrent engineering provides considerable advantages over the conventional approaches to improve engineering. Constraint ...

  19. An Introduction to 'Creativity Constraints'

    Onarheim, Balder; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2013-01-01

    Constraints play a vital role as both restrainers and enablers in innovation processes by governing what the creative agent/s can and cannot do, and what the output can and cannot be. Notions of constraints are common in creativity research, but current contributions are highly dispersed due to n...

  20. Constraint Programming for Context Comprehension

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    A close similarity is demonstrated between context comprehension, such as discourse analysis, and constraint programming. The constraint store takes the role of a growing knowledge base learned throughout the discourse, and a suitable con- straint solver does the job of incorporating new pieces...

  1. A Kinematical Approach to Dark Energy Studies

    Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-06-06

    We present and employ a new kinematical approach to cosmological ''dark energy'' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all {Lambda}CDM models have j(t) = 1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Applying our model to the three best available sets of redshift-independent distance measurements, from type Ia supernovae and X-ray cluster gas mass fraction measurements, we obtain clear statistical evidence for a late time transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase. For a flat model with constant jerk, j(t) = j, we measure q{sub 0} = -0.81 {+-} 0.14 and j = 2.16{sub -0.75}{sup +0.81}, results that are consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} confidence level. A standard ''dynamical'' analysis of the same data, employing the Friedmann equations and modeling the dark energy as a fluid with an equation of state parameter, w (constant), gives {Omega}{sub m} = 0.306{sub -0.040}{sup +0.042} and w = -1.15{sub -0.18}{sup +0.14}, also consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} level. In comparison to dynamical analyses, the kinematical approach uses a different model set and employs a minimum of prior information, being independent of any particular gravity theory. The results obtained with this new approach therefore provide important additional information and we argue that both kinematical and dynamical techniques should be employed in future dark energy studies, where possible. Our results provide further interesting support for the concordance {Lambda}CDM paradigm.

  2. Constraints on timing and rates of strath terrace formation on actively uplifting anticlines in the foreland of the Chinese Tien Shan.

    Bufe, A.; Burbank, D. W.; Chen, J.; Liu, L.; Li, T.; Thompson, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The formation of strath surfaces (fluvially created, sub-horizontal erosion surfaces) requires that the rate of lateral erosion outpaces the rate of incision of a river. The change from incision to strath cutting has commonly been linked to a decrease of incision rates due to shielding of the river bed by a thick sediment cover1. Straths are abandoned when the bed cover is reduced and incision resumes. A more recent study suggests that strath terrace formation might be linked to a change between a braided and a single-thread river2. Finally, several models have explored strath formation due to inherent dynamics of meandering systems3,4. In the foreland of the Tian Shan in northwest China, weakly consolidated Pliocene sand and siltstones are being actively uplifted at rates of 1 - 3 mm/y by a series of detachment anticlines. A number of elevated, several-kilometer-wide planation surfaces bear witness to a history of multiple strath cutting events by braided streams. In contrast, modern rivers incise into the uplifting folds creating 10 - 200 m deep canyons while the up- and downstream alluvial fans remain unincised. We use GIS analysis, field mapping, and OSL dating to describe incision and beveling of the folds. Our chronologic data reveal at least 2 - 3 beveling events over the last 40 ky on the Mutule fold. We find that lateral erosion of the bedrock during beveling events occurs at rates that are more than an order of magnitude higher than average incision rates. During times of incision (which can be tens of thousands of years long), lateral erosion rates need to be considerably lower in order to explain the formation of narrow canyons. Thus, our observations of scale, rate, and intermittency of strath cutting, seem difficult to reconcile with models that explain strath formation by variations of the incision rate1 or intrinsic meandering dynamics under steady forcing3,4. The critical requirement to explain our observations appears to be repeated changes in the

  3. Assessing submarine gas hydrate at active seeps on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand, using controlled source electromagnetic data with constraints from seismic, geochemistry, and heatflow data

    Schwalenberg, K.; Haeckel, M.; Pecher, I. A.; Toulmin, S. J.; Hamdan, L. J.; Netzeband, G.; Wood, W.; Poort, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Coffin, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    Electrical resistivity is one of the key properties useful for evaluating submarine gas hydrate deposits. Gas hydrates are electrically insulating in contrast to the conductive pore fluid. Where they form in sufficient quantities the bulk resistivity of the sub-seafloor is elevated. CSEM data were collected in 2007 as part of the German - International “New Vents” project on R/V Sonne, cruise SO191, at three target areas on the Hikurangi subduction margin, New Zealand. The margin is characterized by widespread bottom simulating reflectors (BSR), seep structures, and active methane and fluid venting indicating the potential for gas hydrate formation. Opouawe Bank is one of the ridge and basin systems on the accretionary wedge and is located off the Wairarapa coast at water depths of 1000-1100 m. The first observed seep sites (North Tower, South Tower, Pukeko, Takahe, and Tui) were identified from individual gas flares in hydro-acoustic data and video observations during voyages on R/V Tangaroa. Seismic reflection data collected during SO191 subsequently identified more than 25 new seep structures. Two intersecting CSEM profiles have been surveyed across North Tower, South Tower, and Takahe. 1-D inversion of the data reveals anomalously high resistivities at North Tower and South Tower, moderately elevated resistivities at Takahe, and normal background resistivities away from the seeps. The high resistivities are attributed to gas hydrate layers at intermediate depths beneath the seeps. At South Tower the hydrate concentration could be possibly as much as 25% of the total sediment volume within a 50m thick layer. This conforms with geochemical pore water analyses which show a trend of increased methane flux towards South Tower. At Takahe, gas pockets and patchy gas hydrate, as well as sediment heterogeneities and carbonates, or temperature driven upward fluid flow indicated by the observed higher heat flow at this site may explain the resistivity pattern

  4. Kinematic Signatures of Telic and Atelic Events in ASL Predicates

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an experimental investigation of kinematics of verb sign production in American Sign Language (ASL) using motion capture data. The results confirm that event structure differences in the meaning of the verbs are reflected in the kinematic formation: for example, in the telic verbs (throw, hit), the end-point of the event is…

  5. Lingual Kinematics during Rapid Syllable Repetition in Parkinson's Disease

    Wong, Min Ney; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai

    2012-01-01

    Background: Rapid syllable repetition tasks are commonly used in the assessment of motor speech disorders. However, little is known about the articulatory kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Aims: To investigate and compare lingual kinematics during rapid syllable repetition in dysarthric…

  6. Zero-Inertial Recession for a Kinematic Wave Model

    Kinematic-wave models of surface irrigation assume a fixed relationship between depth and discharge (typically, normal depth). When surface irrigation inflow is cut off, the calculated upstream flow depth goes to zero, since the discharge is zero. For short time steps, use of the Kinematic Wave mode...

  7. Kinematic synthesis of a new 3D printing solution

    Giberti Hermes

    2016-01-01

    The object of this article is the kinematic synthesis of a 5Dofs robot, based on two PKM machines, for additive manufacturing in order to compliant with the requirements of this new technology. Robot kinematics have been optimized by genetic algorithm in order to cover the required workspace and the design of the robot and outline of the control system are also given.

  8. A School Experiment in Kinematics: Shooting from a Ballistic Cart

    Kranjc, T.; Razpet, N.

    2011-01-01

    Many physics textbooks start with kinematics. In the lab, students observe the motions, describe and make predictions, and get acquainted with basic kinematics quantities and their meaning. Then they can perform calculations and compare the results with experimental findings. In this paper we describe an experiment that is not often done, but is…

  9. SOLVING INVERSE KINEMATICS OF REDUNDANT MANIPULATOR BASED ON NEURAL NETWORK

    2003-01-01

    For the redundant manipulators, neural network is used to tackle the velocity inverse kinematics of robot manipulators. The neural networks utilized are multi-layered perceptions with a back-propagation training algorithm. The weight table is used to save the weights solving the inverse kinematics based on the different optimization performance criteria. Simulations verify the effectiveness of using neural network.

  10. Kinematic analysis of the 3-RPR parallel manipulator

    Chablat, Damien; Bonev, Ilian

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is the kinematic study of a 3-RPR planar parallel manipulator where the three fixed revolute joints are actuated. The direct and inverse kinematic problem as well as the singular configuration is characterized. On parallel singular configurations, the motion produce by the mobile platform can be compared to the Reuleaux straight-line mechanism.

  11. Elbow joint instability: A kinematic model.

    Olsen, B S; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, J O; Helmig, P; Sneppen, O

    1994-05-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus stress and in forced external and internal rotation. The mean maximum laxity in valgus stress and forced external rotation were 5.7° and 13.2°. The forearms of the elbow joint specimens were transfixed in maximum pronation. During valgus and varus stress the corresponding spontaneous ulnar rotation of the specimens was recorded. The reproducibility of the instability pattern suggests that this model is suitable for evaluating stabilizing procedures aimed at correction of elbow joint instability before these procedures are introduced into patient care. PMID:22959690

  12. SPACEBAR: Kinematic design by computer graphics

    Ricci, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The interactive graphics computer program SPACEBAR, conceived to reduce the time and complexity associated with the development of kinematic mechanisms on the design board, was described. This program allows the direct design and analysis of mechanisms right at the terminal screen. All input variables, including linkage geometry, stiffness, and applied loading conditions, can be fed into or changed at the terminal and may be displayed in three dimensions. All mechanism configurations can be cycled through their range of travel and viewed in their various geometric positions. Output data includes geometric positioning in orthogonal coordinates of each node point in the mechanism, velocity and acceleration of the node points, and internal loads and displacements of the node points and linkages. All analysis calculations take at most a few seconds to complete. Output data can be viewed at the scope and also printed at the discretion of the user.

  13. Internal kinematics of modelled interacting disc galaxies

    Kronberger, T; Schindler, S; Böhm, A; Kutdemir, E; Ziegler, B L

    2006-01-01

    We present an investigation of galaxy-galaxy interactions and their effects on the velocity fields of disc galaxies in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations, which include cooling, star formation with feedback, and galactic winds. Rotation curves (RCs) of the gas are extracted from these simulations in a way that follows the procedure applied in observations of distant, small, and faint galaxies as closely as possible. We show that galaxy-galaxy mergers and fly-bys significantly disturb the velocity fields and hence the RCs of the interacting galaxies, leading to asymmetries and distortions in the RCs. Typical features of disturbed kinematics are rising or falling profiles in direction to the companion galaxy and bumps in the RCs. In addition, tidal tails can leave strong imprints on the rotation curve. All these features are observable for intermediate redshift galaxies, on which we focus our investigations. The appearance of these distortions depends, however, strongly on the viewing angle. The velocity ...

  14. Color-kinematic duality for form factors

    Boels, Rutger H.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Tarasov, Oleg V.; Yang, Gang [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-12-15

    Recently a powerful duality between color and kinematics has been proposed for integrands of scattering amplitudes in quite general gauge theories. In this paper the duality proposal is extended to the more general class of gauge theory observables formed by form factors. After a discussion of the general setup the existence of the duality is verified in two and three loop examples in four dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory which involve the stress energy tensor multiplet. In these cases the duality reproduces known results in a particularly transparent and uniform way. As a non-trivial application we obtain a very simple form of the integrand of the four-loop two-point (Sudakov) form factor which passes a large set of unitarity cut checks.

  15. A quantum kinematics for asymptotically flat spacetimes

    Campiglia, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    We construct a quantum kinematics for asymptotically flat spacetimes based on the Koslowski-Sahlmann (KS) representation. The KS representation is a generalization of the representation underlying Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) which supports, in addition to the usual LQG operators, the action of `background exponential operators' which are connection dependent operators labelled by `background' $su(2)$ electric fields. KS states have, in addition to the LQG state label corresponding to 1 dimensional excitations of the triad, a label corresponding to a `background' electric field which describes 3 dimensional excitations of the triad. Asymptotic behaviour in quantum theory is controlled through asymptotic conditions on the background electric fields which label the {\\em states} and the background electric fields which label the {\\em operators}. Asymptotic conditions on the triad are imposed as conditions on the background electric field state label while confining the LQG spin net graph labels to compact sets. We...

  16. Color-kinematic duality for form factors

    Recently a powerful duality between color and kinematics has been proposed for integrands of scattering amplitudes in quite general gauge theories. In this paper the duality proposal is extended to the more general class of gauge theory observables formed by form factors. After a discussion of the general setup the existence of the duality is verified in two and three loop examples in four dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory which involve the stress energy tensor multiplet. In these cases the duality reproduces known results in a particularly transparent and uniform way. As a non-trivial application we obtain a very simple form of the integrand of the four-loop two-point (Sudakov) form factor which passes a large set of unitarity cut checks.

  17. Cosmological Applications of the Gaussian Kinematic Formula

    Fantaye, Yabebal; Maino, Davide; Marinucci, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    The Gaussian Kinematic Formula (GKF, see Adler and Taylor (2007,2011)) is an extremely powerful tool allowing for explicit analytic predictions of expected values of Minkowski functionals under realistic experimental conditions for cosmological data collections. In this paper, we implement Minkowski functionals on multipoles and needlet components of CMB fields, thus allowing a better control of cosmic variance and extraction of information on both harmonic and real domains; we then exploit the GKF to provide their expected values on spherical maps, in the presence of arbitrary sky masks, and under nonGaussian circumstances. All our results are validated by numerical experiments, which show a perfect agreement between theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Galaxy simulations: Kinematics and mock observations

    Moody, Christopher E.

    2013-08-01

    There are six topics to my thesis, which are: (1) slow rotator production in varied simulation schemes and kinematically decoupled cores and twists in those simulations, (2) the change in number of clumps in radiation pressure and no-radiation pressure simulations, (3) Sunrise experiments and failures including UVJ color-color dust experiments and UVbeta slopes, (4) the Sunrise image pipeline and algorithms. Cosmological simulations of have typically produced too many stars at early times. We find that the additional radiation pressure (RP) feedback suppresses star formation globally by a factor of ~ 3. Despite this reduction, the simulation still overproduces stars by a factor of ~ 2 with respect to the predictions provided by abundance matching methods. In simulations with RP the number of clumps falls dramatically. However, only clumps with masses Mclump/Mdisk ≤ 8% are impacted by the inclusion of RP, and clump counts above this range are comparable. Above this mass, the difference between and RP and no-RP contrast ratios diminishes. If we restrict our selection to galaxies hosting at least a single clump above this mass range then clump numbers, contrast ratios, survival fractions and total clump masses show little discrepancy between RP and no-RP simulations. By creating mock Hubble Space Telescope observations we find that the number of clumps is slightly reduced in simulations with RP. We demonstrate that clumps found in any single gas, stellar, or mock observation image are not necessarily clumps found in another map, and that there are few clumps common to multiple maps. New kinematic observations from ATLAS3D have highlighted the need to understand the evolutionary mechanism leading to a spectrum of fast-rotator and slow-rotators in early-type galaxies. We address the formation of slow and fast rotators through a series of controlled, comprehensive hydrodynamic simulations sampling idealized galaxy merger formation scenarios constructed from model

  19. Parton Shower with NLO Kinematic Power Corrections

    Baumgart, Matthew; Stewart, Iain W

    2010-01-01

    We carry out a systematic classification and computation of next-to-leading order kinematic power corrections to the fully differential cross section in the parton shower. To do this we devise a map between ingredients in a parton shower and operators in a traditional effective field theory framework using a chain of soft-collinear effective theories. Our approach overcomes several difficulties including avoiding double counting and distinguishing approximations that are coordinate choices from true power corrections. Branching corrections can be classified as hard-scattering, that occur near the top of the shower, and jet-structure, that can occur at any point inside it. Hard-scattering corrections include matrix elements with additional hard partons, as well as power suppressed contributions to the branching for the leading jet. Jet-structure corrections require simultaneous consideration of potential 1 -> 2 and 1 -> 3 branchings. The interference structure induced by collinear terms with subleading powers ...

  20. Kinematics of chiropteran shoulder girdle in flight.

    Panyutina, A A; Kuznetsov, A N; Korzun, L P

    2013-03-01

    New data on the mechanisms of movements of the shoulder girdle and humerus of bats are described; potential mobility is compared to the movements actually used in flight. The study was performed on the basis of morphological and functional analysis of anatomical specimens of 15 species, high speed and high definition filming of two species and X-ray survey of Rousettus aegyptiacus flight. Our observations indicate that any excursions of the shoulder girdle in bats have relatively small input in the wing amplitude. Shoulder girdle movements resemble kinematics of a crank mechanism: clavicle plays the role of crank, and scapula-the role of connecting rod. Previously described osseous "locking mechanisms" in shoulder joint of advanced bats do not affect the movements, actually used in flight. The wing beats in bats are performed predominantly by movements of humerus relative to shoulder girdle, although these movements occupy the caudal-most sector of available shoulder mobility. PMID:23381941