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Sample records for active ingredient fact

  1. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    Soest, van, A.J.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  2. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    Gotlieb, K.F.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Soest, van, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  3. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    Soest, van, A.J.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  4. PTSD: A Search for "Active Ingredients."

    Huber, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Family counselors working with individuals suffering the effects of trauma are encouraged to consider the "active ingredients" found by Charles Figley and Joyce Carbonell at Florida State University and reported in the two articles reviewed. (Author/MKA)

  5. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.12 Antihistamine active ingredients. The active ingredient...

  6. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  7. 21 CFR 333.210 - Antifungal active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antifungal active ingredients. 333.210 Section 333.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.210 Antifungal active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  8. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  9. Active ingredients against human epidermal aging.

    Lorencini, Márcio; Brohem, Carla A; Dieamant, Gustavo C; Zanchin, Nilson I T; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-05-01

    The decisive role of the epidermis in maintaining body homeostasis prompted studies to evaluate the changes in epidermal structure and functionality over the lifetime. This development, along with the identification of molecular mechanisms of epidermal signaling, maintenance, and differentiation, points to a need for new therapeutic alternatives to treat and prevent skin aging. In addition to recovering age- and sun-compromised functions, proper treatment of the epidermis has important esthetic implications. This study reviews active ingredients capable of counteracting symptoms of epidermal aging, organized according to the regulation of specific age-affected epidermal functions: (1) several compounds, other than retinoids and derivatives, act on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, supporting the protective barrier against mechanical and chemical insults; (2) natural lipidic compounds, as well as glycerol and urea, are described as agents for maintaining water-ion balance; (3) regulation of immunological pathogen defense can be reinforced by natural extracts and compounds, such as resveratrol; and (4) antioxidant exogenous sources enriched with flavonoids and vitamin C, for example, improve solar radiation protection and epidermal antioxidant activity. The main objective is to provide a functional classification of active ingredients as regulatory elements of epidermal homeostasis, with potential cosmetic and/or dermatological applications. PMID:24675046

  10. Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products.

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain, for example, green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-ageing activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-ageing action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed. PMID:25712493

  11. Facts about Physical Activity

    ... stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers. Physical activity can also help with weight control, and may improve academic achievement in students. There's more . Inactive adults have a ...

  12. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  13. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  14. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wart remover active ingredients. 358.110 Section 358.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  15. Optimised crystal morphologies for active pharmaceutical ingredients and related studies

    Horgan, Danielle E.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are crystalline solids in their pure forms. Crystalline solids have definable morphologies, i.e. shape and size. Crystal morphology is determined by both the internal structure of the crystals and external factors during growth from solution. The morphology of a crystal batch can affect key processes during manufacturing. Companies generally accept whatever morphology the manufacturing process provides and deal with any subsequent probl...

  16. Lithium carbonate tablets. Preparation techniques influence over active ingredient liberation

    Lithium carbonate tablets, prepared using wet and dry granulation, were assessed in vitro so as to determine the active ingredient dissolution. In this study, standardized formulations were used and developed with usual adjuvants (lactose - maize starch). Parallel to the dissolution testing. The influence of the preparation process over some physical characteristics (hardness, friability and disintegration) was also analysed. Although a better performance was observed of tables prepared using dry granulation, the authors concluded that the wet process is more suitable in preparing tables with the mentioned drug. (author)

  17. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  18. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients to prepare an aluminum acetate solution. Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate may be combined with calcium acetate monohydrate in powder or tablet form to provide a 0.13 to 0.5 percent aluminum acetate..., antihistamines, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, but not with hydrocortisone, provided...

  19. Impurity profile tracking for active pharmaceutical ingredients: case reports.

    Zhou, Lili; Mao, Bing; Reamer, Robert; Novak, Tom; Ge, Zhihong

    2007-06-28

    Tracking the impurity profile of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a very important task for all stages of drug development. A systematic approach for tracking impurity profile of API is described. Various real pharmaceutical applications are presented through successful examples of impurity profile tracking for three different novel APIs. These include MK-0969, an M3 antagonist; MK-0677, an oral-active growth hormone secretagogue and API-A, a cathepsin K inhibitor. A general strategy including selection of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) impurity profile method based on screening various stationary phases and changing the pH of the mobile phase and elucidation of impurity structures through the utilization of LC-MS, preparative-LC and NMR is demonstrated. A series of studies were conducted on the peak purity check by using the LC-UV diode-array and LC-MS detections. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the evaluation of peak purity are discussed. PMID:17142001

  20. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... and 21 CFR 1308.15(c). (i) Codeine. (ii) Codeine phosphate. (iii) Codeine sulfate. (3...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE... established for each ingredient in § 341.74(d): (a) Oral antitussives. (1) Chlophedianol hydrochloride....

  1. Studies on Insecticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo.

    DENG Ye-cheng; XU Han-hong

    2005-01-01

    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo. were studied for the first time. The results showed that all parts of S. kwangsiensis Lo. had contact activity against brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal,and the contact activity of methanol extract from root tubers was the highest, with a LD50 value being 1.5794 μg/female.l-roemerine was isolated from root tubers of S. kwangsiensis Lo. and identified, and it was the main active ingredient.l-roemerine had high contact toxicity to brown planthoppers, with a LD50 value being 0.0443 μg/female. Contact toxicity of l-roemerine to brown planthoppers was 7.48 times that of malathion, the convientional chemical insecticide used for controlling brown planthoppers.l-roemerine also had stomach poison activity against brown planthoppers.

  2. Equivalence studies for complex active ingredients and dosage forms

    Bhattycharyya, Lokesh; Dabbah, Roger; Hauck, Walter; Sheinin, Eric; Yeoman, Lynn; Williams, Roger,

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and its role in assessing the equivalence and inequivalence of biological and biotechnological drug substances and products—a role USP has played since its founding in 1820. A public monograph in theUnited States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary helps practitioners and other interested parties understand how an article’s strenght, quality, and purity should be controlled. Such a monograph is a standard to which all manufactured ingredi...

  3. Opinions expressed by Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee on some active ingredients of pesticides

    Camoni, I. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    The opinions expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) on some active ingredients of pesticides are presented. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of these substances have been examined and, on this basis, an evaluation and relative classification were expressed.

  4. Research Progression of Anti-HIV Chinese Medicines and Their Natural Active Ingredients

    Jing Chen; Linchun Fu; Maoqing Li; Jiantao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the research progression of Chinese medicines for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and their natural active ingredients at home and abroad so as to provide references for pharmaceutical research and clinical medication. Methods: Abundant representative literatures at home and abroad were classified to introduce the anti-HIV monomers, compounds and natural active ingredients of Chinese medicines. Results: The researches on anti-HIV natural medicines have obtained gr...

  5. Bioequivalence of Eslicarbazepine Acetate from Two Different Sources of its Active Product Ingredient in Healthy Subjects

    Falcão, Amílcar; Lima, Ricardo; Sousa, Rui; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the bioavailability (BA) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and to demonstrate the bioequivalence (BE) between two active product ingredient (API) sources of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in healthy volunteers. Design, subjects and methods Forty healthy male and female subjects aged 18–40 years were randomized to treatment with 400 or 800 mg ESL marketed (MF) formulation [current active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) source] and 400 or 800 mg ESL to-be-marketed (TBM) form...

  6. Crystal solvates of active pharmaceutical ingredients actual for industry of Latvia

    Veldre, Kaspars

    2013-01-01

    Crystal solvates of active pharmaceutical ingredients actual for industry of Latvia ABSTRACT This doctoral thesis project is focused on investigation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), which are important for industry of Latvia. Crystal solvate search and screening was performed for compounds described and novel crystalline forms were obtained. Stability in acquisition, production and storage conditions was evaluated. Crystal structure determination was performed for selected A...

  7. Simple and direct determination of active ingredients in drugs by neutron activation analysis

    The increasing number of drugs in the market and the need for their control requires new, simple, fast and accurate analytical methods. Iodine, iron, manganese, silver and sodium were determined by INAA in various pharmaceutical formulations, representing capsules, injectables, powders for injection, solutions and tablets. From the results it appears that NAA could be used as an official method for the determination of iron, manganese and silver in pharmaceutical products, in which these elements are present as active ingredients, as well as for the control of the concentration limits for iodine and sodium. (author)

  8. Study on THz spectra of the active ingredients in the TCM

    Ma, ShiHua; Wang, WenFeng; Liu, GuiFeng; Ge, Min; Zhu, ZhiYong

    2008-03-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy has tremendous potential for applications to evaluate the quality of the drugs including the TCM. In this paper, the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy investigated two active ingredients: Andrographolide and Dehydroandrographoline, isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. We also measured the mixtures of two active ingredients at the different ratio and the quantitative analysis is also applied to determine the contents of compound. The Terahertz spectroscopy is a potential and promising technique in identifying the components, evaluating the drugs sanitation and inspecting the quality of medicine including TCM.

  9. Encapsulation of cosmetic active ingredients for topical application--a review.

    Casanova, Francisca; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-02-01

    Microencapsulation is finding increasing applications in cosmetics and personal care markets. This article provides an overall discussion on encapsulation of cosmetically active ingredients and encapsulation techniques for cosmetic and personal care products for topical applications. Some of the challenges are identified and critical aspects and future perspectives are addressed. Many cosmetics and personal care products contain biologically active substances that require encapsulation for increased stability of the active materials. The topical and transdermal delivery of active cosmetic ingredients requires effective, controlled and safe means of reaching the target site within the skin. Preservation of the active ingredients is also essential during formulation, storage and application of the final cosmetic product. Microencapsulation offers an ideal and unique carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients, as it has the potential to respond to all these requirements. The encapsulated agent can be released by several mechanisms, such as mechanical action, heat, diffusion, pH, biodegradation and dissolution. The selection of the encapsulation technique and shell material depends on the final application of the product, considering physical and chemical stability, concentration, required particle size, release mechanism and manufacturing costs. PMID:26612271

  10. Role of herbal bioactives as a potential bioavailability enhancer for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Ajazuddin; Alexander, Amit; Qureshi, Azra; Kumari, Leena; Vaishnav, Pramudita; Sharma, Mukesh; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2014-09-01

    The current review emphasizes on the herbal bioenhancers which themselves do not possess inherent pharmacological activity of their own but when co-administered with Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), enhances their bioavailability and efficacy. Herbal bioenhancers play a crucial role in enhancing the bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antihypertensives, anticancer, antiviral, antitubercular and antifungal drugs at low doses. This paper highlights various natural compounds that can be utilized as an efficient bioenhancer. Several herbal compounds including piperine, quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, curcumin, and glycyrrhizin have demonstrated capability to improve the pharmacokinetic parameters of several potent API. This article also focuses on various United States patents on herbal bioenhancers, which has proved to be beneficial in improving oral absorption of nutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids and certain herbal compounds. The present paper also describes proposed mechanism of action, which mainly includes absorption process, drug metabolism, and action on drug target. The herbal bioenhancers are easily available, safe, free from side effects, minimizes drug toxicity, shortens the duration of treatment, lowers the drug resistance problems and minimizes the cost of treatment. Inspite of the fact that herbal bioenhancers provide an innovative concept for enhancing the bioavailability of several potent drugs, there are numerous bioenhancers of herbal origin that are yet to be explored in several vital areas. These bioenhancers must also be implied to enhance the bioavailability and bioefficacy through routes other than the oral route of drug delivery. There is a vast array of unexploited plants which can be investigated for their drug bioenhancing potency. The toxicity profiles of these herbal bioenhancers must not be overlooked. Researches must be carried out to solve these issues and to

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF INGREDIENTS OF BETEL QUID ON ORAL AND ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Niraj A Ghanwate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial and synergistic activity of ingredients of betel quid i.e. kattha, lime, betel leaf, betel nut, cardamom, clove and fennel seeds was tested against microbial population of oral cavity and four enteric pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri. For this purpose two methods were used. Pour plate method was used for calculating the reduction in microbial population in oral cavity and disk diffusion method was used for detecting the effect of ingredients of betel quid on enteric pathogens. In the first method, microbial population of saliva before and after chewing above ingredients individually and in different combinations was compared. It was found that the each ingredient of betel quid separately and in different combination shows reduction in microbial population by different percentage. The highest percentage of reduction in microbial population was shown by the combination of betel leaf, lime and kattha (Blk followed by betel leaf, cardamom etc. In the second experiment it was found that the bacteria investigated showed most susceptibility against kattha followed by clove and then combination of betel leaf, lime and kattha. From the study it was concluded that chewing of betel quid after every meal reduces the population of oral micro flora which may be responsible for dental carries and bad breath. It was also seen that enteric pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri could be inhibited by ingredients of beetle quid.

  12. Kinetics of the esterification of active pharmaceutical ingredients containing carboxylic Acid functionality in polyethylene glycol

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Moesgaard, Birthe;

    2014-01-01

    reactions. In this study, kinetics of two active pharmaceutical ingredients, cetirizine and indomethacin possessing carboxylic acid functionality, has been studied in PEG 400 and PEG 1000 at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. HPLC-UV was applied for the determination of concentrations in the kinetic studies...

  13. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna;

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended...

  14. Nano-microdelivery systems for oromucosal delivery of an active ingredient

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oromucosal delivery of at least one active ingredient, more particularly a lipid nano-microdelivery system comprising a nicotine component and/or a flavour component, wherein the nicotine component may be delivered to the oral cavity via absorption through the mucosal membranes...... thereof and/or wherein the flavour component may be delivered to the oral mucosa by controlled release....

  15. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight lo

  16. How active ingredient localisation in plant tissues determines the targeted pest spectrum of different chemistries

    Buchholz, Anke; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    information sets revealed that the intracellular localisation of active ingredients determines the performance of test compounds against different target pests because of different feeding behaviours: mites feed on mesophyll, and aphids and whiteflies mostly in the vascular system. Polar compounds have a slow...

  17. 21 CFR 358.710 - Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    2010-04-01

    ..., seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. 358.710 Section 358.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Psoriasis § 358.710 Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. The... psoriasis. (1) Coal tar, 0.5 to 5 percent. When a coal tar solution, derivative, or fraction is used as...

  18. Tregitope Peptides: The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient of IVIG?

    Anne S. De Groot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five years ago, we reported the identification and characterization of several regulatory T-cell epitopes (now called Tregitopes that were discovered in the heavy and light chains of IgG (De Groot et al. Blood, 2008. When added ex vivo to human PBMCs, these Tregitopes activated regulatory T cells (Tregs, increased expression of the transcription factor FoxP3, and induced IL-10 expression in CD4+ T cells. We have now shown that coadministration of the Tregitopes in vivo, in a number of different murine models of autoimmune disease, can suppress immune responses to antigen in an antigen-specific manner, and that this response is mediated by Tregs. In addition we have shown that, although these are generally promiscuous epitopes, the activity of individual Tregitope peptides is restricted by HLA. In this brief report, we provide an overview of the effects of Tregitopes in vivo, discuss potential applications, and suggest that Tregitopes may represent one of the “active pharmaceutical ingredients” of IVIg. Tregitope applications may include any of the autoimmune diseases that are currently treated almost exclusively with intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG, such as Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN, as well as gene therapy and allergy where Tregitopes may provide a means of inducing antigen-specific tolerance.

  19. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. A simple and fast method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics by neutron activation analysis

    Antiperspirant cosmetics are tested for their active ingredient (aluminium chlorohydroxide) by conventional analytical techniques. Aluminium has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in all antiperspirant products and package forms available in the Greek market in order to develop a simple and fast method for quantization. The results show that neutron activation analysis could be established as an official method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics. The proposed method is compared with the existing official methods and an alternative sampling method for aerosol package is presented. (author)

  1. NOVEL HYDROXAMIC ACIDS HAVING HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITING ACTIVITY AND ANTI-CANCER COMPOSITION COMPRISING THE SAME AS AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for anticancer including novel hydroxamic acid with histone deacetylase inhibiting activity as an active ingredient. Hydroxamic acid compound of the present invention has inhibitory activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and shows...... cytotoxicity to a variety of cancer cells, being useful in strong anti-cancer drug....

  2. Activated Random Walkers: Facts, Conjectures and Challenges

    Dickman, Ronald; Rolla, Leonardo T.; Sidoravicius, Vladas

    2010-02-01

    We study a particle system with hopping (random walk) dynamics on the integer lattice ℤ d . The particles can exist in two states, active or inactive (sleeping); only the former can hop. The dynamics conserves the number of particles; there is no limit on the number of particles at a given site. Isolated active particles fall asleep at rate λ>0, and then remain asleep until joined by another particle at the same site. The state in which all particles are inactive is absorbing. Whether activity continues at long times depends on the relation between the particle density ζ and the sleeping rate λ. We discuss the general case, and then, for the one-dimensional totally asymmetric case, study the phase transition between an active phase (for sufficiently large particle densities and/or small λ) and an absorbing one. We also present arguments regarding the asymptotic mean hopping velocity in the active phase, the rate of fixation in the absorbing phase, and survival of the infinite system at criticality. Using mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulation, we locate the phase boundary. The phase transition appears to be continuous in both the symmetric and asymmetric versions of the process, but the critical behavior is very different. The former case is characterized by simple integer or rational values for critical exponents ( β=1, for example), and the phase diagram is in accord with the prediction of mean-field theory. We present evidence that the symmetric version belongs to the universality class of conserved stochastic sandpiles, also known as conserved directed percolation. Simulations also reveal an interesting transient phenomenon of damped oscillations in the activity density.

  3. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF WATER EXTRACTS OF TRIKATU CHURNA AND ITS INDIVIDUAL INGREDIENT

    P.R. Malvankar* and M. M. Abhyankar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trikatu churna is one of the traditional poly herbal preparation, formed by mixing equal quantities of three important spicy materials such as Piper longum L. (Piperaceae, Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae. Trikatu is also known as “ Three Bitters”. The trikatu preparation was reported to contain alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, steroids, lignin & saponins. The objective of study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of trikatu churna & its individual ingredients with their preliminary phytochemical study. The aqueous extracts of trikatu churna & its each ingredient were tested for antimicrobial activity against certain bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus by in vitro agar well diffusion method and the results are recorded as the zone of inhibition. Trikatu churna was found to possess higher extent of phytoconstituents with promising antimicrobial activity.

  5. A slow-release system of bacterial cellulose gel and nanoparticles for hydrophobic active ingredients.

    Numata, Yukari; Mazzarino, Leticia; Borsali, Redouane

    2015-01-01

    A combination of bacterial cellulose (BC) gel and amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles was investigated as a drug delivery system (DDS) for hydrophobic active ingredients. Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) and retinol were used as the block copolymer and hydrophobic active ingredient, respectively. The BC gel was capable of incorporating copolymer nanoparticles and releasing them in an acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution (pH 5.2) at 37 °C. The percentage of released copolymer reached a maximum value of approximately 60% after 6h and remained constant after 24h. The percentage of retinol released from the copolymer-containing BC gel reached a maximum value at 4h. These results show that the combination of BC gel and nanoparticles is a slow-release system that may be useful in the cosmetic and biomedical fields for skin treatment and preparation. PMID:25840273

  6. An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts identification and efficacy of quinic acid.

    Sheng, Yezhou; Akesson, Christina; Holmgren, Kristin; Bryngelsson, Carl; Giamapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2005-01-15

    Historic medicinal practice has defined Cat's Claw, also known as Una de Gato or Uncaria tomentosa, as an effective treatment for several health disorders including chronic inflammation, gastrointestinal dysfunction such as ulcers, tumors and infections. The efficacy of Cat's Claw was originally believed, as early as the 1960s, to be due to the presence of oxindole alkaloids. However, more recently water-soluble Cat's Claw extracts were shown not to contain significant amounts of alkaloids (<0.05%), and yet still were shown to be very efficacious. Here we characterize the active ingredients of a water-soluble Cat's Claw extract called C-Med-100 as inhibiting cell growth without cell death thus providing enhanced opportunities for DNA repair, and the consequences thereof, such as immune stimulation, anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. The active ingredients were chemically defined as quinic acid esters and could also be shown to be bioactive in vivo as quinic acid. PMID:15619581

  7. Validation of the quality control methods for active ingredients of Fungirex cream

    Fungirex cream is a two-drug product, that is, undecylenic acid and zinc undecylenate over a suitable basis. Since this is a product not documented in the official monographs of the pharmacopoeia, simple analytical methods were suggested for quantitation of analytes of interest in the cream, which are useful for release of newly prepared cream batches. To validate two volumetric methods for the quality control of active ingredients in Fungirex cream

  8. Comparison of Active Ingredient Content of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi Collected in Different Seasons Detected by HPLC-DAD

    YAO Feng; CHEN Da-shuai

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the active ingredient content of Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata) and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis) collected in different seasons. Methods:Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract the active ingredients in Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi, with methanol as the solvent. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was used to analyze the content of each ingredient, with chromatographic conditions as follows: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm); column temperature: 30℃; mobile phase: water (A) - acetonitrile (B); gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min; and detection wavelength: 225 nm. Results:All ingredients waiting for detection reached their peaks within 75 min, with excellent degree of separation and higher number of theoretical plates. Standard curves were drawn, and the mean value of phase relationship of each ingredient was >0.999. The content of active ingredients in lignans of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi showed tendency of increase ifrst and then decreased. In addition, all ingredients in Beiwuweizi reached their peaks in September while those in Nanwuweizi in August. Conclusion:This method can be used to detect the content of multiple ingredients in Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) simultaneously because it is simple in operation, precise in results and excellent in repeatability.

  9. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review.

    Sonali S. Bharate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literaturereports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different active pharmaceutical ingredients in solid dosage forms. Examples of active drug/excipientinteractions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, acid base reactions and physical changes are discussed for different active pharmaceutical ingredients belonging to different therapeuticcategories viz antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-convulsant, antibiotic,bronchodialator, antimalarial, antiemetic, antiamoebic, antipsychotic, antidepressant, anticancer, anticoagulant and sedative/hypnotic drugs and vitamins. Once the solid-state reactions of a pharmaceutical system are understood, the necessary steps can be taken to avoid reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products.

  10. Studies of Active Ingredients in Cough Syrup by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    ZHOU Tian-shu; WANG Ai-fang; WU Fang; SHI Guo-yue; FANG Yu-zhi

    2003-01-01

    The present paper covers a simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis(CZE) with amperometric detection(AD), for the separation and the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate. Under the optimal conditions, the three analytes were base-line separated completely within 16 min. Good linear relationships between the peak heights and the concentrations of the three analytes were obtained with the correlation coefficients better than 0.9993. The method was directly applied to the determination of the active ingredients in pharmaceutical preparations and the assay results were satisfactory.

  11. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended nitrogen removal. The removal of the APIs varied from no significant removal at the highest dose of ClO2 (20 mg/l) to 90% removal at a dose of 0.5 mg/l of the oxidant. From the low COD effluent, only 4 ...

  12. Development and validation of stability indicating UPLC assay method for ziprasidone active pharma ingredient

    Sonam Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziprasidone, a novel antipsychotic, exhibits a potent highly selective antagonistic activity on D2 and 5HT2A receptors. Literature survey for ziprasidone revealed several analytical methods based on different techniques but no UPLC method has been reported so far. Aim: Aim of this research paper is to present a simple and rapid stability indicating isocratic, ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC method which was developed and validated for the determination of ziprasidone active pharmaceutical ingredient. Forced degradation studies of ziprasidone were studied under acid, base, oxidative hydrolysis, thermal stress and photo stress conditions. Materials and Methods: The quantitative determination of ziprasidone drug was performed on a Supelco analytical column (100×2.1 mm i.d., 2.7 ΅m with 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH: 6.7 and acetonitrile (ACN as mobile phase with the ratio (55:45-Buffer:ACN at a flow rate of 0.35 ml/ min. For UPLC method, UV detection was made at 318 nm and the run time was 3 min. Developed UPLC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Results and Conclusion: Mild degradation of the drug substance was observed during oxidative hydrolysis and considerable degradation observed during basic hydrolysis. During method validation, parameters such as precision, linearity, ruggedness, stability, robustness, and specificity were evaluated, which remained within acceptable limits. Developed UPLC method was successfully applied for evaluating assay of Ziprasidone active Pharma ingredient.

  13. Determination of nickel in active pharmaceutical ingredients by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Bubnič, Zoran; Urleb, Uroš; Kreft, Katjuša; Veber, Marjan

    2010-03-01

    An electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric procedure for the determination of nickel in active pharmaceutical ingredients was developed. Since the recoveries of nickel by the direct dissolution of samples in diluted nitric acid were low and caused errors in the determination of Ni in pharmaceutical samples, different approaches for sample pre-treatment were examined. It was found that the microwave digestion was the most suitable way for sample preparation. Various combinations of digestion agents and different microwave conditions were tested. The combination of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide was found to be the most appropriate. The validity of the method was evaluated by recovery studies of spiked samples and by the comparison of the results obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recovery ranged from 87.5 to 104.0% and a good agreement was achieved between both methods. The detection limit and the limit of quantification were 0.6 and 2.1 µg g-1 respectively. The precision of the method was confirmed by the determination of Ni in the spiked samples and was below 4%, expressed in terms of a relative standard deviation. The method was applied to the determination of nickel in production samples of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates. PMID:24061653

  14. Determination of active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Cao, Yuhua; Lou, Changgang; Fang, Yuzhi; Ye, Jiannong

    2002-01-11

    High-performance capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection was employed to analyse active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L., an important crude herb frequently used in Chinese medicines. Farrerol, quercetin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid are major important active ingredients. Operated in a wall-jet configuration, a 300-microm diameter carbon-disk electrode was used as the working electrode, which exhibits a good response at +950 mV (vs. saturated calomel electrodes) for six analytes. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes were baseline separated within 16 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 9 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-6) M for all analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of Rhododendron dauricum L. with relatively simple extraction procedures, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:11820277

  15. Integration of active pharmaceutical ingredient solid form selection and particle engineering into drug product design.

    Ticehurst, Martyn David; Marziano, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This review seeks to offer a broad perspective that encompasses an understanding of the drug product attributes affected by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) physical properties, their link to solid form selection and the role of particle engineering. While the crucial role of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solid form selection is universally acknowledged in the pharmaceutical industry, the value of increasing effort to understanding the link between solid form, API physical properties and drug product formulation and manufacture is now also being recognised. A truly holistic strategy for drug product development should focus on connecting solid form selection, particle engineering and formulation design to both exploit opportunities to access simpler manufacturing operations and prevent failures. Modelling and predictive tools that assist in establishing these links early in product development are discussed. In addition, the potential for differences between the ingoing API physical properties and those in the final product caused by drug product processing is considered. The focus of this review is on oral solid dosage forms and dry powder inhaler products for lung delivery. PMID:25677227

  16. Curing Ingredients, Characteristics, Total Phenolic, and Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Indonesian Dried Meat Product (Dendeng

    T. Suryati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendeng is Indonesian dried meat product that used spices rich in antioxidant component as ingredient. In addition, commercial dendeng usually use saltpeter (nitrate/nitrite salt as curing ingredient to inhibit rancidity and to produce stable red color. The aims of this study were to investigate composition of spices and saltpeter added, characteristic, total phenolic, and antioxidant activity of commercial dendeng. This research was conducted through interview with some dendeng producers to get information about saltpeter adding and spices composition used in their products. Then the interview results were verified by laboratory analysis. The results showed that spices and saltpeter adding from some producers varied. The saltpeter added in curing process produced inconsistent red color on commercial dendeng in this investigation. Total phenolic of dendeng from producers ranged from 42.47 to 102.0 mg GAE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 36.51 to 95.49 mg GAE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity against DPPH ranged from 79.35 to 379.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 94.30 to 559.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity of raw dendeng was influenced by phenolic content about 87.2%, but in fried dendeng was only 59.0%. In conclusion, dendeng has a significant antioxidant activity, even after frying, and saltpeter addition was not effective to maintain stable red color in dendeng products.

  17. Evaluation of teratogenic effects of crocin and safranal, active ingredients of saffron, in mice.

    Moallem, Seyed Adel; Afshar, Mohammad; Etemad, Leila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a widely used food additive for its color and taste. Crocin and safranal are two main components of this plant. Numerous studies are underway to introduce saffron and its active ingredients as pharmacological agents. Safety assessments of these compounds are important parts of this endeavor. In this study, the effects of crocin and safranal administrations during embryogenesis have been investigated in mice. A total of 75 BALB/c pregnant mice were divided into six experimental and control groups. Four experimental groups received intraperitoneal injection of crocin (200 mg/kg or 600 mg/kg) daily or safranal (0.075 ml/kg or 0.225 ml/kg) on gestational days (GDs) 6 to 15. Control groups received normal saline or paraffin as solvents of crocin and safranal. Dams were dissected on GD18 and embryos were collected. Routine maternal and fetal parameters were recorded. Macroscopic observation of external malformations was also performed. Fetuses were then selected for double skeletal staining with alizarin red and alcian blue. All experimental groups caused significant decrease in length and weight of fetuses when compared with the control groups and revealed malformations such as minor skeletal malformations, mandible and calvaria malformations, and growth retardation. Minor skeletal malformations were the most commonly observed abnormality, which were statistically significant when compared with the control groups (p saffron, further elaborate studies to understand the malformation mechanisms of these ingredients are recommended. PMID:24097366

  18. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  19. Solubilization of active ingredients of different polarity in Pluronic® micellar solutions - Correlations between solubilizate polarity and solubilization site.

    Nguyen-Kim, Viet; Prévost, Sylvain; Seidel, Karsten; Maier, Walter; Marguerre, Ann-Kathrin; Oetter, Günter; Tadros, Tharwat; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The solubilization of two pharmaceutically active ingredients (AI) with significantly different water solubility, namely carbamazepine and fenofibrate (solubility of 150ppm and 10ppm, respectively), has been investigated using a series of Pluronics® (Poloxamers) containing different ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (EO/PO) units in the molecule. The results show largely enhanced solubilization of fenofibrate by Pluronic® micelles that increases with the PPO chain length provided the temperature is above the critical micelle temperature (cmt). In contrast the more water-soluble carbamazepine only shows a moderate increase in solubilization upon addition of Pluronics®. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR experiments show that the solubilization of fenofibrate occurs in the core of the micelles, whereas carbamazepine shows no direct association with the micelles. These clearly different solubilization mechanisms for the two AIs were confirmed by Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments, which show that fenofibrate interacts only with the PPO core of the micelle, whereas carbamazepine interacts with both PPO and PEO similarly. Accordingly, the large enhancement of the solubilization of fenofibrate is related to the fact that it is solubilized within the PPO core of the Pluronic® micelles, while the much more moderate increase of carbamazepine solubility is attributed to the change of solvent quality due to the presence of the amphiphilic copolymer and the interaction with the EO and PO units in solution. PMID:27244594

  20. Isolation and characterization of process related impurities in anastrozole active pharmaceutical ingredient

    Hiriyanna, S. G.; Basavaiah, K. [University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: hiriyannag@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Three impurities ranging from 0.08%-0.12% by peak area in anastrozole active pharmaceutical ingredient were detected by simple isocratic reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These impurities were isolated by prep-HPLC and were characterized by LC- MS/MS, GCMS and NMR experimental data. Based on the results obtained from different spectroscopic experiments, these impurities have been characterized as 2,2'-(5-((4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)methyl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(2-methyl propanenitrile) (Impurity I), 2,2'-(5-methyl-1,3-phenylene)bis(2-methylpropanenitrile) (Impurity II) and 2,2'-(5-(bromomethyl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(2-methylpropanenitrile) (Impurity III). (author)

  1. Application of instrumented nanoindentation in preformulation studies of pharmaceutical active ingredients and excipients.

    Egart, Mateja; Janković, Biljana; Srčič, Stane

    2016-09-01

    Nanoindentation allows quantitative determination of a material's response to stress such as elastic and plastic deformation or fracture tendency. Key instruments that have enabled great advances in nanomechanical studies are the instrumented nanoindenter and atomic force microscopy. The versatility of these instruments lies in their capability to measure local mechanical response, in very small volumes and depths, while monitoring time, displacement and force with high accuracy and precision. This review highlights the application of nanoindentation for mechanical characterization of pharmaceutical materials in the preformulation phase (primary investigation of crystalline active ingredients and excipients). With nanoindentation, mechanical response can be assessed with respect to crystal structure. The technique is valuable for mechanical screening of a material at an early development phase in order to predict and better control the processes in which a material is exposed to stress such as milling and compression. PMID:27383883

  2. Genotoxic effects of the herbicide Roundup Transorb and its active ingredient glyphosate on the fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    Moreno, Natália Cestari; Sofia, Silvia Helena; Martinez, Claudia B R

    2014-01-01

    Roundup Transorb (RT) is a glyphosate-based herbicide and despite its wide use around the world there are few studies comparing the effects of the active ingredient with the formulated product. In this context the purpose of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of the active ingredient glyphosate with the formulated product RT in order to clarify whether the active ingredient and the surfactant of the RT formula may exert toxic effects on the DNA molecule in juveniles of fish Prochilodus lineatus. Erythrocytes and gill cells of fish exposed to glyphosate and to RT showed DNA damage scores significantly higher than control animals. These results revealed that both glyphosate itself and RT were genotoxic to gill cells and erythrocytes of P. lineatus, suggesting that their use should be carefully monitored considering their potential impact on tropical aquatic biota. PMID:24448465

  3. Dissolution enhancement of active pharmaceutical ingredients by therapeutic deep eutectic systems.

    Aroso, Ivo M; Silva, João C; Mano, Francisca; Ferreira, Ana S D; Dionísio, Madalena; Sá-Nogueira, Isabel; Barreiros, Susana; Reis, Rui L; Paiva, Alexandre; Duarte, Ana Rita C

    2016-01-01

    A therapeutic deep eutectic system (THEDES) is here defined as a deep eutectic solvent (DES) having an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as one of the components. In this work, THEDESs are proposed as enhanced transporters and delivery vehicles for bioactive molecules. THEDESs based on choline chloride (ChCl) or menthol conjugated with three different APIs, namely acetylsalicylic acid (AA), benzoic acid (BA) and phenylacetic acid (PA), were synthesized and characterized for thermal behaviour, structural features, dissolution rate and antibacterial activity. Differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy showed that ChCl:PA (1:1), ChCl:AA (1:1), menthol:AA (3:1), menthol:BA (3:1), menthol:PA (2:1) and menthol:PA (3:1) were liquid at room temperature. Dissolution studies in PBS led to increased dissolution rates for the APIs when in the form of THEDES, compared to the API alone. The increase in dissolution rate was particularly noticeable for menthol-based THEDES. Antibacterial activity was assessed using both Gram-positive and Gram-negative model organisms. The results show that all the THEDESs retain the antibacterial activity of the API. Overall, our results highlight the great potential of THEDES as dissolution enhancers in the development of novel and more effective drug delivery systems. PMID:26586342

  4. Defining the Active Ingredients of Interactive Computer Play Interventions for Children with Neuromotor Impairments: A Scoping Review

    Levac, Danielle; Rivard, Lisa; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers who investigate complex interventions are challenged to describe the "active ingredients" of their interventions: the reason(s) why a treatment is expected to be effective. Interactive Computer Play (ICP) is an emerging complex intervention in rehabilitation practice and research. The purpose of this scoping review is to…

  5. Effects of ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, are saponins derived from sterols. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model for biochemical and genetic studies in animals. Although cholesterol is an essential requirement for the growth and development of C. ...

  6. Collaborative Care for Patients With Severe Personality Disorders: Preliminary Results and Active Ingredients From a Pilot Study (Part I)

    Stringer, Barbara; Meijel, Berno van; Karman, Pieter; Koekkoek, Bauke; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan; Kerkhof, Ad; Beekman, Aartjan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test if a collaborative care program (CCP) with nurses in a coordinating position is beneficial for patients with severe personality disorders. DESIGN AND METHODS: A pilot study with a comparative multiple case study design using mixed methods investigating active ingredients and prelimi

  7. Effects of rhubarb and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in INTMNC of rabbits

    Xiu Zhen Lin; De Lu Ma; Zhi Qing Cui; Yi Kang

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The recent studies have shown that rhubarb has not only the effect of removing stasis by purgation, but also intestinal barrier effects[1,2]. In order to further clarify the intestinal barrier mechanism of rhubarb, we studied the effects of rhubarb decoction and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in isolated intestinal mononuclear cells (INT-MNC)

  8. Quantifying Amphibian Pesticide Body Burdens for Active Ingredients Versus Formulations Through Dermal Exposure

    Widespread pesticide applications throughout agricultural landscapes pose a risk to post-metamorphic amphibians leaving or moving between breeding ponds in terrestrial habitats. Recent studies indicate that the inactive ingredients in pesticide formulations may be equally or more...

  9. Chitosonic® Acid as a Novel Cosmetic Ingredient: Evaluation of its Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Hydration Activities

    Yi-Shyan Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosonic® Acid, carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan, is a novel chitosan material that has recently been accepted by the Personal Care Products Council as a new cosmetic ingredient with the INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients name Carboxymethyl Caprooyl Chitosan. In this study, we analyze several important cosmetic characteristics of Chitosonic® Acid. Our results demonstrate that Chitosonic® Acid is a water-soluble chitosan derivative with a high HLB value. Chitosonic® Acid can form a nano-network structure when its concentration is higher than 0.5% and can self-assemble into a nanosphere structure when its concentration is lower than 0.2%. Chitosonic® Acid has potent antimicrobial activities against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Chitosonic® Acid also has moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. Additionally, Chitosonic® Acid exhibits good hydration activity for absorbing and retaining water molecules with its hydrophilic groups. From a safety point of view, Chitosonic® Acid has no cytotoxicity to L-929 cells if its concentration is less than 0.5%. Moreover, Chitosonic® Acid has good compatibilities with various normal cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, we propose that Chitosonic® Acid has the potential to be a widely used ingredient in various types of cosmetic products.

  10. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  11. Terahertz study on porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient of pharmaceutical tablets.

    Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Tweneboah, Samuel Nana A; Ervasti, Tuomas; Axel Zeitler, J; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) technique has been used to ascertain the change in the optical properties, as a function of changing porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), of training sets of pharmaceutical tablets. Four training sets of pharmaceutical tablets were compressed with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) excipient and indomethacin API by varying either the porosity, height, and API mass fraction or all three tablet parameters. It was observed, as far as we know, for the first time, that the THz time-domain and frequency-domain effective refractive index, as well as, the frequency-domain effective absorption coefficient both show linear correlations with the porosity and API mass fraction for training sets of real pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that, the observed linear correlations can be useful in basic research and quality inspection of pharmaceutical tablets. Additionally, we propose a novel optical strain parameter, based on THz measurement, which yields information on the conventional strain parameter of a tablet as well as on the change of fill fraction of solid material during compression of porous pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that the THz measurement and proposed method of data analysis, in addition to providing an efficient tool for basic research of porous media, can serve as one of the novel quality by design (QbD) implementation techniques to predict critical quality attributes (CQA) such as porosity, API mass fraction and strain of flat-faced pharmaceutical tablets before production. PMID:27288937

  12. Direct analysis of palladium in active pharmaceutical ingredients by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Rosolina, Samuel M; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2016-03-31

    Anodic stripping voltammetry, a classical electroanalytical method has been optimized to analyze trace Pd(II) in active pharmaceutical ingredient matrices. The electroanalytical approach with an unmodified glassy carbon electrode was performed in both aqueous and 95% DMSO/5% water (95/5 DMSO/H2O) solutions, without pretreatment such as acid digestion or dry ashing to remove the organics. Limits of detection (LODs) in the presence of caffeine and ketoprofen were determined to be 11 and 9.6 μg g(-1), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.7% and 2.3%, respectively. This method is simple, highly reproducible, sensitive, and robust. The instrumentation has the potential to be portable and the obviation of sample pretreatment makes it an ideal approach for determining lost catalytic metals in pharmaceutical-related industries. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of Pd(II) with Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the low μg L(-1) range indicates that this system is capable of simultaneous multi-analyte analysis in a variety of matrices. PMID:26965326

  13. Development of a solvate as an active pharmaceutical ingredient: Developability, crystallisation and isolation challenges

    Douillet, Julien; Stevenson, Neil; Lee, Mei; Mallet, Franck; Ward, Richard; Aspin, Peter; Dennehy, Daniel Robert; Camus, Laure

    2012-03-01

    The preclinical development of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) begins with the selection of a solid state form. A solvate may be selected for development if it is sufficiently stable and if the solvent quantity administered to the patient is lower than the tolerated potential daily exposure (PDE). The selection and process development of a solvate is presented here. The initial crystallisation process gave poor control over the particle size distribution (PSD) and inclusion of additional crystallisation solvent in the crystal lattice. These two API attributes were controlled using micronised seeds and optimising the crystallisation conditions. After filtration, slurry washing with a second solvent was used to replace the high boiling point crystallisation solvent to improve the drying efficiency. The slurry washing was modelled and studied in the laboratory to control the level of unbound crystallisation solvent in the API. The API desolvation during slurry washing was studied by considering thermodynamics, by construction of the ternary phase diagram, and kinetics aspects. This work provides useful approaches and considerations to assess the risks specific to the controlled production of a solvate that are rarely presented in the literature.

  14. Study of Active Ingredients in Black Soybean Sprouts and Their Safety in Cosmetic Use

    Yinmao Dong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in different lengths of black soybean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polysaccharides were determined by the Forint phenol assay and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, respectively. Anti-oxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the DPPH scavenging test and whitening capacity was measured in vitro using the tyrosinase inhibition test. The effects of the bean sprout extracts on human skin fibroblasts damnified by H2O2 were studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and human patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 95%, while the tyrosinase inhibition capacity of the extracts reached 98%. Hemolysis rate in all extracts were lower than 10%, below the 20% regulatory limit for the RBC test. No signs of allergic reactions were observed in the human patch tests. The optimum extract was obtained from bean sprouts grown to 0.5 cm. Extracts of black bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in anti-aging and whitening cosmetic products.

  15. Core-Shell Composite Hydrogels for Controlled Nanocrystal Formation and Release of Hydrophobic Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Badruddoza, Abu Zayed Md; Godfrin, P Douglas; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L; Doyle, Patrick S

    2016-08-01

    Although roughly 40% of pharmaceuticals being developed are poorly water soluble, this class of drugs lacks a formulation strategy capable of producing high loads, fast dissolution kinetics, and low energy input. In this work, a novel bottom-up approach is developed for producing and formulating nanocrystals of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using core-shell composite hydrogel beads. Organic phase nanoemulsion droplets stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and containing a model hydrophobic API (fenofibrate) are embedded in the alginate hydrogel matrix and subsequently act as crystallization reactors. Controlled evaporation of this composite material produces core-shell structured alginate-PVA hydrogels with drug nanocrystals (500-650 nm) embedded within the core. Adjustable loading of API nanocrystals up to 83% by weight is achieved with dissolution (of 80% of the drug) occurring in as little as 30 min. A quantitative model is also developed and experimentally validated that the drug release patterns of the fenofibrate nanocrystals can be modulated by controlling the thickness of the PVA shell and drug loading. Thus, these composite materials offer a "designer" drug delivery system. Overall, our approach enables a novel means of simultaneous controlled crystallization and formulation of hydrophobic drugs that circumvents energy intensive top-down processes in traditional manufacturing. PMID:27249402

  16. Co-crystallization: An approach to improve the performance characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients

    Jignasa Ketan Savjani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-crystal chemistry has recently attracted supramolecular scientists. Co-crystals are comprising of hydrogen boding assembly between different molecules. Many issues related to performance characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API can be resolved using co-crystallization approach. Proper understanding of crystal structure of an API is required for successful formation of co-crystals with the selected co-former. This review article focus on explanation about co-crystals, intellectual property rights, their advantages and limitations. Co-crystallization can be achieved using different methods like co-grinding slurry based, solvent evaporation method, etc. Methods of co-crystallization are simple and increase the purity of the final product. Co-crystallization can be applied to the drugs prescribed in combination therapy. Stoichiometric composition of different drugs used in combination therapy can be co-crystallize to form one solid state form. Physicochemical properties of APIs such as solubility and stability can be improved using co-crystallization approach. With due regards co-crystallization should be used with caution because of some issues during manufacturing of final product.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of hederacoside C, an active ingredient in AG NPP709, in rats.

    Kim, Ju Myung; Yoon, Ji Na; Jung, Ji Won; Choi, Hye Duck; Shin, Young June; Han, Chang Kyun; Lee, Hye Suk; Kang, Hee Eun

    2013-11-01

    1. Hederacoside C (HDC) is one of the active ingredients in Hedera helix leaf extract (Ivy Ex.) and AG NPP709, a new botanical drug to treat acute respiratory infection and chronic inflammatory bronchitis. However, information regarding its pharmacokinetic properties remains limited. 2. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics of HDC in rats after intravenous administration of HDC (3, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg) and after oral administration of HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709 (equivalent to 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg HDC). 3. Linear pharmacokinetics of HDC were identified upon its intravenous administration at doses of 3-25 mg/kg. Intravenous administration of HDC results in relatively slow clearance (1.46-2.08 mL/min/kg) and a small volume of distribution at steady state (138-222 mL/kg), while oral administration results in a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of 0.118-0.250%. The extremely low F of HDC may be due to poor absorption of HDC from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and/or its decomposition therein. 4. The oral pharmacokinetics of HDC did not differ significantly among pure HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709. PMID:23607546

  18. Adsorption chromatography to purify Spacer disaccharide of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient of QuimiHib vaccine

    In this paper we study the conditions of adsorption chromatography on Silica gel 60 for purification of Spacer disaccharide a component of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) of QuimiHib vaccine. For that, we made a scale down on an analytical scale that represented at 1.8% of industrial process, indicating reproducibility between two procedures in terms of packing efficiency, purity and recovery. Dynamic binding capacity of the resin Silicagel 60 by the DSE was roughly 125±0.2 mg /mL, 3.4 times the base process. The elution profile obtained, showed the possibility of collecting a unique fraction at range 195±2 and 260±2 minutes, if it is maintained a proper packing of the chromatography resin determined by asymmetry factor from 0.8 to 1.2, which ensures a recovery of 58.9±4.5% and high purity analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography. Adjusting the adsorption conditions increases the productivity of chromatographic operation up to 3.5 fold, indicating that it is feasible in economic terms

  19. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) which utilizes a newly defined similarity between samples is proposed to estimate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content in granules for tableting. In addition, a statistical wavelength selection method which quantifies the effect of API content and other factors on NIR spectra is proposed. LW-PLS and the proposed wavelength selection method were applied to real process data provided by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., and the estimation accuracy was improved by 38.6% in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) compared to the conventional PLS using wavelengths selected on the basis of variable importance on the projection (VIP). The results clearly show that the proposed calibration modeling technique is useful for API content estimation and is superior to the conventional one. PMID:22001843

  20. Quantitative determination of residual active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates on equipment surfaces by ion mobility spectrometry.

    Qin, C; Granger, A; Papov, V; McCaffrey, J; Norwood, D L

    2010-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an analytical technique that separates ions based on their gas phase mobility at atmospheric pressure. Since gas phase ion mobility is a function of the shape and structure of the ion, this technique has the potential to provide unique specificity and selectivity. Furthermore, IMS is very sensitive (subnanogram detection limits for many small molecules), and a single analysis is typically completed within 1 min. In principle, these features of IMS should make it an ideal choice for use in cleaning verification analysis of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment. This report describes the successful development and validation of three different equipment cleaning verification methods using IMS. The methods were developed for a specific intermediate (Compound A) in the synthetic route for a drug substance as well as for final drug substances (active pharmaceutical ingredients Compounds B and C). The cleaning verification methods were validated with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and limit-of-quantitation. In all cases, the limits-of-quantitation were determined to be at the nanogram or sub-nanogram level. Both swab and rinse samples collected from the equipment surfaces were successfully analyzed and manufacturing equipment down-time was significantly minimized due to the reduction in cleaning verification analysis time (for example, the total analysis time for more than 30 samples using IMS was reduced to less than 2h). PMID:19758781

  1. Determination of Four Active Ingredients in Vc Yinqiao Tablets by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    L(U),Jin; WANG,Qing-Jiang; CHENG,Xi; LIU,Hai-Yan; HE,Pin-Gang; FANG,Yu-Zhi

    2006-01-01

    A simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD), has been developed for simultaneous determination of four active ingredients in Vc Yinqiao tablets including paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. A carbon-disk electrode was used as working electrode and 0.95 V (versus SCE) was selected as detection potential. The optimal conditions of CZE experiment were 30 mmol·L-1 borate solution (pH 9.5) as running buffer, 14 kV as separation voltage and 8 s (14 kV) as electro-kinetic sampling time. Under the selected optimum conditions, paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid could be perfectly separated within 22 min, and their detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 5 × 10-7 to 1×10-6 mol·L-1. This proposed method demonstrated good reproducibility with relative standard deviations of less than 3% for both migration time and peak current (n=7). The utility of this method was demonstrated by monitoring a kind of compound medicine named Vc Yinqiao tablets and the assay results were satisfactory.

  2. Consequences of New Approach to Chemical Stability Tests to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Jamrógiewicz, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    There is a great need of broaden look on stability tests of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in comparison with current requirements contained in pharmacopeia. By usage of many modern analytical methods the conception of monitoring the changes of APIs during initial stage of their exposure to harmful factors has been developed. New knowledge must be acquired in terms of identification of each degradation products, especially volatile ones. Further research as toxicology prediction during in silico studies of determined and identified degradation products is necessary. In silico methods are known as computational toxicology or computer-assisted technologies which are used for predicting toxicology of pharmaceutical substances such as impurities or degradation products. This is a specialized software and databases intended to calculate probability of genotoxicity or mutagenicity of these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. Applying of new analytical approach is proposed as the usage of PAT tools, XRD, HS-SPME GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS for stability testing. Described improvements should be taken into account in case of each drug existing already in the market as well as being implemented as new one. PMID:26955356

  3. Acaricidal activity against Panonychus citri and active ingredient of the mangrove plant Cerbera manghas.

    Deng, Yecheng; Yongmei Liao; Li, Jingjing; Yang, Linlin; Zhong, Hui; Zhou, Qiuyan; Qing, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    Cerbera manghas is a mangrove plant which possesses comprehensive biological activities. A great deal of research has been undertaken on the chemical constituents and medical functions of C. manghas; insecticidal and antifungal activities have also been reported, but the acaricidal activity has not been studied. In our study, the acaricidal activity and active substances of C. manghas were investigated using a spray method, which showed that the methanol extracts of the fruit, twigs and leaves exhibited contact activity against female adults of Panonychus citri, with LC50 values at 24 h of 3.39 g L(-1), 4.09 g L(-1) and 4.11 g L(-1), respectively. An acaricidal compound was isolated from C. manghas by an activity-guided isolation method, and identified as (-)-17β-neriifolin, which is a cardiac glycoside. (-)-17β-Neriifolin revealed high contact activity against female adults, nymphae, larvae and eggs of P. citri, with LC50 values at 24 h of 0.28 g L(-1), 0.29 g L(-1), 0.28 g L(-1) and 1.45 g L(-1), respectively. PMID:25918788

  4. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    Bai, Meng-Yi, E-mail: mybai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Adjunct appointment to the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Tz-Chong, E-mail: tcchou@ms5.hinet.net [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jie-Chang; Yang, Hui-Ching [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 {+-} 0.69 {mu}m. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 {mu}L of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  5. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 ± 0.69 μm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: ► We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. ► Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. ► We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties ► The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. ► Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 μL of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  6. Chitin-Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Multifunctional Carrier to Deliver Anti-Aging Active Ingredients through the Skin

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA, showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Zetasizer, while encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the entrapped ingredients were controlled by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Safeness was evidenced on fibroblasts and keratinocytes culture viability by the MTT (Methylthiazol assay; anti-aging activity was evaluated in vitro measuring antioxidant capacity, anti-collagenase activity, and metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory release; efficacy was shown in vivo by a double-blind vehicle-controlled study for 60 days on 60 women affected by photo-aging. In addition, the CN-HA nanoparticles have shown interesting possibility to be used as active ingredients, for designing and making advanced medication by the electrospinning technology, as well as to produce transparent films for food packaging, by the casting method, and can be used also in their dry form as tissues or films without adding preservatives. These unusual CN-HA nanoparticles obtained from the use of raw materials of waste origin may offer an unprecedented occasion for making innovative products, ameliorating the quality of life, reducing pollution and safeguarding the environment’s integrity.

  7. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  8. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes – A process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermenta......A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and...... for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API...... exchange steps, and thus constitutes a good example of how the design framework can be useful to efficiently design novel or already existing API manufacturing processes taking advantage of continuous processes....

  9. 21 CFR 341.85 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in part 356 of this chapter should be used. (5) For permitted combinations containing camphor... camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus oil identified in § 341.40(u). The labeling states the warnings for... containing camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus oil identified in § 341.40(u). The labeling states the...

  10. 78 FR 23558 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    2013-04-19

    ... February 29, 2012 (77 FR 12295)(FRL- 9332-8), EPA announced receipt of two other applications to register... identifying information (subject heading, Federal Register date and page number). ii. Follow directions. The... Ingredient: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae strain SDS-502 at 85.0%. Proposed Use: For control...

  11. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gernaey, Krist V

    2012-01-01

    Continuous hydrolysis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient intermediate, and subsequent liquid–liquid (L-L) separation of the resulting organic and aqueous phases, have been achieved using a simple PTFE tube reactor connected to a miniscale hydrophobic membrane separator. An alkoxide product, obtained in continuous mode by a Grignard reaction in THF, reacted with acidic water to produce partially miscible organic and aqueous phases containing Mg salts. Despite the partial THF–water miscibil...

  12. Antifeedant Activity and Active Ingredients Against Plutella xylostella from Momordica charantia Leaves

    2008-01-01

    With the bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts from the leaves of Momordica charantia, we obtained two most active compounds against the feeding of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella larvae. The antifeedant activity of momordicine Ⅰ and momordicine Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of Plutella xylostella were tested using leaf discs of cabbage in the laboratory. The results showed that momordicin Ⅰ and momordiein Ⅱ had significant antifeedant activity on the larvae of P. Xylostella, and momordicin Ⅱ was more active than momordicin Ⅰ. The concentrations for 50% antifeedant effects (AFC50) of momordicin Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of P. Xylostella were 76.69 and 116.24 μg mL-1, whereas that of momordicin Ⅰ was 144.08 and 168.42 μg mL-1, respectively. In addition, momordicin Ⅰ and momordicin Ⅱ had significant inhibitive effect on the rate of weight gain and survival of P. Xylostella larvae.

  13. Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Agricultural workers are encouraged to use sunscreen to decrease the risk of UV-related skin cancer. Our previous studies have shown certain commercial sunscreens to be penetration enhancers. The focus of this project is to determine whether active ingredients in sunscreen formulations (i.e., the UV absorbing components and insect repellants for the sunscreen/bug repellant combinations) also act as dermal penetration enhancers for herbicides in vitro. The total percentages of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) penetrating through hairless mouse skin in 24 h ranged from 54.9 ± 4.7 for the no sunscreen control to 86.9 ± 2.5 for padimate-o. Of the active ingredients tested (7.5% octyl methoxycinnamate, 7% octocrylene, 0.6% oxybenzone, 5% homosalate, 5% octyl salicylate, 8% padimate-o, 10% sulisobenzone, and 9.5% and 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]), all but octocrylene led to a significant increase in total 2,4-D penetration as compared to the control (P 3H2O penetration across mouse skin, indicating physical damage to the stratum corneum. Additional studies demonstrated that the penetration enhancement seen across hairless mouse skin also occurred with human skin. Thus, the active ingredients of sunscreen formulations enhance dermal penetration of the moderately lipophilic herbicide 2,4-D

  14. Content of Selected Minerals and Active Ingredients in Teas Containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos.

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Marzec, Zbigniew; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261.3 mg · kg(-1) d.m.) and (691.6 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). The highest content of zinc was determined in Yerba Mate Amanda with lime (106.0 mg · kg(-1) d.m.), while copper was most abundant in Yerba Mate Big-Active cocoa and vanilla (14.05 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos, the content of sodium was several times higher than in Yerba Mate. A clear difference was observed in the content of minerals in dry weight of the examined products, which could be a result of both the taxonomic distinctness and the origin of the raw material. Leaf teas turned out to be a better source of tannins; on the other hand, tea bags contained substantially more phenolic acids. The richest source of phenolic acids was Yer-Vita in bags (1.8 %), and the highest amount of tannins was recorded in the leaf tea Green Goucho caramel and dark chocolate (9.04 g · 100 g(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos products, the highest content of phenolic acids was recorded in tea bags (Savannah with honey and vanilla 0.96 %), and tannins in (Lord Nelson with strawberry and cream 7.99 g · 100 g (-1) d.m.). PMID:26686675

  15. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active ingredients and pathways

    Chi H.J. Kao; Jesuthasan, Amalini C; Karen S. Bishop; Marcus P. Glucina; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTGanoderma lucidum, commonly referred to as Lingzhi, has been used in Asia for health promotion for centuries. The anti-cancer effects of G. lucidum have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the observed anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma have prompted its usage by cancer patients alongside chemotherapy.The main two bioactive components of G. lucidum can be broadly grouped into triterpenes and polysaccharides. Despite triterpenes and polysaccharides bei...

  16. Special active ingredients and beauty-food%特种活性物及营养美容

    韩建英

    2012-01-01

    介绍了特种活性物及营养美容的理念。消费者目前对营养美容理念的兴趣越来越浓厚,使得营养美容产品逐渐成为市场营销的热点。配方师也热衷于将营养品与美容相结合,开发出营养美容产品,并将营养美容对身体的益处都囊括在产品配方中。介绍了几种最具潜力的营养美容成分以及特种活性物成分,并对其前景进行了展望。%The idea of special active ingredients and beauty-food are introduced briefly. Nowadays, the consumers become more and more interested in the concept of beauty-food, and the beauty-food product category has gradually become the hot topic of marketing. Formulators are eager to combine the benefits of nutrition with beauty in the formulations, and develop the beauty-food products. Some diet beauty ingredients with the greatest potential are introduced, and the future of the special active ingredients and the beauty-food are prospected here.

  17. Active pharmaceutical ingredients for antiretroviral treatment in low- and middle-income countries: a survey.

    Fortunak, Joseph M; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Kulkarni, Amol A; King, Christopher L; Ellison, Tiffany; Miranda, Leandro S M

    2014-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are the molecular entities that exert the therapeutic effects of medicines. This article provides an overview of the major APIs that are entered into antiretroviral therapy (ART), outlines how APIs are manufactured, and examines the regulatory and cost frameworks of manufacturing ART APIs used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Almost all APIs for ART are prepared by chemical synthesis. Roughly 15 APIs account for essentially all of the ARTs used in LMICs. Nearly all of the ART APIs purchased through the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM) or the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) are produced by generic companies. API costs are very important because they are the largest contribution to the overall cost of ART. Efficient API production requires substantial investment in chemical manufacturing technologies and the ready availability of raw materials and energy at competitive prices. Generic API production is practiced in only a limited number of countries; the API market for ART is dominated by Indian companies. The quality of these APIs is ensured by manufacturing under good manufacturing practice (GMP), including process validation, testing against previously established specifications and the demonstration of clinical bioequivalence. The investment and personnel costs of a quality management system for GMP contribute significantly to the cost of API production. Chinese companies are the major suppliers for many advanced intermediates in API production. Improved chemistry of manufacturing, economies of scale and optimization of procurement have enabled drastic cost reductions for many ART APIs. The available capacity for global production of quality-assured APIs is likely adequate to meet forecasted demand for 2015. The increased use of ART for paediatric treatment, for second-line and salvage therapy, and the introduction of new APIs and combinations are important factors

  18. Anti-inflammaging and antiglycation activity of a novel botanical ingredient from African biodiversity (Centevita™

    Maramaldi G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giada Maramaldi,1 Stefano Togni,1 Federico Franceschi,1 Elian Lati21Indena SpA, Milan, Italy; 2Laboratoire BIO-EC, Longjumeau, FrancePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the topical efficacy of a new purified extract from Madagascar, Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica [L.] Urban, both on human explants and on human volunteers, in relation to skin wrinkling and skin protection against ultraviolet light exposure. The extract, with a peculiar content of biologically active molecules, was investigated as a novel anti-inflammaging and antiglycation agent. Its typical terpenes, known as collagen synthesis promoters, represent at least 45% of the extract. It also contains a polyphenolic fraction cooperating to the observed properties.Methods: C. asiatica purified extract was assayed on human skin explants maintained alive, and several parameters were evaluated. Among the most relevant, the thymine dimerization was evaluated by immunostaining. Malondialdehyde formation was evaluated as free-radical scavenging marker by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of interleukin-1a was observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well. The product was further evaluated as an antiglycation agent, being glycation quantified by the advanced glycation product carboxymethyl lysine. C. asiatica purified extract was also evaluated as an antiwrinkling agent in a single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Formulated in a simple oil-in-water emulsion, the extent of wrinkling was assessed by skin replicas, skin firmness, skin elasticity, and collagen density measurements.Results: C. asiatica purified extract could protect DNA from ultraviolet light-induced damage, decreasing the thymine photodimerization by over 28% (P<0.05. A reduced (26%, P<0.01 expression of interleukin-1α was also observed, supporting its anti-inflammatory potential. C. asiatica purified extract showed in vitro a total inhibition of carboxymethyl lysine formation induced by the

  19. Bioactive Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity of Austrian Wine and Grape Juice

    Pérez Navarro, Roser

    2008-01-01

    Wine has already been investigated for its potential nutritional quality, such as high amount of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds, well-known as natural antioxidants, are reported due their radical scavenging capacity. In the present work, the bioactive ingredients of nine Austrian wines (four red wines: Zweigelt, Blaufränkisch, Syrah and Cuvée; two white wines: Pinot Blanc and Chardonnay; one rosé Blaufränkisch; and two grape juice: red and white) have been quantified an...

  20. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  1. Validation of a method by gas chromatography for the determination of fatty acids that comprise the active ingredient D-004

    D-004 is a new active ingredient obtained from the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits. This substance is mainly composed by a mixture of saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids, from 8 to 18 carbon atoms, and has shown to be effective in experimental model of prostate hyperplasia. A capillary gas chromatographic method for the determination of the fatty acids in D-004 was developed and validated. The acids were analyzed as methyl ester derivatives, which were obtained by reaction with 10 % acetyl chloride in methanol and separated in a BPX-5 wide-bore column using tridecanoic acid as internal standard. The specificity study showed no interferences regarding the determination of this mixture, once the samples were submitted to stress conditions. Determination of the total fatty acid content was linear (r > 0.999; CVs of the response factors and of the slopes lower than 5 and 2 %, respectively) and without bias in the studied concentration range, from 50 to 150 % of the nominal mass. In the accuracy study, over the range 80 to 120 % of the nominal fatty acid concentration, high recoveries (100.4 to 100.8 %) were reached. Good results were obtained in the repeatability and intermediate precision studies (CV < 2%), proving that the method is precise. These results support that this method is properly validated, being appropriate for the quality control and stability studies of this active ingredient

  2. Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Three Main Active Ingredients of Chinese Chenopodium Ambrosioides (Family: Chenopodiaceae Against Blattella Germanica

    Wei Xiang Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides flowering aerial parts and its three mainactive ingredients was evaluated against Blattella germanica male adults.Methods: Composition of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Topical application bioassay was used to evaluatecontact toxicity of essential oil and three main components. Fumigant toxicity of essential oil and its main components was measured using a sealed space method.Results: Twenty-two components were identified in the essential oil and the main components were (Z-ascaridole(29.7%, isoascaridole (13.0%, ρ-cymene (12.7% and piperitone (5.0%. The essential oil and (Z-ascaridole,isoascaridole and -cymene possessed fumigant toxicity against male German cockroaches with LC50 values of 4.13,0.55, 2.07 and 6.92 mg/L air, respectively. Topical application bioassay showed that all the three compounds weretoxic to male German cockroaches and (Z-ascaridole was the strongest with a LD50 value of 22.02 g/adult while the crude oil with a LD50 value of 67.46 g/adult.Conclusion: The essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides and its three main active ingredients may be explored as natural potential insecticides in the control of cockroaches.

  3. The use of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not only an antioxidant active ingredient.

    Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Campos, Patricia M B G Maia

    2013-01-01

    Green tea (GT) extracts contain polyphenols, known to be effective free radical scavengers, and other ingredients that could also provide benefits to the skin. This is a report on clinical studies using objective, noninvasive methods to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing GT. Experimental formulations were supplemented or not (vehicle) with 6% Camellia sinensis glycolic leaf extracts (GT). These formulations were applied to the forearm skin of 24 volunteers, and their effects were evaluated before and after 2 hours, 15 and 30 days according to the following parameters: stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, skin viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio (Uv/Ue), and microrelief. The volunteers were instructed not to apply any formulation in an area of the forearm (control area). Experimental formulations (GT) increased skin moisture in the long-term study, indicating that GT has a prolonged moisturizing effect. The Uv/Ue was significantly enhanced after 30 days of topical application of the experimental formulation when compared with vehicle and control. After 15-30 days, skin microrelief was significantly improved due to a reduction in skin roughness. The results suggest that GT-containing cosmetic formulations have pronounced moisturizing effects and improve skin microrelief. PMID:23742288

  4. On the direct characterization and quantification of active ingredients in commercial solid drugs using PIXE, PIGE and TOF-SIMS techniques

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like LC-MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, . . .), elemental IBA like PIXE and PIGE techniques, using small tandem accelerator of 1 - 2 MV, can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparations. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick Target PIXE and PIGE technique for rapid and accurate quantification of low concentration of different fluorinated, sulfured and chlorinated active ingredients in several commercial anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory commercial drugs. In this work we will demonstrate the ability of PIXE and PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of Celecoxib and Atorvastatin active ingredients contained in several solid commercial drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed. In addition, the Time of Flight Secondary Ion Emission using multicharged Ar ions with ∼ 10 MeV energy, delivered by a 4 MV Vander Graaf single stage accelerator, was used for structural and chemical analysis for some cases of binary commercial drugs containing two different active ingredients. The aspect of sample preparation and the role of excipient will be highlighted and discussed. (author)

  5. Direct detection and identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in intact tablets by helium plasma ionization (HePI) mass spectrometry

    Athula B. Attygalle; Freneil B. Jariwala; Julius Pavlov; Zhihua Yang; Jason A. Mahr; Mabel Oviedo

    2014-01-01

    A simple modification converts an electrospray ion source to an ambient-pressure helium plasma ionization source without the need of additional expensive hardware. Peaks for active ingredients were observed in the spectra recorded from intact pharmaceutical tablets placed in this source. A flow of heated nitrogen was used to thermally desorb analytes to gas phase. The desorption temperatures were sometimes as low as 50 1C. For example, negative-ion spectra recorded from an aspirin tablet showed peaks at m/z 137 (salicylate anion) and 179 (acetylsalicylate anion) which were absent in the background spectra. The overall ion intensity increased as the desorption gas temperature was elevated. Within the same acquisition experiment, both positive- and negative-ion signals for acetaminophen were recorded from volatiles emanating from Tylenol tablets by switching the polarity of the capillary back and forth. Moreover, different preparations of acetaminophen tablets could be distinguished by their ion-intensity thermograms.

  6. An Introduction to the Prequalification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients%WHO原料药预认证项目简介

    杜雯君; 梁毅

    2012-01-01

    Search the WHO website for guidanc e and technical documents for Prequalification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients,and translate and compile the program.Conclusion:Learn the relevant regulations of international organization and requirements of technology in depth,to form the system of drug management which meets the international standards,only in this way can we enter the international market as soon as possible.%检索WHO药品预认证项目技术指南,翻译并整理原料药预认证项目的工作程序。结论:只有深入学习国际组织相关法规和技术要求、建立符合国际标准的监管体系,才能有效推进我国制药产品早日进入国际市场。

  7. Optimization of HS-GC-FID-MS Method for Residual Solvent Profiling in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using DoE.

    Poceva Panovska, Ana; Acevska, Jelena; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Brezovska, Katerina; Petkovska, Rumenka; Dimitrovska, Aneta

    2016-02-01

    Within this research, a headspace (HS) gas chromatography-flame ionization detector-mass spectrometry method was developed for profiling of residual solvents (RSs) in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Design of experiment was used for optimization of sample preparation, as well as for robustness testing of the method. HS equilibration temperature and dilution medium were detected as parameters with greater impact on the sensitivity, compared with the time used for equilibration of the samples. Regardless of the sample solubility, the use of water for sample preparation was found to be crucial for better sensitivity. The use of a well-designed strategy for method development and robustness testing, additional level of identification confidence, as well as use of internal standard provided a strong and reliable analytical tool for API fingerprinting, thus enabling the authentication of the substance based on the RS profile. PMID:26290585

  8. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Chu, Qingcui; Wu, Ting; Fu, Liang; Ye, Jiannong

    2005-03-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ED) method was developed for the determination of the pharmacologically active ingredients in Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. and its extract phytopharmaceuticals in this work. Under the optimum conditions, nine analytes, baicalein, naringenin, scopoletin, kaempferol, apigenin, scutellarin, luteolin, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid were separated within 24 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 1.0 x 10(-7) g/mL to 5.6 x 10(-7) g/mL for all nine analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of E. breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. and its phytopharmaceuticals with a relatively simple extraction procedure, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:15740914

  9. On the novel action of melanolysis by a leaf extract of Aloe vera and its active ingredient aloin, potent skin depigmenting agents.

    Ali, Sharique A; Galgut, Jyoti M; Choudhary, Ram K

    2012-05-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of an Aloe vera leaf extract, along with its standard active ingredient aloin, on the isolated tail melanophores of Bufo melanostictus tadpoles, which are a type of disguised smooth muscle cells offering excellent in vitro opportunities for studying the effects of pharmacological and pharmaceutical agents. It was found that the leaf extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin induced powerful, dose-dependent, physiologically significant melanin aggregating effects in the isolated tail melanophores of B. melanostictus similar to those of adrenaline per se. These preliminary findings clearly demonstrate that the extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin cause melanin aggregation leading to skin lightening via alpha adrenergic receptor stimulation. The present study opens new vistas for the use of A. vera regarding its clinical application as a new nontoxic melanolytic agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. PMID:22495441

  10. Studies on free-radical scavenging activity and identification of active ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita collected from Sur, Sultanate of Oman

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Aqeela Said Hamed AL Orimi; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine free radical scavenging activity and active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita). Methods: The dried powder leaves of M. piperita were extracted with polar organic solvent by Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract and its fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol crude extracts were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from M. piperita was carried out by DPPH method with minor modification, and the active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of M. piperita were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Qualitative analysis of different polarities crude extracts by GC-MS found different types of active organic compounds. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts were found to be in the order of chloroform extract> butanol extract> ethyl acetate extract> hexane extract>methanol extract. Majority identified compounds in the plant crude extracts by GC-MS were biologically active. Conclusions: Therefore, the isolation, purification, identification and characterization of bioactive compounds from various crude extracts of M. piperita might have ecological significance.

  11. Studies on free-radical scavenging activity and identification of active ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita collected from Sur, Sultanate of Oman

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine free radical scavenging activity and active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita. Methods: The dried powder leaves of M. piperita were extracted with polar organic solvent by Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract and its fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol crude extracts were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from M. piperita was carried out by DPPH method with minor modification, and the active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of M. piperita were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS. Results: Qualitative analysis of different polarities crude extracts by GC-MS found different types of active organic compounds. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts were found to be in the order of chloroform extract> butanol extract> ethyl acetate extract> hexane extract> methanol extract. Majority identified compounds in the plant crude extracts by GC-MS were biologically active. Conclusions: Therefore, the isolation, purification, identification and characterization of bioactive compounds from various crude extracts of M. piperita might have ecological significance.

  12. [Effect of different nitrogen forms and ratio on growth and active ingredient content of Platycodon grandiflorum].

    Duan, Yun-jing; Wang, Kang-cai; Niu, Ling-hui; Li, Ke; Su, Yun-yun

    2015-10-01

    To providing evidence about nitrogen adequate application of Platycodon grandiflorum, the pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen on the growth, physiological metabolism and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The activity of NR, GS and SOD, POD and CAT were determined. And the nitrate and ammonium nitrogen content, photosynthetic characteristics, active components of P. grandiflorum were determined. The results showed that the nitrate nitrogen content and P. biomass reached its maximum value, when NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N was 0: 100, the activity of NR. The activity of GS was the highest at the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25:75 and ammonium nitrogen content was the highest at 75:25. The activity of SOD decreased and then increased with the increasing of NO3(-) -N. At the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75, the activity of CAT had its maximum value and the content of MDA had the minimum value. At the same time, the content of platycodon D was the highest at this treatment. The studies had shown that different nitrogen forms and ratio had a significant effect on the characteristics of photosynthetic physiology, nitrogen metabolism and resistance adjustment, growth and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75 was a suitable ratio of nitrogen forms for the growth of P. Grandiflorum and accumulating the content of platycodon D. PMID:26975097

  13. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activities of ingredients of Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.

    Hou, Yan; Lu, Chuan-Li; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. is used in Chinese Pharmacopoeia as health food and folk medicine for removing blood stasis, alleviating pain and tumor therapy. This research was aimed to explore and compare three main bioactivities including anti-oxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities between the ethanol extract of C. Phaeocaulis and its fractions using different in vitro models. Firstly, 70 % ethanol was used to extract C. Phaeocaulis, and then the crude extract was re-extracted, resulting in petroleum ether (EZ-PE), ethyl acetate (EZ-EA), and water fractions (EZ-W), respectively, and then a series of index was detected. Results showed that all the extracts had medium DPPH radical scavenging activity when the concentration was 200 μg/ml and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was in a concentration-dependent manner. The extracts except ethanol extract of C. Phaeocaulis had almost no cytotoxicity to the survival of RAW264.7 cell when the concentration reached 80 μg/ml, and all of them had medium inhibitory effect on nitrite release. Extracts of C. Phaeocaulis had medium intensity antitumor activity, EZ-PE and EZ-EA fractions significantly inhibited the proliferation of four tumor cells (SMMC-7721 cell lines, HepG-2 cell lines, A549 cell lines and Hela cell lines). C. Phaeocaulis had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which did not carry out centralized phenomenon when re-extracted. EZ-PE and EZ-EA were active antitumor sites of C. Phaeocaulis. PMID:26648822

  14. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky; Essam Abd El Rahman Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra) and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds.Methods:The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique.Results:The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α-linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic>nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H.triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  15. Intrinsic Motivation and Engagement as "Active Ingredients" in Garden-Based Education: Examining Models and Measures Derived from Self-Determination Theory

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Chi, Una

    2012-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, this study presents a model of intrinsic motivation and engagement as "active ingredients" in garden-based education. The model was used to create reliable and valid measures of key constructs, and to guide the empirical exploration of motivational processes in garden-based learning. Teacher- and…

  16. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-Cyclodextrin as the active ingredient

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were chosen for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB ...

  17. Attractive toxic sugar baits: Control of mosquitoes with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on non-target organisms in Morocco

    We evaluated the efficacy of ATSB in the laboratory and the field with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. Assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes a...

  18. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review.

    Bharate, Sonali S.; Bharate, Sandip B.; Bajaj, Amrita N.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literaturereports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different...

  19. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activities of ingredients of Curcuma phaeocaulis Val

    Hou, Yan; Lu, Chuan-li; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. is used in Chinese Pharmacopoeia as health food and folk medicine for removing blood stasis, alleviating pain and tumor therapy. This research was aimed to explore and compare three main bioactivities including anti-oxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities between the ethanol extract of C. Phaeocaulis and its fractions using different in vitro models. Firstly, 70 % ethanol was used to extract C. Phaeocaulis, and then the crude extract was re-extracted, resu...

  20. The possibilities of using essential oils as an active ingredients or preservatives in cosmetic products

    Adaszy?ska, Michalina; Swarcewicz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    An important trend in the development of the cosmetics industry is searching for new biologically active, natural compounds and preservative systems, which will find application in the natural cosmetics production. Natural cosmetics are of considerable interest nowadays and essential oils could be employed in theirs production. The huge potential of essential oils indicates the possibility of applying them in practice because of theirs antibacterial, antiseptic, antifungal, and antioxidant...

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF WATER EXTRACTS OF TRIKATU CHURNA AND ITS INDIVIDUAL INGREDIENT

    P.R. Malvankar* and M. M. Abhyankar

    2012-01-01

    Trikatu churna is one of the traditional poly herbal preparation, formed by mixing equal quantities of three important spicy materials such as Piper longum L. (Piperaceae), Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). Trikatu is also known as “ Three Bitters”. The trikatu preparation was reported to contain alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, steroids, lignin & saponins. The objective of study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of trikatu churna & i...

  2. MICROSPONGE DELIVERY SYSTEM (MDS: A UNIQUE TECHNOLOGY FOR DELIVERY OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

    Saurabh Kumar et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In pharmaceutical industry, various controlled released dosage forms like solid formulation, semi solid formulation and topical preparation have more importance due to efficacy and patient compliance. Topical preparations have some disadvantages like unpleasant odour, greasiness and skin irritation and fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. This problem is overcome by microsponge delivery system. Microsponges are tiny sponge like spherical and highly porous micro-sized particles with a unique ability for entrapping actives. They offers programmable release active drug into the skin in order to reduce systemic exposure and minimize local cutaneous reactions to active. These MDS’s are closely related to microspheres, and used in the sun screens, creams, ointments, over- the-counter (OTC skin care preparations, recently used in oral drug as well as biopharmaceuticals (peptides, proteins and DNA-based therapeutics drug delivery. The present review introduces microsponge technology along with its synthesis, characterization, programmable parameters and release mechanism of MDS.

  3. Diffusion of active ingredients in textiles: a three step multiscale model

    Goessens, Tineke; Malengier, Benny; Li, Pei; De Staelen, Rob H.

    2013-01-01

    Most practical textile models are based on a two scale approach: a one-dimensional fiber model and a fabric model. No meso-level is used in between, i.e. the yarn scale is neglected in this setup. For dense textile substrates this seems appropriate as the yarns connect everywhere, but for loose fabrics or scrims this approach cannot be kept. Specifically when one is interested in tracking an active component released by the fibers, the yarn level plays an important role. This is because the satu...

  4. Determination of antioxidant activity in herbal ingredients for foods using new methods of chemical analysis

    Katalina Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure has been used to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds 18 samples of Thymus vulgaris and 12 samples of Rosmarinus officinalis (both used as natural food preservatives, based on the combination of HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and postchromatographic DPPH● radical derivatization. The compounds thymol and rosmarinic acid in T. vulgaris and R. officinalis, respectively, were identified by comparisons of their Rf values and UV spectra to standards analyzed under identical analytical conditions, while the quantitative data were calculated from their calibration curves. We found that not only that the biomass yield but also the metabolite content in herbs, depend on the ecotype (genetics and on the agro ecological conditions. The effect of the ambient on the metabolite content is extremely significant and also on their antioxidant activity (One-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison post test was performed using GraphPad Prism version 4.00 for Windows, GraphPad Software. This work pretends to demonstrate the great importance of using new technologies for the selection of the best materials used as natural food preservatives.

  5. Piperine, an active ingredient of black pepper attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Evan Prince Sabina; Annie Deborah Harris Souriyan; Deborah Jackline; Mahaboob Khan Rasool

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of piperine against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Methods: In mice, hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of acetaminophen (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.). Piperine (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) and standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) were given to mice, 30 min after the single injection of acetaminophen. After 4 h, the mice were decapitated. Activities of liver marker enzymes [(aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] and inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were estimated in serum, while lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase and glutathione) were determined in liver homogenate of control and experimental mice. Results: Acetaminophen induction (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) significantly increased the levels of liver marker enzymes, TNF-α, and lipid peroxidation, and caused the depletion of antioxidant status. Piperine and silymarin treatment to acetaminophen challenged mice resulted in decreased liver marker enzymes activity, TNF-α and lipid peroxidation levels with increase in antioxidant status. Conclusions: The results clearly demonstrate that piperine shows promising hepatoprotective effect as comparable to standard drug silymarin.

  6. Characterizing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Binding to Human Serum Albumin by Spin-Labeling and EPR Spectroscopy.

    Hauenschild, Till; Reichenwallner, Jörg; Enkelmann, Volker; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2016-08-26

    Drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) has been characterized by a spin-labeling and continuous-wave (CW) EPR spectroscopic approach. Specifically, the contribution of functional groups (FGs) in a compound on its albumin-binding capabilities is quantitatively described. Molecules from different drug classes are labeled with EPR-active nitroxide radicals (spin-labeled pharmaceuticals (SLPs)) and in a screening approach CW-EPR spectroscopy is used to investigate HSA binding under physiological conditions and at varying ratios of SLP to protein. Spectral simulations of the CW-EPR spectra allow extraction of association constants (KA ) and the maximum number (n) of binding sites per protein. By comparison of data from 23 SLPs, the mechanisms of drug-protein association and the impact of chemical modifications at individual positions on drug uptake can be rationalized. Furthermore, new drug modifications with predictable protein binding tendency may be envisaged. PMID:27460503

  7. New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Ani Barbulova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.

  8. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding patterns of co-crystals containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) phloroglucinol and N-heterocycles.

    Cvetkovski, Aleksandar; Bertolasi, Valerio; Ferretti, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    The active pharmaceutical ingredient phloroglucinol (PHL) has been taken as an illustrative molecule to explore the intermolecular interactions which can be established with other molecular entities to build PHL pharmaceutical co-crystals. The crystal structures of five newly synthesized co-crystals are reported, where PHL is crystallized with N-heterocycles, namely 2-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine (1), 2,4-dimethyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (2), 4-phenylpyridine (3), 2-hydroxypyridine (4) and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (5). The structural characteristics of these co-crystals, as far as the hydrogen-bonding networks and the crystalline architectures are concerned, are strongly dependent on the chemical features of the coformer molecules, as well as on their size and shape. A detailed analysis of the intermolecular interactions established in all the PHL co-crystals of known structures has allowed the recognition of some regularities in the packing modes that can be useful in the design of new supramolecular adducts forming predictable structural motifs. PMID:27240764

  9. Direct Determination of ECD in ECD Kit: A Solid Sample Quantitation Method for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in Drug Product

    Ming-Yu Chao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD is an essential imaging agent used in evaluating the regional cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Determination of active pharmaceutical ingredient, that is, L-Cysteine, N, N′-1,2-ethanediylbis-, diethyl ester, dihydrochloride (ECD in ECD Kit is a relevant requirement for the pharmaceutical quality control in processes of mass fabrication. We here presented a direct solid sample determination method of ECD in ECD Kit without sample dissolution to avoid the rapid degradation of ECD. An elemental analyzer equipped with a nondispersive infrared detector and a calibration curve of coal standard was used for the quantitation of sulfur in ECD Kit. No significant matrix effect was found. The peak area of coal standard against the amount of sulfur was linear over the range of 0.03–0.10 mg, with a correlation coefficient ( of 0.9993. Method validation parameters were achieved to demonstrate the potential of this method.

  10. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-08-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2-4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods.

  11. A Tape Method for Fast Characterization and Identification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the 2-18 THz Spectral Range

    Kissi, Eric Ofosu; Bawuah, Prince; Silfsten, Pertti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2015-03-01

    In order to find counterfeit drugs quickly and reliably, we have developed `tape method' a transmission spectroscopic terahertz (THz) measurement technique and compared it with a standard attenuated total reflection (ATR) THz spectroscopic measurement. We used well-known training samples, which include commercial paracetamol and aspirin tablets to check the validity of these two measurement techniques. In this study, the spectral features of some active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), such as aspirin and paracetamol are characterized for identification purpose. This work covers a wide THz spectral range namely, 2-18 THz. This proposed simple but novel technique, the tape method, was used for characterizing API and identifying their presence in their dosage forms. By comparing the spectra of the APIs to their dosage forms (powder samples), all distinct fingerprints present in the APIs are also present in their respective dosage forms. The positions of the spectral features obtained with the ATR techniques were akin to that obtained from the tape method. The ATR and the tape method therefore, complement each other. The presence of distinct fingerprints in this spectral range has highlighted the possibility of developing fast THz sensors for the screening of pharmaceuticals. It is worth noting that, the ATR method is applicable to flat faced tablets whereas the tape method is suitable for powders in general (e.g. curved surface tablets that require milling before measurement). Finally, we have demonstrated that ATR techniques can be used to screen counterfeit antimalarial tablets.

  12. Quantitation of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients in powder blends using designed multivariate calibration models by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Li, Weiyong; Worosila, Gregory D

    2005-05-13

    This research note demonstrates the simultaneous quantitation of a pharmaceutical active ingredient and three excipients in a simulated powder blend containing acetaminophen, Prosolv and Crospovidone. An experimental design approach was used in generating a 5-level (%, w/w) calibration sample set that included 125 samples. The samples were prepared by weighing suitable amount of powders into separate 20-mL scintillation vials and were mixed manually. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used in calibration model development. The models generated accurate results for quantitation of Crospovidone (at 5%, w/w) and magnesium stearate (at 0.5%, w/w). Further testing of the models demonstrated that the 2-level models were as effective as the 5-level ones, which reduced the calibration sample number to 50. The models had a small bias for quantitation of acetaminophen (at 30%, w/w) and Prosolv (at 64.5%, w/w) in the blend. The implication of the bias is discussed. PMID:15848006

  13. A Hybrid MPC-PID Control System Design for the Continuous Purification and Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Maitraye Sen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  14. Application of the KeratinoSens™ assay for assessing the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical active ingredients and formulations.

    Settivari, Raja S; Gehen, Sean C; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Visconti, Nicolo R; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of skin sensitization potential is an important component of the safety evaluation process for agrochemical products. Recently, non-animal approaches including the KeratinoSens™ assay have been developed for predicting skin sensitization potential. Assessing the utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for use with multi-component mixtures such as agrochemical formulations has not been previously evaluated and is a significant need. This study was undertaken to evaluate the KeratinoSens™ assay prediction potential for agrochemical formulations. The assay was conducted for 8 agrochemical active ingredients (AIs) including 3 sensitizers (acetochlor, meptyldinocap, triclopyr), 5 non-sensitizers (aminopyralid, clopyralid, florasulam, methoxyfenozide, oxyfluorfen) and 10 formulations for which in vivo sensitization data were available. The KeratinoSens™ correctly predicted the sensitization potential of all the AIs. For agrochemical formulations it was necessary to modify the standard assay procedure whereby the formulation was assumed to have a common molecular weight. The resultant approach correctly predicted the sensitization potential for 3 of 4 sensitizing formulations and all 6 non-sensitizing formulations when compared to in vivo data. Only the meptyldinocap-containing formulation was misclassified, as a result of high cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate the promising utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for evaluating the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical AIs and formulations. PMID:25981449

  15. Elemental characterization of marijuana (cannabis sativa) as a stride in the isolation of its active ingredients

    Seed, stem and leaves samples of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) popularly called Indian Hemp available in northern Nigeria were analyzed for trace amounts of Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Na, Br, La, Yb, Cr, Fe, Zn, and Ba using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Sample sizes of roughly 300mg irradiated for five minutes (short irradiation) and six hours (long irradiation), with decay times of 7 minutes, 10,000 minutes and 26,000 minutes for short, medium and long-lived nuclides respectively. Counting times for ten minutes (short-lived nuclides), 1,800 minutes (medium-lived nuclides) and 36,000 minutes (long-lived nuclides) yielded detection limits between 0.05 - 0.09μg/g. For comparative study, refined tobacco produced by a tobacco company operating in northern Nigeria were characterized together with the marijuana-which is usually smoked raw with leaves stem and seed packed together. The results obtained shows that both the refined tobacco and the raw marijuana have high c oncentration of Ca, Mg, Al and Mn and low values of Na, Br and La. However, marijuana was found to have heavy elements in abundance compared to the refined tobacco, with Zn = 20.5 μg/g and Cr = 14.3μg/g recording the highest values among the heavy elements detected. This is a sharp difference between the two since the values of heavy elements obtained for the refined tobacco are even below detection limits. Quality Control and Quality Assurance was tested using certified reference material obtained from NIST (Tomato Leaves).

  16. Khaya grandifoliola C.DC: a potential source of active ingredients against hepatitis C virus in vitro.

    Galani, Borris Rosnay Tietcheu; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Sass, Gabriele; Njayou, Frédéric Nico; Loscher, Christine; Mkounga, Pierre; Deloison, Gaspard; Brodin, Priscille; Rouillé, Yves; Tiegs, Gisa; Séron, Karin; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we examined the antiviral properties of Khaya grandifoliola C.DC (Meliaceae) on the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle in vitro and identified some of the chemical constituents contained in the fraction with the most antiviral activity. Dried bark powder was extracted by maceration in a methylene chloride/methanol (MCM) system (50:50; v/v) and separated on silica gel by flash chromatography. Infection and replication rates in Huh-7 cells were investigated by luciferase reporter assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay using subgenomic replicons, HCV pseudotyped particles, and cell-culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), respectively. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, and cellular gene expression was analysed by qRT-PCR. The chemical composition of the fraction with the most antiviral activity was analysed by coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five fractions of different polarities (F0-F100) were obtained from the MCM extract. One fraction (KgF25) showed the strongest antiviral effect on LucUbiNeoET replicons at nontoxic concentrations. Tested at 100 µg/mL, KgF25 had a high inhibitory effect on HCV replication, comparable to that of 0.01 µM daclatasvir or 1 µM telaprevir. This fraction also inhibited HCVcc infection by mostly targeting the entry step. KgF25 inhibited HCV entry in a pan-genotypic manner by directly inactivating free viral particles. Its antiviral effects were mediated by the transcriptional upregulation of the haem oxygenase-1 gene and interferon antiviral response. Three constituents, namely, benzene, 1,1'-(oxydiethylidene)bis (1), carbamic acid, (4-methylphenyl)-, 1-phenyl (2), and 6-phenyl, 4-(1'-oxyethylphenyl) hexene (3), were identified from the active fraction KgF25 by GC-MS. Khaya grandifoliola contains ingredients capable of acting on different steps of the HCV life cycle. PMID:26843184

  17. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF NITROGEN (N) APPLICATION ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC MATERIAL INGREDIENT OF SORREL (RUMEX ACETOSA L.)

    Adiloğlu, Sevinç; Açıkgöz, Funda Eryılmaz; Dağlıoğlu, Figen; Barut Gök, Sıla; Altan, Deniz Damla

    2015-01-01

    In this study, The effect of different doses of nitrogen (N) application on the antioxidant activity and phenolic material ingredient of sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) are investigated. In the test, four various doses of nitrogen NH4NO3 fertilizer have been applied to the plants. As a result, it has been determined that the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of Sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) have parallels with the increase in the application of nitrogen.

  18. 77 FR 55488 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Designation of Attorney in Fact

    2012-09-10

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities: Designation of Attorney in Fact The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement... Budget. Comments should be addressed to OMB Desk Officer, for United States Immigration and...

  19. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract and some of its active ingredients as potential emulsion stabilizers: a new approach to the formation of multiple (W/O/W) emulsion.

    Cizauskaite, Ugne; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakštas, Valdas; Marksiene, Ruta; Jonaitiene, Laimute; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives are under intense investigations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate how the rosemary extract and some of its active ingredients [rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA)] affect technological characteristics of multiple emulsion. Formulation has been prepared by adding investigated solutions (10%) in water/oil/water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion consisting of different lipophilic phases: olive oil and liquid paraffin, with 0.5% emulsifying agent (complex of sodium polyacrylate and polysorbate 20) under constant stirring with mechanical stirrer at room temperature. The emulsion parameters were evaluated using centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test, microscopical and texture analyses. Rosemary's triterpenic saponins UA and OA showed the highest emulsion stabilizing properties: they decreased CI from 3.26% to 10.23% (p rosemary active ingredients is not surfactant-like. Even though emulsifier itself at low concentration intends to form directly the multiple emulsion, the obtained results indicate that rosemary extract containing active ingredients does not only serve as functional cosmetic agent due to a number of biological activities, but also offer potential advantages as a stabilizer and an enhancer of W/O/W emulsions formation for dermopharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:26000558

  20. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    In this contribution the ability of 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T1(1H) and T1ρ(1H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in 19F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around 19F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded 19F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way 19F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  1. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    Marguí, Eva, E-mail: eva.margui@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Queralt, Ignasi, E-mail: iqueralt@ictja.csic.es [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, Solé Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Hidalgo, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.hidalgo@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements.

  2. Measurement of low amounts of amorphous content in hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients with dynamic organic vapor sorption.

    Müller, Thorsten; Schiewe, Jörg; Smal, Rüdiger; Weiler, Claudius; Wolkenhauer, Markus; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    Today, a variety of devices for dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is available and many different formulations for optimized deposition in the lung are developed. However, during the production of powder inhalers, processing steps may induce changes to both, the carrier and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). It is well known that standard pharmaceutical operations may lead to structural changes, crystal defects and amorphous regions. Especially operations such as milling, blending and even sieving generate these effects. These disorders may induce re-crystallization and particle size changes post-production which have a huge influence on drug delivery and product stability. In this study, pilot tests with a polar solvent (water) and hydrophilic drug (Salbutamol sulfate) were performed to receive a first impression on further possible implementation of hydrophobic samples with organic solvents. Thereafter, a reliable method for the accurate detection of low amounts of amorphous content is described up to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.5% for a hydrophobic model API (Ciclesonide). The organic vapor sorption method which is a gravimetric method quantifies exactly these low amounts of amorphous content in the hydrophobic powder once the suitable solvent (isopropanol), the correct p/p0 value (0.1) and the exact temperature (25°C) have been found. Afterward it was possible to quantitate low amorphous amounts in jet-milled powders (0.5-17.0%). In summary, the data of the study led to a clearer understanding in what quantity amorphous parts were generated in single production steps and how variable these parts behave to fully crystalline material. Nevertheless it showed how difficult it was to re-crystallize hydrophobic material with water vapor over a short period. For the individual samples it was possible to determine the single humidity at which the material starts to re-crystallize, the behavior against different nonpolar solvents and the calculation of the

  3. Impact of alternative solid state forms and specific surface area of high-dose, hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability.

    Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of using different solid state forms and specific surface area (TBET) of active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability and dissolution performance, the mono- and dihydrated crystalline forms of chlorothiazide sodium and chlorothiazide potassium (CTZK) salts were compared to alternative anhydrous and amorphous forms, as well as to amorphous microparticles of chlorothiazide sodium and potassium which were produced by spray drying and had a large specific surface area. The tablet hardness and tensile strength, porosity, and specific surface area of single-component, convex tablets prepared at different compression pressures were characterized. Results confirmed the complexity of the compressibility mechanisms. In general it may be concluded that factors such as solid-state form (crystalline vs amorphous), type of hydration (presence of interstitial molecules of water, dehydrates), or specific surface area of the material have a direct impact on the tabletability of the powder. It was observed that, for powders of the same solid state form, those with a larger specific surface area compacted well, and better than powders of a lower surface area, even at relatively low compression pressures. Compacts prepared at lower compression pressures from high surface area porous microparticles presented the shortest times to dissolve, when compared with compacts made of equivalent materials, which had to be compressed at higher compression pressures in order to obtain satisfactory compacts. Therefore, materials composed of nanoparticulate microparticles (NPMPs) may be considered as suitable for direct compaction and possibly for inclusion in tablet formulations as bulking agents, APIs, carriers, or binders due to their good compactibility performance. PMID:23961942

  4. Thermal, mechanical and drug release characteristics of an acrylic film using active pharmaceutical ingredient as non-traditional plasticizer.

    Wiranidchapong, Chutima; Kieongarm, Waraporn; Managit, Chittima; Phrompittayarat, Watoo

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate thermal and mechanical properties as well as in vitro drug release of Eudragit® RL (ERL) film using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as either active pharmaceutical ingredient or non-traditional plasticizer. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg) of 0-100% w/w CPM in ERL physical mixture. Instron testing machine was used to investigate Young's modulus, tensile stress and tensile strain (%) of ERL film containing 20-60% w/w CPM. Finally, a Franz diffusion cell was used to study drug release from ERL films obtained from four formulations, i.e. CRHP0/0, CRHP0/5, CRHP2/0 and CRHP2/5. The Tg of ERL was decreased when the weight percentage of CPM increased. The reduction of the Tg could be described by Kwei equation, indicating the interaction between CPM and ERL. Modulus and tensile stress decreased whereas tensile strain (%) increased when weight percentage of CPM increased. The change of mechanical properties was associated with the reduction of the Tg when weight percentage of CPM increased. ERL films obtained from four formulations could release the drug in no less than 10 h. Cumulative amount of drug release per unit area of ERL film containing only CPM (CRHP0/0) was lower than those obtained from the formulations containing traditional plasticizer (CRHP0/5), surfactant (CRHP2/0) or both of them (CRHP2/5). The increase of drug release was a result of the increase of drug permeability through ERL film and drug solubility based on traditional plasticizer and surfactant, respectively. PMID:26133082

  5. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements

  6. A target analogue imprinted polymer for the recognition of antiplatelet active ingredients in Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae by LC/MS/MS.

    Huang, Meixia; Pang, Wensheng; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Siding; Hu, Juan

    2012-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a propyl gallate (PrG) molecular imprinted polymer as a cartridge stuffing material to isolate antiplatelet active ingredients. A macroporous polymer was synthesized utilizing ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the crosslinking agent, PrG as the template molecule and 4-vinylpyridine (4-Vpy) as the functional monomer. Subsequently, PrG was removed by washing with methanol-glacial acetic acid (9:1, v/v). The molecular imprinted polymer recognized an active ingredient, protocatechuic acid, from a crude extract of the Chinese herbal medicine, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Danshen), using an on-line column switching solid phase extraction process. Pharmacological experiments showed that protocatechuic acid inhibits arachidonic acid (10 mg/kg) induced aggregation of rat platelets in vivo. This study provides an example of an application of separation-analysis technique for screening potentially bioactive compounds. PMID:21978827

  7. On the direct characterization and quantification of active ingredients in commercial solid drugs using PIXE, PIGE and ToF-SIMS techniques

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like HPLC, LC-MS/MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, Br, ...), elemental IBA technique can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparation. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick target PIXE (TT-PIXE) and the TT-PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of celecoxib and atorvastatin in commercial solid drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed. (author)

  8. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  9. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Buddenborg, Sarah K; Adema, Coen M.; Sullivan, John T.; Loker, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy–based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biolog...

  10. Influence of environmental factors on the contents of active ingredients and radical scavenging property of potentilla fruticosa in the main production areas of China

    Extracts from Potentilla fruticosa have been applied in traditional medicine and exhibited antioxidant property, but little has been known about the diversity of phytochemicals and properties on this species from different growing environment. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active ingredient contents and radical scavenging property of P. fruticosa from different production areas of China in order to discover a location could produce high-quality resources for pharmaceutical products. The contents of tannin, total flavonoids, and rutin were determined and varied within the range of 7.64 ± 0.43 ∼ 10.68 ± 0.67 percentage, 2.29 ± 0.34 ∼ 5.37 ± 0.36 percentage, and 0.19 ± 0.053 ∼ 0.79 ± 0.125 percentage, respectively. Radical scavenging property was quantified, with the IC /sub 50/ of 7.24 ± 0.423 to 17.23 ± 0.551 μ g mL-1. Principal component analysis, multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, and path analysis were conducted to further analysis the relationship between the variations of active ingredients and radical scavenging capacity and growth environment. The results showed dominant environmental factors for these variations were rapidly available nitrogen, rapidly available phosphorus, pH, July average temperature, and annual sunshine duration. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between pH, annual sunshine duration and active ingredients and radical scavenging property (p<0.05). Considering the high active ingredient contents and strong radical scavenging property, leaf extracts from P. fruticosa could become useful supplements for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant agent, and Huzhu Northern Mountain in Qinghai Province and E-mei Mountain in Sichuan Province were selected as favorable production locations. (author)

  11. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method. PMID:27439589

  12. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method.

  13. Homeopathy – what are the active ingredients? An exploratory study using the UK Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex interventions

    Weiss Marjorie; Thompson Trevor DB

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Research in homeopathy has traditionally addressed itself to defining the effectiveness of homeopathic potencies in comparison to placebo medication. There is now increasing awareness that the homeopathic consultation is in itself a therapeutic intervention working independently or synergistically with the prescribed remedy. Our objective was to identify and evalute potential "active ingredients" of the homeopathic approach as a whole, in a prospective formal case series, ...

  14. In vitro effects of buyang huanwu decoction and its ingredients on inhibiting the specific binding of 3H-platelet activating factor to its receptor in rabbits

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic action of traditional Chinese medicine compound is the comprehensive effect of various ingredients, and the interactions of various ingredients are closely correlated with the final effect. In order to reveal the compatibility mechanism of buyang huanwu decoction (BHD)'s prescription in treating and preventing ischemic cerebrovascular disease, we need to explore the effect and relation of ingredients in prescription except for considering the effect of each ingredient on the whole prescription.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of BHD and its ingredients in the prescription on the specific binding of 3H-platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor (PAFR)in rabbits in vitro, and to analyze the action of each ingredient in the prescription.DESIGN: A decomposed recipe study based on orthogonal test.SETTING: Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Five healthy adult New Zealand rabbits of either gender were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese medicine. The prescription herbal pieces were purchased from Foshan Kangpu Pharmaceuticals Company and Jianmin Pharmaceuticals Company, and were appraised by Professor Yanchen Xu from College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 3H-PAF was supplied by Amersham Co.,Ltd.(Specific activity:6.475 TBq/mmol;batch number:200402); PAF standard by Biomol Co., Ltd.(batch number: P1318V).METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between September and December 2004. ① The seven influencing factors were selected: such as Shenghuangqi , Dangguiwei, Chishao, Dilong, Taoren, Honghua, Chuanxiong. Each factor was divided into two levels, selected or not selected. The tests were arranged according to L8 (27) orthogonal test table. ②The specific binding of 3H-PAF to its receptors in rabbits was measured by

  15. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures. PMID:2577452

  16. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  17. "Natural" ingredients in cosmetic dermatology.

    Baumann, Leslie; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Friedman, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Recently, both clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of certain botanical ingredients. Related findings regarding proposed biological mechanisms of action have translated into clinical practice. Botanical compounds for which dermatologic and cosmetic applications have emerged include: olive oil, chamomile, colloidal oatmeal, oat kernal extract, feverfew, acai berry, coffee berry, curcumin, green tea, pomegranate, licorice, paper mulberry, arbutin, and soy. Many of these botanical sources offer biologically active components that require further in vitro and in vivo investigation in order for us to properly educate ourselves, and our patients, regarding over-the-counter products based on these ingredients. PMID:19562883

  18. A survey of the syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients for antiretroviral drug combinations critical to access in emerging nations.

    Pinheiro, Eloan Dos Santos; Antunes, Octavio Augusto Ceva; Fortunak, Joseph M D

    2008-09-01

    irrelevant, except for "advanced salvage" drugs such as enfuvirtide. In resource-poor settings cost is a huge factor that limits drug access, resulting in high rates of new infection and subsequent mortality. IP coverage, where granted, can keep access prices for essential ARVs higher than would otherwise be the case. Large, innovator companies have made drugs available at prices very close to the cost of manufacturing for "lowest income" countries. Generic providers in India and elsewhere provide the largest supply of drugs for the developing world. The recent issuance of Voluntary and Compulsory Licenses (VLs, CLs) through the World Trade Organization's TRIP (Treaty Respecting Intellectual Property) provisions arguably contribute to bringing down access prices. The utilization of improved science, pooled purchasing and intelligent procurement practices all definitely contribute to access. This work surveys the production processes for several critical ARVs. These are discussed in terms of scale up, raw material/intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) costs. In some cases new routes to APIs or critical intermediates are needed. Based on potential new chemistries, there are significant opportunities to reduce cost for a number of critical ARVs. PMID:18571246

  19. Hypoglycemic effects of clove (Syzygium aromaticum flower buds) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice and identification of the active ingredients.

    Kuroda, Minpei; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Ohtomo, Takayuki; Yamada, Junji; Nishiyama, Tozo; Mae, Tatsumasa; Kishida, Hideyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2012-04-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum flower buds) EtOH extract significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-A(y) mice. In-vitro evaluation showed the extract had human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligand-binding activity in a GAL4-PPAR-γ chimera assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract resulted in the isolation of eight compounds, of which dehydrodieugenol (2) and dehydrodieugenol B (3) had potent PPAR-γ ligand-binding activities, whereas oleanolic acid (4), a major constituent in the EtOH extract, had moderate activity. Furthermore, 2 and 3 were shown to stimulate 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through PPAR-γ activation. These results indicate that clove has potential as a functional food ingredient for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and that 2-4 mainly contribute to its hypoglycemic effects via PPAR-γ activation. PMID:21987283

  20. Active Ingredient Analysis of Tibet Cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum%西藏人工栽培灵芝活性成分分析

    饶恩铭; 刘涛; 次仁德吉; 宋博文

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the main active ingredient in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum, this article collected the local cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum as the raw materials, used anthrone-sulfuric acid spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, pre-column derivatization RP-HPLC method to analyze the main active ingredient. The results showed that the contents of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, triterpenoids, amino acids in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum were:1.199g/100g, 1.63%, 8.898g/100g. Compared with national coverage, the active ingredient of cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum is richer, and the acid and triterpenoids content is higher than that in other regions.%为了解西藏人工栽培灵芝的主要活性成分,采集当地栽培的灵芝为原材料,分别采用蒽酮-硫酸分光法、紫外分光光度法、柱前衍生化RP-HPLC方法,分析其主要活性成分。结果表明,西藏人工栽培的灵芝中灵芝多糖、三萜类、氨基酸含量依次为:1.199g/100g、1.63%、8.898g/100g,经与国内报道相比较,西藏人工灵芝活性成分比较丰富,氨基酸和三萜类含量高于其他区域。

  1. Homeopathy – what are the active ingredients? An exploratory study using the UK Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex interventions

    Weiss Marjorie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in homeopathy has traditionally addressed itself to defining the effectiveness of homeopathic potencies in comparison to placebo medication. There is now increasing awareness that the homeopathic consultation is in itself a therapeutic intervention working independently or synergistically with the prescribed remedy. Our objective was to identify and evalute potential "active ingredients" of the homeopathic approach as a whole, in a prospective formal case series, which draws on actual consultation data, and is based on the MRC framework for the evaluation of complex interventions. Methods Following on from a theoretical review of how homeopathic care might mediate its effects, 18 patients were prospectively recruited to a case series based at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital. Patients, who lived with one of three index conditions, were interviewed before and after a five visit "package of care". All consultations were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Additional data, including generic and condition-specific questionnaires, artwork and "significant other" reports were collected. Textual data was subject to thematic analysis and triangulated with other sources. Results We judged that around one third of patients had experienced a major improvement in their health over the study period, a third had some improvement and a third had no improvement. Putative active ingredients included the patients' "openness to the mind-body connection", consultational empathy, in-depth enquiry into bodily complaints, disclosure, the remedy matching process and, potentially, the homeopathic remedies themselves. Conclusion This study has has identified, using primary consultation and other data, a range of factors that might account for the effectiveness of homeopathic care. Some of these, such as empathy, are non-specific. Others, such as the remedy matching process, are specific to homeopathy. These findings counsel against the use of

  2. Genotoxicity evaluation of the herbicide Garlon(®) and its active ingredient (triclopyr) in fish (Anguilla anguilla L.) using the comet assay.

    Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria A; Gaivão, Isabel; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-09-01

    Triclopyr-based herbicides are broadly used worldwide for site preparation and forest vegetation management. Thus, following application, these agrochemicals can inadvertently reach the aquatic ecosystems. Garlon(®) is one of the most popular commercial denominations of this group of herbicides, considered as highly toxic to fish, even by its manufacturer. Although DNA is frequently regarded as a target of pesticide toxicity, the genotoxic potential of Garlon(®) to fish remains completely unknown. Hence, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of Garlon(®) and its active ingredient (triclopyr), clarifying the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the comet assay, implemented as the standard procedure, with an extra step involving DNA lesion-specific repair enzymes (formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and endonuclease III), was used to identify DNA damage in blood cells of Anguilla anguilla L. Short-term exposures (1 and 3 days) to Garlon(®) and triclopyr were carried out, adopting environmentally realistic concentrations (67.6 and 270.5 µg L(-1) Garlon(®) and 30 and 120 µg L(-1) triclopyr). The results concerning the nonspecific DNA damage proved the risk of the herbicide Garlon(®) and its active ingredient triclopyr in both tested concentrations and exposure lengths. In addition, the higher genotoxic potential of the formulation, in comparison with the active ingredient, was demonstrated. When the additional breaks corresponding to net enzyme-sensitive sites were considered, none of the conditions revealed significant levels of oxidative damage. This identification of the genotoxic properties of triclopyr-based herbicides to fish highlights the need to develop less hazardous formulations, as well as the adoption of mitigation measures related to the application of these agrochemicals in the framework of forestry and agriculture sustainable management. PMID:24623388

  3. Homeopathy – what are the active ingredients? An exploratory study using the UK Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex interventions

    Thompson, Trevor DB; Weiss, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    Background Research in homeopathy has traditionally addressed itself to defining the effectiveness of homeopathic potencies in comparison to placebo medication. There is now increasing awareness that the homeopathic consultation is in itself a therapeutic intervention working independently or synergistically with the prescribed remedy. Our objective was to identify and evalute potential "active ingredients" of the homeopathic approach as a whole, in a prospective formal case series, which draws on actual consultation data, and is based on the MRC framework for the evaluation of complex interventions. Methods Following on from a theoretical review of how homeopathic care might mediate its effects, 18 patients were prospectively recruited to a case series based at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital. Patients, who lived with one of three index conditions, were interviewed before and after a five visit "package of care". All consultations were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Additional data, including generic and condition-specific questionnaires, artwork and "significant other" reports were collected. Textual data was subject to thematic analysis and triangulated with other sources. Results We judged that around one third of patients had experienced a major improvement in their health over the study period, a third had some improvement and a third had no improvement. Putative active ingredients included the patients' "openness to the mind-body connection", consultational empathy, in-depth enquiry into bodily complaints, disclosure, the remedy matching process and, potentially, the homeopathic remedies themselves. Conclusion This study has has identified, using primary consultation and other data, a range of factors that might account for the effectiveness of homeopathic care. Some of these, such as empathy, are non-specific. Others, such as the remedy matching process, are specific to homeopathy. These findings counsel against the use of placebo-controlled RCT designs in

  4. Genotoxic Potential of Two Herbicides and their Active Ingredients Assessed with Comet Assay on a Fish Cell Line, Epithelioma Papillosum Cyprini (EPC)

    Syberg, Kristian; Rank, Jette; Jensen, Klara;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC) cell line handling procedure for the comet assay to investigate the genotoxic potential of widely used pesticides. The effects of various media and handling of the EPC cell line were examined. Results indicated...... that avoiding trypsin to detach cells led to lower level of DNA damage in the negative control. Further, two commonly used herbicides (Dezormon and Optica trio) and their four active ingredients (4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid, 2...

  5. Development of RP-HPLC method for Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredient (Gallic acid) from Stem Bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

    Hafsa Deshmukh; Pradnya J. Prabhu

    2011-01-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive, RP-HPLC method with UV detection at 271nm was developed and validated for qualitative determination of active ingredient Gallic acid from stem bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn. Separation was performed on a ThermoMOS 2 HYPERSIL C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 5µm ODS 3) using mobile phase comprising of 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid : Acetonitrile (400 cm3 : 600 cm3) with a flow rate of 1 ml/minute with a short run time of 13 minute. The method was validated accordi...

  6. Comparative analysis of the effects of locally used herbicides and their active ingredients on a wild-type wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.

    Braconi, Daniela; Sotgiu, Michele; Millucci, Lia; Paffetti, Alessandro; Tasso, Flavia; Alisi, Chiara; Martini, Silvia; Rappuoli, Roberto; Lusini, Paola; Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Rossi, Claudio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2006-04-19

    Herbicides are released to the environment with potential ecotoxicological risks for mammals. Yeast is a good model to elucidate toxicity mechanisms. We investigated how three commercial herbicides (Proper Energy, Pointer, and Silglif) and their active ingredients (respectively, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, tribenuron methyl, and glyphosate) can affect biological activities of an oenological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, which may be resident on grape vineyards of the same geographical areas where herbicides are used. The use of commercial grade herbicides employed in Italy allowed us to reproduce the same conditions applied in crops; at the same time, assaying pure single active compounds made it possible to compare the effects obtained with commercial formulations. Interestingly, we found that while pure active compounds affect cell growth and metabolism at a lower extent, commercial preparations have a significant major negative influence on yeast biology. PMID:16608247

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  8. Analytical method (HPLC, validation used for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use and its finite product Tilodem 50, hydrosoluble powder

    Maria Neagu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API for the finite product Tilodem 50 - hydrosoluble powder was acomkplished in the respect of last European Pharmacopoeia.The method for analysis used in this purpose was the compendial method „Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use” in EurPh. in vigour edition and represent a variant developed and validation „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are the followings: Selectivity, Linearity, Linearity range, Detection and Quantification limits, Precision, Repeatability (intra day, Inter-Day Reproductibility, Accuracy, Robustness, Solutions’ stability and System suitability. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, the active pharmaceutical ingredient is consistent, in terms of quality, if it contains Tylosin A - minimum 80% and the amount of Tylosin A, B, C, D, at minimum 95%. Identification and determination of each component separately (Tylosin A, B, C, D is possible by chromatographic separation-HPLC. Validation of analytical methods is presented below.

  9. 圆孢蘑菇有效成分的定性分析%Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredients of Agaricus gennadii

    白世俊; 包锦渊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to confirm the active ingredients of Agaricus gennadii. [Method] The water extraction method, alcohol extraction method and petroleum ether extraction method were used to extracted the chemical ingredients of Agaricus gennadii, and analyzed them. [Result]The results show that Agaricus gennadii contains protein,carbohydrates,organic acids,coumarin and lactones,etc. ,may also contains saponins and steroidal triterpenes,but does not contain alkaloids,cardiac glycosides,volatile oils,phenols and tannins,etc. [Conclusion] The study makes people to fully know Agaricus gennadii.%[目的]确定圆孢蘑菇(Agaricus gennadii)的有效成分.[方法]采用水提法、醇提法和石油醚提取法对圆孢蘑菇的有效成分进行定性提取和分析.[结果]圆孢蘑菇中含有蛋白质、糖类、有机酸、香豆素与内酯等物质,可能含有皂苷和甾体三萜类,不含生物碱、强心苷、挥发油、酚类和鞣质等.[结论]该研究可使人们更加清楚地了解圆孢蘑菇.

  10. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of five active ingredients of Eucommiae cortex in normal and ovariectomized mice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    An, Jing; Hu, Fangdi; Wang, Changhong; Zhang, Zijia; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-09-01

    1. Pinoresinol di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), geniposide (GE), geniposidic acid (GA), aucubin (AN) and chlorogenic acid (CA) are the representative active ingredients in Eucommiae cortex (EC), which may be estrogenic. 2. The ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the five ingredients showed good linearity, low limits of quantification and high extraction recoveries, as well as acceptable precision, accuracy and stability in mice plasma and tissue samples (liver, spleen, kidney and uterus). It was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PDG, GE, GA, AN and CA between normal and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. 3. The results indicated that except CA, the plasma and tissue concentrations of PDG, GE, GA in OVX mice were all greater than those in normal mice. AN could only be detected in the plasma and liver homogenate of normal mice, which was poorly absorbed in OVX mice and low in other measured tissues. PDG, GE and GA seem to be better absorbed in OVX mice than in normal mice proved by the remarkable increased value of AUC0-∞ and Cmax. It is beneficial that PDG, GE, GA have better plasma absorption and tissue distribution in pathological state. PMID:27232980

  11. Digestible energy requirement for females of Rhamdia quelen on reproductive activity fed with ration based on vegetal ingredients

    Robie A Bombardelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth and reproductive parameters of Rhamdia quelen females fed with pelleted ration containing different levels of digestible energy, and to evaluate the vigor of their offspring. The breeders were placed in tanks under conditions of photoperiod and natural temperature. The fishes were fed for 255 days with isoproteic rations pelleted containing 35% of crude protein (CP and five levels of the digestible energy (DE (2700, 2950, 3200, 3450, 3700 kcal kg-1. The fishes were distributed in a randomized experimental design compounded by five treatments and three repetitions. A 16-m² tank containing six females and three males was considered as one experimental unit. The weight and weight gain was evaluated. During the reproductive season the females were induced to breeding by hormonal manipulation and were evaluated the percentage of spawning females, the total fecundity, relative fecundity (number of oocytes per gram of spawning females, the fertilization ratio, the time to hatching and the vigor of larvae. The growth and reproductive parameters were not influenced (P > 0.05 by the increasing levels of digestible energy of the rations. The feeding of R. quelen females in breeding fit can be carried out with 2700 kcal kg-1 pelletized ration based on vegetal ingredients, without damage to reproductive performance.

  12. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  13. Discovering novel ingredient pairings in molecular gastronomy using network analysis

    Ključevšek, Aleksander; Krapić, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Molecular gastronomy is a distinct sub-discipline of food science that takes an active role in examining chemical and physical properties of ingredients and as such lends itself to more scientific approaches to finding novel ingredient pairings. With thousands of ingredients and molecules, which participate in the creation of each ingredient's flavour, it can be difficult to find compatible flavours in an efficient manner. Existing literature is focused mainly on analysis of already establish...

  14. Drug Facts

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    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

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    Full Text Available ... Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Meth ( ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You ...

  17. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  18. Drug Facts

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  19. Ingredients for sustained excellence

    Point Lepreau, a 680MWe CANDU reactor, has, since startup, been one of the world's best performing reactors. Many of the ingredients for this success can be found at other plants, but Pt Lepreau has found a ''chemistry'' that has sustained its performance at a very high level. Our belief is that this is the result of two major influences: Pt Lepreau is the only nuclear unit in a small utility, all its nuclear expertise exists at the station, and all necessary disciplines can be readily galvanized to solve problems and get work done. The structure of the organization is simple, with station management involvement in day to day activities. This fosters accountability and a natural efficiency that does not need slogans to achieve its purpose. Turning to the factors that have contributed to the station's success, the IAEA's technical exchange visit in July 1990 identified four items ''which are particularly noteworthy since they can be developed and used widely in the nuclear industry to enhance safety and availability. These are: quality assurance applications; the degree to which system engineers are employed; the dedication of skilled resources to and thoroughness of outage planning; and the in-house development of computers to assist directly in the day to day, medium and long term management of the generating station''. (Author)

  20. Activation and active labour market policies in OECD countries: stylized facts and evidence on their effectiveness

    John P. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Activation policies aimed at getting working-age people off benefits and into work have become a buzzword in labour market policies. Yet they are defined and implemented differently across OECD countries and their success rates vary too. The Great Recession has posed a severe stress test for these policies with some commentators arguing that they are at best 'fair weather' policies.  This paper sheds light on these issues mainly via the lens of recent OECD research.  It presents the sty...

  1. 离子液体在活性药物成分中的应用%The application of ionic liquids in active pharmaceutical ingredients

    孟坤燕; 齐明辉; 陈宜俍; 赵文杰; 任国宾

    2011-01-01

    离子液体具有独特的可调节的理化性能,近年来离子液体在活性药物成分中的应用成为国际上研究的前沿和热点.该文在介绍离子液体特性的基础上,综述了离子液体形式的活性药物成分的制备、表征和研究意义.%Ionic liquids (Ils) possess unique tunable physical and chemical properties. Recently, the application of Ils in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has become the frontier of international pharmaceutical research. The synthesis, characterization and significance of Ils-APIs are summarized based on the properties of Ils.

  2. Monitoring and Control of a Continuous Grignard Reaction for the Synthesis of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using Inline NIR spectroscopy

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Nielsen, Jesper; Jønch Pedersen, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    the stoichiometric ratio, leading the path to full process automation. The feedback control loop relies on NIR transmission measurements performed in a flow cell where, in contrast to labor-intensive offline HPLC analytical methods, the whole reaction product can be scanned in real time without sample...... be used to obtain information about its dynamic behavior. This information is very useful for process control design, assessment of analytical tools and definition of sampling times. In this work, a systematic procedure for chemometric model building is followed, after which a discussion is made on......Inline near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor a continuous synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) intermediate by a Grignard alkylation reaction. The reaction between a ketone substrate and allylmagnesium chloride may form significant impurities with excess...

  3. Research Progress in the Active Ingredients of Rose & Rose Wine%玫瑰花有效成分及玫瑰花酒的研究进展

    胡晓燕; 沈才洪; 敖宗华; 杨学琴; 黄张君; 钟霞

    2014-01-01

    玫瑰花具有令人愉悦的香气,是一种适合开发保健酒的良好原料。主要对玫瑰花的有效成分、有效成分的提取方法、有效成分应用功能、玫瑰花酒生产等的研究进展作了简要的综述。%Rose has pleasant aroma and is suitable for the development of healthcare wine. In this paper, the research progress in the active ingre-dients of rose and their extraction and application, and the production of rose wine was reviewed.

  4. Highly sensitive solid forms discrimination on the whole tablet of the active ingredients in quercetin dietary supplements by NMR crystallography approaches.

    Miclaus, Maria O; Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu; Martin, Flavia A; Grosu, Ioana G

    2016-05-30

    Similarly to synthetic drugs, the exact crystalline form of active ingredients in solid formulations of dietary supplements may directly influence the dissolution rate, bioavailability, and stability of the final product, but this information is usually not provided by manufacturers. Working on the examples of two commercial quercetin dietary supplements a quick, reliable, and sensitive method is introduced for quercetin solid forms discrimination directly on the marketed products, without the need for prior sample preparation. It exploits the complementarity between solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ss-NMR) and Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), which proved essential for performing a complete and accurate solid-state characterization of the two commercial products, and for obtaining new insights into the complex quercetin solid-forms landscape. The method can be readily generalized also to other dietary supplements based on bio-flavonoids/polyphenols. PMID:26970982

  5. Review on active ingredients from Cannabis sativa leaves and its pharmacological characteristics%汉麻叶活性成分及其药理特性的研究概况

    杜军强; 何锦风; 何聪芬; 蒲彪; 李靖宇; 蒋勇

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis saliva leaves contains a variety of active ingredients, including cannabinoid and non -cannabinoid. Active ingredients from Cannahis saliva leaves have a high application value in the pharmacy and other fields. In this paper, the pharmacological characteristics of cannabinoid, non-cannabinoid and unknown active ingredients was summarized.%汉麻叶含有多种活性成分,包括大麻酚类化合物和非大麻酚类化合物.汉麻叶的活性成分在医药等领域有极高的应用价值.本文就大麻酚类化合物,非大麻酚类化合物和未知活性成分的药理特性展开综述.

  6. Determination of everolimus in everolimus active pharmaceutical ingredient by HPLC%HPLC法测定依维莫司原料药中依维莫司

    孙莉君; 沈海梅; 马海霞; 董大伟; 王越; 杨静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for determination of everolimus in everolimus active pharmaceutical ingredient. Methods The separation was performed on a Hypersil-ODS C18column with acetonitrile - water (70∶30) as mobile phases. The detection wavelength was set at 276 nm. The column temperature was 50℃. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min with injection volume of 10μL.Results Everolimus had good linearity in the ranges of 63 — 1 008μg/mL (r= 0.999 7). The average recovery was 100.45% with RSD 0.64% (n=9).Conclusion The method is simple and specific, and can be used effectively for quality control of everolimus active pharmaceutical ingredient.%目的:建立HPLC法测定依维莫司原料药中依维莫司。方法采用Hypersil-ODS C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:乙腈–水(70∶30);检测波长:276 nm;柱温:50℃;体积流量:0.8 mL/min;进样量:10μL。结果依维莫司在63~1008μg/mL线性关系良好(r=0.9997),平均回收率为100.45%,RSD值为0.64%(n=9)。结论所建立的操作简便,专属性强,可用于依维莫司原料药的质量控制。

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  9. Drug Facts

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  10. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago

  11. Ingredients of supergravity

    Freedman, D. [Department of Mathematics and Center for Theoretical Physics, M.I.T., Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Proeyen, A. van [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-11-15

    These notes give a summary of lectures given in Corfu in 2010 on basic ingredients in the study of supergravity. It also summarizes initial chapters of a forthcoming book 'Supergravity' by the same authors. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Alcohol Facts

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  13. Rapid isolation and identification of active antioxidant ingredients from Gongju using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and postcolumn derivatization.

    Cui, Gang; Niu, Yaru; Wang, Hong; Dong, Jing; Yuki, Hashi; Chen, Shizhong

    2012-05-30

    Flos Chrysanthemi (Gongju, GJ) is used to prepare a herbal tea that is commonly consumed as a health beverage in Asia and is believed to contain abundant beneficial antioxidants. To rapidly identify the chemical constituents and to obtain the profile related to antioxidant activity, an online analytical method combining high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-electrospray ionization-ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) and postcolumn derivatization (PCD) has been applied for a precise and thorough identification of the chemical constituents. Meanwhile, the antioxidant profile has also been characterized by directly measuring the scavenging activity of each compound for the free radical produced by DPPH. As a result, 13 compounds have been identified in GJ, 7 of which account for its antioxidant activity. The established LC-MS(n)-PCD system has proved to offer a useful strategy for correlating the chemical profile with the bioactivities of the components without their isolation and purification, and may be used for multicomponent analysis of active substances in other foods and herbs. PMID:22540938

  14. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio–active ingredients from six varieties of Medicago sativa

    Caunii Angela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has been performed worldwide and important evidences were collected to show the immense potential of plants used in various traditional therapeutic systems. The aim of this work is to investigate the different extracting solvents in terms of the influence of their polarity on the extracting ability of bioactive molecules (phenolic compounds from the M. sativa flowers. Results The total phenolic content of samples was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu (FC procedure and their antioxidant activity was assayed through in vitro radical decomposing activity using the radical DPPH° assay (IUPAC name for DPPH is (phenyl–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl iminoazanium. The results showed that water was better than methanol and acetic acid for extracting bioactive compounds, in particular for total phenolic compounds from the flowers of alfalfa. The average content of bioactive molecules in methanol extract was 263.5±1.02 mg GAE/100g of dry weight lyophilized extract. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. However, all extracts were free–radical inhibitors, but the water extract was more potent than the acetic and the methanol ones. The order of inhibitor effectiveness (expressed by IC50 proved to be: water extract (0.924mg/mL > acetic acid extract (0.154mg/mL > methanol (0.079mg/mL. The profiles of each extract (fingerprint were characterized by FT–MIR spectroscopy. Conclusions The present study compares the fingerprint of different extracts of the M. sativa flowers, collected from the wild flora of Romania. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. The dependence of the extract composition on the solvent polarity (acetic acid vs. methanol vs. water was revealed by UV–VIS spectrometry and Infrared fingerprint.

  15. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Yi, Haijing; Yan CHEN; LIU Jun; Jie ZHANG; Wei GUO; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via sp...

  16. Antimicrobial activity of a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate (Olbas(®) Tropfen) in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients.

    Hamoud, Razan; Sporer, Frank; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Plant extracts and essential oils have been widely studied and used as antimicrobial agents in the last decades. In our study we investigated the antimicrobial activities of Olbas(®) Tropfen (in the following named Olbas), a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate, in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients. Olbas (10 g) consists of three major components such as peppermint oil (5.3 g), eucalyptus oil (2.1 g), and cajuput oil (2.1 g) and of two minor constituents like juniper berry oil (0.3 g) and wintergreen oil (0.2 g). The composition of Olbas and the five individual essential oils were characterized by GLC-MS. According to GLC-MS analysis 1,8-cineol is the main component of the complex essential oil distillate followed by menthol and menthone. The minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations of Olbas and each of the single essential oils were evaluated in 17 species/strains of bacteria and fungi. Time-kill assay was performed to compare the microbicidal activity of Olbas and peppermint oil during several time intervals. Olbas displayed a high antimicrobial activity against all test strains used in this study, among them antibiotic resistant MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and VRE (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus). Its antimicrobial activity was comparable to that of peppermint oil which was the most potent one of all individual essential oils tested. In the time kill assay Olbas as well as peppermint oil demonstrated similar microbicidal activities. Based on its wide antimicrobial properties Olbas can be a useful agent for the treatment of uncomplicated infections of skin and respiratory tract. PMID:22739414

  17. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  18. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    capillary pressure (Laplace pressure) combined with a large number of pores per unit area offering low pressure drop. The separation device can easily be operated by means of a back-pressure regulator ensuring flow-independent separation efficiency. Simple monitoring and control strategies as well as...... scaling-up/out approaches are proposed, concluding that membrane-based L-L separation may become a standard unit operation for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing....... a PTFE membrane with 28 cm2 of active area. A less challenging separation of water and toluene was achieved at total flow rates as high as 80 mL/min, with potential to achieve even higher flow rates. The operability and flexibility of the membrane separator and a plate coalescer were compared...

  19. 黄芪的有效成分提取与纳滤提取应用分析%Active Ingredients Extracted and Nanofiltration Application in Astragalus Extract

    郭立忠; 吴镝

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the active ingredients of astragalus diarrhea extraction and nanofiltration extracted application,astragalus traditional extraction process improvements. Methods APS,saponins as subjects,the use of orthogonal experimental design and analysis of numerical range analysis by comparing the effects of different extraction temperature,time and number of ingredients,and the extraction process in boiling alcohol shen added effect of cel ulase,nanofiltration comparison,the evaporation method. Results The experimental results showed that the temperature < 80 ℃, extracting 2 times,and each time 60 min nanofiltration concentrated extract was the optimum water extraction of astragalus. Conclusion Compared to traditional boiling alcohol precipitation extraction,astragalus of nanofiltration extraction process in the economic,technical y strong advantages,it has some promotional value in guiding the preparation of manufacturing,clinical applications.%目的:分析黄芪的有效成分提取和纳滤提取的应用,对传统的黄芪提取工艺进行改进。方法将黄芪多糖、总皂甙作为实验对象,使用正交实验设计并用极差分析法分析数值,对比不同提取温度、时间和次数对成分含量的影响,并在水煮醇沉提取工艺中加入了纤维素酶,比较纳滤、蒸发方法的效果。结果实验表明温度<80℃、提取2次且每次60 min的纳滤浓缩提取是黄芪水提的最佳工艺。结论相比较传统水煮醇沉提取法,黄芪的纳滤浓缩提取工艺在经济、技术上有很强的优越性,在指导制剂生产、临床应用中具有一定的推广价值。

  20. Influence of Process Parameters on Content Uniformity of a Low Dose Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in a Tablet Formulation According to GMP

    Muselík Jan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development and production of tablets using direct compression of powder mixtures. The aim was to describe the impact of filler particle size and the time of lubricant addition during mixing on content uniformity according to the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP process validation requirements. Processes are regulated by complex directives, forcing the producers to validate, using sophisticated methods, the content uniformity of intermediates as well as final products. Cutting down of production time and material, shortening of analyses, and fast and reliable statistic evaluation of results can reduce the final price without affecting product quality. The manufacturing process of directly compressed tablets containing the low dose active pharmaceutical ingredient (API warfarin, with content uniformity passing validation criteria, is used as a model example. Statistic methods have proved that the manufacturing process is reproducible. Methods suitable for elucidation of various properties of the final blend, e.g., measurement of electrostatic charge by Faraday pail and evaluation of mutual influences of researched variables by partial least square (PLS regression, were used. Using these methods, it was proved that the filler with higher particle size increased the content uniformity of both blends and the ensuing tablets. Addition of the lubricant, magnesium stearate, during the blending process improved the content uniformity of blends containing the filler with larger particles. This seems to be caused by reduced sampling error due to the suppression of electrostatic charge.

  1. Development of Genotoxic Impurities Control in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient%原料药中基因毒性杂质控制的研究进展

    王萍; 徐彩虹; 陈仙; 胡爱玲; 楼朝; 金秀芳; 龚俊强; 陈轶群

    2015-01-01

    目的 介绍原料药(active pharmaceutical ingredient,API)中基因毒性杂质控制的法规要求、评估方法和控制方法.方法 通过学习欧美法规发展历史,理解国际高端市场对基因毒性杂质控制的监管期望,提出原料药中基因毒性杂质风险评估方法.结果与结论 企业基于半定量评估,结合清除研究数据,建立科学的控制策略,使实际工艺中所有可能涉及的基因毒性杂质风险得到明确鉴别和控制,是达到监管期望的有效途径.

  2. Development of RP-HPLC method for Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredient (Gallic acid from Stem Bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

    Hafsa Deshmukh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and sensitive, RP-HPLC method with UV detection at 271nm was developed and validated for qualitative determination of active ingredient Gallic acid from stem bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn. Separation was performed on a ThermoMOS 2 HYPERSIL C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 5µm ODS 3 using mobile phase comprising of 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid : Acetonitrile (400 cm3 : 600 cm3 with a flow rate of 1 ml/minute with a short run time of 13 minute. The method was validated according to the regulatory guidelines with respect to linearity, system suitability, precision, solution stability, accuracy, robustness, assay and recovery. Detector response was linear for HPLC in the range of 0.04 to 0.16 mg/cm3. The system suitability, precision, solution stability, accuracy, robustness, assay and recovery was assessed by calculating % COV for all these parameters which is less than two as expected. The recovery of the method for Gallic acid was found 98.94% which shows that method is accurate. The described method has the advantage of being rapid and easy hence it can be applied for routine quality control analysis of Gallic acid from Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

  3. Study on cinnamon hypoglycemic active ingredient extraction method%肉桂降糖活性成分提取方法的研究

    卢春连; 陆志科

    2014-01-01

    用乙醇回流提取法、超声波提取法、新装置提取法提取肉桂降糖活性成分。结果表明,新装置提取法比回流提取法、超声波提取法提取效率高,且快速简便。新装置提取法提取肉桂降糖活性成分的最佳条件为:多功能提取器装置,提取溶剂为95%乙醇,提取时间2 h,产品粗提率达21.0%。%Three methods were compared of preparing cinnamon hypoglycemic active ingredients:the etha-nol refluxing extraction,ultrasonic extraction and the new device extraction. The results showed that the new device extraction was superior to ethanol refluxing extraction and ultrasonic extraction,and the meth-od was fast and simple. The best conditions of the method were:multi-extractor device,solvent of 95%ethanol,and the time of extraction was 2 h,the coarse product rate was 21. 0% .

  4. Action of the insect growth regulator fluazuron, the active ingredient of the acaricide Acatak®, in Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; De Oliveira, Patricia Rosa; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of fluazuron (active ingredient of the acaricide Acatak®) and its effects on Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs fed on rabbits exposed to different doses of this insect growth regulator. Three different doses of fluazuron (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg) were applied on the back of hosts (via "pour on"), while distilled water was applied to the Control group. On the first day of treatment with fluazuron (24 h), hosts were artificially infested with R. sanguineus nymphs. Once fully engorged, nymphs were removed and placed in identified Petri dishes in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) incubator for 7 days. After this period, engorged nymphs were processed for ultramorphological analysis. The results revealed alterations in the ultramorphology of many chitinous structures (smaller hypostome and chelicerae, less sclerotized scutum, fewer sensilla, fewer pores, absence of grooves, marginal and cervical strips and festoons in the body, even the anal plaque was damaged) that play essential roles for the survivor of ticks and that can compromise the total or partial development of nymphs and emergence of adults after periodic molting. Our findings confirm the efficacy of fluazuron, a more specific and less aggressive chemical to the environment and human health, and that does not induce resistance, in nymphs of the tick R. sanguineus in artificially infested rabbits treated with this arthropod growth regulator (AGR), indicating that it could be used in the control of this stage of the biological cycle of the tick R. sanguineus. PMID:24000046

  5. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in ethnomedicine Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis and its medicinal preparation by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Zeng, Yikun; Tang, Zhuxing; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2007-10-01

    A simple and rapid capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrcochemical detection (ED) method has been established for the simultaneous determination of seven active ingredients in the stems and roots of Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis and its medicinal preparation, including (+)-catechin, rutin, gentisic acid, vallinic acid, salicylic acid, quercetin, and protocatechuic acid. The effects of working potential, pH, and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage, and injection time on CE-ED are systematically investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the seven analytes could be completely separated within 23 min in a borax running buffer (pH 8.7). A good linear relationship is obtained over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) ranging from 5x10(-8) g/mL to 3x10(-7) g/mL for the analytes. The proposed method is successfully used in the analysis of real samples after a relatively simple extraction procedure, and the assay results are satisfactory. PMID:17988450

  6. Isotopic finger-printing of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 13C NMR and polarization transfer techniques as a tool to fight against counterfeiting.

    Bussy, Ugo; Thibaudeau, Christophe; Thomas, Freddy; Desmurs, Jean-Roger; Jamin, Eric; Remaud, Gérald S; Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge

    2011-09-30

    The robustness of adiabatic polarization transfer methods has been evaluated for determining the carbon isotopic finger-printing of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The short time stabilities of the adiabatic DEPT and INEPT sequences are very close to that observed with the one pulse sequence, but the DEPT long time stability is not sufficient for isotopic measurements at natural abundance or low enrichment. Using the INEPT sequence for (13)C isotopic measurements induces a dramatic reduction in the experimental time without deterioration in short time or long time stability. It appears, therefore, to be a method of choice for obtaining the isotopic finger-print of different ibuprofen samples in a minimum time. The results obtained on 13 commercial ibuprofen samples from different origins show that this strategy can be used effectively to determine (13)C distribution within a given molecule and to compare accurately differences in the isotopic distribution between different samples of the given molecule. The present methodology is proposed as a suitable tool to fight against counterfeiting. PMID:21872037

  7. Ingredients of Huangqi decoction slow biliary fibrosis progression by inhibiting the activation of the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Du Jin-Xing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huangqi decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy in Song Dynasty (AD 1078, and it is an effective recipe that is usually used to treat consumptive disease, anorexia, and chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1 plays a key role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and Huangqi decoction and its ingredients (IHQD markedly ameliorated hepatic fibrotic lesions induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL. However, the mechanism of IHQD on hepatic fibrotic lesions is not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the roles of TGFβ1 activation, Smad-signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis progression and the antifibrotic mechanism of IHQD. Methods A liver fibrosis model was induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL in rats. Sham-operation was performed in control rats. The BDL rats were randomly divided into two groups: the BDL group and the IHQD group. IHQD was administrated intragastrically for 4 weeks. At the end of the fifth week after BDL, animals were sacrificed for sampling of blood serum and liver tissue. The effect of IHQD on the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy. Results Decreased content of hepatic hydroxyproline and improved liver function and histopathology were observed in IHQD rats. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblasts in the cholestatic liver injury released TGFβ1, and activated TGFβ1 receptors can accelerate liver fibrosis. IHQD markedly inhibited the protein expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ1 receptors, Smad3, and p-ERK1/2 expression with no change of Smad7 expression. Conclusion IHQD exert significant therapeutic effects on BDL-induced fibrosis in rats through inhibition of the activation of TGFβ1-Smad3 and TGFβ1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  8. Drug Facts

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  9. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide.

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Buddenborg, Sarah K; Adema, Coen M; Sullivan, John T; Loker, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features) to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter) and solute linked carrier (influx transporter). Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP) genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70) were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide's lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and has been

  10. Transcriptome analysis of buds and leaves using 454 pyrosequencing to discover genes associated with the biosynthesis of active ingredients in Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    Liu He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and antiviral pharmacological properties. The major active secondary metabolites of this plant are chlorogenic acid (CGA and luteoloside. While the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites are relatively well known, the genetic information available for this species, especially the biosynthetic pathways of its active ingredients, is limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained one million reads (average length of 400 bp in a whole sequence run using a Roche/454 GS FLX titanium platform. Altogether, 85.69% of the unigenes covering the entire life cycle of the plant were annotated and 325 unigenes were assigned to secondary metabolic pathways. Moreover, 2039 unigenes were predicted as transcription factors. Nearly all of the possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of CGA and luteoloside were discovered in L. japonica. Three hydroxycinnamoyl transferase genes, including two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase genes and one hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT gene featuring high similarity to known genes from other species, were cloned. The HCT gene was discovered for the first time in L. japonica. In addition, 188 candidate cytochrome P450 unigenes and 245 glycosyltransferase unigenes were found in the expressed sequence tag (EST dataset. CONCLUSION: This study provides a high quality EST database for L. japonica by 454 pyrosequencing. Based on the EST annotation, a set of putative genes involved in CGA and luteoloside biosynthetic pathways were discovered. The database serves as an important source of public information on genetic markers, gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in L. japonica.

  11. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide.

    Si-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP, glutathione S-transferases (GST, and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter and solute linked carrier (influx transporter. Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70 were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide's lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and

  12. Analysis on the active ingredients of lavender honey from Xinjiang province%新疆薰衣草蜜活性成分的分析

    潘柳; 张琦; 毛秀丽; 黄俊逸

    2012-01-01

    The reduced sugar, amylase value, total protein, total phenolic acid and anti-oxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging activity test) of lavender honey, black locust honey and linden honey were determined and compared. The results showed that the content of amylase value, total phenolic acid and total protein in lavender honey are 14.8 mL/g.h, (200.8+6.9) IJg/g and (25.35+2.74) mg/100 g, respectively, all of which are higher than that of the other two kinds of honey, but the content of reduced sugar is lower, which is 74%. Three kinds of bee honeys have anti-oxidative activity. The scavenging capacities of lavender honey and linden honey don't exhibit an obvious difference, which are stronger than that of black locust honey. In addition, total phenolic acid content have no obvious correlation with anti-oxidative activities. It suggests that there are other active ingredients contributing to the anti-oxidative activities in honey.%以薰衣草蜜、洋槐蜜和椴树蜜3种蜂蜜为材料,对蜂蜜中的还原糖含量、淀粉酶值、蛋白质含量、总酚酸含量和它们清除DPPH自由基的能力进行分析。结果表明:薰衣草蜜中的淀粉酶值、总酚酸含量、蛋白质的含量分别为14.8mL/g·h、(200.8±6.9)μg/g和(25.35±2.74)mg/100g,均高于其他2种蜜,但还原糖含量比其他2种蜂蜜略低,为74%。3种蜂蜜均具有抗氧化的作用,薰衣草蜜与椴树蜜对DPPH自由基的清除能力相当,均高于洋槐蜜。总酚酸含量与抗氧化能力之间无明显相关性,说明蜂蜜中还含有其他的抗氧化活性成分。

  13. HPLC法测定达格列净原料药中有关物质%Determination of related substances in dapagliflozin active pharmaceutical ingredients by HPLC

    陈稳; 郑津津; 王晨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of related substances in dapagliflozin active pharmaceutical ingredients.Methods HPLC method was adopted. The determination was carried out on Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase consisted of 0.02 mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate - methanol - tetrahydrofuran (60∶35∶5) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detective wavelength was set at 220 nm, the column temperature was at 35℃, and the injection volume was 10μL.Results Dapagliflozin and its related substances had good separation. The LOQ of the related substances, such as Z1, Z2, F1, F2, and F3 were1.34, 1.54, 1.42, 1.71, and 2.11 ng, respectively. The average recoveries were 98.9%, 97.6%, 103.2%, 102.4%, and 102.8% with RSD values of 1.8%, 1.3%, 1.5%, 0.7%, and 1.7%, respectively.Conclusion The method is sensitive and accurate, and can be used for quality control of related substances in dapagliflozin active pharmaceutical ingredients.%目的:建立达格列净原料药中有关物质的测定方法。方法采用 HPLC法。Diamonsil C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);以0.02 mol/L磷酸二氢钠水溶液–甲醇–四氢呋喃(60∶35∶5)为流动相;体积流量1.0 mL/min;检测波长220 nm;柱温35℃;进样量为10μL。结果达格列净与各杂质的分离度良好,杂质Z1、Z2、F1、F2、F3的定量限分别为3.22、3.83、3.65、4.33、4.92 ng,平均回收率分别为98.9%、97.6%、103.2%、102.4%、102.8%,RSD值分别为1.8%、1.3%、1.5%、0.7%、1.7%。结论本方法检测灵敏度高,精密度好,可以用于达格列净原料药中有关物质的质量控制。

  14. Determination of related substances in ambrisentan active pharmaceutical ingredients%HPLC法测定安立生坦原料药中有关物质

    陈保来; 李家春; 仲艳; 郭庆明; 沈旺; 王振中; 萧伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立安立生坦原料药中有关物质的测定方法。方法采用HPLC法。Waters Atlantis T3色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);以0.02%三氟乙酸水溶液–0.01%三氟乙酸乙腈溶液为流动相,进行梯度洗脱;柱温30℃;体积流量1.0 mL/min;自动进样器控温5℃;检测波长220 nm。结果安立生坦与各杂质的分离度良好,杂质Z1、Z2、Z3、Z4、DP1的定量限分别为2.14、2.54、2.44、2.45、2.41 ng,平均回收率分别为102.9%、96.0%、93.1%、104.6%、115.2%,RSD值分别为2.1%、4.6%、2.9%、2.7%、4.9%(n=10)。结论该方法检测灵敏度高,精密度好,可以用于安立生坦原料药中有关物质的质量控制。%Objective To establish a method for determination of related substances in ambrisentan active pharmaceutical ingredients. Methods HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Waters Atlantis T3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μm) with mobile phase consisted of 0.02% trifluoroacetic acid - acetonitrile (containing 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid) with gradient elution. The temperature of column was set at 30℃. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min with automatic injection volume of 5μL. The detective wavelength was set at 220 nm. Results Ambrisentan and its related substances could be separated completely. The LOQ of the related substances, such as Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, and DP1 were 2.14, 2.54, 2.44, 2.45, and 2.41 ng, respectively. They all had good linearity. The average recovery were 102.9%, 96.0%, 93.1%, 104.6%, and 115.2%with RSD values of 2.1%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 2.7%, and 4.9%(n = 10), respectively. Conclusion The method is sensitive and accurate, and can be used for quality control of related substances in ambrisentan active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  15. Development and validation of a stability-indicating reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of nebivolol impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulation.

    Thummala, Veera Raghava Raju; Lanka, Mohana Krishna

    2015-10-01

    A sensitive, stability-indicating gradient reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of nebivolol impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and pharmaceutical formulation. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with mobile phase of a gradient mixture. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.18 mL/min with column temperature of 30 degrees C and detection wavelength of 281 nm. The relative response factor values of (R*)-2-( benzylamino)-1-((S*)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl) ethanol ((R x S*) NBV-), (R)-1-((R)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((S)-2-((S)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl-amino) ethanol ((RRSS) NBV-3), 1-(chroman-2-yl)-2-(2-(6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl amino) ethanol (monodesfluoro impurity), (S)-1-((R)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((R)-2 (S*)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethylamino) ethanol hydrochloride ((RSRS) NBV-3) and (R*)-1-((S*)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((S*)-2-((S*)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethylamino) ethanol ((R* S* S* S*) NBV-2) were 0.65, 0.91, 0.68, 0.92 and 0.91 respectively. Nebivolol formulation sample was subjected to the stress conditions of acid, base, oxidative, hydrolytic, thermal, humidity and photolytic degradation. Nebivolol was found to degrade significantly under peroxide stress condition. The degradation products were well resolved from nebivolol and its impurities. The peak purity test results confirmed that the nebivolol peak was homogenous and pure in all stress samples and the mass balance was found to be more than 98%, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated according to International Conference on Hormonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness. PMID:26930962

  16. Fucoxanthin: A Promising Medicinal and Nutritional Ingredient

    Hui Zhang; Yibo Tang; Ying Zhang; Shuofeng Zhang; Jing Qu; Xu Wang; Ran Kong; Chunchao Han; Zhenquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Fucoxanthin, an allenic carotenoid, can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds. Recent studies have reported that fucoxanthin has many physiological functions and biological properties, such as antiobesity, antitumor, antidiabetes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities, as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protective effects. Therefore, fucoxanthin can be used as both medicinal and nutritional ingredient to prevent and treat chronic diseases. Although fucoxa...

  17. Identification, synthesis and characterization of an unknown process related impurity in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI–IT/MS, 1H, 13C and 1H–1H COSY NMR

    Saji Thomas; Saroj Kumar Paul; Subhash Chandra Joshi; Vineet Kumar; Ashutosh Agarwal; Dharam Vir

    2014-01-01

    A new impurity was detected during high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient. The structure of unknown impurity was postulated based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization and ion trap analyzer (LC/ESI–IT/MS) analysis. Proposed structure of impurity was unambiguously confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization using 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), 1H–1H co...

  18. Detoxification of alpha- and beta-Thujones (the active ingredients of absinthe): site specificity and species differences in cytochrome P450 oxidation in vitro and in vivo.

    Höld, K M; Sirisoma, N S; Casida, J E

    2001-05-01

    Alpha- and beta-Thujones are active ingredients in the liqueur absinthe and in herbal medicines and seasonings for food and drinks. Our earlier study established that they are convulsants and have insecticidal activity, acting as noncompetitive blockers of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel, and identified 7-hydroxy-alpha-thujone as the major metabolite and 4-hydroxy-alpha- and -beta-thujones and 7,8-dehydro-alpha-thujone as minor metabolites in the mouse liver microsome-NADPH system. We report here unexpected site specificity and species differences in the metabolism of the thujone diastereomers in mouse, rat, and human liver microsomes and human recombinant P450 (P450 3A4), in orally treated mice and rats, and in Drosophila melanogaster. Major differences are apparent on comparing in vitro microsome-NADPH systems and in vivo urinary metabolites. Hydroxylation at the 2-position is observed only in mice where conjugated 2R-hydroxy-alpha-thujone is the major urinary metabolite of alpha-thujone. Hydroxylation at the 4-position gives one or both of 4-hydroxy-alpha- and -beta-thujones depending on the diastereomer and species studied with conjugated 4-hydroxy-alpha-thujone as the major urinary metabolite of alpha- and beta-thujones in rats. Hydroxylation at the 7-position of alpha- and beta-thujones is always a major pathway, but the conjugated urinary metabolite is minor except with beta-thujone in the mouse. Site specificity in glucuronidation favors excretion of 2R-hydroxy- and 4-hydroxy-alpha-thujone glucuronides rather than those of three other hydroxythujones. Two dehydro metabolites are observed from both alpha- and beta-thujones, the 7,8 in the P450 systems and the 4,10 in urine. Two types of evidence establish that P450-dependent oxidations of alpha- and beta-thujones are detoxification reactions: three P450 inhibitors block the metabolism of alpha- and beta-thujones and strongly synergize their toxicity in Drosophila; six metabolites

  19. Mathematical Art-O-Facts: Activities to Introduce, Reinforce, or Assess Geometry & Measurement

    Kuhns, Catherine Jones

    2008-01-01

    This book is loaded with hands-on measurement and geometry activities that will get students rolling up their sleeves, excited to use their math skills. The author has created these activities to supplement a teacher's existing math curriculum. They are flexibly designed for use as either introductory, reinforcement, or assessment activities. This…

  20. Dynamics of active pharmaceutical ingredients loads in a Swiss university hospital wastewaters and prediction of the related environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystems.

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Widmer, Christèle; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2016-03-15

    The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various

  1. Content of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient with Somatostatin by UPLC Method%UPLC法测定生长抑素原料药的含量

    张承军; 王秀梅; 王建良; 贾长久; 李兰兰

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立快速、准确、灵敏的测定生长抑素原料药的方法.方法:采用沃特世ACQUITY超高液相色谱系统(UPLC),以磷酸(取磷酸11 mL,加水900 mL,用三乙胺调pH至2.3,用水稀释至刻度1 000 mL处)为流动相,(A)-乙腈 (B)梯度洗脱,流速:0.3 mL/min;检测波长为215 nm;柱温45℃;进样体积2μL.结果:生长抑素在0.005 149 2~0.128 73 mg / mL范围内有良好的线性关系(R2= 0.999 3),平均回收率(n=9)为99.1%.结论:UPLC法检测快速、准确、灵敏度高、重复性好,为生长抑素原料药的质量控制提供了一种快速准确的方法.%Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and sensitive method to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with somatostatin. Method: Waters ACQUITY UPLC was adopted. Phosphoric acid-triethylamine buffer solution was as mobile phase A and acetonitrile as B, gradient elution was used with flow rate of 0.3 mL/min; detection wave length was 215 nm; column temperature was 45 ℃; injection volume was 2μL. Result: Somatostatin has a great linearity (R2 = 0.999 3) from 0.005 149 2 mg/mL to 0.128 73 mg/mL. Average recovery rate (n= 9) is 99.1%. Conclusion: UPLC method, which is rapid, accurate, sensitive and with good repeatability, could service for quality control of somatostatin (API).

  2. Ibuprofen-in-cyclodextrin-in-W/O/W emulsion - Improving the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency of a model active ingredient.

    Hattrem, Magnus N; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Aachmann, Finn L; Dille, Morten J; Draget, Kurt I

    2015-06-20

    A challenge in formulating water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions is the uncontrolled release of the encapsulated compound prior to application. Pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals usually have amphipathic nature, which may contribute to leakage of the active ingredient. In the present study, cyclodextrins (CyDs) were used to impart a change in the relative polarity and size of a model compound (ibuprofen) by the formation of inclusion complexes. Various inclusion complexes (2-hydroxypropyl (HP)-β-CyD-, α-CyD- and γ-CyD-ibuprofen) were prepared and presented within W/O/W emulsions, and the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency was investigated. HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen provided the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen in comparison to a W/O/W emulsion with unassociated ibuprofen confined within the inner water phase, with a four-fold increase in the encapsulation efficiency. An improved, although lower, encapsulation efficiency was obtained for the inclusion complex γ-CyD-ibuprofen in comparison to HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, whereas α-CyD-ibuprofen had a similar encapsulation efficiency to that of unassociated ibuprofen. The lower encapsulation efficiency of ibuprofen in combination with α-CyD and γ-CyD was attributed to a lower association constant for the γ-CyD-ibuprofen inclusion complex and the ability of α-CyD to form inclusion complexes with fatty acids. For the W/O/W emulsion prepared with HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen was obtained at hyper- and iso-osmotic conditions and by using an excess molar ratio of CyD to ibuprofen. In the last part of the study, it was suggested that the chemical modification of the HP-β-CyD molecule did not influence the encapsulation of ibuprofen, as a similar encapsulation efficiency was obtained for an inclusion complex prepared with mono-1-glucose-β-CyD. PMID:25839416

  3. Method for the determination of Pd-catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of high-energy polarized-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence.

    Marguí, E; Van Meel, K; Van Grieken, R; Buendía, A; Fontàs, C; Hidalgo, M; Queralt, I

    2009-02-15

    In medicinal chemistry, Pd is perhaps the most-widely utilized precious metal, as catalyst in reactions which represent key transformations toward the synthesis of new active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The disadvantage of this metal-catalyzed chemistry is that expensive and toxic metal residues are invariably left bound to the desired product. Thus, stringent regulatory guidelines exist for the amount of residual Pd that a drug candidate is allowed to contain. In this work, a rapid and simple method for the determination of Pd in API samples by high-energy polarized-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been developed and validated according to the specification limits of current legislation (10 mg kg(-1) Pd) and the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines). Sample and calibration standards preparation includes a first step of homogenization and then, in a second step, the pressing of the powdered material into pellets without any chemical treatment. The use of several synthetic calibration standards made of cellulose to simulate the API matrix appears to be an effective means to obtain reliable calibration curves with a good spread of data points over the working range. With the use of the best measuring conditions, the limit of detection (0.11 mg kg(-1) Pd) as well as the limit of quantitation (0.37 mg kg(-1) Pd) achieved meet rigorous requirements. The repeatability of the XRF measurement appeared to be less than 2%, while the precision of the whole method was around 7%. Trueness was evaluated by analyzing spiked API samples at the level of the specification limit and calculating the recovery factor, which was better than 95%. To study the applicability of the developed methodology for the intended purpose, three batches of the studied API were analyzed for their Pd content, and the attained results were comparable to those obtained by the

  4. Earthquake Facts

    ... Us Earthquakes Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquake Facts The largest recorded earthquake in the United ... we know, there is no such thing as "earthquake weather" . Statistically, there is an equal distribution of ...

  5. The Marfan Syndrome. Fact Sheet [and] Physical Education and Activity Guidelines.

    National Marfan Foundation, Port Washington, NY.

    This document consists of two brochures, the first explaining the Marfan Syndrome and a second providing guidelines for physical education and activity for people who have this syndrome are provided. The brochure on factual information about Marfan syndrome outlines the associated medical problems involving the cardiovascular system, the skeleton,…

  6. Phlorizin, an Active Ingredient of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Increases Proliferative Potential of Keratinocytes with Inhibition of MiR135b and Increased Expression of Type IV Collagen.

    Choi, Hye-Ryung; Nam, Kyung-Mi; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Yang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jongsung; Date, Akira; Toyama, Kazumi; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    E. senticosus extract (ESE), known as antioxidant, has diverse pharmacologic effects. It is also used as an antiaging agent for the skin and phlorizin (PZ) is identified as a main ingredient. In this study, the effects of PZ on epidermal stem cells were investigated. Cultured normal human keratinocytes and skin equivalents are used to test whether PZ affects proliferative potential of keratinocytes and how it regulates these effects. Skin equivalents (SEs) were treated with ESE and the results showed that the epidermis became slightly thickened on addition of 0.002% ESE. The staining intensity of p63 as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is increased, and integrin α6 was upregulated. Analysis of ESE confirmed that PZ is the main ingredient. When SEs were treated with PZ, similar findings were observed. In particular, the expression of integrin α6, integrin β1, and type IV collagen was increased. Levels of mRNA for type IV collagen were increased and levels of miR135b were downregulated. All these findings suggested that PZ can affect the proliferative potential of epidermal cells in part by microenvironment changes via miR135b downregulation and following increased expression of type IV collagen. PMID:27042261

  7. Phlorizin, an Active Ingredient of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Increases Proliferative Potential of Keratinocytes with Inhibition of MiR135b and Increased Expression of Type IV Collagen

    Hye-Ryung Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E. senticosus extract (ESE, known as antioxidant, has diverse pharmacologic effects. It is also used as an antiaging agent for the skin and phlorizin (PZ is identified as a main ingredient. In this study, the effects of PZ on epidermal stem cells were investigated. Cultured normal human keratinocytes and skin equivalents are used to test whether PZ affects proliferative potential of keratinocytes and how it regulates these effects. Skin equivalents (SEs were treated with ESE and the results showed that the epidermis became slightly thickened on addition of 0.002% ESE. The staining intensity of p63 as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is increased, and integrin α6 was upregulated. Analysis of ESE confirmed that PZ is the main ingredient. When SEs were treated with PZ, similar findings were observed. In particular, the expression of integrin α6, integrin β1, and type IV collagen was increased. Levels of mRNA for type IV collagen were increased and levels of miR135b were downregulated. All these findings suggested that PZ can affect the proliferative potential of epidermal cells in part by microenvironment changes via miR135b downregulation and following increased expression of type IV collagen.

  8. HRSA Data Fact Sheets

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Data Fact Sheets provide summary data about HRSA’s activities in each Congressional District, County, State,...

  9. Food Ingredients as Anti-Obesity Agents.

    Saito, Masayuki; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Matsushita, Mami

    2015-11-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis after cold exposure, and is involved in the regulation of energy expenditure and body fatness. BAT can be activated and recruited by not only cold exposure but also by various food ingredients including capsaicin in chili pepper and catechins in green tea, which would be easily and safely applicable to our daily life for preventing obesity. PMID:26421678

  10. Reptile Facts.

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  11. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? ...

  12. Snack, Facts

    Smith, Suzanne M.

    2005-01-01

    The American diet has undergone substantial changes, a fact that has negatively impacted the dental health of children. Primary prevention is the ideal method to address the current increased incidence of tooth decay. Educating kids, and their parents, about the qualities of snacks as well as the role of frequency of snacking could help to reduce…

  13. Identification, synthesis and characterization of an unknown process related impurity in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI-IT/MS, 1H, 13C and 1H-1H COSY NMR

    Saji Thomas; Saroj Kumar Paul; Subhash Chandra Joshi; Vineet Kumar; Ashutosh Agarwal; Dharam Vir

    2014-01-01

    A new impurity was detected during high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient. The structure of unknown impurity was postulated based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization and ion trap analyzer (LC/ESI-IT/MS) analysis. Proposed structure of impurity was unambiguously confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization using 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), 1H-1H correlation spectro-scopy (COSY) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Based on the spectroscopic and spectrometric data, unknown impurity was characterized as 5-carbamoyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-10-yl propionate.

  14. Identification, synthesis and characterization of an unknown process related impurity in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI–IT/MS, 1H, 13C and 1H–1H COSY NMR

    Saji Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new impurity was detected during high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC analysis of eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient. The structure of unknown impurity was postulated based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization and ion trap analyzer (LC/ESI–IT/MS analysis. Proposed structure of impurity was unambiguously confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization using 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR, 1H–1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY and infrared spectroscopy (IR. Based on the spectroscopic and spectrometric data, unknown impurity was characterized as 5-carbamoyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-10-yl propionate.

  15. 复方卡力孜然凝胶剂主要活性成分体外经皮渗透%In vitro Percutaneous Penetration of Main Active Ingredient from Fufang Kali Ziran Gel

    邢建国; 王新春; 赵媛; 马建红; 薛桂蓬; 刘桂花

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究不同透皮促进剂对复方卡力孜然凝胶剂3种有效成分体外经皮渗透的影响,筛选有效的透皮吸收促进剂.方法:采用改良Franz扩散池法、离体鼠皮进行体外透皮试验,HPLC测定透皮吸收促进剂对3种有效成分补骨脂素、异补骨脂素及蛇床子素的累积透过量及透皮速率的影响.结果:不同促透剂对复方卡力孜然凝胶剂中补骨脂素、异补骨脂素及蛇床子素体外透皮吸收产生不同的影响,确定2%氮酮为促进剂时3种有效成分的促透效果最好.结论:2%氮酮能够促进复方卡力孜然凝胶剂3种有效成分的有效渗透,透皮吸收过程符合Higuchi方程.%Objective: To study on effects of in vitro percutaneous penetration of different penetration enhancers for three active ingredients from Fufang Kali Ziran gel, and to screen out effective transdermal absorption enhancers. Method;In vitro transdermal test was used by modified Franz diffusion cell method and in vitro rat skin, effect of cumulative penetration volume and penetration rate from transdermal absorption enhancers for three active ingredients ( psoralen, isopsoralen and osthole) was determined by HPLC. Result; Different enhancers were found to have different degree in vitro penetration enhancing effect on psoralen, isopsoralen and osthole in Fufang Kali Ziran gel,determined 2% azone had optimum promoting effect as enhancers to three active ingredients. Conclusion;2% azone could promote effective penetration of three active ingredients from Fufang Kali Ziran gel. This process of penetration absorption could be in line with Higuchi equation.

  16. An analysis of ingredient and nutritional labeling for wine

    Battaglene Tony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingredient and nutritional information are currently mandatory in many countries for food labeling. Although wine is generally exempt from this requirement, regulatory changes are being actively considered by authorities across the globe. In this paper, a review of the current international requirements for the presentation of ingredient and nutritional information is undertaken. A literature review of studies into consumer's requirements and understanding of such information is undertaken and the potential costs to producers analysed. The study makes a number of conclusions on whether ingredient and nutritional labeling is appropriate for wine and investigates the effectiveness, usefulness and impact of such a labeling regime.

  17. Observational facts regarding the joint activities of the southwest vortex and plateau vortex after its departure from the Tibetan Plateau

    Yu, Shuhua; Gao, Wenliang; Xiao, Dixiang; Peng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Using atmospheric observational data from 1998 to 2013, station rainfall data, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data, as well as annual statistics for the plateau vortex and shear line, the joint activity features of sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) and southwest vortexes (SWVs) are analyzed. Some new and useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the joint activities of the two types of vortex. The results show that: (1) The joint active period of the two vortexes is from May to August, and mostly in June and July. (2) The SDPVs of the partnership mainly originate near Zaduo, while the SWVs come from Jiulong. (3) Most of the two vortexes move in almost the same direction, moving eastward together with the low trough. The SDPVs mainly act in the area to the north of the Yangtze River, while the SWVs are situated across the Yangtze River valley. (4) The joint activity of the two vortexes often produces sustained regional heavy rainfall to the south of the Yellow River, influencing wide areas of China, and even as far as the Korean Peninsula, Japan and Vietnam. (5) Most of the two vortexes are baroclinic or cold vortexes, and they both become strengthened in terms of their joint activity. (6) When the two vortexes move over the sea, their central pressure descends and their rainfall increases, especially for SWVs. (7) The two vortexes might spin over the same area simultaneously when there are tropical cyclones in the eastern and southern seas of China, or move southward together if a tropical cyclone appears near Hainan Island.

  18. Anti-Phytopthora capsici Activities and Potential Use as Antifungal in Agriculture of Alpinia galanga Swartz, Curcuma longa Linn, Boesenbergia pandurata Schut and Chromolaena odorata: Bioactivities Guided Isolation of Active Ingredients

    Wilart Pompimon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant derived fungicides are now being subjects of many research groups. These secondary metabolites have enormous potential to inspire and influence modern agrochemical research. The study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity and their potential use as fungicides in the agriculture of crude extracts and purified compounds derived from plants used in traditional medicines. Approach: Four medicinal plants including A. galanga, C. longa, B. pandurata and C. odorata were selected and percolated with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone or methanol. The extracts were purified and elucidated their chemical structures. Disc mycelial growth inhibition was applied in order to determine their anti P. capsici activity and the field study was performed to determine their potential use in controlling fungal infection in chili plants compared with commercial fungicides such as captan and bio-control Trichoderma virens. Results: All crude extract inhibited mycelial growth of the fungus performed with similar efficacy. ED90 was equal to 300 ppm. Among plants studied B. pandurata was the most potent against P. capsici. The proposed active ingredients were pinostrobin and pinocembrin. In the field study, pinocembrin mediated the same anti P. capsici activity as captan. B. pandurata can protect chili from infection, thus increasing crop yield of chili comparable to Trichoderma virens. Conclusion: The results clearly showed that the extracts of the four plants studied could be considered as potential sources of novel fungicides. Particularly, B. pandurata has a very high potential as raw material for developing the antifungal molecule of non-petrochemical, naturally eco-friendly, easily obtainable and not toxic to human beings and environment, at least for use in chili growing.

  19. An analysis of ingredient and nutritional labeling for wine

    Battaglene Tony

    2014-01-01

    Ingredient and nutritional information are currently mandatory in many countries for food labeling. Although wine is generally exempt from this requirement, regulatory changes are being actively considered by authorities across the globe. In this paper, a review of the current international requirements for the presentation of ingredient and nutritional information is undertaken. A literature review of studies into consumer's requirements and understanding of such information is undertaken an...

  20. Application of Refractometry in Purification Technology of Active Ingredients from Citrus aurantium by Macroporous Resin%折光法在树脂精制枳实中有效成分的应用

    曾文雪; 姚珍珍; 涂瑶生; 陈银芳; 宋小玲; 王跃生

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨折光法在大孔树脂纯化工艺中应用的可行性.方法:选取枳实提取物为研究对象,经AB-8型大孔吸附树脂精制有效部位,用水与50%乙醇洗脱,间隔取样,在线监测洗脱液的折光率并分析其变化规律,同时以HPLC和UV检测作为参比,判断洗脱过程中始点和终点.结果:枳实有效部位精制过程中水洗终点为第4 BV(折光率0),亦即50%乙醇洗脱始点,50%乙醇洗脱终点为第9 BV(折光率16).结论:折光法准确可靠、便捷快速,具有较强的实践指导意义.%Objective: To explore application feasibility of refractometry in purification technology of macroporous resin. Method: Taking extract of Citrus aurantium as research object, active ingredients in it was refined by AB-8 macroporous resin, washed with water and 50% ethanol, interval sampled, refractive ratio of eluent was monitored on line and analyzed its regularity. At the same time, HPLC and UV spectrophotometric method was used to determine hesperidin as references, and to judge initiation point and terminal point during elution. Result: In purification process of active ingredients from C. aurantium, water elution terminal point 4 BV ( refractive index 0) of which was the initiation point by 50% ethanol, 9 BV (refractive index 16) of 50% ethanol elution was the terminal point. Conclusion: Refractometry was accurate, reliable, convenient, quickly in purification technology of active ingredients of TCM, it had a strong practical significance.

  1. A preliminary analysis of the active ingredients from the seeds of Polygonum orientale against Mythimna separata%红蓼种子中杀黏虫活性成分的初步分析

    姚赛群; 胡冠芳; 刘敏艳; 张新瑞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对红蓼种子乙酸乙酯萃取物中具有潜在杀虫活性的化合物进行初步分析,为指导开发利用杀虫植物资源提供依据.[方法]采用硅胶柱层析和气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法,以5龄黏虫为试虫;对红蓼种子萃取物的有效杀虫活性成分进行分析,应用色谱峰面积归一法测定各组分的相对百分含量.[结果]极性(甲醇)组分共分离出37个色谱峰,鉴定了其中的35个组分,占总含量的94.46%.弱极性(二氯甲烷)组分共分离出39个色谱峰,鉴定出39个组分.[结论]从成分的化学结构推断,红蓼种子的杀虫活性可能存在于14种成分中,主要成分为酮、醇、开环萜和五环三萜烷类化合物.%[Objective] Active ingredients of the ethyl acetate fraction from seeds of Polygonum orientale Linn, were analyzed to provide the basis for the exploitation of the insecticidal plant resources. [Method] Insecticidal ingredients from the seeds of P. orientale fractions were analyzed against the 5th instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker by using silica gel colurnn-chromatographer (CO and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative percentage of each composition was determined by area normalization. [Result] Thirty-seven peaks were found, 35 of which were identified, representing 94.46% of the total contents in polar fraction. Thirty-nine peaks were found, all of which were identified in low polar fraction. [Conclusion] It was deduced that the insecticidal active ingredients in P. orientale seeds were 14 chemical compounds, belonging to ketone, alcohol, terpene with open-ring and pentacyclic triterpene classes.

  2. The validation of the analytical method (HPLC, use for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, colistine sulphate and the finished product Colidem 50 – hydrosoluble powder, in SC DELOS impex ‘96 SRL

    Maria Neagu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API for the finished product Colidem 50 - hydrosoluble powder is make according to European Pharmacopoeia, curent edition. The method for analysis use in this purpose is the compendial method „Colistine sulphate” in E.P. in current edition and represent a optimized variant, developed and validated „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are the follow: Selectivity/Specificity, Linearity, Range of Linearity, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification, Precision (Repeatability - intra day, inter-Day Reproducibility, Accuracy, Robustness, Stability Solutions and System Suitability.

  3. Blood Facts and Statistics

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  4. Rapid Detection of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Weak Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Signal Drugs by Paper Substrate-Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectrometry%纸基-表面增强拉曼光谱法快速检测弱主药信号药品中的主药成分

    李晓; 陈梦云; 王磊; 张倩倩; 方芳; 苗丽; 陆峰

    2015-01-01

    A rapid detection method of active pharmaceutical ingredients( API) in weak API signal drugs by surface enhanced Raman scattering ( SERS) technology combined with paper substrate was established in this work. By soaking the filter paper in silver nanoparticles solution ( Ag NPs) to synthesize Ag NPs-paper as the substrate, and then the sample solution was dropping on the substrate with SERS detection. On the basis of strengthen ability of Ag NPs-paper, result of SERS detection and optimal preparation conditions, the fast identification method of weak API signal drugs was established. In this case, the SERS spectra of weak API signal drugs and their standards SERS spectra were obtained, where the correlation coefficient of weak API signal drug SERS spectra and its standard was more than 0. 9. The result showed that by this method, the low content API in weak API signal drugs could be well investigated, and the deficiencies of the normal Raman spectroscopy efficiently was also overcome. In conclusion, the synthesize method of Ag NPs-paper was simple, and the strengthen effect of this Ag NPs-paper on the intensity was obviously observed. Paper substrate-SERS method was simple, rapid and sensitive, and could be used to detect weak API signal drugs, presenting broad application prospects in the rapid detection of weak API signal drugs.%建立了弱主药信号药品中主药成分的纸基-表面增强拉曼光谱( SERS)快速检测方法。采用浸泡法制备纳米银溶胶滤纸SERS基底(简称银胶纸),将待检样品滴加于银胶纸上进行SERS检测。通过考察银胶纸制备条件、银胶纸增强能力、SERS检测结果,建立用于弱主药信号药品中主药成分的快速检测方法。通过本方法获得弱主药信号药品中主药成分的SERS图谱,与其对应标准品图谱的相关系数大于0.9,较好地检测出弱主药信号药品中的主药成分,有效克服了常规拉曼光谱分析的不足之处。新型银胶纸制备简

  5. Severe anaphylaxis: the secret ingredient.

    Buergi, Andreas; Jung, Barbara; Padevit, Christian; John, Hubert; Ganter, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    In this case report, we describe a healthy urological patient who suffered severe intraoperative anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine, an ingredient contained in frequently used lubricants (Instillagel, Endosgel). Chlorhexidine is a well-known skin disinfectant and antiseptic component in mouthwash or other over the counter antiseptic pharmaceuticals. There is little awareness that commonly used lubricants may contain hidden chlorhexidine. After severe intraoperative anaphylaxis, it is important to investigate all potential (including hidden) agents that might have caused this life-threatening reaction. PMID:25611155

  6. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF NAGAKESHARA (MESUA FERREA LINN) - AN INGREDIENT IN VYAGHRIHAREETAKI AVALEHA

    C Roshy Joseph; Ilanchezhian R; Patgiri Biswajyoti; CR Harish

    2010-01-01

    Herbs are staging a come-back and the herbal renaissance is “the happening” all over the globe. Ironical fact – Ayurvedic System of medicine is still struggling to reach the heights beyond numerous hurdles in its path. One such hurdle is controversy over botanical identity of drugs. Among the many drugs under controversy the drug nagakeshara is also one. The drug nagakeshara is found as an ingredient in many of the Ayurvedic formulations. Nagakeshara is an ingredient in Vyaghrihareetaki Avale...

  7. 羽裂蟹甲草对家蝇和白纹伊蚊的杀虫活性和活性成分%Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Cacalia tangutica against Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus

    黄继光; 赵欢欢; 苗辉; 徐汉虹

    2012-01-01

    To study the insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Cacalia tangutica,the methanol extracts of C.tangutica against Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus were bioassayed with feeding method and dipping method.The active ingredients of C.tangutica were isolated and identified.Results indicated that the methanol extracts from different parts of C.tangutica showed highly insecticidal activities against adult M.domestica and the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus.Nine compounds (stigmasterol,friedelin,7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin,umbelliferone,daphnetin,daphnetin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,quercetin,kaempferol and β-daucosterol) were isolated and identified from extracts of leaves and flowers of C.tangutica.Among them,friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol were firstly isolated from this plant.At 48 h after treatment,the corrected mortalities of adult M.domestica caused by friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol at the dosage of 500 μg/g were 88.33%,69.90% and 77.04%,respectively.At 72 h after treatment,the corrected mortalities of the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus caused by friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol at the concentration of 50 μg/g were 88.49%,72.22%and 71.06%,respectively.The studies suggest that C.tangutica would be a promising control agent on medical insects and deserves a further study.%为探明羽裂蟹甲草Cacalia tangutica的杀虫活性及其活性成分,通过拌糖饲喂法和浸渍法测定了羽裂蟹甲草甲醇提取物对家蝇Musca domestica成虫和白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus 4龄幼虫的毒杀活性,并采用色谱分离技术和现代波谱技术对羽裂蟹甲草中的化学成分进行了分离鉴定.结果表明:该植物不同部位甲醇提取物对家蝇成虫和白纹伊蚊4龄幼虫均具有较高的生物活性.从该植物叶和花甲醇提取物中分离鉴定了豆甾醇、无羁萜、7-羟基-8-甲氧基香豆素、7-羟基香豆素、7,8-二羟基香豆素、瑞香素-8-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷、槲皮素

  8. Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan through its active ingredient loganin counteracts substance P-enhanced NF-κB/ICAM-1 signaling in rats with bladder hyperactivity.

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Cheng, Chen-Hung; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-09-01

    Overt bladder afferent activation may exacerbate endogenous substance P (SP) release to induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-mediated inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leading to hyperactive bladder. Ba-Wei-Die-Huang-Wan (BWDHW), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in patients by undefined mechanisms. We explored the possible mechanisms and the active components of BWDHW on exogenous SP-induced bladder hyperactivity. BWDHW contained six major components: loganin, paeoniflorin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, and paeonol by high-performance liquid chromatography. In urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats, we evaluated transcystometrogram, pelvic afferent nerve activity by electrophysiologic recording techniques, ICAM-1 expression by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, ROS amount by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence method and possible ROS sources from the different leukocytes by specific stains in SP-treated bladder. BWDHW and its major component loganin dose-dependently inhibited H2 O2 and HOCl activity in vitro. Intragastrical BWDHW (250 mg/kg) and loganin (5 mg/kg) twice daily for 2 weeks did not affect the baseline micturition parameters. Intra-arterial SP (20 µg/rat) through neurokinin-1 receptor activation increased voiding frequency (shortened intercontraction intervals), pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, bladder ROS amount, neutrophils adhesion to venous endothelium, CD68 (monocyte/macrophage), and mast cell infiltration in the inflamed bladder. BWDHW and loganin pretreatment significantly depressed SP-enhanced pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, leukocyte infiltration, and ROS amount, and subsequently improved bladder hyperactivity. In conclusion, our results suggest that BWDHW and its active component loganin improves bladder hyperactivity via inhibiting SP/neurokinin-1

  9. Development and Validation of a Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Hydrocortisone Acetate Active Ingredient, Propyl Parahydroxybenzoate and Methyl Parahydroxybenzoate Preservatives, Butylhydroxyanisole Antioxidant, and Their Degradation Products in a Rectal Gel Formulation.

    Ascaso, Magda; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García, Mireia; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep R; Fàbregas, Anna; Carrillo, Carolina; Sarrate, Rocío; Suñé-Negre, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    A stability indicating method was established through a stress study, wherein different methods of degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and temperature) were studied simultaneously to determine the active ingredient hydrocortisone acetate, preservatives propyl parahydroxybenzoate, and methyl parahydroxybenzoate, antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), and their degradation products in a semisolid dosage gel form. The proposed method was suitably validated using a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column and gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in different proportions according to a planned program at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The diode array detector was set at 240 nm for the active substance and two preservatives, and 290 nm for BHA. The validation study was conducted according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for specificity, linearity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy. The method was used for QC of hydrocortisone acetate gel and for the stability studies with the aim of quantifying the active substance, preservatives, antioxidant, and degradation products. It has proved to be suitable as a fast and reliable method for QC. PMID:25857875

  10. Scholar-activating teaching materials for quantum physics. Pt. 2. Basic facts of quantum physics and heuristic methods

    Traditionally in the center of interest on quantum physics referring to schools the question lies, whether electrons and photons are now particles or waves, a question, which is often characterized by the phrase ''wave-particle dualism'', which notoriously not exists in its original meaning. Against that by the author - basing on important preparatory works of Kueblbeck and Mueller - a new concept for the treatment of quantum physics for the school was proposed, which puts ''basic facts'' in the foreground, comparable with the Kueblbeck-Mueller ''characteristic features''. The ''basic facts'' are similar to axioms of quantum physics, by means of which a large number of experiments and phenomena can be ''explained'' at least qualitatively - in a heuristic way -. Instead of the so-called ''wave-particle dualism'' here uncertainty and complementarity are put in the foreground. The new concept is in the Internet under http://www.forphys.de extensively presented with many further materials. In the partial volumes of this publication manifold and carefully elaborated teaching materials are presented, by means of which scholars can get themselves the partial set of quantum physics referring to schools by different methods like learn at stations, short referates, Internet research, group puzzle, the query-sheet or the card-index method etc. In the present 2. part materials for the ''basic facts'' of quantum physics are prepared, by which also modern experiments can be interpreted. Here deals it with the getting of knowledge and application of the ''basic Facts''. This pursues also by real scholar experiments, simulations and analogy tests. The scholars obtain so more simply than generally a deeper insight in quantum physics.

  11. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and

  12. 美白活性原料的筛选及其特性研究%Study of selection and properties of active ingredients in whitening cosmetics

    王鹏; 王勇刚; 李素霞; 韩福森; 吴巧玲; 王素英

    2009-01-01

    Tyrosinase inhibiting activity and anti-oxidizing capacity (scavenging activity against hydroxyl free radicals and super-oxidizing anionic free radicals in vitro) of extracts of twenty kinds of plant material, including green tea, grape seed and Brazil cherry were investigated. Experimental results showed that, all the extracts of twenty kinds of plant material display tyrosinase inhibiting activity and anti-oxidizing capacity in vitro with different extent;while the extracts from green tea, grape seed and Brazil cherry display very strong ty-rosinase inhibiting activity,which are much higher than that of arbutin. Further,the above-mentioned three extracts display significant scavenging activity against hydroxyl free radicals and super-oxdizing anionic free radicals in vitro. Thus the three kinds of plant material have the potential to be used in whitening cosmetics.%对绿茶、葡萄籽和巴西大樱桃等23种植物提取物对酪氨酸酶的抑制作用以及其抗氧化能力(清除羟基自由基和超氧阴离子自由基的能力)进行了研究.实验结果表明,20种样品均表现出不同程度的酪氨酸酶抑制作用和抗氧化能力,其中绿茶、巴西大樱桃和葡萄籽提取物表现出极强的酪氨酸酶活性抑制率,且抑制活性远高于熊果苷;同时这3种植物提取物也表现出显著的清除羟基自由基和超氧阴离子自由基的能力,具有应用于美白化妆品的潜力.

  13. Molecular ingredients of heterogeneous catalysis

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review and status report to those in theoretical chemistry of the rapidly developing surface science of heterogeneous catalysis. The art of catalysis is developing into science. This profound change provides one with opportunities not only to understand the molecular ingredients of important catalytic systems but also to develop new and improved catalyst. The participation of theorists to find answers to important questions is sorely needed for the sound development of the field. It is the authors hope that some of the outstanding problems of heterogeneous catalysis that are identified in this paper will be investigated. For this purpose the paper is divided into several sections. The brief Introduction to the methodology and recent results of the surface science of heterogeneous catalysis is followed by a review of the concepts of heterogeneous catalysis. Then, the experimental results that identified the three molecular ingredients of catalysis, structure, carbonaceous deposit and the oxidation state of surface atoms are described. Each section is closed with a summary and a list of problems that require theoretical and experimental scrutiny. Finally attempts to build new catalyst systems and the theoretical and experimental problems that appeared in the course of this research are described

  14. Bioactive potential of Rosa micrantha Borrer ex Sm. and Castanea sativa Mill. flowers as functional food ingredients: antioxidant and antifungal activity

    Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

    2014-01-01

    Natural products represent a rich source of biologically active compounds and are an example of molecular diversity, with recognized potential in drug discovery and development. Particularly, the plant kingdom offers a wide range of natural antioxidants, recognized by having remarkable medicinal properties [1,2]. These beneficial effects could be related to the high content in phenolic compounds, known for being strong scavengers of free radicals, which have key roles in ageing...

  15. 石榴籽油冷榨技术及活性成分生理作用研究%Pomegranate Seed Oil Cold Pressing and Physiological Role of Its Active Ingredient

    李勇

    2011-01-01

    石榴籽油冷榨技术采用低温62℃,使脂肪氧化酶灭活,既可提高出油率,又可防止挥发油、多酚、维生素等活性物质的损失.冷榨技术与莘取法相比,出油率仅低3%-5%,但没有萃取溶剂有害物质的残留.本文介绍了冷榨技术工艺流程及操作要点,分析了石榴籽油的活性成分及其生理作用.%Pomegranate seed oil cold pressing technology inactives lipoxygenase at low temperature 62℃ ,which can increase oil yield and prevent the loss of volatile oils, polyphenols, vitamins and other active substances. Compared with extraction technology,oil yield of cold pressing technology is 3%-5% lower, but no harmful substances residues in extraction solvent. Process and operating points of cold pressing technology were introduced and physiological role of active ingredients in pomegranate seed oil was analyzed.

  16. 阿莫西林原料药中有关物质的UPLC-TOF-MS/MS鉴定%Identification of related substances in amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients by UPLC-TOF-MS/MS

    雷勇胜; 宋丽明; 郝英魁; 王云; 李瑜; 蒋庆峰

    2015-01-01

    目的:快速鉴定阿莫西林原料药中的有关物质。方法采用UPLC-TOF-MS/MS法测定。Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH色谱柱(100 mm×2.1 mm,1.7μm);流动相为乙酸铵体系;体积流量0.5 mL/min;检测波长254 nm;柱温30℃;进样量10μL。电喷雾电离源;正离子检测;毛细管电压3.0 kV;离子源温度120℃;雾化气温度500℃;雾化气体积流量700 L/h;锥孔气体积流量50 L/h。结果推测了阿莫西林原料药中6个杂质的化学结构及其裂解规律,同时与欧洲药典中的杂质进行了比对归属。结论建立的UPLC-TOF-MS/MS的方法和实验数据可为阿莫西林原料药的质量控制提供了重要依据。%Objective To establish a rapid identification method for related substances in amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients. Methods UPLC-TOF-MS/MS method was used. HPLC was carried out on Waters Acquity UPLCTM BEH column (100 mm × 2.1 mm, 1.7μm) with ammonium acetate solution as mobile phase. The detection wavelength was 254 nm and injection volume was 10μL at the flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The column temperature was set for 30℃. MS conditions were that a mass spectrometry equipped with electrospray ionization (ESI) (+) source for detection. Capillary voltage was 3.0 kV, and source temperature was 120℃. The desolvation temperature and flow rate of desolvation gas were 500℃ and 700 L/h. The flow rate of cone gas was 50 L/h. Results The structures and fragmentation regularities of six related substances in amoxicillin were elucidated according to their MS characteristics. At the same time, related substances were compared to the impurities from European Pharmacopoeia. Conclusion UPLC-TOF-MS/MS method and results can establish a basis for quality control and stability study of amoxicillin active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  17. Novel botanical ingredients for beverages.

    Gruenwald, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Natural substances are generally preferred over chemical ones and are generally seen as healthy. The increasing demand for natural ingredients, improving health and appearance, is also attracting beverages as the fastest growing segment on the functional food market. Functional beverages are launched as fortified water, tea, diary or juices claiming overall nutrition, energy, anti-aging or relaxing effects. The substitution of so called superfruits, such as berries, grapes, or pomegranate delivers an effective range of beneficial compounds, including vitamins, fatty acids, minerals, and anti-oxidants. In this context, new exotic and African fruits could be useful sources in the near future. Teas and green botanicals, such as algae or aloe vera are also rich in effective bioactives and have been used traditionally. The botanical kingdom offers endless possibilities. PMID:19168002

  18. Qualitative Confirmation of Active Ingredient of Arbutin in Pear Leaves and Quantitative Determination by HPLC%梨树叶中有效成分熊果苷的确证及HPLC检测

    赵洁; 何强; 姚秉华; 孔祥虹

    2011-01-01

    目的 确证梨树叶中含有熊果苷,并建立高效液相色谱法测定梨树叶中熊果苷的含量.方法 将充分粉碎的梨树叶样品用甲醇提取,蒸去甲醇后用ENVITM- 18固相萃取柱净化,采用在线获取的紫外光谱及扫描质谱对熊果苷进行确证.高效液相色谱分析时用Inertsil ODS-3色谱柱分离,甲醇-水(1:9)洗脱,282 nm检测.结果 梨树叶样品中目标物的紫外吸收光谱及子离子扫描质谱图与熊果苷标准品相同.高效液相色谱法定量分析时线性关系良好,熊果苷的回收率>93%,RSD<2.1%.结论 梨树叶中含有熊果苷有效成分,高效液相色谱法检测梨树叶中熊果苷的含量简便、快速、准确.%OBJECTIVE To confirm arbutin as an ingredient in pear leaves, and develop a method for the determination of arbutin content in pear leaves by HPLC. METHODS The full powdered pear leaves were extracted with methanol, then cleanup was performed on ENVI-18 SPE columns after methanol boiled off. Qualitative confirmation using the UV spectrum and mass spectra was acquired on-line. HPLC was performed on Inertsil ODS-3 column with DAD detection wavelength of 282 nm using methanol-water( 1: 9) as mobile phase. RESULTS The UV spectrum and mass spectra of the target chromatographic peak were the same as arbutin standard. The HPLC method showed good linear relationship, the recoveries of arbutin were all more than 93% and RSD was less than 2.1%. CONCLUSION Arbutin is an active ingredient in pear leaves, and HPLC as the content analysis method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  19. Research advances in garlic's main active ingredients and their pharmacological effects%大蒜主要活性成分及药理作用研究进展

    马丽娜; 李峰杰; 陈坚; 李贻奎

    2014-01-01

    大蒜为广义百合科植物大蒜( Allium sativum L.)的鳞茎,具有防治心血管疾病、抗肿瘤及抗病原微生物等多方面的作用。该文通过查阅国内外文献,对大蒜的主要活性成分及药理作用进行综述,并针对国内大蒜研究中存在的问题和研究进展进行了初步的分析,为大蒜的进一步研究及新药开发提供一定的参考。%Garlic is a bulb from generalized liliaceous plant Alli-um sativum, it plays an essential role in the prevention and treat-ment of cardiovascular diseases, tumors and pathogenic microor-ganisms. Through consulting domestic and foreign references, the main active ingredients of garlic and their pharmacological effects are reviewed, the problems and achievement in Chinese research are also discussed. It can provide a certain reference for the further study of garlic and new drug development.

  20. 抗肝纤维化的中药有效成分及其作用机制研究进展%Advances in active ingredients and action mechanism of TCM in treatment of hepatic fibrosis

    孙蕾; 邓华平; 席忠新; 李霞; 孙连娜

    2012-01-01

    肝纤维化是多数慢性肝病所共有的病理特征,肝纤维化逐步发展形成肝硬化,最终导致肝癌.本文将近年报道的具有抗HF作用的中药有效成分作简单综述,归纳为黄酮类、生物碱类、萜类、酚类化合物,并总结了各类有效成分抗HF的作用机制,为深入开展中药抗HF的研究提供一定的参考.%Hepatic fibrosis was the common feature of pathology in almost all patients with chronic liver injury, which led to cirrhosis gradually and liver cancer ultimately. The anti-hepatic fibrosis active ingredients from TCM, including flavones, alkaloids, terpenes and phenols compounds were reviewed with the action mechanism in this paper, which could provide some references for the further study about the anti-hepatic fibrosis of TCM.

  1. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to enrich agro-ma

  2. Sodium in Your Diet: Using the Nutrition Facts Label to Reduce Your Intake

    ... Food Home Food Ingredients, Packaging & Labeling Labeling & Nutrition Sodium in Your Diet: Use the Nutrition Facts Label ... probably heard that most Americans eat too much sodium, and too much sodium can raise blood pressure – ...

  3. STABILITY TESTING OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT [API

    Agarwal Vipul

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Stability plays an important role in drug development process. It explains several factors that affect the quality of a drug substance or drug products varies with time under the influence of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity and light. Stability studies play a vital role to decide the re-test period and shelf life for the drug substance and recommended storage conditions of API. ICH and EMEA guidelines define stability data package for new drug substance or drug product that is sufficient for a registration application within the three regions of the EC, Japan and United States.

  4. Separation of Chiral Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Chaaban, Joussef Hussein

    simulations were found to be in good agreement with the experimental data. The sensitivity analysis conducted suggests that the separation process can be improved by increasing the mean residence time of the liquid phase in the crystallizers, the crystallization temperature, and the mass of seeds supplied...... system of the amino acid asparagine monohydrate by crystal growth of seed crystals. The achievement of a racemic liquid phase composition consisting of nearly equal distribution of enantiomers in solution was also investigated. Finally, the performance of the CC-PC process and its potential for further...... products were influenced by the morphological differences in the seed crystals. Due to irregularly shaped seed crystals of L-asparagine mnohydrate (L-AsnH2O), increase in the productivities and yields were achieved in the L-Tank, i.e. the crystallizer in which L-AsnH2O crystals grow. Lower purities of...

  5. Seed Coat Permeability of Active Ingredients

    Niemann, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    The seed coat is the barrier controlling exchange of solutes between the plant embryo and its environment. This exchange is of importance for example in the uptake of germination inhibitors or in the uptake of agrochemicals applied as seed treatment. A thorough understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying solute permeation across the seed coat would help to improve the effectiveness of seed treatment formulations. In seed treatment formulations, additives can be used to enhance or decreas...

  6. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  7. Monetary policy, inflation and the level of economic activity in Brazil after the Real Plan: stylized facts from SVAR models

    Brisne Céspedes

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers some stylized facts about the short run fluctuations of the Brazilian economy after the Real Plan, giving special attention to the identification of the effects of monetary policy shocks. A distinctive feature of this article is the careful attention paid to monetary policy developments after the Real Plan when dividing our sample into two subsamples (1996:07-1998:08 and 1999:03-2004:12. We use directed acyclic graphs to identify the Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR models. In contrast with most SVAR analysis for Brazil, we found empirical evidence that supports the view that a contractionary monetary policy indeed reduces the price level.Este artigo obtém alguns fatos estilizados sobre as flutuações de curto prazo da economia brasileira após o Plano Real, dando atenção especial à identificação dos efeitos dos choques da política monetária. Dadas as alterações na política monetária, ocorridos após o Plano Real, optamos por dividir a nossa análise em dois subperíodos (1996:07-1998:08 e 1999:032004:12. Os modelos de Auto-Regressão Vetorial Estrutural (SVAR foram identificados através do uso de grafos acíclicos direcionados. Em contraste com a maioria das análises feitas para o Brasil, que adotam modelos SVAR, encontramos evidências de que uma política monetária contracionista reduz o nível geral de preços.

  8. Percutaneous penetration enhancement effects of azone on TCM active in-gredients with different lipophilicity%氮酮对不同亲脂性中药有效成分的经皮促透作用研究∗

    王景雁; 兰颐; 茹庆国; 王逸飞; 刘艳; 于竞新; 吴清

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of azone on transdermal absorption of TCM active ingre-dients with different lipophilicity, and further explore its percutaneous penetration enhancement effects on the complex TCM active ingredients. Methods Five model drugs, namely osthole, tetramethylpyrazine, ferulic acid, puerarin and geniposide, were selected based on their lipophilicity determined by logKo/w, and then tested using in vitro permeation studies in which Franz diffusion cellsand rat skin were em-ployed. Meanwhile, the association between the logKo/w values of model drugs and enhancement ratio ( ER) was established. Results Different concentrations of azone could significantly promote the trans-dermal absorption of all model drugs. The ER value gradually increased with the increase of the azone concentration withina certain concentration range. It, however, started to decrease when exceedinga cer-tain concentration level. The penetration enhancement ratio was roughly in parabolic curve relation with the drug lipophilicity after treatment with azone, and azone could achieve the optimal permeation effect for moderate hydrophilic drugs (an estimated logKo/w value of -0. 5). Conclusion azone could significant-ly promote the transdermal absorption of TCM components with different lipophilicity, and its penetration enhancement ratio was in parabolic curve relation with the drug lipophilicity.%目的:考察氮酮对不同亲脂性中药有效成分的经皮促透作用特征,探讨其对中药外用制剂中复杂成分的经皮促透效果。方法选择不同亲脂性中药有效成分,包括强亲脂性和强亲水性药物,即蛇床子素、川芎嗪、阿魏酸、葛根素、京尼平苷,采用体外透皮试验测定不同浓度氮酮对各药物的经皮促透吸收情况,并建立药物油水分配系数值( logKo/w )与其对应促透倍数间的相关性。结果氮酮对不同亲脂性药物均表现出显著经皮促透作用,并呈现先随

  9. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in used automobile catalysts and active pharmaceutical ingredients using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Resano, Martín; Flórez, María del Rosario; Queralt, Ignasi; Marguí, Eva

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in two samples of very different nature. While analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients is straightforward and it is feasible to minimize matrix effects, to the point that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standard solutions, the analysis of used automobile catalysts is more challenging requiring the addition of a chemical modifier (NH4F·HF) to help in releasing the analytes, a more vigorous temperature program and the use of a solid standard (CRM ERM®-EB504) for calibration. However, in both cases it was possible to obtain accurate results and precision values typically better than 10% RSD in a fast and simple way, while only two determinations are needed for the three analytes, since Pt and Rh can be simultaneously monitored in both types of samples. Overall, the methods proposed seem suited for the determination of these analytes in such types of samples, offering a greener and faster alternative that circumvents the traditional problems associated with sample digestion, requiring a small amount of sample only (0.05 mg per replicate for catalysts, and a few milligrams for the pharmaceuticals) and providing sufficient sensitivity to easily comply with regulations. The LODs achieved were 6.5 μg g- 1 (Pd), 8.3 μg g- 1 (Pt) and 9.3 μg g- 1 (Rh) for catalysts, which decreased to 0.08 μg g- 1 (Pd), 0.15 μg g- 1 (Pt) and 0.10 μg g- 1 (Rh) for pharmaceuticals.

  10. 21 CFR 330.13 - Conditions for marketing ingredients recommended for over-the-counter (OTC) use under the OTC...

    2010-04-01

    ... action against the product, the marketer, or both. (c) An OTC drug product that contains: (1) An active... proposed monograph, an OTC drug product that contains: (1) An active ingredient limited, on or after May 11... chapter, or (2) An active ingredient at a dosage level higher than that available in an OTC drug...

  11. 基于均匀设计的中药有效组分复方配伍研究%Uniform designed research on the active ingredients assembling of Chinese herbal for antioxidative capacity

    杨鸿; 吴彦; 马琰岩; 吕俊海; 李晶哲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find a suitable way of quantitative composition-activity relationship of Chinese herbal for antioxidative capacity based on uniform design. Method Chinese herbal active ingredient formula was composed of Total flavonoids of Glycyrrhiza (TFG) , ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) , Total fa-vonoids of epimedium (TFE) and astragaloside (AST) . The herbal efficacy was detected by scavenging the free radical of DPPH in vitro, and the mathematical model was constructed to describe the connection between different combinations and their antioxidative capacity by the method of LARS regression. Result The best effect was in the ratio of TFG 0. 8 mg/ml,GBE 3.144 mg/ml,TFE 0.024 mg/ml,AST 0.036 mg/ml. Conclusion Uniform designed research is one of efficient ways to describe the quantitative composition-activity relationship.%目的 探索基于均匀设计的中药抗氧化有效组分复方的研究分析方法.方法 采用均匀设计和改进最小角回归分析,对甘草总黄酮、银杏叶提取物、淫羊藿总黄酮和黄芪总苷组成的中药组分复方不同配比体外清除DPPH自由基的作用进行研究.结果 通过分析获得了中药组分配伍清除DPPH的回归方程,优化组合后进行药效学验证,结果显示该中药组分配伍最佳剂量组合为甘草总黄酮0.8 mg/ml、银杏叶提取物3.144 mg/ml、淫羊藿总黄酮0.024 mg/ml和黄芪总苷0.036 mg/ml.结论 上述中药组分配伍后能有效清除DPPH自由基;本实验采用的均匀设计结合改进最小角回归分析适合"非线性、小样本"生物实验数据数据分析,为筛选评价抗氧化中药有效组分复方提供了合适的研究方法.

  12. 7 CFR 58.520 - Nondairy ingredients.

    2010-01-01

    ... ingredients such as fruits, nuts, chives or other vegetables used or blended with cottage cheese shall be... cottage cheese may first be soaked for 15 to 20 minutes in a cold 25 to 50 ppm chlorine solution...

  13. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Zoran Škrtić; Manuela Grčević; Zlata Kralik; Gordana Kralik

    2012-01-01

    Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as f...

  14. Electrostatic separation for functional food ingredient production

    Wang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Dry fractionation is a promising alternative to wet extraction processes for production of food ingredients, since it uses hardly any water, consumes less energy and retains the native functionality of the ingredients. It combines milling and dry separation to enrich agro-materials in specific components such as protein. Electrostatic separation recently emerged as a novel dry separation process and it relies on electrostatic forces for separation. Though the potential of electrostati...

  15. Phenolic content and antioxidant properties of green chilli paste and its ingredients

    Griangsak Chairote

    2010-01-01

    Green chilli paste and its ingredients (chilli, red onion and garlic) from different stages of processing were analysed for total phenolic content and antioxidant properties, i.e. total antioxidant capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and β-carotene bleaching activity. The effects of processing stage on total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of green chilli paste and its ingredients were discussed, along with the correlation between the total phenolic content and the antio...

  16. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in used automobile catalysts and active pharmaceutical ingredients using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    Resano, Martín, E-mail: mresano@unizar.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Flórez, María del Rosario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Aragón Institute of Engineering Research (I3A), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Queralt, Ignasi [Institute of Earth Sciences Jaume Almera ICTJA-CSIC, Sole Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Marguí, Eva [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi s/n, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    This work investigates the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in two samples of very different nature. While analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients is straightforward and it is feasible to minimize matrix effects, to the point that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standard solutions, the analysis of used automobile catalysts is more challenging requiring the addition of a chemical modifier (NH{sub 4}F·HF) to help in releasing the analytes, a more vigorous temperature program and the use of a solid standard (CRM ERM®-EB504) for calibration. However, in both cases it was possible to obtain accurate results and precision values typically better than 10% RSD in a fast and simple way, while only two determinations are needed for the three analytes, since Pt and Rh can be simultaneously monitored in both types of samples. Overall, the methods proposed seem suited for the determination of these analytes in such types of samples, offering a greener and faster alternative that circumvents the traditional problems associated with sample digestion, requiring a small amount of sample only (0.05 mg per replicate for catalysts, and a few milligrams for the pharmaceuticals) and providing sufficient sensitivity to easily comply with regulations. The LODs achieved were 6.5 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 8.3 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 9.3 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for catalysts, which decreased to 0.08 μg g{sup −1} (Pd), 0.15 μg g{sup −1} (Pt) and 0.10 μg g{sup −1} (Rh) for pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • Solid sampling HR CS GFAAS permits the fast and direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh. • 2 determinations suffice for the 3 elements (2 of them can be measured simultaneously). • Samples as different as car catalysts and pharmaceuticals can be accurately analyzed. • Aqueous standards (pharmaceuticals) or a solid CRM (catalysts) is used for calibration.

  17. Determination of palladium, platinum and rhodium in used automobile catalysts and active pharmaceutical ingredients using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis

    This work investigates the potential of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh in two samples of very different nature. While analysis of active pharmaceutical ingredients is straightforward and it is feasible to minimize matrix effects, to the point that calibration can be carried out against aqueous standard solutions, the analysis of used automobile catalysts is more challenging requiring the addition of a chemical modifier (NH4F·HF) to help in releasing the analytes, a more vigorous temperature program and the use of a solid standard (CRM ERM®-EB504) for calibration. However, in both cases it was possible to obtain accurate results and precision values typically better than 10% RSD in a fast and simple way, while only two determinations are needed for the three analytes, since Pt and Rh can be simultaneously monitored in both types of samples. Overall, the methods proposed seem suited for the determination of these analytes in such types of samples, offering a greener and faster alternative that circumvents the traditional problems associated with sample digestion, requiring a small amount of sample only (0.05 mg per replicate for catalysts, and a few milligrams for the pharmaceuticals) and providing sufficient sensitivity to easily comply with regulations. The LODs achieved were 6.5 μg g−1 (Pd), 8.3 μg g−1 (Pt) and 9.3 μg g−1 (Rh) for catalysts, which decreased to 0.08 μg g−1 (Pd), 0.15 μg g−1 (Pt) and 0.10 μg g−1 (Rh) for pharmaceuticals. - Highlights: • Solid sampling HR CS GFAAS permits the fast and direct determination of Pd, Pt and Rh. • 2 determinations suffice for the 3 elements (2 of them can be measured simultaneously). • Samples as different as car catalysts and pharmaceuticals can be accurately analyzed. • Aqueous standards (pharmaceuticals) or a solid CRM (catalysts) is used for calibration. • 6–9 μg g−1 (catalysts) and 0.1–0

  18. CPR Facts and Stats

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  1. Facts about Presbyopia

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    ... Blood Pressure Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program High Cholesterol Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... the facts about high cholesterol [PDF-281K] . High Cholesterol in the United States 73.5 million adults ( ...

  7. Facts About Pink Eye

    ... Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most common ... depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves inflammation ...

  8. Drug Facts: Anabolic Steroids

    ... Share Print Home » Publications » DrugFacts » Anabolic Steroids DrugFacts: Anabolic Steroids Email Facebook Twitter Revised March 2016 What are anabolic steroids? Anabolic steroids are synthetic variations of the male ...

  9. 21 CFR 101.4 - Food; designation of ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients of a wheat flour are declared in an ingredient statement, the principal ingredient of the flour... enriched flour, or self-rising flour is “flour”, “white flour”, “wheat flour”, or “plain flour”; the first... in the ingredient list of whole wheat flour, or bromated whole wheat flour......

  10. Controlling Flows Of Two Ingredients For Spraying

    Chandler, Huel H.

    1995-01-01

    Closed-loop servo control subsystem incorporated, as modification, into system controlling flows of two ingredients mixed and sprayed to form thermally insulating foams on large tanks. Provides steady flows at specified rates. Foams produced smoother and of higher quality. Continued use of system results in substantial reduction in cost stemming from close control of application of foam and consequent reduced use of material.

  11. 21 CFR 106.20 - Ingredient control.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingredient control. 106.20 Section 106.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION INFANT FORMULA QUALITY CONTROL PROCEDURES Quality Control Procedures for Assuring Nutrient...

  12. ENRICHMENT OF POULTRY PRODUCTS WITH FUNCTIONAL INGREDIENTS

    Gordana Kralik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary role of food is to provide nutritive stuffs in sufficient amounts to meet nutritive requirements. However, recent scientific findings confirm assumptions that particular food or its ingredients had positive physiological and psychological effects on health. Functional food is referred to food rich in ingredients, having beneficial effects on one or more functions in an organism. By consuming functional food consumers can expect some health benefits. Production of poultry products as functional food is getting more important on foreign markets while portion of such products on domestic food market is insignificant. The aim of this paper is to present possibilities for enrichment of poultry products, such as broiler and turkey meat and chicken eggs, as they can be characterized as functional food. Functional ingredients in poultry products are polyunsaturated fatty acids (LNA, EPA and DHA and antioxidants. Enrichment of poultry products with the stated ingredients that are beneficial for human health is subject of many researches, and only recently have researches been directed towards assessment of market sustainability of such products.

  13. Infertility Fact Sheet

    ... Home > ePublications > Our ePublications > Infertility fact sheet ePublications Infertility fact sheet This information in Spanish (en español) ... to the fallopian tube instead of the uterus. Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) involves transferring eggs and sperm into the ...

  14. Identification of uniformity in Pravastatin Sodium Tablets and crystallographic form in their active pharmaceutical ingredient by NIRS method%近红外光谱法鉴别普伐他汀钠片及其原料药晶型的一致性研究

    耿颖; 程奇蕾; 何兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:建立全覆盖抽样的普伐他汀钠片的近红外光谱法一致性检验模型,考察制剂工艺的差别和原料药晶型的差异,通过稳健、准确、代表性强的近红外光谱一致性模型实现普伐他汀钠片的快速检验和筛查。方法对评价性抽验抽取的5个企业中的4个共65批样品建立普伐他汀钠片近红外一致性检验模型,并对4个厂家的原料药的近红外光谱图进行比较。结果建立了4个厂家普伐他汀钠片剂的近红外一致性模型,预测成功率均为100%;4种原料药和1种无定型粉末的近红外光谱图显示不同晶型光谱图具有差异。结论近红外光谱法能够用于快速鉴别质量工艺稳定的普伐他汀钠片产品,对制剂工艺进行考察,并能够区分不同晶型的原料药。%Objective To develop near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) uniformity models for sampling of Pravastatin Sodium Tablets from overall manufactures in Chinese market, to evaluate the uniformity of Pravastatin Sodium Tablets and their active pharmaceutical ingredients, and provide robust, accurate, and representative uniformity models. Methods NIRS models for 65 batches of tablets were built for four individual manufactures from five manufactures. The active pharmaceutical ingredients form the four manufactures and an amorphous powder were investigated by comparing NIR spectrum. Results Uniformity Models for the four different manufactures were built with prediction rate 100%, respectively. The spectra of four active pharmaceutical ingredients and an amorphous powder showed differences in various crystallographic forms of NIRS. Conclusion It demonstrates the potential of NIRS being a rapid and highly effective method for the identification of Pravastatin Sodium Tablats, the investigation of their preparation process, and the discrimination of the active pharmaceutical ingredients from their various crystallographic forms.

  15. Myth vs. Fact: Adrenal Fatigue

    ... Hormones and Health › Myth vs Fact › Adrenal Fatigue Myth vs. Fact Adrenal Fatigue January 2015 Download PDFs ... science. This fact sheet was created to address myths about adrenal fatigue and to provide facts on ...

  16. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Naveen Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.

  17. Thermal Decomposition of IMX-104: Ingredient Interactions Govern Thermal Insensitivity

    Maharrey, Sean [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wiese-Smith, Deneille [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Highley, Aaron M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steill, Jeffrey D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Behrens, Richard [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kay, Jeffrey J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report summarizes initial studies into the chemical basis of the thermal insensitivity of INMX-104. The work follows upon similar efforts investigating this behavior for another DNAN-based insensitive explosive, IMX-101. The experiments described demonstrate a clear similarity between the ingredient interactions that were shown to lead to the thermal insensitivity observed in IMX-101 and those that are active in IMX-104 at elevated temperatures. Specifically, the onset of decomposition of RDX is shifted to a lower temperature based on the interaction of the RDX with liquid DNAN. This early onset of decomposition dissipates some stored energy that is then unavailable for a delayed, more violent release.

  18. Ingredients and Meals Rather Than Recipes

    Woolrych, Alan; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren; Frøkjær, Erik;

    2011-01-01

    scheme for evaluation resources is developed, and the scheme is extended with project specific resources that impact the effective use of methods. With these reviews and analyses in place, implications for research, teaching, and practice are derived. Throughout, the article draws on culinary analogies....... A recipe is nothing without its ingredients, and just as the quality of what is cooked reflects the quality of its ingredients, so too does the quality of usability work reflect the quality of resources as configured and combined. A method, like a recipe, is at best a guide to action for those......To better support usability practice, most usability research focuses on evaluation methods. New ideas in usability research are mostly proposed as new evaluation methods. Many publications describe experiments that compare methods. Comparisons may indicate that some methods have important...

  19. Medications: Myths Versus Facts

    ... High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Medications: Myths Versus Facts Updated:Aug 30,2016 Taking medication ... Association volunteer. Here are some of the top myths about taking cardiovascular medication: I feel OK, so ...

  20. NF Facts and Statistics

    ... Registry Learn About NF Facts & Statistics NF1 NF2 Schwannomatosis About Us Foundation News & Events Employment Opportunities About ... classified into three distinct types; NF1, NF2 and schwannomatosis. They are caused by different genes, located on ...

  1. CMS Fast Facts

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has developed a new quick reference statistical summary on annual CMS program and financial data. CMS Fast Facts includes summary information on total program...

  2. Ovarian Cancer Fact Sheet

    ... widgets/current/fahc.html/ Search Share Embed Ovarian cancer fact sheet Ovarian cancer is cancer that begins in the ovaries. ... make female hormones and produce a woman's eggs. Ovarian cancer is a serious cancer that is more ...

  3. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About ... more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. Your gift today will help us get ...

  4. Anticarcinogenic effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L. and its ingredients

    Saeed Samarghandian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures such as chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reversing the outcome of cancer diseases to any drastic extent, which has led researchers to investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties Crocus sativus L., commonly known as saffron, is the raw material for one of the most expensive spice in the world, and it has been used in folk medicine for centuries . Chemical analysis has shown the presence of more than 150 components in saffron stigmas. The more powerful components of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. Studies in animal models and with cultured human malignant cell lines have demonstrated antitumor and cancer preventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients, possible mechanisms for these activities are discussed. More direct evidence of anticancer effectiveness of saffron as chemo-preventive agent may come from trials that use actual reduction of cancer incidence as the primary endpoint. This review discusses recent literature data and our results on the cancer chemopreventive activities of saffron and its main ingredients.

  5. Biodiesel Basics (Fact Sheet)

    2014-06-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief introduction to biodiesel, including a discussion of biodiesel blends, which blends are best for which vehicles, where to buy biodiesel, how biodiesel compares to diesel fuel in terms of performance, how biodiesel performs in cold weather, whether biodiesel use will plug vehicle filters, how long-term biodiesel use may affect engines, biodiesel fuel standards, and whether biodiesel burns cleaner than diesel fuel. The fact sheet also dismisses the use of vegetable oil as a motor fuel.

  6. Fragranced consumer products: Chemicals emitted, ingredients unlisted

    Fragranced consumer products are pervasive in society. Relatively little is known about the composition of these products, due to lack of prior study, complexity of formulations, and limitations and protections on ingredient disclosure in the U.S. We investigated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from 25 common fragranced consumer products-laundry products, personal care products, cleaning supplies, and air fresheners-using headspace analysis with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Our analysis found 133 different VOCs emitted from the 25 products, with an average of 17 VOCs per product. Of these 133 VOCs, 24 are classified as toxic or hazardous under U.S. federal laws, and each product emitted at least one of these compounds. For 'green' products, emissions of these compounds were not significantly different from the other products. Of all VOCs identified across the products, only 1 was listed on any product label, and only 2 were listed on any material safety data sheet (MSDS). While virtually none of the chemicals identified were listed, this nonetheless accords with U.S. regulations, which do not require disclosure of all ingredients in a consumer product, or of any ingredients in a mixture called 'fragrance.' Because the analysis focused on compounds emitted and listed, rather than exposures and effects, it makes no claims regarding possible risks from product use. Results of this study contribute to understanding emissions from common products, and their links with labeling and legislation.

  7. International waste management fact book

    Amaya, J P; LaMarche, M N; Upton, J F

    1997-10-01

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs.

  8. International waste management fact book

    Many countries around the world are faced with nuclear and environmental management problems similar to those being addressed by the US Department of Energy. The purpose of this Fact Book is to provide the latest information on US and international organizations, programs, activities and key personnel to promote mutual cooperation to solve these problems. Areas addressed include all aspects of closing the commercial and nuclear fuel cycle and managing the wastes and sites from defense-related, nuclear materials production programs

  9. Microbiological and mycotoxicological correctness of protein feed ingredients in Vojvodina

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During 2009 and 2010, the microbiological tests of a total of 40 samples of protein feed ingredients (sunflower meal, soybean, soybean cake, soybean grits and soybean meal originating from Vojvodina were carried out. The most of the samples (57.5% matched the Serbian regulations on feed. Microbiologically, there was not adequate quality of protein ingredients, which was a consequence of the presence of pathogenic bacteria: Proteus spp. in 12 samples of sunflower meal, 1 sample of soybean meal and 2 samples of soybean cake, and E. coli in 2 samples of soybean meal. The highest total number of bacteria (1 x 107 g-1 and the highest number of yeasts and molds (148.000 g-1 was identified in one sample of sunflower meal. Mycological analysis of protein feed established the dominance of species from the genera Aspergillus (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and A. ochraceus, Fusarium (F. solani, F. subglutinans and F. verticillioides and Mucor (Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis and M. racemosus f. racemosus. The study of biochemical characteristics of 10 fungal isolates from sunflower meal, soybean grits and cake has established that: a 2 cultures of Aspergillus spp. possessed antagonistic activity against other fungal species, b 1 isolate F. solani biosynthesized T-2 toxin, c 1 culture of F. subglutinans produced zearalenone, d 4 isolates of Mucor spp. showed the ability to degrade one or both trichothecenes of type A (diacetoxyscirpenol - DAS and T-2 toxin. Mycotoxicological studies that included 24 samples of protein ingredients showed the absence of mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, DAS and T-2 toxin in all 15 samples of sunflower meal. In the samples of soybean and its products (meal and cake only T-2 toxin was detected in 3 analyzed samples. The amount of this fusariotoxin did not exceed 375 μg kg-1 .

  10. Fact Finding Nuclear Energy; Fact Finding Kernenergie

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Seebregts, A.J.; Lako, P. [ECN-Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Blom, F.J.; Van Gemert, F. [Sociaal-Economische Raad SER, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    Facts and figures on nuclear energy are presented to enable a discussion on the role of nuclear power in the transition to a sustainable energy supply for the Netherlands. The following issues are presented: Nuclear technology, safety and security (including non-proliferation and protection against terrorism); Environmental aspects (including greenhouse gas emissions of the nuclear energy lifecycle); Nuclear power and the power market (including impact of nuclear power on electricity market prices); Economic aspects (including costs of nuclear power and external costs and benefits); Policy issues (including sustainable development); Social acceptance of nuclear energy; Knowledge infrastructure for nuclear energy in the Netherlands; and Nuclear power in long term energy scenarios for the Netherlands and Europe. Using two long-term energy scenarios the report also presents a social impact analysis of an increasing share of nuclear power in the Dutch electricity supply. [Dutch] In dit onderzoek zijn feiten en gegevens over kernenergie verzameld op basis van bestaande inzichten en een veelheid aan literatuur (fact finding). Voor technologische expertise heeft ECN zich laten bijstaan door de Nucleair Research and consultancy Group (NRG). Op basis van de fact-finding studie bereidt de SER een advies voor over de rol van kernenergie in de toekomstige nationale elektriciteitsproductie. In de eerste acht hoofdstukken worden feiten en gegevens gepresenteerd over verschillende onderwerpen die bij kernenergie van belang zijn. In Hoofdstuk 2 wordt de kernenergietechnologie beschreven, inclusiefde veiligheid van kernenergie besproken, omdat die nauw met de technologie samenhangt. Hierbij gaat het om de technische veiligheid van de installaties, maar ook om beveiliging tegen misbruik van technologie en nucleair materiaal, waaronder beveiliging tegen terrorisme. De milieuaspecten door radioactiviteit en door emissies van kooldioxide die met het gebruik van kernenergie samenhangen

  11. Facts in artifacts

    P R Bindhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of microscopic sections of animal tissues reveals facts which are not always related to its normal histology or pathology. Processing of tissue specimens consists of lengthy procedures from the stage of surgical removal to the stained and mounted microscopic sections. Defects are common in tissue sections as a result of faulty procedures. These defects are referred to as artifacts. They lead to misinterpretation of histopathological diagnosis but at times they throw limelight into diagnosis. This paper attempts to put together all the facts regarding the various artifacts that are encountered in histopathology.

  12. Energy Facts, 1992

    1993-10-29

    Energy Facts, organized by energy source, is a compilation of energy data providing a reference to a broad range of domestic and international energy data, for the general public as well as the technical community. This report is designed especially for the business person, government worker, or student who needs a quick reference to major facts about energy. Each table of statistics appears on the opposite page from a corresponding graphic. The graphic has a point of interest rather than a title across the top.

  13. Lysinoalanine: presence in foods and food ingredients.

    Sternberg, M; Kim, C Y; Schwende, F J

    1975-12-01

    Lysinoalanine, N6-(DL-2-amino-2-carboxyethyl)-L-lysine, an unusual amino acid implicated as a renal toxic factor in rats, has been found in proteins of home-cooked and commercial foods and ingredients. Although it has been reported to occur in both edible and nonfood proteins only after alkali treatment, it has now been identified in food proteins that had not been subjected to alkali. Lysinoalanine is generated in a variety of proteins when heated under nonalkaline conditions. PMID:242077

  14. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    ... Statistics and Facts A- A A+ Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts An estimated 6 million people in ... Understanding the Brain Warning Signs/ Symptoms Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Risk Factors Aneurysm ...

  15. Tests Comparing of Benzylpenicillin Potassium Industry Salt and Benzylpenicillin Potassium Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient by Methods in Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia%利用兽药典方法对青霉素钾工业盐和原料药的检测比较

    徐嫄; 于丽娜; 韩宁宁; 龚旭昊; 王静文; 郝利华; 赵晖

    2016-01-01

    In order to distinguish between benzylpenicillin potassium industry salt and benzylpenicillin potassium active pharmaceutical ingredient,4 bathes of industry salt samples and 4 bathes of active pharmaceutical ingredient samples offered by 4 different veterinary drug manufacturers respectively were identified according to quality standards in Chinese Veterinary Pharmacopoeia 2010 version.Results of those 8 batches of samples were all in compliance with the standards,however,finding no distinguish differences between industry salt and active pharmaceutical ingredient,which might indicate that quality standard of benzylpenicillin potassium need to be improved in order to enhance quality control of the finished drug -benzylpeninicillin potassium for injection.%为了辨别青霉素钾工业盐和青霉素钾原料药,依据《中国兽药典》中青霉素钾的质量标准,对四家青霉素原料药生产企业提供的4批青霉素钾工业盐和4批青霉素钾原料药进行了检测,项目包括性状、鉴别、吸光度、结晶性、溶液澄清度与颜色、青霉素聚合物、干燥失重、不溶性微粒、酸碱度、有关物质、细菌内毒素、可见异物、无菌和含量测定。结果表明,8批样品均符合现行兽药典青霉素钾标准中各项规定,但结果无法用以区分青霉素钾工业盐和青霉素钾原料药,提示青霉素钾的质量标准需进一步完善,以提高对成品药———注射用青霉素钾的质量控制。

  16. NASA Facts, Solar Cells.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The design and function of solar cells as a source of electrical power for unmanned space vehicles is described in this pamphlet written for high school physical science students. The pamphlet is one of the NASA Facts Science Series (each of which consists of four pages) and is designed to fit in the standard size three-ring notebook. Review…

  17. Fingertip Facts 2010

    Shumway, Larry K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for 2010. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2009; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2009; (3) 2009 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2009-10 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools…

  18. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... from Diabetes Forecast® magazine: lp-type-2, In this section Diabetes Basics Type 2 Facts About Type ... ensureArray(data.submitSurveyResponse.errors); $.each(surveyErrors, function () { if (this.errorField) { $('input[name="' + this.errorField + '"]').closest('.form-group') . ...

  19. DER 86: main facts

    This report presents the important facts among the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (E.D.F.): new applications of electric power for customers, protection of environment, classical equipments for power plants and nuclear equipments, monitoring and control of power plants, electrical equipments, development and operation of electrical networks, informatics and office automation

  20. Facts about Vitamin K

    Facts about Vitamin K 1 R. Elaine Turner and Wendy J. Dahl 2 FCS8666 Why do we need vitamin K? Vitamin K is one of the fat-soluble vitamins. It ... that are needed for normal blood clotting. Vitamin K is also needed for making important bone proteins. ...

  1. Trauma Facts for Educators

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts which can help educators deal with children undergoing trauma. These include: (1) One out of every 4 children attending school has been exposed to a traumatic event that can affect learning and/or behavior; (2) Trauma can impact school performance; (3) Trauma can impair learning; (4) Traumatized children may experience…

  2. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes Challenge Type 1 Type 2 Facts About Type ... Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here ... You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes ...

  3. Main facts 1993

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, network analysis, information and informatic equipment

  4. Main facts 1995

    This report presents the main facts of the studies carried out by the Direction des Etudes et Recherches (DER) of Electricite de France: new applications of electricity, classical and nuclear thermal power plants, electrical equipment, environment protection, monitoring and plants operations

  5. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  6. Facts about Down Syndrome

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Down Syndrome Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... with Down syndrome. View charts » What is Down Syndrome? Down syndrome is a condition in which a ...

  7. Fact Sheet on Stress

    ... items) NIMH (7 items) Share Fact Sheet on Stress Download PDF Download ePub Q&A on Stress for Adults: How it affects your health and ... to avoid more serious health effects. What is stress? Stress can be defined as the brain's response ...

  8. Facts about Birth Defects

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts about Birth Defects Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... having a baby born without a birth defect. Birth Defects Are Common Every 4 ½ minutes, a baby ...

  9. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  10. Nutriproteomics: facts, concepts, and perspectives

    Sauer, S.; Luge, T.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition is a basic component of life. Nowadays, human nutrition research focuses amongst others on health-related aspects of food ingredients and extracts, and on analyzing the outcomes of specific diets. Usually, food ingredients such as bioactive peptides come in complex matrices. Single compounds, multiple interactions thereof and the underlying food matrix can vary physiological response of the organism. Proteins and peptides derived from food and beverages can cause adverse allergic re...

  11. 白芷、石菖蒲对冲和膏处方中主要成分经皮渗透作用的影响%Influence of Angelica dahurica and Acorus tatarinowii on Transdermal Permeation Role of Active Ingredients from Chonghe Gel Prescription

    王亚静; 孙士真; 张德芹; 田慧; 彭淑娟; 王艳明

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effect of Angelica dahurica and Acorus tatarinowii on in vitro percutaneous permeation of active ingredients from Chonghe gel. Method; Improved Franz-type diffusion cell was used, with isolated rat skin as transdermal barrier, with the content of paeoniflorin and osthole as indexes which was determined by HPLC, effect of A. dahurica, A. tatarinowii alone and their compatibility combination on promote transparent role of main ingredients from Chonghe gel were investigated, respectively. Result; Enhancement ratios (ER) of A. dahurica and A. tatarinowii alone on percutaneous penetration of peoniflorin were 0. 84, 1. 02, while ER of osthole were 1. 54, 0. 79. Percutaneous penetration role of peoniflorin and osthole by compatibility combination of A. dahurica and A. tatarinowii could reach optimum level, ER of peoniflorin and osthole were 1.00, 1. 89. Conclusion; A. dahurica and A. tatarinowii used jointly could benefit to transdermal permeation of active ingredients, which had important role on therapeutic effect of Chonghe gel.%目的:考察佐使药白芷、石菖蒲对冲和膏中主要成分经皮渗透的影响.方法:采用改良Franz透皮扩散池,大鼠离体皮肤为渗透屏障,以芍药苷和蛇床子素为指标,HPLC测定其含量,分别考察白芷、石菖蒲及其配伍联用对冲和膏主要成分促透作用的影响.结果:白芷、石菖蒲单用对芍药苷经皮渗透的增渗倍数分别为0.84,1.02,对蛇床子素的增渗倍数分别为1.54,0.79;配伍联用后芍药苷和蛇床子素的经皮渗透均达到最佳水平,增渗倍数分别1.00,1.89.结论:白芷、石菖蒲配伍联用可促进主要成分的经皮渗透,对冲和膏处方药效的发挥具有重要的佐使作用.

  12. Uptake of [14C]triadimenol via grain and root after seed treatment of winter barley with a flowable seed dressing: Influence of soil moisture and sowing date on the distribution of radioactivity and active ingredient content in plant and soil

    Winter barley seed of the 'Vogelsander Gold' variety was shown in a total of 7 lysimeters after seed treatment with [benzene ring-U-14C]triadimenol in the formulation as [14C]Baytan 075 FS and [14C]Baytan 25 DS at an early (September) and a late date (October). After both dates of sowing, the FS-treated winter barley developed under 3 different soil moisture conditions. The radioactivity and active ingredient contents in plants and soil were recorded until tillering as a function of low, high and natural precipitation after sowing. Details on the uptake of radioactivity via grain and roots were quantitatively and qualitatively studied in two further lysimeters, a pot experiment as well as experiments in the growth chamber. The results are presented and discussed in detail. (orig./MG)

  13. Mixmaster: fact and belief

    We consider the dynamics towards the initial singularity of Bianchi type IX vacuum and orthogonal perfect fluid models with a linear equation of state. Surprisingly few facts are known about the 'Mixmaster' dynamics of these models, while at the same time most of the commonly held beliefs are rather vague. In this paper, we use Mixmaster facts as a base to build an infrastructure that makes it possible to sharpen the main Mixmaster beliefs. We formulate explicit conjectures concerning (i) the past asymptotic states of type IX solutions and (ii) the relevance of the Mixmaster/Kasner map for generic past asymptotic dynamics. The evidence for the conjectures is based on a study of the stochastic properties of this map in conjunction with dynamical systems techniques. We use a dynamical systems formulation, since this approach has so far been the only successful path to obtain theorems, but we also make comparisons with the 'metric' and Hamiltonian 'billiard' approaches.

  14. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  15. Smoking: know the facts

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    This leaflet outlines the health and financial benefits of stopping smoking. It provides key facts on the health dangers associated with smoking, information on second-hand smoke, information on the dangers of smoking to babies, and contact details for help and support available. It also lists the various forms of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and non-nicotine medications available.This poster highlights some of the main health and financial benefits of stopping smoking. An associated A5...

  16. FACTS BRIEF: TEXAS TAXES

    Jones, Lonnie L.; Judith I. Stallman; Ay en TANYERI-ABUR

    1997-01-01

    This fact book provides: (1) a basic enumeration and explanation of the general taxes that make up the bulk of state and local tax revenues in Texas, (2) an evaluation of the impact of each major tax on efficiency, competitiveness, administrative simplicity, adequacy, and equity, and (3) a glossary of commonly used terms and concepts relating to taxation and public revenue. No attempt is made, herein, to present the numerous user fees, licenses, and other charges that may be imposed by state ...

  17. Optimization of ingredients for formulating a diabetic dietary supplement

    Pawar, Kanika; Thompkinson, D. K.

    2011-01-01

    A diabetic dietary supplement comprising of multiple ingredients was designed based on recommendation of Indian Council of Medical Research for a diabetic adult. Central composite rotatable design using three variables (ingredient source) and five responses comprising of sensory and physico-chemical attributes were used for computation of an optimized solution. All the responses fitted well into quadratic equation with R2 > 0.80. The optimum levels of ingredient combinations recommended with ...

  18. Analysis of ingredient and heating value of municipal solid waste.

    Tian, W D; Wei, X L; Wu, D Y; Li, J; Sheng, H Z

    2001-01-01

    Great differences between municipal solid wastes (MSW) produced at different places and different times in terms of such parameters as physical ingredient and heating value lead to difficulty in effective handling of MSW. In this paper, ingredient, heating value and their temporal varying trends of typical MSW in Beijing were continuously measured and analyzed. With consideration of the process in pyrolysis and incineration, correlation between physical ingredients and heating values was induced, favorable for evaluation of heating value needed in handling of MSW from simple analysis of physical ingredients of it. PMID:11590726

  19. Analysis of ingredient and heating value of municipal solid waste

    2001-01-01

    Great differences between municipal solid wastes(MSW) produced at different places and different times in terms of such parameters as physical ingredient and heating value lead to difficulty in effective handling of MSW. In this paper, ingredient,heating value and their temporal varying trends of typical MSW in Beijing were continuously measured and analyzed. With consideration of the process in pyrolysis and incineration, correlation between physical ingredients and heating values was induced, favorable for evaluation of heating value needed in handling of MSW from simple analysis of physical ingredients of it.

  20. 黄芪有效部位对糖尿病大鼠Na+-K+-ATP酶活性及AMPK蛋白表达的影响%Effects of astragalus active ingredients on Na+-K+-ATPase and AMP-activated protein kinase protein expression in diabetic rats

    范颖; 李楠; 孙云峰; 马哲; 林庶茹

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过研究糖尿病模型大鼠胰腺组织钠-钾-ATP酶(Na+-K+-ATP)活性、腺苷酸激活蛋白激酶(AMPK)活性及肝、骨骼肌组织AMPK蛋白表达的变化,探讨黄芪有效部位对糖尿病大鼠能量代谢的影响.方法:SD大鼠随机分为正常组、模型组、中药对照组、黄芪组、黄酮组、多糖组、皂苷组、酮糖组、酮苷组、糖苷组、酮糖苷组,共11组,每组14只.由链脲佐菌素( 52mg/kg)诱导糖尿病大鼠模型,造模同日给予黄芪及其有效部位进行干预.观测30日,检测血糖,生化法分析胰腺组织Na+-K+-ATP酶的活性,ELISA法分析胰腺AMPK活性,Western Blot法分析肝、骨骼肌组织AMPK蛋白表达.结果:糖尿病模型大鼠血糖显著升高(P<0.01),胰腺Na+-K+-ATP酶活性、AMPK水平以及肝、骨骼肌AMPK蛋白表达均显著降低(P<0.01);与模型组比较,黄芪组、黄酮组、酮糖组、酮糖苷组血糖降低( P<0.05,P<0.01),胰腺Na+-K+-ATP酶活性、AMPK水平显著升高(P<0.01),酮苷组血糖下降、胰腺Na+-K+-ATP酶活性升高(P<0.01),皂苷组、糖苷组胰腺Na+-K+-ATP酶活性升高(P<0.01).结论:黄芪、黄芪黄酮及含黄芪黄酮的有效部位能够降低糖尿病大鼠的血糖,其机制可能与改善Na+-K+-ATP酶活性、上调AMPK水平及蛋白表达有关.%Objective: This study is designed to evaluate the effect of astragalus active ingredients on energy metabolism in diabetic rats by studying Na+-K+-ATPase and AMPK in pancreas and AMPK protein expression in liver and skeletal muscle. Methods: Diabetes rats were induced by STZ (52mg/kg, peritioneal injection). Diabetic rats were administered by Astragalux radix and its active ingredients for 30 days from the day of STZ pj. Astragalus radix active ingredients were astragalux radix group (AS), astragalus flavonoids group (ASF), astragalus polysaccharides group (ASP), and astragalosides group (ASS), astragalus flavonolids and polysaccharides group (ASF

  1. Insulation fact sheet

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Electricity bills, oil bills, gas bills - all homeowners pay for one or more of these utilities, and wish they paid less. Often many of us do not really know how to control or reduce our utility bills. We resign ourselves to high bills because we think that is the price we have to pay for a comfortable home. We encourage our children to turn off the lights and appliances, but may not recognize the benefits of insulating the attic. This publication provides facts relative to home insulation. It discusses where to insulate, what products to use, the decision making process, installation options, and sources of additional information.

  2. Water: Facts without Myths

    Marc Henry

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Among all the chemical substances available in the universe, water, with its deceptively simple formula H2O, is the most discussed subject either in science or in philosophy [1]. If you are not convinced by this affirmation, a little experiment at no cost may help you change your mind. Just open your favorite web browser and type the word “water” in any search engine. When I have done that using Google, the number of hits was about 682,000,000 (please do not try to read all the pages. In fact, the only words that seem to beat water at this little game are “air” (770,000,000 hits with Google and 3,120,000,000 with Yahoo, and “food” (689,000,000 hits with Google and 3,820,000,000 with Yahoo. Of course this should not be a surprise, as breathing, eating, drinking just mean that you are a living entity. In fact extending the water search to “eau” (French, “wasser” (German, “agua” (Spanish, Portuguese and “acqua” (Italian leads to 978,900,000 hits under Google and 3,426,000,000 hits under Yahoo, showing now that water is about as important as food. After all, as everybody knows, “water is life”, and do we really have to read about one billion documents to know at least what water really is? [...

  3. 21 CFR 201.10 - Drugs; statement of ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient information required by section 502(e) of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act shall appear... ingredient applies to any substance in the drug, whether added to the formulation as a single substance or in... manner that creates an impression of value greater than their true functional role in the formulation....

  4. Development and application of reversed phase liquid chromatography based techniques for automated purification of biologically active ingredients from plant extracts and for characterization of plant extracts and environmental pollutants

    Mahsunah, Anis H.

    2006-01-01

    Automated preparative HPLC purification systems are an important and useful technology in pharmaceutical and chemical development. The systems have been applied to high-throughput purification of products from combinatorial compound synthesis for drug discovery, single compound isolation for further structure elucidation and activity screening, as well as fractionation of active compounds from plant extracts. Fraction collection in automated HPLC purification system can be triggered by le...

  5. Psychoacoustics Facts and Models

    Fastl, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    Psychoacoustics – Facts and Models offers a unique, comprehensive summary of information describing the processing of sound by the human hearing system. It includes quantitative relations between sound stimuli and auditory perception in terms of hearing sensations, for which quantitative models are given, as well as an unequalled collection of data on the human hearing system as a receiver of acoustic information. In addition, many examples of the practical application of the results of basic research in fields such as noise control, audiology, or sound quality engineering are detailed. The third edition includes an additional chapter on audio-visual interactions and applications, plus more on applications throughout. Reviews of previous editions have characterized it as "an essential source of psychoacoustic knowledge," "a major landmark ," and a book that "without doubt will have a long-lasting effect on the standing and future evolution of this scientific domain."

  6. Facts on Nirex

    This folder contains twelve two-page leaflets (fact sheets) which answer questions posed about UK NIREX Ltd, its operations and radioactive waste. NIREX (the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive) is the organisation responsible for implementing the British Government's policy for the disposal of most low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste produced in the United Kingdom. The questions posed are; what is NIREX. What is radioactivity. What is radioactive waste. Radioactive waste, what are the options. What is a radioactive waste repository. Some aspects of such a repository are then explained - how engineered barriers work, how geological barriers work, how long can concrete last, how is the radioactive waste transported, how are repository sites identified. The last two leaflets consider why do we need research, and look at radioactive waste management worldwide. The answers are in non-technical language and are short. (UK)

  7. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  8. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  9. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  10. Ingredients for an Integrated Dinner: Parsley, Sage, Rosemary and Thyme

    Baumann, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In 1966, Simon and Garfunkel combined the English traditional "Scarborough Fair" with a counter melody. This is one of the manifold techniques of the Kontrapunktik described by Bach around 1745 in "The Art of the Fugue": combining completely different and seemingly independent melodies (or motifs) into a coherent piece of music, pleasant for the audience. This achievement, transposed into Computer Science, could be of great benefit for geo services as we look at the currently disparate situation: On the one hand, we have metadata - traditionally, they are understood as being small in volume, but rich in content and semantics, and flexibly queryable through the rich body of technologies established over several decades of database research, centering around query languages like SQL. On the other hand, we have data themselves, such as remote sensing and other measured and observed data sets - they are considered difficult to interpret, semantic-poor, and only for clumsy download, as they are the main constituent of what we today call Big Data. The traditional advantages of databases, such as information integration, query flexibility, and scalability seem to be unavailable. These are the melodies that require a kontrapunctic harmonization, leading to a Holy Grail where different information categories enjoy individually tailored support, while an overall integrating framework allows seamless and convenient access and processing by the user. Most of the data categories to be integrated are well known in fact: ontologies, geospatial meshes, spatiotemporal arrays, and free text constitute major ingredients in this orchestration. For many of them, isolated solutions have been presented, and for some of them (like ontologies and text) integration has been achieved already; a complete harmonic integration, though, is still lacking as of today. In our talk, we detail our vision on such integration through query models and languages which merge established concepts and novel

  11. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    ... Features Spokespeople News Archive eNewsletters Calendar Use the Nutrition Facts Label You can help your family eat ... to some of their favorite foods. Use the Nutrition Facts label found on food packages to make ...

  12. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    ... Health Facts for Athletes Text Size Print Bookmark Foot Health Facts for Athletes From the repeated pounding ... sports injuries. Prompt evaluation and treatment by a foot and ankle surgeon is important because sometimes that “ ...

  13. Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts

    ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ... Brain Aneurysm Statistics and Facts Seeking Medical Attention Pediatric Aneurysms Brain Aneurysm Causes and Risk Factors Family History ...

  14. Fragranced consumer products and undisclosed ingredients

    Fragranced consumer products-such as air fresheners, laundry supplies, personal care products, and cleaners-are widely used in homes, businesses, institutions, and public places. While prevalent, these products can contain chemicals that are not disclosed to the public through product labels or material safety data sheets (MSDSs). What are some of these chemicals and what limits their disclosure? This article investigates these questions, and brings new pieces of evidence to the science, health, and policy puzzle. Results from a regulatory analysis, coupled with a chemical analysis of six best-selling products (three air fresheners and three laundry supplies), provide several findings. First, no law in the U.S. requires disclosure of all chemical ingredients in consumer products or in fragrances. Second, in these six products, nearly 100 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified, but none of the VOCs were listed on any product label, and one was listed on one MSDS. Third, of these identified VOCs, ten are regulated as toxic or hazardous under federal laws, with three (acetaldehyde, chloromethane, and 1,4-dioxane) classified as Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs). Results point to a need for improved understanding of product constituents and mechanisms between exposures and effects

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... type 2 can control their blood glucose with healthy eating and being active. But, your doctor may need ...

  16. Diabetes Fact Sheet

    ... trans fat, and sodium. Limit processed foods and sugary foods and drinks. Getting active . Aim for 30 minutes of physical ... trans fat, and sodium. Limit processed foods and sugary foods and drinks. Getting active . Aim for 30 minutes of physical ...

  17. John Searle on Institutional Facts

    m Abdullahi

    2010-09-01

    Here we argue that the essence of institutional facts is status functions. Humans recognize these functions which contain a set of deontic powers through collective intentionality. Therefore, institutional facts are ontologically subjective and epistemologically objective. Nevertheless, objectivity of institutional facts totally depends on language which itself is a fundamental institution for other institutions.

  18. Avena sativa: An Effective Natural Ingredient in Herbal Shampoos for the Treatment of Hair Greasiness

    Farboud, Effat Sadat; Amin, Gholamreza; Akbari, Leyla

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Evaluation of anti-greasiness properties of oat extract and oil in shampoos. Methodology: Seborrhea can cause greasiness in scalp and hair. There are few compounds currently in use to reduce sebaceous gland secretions. Avena sativa or oat is a plant containing saponins as active ingredients with cleansing activity. In a double blinded, randomized, placebo clinical study, we investigated anti-grease and cleansing effects of oat by comparing shampoos formulated from oat extract and oil wi...

  19. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Leigh, I.W.; Patridge, M.D.

    1991-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECN/NEA activities reports; not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  20. Standardized extract of Syzygium aqueum: a safe cosmetic ingredient.

    Palanisamy, U D; Ling, L T; Manaharan, T; Sivapalan, V; Subramaniam, T; Helme, M H; Masilamani, T

    2011-06-01

    Syzygium aqueum, a species in the Myrtaceae family, commonly called the water jambu is native to Malaysia and Indonesia. It is well documented as a medicinal plant, and various parts of the tree have been used in traditional medicine, for instance as an antibiotic. In this study, we show S. aqueum leaf extracts to have a significant composition of phenolic compounds, protective activity against free radicals as well as low pro-oxidant capability. Its ethanolic extract, in particular, is characterized by its excellent radical scavenging activity of EC(50) of 133 μg mL(-1) 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 65 μg mL(-1) 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 71 μg mL(-1) (Galvinoxyl), low pro-oxidant capabilities and a phenolic content of 585-670 mg GAE g(-1) extract. The extract also displayed other activities, deeming it an ideal cosmetic ingredient. A substantial tyrosinase inhibition activity with an IC(50) of about 60 μg mL(-1) was observed. In addition, the extract was also found to have anti-cellulite activity tested for its ability to cause 98% activation of lipolysis of adipocytes (fat cells) at a concentration of 25 μg mL(-1). In addition, the extract was not cytotoxic to Vero cell lines up to a concentration of 600 μg mL(-1). Although various parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicine, this is the first time it has been shown to have cosmeceutical properties. Therefore, the use of this extract, alone or in combination with other active principles, is of interest to the cosmetic industry. PMID:21284663

  1. Concentrating Solar Power Fact Sheet

    None

    2015-12-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. CSP is a dispatchable, renewable energy option that uses mirrors to focus and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver, from which a heat transfer fluid carries the intense thermal energy to a power block to generate electricity. CSP systems can store solar energy to be used when the sun is not shining. It will help meet the nation’s goal of making solar energy fully cost-competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. Worldwide, CSP activity is rapidly scaling, with approximately 10 gigawatts (GW) in various stages of operation or development. In the United States alone, nearly 2 GW of CSP are in operation.

  2. Effect of formulated ingredients on rapidly disintegrating oral tablets prepared by the crystalline transition method.

    Sugimoto, Masaaki; Narisawa, Shinji; Matsubara, Koji; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Nakano, Minoru; Handa, Tetsurou

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this article was to determine the optimal ingredients for the rapidly disintegrating oral tablets prepared by the crystalline transition method (CT method). The effect of ingredients (diluent, active drug substance and amorphous sugar) on the characteristics of the tablets was investigated. The ingredients were compressed and the resultant tablets were stored under various conditions. The oral disintegration time of the tablet significantly depended on diluents, due to differences in the penetration of a small amount of water in the mouth and the viscous area formed inside the tablet. The oral disintegration time was 10-30 s for tablets with a tensile strength of approximately 1 MPa, when erythritol, mannitol or xylitol was used as the diluent. The increase in the tensile strength of tablets containing highly water-soluble active drug substances during storage was as large as that of tablets without active drug substances, while the increase in the tensile strength of tablets containing low water-soluble active drug substances was small. It was therefore found that highly water-soluble active drug substances were more suitable for the formulation prepared by the CT method than low water-soluble active drug substances. Irrespective of the type of amorphous sugar (amorphous sucrose, lactose or maltose) used, the porosity of tablets with 1 MPa of tensile strength was 30-40%, and their oral disintegration time was 10-20 s. The optimal ingredients for rapidly disintegrating oral tablets with reasonable tensile strength and disintegration time were therefore determined from these results. PMID:16462059

  3. Reinforcing Power Grid Transmission with FACTS Devices

    Frolov, Vladimir; Chertkov, Misha

    2013-01-01

    We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices installed into the grid to relieve congestion created by load growth or fluctuations of intermittent renewable generation. We limit our selection of FACTS devices to those that can be represented by modification of the inductance of the transmission lines. Our master optimization problem minimizes the $l_1$ norm of the FACTS-associated inductance correction subject to constraints enforcing that no line of the system exceeds its thermal limit. We develop off-line heuristics that reduce this non-convex optimization to a succession of Linear Programs (LP) where at each step the constraints are linearized analytically around the current operating point. The algorithm is accelerated further with a version of the cutting plane method greatly reducing the number of active constraints during the optimization, while checking feasibility of the non-active constraints post...

  4. Total 2004 fact book

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  5. Facts about Vitamin A

    ... A Life Stage Vitamin A (mcg/day as RAE) Males, ages 14+ 900 Females, ages 14+ 700 Pregnancy 770* Breastfeeding 1,300 mcg = micrograms RAE = Retinol Activity Equivalents *Pregnant women should avoid supplemental, ...

  6. Narcolepsy: Fact Sheet

    ... onset narcolepsy can interfere with psychological, social, and cognitive function and development and can undermine academic and ... is asleep to document abnormalities in the sleep cycle. It records heart and respiratory rates, electrical activity ...

  7. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ... glucose levels normal. Type 2 is treated with lifestyle changes, oral medications (pills), and insulin. When glucose ...

  8. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Student Resources History of Diabetes Resources for School Projects How to Reference Our Site Diabetes Basics Myths ... Health Take steps to lead an active, healthy life with diabetes. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes ...

  9. Facts on Underage Drinking

    ... drinkers); suicide; interpersonal violence (e.g., homicides, assaults, rapes); unintentional injuries such as burns, falls, and drowning; brain impairment; alcohol dependence; risky sexual activity; academic problems; and alcohol and drug poisoning. ( 1) • Underage alcohol use can cause alterations ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Your Health Take steps to lead an active, healthy life with diabetes. » « Connect With Us Register for diabetes news, research and food & fitness tips. Email: Sign Up Thank ...

  11. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ...

  12. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office Find your local diabetes education program Calendar of Events Wellness Lives Here ...

  13. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk ... Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene ...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  15. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk ... Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More Oral Health & Hygiene ...

  16. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And Stay Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your ... of going into cells, it can cause two problems: Right away, your cells may be starved for ...

  17. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... 2 Diabetes Risk Test Lower Your Risk Healthy Eating Overweight Smoking High Blood Pressure Physical Activity High ... What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims ...

  18. 番茄红素有效成分的提取工艺及其解酒机理的研究%Extraction of Lycopene Active Ingredients and Study on Its Hangover-Cure Mechanism

    张卫佳; 陈家树

    2016-01-01

    探讨番茄提取物解酒作用机理,为中药解酒保肝药物的开发提供依据.观察比较番茄提取物与解酒护肝胶囊对小鼠肝脏匀浆中ADH、SOD的酶活力的影响.结果表明,番茄提取物能够明显提高ADH、SOD活力.番茄红素提取物通过提高ADH、SOD活力以达到其解酒的作用,并能减缓酒精进入血液中的速度,进而对抗酒精性肝损伤.%The hangover-cure mechanism of tomato extracts was explored to provide reference for the development of traditional Chinese medi-cine with hangover-cure and hepato-protective functions. In the experiments, the effects of tomato extracts and hangover-cure&hepato-protec-tive capsule on the activities of ADH and SOD in liver homogenates were compared. The results suggested that, tomato extracts could signifi-cantly improve ADH and SOD vitality and further achieve satisfactory hangover-cure effects, and slow down the speed of alcohol into the bloodstream and further prevent alcohol-induced liver damage.

  19. Consuming a multi-ingredient thermogenic supplement for 28 days is apparently safe in healthy adults

    Roxanne M. Vogel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermogenic (TRM supplements are often used by people seeking to decrease body weight. Many TRM supplements are formulated with multiple ingredients purported to increase energy expenditure and maximize fat loss. However, in the past some TRM ingredients have been deemed unsafe and removed from the market. Therefore, it is important to verify the safety of multi-ingredient TRM supplements with chronic consumption. Objective: To assess the safety of daily consumption of a multi-ingredient TRM supplement over a 28-day period in healthy adults. Design: Twenty-three recreationally active adults (11M, 12F; 27.1±5.4 years, 171.6±9.6 cm, 76.8±16.1 kg, 26±5 BMI were randomly assigned either to consume a multi-ingredient TRM supplement (SUP; n=9 or remain unsupplemented (CRL; n=14 for 28 days. Participants maintained their habitual dietary and exercise routines for the duration of the study. Fasting blood samples, resting blood pressure, and heart rate were taken before and after the supplementation period. Samples were analyzed for complete blood counts, comprehensive metabolic, and lipid panels. Results: Significant (p<0.05 group by time interactions were present for diastolic BP, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, chloride, CO2, globulin, albumin:globulin (A/G, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Dependent t-tests conducted on significant variables revealed significant (p<0.05 within-group differences in SUP for diastolic BP (+6.2±5.3 mmHG, creatinine (+0.09±0.05 mg/dL, eGFR (−11.2±5.8 mL/min/1.73, globulin (−0.29±0.24 g/dL, A/G (+0.27±0.23, and HDL (−5.0±5.5 mg/dL, and in CRL for CO2 (−1.9±1.5 mmol/L between time points. Each variable remained within the accepted physiological range. Conclusion: Results of the present study support the clinical safety of a multi-ingredient TRM containing caffeine, green tea extract, and cayenne powder. Although there were statistically significant (p<0.05 intragroup

  20. Environmental Impact Assessment and Management for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients from Pharmaceutical Wastewater%制药废水药物活性成分的环境影响评价与管理初探

    孟妮; 王峰; 周振

    2011-01-01

    The influence of active pharmaceutical ingredients(API) on the aquatic environment has been increasingly concerned in recent years.The main pathways of API into the environment are through waste discharge from pharmaceutical enterprises,excretion from the body and irrational disposal of unused or expired pharmaceuticals.The ratio between predicted environmental concentration(PEC) and predicted no effect concentration(PNEC) was introduced to evaluate the environmental risk of API in an API management practice,and the environmental risk includes both the effect of API on the aquatic environment and its disturbance to the biological wastewater treatment plant.The method can be applies to the environment management of API for both pharmaceutical enterprises and governmental authorities.%药物活性成分(API)对水环境的影响近年来日益引起关注。API可通过制药企业的废弃物排放、未完全被吸收利用的API排泄以及过期药物的不合理处置三种途径进入水体。通过具体案例分析介绍了制药企业采用预测环境浓度(PEC)和预测无效应浓度(PNEC)的比值对API的环境风险进行评估的方法,API的环境风险包括对自然水体的影响和对污水生物处理系统的干扰。该方法可作为API环境影响分析评价的有效工具用于制药企业的环境管理或者政府部门的监管工作中。

  1. 21 CFR 701.3 - Designation of ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... § 720.8(a) of this chapter, in lieu of label declaration of identity the phrase “and other ingredients... brand designation, and no trade name or brand designation not common to all such products appears in...

  2. Determination of Polyphenols Ingredients Present in Areca Husk and Its Antioxidant Activity%槟榔壳多酚组分及抗氧化活性的测定

    李专; 祁静; 赵松林

    2012-01-01

    This paper was developed for the simultaneous determination of betel nut shell in a variety of phenolic compounds by high performance capillary electrophoresis method,analyzed the separation effect of different concentrations and pH values of buffer on 10 analytes,finally determined the best electrolytic buffer was 0.1 mol/L,pH 9.0 borate buffer,UV detection wavelength 280 nm,separation voltage 20 kV.The method is simple and fast,within 20 min 10 kinds of phenolic materials can be completely separated,the detection limit is 0.5~4.5 mg/L.In addition,this article further determines of the betel nut shell polyphenol antioxidant activity,by using three evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of index,namely:the DPPH free radical scavenging ability,reduction ability as well as ABTS free radical scavenging ability.%建立测定槟榔壳中多种酚类物质的高效毛细管电泳方法,分析不同浓度和不同pH值硼酸缓冲液对10种标准品的分离效果,最后确定最佳缓冲液为0.1 mol/L,pH 9.0的硼酸缓冲液,紫外检测波长为280 nm,分离电压为20 kV.方法简便快速,能在20 min之内将10种酚类物质完全分离开,检测限为0.5~4.5 mg/L.此外,进一步测定了槟榔壳多酚的抗氧化活性,选用3个评价抗氧化能力的指标,即:对DPPH自由基的清除能力、对还原能力以及对ABTS自由基的清除能力.

  3. Microbiological and mycotoxicological correctness of protein feed ingredients in Vojvodina

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.; Salma Nataša M.; Pantić Vladimir R.; Adamović Milan J.; Miljković Aleksandra D.; Suzić Svetlana V.

    2011-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, the microbiological tests of a total of 40 samples of protein feed ingredients (sunflower meal, soybean, soybean cake, soybean grits and soybean meal) originating from Vojvodina were carried out. The most of the samples (57.5%) matched the Serbian regulations on feed. Microbiologically, there was not adequate quality of protein ingredients, which was a consequence of the presence of pathogenic bacteria: Proteus spp. in 12 samples of sunflower meal, 1 sample of soyb...

  4. SACTob Recommendation on Tobacco Product Ingredients and Emissions

    World Health Organization,

    2003-01-01

    Historically, cigarettes and other tobacco products have been exempt from health and safety standards for ingredients and emissions that are typically applied to other consumed products including foods, beverages and drugs (1, 2, 3). Although some countries have begun to develop and apply standards for allowable ingredients, there are no globally accepted standards or guidelines (2). Presently limits on emissions from tobacco products have not been implemented with the exception of estimates ...

  5. Nuclear EMP: ingredients of an EMP protection engineering methodology

    A fundamental methodology of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) protection engineering is described. Operations performed within the framework of this methodology are discussed. These operations, along with problem constraints and data, constitute the essential ingredients needed to implement the overall engineering methodology. Basic definitions and descriptions of these essential ingredients are provided. The issues discussed represent the first step in developing a methodology for protecting systems against EMP effects

  6. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Dogra A; Minocha Y; Sood V; Dewan S

    1994-01-01

    Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35%) being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5...

  7. Study on processing condition of extracting natural Rosemary active antioxidant ingredient%超临界二氧化碳萃取天然迷迭香抗氧化剂有效成分工艺的研究

    乐振窍

    2009-01-01

    迷迭香原料采用水蒸气蒸馏法提取迷迭香精油后,残渣经干燥、粉碎,采用超临界二氧化碳提取残渣中抗氧化剂的有效成分,并以鼠尾草酸、鼠尾草酚含量作为衡量工艺的主要指标,以产品的物性和得率作为衡量工艺参数的优劣.采用L9 (33)正交实验考察压力、温度、萃取时间对产品得率等因素的影响;在正交基础上通过单因素分析水携带剂对成品物性、得率以及有效成分的影响.通过正交实验发现:当压力为40MPa、温度80℃、萃取时间2.5h可以达到较好的得率和有效成分含量,但产品为膏状类,不利于工业化生产;通过单因素实验发现:当压力为40MPa、温度80℃、水携带剂含量20%、萃取时间2.5h,产品总得率达到7.2%,鼠尾草酸含量达到32%,鼠尾草酚含量达到8.1%,产品呈粉末状、气味淡,有利于工业化生产和应用.%Rosemary active antioxidant extraction is studied.After water distillation extraction and drying,grinding process,the powder was then extracted by supercritical carbon dioxide(SFE-CO2).two aspects were considered in the evaluation:(1)the total yield of extracted effective component of the antioxidants,and (2)the physical appearance of the products.The processing parameters including pressure,temperature and extracting time are optimized by orthogonality test using L9 (33).We found that under the condition of pressure 40MPa,temperature 80℃ and extraction time 2.5 hours,the yield was the highest but with the product as a paste,which was not suitable for industrial application.When the condition changed to pressure 40MPa,temperature 80℃,water carrier content 20% and extraction time 2.5 hours,the yield of the product reached to 7.2%,the content of carsonic acid was 32%,the content of carnosol was 8.1%.The final product was a powder which make this condition best for industrial application.

  8. Ingredient Selection and Making Technology of Hot Pot Base

    Liqiong Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, in order to make hot pot with better taste and nutrition value, the ingredient selection and making technology of hot pot base has been discussed and thus we get a better hot pot formula and recommended production process. Hot pot is one of the Chinese traditional diets, originated in the late Ming dynasty in the Jialing River and Chaotianmen Wharf in Chongqing. Container and the practice of contemporary hot pot all have one thing in common 1000 years ago. That is to use pot boil water or soup to rinse cooked food. The continuous development of hot pot is mainly manifested in two aspects. One is the ever-expanding market of hot pot. Second, the structure of hot pot nutrition is becoming more reasonable and constantly improves. Hot pot base is the most crucial influencing factor to hot pot flavor. Therefore, we do analysis of making technology and ingredient selection of hot pot base, after which we obtain an appropriate cooking process and determine the hot base ingredient formula. According to the investigation and survey of hot pot base making process and ingredients selection, we discussed the process and summarize the main operation points of making hot pot base. It is obtained that the making process can be divided into ingredient selection, material pretreatment, raw material ratio determination, fry the ingredients, packaging, cooling, inspection and finished product.

  9. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Holiday Meal Planning What Can I Eat? Making Healthy Food Choices Diabetes Superfoods Non-starchy Vegetables Grains and Starchy ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home Find Your Local Office ...

  10. Facts about Type 2

    Full Text Available ... Complications DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ... html Learn More Join Ryan Reed & Drive Your Health Access tools to help actively manage your diabetes. ... .survey-alert-wrap').remove(); if (data.submitSurveyResponse.success == 'false') { $('.survey-form'). ...

  11. Protein Rich Flour from Hyacinth Bean as Functional Food Ingredient with Low Glycemic Index

    *Ahmad Nafi’; Wiwik Siti Windrati; Andri Pamungkas; Achmad Subagio

    2014-01-01

    Protein-rich flour (PRF) produced from Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L) Sweet) shows good potency as a functional food ingredient. The PRF was extracted from hyacinth bean using water followed by protein precipitation at its isoelectric point. The precipitate was neutralized using 1 N NaOH and the slurry was dried, ground and sieved. The objective of this research was to characterize the nutritive value of PRF i.e., protein content and amino acid profile, trypsin inhibitors activity, conte...

  12. The pepper's natural ingredient capsaicin induces autophagy blockage in prostate cancer cells

    Ramos-Torres, Ágata; Bort, Alicia; Morell, Cecilia; Rodríguez-Henche, Nieves; Díaz-Laviada, Inés

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of red hot chili peepers, has been shown to have anti-cancer activities in several cancer cells, including prostate cancer. Several molecular mechanisms have been proposed on its chemopreventive action, including ceramide accumulation, endoplasmic reticulum stress induction and NFκB inhibition. However, the precise mechanisms by which capsaicin exerts its anti-proliferative effect in prostate cancer cells remain questionable. Herein, we have tested the involv...

  13. Math Fact Strategies Research Project

    Boso, Annie

    2011-01-01

    An action research project was conducted in order to determine effective math fact strategies for first graders. The traditional way of teaching math facts included using timed tests and flashcards, with most students counting on their fingers or a number line. Six new research-based strategies were taught and analyzed to decide which methods…

  14. Synthesis of cinacalcet: an enantiopure active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)

    Barniol-Xicota, Marta; Leiva Martínez, Rosana; Escolano Mirón, Carmen; Vázquez Cruz, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Cinacalcet hydrochloride is the only approved drug acting as calcimimetic, a new class of compds. used in the therapy of secondary hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid carcinoma. Several generic drug manufacturers and research groups from academia have reported alternative approaches to this mol., mainly from (R)​-​(+)​-​1-​(1-​naphthyl)​ethylamine. There are mainly three strategies that have been used to couple this readily accessible enantiopure amine to the other part of the mol.: amide for...

  15. 21 CFR 346.14 - Protectant active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ...) Aluminum hydroxide gel. (2) Cocoa butter. (3) Glycerin in a 20- to 45-percent (weight/weight) aqueous... exceed 25 percent by weight per dosage unit (based on the zinc oxide content of calamine). (2) Cod liver... 400 U.S.P. units of cholecalciferol. (4) Zinc oxide not to exceed 25 percent by weight per dosage unit....

  16. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... vitamin A and 400 U.S.P. Units cholecalciferol. (f) Colloidal oatmeal, 0.007 percent minimum; 0.003... combination with colloidal oatmeal in accordance with § 347.20(a)(4). (m) Petrolatum, 30 to 100 percent....

  17. NMR crystallography of active pharmaceuticals ingredients for industrial applications

    Urbanová, Martina; Brus, Jiří; Kobera, Libor

    Herceg Novi : Materials Research Society, 2008. s. 165. [Annual Conference YUCOMAT 2008 /10./. 08.09.2008-12.09.2008, Herceg Novi] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : MAS NMR * atorvastatin * NMR crystallography Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. 21 CFR 341.40 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... formulated in a solid dosage form to be dissolved in the mouth. (u) Camphor identified in § 341.14(b)(1) may... aromatics (camphor (54 milligrams (mg)), menthol (80 mg), methyl salicylate (11 mg), and lavender oil (4...

  19. Dark Energy: A Missing Physical Ingredient

    Recent observation of supernovae type Ia show clearly that there is a large scale repulsive force in the Universe. Neither of the four known fundamental interactions can account for this repulsive force. Strong and weak interactions can be easily ruled out since both are very short range. Due to the the observational fact that astronomical objects are not electrically charged and magnetic monopoles are absent in our Universe, electromagnetic interaction can be ruled out as well. Now, we are left with gravity which is known to be the interaction responsible for the large scale structure and evolution of the Universe. The problem with gravity is that it gives rise to a force which is attractive only. Gravity theories, including General Relativity, deals with gravity as an attractive force. Although this is consistent with our experience in the solar system and other similar astrophysical systems, gravity theories fail to account for SN type Ia observation. So, we are in a real problem concerning the inter- pretation of these observation. This problem is only ten years old. In order to go out of this problematic situation, scientists have suggested the existence of a type of energy in the universe that is responsible for the above mentioned repulsive force. They have given this type of energy the exotic term Dark Energy. Although this type of energy forms more than two thirds of the energetic contents of our Universe, its nature is missing in all gravity theories. The aim of the present work is to review the present status of the problem of dark energy. Also, to suggest a new geometric solution for this problem

  20. Pinellas Plant facts

    NONE

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  1. Pinellas Plant facts

    This plant was built in 1956 in response to a need for the manufacture of neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology: hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials: plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at the Pinellas Plant has led directly to the assignment of the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator draw on the materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life. A product development and production capability in alumina ceramics, cermet (electrical) feedthroughs, and glass ceramics has become a specialty of the plant; the laboratories monitor the materials and processes used by the plant's commercial suppliers of ferroelectric ceramics. In addition to the manufacturing facility, a production development capability is maintained at the Pinellas Plant

  2. Research Facts on Homeschooling. General Facts and Trends

    Ray, Brian D.

    2006-01-01

    This fact sheet presents the following general facts and trends. Homeschooling may be the fastest-growing form of education in the United States and it is also growing around the world in many nations. There are about 2 million homeschool students in the United States. There were an estimated 1.9 to 2.4 million children (in grades K to 12) home…

  3. Innovations in natural ingredients and their use in skin care.

    Fowler, Joseph F; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Waldorf, Heidi; Saini, Ritu

    2010-06-01

    Natural ingredients have been used traditionally for millennia and their application in topical creams, lotions and preparations within the traditional medicines and healing traditions of many cultures has been observed. Over the last 20 years, clinical and laboratory studies have identified the benefits of an array of natural ingredients for skin care. Consequently, a number of these ingredients and compounds are today being developed, used or considered not only for anti-aging effects, but also for use in dermatologic disorders. Certain ingredients, such as colloidal oatmeal and aloe vera, have been identified as beneficial in the treatment of psoriasis and atopic dermatitis, respectively, due to their anti-inflammatory properties. For combating acne and rosacea, green tea, niacinamide and feverfew are considered efficacious. As to hyperpigmentation and antioxidative capabilities, licorice, green tea, arbutin, soy, acai berry, turmeric and pomegranate are among those plants and compounds found to be most beneficial. Additional research is needed to determine to confirm and elucidate the benefits of these ingredients in the prevention and management of skin disease. PMID:20626172

  4. The establishment and evaluation of near infrared universal model to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide rapidly

    Yan Mei Xiong; Xiang Zhong Song; Chang Zhou Chen; Hong Ping Lin; Guo Tang; Yue Huang; Jia Duan; Shun Geng Min

    2012-01-01

    A near infrared universal quantitative analysis model was established to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC (hikernalisation) by the PLS (partial least squares) algorithm,the model predictive ability was evaluated by the external inspection method.The model was established among samples containing the same active ingredient from five different companies,and the model determination coefficient R2 and RMSECV (root mean square error of cross validation) were 0.9997 and 0.0223,respectively,the relative error between predicted value and chemical value of the testing set samples was between -2.71% and 3.36%,which indicated that the method to determinate the effective ingredient content in pesticide EC by the established universal model can meet the need of pesticide market monitoring.

  5. Fibre content and physiochemical properties of various horse feed ingredients

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic-chemical diet......There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense feed ingredients based on fibre, as starch has been shown to cause health problems in sports horses (Kronfeld et al., 2005). This experiment aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of an enzymatic......-chemical dietary fibre (DF) analytical method compared with conventional analytical methods of crude fibre (CF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). We expect the DF method to provide detailed and useful information concerning the nutritional properties of feed ingredients for horses....

  6. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  7. Facts about Jaundice and Kernicterus

    ... gov . Jaundice & Kernicterus Homepage Facts Information for Familes Cal's Story Guidelines & Tools for Healthcare Professionals Free Materials ... Cerebral Palsy Hearing Loss in Children Intellectual Disabilities [PDF - 279 KB] Developmental Disabilities A-Z Index of ...

  8. Facts and Figures on Pain

    ... Room Position Statements AAPM Facts and Figures on Pain Overview What is Chronic Pain? Incidence of Pain, ... of them. Back to Top What is Chronic Pain? While acute pain is a normal sensation triggered ...

  9. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    ... About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Resources COPD en Español Related Links Air Pollution & Respiratory Health Air Quality, Fires, and Volcanic Eruptions ...

  10. Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures

    ... Alzheimer's >> Home Text size: A A A 2016 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures download the full report: ... or even slowed. Invest in a world without Alzheimer's. Donate Caregivers In 2015, 15.9 million family ...

  11. Sociological establishment of 'normative facts'

    Vukićević Slobodan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Every science is searching for 'it's facts', it's concept and categorical decree, and by this defines specific subject of it's science researching. Here, the researching is steered on identification of ontological contents of 'normative fact' in the aim of comprehension of it's categorical entity and conceptual disposition.'The normative fact' refers to importance, significance and sense which norm has, in other words, which is attributed to the norm by man and society, and which in the air of importance influence on it's behavior. Exclusive term of sociological science is 'normative fact' as behavior of an individual, groups, institutions and society with regard to establishment, application and changes of social norms.

  12. Measurements and Characterization (Fact Sheet)

    2011-06-01

    Capabilities fact sheet for the National Center for Photovoltaics: Measurements and Characterization that includes scope, core competencies and capabilities, and contact/web information for Analytical Microscopy, Electro-Optical Characterization, Surface Analysis, and Cell and Module Performance.

  13. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  14. Chemical Agents: Facts about Evacuation

    ... Health Emergency Response Guide Reaching At-Risk Populations Chemical Agents: Facts About Evacuation Format: Select one PDF [ ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some kinds of chemical accidents or attacks, such as a train derailment ...

  15. Tuberculosis Facts - Testing for TB

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Testing for TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  16. Tuberculosis Facts - Exposure to TB

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts Exposure to TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination

  17. Facts and Myths about Cataracts

    ... Lasers are used to remove cataracts FACT: In cataract treatment, the clouded lens is surgically removed and then ... membrane behind the implant may become cloudy after cataract surgery. Laser treatment then may be used to open up the ...

  18. Fact Sheet 1999. Norwegian Petroleum Activity

    Breivik, Jan

    1999-10-01

    As discussed in this publication, petroleum resources in the order of 9.5 billion (bn) standard cubic metres (scm) oil equivalents (oe) have been discovered on the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS), 77 per cent in the North Sea, 19 per cent in the Norwegian Sea and four per cent in the Barents Sea. By the end of 1998, remaining reserves on the NCS totalled 1.6 bn scm of oil, 1.2 bn scm oe gas and 160 mill scm oe of natural gas liquids. Thirty-two exploration wells, including 21 wildcats and 11 for appraisal, were completed or temporarily abandoned on the NCS in 1998. 939 exploration wells had been completed or temporarily abandoned off Norway. In 1998 governmental approval was given for the Huldra, Snorre B phase II, Gullfaks satellites phase II and Yme Beta West. Norwegian offshore petroleum production in 1998 totalled 222.5 scm oe, including 168.9 mill scm oe of oil, 43.6 mill scm oe of gas and 10 mill scm oe of NGL/condensate. Oil production declined by 4 per cent compared with 1997, while gas sales rose by 2 per cent. The estimated value of Norwegian petroleum exports in 1998 was NOK 123 bn, or about 30 per cent of the country`s total earnings from foreign sales. Petroleum production and pipeline transport accounted for 12 per cent of Norway`s gross national product. Net government revenues from taxes and royalties on petroleum operations is put at 27.6 billion NOK. The publication also includes a list of white papers and a list of useful postal addresses. 23 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Extravehicular Activity Fact Sheet: An EVA Chronology

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Walking to Olympus: An EVA Chronology chronicles the 154 EVAs conducted from March 1965 to April 1997. It is intended to make clear the crucial role played by EVA...

  20. Performance of FACTS equipment in Meshed systems

    Lerch, E.; Povh, D. [Siemens AG, Berlin (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Modern power electronic devices such as thyristors and GTOs have made it possible to design controllable network elements, which will play a considerable role in ensuring reliable economic operation of transmission systems as a result of their capability to rapidly change active and reactive power. A number of FACTS elements for high-speed active and reactive power control will be described. Control of power system fluctuations in meshed systems by modulation of active and reactive power will be demonstrated using a number of examples. (author) 7 refs., 11 figs.

  1. Consumer preferences for different combinations of carriers and functional ingredients

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    Kleef, van Trijp & Luning, 2005; Patch, Tapsell & Williams, 2005). With this in mind, the present study aimed at uncovering which functional ingredients consumers accept in selected food product categories such as yoghurt, muesli bars, fish balls, tuna salad, baby meals, rye bread and liver pâté...... enriched with different ingredients. Other parameters such as age, gender, income, education, presence of children or sick members in a family, and body mass index were also considered. The present study deals with the role that these various determinants play when it comes to the acceptance of carrier...

  2. Solid rocket propellant waste disposal/ingredient recovery study

    Mcintosh, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of facility and operating costs of alternate methods shows open burning to be the lowest cost incineration method of waste propellant disposal. The selection, development, and implementation of an acceptable alternate is recommended. The recovery of ingredients from waste propellant has the probability of being able to pay its way, and even show a profit, when large consistent quantities of composite propellant are available. Ingredients recovered from space shuttle waste propellant would be worth over $1.5 million. Open and controlled burning are both energy wasteful.

  3. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    Leigh, I.W.

    1988-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users.

  4. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Leigh, I.W.

    1992-05-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  5. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  6. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source or information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  7. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    Leigh, I W; Mitchell, S J

    1990-01-01

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops, etc. The data listed do not reflect any one single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information.

  8. International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need exists costs for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book has been compiled to meet that need. The information contained in the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Fact Book has been obtained from many unclassified sources: nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NMEA activities reports; and proceedings of conferences and workshops. The data listed typically do not reflect any single source but frequently represent a consolidation/combination of information

  9. International nuclear fuel cycle fact book

    As the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE contractors have become increasingly involved with other nations in nuclear fuel cycle and waste management cooperative activities, a need has developed for a ready source of information concerning foreign fuel cycle programs, facilities, and personnel. This Fact Book was compiled to meet that need. The information contained has been obtained from nuclear trade journals and newsletters; reports of foreign visits and visitors; CEC, IAEA, and OECD/NEA activities reports; proceedings of conferences and workshops; and so forth. Sources do not agree completely with each other, and the data listed herein does not reflect any one single source but frequently is a consolidation/combination of information. Lack of space as well as the intent and purpose of the Fact Book limit the given information to that pertaining to the Nuclear Fuel Cycle and to data considered of primary interest or most helpful to the majority of users

  10. Commercial spices and industrial ingredients: evaluation of antioxidant capacity and flavonoids content for functional foods development

    Marcela Roquim Alezandro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate spices and industrial ingredients for the development of functional foods with high phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity. Basil, bay, chives, onion, oregano, parsley, rosemary, turmeric and powdered industrial ingredients (β-carotene, green tea extract, lutein, lycopene and olive extract had their in vitro antioxidant capacity evaluated by means of the Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity and DPPH scavenging ability. Flavonoids identification and quantification were performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that spices presented a large variation in flavonoids content and in vitro antioxidant capacity, according to kind, brand and batches. Oregano had the highest antioxidant capacity and parsley had the highest flavonoid content. The industrial ingredient with the highest antioxidant capacity was green tea extract, which presented a high content of epigalocatechin gallate. Olive extract also showed a high antioxidant activity and it was a good source of chlorogenic acid. This study suggests that oregano, parsley, olive and green tea extract have an excellent potential for the development of functional foods rich in flavonoids as antioxidant, as long as the variability between batches/brands is controlled.

  11. Network Understanding of Herb Medicine via Rapid Identification of Ingredient-Target Interactions

    Zhang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Chi; Ji, Nan; Wang, Hao; Ji, Zhi-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Today, herb medicines have become the major source for discovery of novel agents in countermining diseases. However, many of them are largely under-explored in pharmacology due to the limitation of current experimental approaches. Therefore, we proposed a computational framework in this study for network understanding of herb pharmacology via rapid identification of putative ingredient-target interactions in human structural proteome level. A marketing anti-cancer herb medicine in China, Yadanzi (Brucea javanica), was chosen for mechanistic study. Total 7,119 ingredient-target interactions were identified for thirteen Yadanzi active ingredients. Among them, about 29.5% were estimated to have better binding affinity than their corresponding marketing drug-target interactions. Further Bioinformatics analyses suggest that simultaneous manipulation of multiple proteins in the MAPK signaling pathway and the phosphorylation process of anti-apoptosis may largely answer for Yadanzi against non-small cell lung cancers. In summary, our strategy provides an efficient however economic solution for systematic understanding of herbs' power.

  12. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  13. 21 CFR 501.4 - Animal food; designation of ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food; designation of ingredients. 501.4... of predominance by weight on either the principal display panel or the information panel in..., reconstituted milk, and dry whole milk may be declared as milk. (5) Bacterial cultures may be declared by...

  14. Using Ingredient Lists to Quantitatively Characterize Composition of Consumer Products

    Assessing exposure to substances in consumer products requires data on the composition of the products. This is a challenge since product composition data are rarely available. Many products, however, provide a list of ingredients. In many cases the list is presented in descendin...

  15. 21 CFR 700.35 - Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cosmetics containing sunscreen ingredients. 700.35... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.35 Cosmetics containing... protect the color of the product). To avoid consumer misunderstanding, if a cosmetic product contains...

  16. 7 CFR 58.634 - Assembling and combining mix ingredients.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assembling and combining mix ingredients. 58.634 Section 58.634 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  17. Chemical and physicochemical characterisation of various horse feed ingredients

    Brøkner, Christine; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Karaman, Ibrahim; Eybye, Karin; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    There is an increasing need for identifying energy dense fibre rich feed ingredients, because starch has shown to cause detrimental health problems in sports horses. This study aimed at evaluating feeds considered to be suitable for horses by use of comprehensive carbohydrate analytical methods...... horses....

  18. The Chemistry of Curcumin, the Health Promoting Ingredient in Turmeric

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2010-01-01

    Case studies pertaining to the health benefits of foods can be particularly effective in engaging students and in teaching core concepts in science (Heidemann and Urquart 2005). This case study focuses on the chemistry of curcumin, the health-promoting ingredient in turmeric. The case was developed to review core concepts in organic chemistry and…

  19. Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    Naveen Kumar; Rashmi Tyagi

    2013-01-01

    Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low crit...

  20. Temporal Cognition: A Key Ingredient of Intelligent Systems

    Michail Maniadakis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Experiencing the flow of time is an important capacity of biological systems that is involved in many ways in the daily activities of humans and animals. However, in the field of robotics, the key role of time in cognition is not adequately considered in contemporary research, with artificial agents focusing mainly on the spatial extent of sensory information, almost always neglecting its temporal dimension. This fact significantly obstructs the development of high level robotic cognitive skills, as well as the autonomous and seamless operation of artificial agents in human environments. Taking inspiration from biological cognition, the present work puts forward time perception as a vital capacity of artificial intelligent systems and contemplates the research path for incorporating temporal cognition in the repertoire of robotic skills.

  1. Registro de insumos farmacêuticos ativos: impactos e reflexos sobre as indústrias farmoquímica e farmacêutica instaladas no Brasil | Registration of active pharmaceutical Ingredients: impacts and repercussions on the pharmochemical and pharmaceutical industries in Brazil

    Diva Barrio Arrepia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo investigar e avaliar a potencial contribuição que a obrigatoriedade do registro de Insumos Farmacêuticos Ativos (IFAs teve no estabelecimento da isonomia regulatória entre o fabricante de IFA no Brasil e o fabricante internacional e a efetividade que essa isonomia teve no restabelecimento da produção local desses produtos. A pesquisa levou à identificação dos registros dos 20 IFAs, definidos como prioritários pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA, no período 2010-2012. A metodologia utilizada compreendeu o levantamento de dados de bases nacionais e internacionais, públicas e privadas, que possibilitaram a construção de tabelas e gráficos, levando às informações da pesquisa. Os resultados demonstraram que o registro do IFA é um importante instrumento de política pública na obtenção da isonomia regulatória. Porém, o tempo de análise não foi suficientemente longo para assegurar que a mesma, associada a outras ações do governo para o incentivo à produção local de IFAs, tenha sido capaz de promover o aumento da fabricação desses produtos, apesar de haver sinalizações de que isso acontecerá. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ The aim of the study was to investigate the potential contribution that the obligatory registration of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs had on the establishment of regulatory isonomy between API producers in Brazil and international producers. In addition, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of this isonomy on the re-establishment of local production. The investigation identified the registration of 20 APIs, defined as priorities by the Brazilian National Agency for the Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA, in the period 2010–2012. The methodology used included the collection of data from national and international, public and private, databases that allowed the construction of

  2. Solar America Cities Awards: Solar America Initiative Fact Sheet

    2008-03-01

    This fact sheet provides an overview of the Solar America Cities activities within the Solar America Initiative and lists the 25 cities that have received financial awards from the U.S. Department of Energy.

  3. Motor Skill Depends on Knowledge of Facts

    Jason Stanley

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e. that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, what we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.’s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example, tennis depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research.

  4. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    ... Tables Online DRI Tool Daily Value (DV) Tables Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  5. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  6. Diabetes Facts and Myths (For Parents)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Diabetes Facts and Myths KidsHealth > For Parents > Diabetes Facts ... team first. Myth: Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. Fact: Type 1 diabetes is caused by a ...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Facility (Fact Sheet)

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet provides information about Magnetic Resonance Facility capabilities and applications at NREL's National Bioenergy Center. Liquid and solid-state analysis capability for a variety of biomass, photovoltaic, and materials characterization applications across NREL. NREL scientists analyze solid and liquid samples on three nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometers as well as an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer.

  8. Drinking Water Fact Sheet: Arsenic

    Mesner, Nancy; Daniels, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about arsenic in drinking water. It includes sections about what arsenic is, where it comes from, health concerns from exposure, drinking water standards, how to know if there is arsenic in a water supply and how to reduce arsenic in drinking water.

  9. Public Education: Fingertip Facts 2009

    Harrington, Patti

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for 2009. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2008; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2008; (3) 2008 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2008-09 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools…

  10. Public Education: Fingertip Facts 2008

    Harrington, Patti

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for 2008. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2007; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2007; (3) 2007 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2007-08 Public School Enrollment Demographics; (5) Public Schools…

  11. Fingertip Facts 2011-12

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers facts and figures on Utah's education status for the school year 2011-2012. This paper contains the following: (1) Core CRT Language Arts Testing, 2011; (2) Core CRT Mathematics Testing, 2011; (3) 2011 Public Education General Fund--Funding by Source and Expenditures by Function; (4) 2010-11 Public School Enrollment Demographics;…

  12. Drug Use Prevention. Health Facts.

    Stang, Lucas; Miner, Kathleen R.

    The 10-volume "Health Facts" series is intended to supplement health education curricula and provide a handy reference for individuals who would like additional background information on particular health topics. The emphasis is placed on topics and examples relevant to youth of middle and high school age. The seven sections in this book on drug…

  13. NASA Facts, Mars and Earth.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Presented is one of a series of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) facts about the exploration of Mars. In this publication, emphasis is placed on the sun's planetary system with note made that there is no one theory for the origin and subsequent evolution of the Solar System that is generally accepted. Ideas from many scientists…

  14. Back Pain Facts and Statistics

    ... ACA News Digital Edition Archives: ACA News Articles Advertising Opportunities News Newsroom News Releases Letters to the Editor Facts About Chiropractic Chiropractic in the Media ACA Radio Chiropractic Cares Social Media Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram LinkedIn Advocacy Regulatory Policy Issue ...

  15. Facts about Sickle Cell Disease

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Sickle Cell Disease Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... severity of these rarer types of SCD varies. Sickle Cell Trait (SCT) HbAS People who have SCT inherit ...

  16. Women and Guns. Firearm Facts.

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Many gun manufacturers market guns to women claiming a gun can provide protection. Statistics provided in this fact sheet indicate gun ownership may provide a false sense of security that can be fatal, since the greatest threat to a woman comes from the people and guns within her own home. Contrary to "typical" scenarios created by advertisers,…

  17. Norms and facts in measurement

    Brakel, J. van

    1984-01-01

    Publications concerned with the foundations of measurement often accept uncritically the theory/observation and the norm/fact distinction. However, measurement is measurement-in-a-context. This is analysed in the first part of the paper. Important aspects of this context are: the purpose of the part

  18. Contact dermatitis due to cosmetics and their ingredients

    Dogra A

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Patches of common cosmetics like lipstick, sindhoor, cold cream, eyebrow pencil, rouge, bindi and their ingredients including methyl paraben, colophony, para phenylene diamine, balsam peru, cetostearyl alcohol, formaldehyde, lanolin, beeswax and liquid paraffin were applied in 200 females. Ingredients of cosmetics showed more frequent sensitivity as compared to the cosmetics applied as such. Para phenylene diamine (35% being the most common allergen followed by balsam peru (22.5% and parabens (19.25%. The least common allergen was liquid paraffin (0.5%. Among cosmetics, the most common agent was sindhoor (5.5% followed by lipstick (5.1% cold cream (3.75% rouge (2%, bindi (1.75% and eyebrow pencil (1.5%

  19. [Interaction of the dietary fibers with different functional food ingredients].

    Bessonov, V V; Baĭgarin, E K; Gorshunova, K D; Semenova, P A; Nechaev, A P

    2012-01-01

    The aspects of dietary fibers' and different food ingredients' interaction are considered in this article; in particular, the questions of dietary fibers' interaction with the main foodstuff components (proteins, fats, vitamins, etc.), especially functional purpose; and the interaction of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), which is part of dietary fiber, with the main foodstuff components--protein, vitamins and antioxidants (tocopherol, and riboflavin). It was found that with increasing of MCC content in the diet, there was increase of vitamins sorption (especially tocopherol), with its maximum at 3 g of MCC. This is probably due to the relatively high porosity and properties of MCC to absorb and retain water, lipids and other food ingredients. These findings point to the need to consider the possibility of sorption of polysaccharides and, in particular in the preparation of starch-rich foods and dietary recommendations for their use. PMID:22888670

  20. Indian food ingredients and cancer prevention - an experimental evaluation of anticarcinogenic effects of garlic in rat colon.

    Sengupta, Archana; Ghosh, Samit; Bhattacharjee, Shamee; Das, Sukta

    2004-01-01

    The major food items of Indian cuisine include rice, wheat, diary products, and abundant fruits and vegetables. Beside these, there are several kinds of herbs and spices as important ingredients, containing many phytochemicals with medicinal properties, adding taste to Indian cuisine. An impressive body of data exists in support of the concept that Indian food ingredients can be used in preventive strategies aimed at reducing the incidence and mortality of different types of cancers because of their antioxidative, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. Vital ingredients used in Indian cooking include turmeric, cloves, ginger, aniseed, mustard, saffron, cardamom and garlic Garlic is an indispensable ingredient of Indian food and this report concerns the chemopreventive efficacy of garlic in an azoxymethane induced rodent colon carcinogenesis model. The effect of garlic was evaluated in terms of aberrant crypt foci, putative preneoplastic lesions in the colon. In addition, cell proliferation and levels of apoptosis were determined and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 protein was analyzed. Following treatment, significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, as well as suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 activity were observed, associated with significant reduction in the incidence of aberrant crypt foci. The study points to combined protective effects of garlic components on colon carcinogenesis. PMID:15244513

  1. Hiding in the Shadows: Philip Morris and the Use of Third Parties to Oppose Ingredient Disclosure Regulations

    Velicer, Clayton; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 1996 Massachusetts proposed regulations that would require tobacco companies to disclose information about the ingredients in their products on a by-brand basis. This paper examines the strategies employed by Philip Morris to stop these regulations from being implemented. Methods and Finding We used previously secret tobacco industry documents and published literature to examine the activities of the tobacco companies after the regulations were proposed. Philip Morris hired a public relations firm to establish a coalition that was instructed to oppose the regulations by linking them to other industrial sectors (the slippery slope) and stating they would damage the state's economy. Philip Morris also retained a polling firm to test the popularity of specific arguments against ingredient disclosure and developed a strategic plan for opposing similar regulations in Vermont. Conclusion Tobacco companies have historically used third parties to form coalitions to oppose ingredient disclosure regulations. These coalitions have had success preventing regulations from being implemented after they are initially proposed by creating the appearance of local opposition. With countries around the world currently implementing ingredient disclosure regulations in the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco, governments and regulatory agencies should be aware of the political strategies that the tobacco companies have used to create the impression of popular opposition to these measures. PMID:26717245

  2. Novel value-added uses for sweet potato juice and flour in polyphenol- and protein-enriched functional food ingredients.

    Grace, Mary H; Truong, An N; Truong, Van-Den; Raskin, Ilya; Lila, Mary Ann

    2015-09-01

    Blackcurrant, blueberry, and muscadine grape juices were efficiently sorbed, concentrated, and stabilized into dry granular ingredient matrices which combined anti-inflammatory and antioxidant fruit polyphenols with sweet potato functional constituents (carotenoids, vitamins, polyphenols, fibers). Total phenolics were highest in blackcurrant-orange sweet potato ingredient matrices (34.03 mg/g), and lowest in muscadine grape-yellow sweet potato matrices (10.56 mg/g). Similarly, anthocyanins were most concentrated in blackcurrant-fortified orange and yellow sweet potato matrices (5.40 and 6.54 mg/g, respectively). Alternatively, other protein-rich edible matrices (defatted soy flour, light roasted peanut flour, and rice protein concentrate) efficiently captured polyphenols (6.09-9.46 mg/g) and anthocyanins (0.77-1.27 mg/g) from purple-fleshed sweet potato juice, with comparable efficiency. Antioxidant activity correlated well with total phenolic content. All formulated ingredient matrices stabilized and preserved polyphenols for up to 24 weeks, even when stored at 37°C. Complexation with juice-derived polyphenols did not significantly alter protein or carbohydrate profiles of the matrices. Sensory evaluation of the ingredient matrices suggested potential uses for a wide range of functional food products. PMID:26405527

  3. Healthier foods with naturally encapsulated functional ingredients - microalgae

    Batista, Ana Paula; Raymundo, Anabela; Bandarra, Narcisa M.; Sousa, Isabel; Empis, José; Gouveia, Luísa

    2010-01-01

    The use of microalgae as food ingredients has been tested in several food products due to their potential health promoting effects, probably related to a general immune-modulating effect (Belay, 1993). One of the main attributes of microalgae is their pigment content, and they are recognized as an excellent source of natural colourings and nutraceuticals. Beside chlorophylls, their primary photosynthetic pigment, microalgae also form various secondary pigments, such as phycobil...

  4. Evaluation of different natural ingredients as satiety inductors

    Mendes, Nuno Eduardo dos Anjos Serra

    2012-01-01

    Using natural ingredients to combat obesity has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional therapies which present many side effects. Satiety induction by the ingestion of certain natural compounds has been proven to be an interesting strategy. In this context, the present study had the following objectives: - Isolation of rucola, watercress and spinach, plum and tomato waste and cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica extracts, rich in compounds with the potential to induce a prolonge...

  5. Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients Regarding Their Skin Sensitization Potential

    Winfried Steiling

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro. It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization.

  6. Salmonella contamination of cereal ingredients for animal feeds.

    Davies, R H; Wales, A D

    2013-10-25

    Cereal ingredients for animal feedstuffs may become contaminated by Salmonella on their farms of origin. This is often concentrated in multiple foci, owing to contamination by rodents and other wildlife which may be missed by routine sampling, and may involve serovars of particular public health significance, such as Salmonella Typhimurium (STM). The study examined such contamination in domestically-produced cereal ingredients in the United Kingdom. Cereal-producing farms with associated cattle or pig enterprises (43) and feedmills (6) were investigated, following the isolation of STM from their premises (feedmills) or STM DT104 from their livestock (farms) by routine surveillance. Cereal samples from feedmills yielded two STM isolates from the same premises, of the same phage types as were isolated from wild bird faeces at ingredient intake and product loading areas. Farm investigations identified numerous Salmonella serovars, including STM, on grain harvesting and handling equipment, in grain storage areas, and in wildlife samples. Mice were removed from one pig farm and shed Salmonella Derby and Salmonella Bovismorbificans for 10 months afterwards. Grain stores more than one kilometre away from livestock areas were rarely found to be contaminated with STM. The principal issues with Salmonella contamination of cereals appeared to be the use of livestock areas as temporary grain stores on cattle farms, and access to stored grain by wildlife and domestic animals. PMID:23915993

  7. The use of irradiated ingredients in food processing

    The microbe-count reducing effects of gamma radiation and of ethylene oxide were compared in ground paprika and dried onion flakes. It was established that the commercially applied ethylene oxide gas treatment has the same bactericidal effect (2-3 log cycles reduction of the total viable bacterial count) as a 5kGy radiation dose. However, ethylene oxide treatment of paprika was practically ineffective in relation to the mould count, while irradiation with 5kGy destroyed the moulds very effectively. The colour and pigment content of paprika powder were not diminished by this radiation dose. A dry mixture intended for use in canned luncheon meat was treated with 5kGy. The canned meat product produced with the radiation-decontaminated ingredients was microbiologically stable even when heat-sterilized by a sterilization equivalent of F0=1.1. Considering the organoleptic features and microbiological safety, a heat treatment of about F0=3 is suggested when using irradiated ingredients. This is about the half of the F0 value generally proposed for completely stable canned meat products. Besides the saving of energy, a good quality can be achieved by using radiation-decontaminated ingredients. (author)

  8. The Use of Irradiated Ingredients in Food Processing

    The microbe-count reducing effects of gamma radiation and of ethylene oxide were compared in ground paprika and dried onion flakes. It was established that the commercially applied ethylene oxide gas treatment has the same bactericidal effect (2-3 log cycles reduction of the total viable bacterial count) as a 5 kGy radiation dose. However, ethylene oxide treatment of paprika was practically ineffective in relation to the mould count, while irradiation with 5 kGy destroyed the moulds very effectively. The colour and pigment content of paprika powder were not diminished by this radiation dose. A dry mixture intended for use in canned luncheon meat was treated with 5 kGy. The canned meat product produced with the radiation decontaminated ingredients was microbiologically stable even when heat-sterilized by a sterilization equivalent of F0 = 1.1. Considering the organoleptic features and microbiological safety, a heat treatment of about F0 = 3 is suggested when using irradiated ingredients. This is about the half of the F0 value generally proposed for completely stable canned meat products. Besides the saving of energy, a good quality can be achieved by using radiation-decontaminated ingredients. (author)

  9. Hashish e principio attivo: considerazioni medico-legali su una casistica / Haschich et principe actif : considérations médico-légales à partir d’une liste de cas / Hashish and its active ingredient: forensic-medical considerations from a case-record

    Giorgi Doriana Antonella

    2012-10-01

    the leaves of the plant and contains THC in a percentage from 6 to 15%. The drug samples analyzed at the Laboratorio della Agenzia Regionale Protezione Ambiente Lazio (ARPALazio in a three year time 2007-2009 were hashish for 54,10% out of the whole analyze drug sampling.The amount of the main active ingredient is between 6 and 8% for the three year time analysis 2007-2009. The cases exceeding the threshold amount of 500 mg as established by the Decreto del Presidente della Repubblica of 9th October 1990 n.309 relating to the unpunishable possession for private personal use were 5,81%. This percentage does not confirm the existence of big international drug trafficking but of “small drug dealers and/or consumers”.This can be explained by considering that if the amount of THC is always low, also the cases exceeding the allowed threshold quantity will be few. Furthermore, if the amount of THC in the sample is between 6-8%, the rest of the substance is made up of other elements such as contaminants, cutting agents and adulterants which alter the laboratory test drug results by hiding the THC contents that will be traced only through more sophisticated techniques.

  10. Nuclear economics: Issues and facts

    Hudson, C.R.

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear economics has become on the more prominent topics related to nuclear power. Beyond the subjects of nuclear safety and waste disposal, questions and concerns of nuclear power economics have emerged with growing frequency in utility board rooms, in state and federal regulatory proceedings, and in the media. What has caused nuclear power economics to become such a popular topic? This paper addresses issues and facts related to historical nuclear plant costs, new nuclear plant projections, and warning signals for future plants.

  11. Health Economics : some stylized facts

    Philippe ULMANN

    2003-01-01

    The study of the stylized facts of economic growth has allowed an advance of this field of economic analysis in its empirical and theorical works. Today, Health Economics is faced with new requirements of society, i.e. better care at a sustainable cost. Furthermore, since the problems linked with health care system and with the health status are more and more connected with the economic sphere, a global approach of Health Economics proves necessary. Prior to the development of such an approac...

  12. Technology to Market Fact Sheet

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Technology to Market subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The SunShot Initiative’s Technology to Market subprogram builds on SunShot’s record of moving groundbreaking and early-stage technologies and business models through developmental phases to commercialization. Technology to Market targets two known funding gaps: those that occur at the prototype commercialization stage and those at the commercial scale-up stage.

  13. Norms and facts in measurement

    Van Brakel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Publications concerned with the foundations of measurement often accept uncritically the theory/observation and the norm/fact distinction. However, measurement is measurement-in-a-context. This is analysed in the first part of the paper. Important aspects of this context are: the purpose of the particular measurement; everything we know; everything we can do; and the empirical world. Dichotomies, such as definition versus empirical law, are by themselves not very useful because the ‘rules of ...

  14. Protein Rich Flour from Hyacinth Bean as Functional Food Ingredient with Low Glycemic Index

    Ahmad Nafi’

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich flour (PRF produced from Hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus (L Sweet shows good potency as a functional food ingredient. The PRF was extracted from hyacinth bean using water followed by protein precipitation at its isoelectric point. The precipitate was neutralized using 1 N NaOH and the slurry was dried, ground and sieved. The objective of this research was to characterize the nutritive value of PRF i.e., protein content and amino acid profile, trypsin inhibitors activity, content of vitamins B1 and B2, the amylose and amylopectin ratio of starch and its glycemic index. The results showed that the PRF contained high protein (58.4±4.5%. The major amino acid was glutamic acid, while methionine was found as the limited amino acid of the PRF. The activity of trypsin inhibitor was low (20.4±1.6 unit/g. Moreover, PRF contains 0.2 and 3.6 mg/100 g of vitamins B1 and B2 respectively. With a high ratio of amylose (30.0±2.0% and high content of resistance starch (7.97 g/100 g, the PRF showed a low glycemic index (43.50. Based on its characteristics, this PRF can be promoted as a new food ingredient, especially for diabetic diet.

  15. Effects of various fragrant ingredients on desmopressin-induced fluid retention in mice.

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Shibata, Yujiro

    2010-07-01

    Although fragrances are often used in aromatherapy for the treatment of edema, few studies on their diuretic and/or antiedematous activities have been performed. In this study, the effects of four types of fragrant ingredients (d-limonene, piperitone, alpha-pinene, and cinnamaldehyde) were examined in a mouse model of fluid retention. The mice were loaded with water after treatment with desmopressin (an antidiuretic hormone). In addition, zingerone, a pungent component of ginger which is considered to be effective in the treatment of edema, was examined. Moreover, their effects were compared with those of furosemide, a representative diuretic. Among the five types of fragrant ingredients examined, all except for cinnamaldehyde increased the urine volume in the fluid retention mouse model when administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg. In particular, d-limonene and zingerone significantly increased the urine volume. Thus the effects of these two ingredients were further examined at lower doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg. d-Limonene significantly increased the urine volume in a dose-dependent manner. Zingerone resulted in a significant increase in the urine volume only at a dose of 30 mg/kg. In normal mice, d-limonene did not affect the urine volume at the same doses. In contrast, zingerone significantly increased the urine volume in normal mice at a dose of 30 mg/kg. Furosemide significantly increased the urine volume in both the fluid-retentive and normal mice. These results indicate that both d-limonene and zingerone exhibit diuretic actions; however, the former fragrance only exerted an action in the fluid-retentive state. This different action suggests that d-limonene might be promising for the treatment of edema. PMID:20606379

  16. Validation of an assessment tool for evaluating the implementation of WHO GMP standards by Chinese manufacturers of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)%我国原料药生产企业执行WHO GMP的评估工具验证

    黄宝斌; 孙新生; 许明哲; 白东亭; 武志昂; 吴春福

    2015-01-01

    目的:为客观评估我国活性原料药(active pharmaceutical ingredients,APIs)生产企业执行WHO GMP中的能力和现状,对评估工具进行验证,考察工具的信度(可靠性)和效度(准确性).方法:根据设定标准,筛选国内3家APIs生产企业和9名GMP专家参与验证.对于每家企业,先后应用评估工具进行自我评价和GMP专家独立评估,比较3种(严重、主要和次要)缺陷差异,考察信度.对参与评估的GMP专家进行问卷调查和访谈,评价工具对WHO GMP标准覆盖的全面性和代表性,考察效度.收集和整理企业和专家对于评估工具改进建议.结果:企业自评和专家独立评估结果均显示,3家企业均无“严重”缺陷项.在自评中,企业A,B,C的“主要”和“次要”缺陷项数量分别是(2;9),(22;36),(3;8);在独立评估中,企业A,B,C的“主要”和“次要”缺陷分别是(3;12),(26;41),(4;9).经统计学分析,企业自评和专家独立评估结果之间没有显著差异.专家访谈显示,9名专家均认为评估工具覆盖性良好,除4名专家认为4个评估指标有重复外,其余5名专家均认为代表性良好.企业和专家提出建议,对于指标重复、规定过细、缺乏操作性的情况进行改进.结论:经适宜企业和专家参与验证,认为该评估工具具有良好的信度和效度,能够测评我国APIs企业执行WHO GMP标准的差距和进度,在进行适当调整和完善后,可以在国内推广使用.

  17. Analysis on Pharmacologic Action Features of Active Ingredients of Single Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Fatty Liver Based on Literature%基于文献的单味中药有效成分治疗脂肪肝药理作用特点分析

    钟周; 邓焱坤; 胡志希; 许潜; 赖永金; 云波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze pharmacologic action features of single Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fatty liver based on literature; To provide references for clinical treatment of fatty liver.Methods Animal research literature about single Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of fatty liver in CNKI, Wanfang database, and VIP from January 2003 to December 2014 was retrieved by computers. The number of single Chinese herbal medicine and the pharmacologic action features of active ingredients (or extracts) were statistically concluded. Results A total of 279 articles were retrieved, including 67 kinds of single Chinese herbal medicine, among which 8 were used to treat AFLD, 45 were used to treat NAFLD, and 14 were used to treat AFLD and NAFLD simultaneously. Pharmacologic action features of the medicine for AFLD mainly included reducing lipid, protecting liver, antioxidation, and anti-inflammation. Pharmacologic action features of the medicine for NAFLD had the effects of improving insulin resistance additionally.Conclusion Chinese herbal medicine for the treatment of AFLD and NAFLD shows significant efficacy, having the features of multiple pathways and liver damage resistance, which provide references for clinical treatment of fatty liver.%目的:基于文献统计分析单味中药有效成分治疗脂肪肝的药理作用特点,为进一步研究及临床治疗脂肪肝提供参考。方法计算机检索中国知识资源总库(CNKI)、万方数据库、中文科技期刊数据库(VIP)2003年1月-2014年12月报道的单味中药治疗脂肪肝动物研究文献,统计治疗脂肪肝的中药味数,归纳单味中药有效成分(提取成分、水煎剂)的药理作用特点。结果检出符合标准文献279篇,共涉及药物67味,其中用于治疗酒精性脂肪肝(AFLD)的药物8味,治疗非酒精性脂肪肝(NAFLD)的药物45味,同时治疗AFLD及NAFLD的药物14味;治疗AFLD药理作用以调节血

  18. Safety Assessment of Cucumis sativus (Cucumber)-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics.

    Fiume, Monice M; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2014-05-26

    The CIR Expert Panel assessed the safety of 6 Cucumis sativus (cucumber)-derived ingredients and found them safe in cosmetic formulations in the present practices of use and concentration. These ingredients are reported to function in cosmetics as skin-conditioning agents. Cucumber is a commonly consumed food with no history of significant adverse effects, suggesting that its ingredients should not pose any major safety issues following oral exposure. This assessment focused on the dermal exposure to the low concentrations of these ingredients as used in cosmetics. Some of the constituents of cucumbers have been assessed previously for safe use as cosmetic ingredients. PMID:24861368

  19. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae: Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

    Rosa Tundis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trifolium pratense (red clover and T. repens (white clover edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients.

  20. Bifidobacterium longum lysate, a new ingredient for reactive skin.

    Guéniche, Audrey; Bastien, Philippe; Ovigne, Jean Marc; Kermici, Michel; Courchay, Guy; Chevalier, Veronique; Breton, Lionel; Castiel-Higounenc, Isabelle

    2010-08-01

    results demonstrated that the volunteers who applied the cream with bacterial extract had a significant decrease in skin sensitivity at the end of the treatment. Moreover, the treatment led to increase skin resistance against physical and chemical aggression compared to the group of volunteers who applied the control cream. Notably, the number of strippings required to disrupt skin barrier function was significantly increased for volunteers treated with the active cream. Clinical and self-assessment scores revealed a significant decrease in skin dryness after 29 days for volunteers treated with the cream containing the 10% bacterial extract. Since in vitro studies demonstrated that, on one hand, isolate sensitive neurones release less CGRP under capsaicin stimulation in the presence of the bacterial extract and, on the other hand, increased skin resistance in volunteers applying the test cream, we speculate that this new ingredient may decrease skin sensitivity by reducing neurone reactivity and neurone accessibility. The results of this studies demonstrate that this specific bacterial extract has a beneficial effect on reactive skin. These findings suggest that new approaches, based on a bacteria lysate, could be developed for the treatment and/or prevention of symptoms related to reactive skin. PMID:19624730

  1. Developing Country Business Cycles: Revisiting the Stylised Facts

    Male, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Identifying business cycle stylised facts is essential as these often form the basis for the construction and validation of theoretical business cycle models. Furthermore, understanding the cyclical patterns in economic activity, and their causes, is important to the decisions of both policymakers and market participants. Previous analyses of developing country stylised facts have tended to feature only small samples, for example the seminal paper by Agénor et al. (2000) considers just twelve...

  2. Marine & Hydrokinetic Technologies (Fact Sheet)

    2010-04-01

    This fact sheet describes the U.S. Department of Energy's Water Power Program. The program supports the development of advanced water power devices that capture energy from waves, tides, ocean currents, rivers, streams, and ocean thermal gradients. The program works to promote the development and deployment of these new technologies, known as marine and hydrokinetic technologies, to assess the potential extractable energy from rivers, estuaries, and coastal waters, and to help industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity.

  3. Novel ingredients from brewers' spent grain - bioactivity in cell culture model systems and bioactivity retention in fortified food products

    McCarthy, Aoife Louise

    2013-01-01

    Functional food ingredients, with scientifically proven and validated bioactive effects, present an effective means of inferring physiological health benefits to consumers to reduce the risk of certain diseases. The search for novel bioactive compounds for incorporation into functional foods is particularly active, with brewers’ spent grain (BSG, a brewing industry co-product) representing a unique source of potentially bioactive compounds. The DNA protective, antioxidant and immunomodulatory...

  4. Effects of platycodin D in combination with different active ingredients of Chinese herbs on proliferation and invasion of 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines%桔梗皂苷D配伍不同中药有效成分对乳腺癌4T1和MDA-MB-231细胞增殖及侵袭的影响

    韩向晖; 叶依依; 郭保凤; 刘胜

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of platycodin D in combination with different active ingredients of Chinese herbs under different therapeutic principles on proliferation and invasion of 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines.METHODS: The effective doses of platycodin D, Ophiopogon total saponins, curcumenol and osthole in inhibiting proliferation of breast cancer cell lines 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 were detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, respectively. Optimized combinations of platycodin D with Ophiopogon total saponins, curcumenol, or osthole were determined by uniform design method. Effects of the optimized combinations of platycodin D with the three ingredients on proliferation and invasion of 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells were verified and evaluated by MTT assay and Transwell chamber test, respectively.RESULTS: Verifying study showed that the inhibitory effects of platycodin D in combination with curcumenol or osthole on proliferation of 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells were better than those of platycodin D in combination with Ophiopogon total saponins and each ingredient used alone (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The inhibitory effect of platycodin D in combination with Ophiopogon total saponins or osthole on invasion of 4T1 cells was significantly better than those of platycodin D in combination with curcumenol and each ingredient used alone (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of platycodin D in combination with curcumenol or osthole on invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells was significantly better than that of platycodin D in combination with Ophiopogon total saponins (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The optimized combinations of platycodin D with three different active ingredients of Chinese herbs under different therapeutic principles can significantly inhibit the proliferation and decrease the invasion of 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Different platycodin D combinations have different potency in suppressing breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion.%目的:

  5. Macro ingredients as markers of the quality of mixing feed

    Diovani Paiano; Héverton Michael Biazzi; Cleisson Trevisan; Sidney Casarotto; Fernando Zimmer; Gustavo Krahl; Leandro Sâmia Lopes

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of macro ingredients as markers of the quality of mixed feeds. Were used: popcorn grain, sorghum, millet, rice colored and purple corn grinded (0.5% added to the diet, substituting grind corn) and coarse limestone sieved through sieve nº 10 ABNT with 2 mm (added in 0.5% in the diet, substituting finely ground limestone). Microtracer F-Red was used as a method of reference. It was used a Y-type mixer (capacity of 5,000 cm3), and produced 1 kg of feed p...

  6. Probiotics and novel digestion models for functional food ingredients

    Complete text of publication follows. A number of factors compromise the health of modern people: stressful lifestyle, unbalanced nourishment, excessive consumption of refined foods with a big measure, admission of different chemical agents into the human body. These factors harm directly or indirectly the intestinal activity, that forms a considerable part of the immune system, including the production of essential substances that have beneficial effects on the human body. The role of the so-called prebiotics (e.g. inulin, various oligosaccharides, raffinose, resistant starch etc.) is to prevent and reduce the damage of useful microbes, which are termed as probiotics. These substances selectively facilitate the propagation of probiotic bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus acidophilus), therefore increase the rate of the synthesis of vitamin B and of beneficial short chain fatty acids, improve the absorption of minerals, decrease the level of cholesterol, triglycerides, insulin, glucose, ammonia and uric acid and improve the functioning of the immune system. The majority of the examination results about prebiotics are based on clinical dietary and animal experiments. In contrast to this we simulated the process of digestion and the effect of prebiotics on probiotic and non-probiotic bacteria selected by us in an artificial digestion model, the Atlas Potassium reactor system. The instrument enabled the control of pH, temperature, dosage of digestion enzymes and juices (saliva, gastric juice, bile and duodenal juice) and anaerobity in the course of the experiment. In our experiments we investigated different bakery products and biscuits containing various prebiotic ingredients, e.g. inulin and other fructo oligosaccharides. In the digestion model the different bakery products and biscuits got through the simulated oral cavity (pH=6.8), stomach (pH=2-3) and intestine (pH=6.5-7) and might be modified in the

  7. Hydration and chemical ingredients in sport drinks: food safety in the European context.

    Urdampilleta, Aritz; Gómez-Zorita, Saioa; Soriano, José M; Martínez-Sanz, José M; Medina, Sonia; Gil-Izquierdo, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Before, during and after physical activity, hydration is a limiting factor in athletic performance. Therefore, adequate hydration provides benefits for health and performance of athletes. Besides, hydration is associated to the intake of carbohydrates, protein, sodium, caffeine and other substances by different dietary aids, during the training and/or competition by athletes. These requirements have led to the development of different products by the food industry, to cover the nutritional needs of athletes. Currently in the European context, the legal framework for the development of products, substances and health claims concerning to sport products is incomplete and scarce. Under these conditions, there are many products with different ingredients out of European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) control where claims are wrong due to no robust scientific evidence and it can be dangerous for the health. Further scientific evidence should be constructed by new clinical trials in order to assist to the Experts Commitees at EFSA for obtaining robust scientific opinions concerning to the functional foods and the individual ingredients for sport population. PMID:25929356

  8. Meningitis Myths and Facts for Consumers

    ... for Teenagers 14 Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Infographic Meningitis Myths and Facts Myth: Meningococcal disease is easy ... infected person, such as shaking hands. Fact: Meningococcal meningitis is spread through air droplets and direct contact ...

  9. Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions

    ... Basics Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions Climate Change Facts: Answers to Common Questions This page ... All Responses Is there a scientific consensus on climate change? The major scientific agencies of the United ...

  10. Lung Cancer and Hispanics: Know the Facts

    ... cause among Hispanic women. November is Lung Cancer Awareness Month, a good time to separate myth from fact when it comes to lung cancer. So what are the facts?  Smoking is the primary cause of lung cancer. Not ...

  11. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W. [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A. [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [Roltek, Inc.

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Williams, Susan E [ORNL; Moore, Sheila A [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  13. What Is Mental Illness: Mental Illness Facts

    ... children. Mental illness usually strike individuals in the prime of their lives, often during adolescence and young ... Illness page. Get more Mental Illness: Facts and Numbers from NAMI's Fact Sheet . Back

  14. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  15. Hispanic Higher Education and HSIs. Fact Sheet

    Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents facts about Hispanic higher education. Facts on the following topics are presented: (1) Hispanic demographics; (2) Hispanic academic attainment; (3) Hispanic higher education; and (4) Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs).

  16. [Inulin and derivates as key ingredients in functional foods].

    Madrigal, Lorena; Sangronis, Elba

    2007-12-01

    Inulin is a non-digestible carbohydrate that is contained in many vegetables, fruits and cereals. It is industrially produced from the chicory's root (Cichorium intybus) and it is widely used as ingredient in functional foods. Inulin and its derivate compounds (oligofructose, fructooligosaccharides) are usually called fructans, as they are basically based on linear fructose chains. This review presents a description of inulin and its most common derivate compounds: chemical structure, natural sources, physic-chemical properties, technological functionality, industrial manufacturing, analytical method for determination and health benefits: prebiotic, dietary fiber, low caloric value, hypoglycemic action, enhancement of calcium and magnesium bioavailability. Potential benefits: lipid parameters regulation, reduction of colon cancer risk and others, improvement of immune response, intestinal disorders protection. From technological point of view, these compounds exhibit a variety of properties: thickener, emulsifier, gel forming, sugar and fat substitute, humectant, freezing point depression. Inulin and derivates are been used in pharmaceutical, chemical and processing industry as technological additives and excipients. They are also been used for animal feeding. They are been considered as "bioactive" compounds to be proposed as future packaging material. Fructans are proposed to be classified as "functional fiber", according to recent concepts based on physiological effects on individuals. This review of inulin and its derivates was useful to show the broad boundaries of these compounds in the food industry and why they may be considered as key ingredients in the expanding functional food market. PMID:18524324

  17. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients preventing diet-related diseases.

    Florowska, A; Krygier, K; Florowski, T; Dłużewska, E

    2016-05-18

    This paper reviews the potential of prebiotic-containing foods in the prevention or postponement of certain diet-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases with hypercholesterolemia, osteoporosis, diabetes, gastrointestinal infections and gut inflammation. Also the data on prebiotics as food ingredients and their impact on food product quality are presented. Prebiotics are short chain carbohydrates that are resistant to the digestion process in the upper part of the digestive system, are not absorbed in any segment of the gastrointestinal system, and finally are selectively fermented by specific genera of colonic bacteria. The mechanisms of the beneficial impacts of prebiotics on human health are very difficult to specify directly, because their health-promoting functions are related to fermentation by intestinal microflora. The impact of prebiotics on diet-related diseases in many ways also depends on the products of their fermentation. Prebiotics as functional food ingredients also have an impact on the quality of food products, due to their textural and gelling properties. Prebiotics as food additives can be very valuable in the creation of functional food aimed at preventing or postponing many diet-related diseases. They additionally have beneficial technological properties which improve the quality of food products. PMID:26961814

  18. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Two Major Ingredients of Ampucare

    Naithani V.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization (WHO estimates that 4 billion people or 80 percent of the world population, presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care and 25% of modern medicines are made from plants first used traditionally. There are several reports of adverse effects of these herbal preparations due to the presence of high level of heavy metals such as Lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, arsenic and mercury and this problem has become a matter of concern. The present study was done to check the presence of lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel, arsenic and mercury in two major ingredients (Azadirachta indica and Curcuma longa of a polyherbal product- Ampucare. These ingredients were procured from different cities of India and subjected to analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS. Results were compared with the permissible limits (PL, acceptable daily intake (ADI and provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI as set by World Health Organization (WHO, Food and Drug Administration (FDA and Joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives (JECFA. All the metals were within these limits. Mean levels were evaluated with respect to their place of procurement. Delhi samples had highest mean metal contamination followed by Lucknow, Chandigarh and Chennai samples. Lowest metal contamination was found in Srinagar samples. These results were also in correlation with the safe limits as well as pollution prevailing in these cities. Overall study confirmed the safety of Ampucare.

  19. [Studies for analyzing prohibited ingredients such as mercury in cosmetics].

    Uchino, Tadashi; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Tokunaga, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Mercury is one kind of prohibited ingredients in cosmetics by the Japanese Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. We established the analytical method for mercury in cosmetics by ICP-MS. Analytical procedures were as followed: Ten microl of 1 g/l mercury solution and 1 g of whitening cream were put into a 50 ml plastic tube. After adding 20 ml of 12% nitric acid into the 50 ml plastic tube, the mixture was sonicated for 10 min. After sonicating, the mixture was centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min and then the supernatant was filtrated through a milli-pore membrane with the pore size of 0.45 microm and 0.1 microm. After filtration, the mixture was made up to 25 ml with 7% nitric acid and used as the test solution. The test solution of 100 microl was analyzed by ICP-MS (HP-4500, monitoring mass 202). The calibration curve from 1 to 1000 microg/l showed a linear line between the concentrations of mercury and the peak areas. Detection limit of mercury was 0.1 microg/l. There was no effect of the ingredients in the whitening cream on mercury determination. PMID:18220051

  20. Database search for safety information on cosmetic ingredients.

    Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera

    2007-12-01

    Ethical considerations with respect to experimental animal use and regulatory testing are worldwide under heavy discussion and are, in certain cases, taken up in legislative measures. The most explicit example is the European cosmetic legislation, establishing a testing ban on finished cosmetic products since 11 September 2004 and enforcing that the safety of a cosmetic product is assessed by taking into consideration "the general toxicological profile of the ingredients, their chemical structure and their level of exposure" (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003). Therefore the availability of referenced and reliable information on cosmetic ingredients becomes a dire necessity. Given the high-speed progress of the World Wide Web services and the concurrent drastic increase in free access to information, identification of relevant data sources and evaluation of the scientific value and quality of the retrieved data, are crucial. Based upon own practical experience, a survey is put together of freely and commercially available data sources with their individual description, field of application, benefits and drawbacks. It should be mentioned that the search strategies described are equally useful as a starting point for any quest for safety data on chemicals or chemical-related substances in general. PMID:17919791