WorldWideScience

Sample records for active ingredient fact

  1. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    Soest, van, A.J.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2002-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  2. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    Gotlieb, K.F.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Soest, van, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  3. Encapsulation of active ingredients

    Soest, van, A.J.; Schijndel, van, AWM Jos; Gotlieb, K.F.

    2000-01-01

    Microspheres having a particle size of 50 nm to 1 nm and a polydispersity of less than 40%, consisting of a chemically cross-linked starch shell containing an active ingredient, are obtained by preparing an oil-in-water emulsion of the active ingredient in a hydrophobic phase and starch or a dispersion of a solid active ingredient and starch in water, incorporating the oil-in-water emulsion or solid dispersion in an outer hydrophobic phase, particles of the oil-in-water emulsion or solid disp...

  4. PTSD: A Search for "Active Ingredients."

    Huber, Charles H.

    1997-01-01

    Family counselors working with individuals suffering the effects of trauma are encouraged to consider the "active ingredients" found by Charles Figley and Joyce Carbonell at Florida State University and reported in the two articles reviewed. (Author/MKA)

  5. 21 CFR 341.12 - Antihistamine active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antihistamine active ingredients. 341.12 Section 341.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED...-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 341.12 Antihistamine active ingredients. The active ingredient...

  6. 21 CFR 333.210 - Antifungal active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antifungal active ingredients. 333.210 Section 333.210 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Antifungal Drug Products § 333.210 Antifungal active ingredients. The active ingredient of the...

  7. 21 CFR 333.310 - Acne active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acne active ingredients. 333.310 Section 333.310... FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Topical Acne Drug Products § 333.310 Acne active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists of any of...

  8. 21 CFR 344.12 - Ear drying aid active ingredient.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ear drying aid active ingredient. 344.12 Section 344.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....12 Ear drying aid active ingredient. The active ingredient of the product consists of...

  9. Active ingredients against human epidermal aging.

    Lorencini, Márcio; Brohem, Carla A; Dieamant, Gustavo C; Zanchin, Nilson I T; Maibach, Howard I

    2014-05-01

    The decisive role of the epidermis in maintaining body homeostasis prompted studies to evaluate the changes in epidermal structure and functionality over the lifetime. This development, along with the identification of molecular mechanisms of epidermal signaling, maintenance, and differentiation, points to a need for new therapeutic alternatives to treat and prevent skin aging. In addition to recovering age- and sun-compromised functions, proper treatment of the epidermis has important esthetic implications. This study reviews active ingredients capable of counteracting symptoms of epidermal aging, organized according to the regulation of specific age-affected epidermal functions: (1) several compounds, other than retinoids and derivatives, act on the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, supporting the protective barrier against mechanical and chemical insults; (2) natural lipidic compounds, as well as glycerol and urea, are described as agents for maintaining water-ion balance; (3) regulation of immunological pathogen defense can be reinforced by natural extracts and compounds, such as resveratrol; and (4) antioxidant exogenous sources enriched with flavonoids and vitamin C, for example, improve solar radiation protection and epidermal antioxidant activity. The main objective is to provide a functional classification of active ingredients as regulatory elements of epidermal homeostasis, with potential cosmetic and/or dermatological applications. PMID:24675046

  10. Polyphenols as active ingredients for cosmetic products.

    Zillich, O V; Schweiggert-Weisz, U; Eisner, P; Kerscher, M

    2015-10-01

    Polyphenols are secondary plant metabolites with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activity. They are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom; high amounts contain, for example, green tea and grape seeds. Polyphenolic extracts are attractive ingredients for cosmetics and pharmacy due to their beneficial biological properties. This review summarizes the effects of polyphenols in the context of anti-ageing activity. We have explored in vitro studies, which investigate antioxidant activity, inhibition of dermal proteases and photoprotective activity, mostly studied using dermal fibroblasts or epidermal keratinocytes cell lines. Possible negative effects of polyphenols were also discussed. Further, some physicochemical aspects, namely the possible interactions with emulsifiers and the influence of the cosmetic formulation on the skin delivery, were reported. Finally, few clinical studies, which cover the anti-ageing action of polyphenols on the skin after topical application, were reviewed. PMID:25712493

  11. Facts about Physical Activity

    ... stroke, type 2 diabetes, depression, and some cancers. Physical activity can also help with weight control, and may improve academic achievement in students. There's more . Inactive adults have a ...

  12. 21 CFR 333.110 - First aid antibiotic active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false First aid antibiotic active ingredients. 333.110... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.110 First aid antibiotic active ingredients. The product consists of any...

  13. 21 CFR 338.10 - Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. 338.10... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE NIGHTTIME SLEEP-AID DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 338.10 Nighttime sleep-aid active ingredients. The active ingredient of the product consists...

  14. 21 CFR 358.110 - Wart remover active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wart remover active ingredients. 358.110 Section 358.110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... collodion-like vehicle. (c) Salicylic acid 15 percent in a karaya gum, glycol plaster vehicle....

  15. Optimised crystal morphologies for active pharmaceutical ingredients and related studies

    Horgan, Danielle E.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are crystalline solids in their pure forms. Crystalline solids have definable morphologies, i.e. shape and size. Crystal morphology is determined by both the internal structure of the crystals and external factors during growth from solution. The morphology of a crystal batch can affect key processes during manufacturing. Companies generally accept whatever morphology the manufacturing process provides and deal with any subsequent probl...

  16. Lithium carbonate tablets. Preparation techniques influence over active ingredient liberation

    Lithium carbonate tablets, prepared using wet and dry granulation, were assessed in vitro so as to determine the active ingredient dissolution. In this study, standardized formulations were used and developed with usual adjuvants (lactose - maize starch). Parallel to the dissolution testing. The influence of the preparation process over some physical characteristics (hardness, friability and disintegration) was also analysed. Although a better performance was observed of tables prepared using dry granulation, the authors concluded that the wet process is more suitable in preparing tables with the mentioned drug. (author)

  17. Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Ani Barbulova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.

  18. 21 CFR 347.20 - Permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients to prepare an aluminum acetate solution. Aluminum sulfate tetradecahydrate may be combined with calcium acetate monohydrate in powder or tablet form to provide a 0.13 to 0.5 percent aluminum acetate..., antihistamines, or any permitted combination of these ingredients, but not with hydrocortisone, provided...

  19. Impurity profile tracking for active pharmaceutical ingredients: case reports.

    Zhou, Lili; Mao, Bing; Reamer, Robert; Novak, Tom; Ge, Zhihong

    2007-06-28

    Tracking the impurity profile of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a very important task for all stages of drug development. A systematic approach for tracking impurity profile of API is described. Various real pharmaceutical applications are presented through successful examples of impurity profile tracking for three different novel APIs. These include MK-0969, an M3 antagonist; MK-0677, an oral-active growth hormone secretagogue and API-A, a cathepsin K inhibitor. A general strategy including selection of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) impurity profile method based on screening various stationary phases and changing the pH of the mobile phase and elucidation of impurity structures through the utilization of LC-MS, preparative-LC and NMR is demonstrated. A series of studies were conducted on the peak purity check by using the LC-UV diode-array and LC-MS detections. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the evaluation of peak purity are discussed. PMID:17142001

  20. 21 CFR 341.14 - Antitussive active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... and 21 CFR 1308.15(c). (i) Codeine. (ii) Codeine phosphate. (iii) Codeine sulfate. (3...) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE COLD, COUGH, ALLERGY, BRONCHODILATOR, AND ANTIASTHMATIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE... established for each ingredient in § 341.74(d): (a) Oral antitussives. (1) Chlophedianol hydrochloride....

  1. Studies on Insecticidal Activities and Active Ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo.

    DENG Ye-cheng; XU Han-hong

    2005-01-01

    Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Stephania kwangsiensis Lo. were studied for the first time. The results showed that all parts of S. kwangsiensis Lo. had contact activity against brown planthoppers, Nilaparvata lugens Stal,and the contact activity of methanol extract from root tubers was the highest, with a LD50 value being 1.5794 μg/female.l-roemerine was isolated from root tubers of S. kwangsiensis Lo. and identified, and it was the main active ingredient.l-roemerine had high contact toxicity to brown planthoppers, with a LD50 value being 0.0443 μg/female. Contact toxicity of l-roemerine to brown planthoppers was 7.48 times that of malathion, the convientional chemical insecticide used for controlling brown planthoppers.l-roemerine also had stomach poison activity against brown planthoppers.

  2. Equivalence studies for complex active ingredients and dosage forms

    Bhattycharyya, Lokesh; Dabbah, Roger; Hauck, Walter; Sheinin, Eric; Yeoman, Lynn; Williams, Roger,

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and its role in assessing the equivalence and inequivalence of biological and biotechnological drug substances and products—a role USP has played since its founding in 1820. A public monograph in theUnited States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary helps practitioners and other interested parties understand how an article’s strenght, quality, and purity should be controlled. Such a monograph is a standard to which all manufactured ingredi...

  3. Opinions expressed by Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee on some active ingredients of pesticides

    Camoni, I. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Tossicologia Applicata

    1996-03-01

    The opinions expressed by the Italian National Advisory Toxicological Committee (CCTN) on some active ingredients of pesticides are presented. Carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of these substances have been examined and, on this basis, an evaluation and relative classification were expressed.

  4. Research Progression of Anti-HIV Chinese Medicines and Their Natural Active Ingredients

    Jing Chen; Linchun Fu; Maoqing Li; Jiantao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To review the research progression of Chinese medicines for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and their natural active ingredients at home and abroad so as to provide references for pharmaceutical research and clinical medication. Methods: Abundant representative literatures at home and abroad were classified to introduce the anti-HIV monomers, compounds and natural active ingredients of Chinese medicines. Results: The researches on anti-HIV natural medicines have obtained gr...

  5. Bioequivalence of Eslicarbazepine Acetate from Two Different Sources of its Active Product Ingredient in Healthy Subjects

    Falcão, Amílcar; Lima, Ricardo; Sousa, Rui; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the bioavailability (BA) and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties and to demonstrate the bioequivalence (BE) between two active product ingredient (API) sources of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in healthy volunteers. Design, subjects and methods Forty healthy male and female subjects aged 18–40 years were randomized to treatment with 400 or 800 mg ESL marketed (MF) formulation [current active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) source] and 400 or 800 mg ESL to-be-marketed (TBM) form...

  6. Crystal solvates of active pharmaceutical ingredients actual for industry of Latvia

    Veldre, Kaspars

    2013-01-01

    Crystal solvates of active pharmaceutical ingredients actual for industry of Latvia ABSTRACT This doctoral thesis project is focused on investigation of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), which are important for industry of Latvia. Crystal solvate search and screening was performed for compounds described and novel crystalline forms were obtained. Stability in acquisition, production and storage conditions was evaluated. Crystal structure determination was performed for selected A...

  7. Simple and direct determination of active ingredients in drugs by neutron activation analysis

    The increasing number of drugs in the market and the need for their control requires new, simple, fast and accurate analytical methods. Iodine, iron, manganese, silver and sodium were determined by INAA in various pharmaceutical formulations, representing capsules, injectables, powders for injection, solutions and tablets. From the results it appears that NAA could be used as an official method for the determination of iron, manganese and silver in pharmaceutical products, in which these elements are present as active ingredients, as well as for the control of the concentration limits for iodine and sodium. (author)

  8. Study on THz spectra of the active ingredients in the TCM

    Ma, ShiHua; Wang, WenFeng; Liu, GuiFeng; Ge, Min; Zhu, ZhiYong

    2008-03-01

    Terahertz spectroscopy has tremendous potential for applications to evaluate the quality of the drugs including the TCM. In this paper, the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy investigated two active ingredients: Andrographolide and Dehydroandrographoline, isolated from Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees. We also measured the mixtures of two active ingredients at the different ratio and the quantitative analysis is also applied to determine the contents of compound. The Terahertz spectroscopy is a potential and promising technique in identifying the components, evaluating the drugs sanitation and inspecting the quality of medicine including TCM.

  9. Encapsulation of cosmetic active ingredients for topical application--a review.

    Casanova, Francisca; Santos, Lúcia

    2016-02-01

    Microencapsulation is finding increasing applications in cosmetics and personal care markets. This article provides an overall discussion on encapsulation of cosmetically active ingredients and encapsulation techniques for cosmetic and personal care products for topical applications. Some of the challenges are identified and critical aspects and future perspectives are addressed. Many cosmetics and personal care products contain biologically active substances that require encapsulation for increased stability of the active materials. The topical and transdermal delivery of active cosmetic ingredients requires effective, controlled and safe means of reaching the target site within the skin. Preservation of the active ingredients is also essential during formulation, storage and application of the final cosmetic product. Microencapsulation offers an ideal and unique carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients, as it has the potential to respond to all these requirements. The encapsulated agent can be released by several mechanisms, such as mechanical action, heat, diffusion, pH, biodegradation and dissolution. The selection of the encapsulation technique and shell material depends on the final application of the product, considering physical and chemical stability, concentration, required particle size, release mechanism and manufacturing costs. PMID:26612271

  10. Role of herbal bioactives as a potential bioavailability enhancer for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Ajazuddin; Alexander, Amit; Qureshi, Azra; Kumari, Leena; Vaishnav, Pramudita; Sharma, Mukesh; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra

    2014-09-01

    The current review emphasizes on the herbal bioenhancers which themselves do not possess inherent pharmacological activity of their own but when co-administered with Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API), enhances their bioavailability and efficacy. Herbal bioenhancers play a crucial role in enhancing the bioavailability and bioefficacy of different classes of drugs, such as antihypertensives, anticancer, antiviral, antitubercular and antifungal drugs at low doses. This paper highlights various natural compounds that can be utilized as an efficient bioenhancer. Several herbal compounds including piperine, quercetin, genistein, naringin, sinomenine, curcumin, and glycyrrhizin have demonstrated capability to improve the pharmacokinetic parameters of several potent API. This article also focuses on various United States patents on herbal bioenhancers, which has proved to be beneficial in improving oral absorption of nutraceuticals like vitamins, minerals, amino acids and certain herbal compounds. The present paper also describes proposed mechanism of action, which mainly includes absorption process, drug metabolism, and action on drug target. The herbal bioenhancers are easily available, safe, free from side effects, minimizes drug toxicity, shortens the duration of treatment, lowers the drug resistance problems and minimizes the cost of treatment. Inspite of the fact that herbal bioenhancers provide an innovative concept for enhancing the bioavailability of several potent drugs, there are numerous bioenhancers of herbal origin that are yet to be explored in several vital areas. These bioenhancers must also be implied to enhance the bioavailability and bioefficacy through routes other than the oral route of drug delivery. There is a vast array of unexploited plants which can be investigated for their drug bioenhancing potency. The toxicity profiles of these herbal bioenhancers must not be overlooked. Researches must be carried out to solve these issues and to

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL AND SYNERGISTIC ACTIVITY OF INGREDIENTS OF BETEL QUID ON ORAL AND ENTERIC PATHOGENS

    Niraj A Ghanwate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, antimicrobial and synergistic activity of ingredients of betel quid i.e. kattha, lime, betel leaf, betel nut, cardamom, clove and fennel seeds was tested against microbial population of oral cavity and four enteric pathogens namely Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri. For this purpose two methods were used. Pour plate method was used for calculating the reduction in microbial population in oral cavity and disk diffusion method was used for detecting the effect of ingredients of betel quid on enteric pathogens. In the first method, microbial population of saliva before and after chewing above ingredients individually and in different combinations was compared. It was found that the each ingredient of betel quid separately and in different combination shows reduction in microbial population by different percentage. The highest percentage of reduction in microbial population was shown by the combination of betel leaf, lime and kattha (Blk followed by betel leaf, cardamom etc. In the second experiment it was found that the bacteria investigated showed most susceptibility against kattha followed by clove and then combination of betel leaf, lime and kattha. From the study it was concluded that chewing of betel quid after every meal reduces the population of oral micro flora which may be responsible for dental carries and bad breath. It was also seen that enteric pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Shigell flexneri could be inhibited by ingredients of beetle quid.

  12. Nano-microdelivery systems for oromucosal delivery of an active ingredient

    2014-01-01

    A composition for oromucosal delivery of at least one active ingredient, more particularly a lipid nano-microdelivery system comprising a nicotine component and/or a flavour component, wherein the nicotine component may be delivered to the oral cavity via absorption through the mucosal membranes...... thereof and/or wherein the flavour component may be delivered to the oral mucosa by controlled release....

  13. Active pharmaceutical ingredients detected in herbal food supplements for weight loss samples on the Dutch market

    Reeuwijk, N.M.; Venhuis, B.J.; Kaste, de D.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Rietjens, I.; Martena, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Herbal food supplements claiming to reduce weight may contain active pharmacological ingredients (APIs) that can be used for the treatment of overweight and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine whether herbal food supplements for weight loss on the Dutch market contain APIs with weight lo

  14. How active ingredient localisation in plant tissues determines the targeted pest spectrum of different chemistries

    Buchholz, Anke; Trapp, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    information sets revealed that the intracellular localisation of active ingredients determines the performance of test compounds against different target pests because of different feeding behaviours: mites feed on mesophyll, and aphids and whiteflies mostly in the vascular system. Polar compounds have a slow...

  15. Kinetics of the esterification of active pharmaceutical ingredients containing carboxylic Acid functionality in polyethylene glycol

    Schou-Pedersen, Anne Marie V; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Moesgaard, Birthe;

    2014-01-01

    reactions. In this study, kinetics of two active pharmaceutical ingredients, cetirizine and indomethacin possessing carboxylic acid functionality, has been studied in PEG 400 and PEG 1000 at 50°C, 60°C, 70°C, and 80°C. HPLC-UV was applied for the determination of concentrations in the kinetic studies...

  16. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna;

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended...

  17. 21 CFR 358.710 - Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis.

    2010-04-01

    ..., seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. 358.710 Section 358.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Psoriasis § 358.710 Active ingredients for the control of dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, or psoriasis. The... psoriasis. (1) Coal tar, 0.5 to 5 percent. When a coal tar solution, derivative, or fraction is used as...

  18. Tregitope Peptides: The Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient of IVIG?

    Anne S. De Groot

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Five years ago, we reported the identification and characterization of several regulatory T-cell epitopes (now called Tregitopes that were discovered in the heavy and light chains of IgG (De Groot et al. Blood, 2008. When added ex vivo to human PBMCs, these Tregitopes activated regulatory T cells (Tregs, increased expression of the transcription factor FoxP3, and induced IL-10 expression in CD4+ T cells. We have now shown that coadministration of the Tregitopes in vivo, in a number of different murine models of autoimmune disease, can suppress immune responses to antigen in an antigen-specific manner, and that this response is mediated by Tregs. In addition we have shown that, although these are generally promiscuous epitopes, the activity of individual Tregitope peptides is restricted by HLA. In this brief report, we provide an overview of the effects of Tregitopes in vivo, discuss potential applications, and suggest that Tregitopes may represent one of the “active pharmaceutical ingredients” of IVIg. Tregitope applications may include any of the autoimmune diseases that are currently treated almost exclusively with intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG, such as Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN, as well as gene therapy and allergy where Tregitopes may provide a means of inducing antigen-specific tolerance.

  19. A simple and fast method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics by neutron activation analysis

    Antiperspirant cosmetics are tested for their active ingredient (aluminium chlorohydroxide) by conventional analytical techniques. Aluminium has been determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in all antiperspirant products and package forms available in the Greek market in order to develop a simple and fast method for quantization. The results show that neutron activation analysis could be established as an official method for the determination of active ingredient in antiperspirant cosmetics. The proposed method is compared with the existing official methods and an alternative sampling method for aerosol package is presented. (author)

  20. NOVEL HYDROXAMIC ACIDS HAVING HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITING ACTIVITY AND ANTI-CANCER COMPOSITION COMPRISING THE SAME AS AN ACTIVE INGREDIENT

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a pharmaceutical composition for anticancer including novel hydroxamic acid with histone deacetylase inhibiting activity as an active ingredient. Hydroxamic acid compound of the present invention has inhibitory activity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and shows...... cytotoxicity to a variety of cancer cells, being useful in strong anti-cancer drug....

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF WATER EXTRACTS OF TRIKATU CHURNA AND ITS INDIVIDUAL INGREDIENT

    P.R. Malvankar* and M. M. Abhyankar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trikatu churna is one of the traditional poly herbal preparation, formed by mixing equal quantities of three important spicy materials such as Piper longum L. (Piperaceae, Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae. Trikatu is also known as “ Three Bitters”. The trikatu preparation was reported to contain alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, steroids, lignin & saponins. The objective of study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of trikatu churna & its individual ingredients with their preliminary phytochemical study. The aqueous extracts of trikatu churna & its each ingredient were tested for antimicrobial activity against certain bacterial strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus by in vitro agar well diffusion method and the results are recorded as the zone of inhibition. Trikatu churna was found to possess higher extent of phytoconstituents with promising antimicrobial activity.

  2. Fact sheet. Norwegian petroleum activity 1996

    Westgaard, T. [ed.

    1996-02-01

    The present report from the Royal Ministry of Industry and Energy deals with the Norwegian petroleum activity. Main topics are as follow: Historical overview; state organisation of petroleum activities; the economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas; state revenues; mainland activities; petroleum resources; production; marketing situation for petroleum products; environmental aspects; the legal and licence framework; licensing rounds; exploration; fields in production; fields under development; discoveries with development plan under consideration; transportation systems; licence interests; company interests. 36 refs., 24 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts identification and efficacy of quinic acid.

    Sheng, Yezhou; Akesson, Christina; Holmgren, Kristin; Bryngelsson, Carl; Giamapa, Vincent; Pero, Ronald W

    2005-01-15

    Historic medicinal practice has defined Cat's Claw, also known as Una de Gato or Uncaria tomentosa, as an effective treatment for several health disorders including chronic inflammation, gastrointestinal dysfunction such as ulcers, tumors and infections. The efficacy of Cat's Claw was originally believed, as early as the 1960s, to be due to the presence of oxindole alkaloids. However, more recently water-soluble Cat's Claw extracts were shown not to contain significant amounts of alkaloids (<0.05%), and yet still were shown to be very efficacious. Here we characterize the active ingredients of a water-soluble Cat's Claw extract called C-Med-100 as inhibiting cell growth without cell death thus providing enhanced opportunities for DNA repair, and the consequences thereof, such as immune stimulation, anti-inflammation and cancer prevention. The active ingredients were chemically defined as quinic acid esters and could also be shown to be bioactive in vivo as quinic acid. PMID:15619581

  4. A slow-release system of bacterial cellulose gel and nanoparticles for hydrophobic active ingredients.

    Numata, Yukari; Mazzarino, Leticia; Borsali, Redouane

    2015-01-01

    A combination of bacterial cellulose (BC) gel and amphiphilic block copolymer nanoparticles was investigated as a drug delivery system (DDS) for hydrophobic active ingredients. Poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) and retinol were used as the block copolymer and hydrophobic active ingredient, respectively. The BC gel was capable of incorporating copolymer nanoparticles and releasing them in an acetic acid-sodium acetate buffer solution (pH 5.2) at 37 °C. The percentage of released copolymer reached a maximum value of approximately 60% after 6h and remained constant after 24h. The percentage of retinol released from the copolymer-containing BC gel reached a maximum value at 4h. These results show that the combination of BC gel and nanoparticles is a slow-release system that may be useful in the cosmetic and biomedical fields for skin treatment and preparation. PMID:25840273

  5. Validation of the quality control methods for active ingredients of Fungirex cream

    Fungirex cream is a two-drug product, that is, undecylenic acid and zinc undecylenate over a suitable basis. Since this is a product not documented in the official monographs of the pharmacopoeia, simple analytical methods were suggested for quantitation of analytes of interest in the cream, which are useful for release of newly prepared cream batches. To validate two volumetric methods for the quality control of active ingredients in Fungirex cream

  6. Activated Random Walkers: Facts, Conjectures and Challenges

    Dickman, Ronald; Rolla, Leonardo T.; Sidoravicius, Vladas

    2010-02-01

    We study a particle system with hopping (random walk) dynamics on the integer lattice ℤ d . The particles can exist in two states, active or inactive (sleeping); only the former can hop. The dynamics conserves the number of particles; there is no limit on the number of particles at a given site. Isolated active particles fall asleep at rate λ>0, and then remain asleep until joined by another particle at the same site. The state in which all particles are inactive is absorbing. Whether activity continues at long times depends on the relation between the particle density ζ and the sleeping rate λ. We discuss the general case, and then, for the one-dimensional totally asymmetric case, study the phase transition between an active phase (for sufficiently large particle densities and/or small λ) and an absorbing one. We also present arguments regarding the asymptotic mean hopping velocity in the active phase, the rate of fixation in the absorbing phase, and survival of the infinite system at criticality. Using mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulation, we locate the phase boundary. The phase transition appears to be continuous in both the symmetric and asymmetric versions of the process, but the critical behavior is very different. The former case is characterized by simple integer or rational values for critical exponents ( β=1, for example), and the phase diagram is in accord with the prediction of mean-field theory. We present evidence that the symmetric version belongs to the universality class of conserved stochastic sandpiles, also known as conserved directed percolation. Simulations also reveal an interesting transient phenomenon of damped oscillations in the activity density.

  7. Norwegian Petroleum Activity 97. Fact Sheet

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report is the official governmental review of the offshore operations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf in 1996. It covers the following topics: (1) Summary, (2) Historical overview, (3) State organization of petroleum activities, (4) The economic impact of Norwegian oil and gas, (5) State revenues, (6) Mainland activities, (7) Petroleum resources, (8) Production, (9) Marketing situation for petroleum products, (10) Environmental aspects, (11) The legal and license framework, (12) Licensing rounds, (13) Exploration, (14) Fields in production, (15) Fields under development, (16) Discoveries with development plan under consideration, (17) Transportation systems, (18) License interests, (19) Company interests, (20) White papers, (21) Useful postal addresses. 24 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Comparison of Active Ingredient Content of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi Collected in Different Seasons Detected by HPLC-DAD

    YAO Feng; CHEN Da-shuai

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the active ingredient content of Nanwuweizi (Kadsura longepedunculata) and Beiwuweizi (Fructus Schisandrae Chinensis) collected in different seasons. Methods:Microwave-assisted extraction was applied to extract the active ingredients in Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi, with methanol as the solvent. High performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method was used to analyze the content of each ingredient, with chromatographic conditions as follows: Brava BDS C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 μm); column temperature: 30℃; mobile phase: water (A) - acetonitrile (B); gradient elution: 0.8 mL/min; and detection wavelength: 225 nm. Results:All ingredients waiting for detection reached their peaks within 75 min, with excellent degree of separation and higher number of theoretical plates. Standard curves were drawn, and the mean value of phase relationship of each ingredient was >0.999. The content of active ingredients in lignans of Nanwuweizi and Beiwuweizi showed tendency of increase ifrst and then decreased. In addition, all ingredients in Beiwuweizi reached their peaks in September while those in Nanwuweizi in August. Conclusion:This method can be used to detect the content of multiple ingredients in Wuweizi (Schisandra chinensis) simultaneously because it is simple in operation, precise in results and excellent in repeatability.

  9. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review.

    Sonali S. Bharate

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literaturereports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different active pharmaceutical ingredients in solid dosage forms. Examples of active drug/excipientinteractions, such as transacylation, the Maillard browning reaction, acid base reactions and physical changes are discussed for different active pharmaceutical ingredients belonging to different therapeuticcategories viz antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, anti-convulsant, antibiotic,bronchodialator, antimalarial, antiemetic, antiamoebic, antipsychotic, antidepressant, anticancer, anticoagulant and sedative/hypnotic drugs and vitamins. Once the solid-state reactions of a pharmaceutical system are understood, the necessary steps can be taken to avoid reactivity and improve the stability of drug substances and products.

  10. Studies of Active Ingredients in Cough Syrup by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    ZHOU Tian-shu; WANG Ai-fang; WU Fang; SHI Guo-yue; FANG Yu-zhi

    2003-01-01

    The present paper covers a simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis(CZE) with amperometric detection(AD), for the separation and the determination of ephedrine hydrochloride, promethazine hydrochloride and codeine phosphate. Under the optimal conditions, the three analytes were base-line separated completely within 16 min. Good linear relationships between the peak heights and the concentrations of the three analytes were obtained with the correlation coefficients better than 0.9993. The method was directly applied to the determination of the active ingredients in pharmaceutical preparations and the assay results were satisfactory.

  11. Oxidation of Mixed Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Biologically Treated Wastewater by ClO2

    Moradas, Gerly; Fick, Jerker; Ledin, Anna; Jansen, Jes la Cour; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Biologically treated wastewater containing a mixture of 53 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)was treated with 0-20 mg/l chlorine dioxide (ClO2) solution. Wastewater effluents were taken from two wastewater treatment plants in Sweden, one with (low COD) and one without (high COD) extended nitrogen removal. The removal of the APIs varied from no significant removal at the highest dose of ClO2 (20 mg/l) to 90% removal at a dose of 0.5 mg/l of the oxidant. From the low COD effluent, only 4 ...

  12. Development and validation of stability indicating UPLC assay method for ziprasidone active pharma ingredient

    Sonam Mittal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziprasidone, a novel antipsychotic, exhibits a potent highly selective antagonistic activity on D2 and 5HT2A receptors. Literature survey for ziprasidone revealed several analytical methods based on different techniques but no UPLC method has been reported so far. Aim: Aim of this research paper is to present a simple and rapid stability indicating isocratic, ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC method which was developed and validated for the determination of ziprasidone active pharmaceutical ingredient. Forced degradation studies of ziprasidone were studied under acid, base, oxidative hydrolysis, thermal stress and photo stress conditions. Materials and Methods: The quantitative determination of ziprasidone drug was performed on a Supelco analytical column (100×2.1 mm i.d., 2.7 ΅m with 10 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH: 6.7 and acetonitrile (ACN as mobile phase with the ratio (55:45-Buffer:ACN at a flow rate of 0.35 ml/ min. For UPLC method, UV detection was made at 318 nm and the run time was 3 min. Developed UPLC method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Results and Conclusion: Mild degradation of the drug substance was observed during oxidative hydrolysis and considerable degradation observed during basic hydrolysis. During method validation, parameters such as precision, linearity, ruggedness, stability, robustness, and specificity were evaluated, which remained within acceptable limits. Developed UPLC method was successfully applied for evaluating assay of Ziprasidone active Pharma ingredient.

  13. Integration of active pharmaceutical ingredient solid form selection and particle engineering into drug product design.

    Ticehurst, Martyn David; Marziano, Ivan

    2015-06-01

    This review seeks to offer a broad perspective that encompasses an understanding of the drug product attributes affected by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) physical properties, their link to solid form selection and the role of particle engineering. While the crucial role of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) solid form selection is universally acknowledged in the pharmaceutical industry, the value of increasing effort to understanding the link between solid form, API physical properties and drug product formulation and manufacture is now also being recognised. A truly holistic strategy for drug product development should focus on connecting solid form selection, particle engineering and formulation design to both exploit opportunities to access simpler manufacturing operations and prevent failures. Modelling and predictive tools that assist in establishing these links early in product development are discussed. In addition, the potential for differences between the ingoing API physical properties and those in the final product caused by drug product processing is considered. The focus of this review is on oral solid dosage forms and dry powder inhaler products for lung delivery. PMID:25677227

  14. Curing Ingredients, Characteristics, Total Phenolic, and Antioxidant Activity of Commercial Indonesian Dried Meat Product (Dendeng

    T. Suryati

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendeng is Indonesian dried meat product that used spices rich in antioxidant component as ingredient. In addition, commercial dendeng usually use saltpeter (nitrate/nitrite salt as curing ingredient to inhibit rancidity and to produce stable red color. The aims of this study were to investigate composition of spices and saltpeter added, characteristic, total phenolic, and antioxidant activity of commercial dendeng. This research was conducted through interview with some dendeng producers to get information about saltpeter adding and spices composition used in their products. Then the interview results were verified by laboratory analysis. The results showed that spices and saltpeter adding from some producers varied. The saltpeter added in curing process produced inconsistent red color on commercial dendeng in this investigation. Total phenolic of dendeng from producers ranged from 42.47 to 102.0 mg GAE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 36.51 to 95.49 mg GAE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity against DPPH ranged from 79.35 to 379.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for raw dendeng, and 94.30 to 559.40 mg VCE/100 g DM for fried dendeng. Antioxidant capacity of raw dendeng was influenced by phenolic content about 87.2%, but in fried dendeng was only 59.0%. In conclusion, dendeng has a significant antioxidant activity, even after frying, and saltpeter addition was not effective to maintain stable red color in dendeng products.

  15. Determination of nickel in active pharmaceutical ingredients by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Bubnič, Zoran; Urleb, Uroš; Kreft, Katjuša; Veber, Marjan

    2010-03-01

    An electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric procedure for the determination of nickel in active pharmaceutical ingredients was developed. Since the recoveries of nickel by the direct dissolution of samples in diluted nitric acid were low and caused errors in the determination of Ni in pharmaceutical samples, different approaches for sample pre-treatment were examined. It was found that the microwave digestion was the most suitable way for sample preparation. Various combinations of digestion agents and different microwave conditions were tested. The combination of nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide was found to be the most appropriate. The validity of the method was evaluated by recovery studies of spiked samples and by the comparison of the results obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The recovery ranged from 87.5 to 104.0% and a good agreement was achieved between both methods. The detection limit and the limit of quantification were 0.6 and 2.1 µg g-1 respectively. The precision of the method was confirmed by the determination of Ni in the spiked samples and was below 4%, expressed in terms of a relative standard deviation. The method was applied to the determination of nickel in production samples of active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates. PMID:24061653

  16. Determination of active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Cao, Yuhua; Lou, Changgang; Fang, Yuzhi; Ye, Jiannong

    2002-01-11

    High-performance capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection was employed to analyse active ingredients of Rhododendron dauricum L., an important crude herb frequently used in Chinese medicines. Farrerol, quercetin, syringic acid, vanillic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid are major important active ingredients. Operated in a wall-jet configuration, a 300-microm diameter carbon-disk electrode was used as the working electrode, which exhibits a good response at +950 mV (vs. saturated calomel electrodes) for six analytes. Under the optimum conditions, the analytes were baseline separated within 16 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 9 x 10(-7) to 3.0 x 10(-6) M for all analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of Rhododendron dauricum L. with relatively simple extraction procedures, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:11820277

  17. Evaluation of teratogenic effects of crocin and safranal, active ingredients of saffron, in mice.

    Moallem, Seyed Adel; Afshar, Mohammad; Etemad, Leila; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-02-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus) is a widely used food additive for its color and taste. Crocin and safranal are two main components of this plant. Numerous studies are underway to introduce saffron and its active ingredients as pharmacological agents. Safety assessments of these compounds are important parts of this endeavor. In this study, the effects of crocin and safranal administrations during embryogenesis have been investigated in mice. A total of 75 BALB/c pregnant mice were divided into six experimental and control groups. Four experimental groups received intraperitoneal injection of crocin (200 mg/kg or 600 mg/kg) daily or safranal (0.075 ml/kg or 0.225 ml/kg) on gestational days (GDs) 6 to 15. Control groups received normal saline or paraffin as solvents of crocin and safranal. Dams were dissected on GD18 and embryos were collected. Routine maternal and fetal parameters were recorded. Macroscopic observation of external malformations was also performed. Fetuses were then selected for double skeletal staining with alizarin red and alcian blue. All experimental groups caused significant decrease in length and weight of fetuses when compared with the control groups and revealed malformations such as minor skeletal malformations, mandible and calvaria malformations, and growth retardation. Minor skeletal malformations were the most commonly observed abnormality, which were statistically significant when compared with the control groups (p saffron, further elaborate studies to understand the malformation mechanisms of these ingredients are recommended. PMID:24097366

  18. Solubilization of active ingredients of different polarity in Pluronic® micellar solutions - Correlations between solubilizate polarity and solubilization site.

    Nguyen-Kim, Viet; Prévost, Sylvain; Seidel, Karsten; Maier, Walter; Marguerre, Ann-Kathrin; Oetter, Günter; Tadros, Tharwat; Gradzielski, Michael

    2016-09-01

    The solubilization of two pharmaceutically active ingredients (AI) with significantly different water solubility, namely carbamazepine and fenofibrate (solubility of 150ppm and 10ppm, respectively), has been investigated using a series of Pluronics® (Poloxamers) containing different ethylene oxide and propylene oxide (EO/PO) units in the molecule. The results show largely enhanced solubilization of fenofibrate by Pluronic® micelles that increases with the PPO chain length provided the temperature is above the critical micelle temperature (cmt). In contrast the more water-soluble carbamazepine only shows a moderate increase in solubilization upon addition of Pluronics®. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR experiments show that the solubilization of fenofibrate occurs in the core of the micelles, whereas carbamazepine shows no direct association with the micelles. These clearly different solubilization mechanisms for the two AIs were confirmed by Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments, which show that fenofibrate interacts only with the PPO core of the micelle, whereas carbamazepine interacts with both PPO and PEO similarly. Accordingly, the large enhancement of the solubilization of fenofibrate is related to the fact that it is solubilized within the PPO core of the Pluronic® micelles, while the much more moderate increase of carbamazepine solubility is attributed to the change of solvent quality due to the presence of the amphiphilic copolymer and the interaction with the EO and PO units in solution. PMID:27244594

  19. Isolation and characterization of process related impurities in anastrozole active pharmaceutical ingredient

    Hiriyanna, S. G.; Basavaiah, K. [University of Mysore, Manasagangothri, Mysore (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: hiriyannag@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    Three impurities ranging from 0.08%-0.12% by peak area in anastrozole active pharmaceutical ingredient were detected by simple isocratic reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These impurities were isolated by prep-HPLC and were characterized by LC- MS/MS, GCMS and NMR experimental data. Based on the results obtained from different spectroscopic experiments, these impurities have been characterized as 2,2'-(5-((4H-1,2,4-triazol-4-yl)methyl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(2-methyl propanenitrile) (Impurity I), 2,2'-(5-methyl-1,3-phenylene)bis(2-methylpropanenitrile) (Impurity II) and 2,2'-(5-(bromomethyl)-1,3-phenylene)bis(2-methylpropanenitrile) (Impurity III). (author)

  20. Application of instrumented nanoindentation in preformulation studies of pharmaceutical active ingredients and excipients.

    Egart, Mateja; Janković, Biljana; Srčič, Stane

    2016-09-01

    Nanoindentation allows quantitative determination of a material's response to stress such as elastic and plastic deformation or fracture tendency. Key instruments that have enabled great advances in nanomechanical studies are the instrumented nanoindenter and atomic force microscopy. The versatility of these instruments lies in their capability to measure local mechanical response, in very small volumes and depths, while monitoring time, displacement and force with high accuracy and precision. This review highlights the application of nanoindentation for mechanical characterization of pharmaceutical materials in the preformulation phase (primary investigation of crystalline active ingredients and excipients). With nanoindentation, mechanical response can be assessed with respect to crystal structure. The technique is valuable for mechanical screening of a material at an early development phase in order to predict and better control the processes in which a material is exposed to stress such as milling and compression. PMID:27383883

  1. Genotoxic effects of the herbicide Roundup Transorb and its active ingredient glyphosate on the fish Prochilodus lineatus.

    Moreno, Natália Cestari; Sofia, Silvia Helena; Martinez, Claudia B R

    2014-01-01

    Roundup Transorb (RT) is a glyphosate-based herbicide and despite its wide use around the world there are few studies comparing the effects of the active ingredient with the formulated product. In this context the purpose of this study was to compare the genotoxicity of the active ingredient glyphosate with the formulated product RT in order to clarify whether the active ingredient and the surfactant of the RT formula may exert toxic effects on the DNA molecule in juveniles of fish Prochilodus lineatus. Erythrocytes and gill cells of fish exposed to glyphosate and to RT showed DNA damage scores significantly higher than control animals. These results revealed that both glyphosate itself and RT were genotoxic to gill cells and erythrocytes of P. lineatus, suggesting that their use should be carefully monitored considering their potential impact on tropical aquatic biota. PMID:24448465

  2. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  3. Dissolution enhancement of active pharmaceutical ingredients by therapeutic deep eutectic systems.

    Aroso, Ivo M; Silva, João C; Mano, Francisca; Ferreira, Ana S D; Dionísio, Madalena; Sá-Nogueira, Isabel; Barreiros, Susana; Reis, Rui L; Paiva, Alexandre; Duarte, Ana Rita C

    2016-01-01

    A therapeutic deep eutectic system (THEDES) is here defined as a deep eutectic solvent (DES) having an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as one of the components. In this work, THEDESs are proposed as enhanced transporters and delivery vehicles for bioactive molecules. THEDESs based on choline chloride (ChCl) or menthol conjugated with three different APIs, namely acetylsalicylic acid (AA), benzoic acid (BA) and phenylacetic acid (PA), were synthesized and characterized for thermal behaviour, structural features, dissolution rate and antibacterial activity. Differential scanning calorimetry and polarized optical microscopy showed that ChCl:PA (1:1), ChCl:AA (1:1), menthol:AA (3:1), menthol:BA (3:1), menthol:PA (2:1) and menthol:PA (3:1) were liquid at room temperature. Dissolution studies in PBS led to increased dissolution rates for the APIs when in the form of THEDES, compared to the API alone. The increase in dissolution rate was particularly noticeable for menthol-based THEDES. Antibacterial activity was assessed using both Gram-positive and Gram-negative model organisms. The results show that all the THEDESs retain the antibacterial activity of the API. Overall, our results highlight the great potential of THEDES as dissolution enhancers in the development of novel and more effective drug delivery systems. PMID:26586342

  4. Effects of ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, on development, growth, and life span of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Ginsenosides, the active ingredients of Panax ginseng, are saponins derived from sterols. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a well-established model for biochemical and genetic studies in animals. Although cholesterol is an essential requirement for the growth and development of C. ...

  5. Effects of rhubarb and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in INTMNC of rabbits

    Xiu Zhen Lin; De Lu Ma; Zhi Qing Cui; Yi Kang

    2000-01-01

    @@INTRODUCTION The recent studies have shown that rhubarb has not only the effect of removing stasis by purgation, but also intestinal barrier effects[1,2]. In order to further clarify the intestinal barrier mechanism of rhubarb, we studied the effects of rhubarb decoction and the active ingredients of rhubarb on the cytoplasmic free calcium in isolated intestinal mononuclear cells (INT-MNC)

  6. Defining the Active Ingredients of Interactive Computer Play Interventions for Children with Neuromotor Impairments: A Scoping Review

    Levac, Danielle; Rivard, Lisa; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers who investigate complex interventions are challenged to describe the "active ingredients" of their interventions: the reason(s) why a treatment is expected to be effective. Interactive Computer Play (ICP) is an emerging complex intervention in rehabilitation practice and research. The purpose of this scoping review is to…

  7. Collaborative Care for Patients With Severe Personality Disorders: Preliminary Results and Active Ingredients From a Pilot Study (Part I)

    Stringer, Barbara; Meijel, Berno van; Karman, Pieter; Koekkoek, Bauke; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan; Kerkhof, Ad; Beekman, Aartjan

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test if a collaborative care program (CCP) with nurses in a coordinating position is beneficial for patients with severe personality disorders. DESIGN AND METHODS: A pilot study with a comparative multiple case study design using mixed methods investigating active ingredients and prelimi

  8. Quantifying Amphibian Pesticide Body Burdens for Active Ingredients Versus Formulations Through Dermal Exposure

    Widespread pesticide applications throughout agricultural landscapes pose a risk to post-metamorphic amphibians leaving or moving between breeding ponds in terrestrial habitats. Recent studies indicate that the inactive ingredients in pesticide formulations may be equally or more...

  9. Chitosonic® Acid as a Novel Cosmetic Ingredient: Evaluation of its Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Hydration Activities

    Yi-Shyan Chen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosonic® Acid, carboxymethyl hexanoyl chitosan, is a novel chitosan material that has recently been accepted by the Personal Care Products Council as a new cosmetic ingredient with the INCI (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients name Carboxymethyl Caprooyl Chitosan. In this study, we analyze several important cosmetic characteristics of Chitosonic® Acid. Our results demonstrate that Chitosonic® Acid is a water-soluble chitosan derivative with a high HLB value. Chitosonic® Acid can form a nano-network structure when its concentration is higher than 0.5% and can self-assemble into a nanosphere structure when its concentration is lower than 0.2%. Chitosonic® Acid has potent antimicrobial activities against gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and fungus. Chitosonic® Acid also has moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity. Additionally, Chitosonic® Acid exhibits good hydration activity for absorbing and retaining water molecules with its hydrophilic groups. From a safety point of view, Chitosonic® Acid has no cytotoxicity to L-929 cells if its concentration is less than 0.5%. Moreover, Chitosonic® Acid has good compatibilities with various normal cosmetic ingredients. Therefore, we propose that Chitosonic® Acid has the potential to be a widely used ingredient in various types of cosmetic products.

  10. Inactive ingredient Search for Approved Drug Products

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to 21 CFR 210.3(b)(8), an inactive ingredient is any component of a drug product other than the active ingredient. Only inactive ingredients in the final...

  11. Estimation of active pharmaceutical ingredients content using locally weighted partial least squares and statistical wavelength selection.

    Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    Development of quality estimation models using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and multivariate analysis has been accelerated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool in the pharmaceutical industry. Although linear regression methods such as partial least squares (PLS) are widely used, they cannot always achieve high estimation accuracy because physical and chemical properties of a measuring object have a complex effect on NIR spectra. In this research, locally weighted PLS (LW-PLS) which utilizes a newly defined similarity between samples is proposed to estimate active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content in granules for tableting. In addition, a statistical wavelength selection method which quantifies the effect of API content and other factors on NIR spectra is proposed. LW-PLS and the proposed wavelength selection method were applied to real process data provided by Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., and the estimation accuracy was improved by 38.6% in root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) compared to the conventional PLS using wavelengths selected on the basis of variable importance on the projection (VIP). The results clearly show that the proposed calibration modeling technique is useful for API content estimation and is superior to the conventional one. PMID:22001843

  12. Quantitative determination of residual active pharmaceutical ingredients and intermediates on equipment surfaces by ion mobility spectrometry.

    Qin, C; Granger, A; Papov, V; McCaffrey, J; Norwood, D L

    2010-01-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is an analytical technique that separates ions based on their gas phase mobility at atmospheric pressure. Since gas phase ion mobility is a function of the shape and structure of the ion, this technique has the potential to provide unique specificity and selectivity. Furthermore, IMS is very sensitive (subnanogram detection limits for many small molecules), and a single analysis is typically completed within 1 min. In principle, these features of IMS should make it an ideal choice for use in cleaning verification analysis of pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment. This report describes the successful development and validation of three different equipment cleaning verification methods using IMS. The methods were developed for a specific intermediate (Compound A) in the synthetic route for a drug substance as well as for final drug substances (active pharmaceutical ingredients Compounds B and C). The cleaning verification methods were validated with respect to specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, stability, and limit-of-quantitation. In all cases, the limits-of-quantitation were determined to be at the nanogram or sub-nanogram level. Both swab and rinse samples collected from the equipment surfaces were successfully analyzed and manufacturing equipment down-time was significantly minimized due to the reduction in cleaning verification analysis time (for example, the total analysis time for more than 30 samples using IMS was reduced to less than 2h). PMID:19758781

  13. Determination of Four Active Ingredients in Vc Yinqiao Tablets by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection

    L(U),Jin; WANG,Qing-Jiang; CHENG,Xi; LIU,Hai-Yan; HE,Pin-Gang; FANG,Yu-Zhi

    2006-01-01

    A simple, reliable and reproducible method, based on capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection (CZE-AD), has been developed for simultaneous determination of four active ingredients in Vc Yinqiao tablets including paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. A carbon-disk electrode was used as working electrode and 0.95 V (versus SCE) was selected as detection potential. The optimal conditions of CZE experiment were 30 mmol·L-1 borate solution (pH 9.5) as running buffer, 14 kV as separation voltage and 8 s (14 kV) as electro-kinetic sampling time. Under the selected optimum conditions, paracetamol, vitamin C, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid could be perfectly separated within 22 min, and their detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 5 × 10-7 to 1×10-6 mol·L-1. This proposed method demonstrated good reproducibility with relative standard deviations of less than 3% for both migration time and peak current (n=7). The utility of this method was demonstrated by monitoring a kind of compound medicine named Vc Yinqiao tablets and the assay results were satisfactory.

  14. Terahertz study on porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient of pharmaceutical tablets.

    Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Tweneboah, Samuel Nana A; Ervasti, Tuomas; Axel Zeitler, J; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) technique has been used to ascertain the change in the optical properties, as a function of changing porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), of training sets of pharmaceutical tablets. Four training sets of pharmaceutical tablets were compressed with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) excipient and indomethacin API by varying either the porosity, height, and API mass fraction or all three tablet parameters. It was observed, as far as we know, for the first time, that the THz time-domain and frequency-domain effective refractive index, as well as, the frequency-domain effective absorption coefficient both show linear correlations with the porosity and API mass fraction for training sets of real pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that, the observed linear correlations can be useful in basic research and quality inspection of pharmaceutical tablets. Additionally, we propose a novel optical strain parameter, based on THz measurement, which yields information on the conventional strain parameter of a tablet as well as on the change of fill fraction of solid material during compression of porous pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that the THz measurement and proposed method of data analysis, in addition to providing an efficient tool for basic research of porous media, can serve as one of the novel quality by design (QbD) implementation techniques to predict critical quality attributes (CQA) such as porosity, API mass fraction and strain of flat-faced pharmaceutical tablets before production. PMID:27288937

  15. Direct analysis of palladium in active pharmaceutical ingredients by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Rosolina, Samuel M; Chambers, James Q; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2016-03-31

    Anodic stripping voltammetry, a classical electroanalytical method has been optimized to analyze trace Pd(II) in active pharmaceutical ingredient matrices. The electroanalytical approach with an unmodified glassy carbon electrode was performed in both aqueous and 95% DMSO/5% water (95/5 DMSO/H2O) solutions, without pretreatment such as acid digestion or dry ashing to remove the organics. Limits of detection (LODs) in the presence of caffeine and ketoprofen were determined to be 11 and 9.6 μg g(-1), with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 5.7% and 2.3%, respectively. This method is simple, highly reproducible, sensitive, and robust. The instrumentation has the potential to be portable and the obviation of sample pretreatment makes it an ideal approach for determining lost catalytic metals in pharmaceutical-related industries. Furthermore, the simultaneous detection of Pd(II) with Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the low μg L(-1) range indicates that this system is capable of simultaneous multi-analyte analysis in a variety of matrices. PMID:26965326

  16. Development of a solvate as an active pharmaceutical ingredient: Developability, crystallisation and isolation challenges

    Douillet, Julien; Stevenson, Neil; Lee, Mei; Mallet, Franck; Ward, Richard; Aspin, Peter; Dennehy, Daniel Robert; Camus, Laure

    2012-03-01

    The preclinical development of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) begins with the selection of a solid state form. A solvate may be selected for development if it is sufficiently stable and if the solvent quantity administered to the patient is lower than the tolerated potential daily exposure (PDE). The selection and process development of a solvate is presented here. The initial crystallisation process gave poor control over the particle size distribution (PSD) and inclusion of additional crystallisation solvent in the crystal lattice. These two API attributes were controlled using micronised seeds and optimising the crystallisation conditions. After filtration, slurry washing with a second solvent was used to replace the high boiling point crystallisation solvent to improve the drying efficiency. The slurry washing was modelled and studied in the laboratory to control the level of unbound crystallisation solvent in the API. The API desolvation during slurry washing was studied by considering thermodynamics, by construction of the ternary phase diagram, and kinetics aspects. This work provides useful approaches and considerations to assess the risks specific to the controlled production of a solvate that are rarely presented in the literature.

  17. Study of Active Ingredients in Black Soybean Sprouts and Their Safety in Cosmetic Use

    Yinmao Dong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Active ingredients in different lengths of black soybean sprouts were extracted with water. Concentrations of the main proteins and polysaccharides were determined by the Forint phenol assay and phenol-sulfuric acid assay, respectively. Anti-oxidizing capacities of the extracts were measured in vitro using the DPPH scavenging test and whitening capacity was measured in vitro using the tyrosinase inhibition test. The effects of the bean sprout extracts on human skin fibroblasts damnified by H2O2 were studied using an MTT colorimetric assay. The safety of the extracts was determined using the red blood cell (RBC test, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM assay and human patch test. Results show that DPPH radical scavenging rates at different shoot lengths were all greater than 95%, while the tyrosinase inhibition capacity of the extracts reached 98%. Hemolysis rate in all extracts were lower than 10%, below the 20% regulatory limit for the RBC test. No signs of allergic reactions were observed in the human patch tests. The optimum extract was obtained from bean sprouts grown to 0.5 cm. Extracts of black bean sprouts are safe and can be used as additives in anti-aging and whitening cosmetic products.

  18. Core-Shell Composite Hydrogels for Controlled Nanocrystal Formation and Release of Hydrophobic Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Badruddoza, Abu Zayed Md; Godfrin, P Douglas; Myerson, Allan S; Trout, Bernhardt L; Doyle, Patrick S

    2016-08-01

    Although roughly 40% of pharmaceuticals being developed are poorly water soluble, this class of drugs lacks a formulation strategy capable of producing high loads, fast dissolution kinetics, and low energy input. In this work, a novel bottom-up approach is developed for producing and formulating nanocrystals of poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using core-shell composite hydrogel beads. Organic phase nanoemulsion droplets stabilized by polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and containing a model hydrophobic API (fenofibrate) are embedded in the alginate hydrogel matrix and subsequently act as crystallization reactors. Controlled evaporation of this composite material produces core-shell structured alginate-PVA hydrogels with drug nanocrystals (500-650 nm) embedded within the core. Adjustable loading of API nanocrystals up to 83% by weight is achieved with dissolution (of 80% of the drug) occurring in as little as 30 min. A quantitative model is also developed and experimentally validated that the drug release patterns of the fenofibrate nanocrystals can be modulated by controlling the thickness of the PVA shell and drug loading. Thus, these composite materials offer a "designer" drug delivery system. Overall, our approach enables a novel means of simultaneous controlled crystallization and formulation of hydrophobic drugs that circumvents energy intensive top-down processes in traditional manufacturing. PMID:27249402

  19. Co-crystallization: An approach to improve the performance characteristics of active pharmaceutical ingredients

    Jignasa Ketan Savjani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-crystal chemistry has recently attracted supramolecular scientists. Co-crystals are comprising of hydrogen boding assembly between different molecules. Many issues related to performance characteristics of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API can be resolved using co-crystallization approach. Proper understanding of crystal structure of an API is required for successful formation of co-crystals with the selected co-former. This review article focus on explanation about co-crystals, intellectual property rights, their advantages and limitations. Co-crystallization can be achieved using different methods like co-grinding slurry based, solvent evaporation method, etc. Methods of co-crystallization are simple and increase the purity of the final product. Co-crystallization can be applied to the drugs prescribed in combination therapy. Stoichiometric composition of different drugs used in combination therapy can be co-crystallize to form one solid state form. Physicochemical properties of APIs such as solubility and stability can be improved using co-crystallization approach. With due regards co-crystallization should be used with caution because of some issues during manufacturing of final product.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of hederacoside C, an active ingredient in AG NPP709, in rats.

    Kim, Ju Myung; Yoon, Ji Na; Jung, Ji Won; Choi, Hye Duck; Shin, Young June; Han, Chang Kyun; Lee, Hye Suk; Kang, Hee Eun

    2013-11-01

    1. Hederacoside C (HDC) is one of the active ingredients in Hedera helix leaf extract (Ivy Ex.) and AG NPP709, a new botanical drug to treat acute respiratory infection and chronic inflammatory bronchitis. However, information regarding its pharmacokinetic properties remains limited. 2. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics of HDC in rats after intravenous administration of HDC (3, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg) and after oral administration of HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709 (equivalent to 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg HDC). 3. Linear pharmacokinetics of HDC were identified upon its intravenous administration at doses of 3-25 mg/kg. Intravenous administration of HDC results in relatively slow clearance (1.46-2.08 mL/min/kg) and a small volume of distribution at steady state (138-222 mL/kg), while oral administration results in a low absolute oral bioavailability (F) of 0.118-0.250%. The extremely low F of HDC may be due to poor absorption of HDC from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and/or its decomposition therein. 4. The oral pharmacokinetics of HDC did not differ significantly among pure HDC, Ivy Ex., and AG NPP709. PMID:23607546

  1. Adsorption chromatography to purify Spacer disaccharide of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient of QuimiHib vaccine

    In this paper we study the conditions of adsorption chromatography on Silica gel 60 for purification of Spacer disaccharide a component of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) of QuimiHib vaccine. For that, we made a scale down on an analytical scale that represented at 1.8% of industrial process, indicating reproducibility between two procedures in terms of packing efficiency, purity and recovery. Dynamic binding capacity of the resin Silicagel 60 by the DSE was roughly 125±0.2 mg /mL, 3.4 times the base process. The elution profile obtained, showed the possibility of collecting a unique fraction at range 195±2 and 260±2 minutes, if it is maintained a proper packing of the chromatography resin determined by asymmetry factor from 0.8 to 1.2, which ensures a recovery of 58.9±4.5% and high purity analyzed by Thin Layer Chromatography. Adjusting the adsorption conditions increases the productivity of chromatographic operation up to 3.5 fold, indicating that it is feasible in economic terms

  2. Consequences of New Approach to Chemical Stability Tests to Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients.

    Jamrógiewicz, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    There is a great need of broaden look on stability tests of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in comparison with current requirements contained in pharmacopeia. By usage of many modern analytical methods the conception of monitoring the changes of APIs during initial stage of their exposure to harmful factors has been developed. New knowledge must be acquired in terms of identification of each degradation products, especially volatile ones. Further research as toxicology prediction during in silico studies of determined and identified degradation products is necessary. In silico methods are known as computational toxicology or computer-assisted technologies which are used for predicting toxicology of pharmaceutical substances such as impurities or degradation products. This is a specialized software and databases intended to calculate probability of genotoxicity or mutagenicity of these substances through a chemical structure-based screening process and algorithm specific to a given software program. Applying of new analytical approach is proposed as the usage of PAT tools, XRD, HS-SPME GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS for stability testing. Described improvements should be taken into account in case of each drug existing already in the market as well as being implemented as new one. PMID:26955356

  3. Acaricidal activity against Panonychus citri and active ingredient of the mangrove plant Cerbera manghas.

    Deng, Yecheng; Yongmei Liao; Li, Jingjing; Yang, Linlin; Zhong, Hui; Zhou, Qiuyan; Qing, Zhen

    2014-09-01

    Cerbera manghas is a mangrove plant which possesses comprehensive biological activities. A great deal of research has been undertaken on the chemical constituents and medical functions of C. manghas; insecticidal and antifungal activities have also been reported, but the acaricidal activity has not been studied. In our study, the acaricidal activity and active substances of C. manghas were investigated using a spray method, which showed that the methanol extracts of the fruit, twigs and leaves exhibited contact activity against female adults of Panonychus citri, with LC50 values at 24 h of 3.39 g L(-1), 4.09 g L(-1) and 4.11 g L(-1), respectively. An acaricidal compound was isolated from C. manghas by an activity-guided isolation method, and identified as (-)-17β-neriifolin, which is a cardiac glycoside. (-)-17β-Neriifolin revealed high contact activity against female adults, nymphae, larvae and eggs of P. citri, with LC50 values at 24 h of 0.28 g L(-1), 0.29 g L(-1), 0.28 g L(-1) and 1.45 g L(-1), respectively. PMID:25918788

  4. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    Bai, Meng-Yi, E-mail: mybai@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China); Adjunct appointment to the Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Tz-Chong, E-mail: tcchou@ms5.hinet.net [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan, ROC (China); Tsai, Jie-Chang; Yang, Hui-Ching [Graduate Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2013-01-01

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 {+-} 0.69 {mu}m. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 {mu}L of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  5. Active ingredient-containing chitosan/polycaprolactone nonwoven mats: Characterizations and their functional assays

    This study demonstrates a facile method developed to generate a chitosan/polycaprolactone (CS/PCL) nonwoven mat. All nonwoven mats are composed of microfibers with an average diameter of 2.51 ± 0.69 μm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data indicate that positively charged nitrogen was generated on the surface of the mats after undergoing CS coating. By using a non-contacting electrostatic voltmeter, we determined that the nonwoven mats exhibited a positive potential and the charge density of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat was in proportion to the thickness of the CS overlayer. Moreover, platelet aggregation and anti-bacterial ability were enhanced by the CS/PCL nonwoven mat as compared to that of PCL nonwoven mat alone. The enhancements of the CS/PCL nonwoven mat on platelet aggregation are further promoted by incorporating a 1 mM calcium ion in its CS overlayer. We also find that the addition of tea tree oil in the CS overlayer significantly inhibited LPS-induced nitrite formation in Raw 264.7 macrophages. In conclusion, our CS/PCL nonwoven mat possesses pharmacological effects including an increase of platelet aggregation, anti-bacterial, anti-adhesive, and anti-inflammatory activities. The performance of this CS/PCL nonwoven mat can be further promoted by incorporating active compounds to exert therapeutic effects in wound healing. Highlights: ► We develop a facile method to generate active ingredient-containing CS/PCLNM. ► Our CS/PCLNM possesses superior mechanical strength, compared to CS-blended PCL nanofibers. ► We prove that our prepared CS/PCLNM possesses several pharmacological properties ► The functional performances of CS/PCLNM are enhanced by incorporation of active compounds. ► Incorporation of 1 mM of calcium ions or 100 μL of TTO into the CS overlayer of CS/PCLNM is the optimum dose.

  6. Chitin-Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A Multifunctional Carrier to Deliver Anti-Aging Active Ingredients through the Skin

    Pierfrancesco Morganti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA, showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Zetasizer, while encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the entrapped ingredients were controlled by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Safeness was evidenced on fibroblasts and keratinocytes culture viability by the MTT (Methylthiazol assay; anti-aging activity was evaluated in vitro measuring antioxidant capacity, anti-collagenase activity, and metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory release; efficacy was shown in vivo by a double-blind vehicle-controlled study for 60 days on 60 women affected by photo-aging. In addition, the CN-HA nanoparticles have shown interesting possibility to be used as active ingredients, for designing and making advanced medication by the electrospinning technology, as well as to produce transparent films for food packaging, by the casting method, and can be used also in their dry form as tissues or films without adding preservatives. These unusual CN-HA nanoparticles obtained from the use of raw materials of waste origin may offer an unprecedented occasion for making innovative products, ameliorating the quality of life, reducing pollution and safeguarding the environment’s integrity.

  7. Microwave-assisted digestion using nitric acid for heavy metals and sulfated ash testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    Pluhácek, T; Hanzal, J; Hendrych, J; Milde, D

    2016-04-01

    The monitoring of inorganic impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients plays a crucial role in the quality control of the pharmaceutical production. The heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash methods employing microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid have been demonstrated as alternatives to inappropriate compendial methods recommended in United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) and European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.). The recoveries using the heavy metals method ranged between 89% and 122% for nearly all USP and Ph. Eur. restricted elements as well as the recoveries of sodium sulfate spikes were around 100% in all tested matrices. The proposed microwave-assisted digestion method allowed simultaneous decomposition of 15 different active pharmaceutical ingredients with sample weigh up to 1 g. The heavy metals and sulfated ash procedures were successfully applied to the determination of heavy metals and residue on ignition/sulfated ash content in mycophenolate mofetil, nicergoline and silymarin. PMID:27209695

  8. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes – A process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren;

    2012-01-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermenta......A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and...... for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API...... exchange steps, and thus constitutes a good example of how the design framework can be useful to efficiently design novel or already existing API manufacturing processes taking advantage of continuous processes....

  9. 78 FR 23558 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    2013-04-19

    ... February 29, 2012 (77 FR 12295)(FRL- 9332-8), EPA announced receipt of two other applications to register... identifying information (subject heading, Federal Register date and page number). ii. Follow directions. The... Ingredient: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. galleriae strain SDS-502 at 85.0%. Proposed Use: For control...

  10. 21 CFR 341.85 - Labeling of permitted combinations of active ingredients.

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredients in part 356 of this chapter should be used. (5) For permitted combinations containing camphor... camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus oil identified in § 341.40(u). The labeling states the warnings for... containing camphor, menthol, and eucalyptus oil identified in § 341.40(u). The labeling states the...

  11. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gernaey, Krist V

    2012-01-01

    Continuous hydrolysis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient intermediate, and subsequent liquid–liquid (L-L) separation of the resulting organic and aqueous phases, have been achieved using a simple PTFE tube reactor connected to a miniscale hydrophobic membrane separator. An alkoxide product, obtained in continuous mode by a Grignard reaction in THF, reacted with acidic water to produce partially miscible organic and aqueous phases containing Mg salts. Despite the partial THF–water miscibil...

  12. Antifeedant Activity and Active Ingredients Against Plutella xylostella from Momordica charantia Leaves

    2008-01-01

    With the bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extracts from the leaves of Momordica charantia, we obtained two most active compounds against the feeding of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella larvae. The antifeedant activity of momordicine Ⅰ and momordicine Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of Plutella xylostella were tested using leaf discs of cabbage in the laboratory. The results showed that momordicin Ⅰ and momordiein Ⅱ had significant antifeedant activity on the larvae of P. Xylostella, and momordicin Ⅱ was more active than momordicin Ⅰ. The concentrations for 50% antifeedant effects (AFC50) of momordicin Ⅱ against the second and the third instar larvae of P. Xylostella were 76.69 and 116.24 μg mL-1, whereas that of momordicin Ⅰ was 144.08 and 168.42 μg mL-1, respectively. In addition, momordicin Ⅰ and momordicin Ⅱ had significant inhibitive effect on the rate of weight gain and survival of P. Xylostella larvae.

  13. Active ingredients in sunscreens act as topical penetration enhancers for the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Agricultural workers are encouraged to use sunscreen to decrease the risk of UV-related skin cancer. Our previous studies have shown certain commercial sunscreens to be penetration enhancers. The focus of this project is to determine whether active ingredients in sunscreen formulations (i.e., the UV absorbing components and insect repellants for the sunscreen/bug repellant combinations) also act as dermal penetration enhancers for herbicides in vitro. The total percentages of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) penetrating through hairless mouse skin in 24 h ranged from 54.9 ± 4.7 for the no sunscreen control to 86.9 ± 2.5 for padimate-o. Of the active ingredients tested (7.5% octyl methoxycinnamate, 7% octocrylene, 0.6% oxybenzone, 5% homosalate, 5% octyl salicylate, 8% padimate-o, 10% sulisobenzone, and 9.5% and 19% N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]), all but octocrylene led to a significant increase in total 2,4-D penetration as compared to the control (P 3H2O penetration across mouse skin, indicating physical damage to the stratum corneum. Additional studies demonstrated that the penetration enhancement seen across hairless mouse skin also occurred with human skin. Thus, the active ingredients of sunscreen formulations enhance dermal penetration of the moderately lipophilic herbicide 2,4-D

  14. Content of Selected Minerals and Active Ingredients in Teas Containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos.

    Rusinek-Prystupa, Elżbieta; Marzec, Zbigniew; Sembratowicz, Iwona; Samolińska, Wioletta; Kiczorowska, Bożena; Kwiecień, Małgorzata

    2016-07-01

    The study aimed to determine the content of selected elements: sodium, potassium, copper, zinc, iron, manganese and active ingredients such as phenolic acids and tannins in teas containing Yerba Mate and Rooibos cultivated in various areas. The study material comprised six samples of Yerba Mate teas and of Rooibos teas, both tea bags and leaves, purchased in Puławy and online via Allegro. In total, 24 samples were tested. Yerba Mate was particularly abundant in Mn and Fe. The richest source of these elements was Yerba Mate Yer-Vita (2261.3 mg · kg(-1) d.m.) and (691.6 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). The highest content of zinc was determined in Yerba Mate Amanda with lime (106.0 mg · kg(-1) d.m.), while copper was most abundant in Yerba Mate Big-Active cocoa and vanilla (14.05 mg · kg(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos, the content of sodium was several times higher than in Yerba Mate. A clear difference was observed in the content of minerals in dry weight of the examined products, which could be a result of both the taxonomic distinctness and the origin of the raw material. Leaf teas turned out to be a better source of tannins; on the other hand, tea bags contained substantially more phenolic acids. The richest source of phenolic acids was Yer-Vita in bags (1.8 %), and the highest amount of tannins was recorded in the leaf tea Green Goucho caramel and dark chocolate (9.04 g · 100 g(-1) d.m.). In Rooibos products, the highest content of phenolic acids was recorded in tea bags (Savannah with honey and vanilla 0.96 %), and tannins in (Lord Nelson with strawberry and cream 7.99 g · 100 g (-1) d.m.). PMID:26686675

  15. Anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma lucidum: active ingredients and pathways

    Chi H.J. Kao; Jesuthasan, Amalini C; Karen S. Bishop; Marcus P. Glucina; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTGanoderma lucidum, commonly referred to as Lingzhi, has been used in Asia for health promotion for centuries. The anti-cancer effects of G. lucidum have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, the observed anti-cancer activities of Ganoderma have prompted its usage by cancer patients alongside chemotherapy.The main two bioactive components of G. lucidum can be broadly grouped into triterpenes and polysaccharides. Despite triterpenes and polysaccharides bei...

  16. Special active ingredients and beauty-food%特种活性物及营养美容

    韩建英

    2012-01-01

    介绍了特种活性物及营养美容的理念。消费者目前对营养美容理念的兴趣越来越浓厚,使得营养美容产品逐渐成为市场营销的热点。配方师也热衷于将营养品与美容相结合,开发出营养美容产品,并将营养美容对身体的益处都囊括在产品配方中。介绍了几种最具潜力的营养美容成分以及特种活性物成分,并对其前景进行了展望。%The idea of special active ingredients and beauty-food are introduced briefly. Nowadays, the consumers become more and more interested in the concept of beauty-food, and the beauty-food product category has gradually become the hot topic of marketing. Formulators are eager to combine the benefits of nutrition with beauty in the formulations, and develop the beauty-food products. Some diet beauty ingredients with the greatest potential are introduced, and the future of the special active ingredients and the beauty-food are prospected here.

  17. Active pharmaceutical ingredients for antiretroviral treatment in low- and middle-income countries: a survey.

    Fortunak, Joseph M; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Kulkarni, Amol A; King, Christopher L; Ellison, Tiffany; Miranda, Leandro S M

    2014-01-01

    Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are the molecular entities that exert the therapeutic effects of medicines. This article provides an overview of the major APIs that are entered into antiretroviral therapy (ART), outlines how APIs are manufactured, and examines the regulatory and cost frameworks of manufacturing ART APIs used in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Almost all APIs for ART are prepared by chemical synthesis. Roughly 15 APIs account for essentially all of the ARTs used in LMICs. Nearly all of the ART APIs purchased through the Global Fund for AIDS, TB and Malaria (GFATM) or the United States President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) are produced by generic companies. API costs are very important because they are the largest contribution to the overall cost of ART. Efficient API production requires substantial investment in chemical manufacturing technologies and the ready availability of raw materials and energy at competitive prices. Generic API production is practiced in only a limited number of countries; the API market for ART is dominated by Indian companies. The quality of these APIs is ensured by manufacturing under good manufacturing practice (GMP), including process validation, testing against previously established specifications and the demonstration of clinical bioequivalence. The investment and personnel costs of a quality management system for GMP contribute significantly to the cost of API production. Chinese companies are the major suppliers for many advanced intermediates in API production. Improved chemistry of manufacturing, economies of scale and optimization of procurement have enabled drastic cost reductions for many ART APIs. The available capacity for global production of quality-assured APIs is likely adequate to meet forecasted demand for 2015. The increased use of ART for paediatric treatment, for second-line and salvage therapy, and the introduction of new APIs and combinations are important factors

  18. Anti-inflammaging and antiglycation activity of a novel botanical ingredient from African biodiversity (Centevita™

    Maramaldi G

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Giada Maramaldi,1 Stefano Togni,1 Federico Franceschi,1 Elian Lati21Indena SpA, Milan, Italy; 2Laboratoire BIO-EC, Longjumeau, FrancePurpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the topical efficacy of a new purified extract from Madagascar, Gotu Kola (Centella asiatica [L.] Urban, both on human explants and on human volunteers, in relation to skin wrinkling and skin protection against ultraviolet light exposure. The extract, with a peculiar content of biologically active molecules, was investigated as a novel anti-inflammaging and antiglycation agent. Its typical terpenes, known as collagen synthesis promoters, represent at least 45% of the extract. It also contains a polyphenolic fraction cooperating to the observed properties.Methods: C. asiatica purified extract was assayed on human skin explants maintained alive, and several parameters were evaluated. Among the most relevant, the thymine dimerization was evaluated by immunostaining. Malondialdehyde formation was evaluated as free-radical scavenging marker by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The expression of interleukin-1a was observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as well. The product was further evaluated as an antiglycation agent, being glycation quantified by the advanced glycation product carboxymethyl lysine. C. asiatica purified extract was also evaluated as an antiwrinkling agent in a single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Formulated in a simple oil-in-water emulsion, the extent of wrinkling was assessed by skin replicas, skin firmness, skin elasticity, and collagen density measurements.Results: C. asiatica purified extract could protect DNA from ultraviolet light-induced damage, decreasing the thymine photodimerization by over 28% (P<0.05. A reduced (26%, P<0.01 expression of interleukin-1α was also observed, supporting its anti-inflammatory potential. C. asiatica purified extract showed in vitro a total inhibition of carboxymethyl lysine formation induced by the

  19. Bioactive Ingredients and Antioxidant Activity of Austrian Wine and Grape Juice

    Pérez Navarro, Roser

    2008-01-01

    Wine has already been investigated for its potential nutritional quality, such as high amount of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds, well-known as natural antioxidants, are reported due their radical scavenging capacity. In the present work, the bioactive ingredients of nine Austrian wines (four red wines: Zweigelt, Blaufränkisch, Syrah and Cuvée; two white wines: Pinot Blanc and Chardonnay; one rosé Blaufränkisch; and two grape juice: red and white) have been quantified an...

  20. Preventive effects of Flos Perariae (Gehua water extract and its active ingredient puerarin in rodent alcoholism models

    Wang Yuqiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radix Puerariae is used in Chinese medicine to treat alcohol addiction and intoxication. The present study investigates the effects of Flos puerariae lobatae water extract (FPE and its active ingredient puerarin on alcoholism using rodent models. Methods Alcoholic animals were given FPE or puerarin by oral intubation prior or after alcohol treatment. The loss of righting reflex (LORR assay was used to evaluate sedative/hypnotic effects. Changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAAR subunits induced by alcohol treatment in hippocampus were measured with western blot. In alcoholic mice, body weight gain was monitored throughout the experiments. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH levels in liver were measured. Results FPE and puerarin pretreatment significantly prolonged the time of LORR induced by diazepam in acute alcoholic rat. Puerarin increased expression of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 subunit and decreased expression of alpha4 subunit. In chronic alcoholic mice, puerarin pretreatment significantly increased body weight and liver ADH activity in a dose-dependent manner. Puerarin pretreatment, but not post-treatment, can reverse the changes of gama-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunit expression and increase ADH activity in alcoholism models. Conclusion The present study demonstrates that FPE and its active ingredient puerarin have preventive effects on alcoholism related disorders.

  1. Validation of a method by gas chromatography for the determination of fatty acids that comprise the active ingredient D-004

    D-004 is a new active ingredient obtained from the Cuban royal palm (Roystonea regia) fruits. This substance is mainly composed by a mixture of saturated and unsaturated free fatty acids, from 8 to 18 carbon atoms, and has shown to be effective in experimental model of prostate hyperplasia. A capillary gas chromatographic method for the determination of the fatty acids in D-004 was developed and validated. The acids were analyzed as methyl ester derivatives, which were obtained by reaction with 10 % acetyl chloride in methanol and separated in a BPX-5 wide-bore column using tridecanoic acid as internal standard. The specificity study showed no interferences regarding the determination of this mixture, once the samples were submitted to stress conditions. Determination of the total fatty acid content was linear (r > 0.999; CVs of the response factors and of the slopes lower than 5 and 2 %, respectively) and without bias in the studied concentration range, from 50 to 150 % of the nominal mass. In the accuracy study, over the range 80 to 120 % of the nominal fatty acid concentration, high recoveries (100.4 to 100.8 %) were reached. Good results were obtained in the repeatability and intermediate precision studies (CV < 2%), proving that the method is precise. These results support that this method is properly validated, being appropriate for the quality control and stability studies of this active ingredient

  2. Evaluation of Essential Oil and its Three Main Active Ingredients of Chinese Chenopodium Ambrosioides (Family: Chenopodiaceae Against Blattella Germanica

    Wei Xiang Zhu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of essential oil of Chenopodium ambrosioides flowering aerial parts and its three mainactive ingredients was evaluated against Blattella germanica male adults.Methods: Composition of essential oil was determined by GC-MS. Topical application bioassay was used to evaluatecontact toxicity of essential oil and three main components. Fumigant toxicity of essential oil and its main components was measured using a sealed space method.Results: Twenty-two components were identified in the essential oil and the main components were (Z-ascaridole(29.7%, isoascaridole (13.0%, ρ-cymene (12.7% and piperitone (5.0%. The essential oil and (Z-ascaridole,isoascaridole and -cymene possessed fumigant toxicity against male German cockroaches with LC50 values of 4.13,0.55, 2.07 and 6.92 mg/L air, respectively. Topical application bioassay showed that all the three compounds weretoxic to male German cockroaches and (Z-ascaridole was the strongest with a LD50 value of 22.02 g/adult while the crude oil with a LD50 value of 67.46 g/adult.Conclusion: The essential oil from Chinese C. ambrosioides and its three main active ingredients may be explored as natural potential insecticides in the control of cockroaches.

  3. The use of green tea extract in cosmetic formulations: not only an antioxidant active ingredient.

    Gianeti, Mirela D; Mercurio, Daiane G; Campos, Patricia M B G Maia

    2013-01-01

    Green tea (GT) extracts contain polyphenols, known to be effective free radical scavengers, and other ingredients that could also provide benefits to the skin. This is a report on clinical studies using objective, noninvasive methods to evaluate the effects of cosmetic formulations containing GT. Experimental formulations were supplemented or not (vehicle) with 6% Camellia sinensis glycolic leaf extracts (GT). These formulations were applied to the forearm skin of 24 volunteers, and their effects were evaluated before and after 2 hours, 15 and 30 days according to the following parameters: stratum corneum water content, transepidermal water loss, skin viscoelastic-to-elastic ratio (Uv/Ue), and microrelief. The volunteers were instructed not to apply any formulation in an area of the forearm (control area). Experimental formulations (GT) increased skin moisture in the long-term study, indicating that GT has a prolonged moisturizing effect. The Uv/Ue was significantly enhanced after 30 days of topical application of the experimental formulation when compared with vehicle and control. After 15-30 days, skin microrelief was significantly improved due to a reduction in skin roughness. The results suggest that GT-containing cosmetic formulations have pronounced moisturizing effects and improve skin microrelief. PMID:23742288

  4. On the direct characterization and quantification of active ingredients in commercial solid drugs using PIXE, PIGE and TOF-SIMS techniques

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like LC-MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, . . .), elemental IBA like PIXE and PIGE techniques, using small tandem accelerator of 1 - 2 MV, can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparations. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick Target PIXE and PIGE technique for rapid and accurate quantification of low concentration of different fluorinated, sulfured and chlorinated active ingredients in several commercial anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-inflammatory commercial drugs. In this work we will demonstrate the ability of PIXE and PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of Celecoxib and Atorvastatin active ingredients contained in several solid commercial drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed. In addition, the Time of Flight Secondary Ion Emission using multicharged Ar ions with ∼ 10 MeV energy, delivered by a 4 MV Vander Graaf single stage accelerator, was used for structural and chemical analysis for some cases of binary commercial drugs containing two different active ingredients. The aspect of sample preparation and the role of excipient will be highlighted and discussed. (author)

  5. Direct detection and identification of active pharmaceutical ingredients in intact tablets by helium plasma ionization (HePI) mass spectrometry

    Athula B. Attygalle; Freneil B. Jariwala; Julius Pavlov; Zhihua Yang; Jason A. Mahr; Mabel Oviedo

    2014-01-01

    A simple modification converts an electrospray ion source to an ambient-pressure helium plasma ionization source without the need of additional expensive hardware. Peaks for active ingredients were observed in the spectra recorded from intact pharmaceutical tablets placed in this source. A flow of heated nitrogen was used to thermally desorb analytes to gas phase. The desorption temperatures were sometimes as low as 50 1C. For example, negative-ion spectra recorded from an aspirin tablet showed peaks at m/z 137 (salicylate anion) and 179 (acetylsalicylate anion) which were absent in the background spectra. The overall ion intensity increased as the desorption gas temperature was elevated. Within the same acquisition experiment, both positive- and negative-ion signals for acetaminophen were recorded from volatiles emanating from Tylenol tablets by switching the polarity of the capillary back and forth. Moreover, different preparations of acetaminophen tablets could be distinguished by their ion-intensity thermograms.

  6. An Introduction to the Prequalification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients%WHO原料药预认证项目简介

    杜雯君; 梁毅

    2012-01-01

    Search the WHO website for guidanc e and technical documents for Prequalification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients,and translate and compile the program.Conclusion:Learn the relevant regulations of international organization and requirements of technology in depth,to form the system of drug management which meets the international standards,only in this way can we enter the international market as soon as possible.%检索WHO药品预认证项目技术指南,翻译并整理原料药预认证项目的工作程序。结论:只有深入学习国际组织相关法规和技术要求、建立符合国际标准的监管体系,才能有效推进我国制药产品早日进入国际市场。

  7. Optimization of HS-GC-FID-MS Method for Residual Solvent Profiling in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using DoE.

    Poceva Panovska, Ana; Acevska, Jelena; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Brezovska, Katerina; Petkovska, Rumenka; Dimitrovska, Aneta

    2016-02-01

    Within this research, a headspace (HS) gas chromatography-flame ionization detector-mass spectrometry method was developed for profiling of residual solvents (RSs) in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Design of experiment was used for optimization of sample preparation, as well as for robustness testing of the method. HS equilibration temperature and dilution medium were detected as parameters with greater impact on the sensitivity, compared with the time used for equilibration of the samples. Regardless of the sample solubility, the use of water for sample preparation was found to be crucial for better sensitivity. The use of a well-designed strategy for method development and robustness testing, additional level of identification confidence, as well as use of internal standard provided a strong and reliable analytical tool for API fingerprinting, thus enabling the authentication of the substance based on the RS profile. PMID:26290585

  8. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Chu, Qingcui; Wu, Ting; Fu, Liang; Ye, Jiannong

    2005-03-01

    A high-performance capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrochemical detection (ED) method was developed for the determination of the pharmacologically active ingredients in Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. and its extract phytopharmaceuticals in this work. Under the optimum conditions, nine analytes, baicalein, naringenin, scopoletin, kaempferol, apigenin, scutellarin, luteolin, caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid were separated within 24 min in a borax buffer (pH 8.7). Notably, excellent linearity was obtained over two orders of magnitude with detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 1.0 x 10(-7) g/mL to 5.6 x 10(-7) g/mL for all nine analytes. This method was successfully used in the analysis of E. breviscapus (Vant.) Hand-Mazz. and its phytopharmaceuticals with a relatively simple extraction procedure, and the assay results were satisfactory. PMID:15740914

  9. On the novel action of melanolysis by a leaf extract of Aloe vera and its active ingredient aloin, potent skin depigmenting agents.

    Ali, Sharique A; Galgut, Jyoti M; Choudhary, Ram K

    2012-05-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of an Aloe vera leaf extract, along with its standard active ingredient aloin, on the isolated tail melanophores of Bufo melanostictus tadpoles, which are a type of disguised smooth muscle cells offering excellent in vitro opportunities for studying the effects of pharmacological and pharmaceutical agents. It was found that the leaf extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin induced powerful, dose-dependent, physiologically significant melanin aggregating effects in the isolated tail melanophores of B. melanostictus similar to those of adrenaline per se. These preliminary findings clearly demonstrate that the extract of A. vera and its active ingredient aloin cause melanin aggregation leading to skin lightening via alpha adrenergic receptor stimulation. The present study opens new vistas for the use of A. vera regarding its clinical application as a new nontoxic melanolytic agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation. PMID:22495441

  10. Studies on free-radical scavenging activity and identification of active ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita collected from Sur, Sultanate of Oman

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain; Aqeela Said Hamed AL Orimi; Afaf Mohammed Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami; Jamal Nasser Al-Sabahi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine free radical scavenging activity and active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita). Methods: The dried powder leaves of M. piperita were extracted with polar organic solvent by Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract and its fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol crude extracts were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from M. piperita was carried out by DPPH method with minor modification, and the active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of M. piperita were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results: Qualitative analysis of different polarities crude extracts by GC-MS found different types of active organic compounds. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts were found to be in the order of chloroform extract> butanol extract> ethyl acetate extract> hexane extract>methanol extract. Majority identified compounds in the plant crude extracts by GC-MS were biologically active. Conclusions: Therefore, the isolation, purification, identification and characterization of bioactive compounds from various crude extracts of M. piperita might have ecological significance.

  11. Studies on free-radical scavenging activity and identification of active ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita collected from Sur, Sultanate of Oman

    Mohammad Amzad Hossain

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine free radical scavenging activity and active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of Mentha piperita (M. piperita. Methods: The dried powder leaves of M. piperita were extracted with polar organic solvent by Soxhlet extractor. The crude extract and its fractions of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol crude extracts were prepared. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from M. piperita was carried out by DPPH method with minor modification, and the active chemical ingredients of different plant crude extracts of M. piperita were analyzed by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS. Results: Qualitative analysis of different polarities crude extracts by GC-MS found different types of active organic compounds. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts were found to be in the order of chloroform extract> butanol extract> ethyl acetate extract> hexane extract> methanol extract. Majority identified compounds in the plant crude extracts by GC-MS were biologically active. Conclusions: Therefore, the isolation, purification, identification and characterization of bioactive compounds from various crude extracts of M. piperita might have ecological significance.

  12. [Effect of different nitrogen forms and ratio on growth and active ingredient content of Platycodon grandiflorum].

    Duan, Yun-jing; Wang, Kang-cai; Niu, Ling-hui; Li, Ke; Su, Yun-yun

    2015-10-01

    To providing evidence about nitrogen adequate application of Platycodon grandiflorum, the pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen on the growth, physiological metabolism and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The activity of NR, GS and SOD, POD and CAT were determined. And the nitrate and ammonium nitrogen content, photosynthetic characteristics, active components of P. grandiflorum were determined. The results showed that the nitrate nitrogen content and P. biomass reached its maximum value, when NH4(+)-N/NO3(-) -N was 0: 100, the activity of NR. The activity of GS was the highest at the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25:75 and ammonium nitrogen content was the highest at 75:25. The activity of SOD decreased and then increased with the increasing of NO3(-) -N. At the NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75, the activity of CAT had its maximum value and the content of MDA had the minimum value. At the same time, the content of platycodon D was the highest at this treatment. The studies had shown that different nitrogen forms and ratio had a significant effect on the characteristics of photosynthetic physiology, nitrogen metabolism and resistance adjustment, growth and the quality of P. grandiflorum. The NH4(+) -N/NO3(-) -N ratio of 25: 75 was a suitable ratio of nitrogen forms for the growth of P. Grandiflorum and accumulating the content of platycodon D. PMID:26975097

  13. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activities of ingredients of Curcuma phaeocaulis Val.

    Hou, Yan; Lu, Chuan-Li; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. is used in Chinese Pharmacopoeia as health food and folk medicine for removing blood stasis, alleviating pain and tumor therapy. This research was aimed to explore and compare three main bioactivities including anti-oxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities between the ethanol extract of C. Phaeocaulis and its fractions using different in vitro models. Firstly, 70 % ethanol was used to extract C. Phaeocaulis, and then the crude extract was re-extracted, resulting in petroleum ether (EZ-PE), ethyl acetate (EZ-EA), and water fractions (EZ-W), respectively, and then a series of index was detected. Results showed that all the extracts had medium DPPH radical scavenging activity when the concentration was 200 μg/ml and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was in a concentration-dependent manner. The extracts except ethanol extract of C. Phaeocaulis had almost no cytotoxicity to the survival of RAW264.7 cell when the concentration reached 80 μg/ml, and all of them had medium inhibitory effect on nitrite release. Extracts of C. Phaeocaulis had medium intensity antitumor activity, EZ-PE and EZ-EA fractions significantly inhibited the proliferation of four tumor cells (SMMC-7721 cell lines, HepG-2 cell lines, A549 cell lines and Hela cell lines). C. Phaeocaulis had antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, which did not carry out centralized phenomenon when re-extracted. EZ-PE and EZ-EA were active antitumor sites of C. Phaeocaulis. PMID:26648822

  14. Active ingredients fatty acids as antibacterial agent from the brown algae Padina pavonica and Hormophysa triquetra

    Gihan Ahmed El Shoubaky; Essam Abd El Rahman Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the fatty acids content in the brown algae Padina pavonica (P. pavonica) and Hormophysa triquetra (H. triquetra) and evaluate their potential antimicrobial activity as bioactive compounds.Methods:The fatty acid compositions of the examined species were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity of crude and fatty acids was assessed using the agar plug technique.Results:The fatty acids profile ranged from C8:0 to C20:4. Concentration of saturated fatty acids in P. pavonica was in the order palmitic>myristic>stearic whereas concentration of the unsaturated fatty acids was oleic acid>palmitoleic>9-cis-hexadecenoic>linoleic acid>α-linolenic>arachidonic> elaidic acid. H. triquetra contained high concentration of saturated fatty acids than those of P. pavonica which was in the order as follows: palmitic>margaric>myristic>nonadecyclic>stearic>caprylic>tridecylic>pentadecylic>lauric while the unsaturated fatty acids consisted of oleic>nonadecenoic>non adecadienoate>margaroleic. The crude and fatty acid extracts of H. triquetra and P. pavonica were biologically active on the tested pathogens. H.triquetra exhibited a larger inhibitory zone than P. pavonica. Conclusions: The brown algae P. pavonica and H. triquetra have high efficient amount of fatty acids and showed strong antibacterial activity, especially H. triquetra.

  15. Efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) against Aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-Cyclodextrin as the active ingredient

    We tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against Aedes albopictus in suburban Haifa, Israel. Two three-acre gardens with high numbers of Ae. albopictus were chosen for perimeter spray treatment with ATSB ...

  16. Intrinsic Motivation and Engagement as "Active Ingredients" in Garden-Based Education: Examining Models and Measures Derived from Self-Determination Theory

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Chi, Una

    2012-01-01

    Building on self-determination theory, this study presents a model of intrinsic motivation and engagement as "active ingredients" in garden-based education. The model was used to create reliable and valid measures of key constructs, and to guide the empirical exploration of motivational processes in garden-based learning. Teacher- and…

  17. Attractive toxic sugar baits: Control of mosquitoes with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran and potential impacts on non-target organisms in Morocco

    We evaluated the efficacy of ATSB in the laboratory and the field with the low risk active ingredient dinotefuran against mosquito populations. Assays indicated that dinotefuran in solution with the sugar baits was ingested and resulted in high mortality of female Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes a...

  18. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor activities of ingredients of Curcuma phaeocaulis Val

    Hou, Yan; Lu, Chuan-li; Zeng, Qiao-Hui; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Curcuma phaeocaulis Val. is used in Chinese Pharmacopoeia as health food and folk medicine for removing blood stasis, alleviating pain and tumor therapy. This research was aimed to explore and compare three main bioactivities including anti-oxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities between the ethanol extract of C. Phaeocaulis and its fractions using different in vitro models. Firstly, 70 % ethanol was used to extract C. Phaeocaulis, and then the crude extract was re-extracted, resu...

  19. Interactions and incompatibilities of pharmaceutical excipients with active pharmaceutical ingredients: a comprehensive review.

    Bharate, Sonali S.; Bharate, Sandip B.; Bajaj, Amrita N.

    2010-01-01

    Studies of active drug/excipient compatibility represent an important phase in the preformulation stage of the development of all dosage forms. The potential physical and chemical interactions between drugs and excipients can affect the chemical nature, the stability and bioavailability of drugs and, consequently, their therapeutic efficacy and safety. The present review covers the literaturereports of interaction and incompatibilities of commonly used pharmaceutical excipients with different...

  20. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF WATER EXTRACTS OF TRIKATU CHURNA AND ITS INDIVIDUAL INGREDIENT

    P.R. Malvankar* and M. M. Abhyankar

    2012-01-01

    Trikatu churna is one of the traditional poly herbal preparation, formed by mixing equal quantities of three important spicy materials such as Piper longum L. (Piperaceae), Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) and Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). Trikatu is also known as “ Three Bitters”. The trikatu preparation was reported to contain alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, steroids, lignin & saponins. The objective of study is to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of trikatu churna & i...

  1. The possibilities of using essential oils as an active ingredients or preservatives in cosmetic products

    Adaszy?ska, Michalina; Swarcewicz, Maria

    2011-01-01

    An important trend in the development of the cosmetics industry is searching for new biologically active, natural compounds and preservative systems, which will find application in the natural cosmetics production. Natural cosmetics are of considerable interest nowadays and essential oils could be employed in theirs production. The huge potential of essential oils indicates the possibility of applying them in practice because of theirs antibacterial, antiseptic, antifungal, and antioxidant...

  2. MICROSPONGE DELIVERY SYSTEM (MDS: A UNIQUE TECHNOLOGY FOR DELIVERY OF ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

    Saurabh Kumar et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In pharmaceutical industry, various controlled released dosage forms like solid formulation, semi solid formulation and topical preparation have more importance due to efficacy and patient compliance. Topical preparations have some disadvantages like unpleasant odour, greasiness and skin irritation and fail to reach the systemic circulation in sufficient amounts in few cases. This problem is overcome by microsponge delivery system. Microsponges are tiny sponge like spherical and highly porous micro-sized particles with a unique ability for entrapping actives. They offers programmable release active drug into the skin in order to reduce systemic exposure and minimize local cutaneous reactions to active. These MDS’s are closely related to microspheres, and used in the sun screens, creams, ointments, over- the-counter (OTC skin care preparations, recently used in oral drug as well as biopharmaceuticals (peptides, proteins and DNA-based therapeutics drug delivery. The present review introduces microsponge technology along with its synthesis, characterization, programmable parameters and release mechanism of MDS.

  3. Diffusion of active ingredients in textiles: a three step multiscale model

    Goessens, Tineke; Malengier, Benny; Li, Pei; De Staelen, Rob H.

    2013-01-01

    Most practical textile models are based on a two scale approach: a one-dimensional fiber model and a fabric model. No meso-level is used in between, i.e. the yarn scale is neglected in this setup. For dense textile substrates this seems appropriate as the yarns connect everywhere, but for loose fabrics or scrims this approach cannot be kept. Specifically when one is interested in tracking an active component released by the fibers, the yarn level plays an important role. This is because the satu...

  4. Piperine, an active ingredient of black pepper attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice

    Evan Prince Sabina; Annie Deborah Harris Souriyan; Deborah Jackline; Mahaboob Khan Rasool

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of piperine against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Methods: In mice, hepatotoxicity was induced by a single dose of acetaminophen (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.). Piperine (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) and standard drug silymarin (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) were given to mice, 30 min after the single injection of acetaminophen. After 4 h, the mice were decapitated. Activities of liver marker enzymes [(aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP)] and inflammatory mediator tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were estimated in serum, while lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-s-transferase and glutathione) were determined in liver homogenate of control and experimental mice. Results: Acetaminophen induction (900 mg/kg b.w. i.p.) significantly increased the levels of liver marker enzymes, TNF-α, and lipid peroxidation, and caused the depletion of antioxidant status. Piperine and silymarin treatment to acetaminophen challenged mice resulted in decreased liver marker enzymes activity, TNF-α and lipid peroxidation levels with increase in antioxidant status. Conclusions: The results clearly demonstrate that piperine shows promising hepatoprotective effect as comparable to standard drug silymarin.

  5. Determination of antioxidant activity in herbal ingredients for foods using new methods of chemical analysis

    Katalina Muñoz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new procedure has been used to separate and quantify the free radical-scavenging activity of individual compounds 18 samples of Thymus vulgaris and 12 samples of Rosmarinus officinalis (both used as natural food preservatives, based on the combination of HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography and postchromatographic DPPH● radical derivatization. The compounds thymol and rosmarinic acid in T. vulgaris and R. officinalis, respectively, were identified by comparisons of their Rf values and UV spectra to standards analyzed under identical analytical conditions, while the quantitative data were calculated from their calibration curves. We found that not only that the biomass yield but also the metabolite content in herbs, depend on the ecotype (genetics and on the agro ecological conditions. The effect of the ambient on the metabolite content is extremely significant and also on their antioxidant activity (One-way ANOVA with Newman-Keuls Multiple Comparison post test was performed using GraphPad Prism version 4.00 for Windows, GraphPad Software. This work pretends to demonstrate the great importance of using new technologies for the selection of the best materials used as natural food preservatives.

  6. Characterizing Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Binding to Human Serum Albumin by Spin-Labeling and EPR Spectroscopy.

    Hauenschild, Till; Reichenwallner, Jörg; Enkelmann, Volker; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2016-08-26

    Drug binding to human serum albumin (HSA) has been characterized by a spin-labeling and continuous-wave (CW) EPR spectroscopic approach. Specifically, the contribution of functional groups (FGs) in a compound on its albumin-binding capabilities is quantitatively described. Molecules from different drug classes are labeled with EPR-active nitroxide radicals (spin-labeled pharmaceuticals (SLPs)) and in a screening approach CW-EPR spectroscopy is used to investigate HSA binding under physiological conditions and at varying ratios of SLP to protein. Spectral simulations of the CW-EPR spectra allow extraction of association constants (KA ) and the maximum number (n) of binding sites per protein. By comparison of data from 23 SLPs, the mechanisms of drug-protein association and the impact of chemical modifications at individual positions on drug uptake can be rationalized. Furthermore, new drug modifications with predictable protein binding tendency may be envisaged. PMID:27460503

  7. Application of the KeratinoSens™ assay for assessing the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical active ingredients and formulations.

    Settivari, Raja S; Gehen, Sean C; Amado, Ricardo Acosta; Visconti, Nicolo R; Boverhof, Darrell R; Carney, Edward W

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of skin sensitization potential is an important component of the safety evaluation process for agrochemical products. Recently, non-animal approaches including the KeratinoSens™ assay have been developed for predicting skin sensitization potential. Assessing the utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for use with multi-component mixtures such as agrochemical formulations has not been previously evaluated and is a significant need. This study was undertaken to evaluate the KeratinoSens™ assay prediction potential for agrochemical formulations. The assay was conducted for 8 agrochemical active ingredients (AIs) including 3 sensitizers (acetochlor, meptyldinocap, triclopyr), 5 non-sensitizers (aminopyralid, clopyralid, florasulam, methoxyfenozide, oxyfluorfen) and 10 formulations for which in vivo sensitization data were available. The KeratinoSens™ correctly predicted the sensitization potential of all the AIs. For agrochemical formulations it was necessary to modify the standard assay procedure whereby the formulation was assumed to have a common molecular weight. The resultant approach correctly predicted the sensitization potential for 3 of 4 sensitizing formulations and all 6 non-sensitizing formulations when compared to in vivo data. Only the meptyldinocap-containing formulation was misclassified, as a result of high cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate the promising utility of the KeratinoSens™ assay for evaluating the skin sensitization potential of agrochemical AIs and formulations. PMID:25981449

  8. New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    Ani Barbulova

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.

  9. Supramolecular hydrogen-bonding patterns of co-crystals containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) phloroglucinol and N-heterocycles.

    Cvetkovski, Aleksandar; Bertolasi, Valerio; Ferretti, Valeria

    2016-06-01

    The active pharmaceutical ingredient phloroglucinol (PHL) has been taken as an illustrative molecule to explore the intermolecular interactions which can be established with other molecular entities to build PHL pharmaceutical co-crystals. The crystal structures of five newly synthesized co-crystals are reported, where PHL is crystallized with N-heterocycles, namely 2-hydroxy-6-methylpyridine (1), 2,4-dimethyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (2), 4-phenylpyridine (3), 2-hydroxypyridine (4) and 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine (5). The structural characteristics of these co-crystals, as far as the hydrogen-bonding networks and the crystalline architectures are concerned, are strongly dependent on the chemical features of the coformer molecules, as well as on their size and shape. A detailed analysis of the intermolecular interactions established in all the PHL co-crystals of known structures has allowed the recognition of some regularities in the packing modes that can be useful in the design of new supramolecular adducts forming predictable structural motifs. PMID:27240764

  10. Direct Determination of ECD in ECD Kit: A Solid Sample Quantitation Method for Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in Drug Product

    Ming-Yu Chao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD is an essential imaging agent used in evaluating the regional cerebral blood flow in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. Determination of active pharmaceutical ingredient, that is, L-Cysteine, N, N′-1,2-ethanediylbis-, diethyl ester, dihydrochloride (ECD in ECD Kit is a relevant requirement for the pharmaceutical quality control in processes of mass fabrication. We here presented a direct solid sample determination method of ECD in ECD Kit without sample dissolution to avoid the rapid degradation of ECD. An elemental analyzer equipped with a nondispersive infrared detector and a calibration curve of coal standard was used for the quantitation of sulfur in ECD Kit. No significant matrix effect was found. The peak area of coal standard against the amount of sulfur was linear over the range of 0.03–0.10 mg, with a correlation coefficient ( of 0.9993. Method validation parameters were achieved to demonstrate the potential of this method.

  11. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-08-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2-4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods.

  12. A Tape Method for Fast Characterization and Identification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in the 2-18 THz Spectral Range

    Kissi, Eric Ofosu; Bawuah, Prince; Silfsten, Pertti; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2015-03-01

    In order to find counterfeit drugs quickly and reliably, we have developed `tape method' a transmission spectroscopic terahertz (THz) measurement technique and compared it with a standard attenuated total reflection (ATR) THz spectroscopic measurement. We used well-known training samples, which include commercial paracetamol and aspirin tablets to check the validity of these two measurement techniques. In this study, the spectral features of some active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), such as aspirin and paracetamol are characterized for identification purpose. This work covers a wide THz spectral range namely, 2-18 THz. This proposed simple but novel technique, the tape method, was used for characterizing API and identifying their presence in their dosage forms. By comparing the spectra of the APIs to their dosage forms (powder samples), all distinct fingerprints present in the APIs are also present in their respective dosage forms. The positions of the spectral features obtained with the ATR techniques were akin to that obtained from the tape method. The ATR and the tape method therefore, complement each other. The presence of distinct fingerprints in this spectral range has highlighted the possibility of developing fast THz sensors for the screening of pharmaceuticals. It is worth noting that, the ATR method is applicable to flat faced tablets whereas the tape method is suitable for powders in general (e.g. curved surface tablets that require milling before measurement). Finally, we have demonstrated that ATR techniques can be used to screen counterfeit antimalarial tablets.

  13. Quantitation of active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients in powder blends using designed multivariate calibration models by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Li, Weiyong; Worosila, Gregory D

    2005-05-13

    This research note demonstrates the simultaneous quantitation of a pharmaceutical active ingredient and three excipients in a simulated powder blend containing acetaminophen, Prosolv and Crospovidone. An experimental design approach was used in generating a 5-level (%, w/w) calibration sample set that included 125 samples. The samples were prepared by weighing suitable amount of powders into separate 20-mL scintillation vials and were mixed manually. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used in calibration model development. The models generated accurate results for quantitation of Crospovidone (at 5%, w/w) and magnesium stearate (at 0.5%, w/w). Further testing of the models demonstrated that the 2-level models were as effective as the 5-level ones, which reduced the calibration sample number to 50. The models had a small bias for quantitation of acetaminophen (at 30%, w/w) and Prosolv (at 64.5%, w/w) in the blend. The implication of the bias is discussed. PMID:15848006

  14. A Hybrid MPC-PID Control System Design for the Continuous Purification and Processing of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients

    Maitraye Sen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a hybrid MPC (model predictive control-PID (proportional-integral-derivative control system has been designed for the continuous purification and processing framework of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. The specific unit operations associated with the purification and processing of API have been developed from first-principles and connected in a continuous framework in the form of a flowsheet model. These integrated unit operations are highly interactive along with the presence of process delays. Therefore, a hybrid MPC-PID is a promising alternative to achieve the desired control loop performance as mandated by the regulatory authorities. The integrated flowsheet model has been simulated in gPROMSTM (Process System Enterprise, London, UK. This flowsheet model has been linearized in order to design the control scheme. The ability to track the set point and reject disturbances has been evaluated. A comparative study between the performance of the hybrid MPC-PID and a PID-only control scheme has been presented. The results show that an enhanced control loop performance can be obtained under the hybrid control scheme and demonstrate that such a scheme has high potential in improving the efficiency of pharmaceutical manufacturing operations.

  15. Elemental characterization of marijuana (cannabis sativa) as a stride in the isolation of its active ingredients

    Seed, stem and leaves samples of Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) popularly called Indian Hemp available in northern Nigeria were analyzed for trace amounts of Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Na, Br, La, Yb, Cr, Fe, Zn, and Ba using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis. Sample sizes of roughly 300mg irradiated for five minutes (short irradiation) and six hours (long irradiation), with decay times of 7 minutes, 10,000 minutes and 26,000 minutes for short, medium and long-lived nuclides respectively. Counting times for ten minutes (short-lived nuclides), 1,800 minutes (medium-lived nuclides) and 36,000 minutes (long-lived nuclides) yielded detection limits between 0.05 - 0.09μg/g. For comparative study, refined tobacco produced by a tobacco company operating in northern Nigeria were characterized together with the marijuana-which is usually smoked raw with leaves stem and seed packed together. The results obtained shows that both the refined tobacco and the raw marijuana have high c oncentration of Ca, Mg, Al and Mn and low values of Na, Br and La. However, marijuana was found to have heavy elements in abundance compared to the refined tobacco, with Zn = 20.5 μg/g and Cr = 14.3μg/g recording the highest values among the heavy elements detected. This is a sharp difference between the two since the values of heavy elements obtained for the refined tobacco are even below detection limits. Quality Control and Quality Assurance was tested using certified reference material obtained from NIST (Tomato Leaves).

  16. Khaya grandifoliola C.DC: a potential source of active ingredients against hepatitis C virus in vitro.

    Galani, Borris Rosnay Tietcheu; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Sass, Gabriele; Njayou, Frédéric Nico; Loscher, Christine; Mkounga, Pierre; Deloison, Gaspard; Brodin, Priscille; Rouillé, Yves; Tiegs, Gisa; Séron, Karin; Moundipa, Paul Fewou

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we examined the antiviral properties of Khaya grandifoliola C.DC (Meliaceae) on the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle in vitro and identified some of the chemical constituents contained in the fraction with the most antiviral activity. Dried bark powder was extracted by maceration in a methylene chloride/methanol (MCM) system (50:50; v/v) and separated on silica gel by flash chromatography. Infection and replication rates in Huh-7 cells were investigated by luciferase reporter assay and indirect immunofluorescence assay using subgenomic replicons, HCV pseudotyped particles, and cell-culture-derived HCV (HCVcc), respectively. Cell viability was assessed by MTT assay, and cellular gene expression was analysed by qRT-PCR. The chemical composition of the fraction with the most antiviral activity was analysed by coupled gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Five fractions of different polarities (F0-F100) were obtained from the MCM extract. One fraction (KgF25) showed the strongest antiviral effect on LucUbiNeoET replicons at nontoxic concentrations. Tested at 100 µg/mL, KgF25 had a high inhibitory effect on HCV replication, comparable to that of 0.01 µM daclatasvir or 1 µM telaprevir. This fraction also inhibited HCVcc infection by mostly targeting the entry step. KgF25 inhibited HCV entry in a pan-genotypic manner by directly inactivating free viral particles. Its antiviral effects were mediated by the transcriptional upregulation of the haem oxygenase-1 gene and interferon antiviral response. Three constituents, namely, benzene, 1,1'-(oxydiethylidene)bis (1), carbamic acid, (4-methylphenyl)-, 1-phenyl (2), and 6-phenyl, 4-(1'-oxyethylphenyl) hexene (3), were identified from the active fraction KgF25 by GC-MS. Khaya grandifoliola contains ingredients capable of acting on different steps of the HCV life cycle. PMID:26843184

  17. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOSES OF NITROGEN (N) APPLICATION ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC MATERIAL INGREDIENT OF SORREL (RUMEX ACETOSA L.)

    Adiloğlu, Sevinç; Açıkgöz, Funda Eryılmaz; Dağlıoğlu, Figen; Barut Gök, Sıla; Altan, Deniz Damla

    2015-01-01

    In this study, The effect of different doses of nitrogen (N) application on the antioxidant activity and phenolic material ingredient of sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) are investigated. In the test, four various doses of nitrogen NH4NO3 fertilizer have been applied to the plants. As a result, it has been determined that the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of Sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) have parallels with the increase in the application of nitrogen.

  18. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract and some of its active ingredients as potential emulsion stabilizers: a new approach to the formation of multiple (W/O/W) emulsion.

    Cizauskaite, Ugne; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakštas, Valdas; Marksiene, Ruta; Jonaitiene, Laimute; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives are under intense investigations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate how the rosemary extract and some of its active ingredients [rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA)] affect technological characteristics of multiple emulsion. Formulation has been prepared by adding investigated solutions (10%) in water/oil/water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion consisting of different lipophilic phases: olive oil and liquid paraffin, with 0.5% emulsifying agent (complex of sodium polyacrylate and polysorbate 20) under constant stirring with mechanical stirrer at room temperature. The emulsion parameters were evaluated using centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test, microscopical and texture analyses. Rosemary's triterpenic saponins UA and OA showed the highest emulsion stabilizing properties: they decreased CI from 3.26% to 10.23% (p rosemary active ingredients is not surfactant-like. Even though emulsifier itself at low concentration intends to form directly the multiple emulsion, the obtained results indicate that rosemary extract containing active ingredients does not only serve as functional cosmetic agent due to a number of biological activities, but also offer potential advantages as a stabilizer and an enhancer of W/O/W emulsions formation for dermopharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:26000558

  19. Measurement of low amounts of amorphous content in hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients with dynamic organic vapor sorption.

    Müller, Thorsten; Schiewe, Jörg; Smal, Rüdiger; Weiler, Claudius; Wolkenhauer, Markus; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    Today, a variety of devices for dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is available and many different formulations for optimized deposition in the lung are developed. However, during the production of powder inhalers, processing steps may induce changes to both, the carrier and active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). It is well known that standard pharmaceutical operations may lead to structural changes, crystal defects and amorphous regions. Especially operations such as milling, blending and even sieving generate these effects. These disorders may induce re-crystallization and particle size changes post-production which have a huge influence on drug delivery and product stability. In this study, pilot tests with a polar solvent (water) and hydrophilic drug (Salbutamol sulfate) were performed to receive a first impression on further possible implementation of hydrophobic samples with organic solvents. Thereafter, a reliable method for the accurate detection of low amounts of amorphous content is described up to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.5% for a hydrophobic model API (Ciclesonide). The organic vapor sorption method which is a gravimetric method quantifies exactly these low amounts of amorphous content in the hydrophobic powder once the suitable solvent (isopropanol), the correct p/p0 value (0.1) and the exact temperature (25°C) have been found. Afterward it was possible to quantitate low amorphous amounts in jet-milled powders (0.5-17.0%). In summary, the data of the study led to a clearer understanding in what quantity amorphous parts were generated in single production steps and how variable these parts behave to fully crystalline material. Nevertheless it showed how difficult it was to re-crystallize hydrophobic material with water vapor over a short period. For the individual samples it was possible to determine the single humidity at which the material starts to re-crystallize, the behavior against different nonpolar solvents and the calculation of the

  20. Characterization of solid polymer dispersions of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 19F MAS NMR and factor analysis

    Urbanova, Martina; Brus, Jiri; Sedenkova, Ivana; Policianova, Olivia; Kobera, Libor

    In this contribution the ability of 19F MAS NMR spectroscopy to probe structural variability of poorly water-soluble drugs formulated as solid dispersions in polymer matrices is discussed. The application potentiality of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a moderately sized active pharmaceutical ingredient (API, Atorvastatin) exhibiting extensive polymorphism. In this respect, a range of model systems with the API incorporated in the matrix of polvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was prepared. The extent of mixing of both components was determined by T1(1H) and T1ρ(1H) relaxation experiments, and it was found that the API forms nanosized domains. Subsequently it was found out that the polymer matrix induces two kinds of changes in 19F MAS NMR spectra. At first, this is a high-frequency shift reaching 2-3 ppm which is independent on molecular structure of the API and which results from the long-range polarization of the electron cloud around 19F nucleus induced by electrostatic fields of the polymer matrix. At second, this is broadening of the signals and formation of shoulders reflecting changes in molecular arrangement of the API. To avoid misleading in the interpretation of the recorded 19F MAS NMR spectra, because both the contributions act simultaneously, we applied chemometric approach based on multivariate analysis. It is demonstrated that factor analysis of the recorded spectra can separate both these spectral contributions, and the subtle structural differences in the molecular arrangement of the API in the nanosized domains can be traced. In this way 19F MAS NMR spectra of both pure APIs and APIs in solid dispersions can be directly compared. The proposed strategy thus provides a powerful tool for the analysis of new formulations of fluorinated pharmaceutical substances in polymer matrices.

  1. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    Marguí, Eva, E-mail: eva.margui@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Queralt, Ignasi, E-mail: iqueralt@ictja.csic.es [Laboratory of X-ray Analytical Applications, Institute of Earth Sciences “Jaume Almera”, CSIC, Solé Sabarís s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Hidalgo, Manuela, E-mail: manuela.hidalgo@udg.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements.

  2. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2–4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods. - Highlights: • A TXRF method for PGM catalyst residue determination in API samples is presented. • Analysis can be performed using 10 μL of the internal standardized dissolved API. • The method is rapid, simple and suitable according to the USP requirements

  3. Thermal, mechanical and drug release characteristics of an acrylic film using active pharmaceutical ingredient as non-traditional plasticizer.

    Wiranidchapong, Chutima; Kieongarm, Waraporn; Managit, Chittima; Phrompittayarat, Watoo

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate thermal and mechanical properties as well as in vitro drug release of Eudragit® RL (ERL) film using chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as either active pharmaceutical ingredient or non-traditional plasticizer. Differential scanning calorimeter was used to measure the glass transition temperature (Tg) of 0-100% w/w CPM in ERL physical mixture. Instron testing machine was used to investigate Young's modulus, tensile stress and tensile strain (%) of ERL film containing 20-60% w/w CPM. Finally, a Franz diffusion cell was used to study drug release from ERL films obtained from four formulations, i.e. CRHP0/0, CRHP0/5, CRHP2/0 and CRHP2/5. The Tg of ERL was decreased when the weight percentage of CPM increased. The reduction of the Tg could be described by Kwei equation, indicating the interaction between CPM and ERL. Modulus and tensile stress decreased whereas tensile strain (%) increased when weight percentage of CPM increased. The change of mechanical properties was associated with the reduction of the Tg when weight percentage of CPM increased. ERL films obtained from four formulations could release the drug in no less than 10 h. Cumulative amount of drug release per unit area of ERL film containing only CPM (CRHP0/0) was lower than those obtained from the formulations containing traditional plasticizer (CRHP0/5), surfactant (CRHP2/0) or both of them (CRHP2/5). The increase of drug release was a result of the increase of drug permeability through ERL film and drug solubility based on traditional plasticizer and surfactant, respectively. PMID:26133082

  4. Impact of alternative solid state forms and specific surface area of high-dose, hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability.

    Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of using different solid state forms and specific surface area (TBET) of active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability and dissolution performance, the mono- and dihydrated crystalline forms of chlorothiazide sodium and chlorothiazide potassium (CTZK) salts were compared to alternative anhydrous and amorphous forms, as well as to amorphous microparticles of chlorothiazide sodium and potassium which were produced by spray drying and had a large specific surface area. The tablet hardness and tensile strength, porosity, and specific surface area of single-component, convex tablets prepared at different compression pressures were characterized. Results confirmed the complexity of the compressibility mechanisms. In general it may be concluded that factors such as solid-state form (crystalline vs amorphous), type of hydration (presence of interstitial molecules of water, dehydrates), or specific surface area of the material have a direct impact on the tabletability of the powder. It was observed that, for powders of the same solid state form, those with a larger specific surface area compacted well, and better than powders of a lower surface area, even at relatively low compression pressures. Compacts prepared at lower compression pressures from high surface area porous microparticles presented the shortest times to dissolve, when compared with compacts made of equivalent materials, which had to be compressed at higher compression pressures in order to obtain satisfactory compacts. Therefore, materials composed of nanoparticulate microparticles (NPMPs) may be considered as suitable for direct compaction and possibly for inclusion in tablet formulations as bulking agents, APIs, carriers, or binders due to their good compactibility performance. PMID:23961942

  5. A target analogue imprinted polymer for the recognition of antiplatelet active ingredients in Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae by LC/MS/MS.

    Huang, Meixia; Pang, Wensheng; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Siding; Hu, Juan

    2012-01-25

    The purpose of this study was to prepare a propyl gallate (PrG) molecular imprinted polymer as a cartridge stuffing material to isolate antiplatelet active ingredients. A macroporous polymer was synthesized utilizing ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as the crosslinking agent, PrG as the template molecule and 4-vinylpyridine (4-Vpy) as the functional monomer. Subsequently, PrG was removed by washing with methanol-glacial acetic acid (9:1, v/v). The molecular imprinted polymer recognized an active ingredient, protocatechuic acid, from a crude extract of the Chinese herbal medicine, Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae (Danshen), using an on-line column switching solid phase extraction process. Pharmacological experiments showed that protocatechuic acid inhibits arachidonic acid (10 mg/kg) induced aggregation of rat platelets in vivo. This study provides an example of an application of separation-analysis technique for screening potentially bioactive compounds. PMID:21978827

  6. On the direct characterization and quantification of active ingredients in commercial solid drugs using PIXE, PIGE and ToF-SIMS techniques

    The quantification of the active ingredient (AI) in drugs is a crucial and important step in the drug quality control process. This is usually performed by using wet chemical techniques like HPLC, LC-MS/MS, UV spectrophotometry and other appropriate organic analytical methods. In the case of an active ingredient contains specific heteroatoms (F, S, Cl, Br, ...), elemental IBA technique can be explored for molecular quantification. IBA techniques permit the analysis of the sample under solid form, without any laborious sample preparation. This is an advantage when the number of sample is relatively large. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of the Thick target PIXE (TT-PIXE) and the TT-PIGE techniques for rapid and accurate quantification of celecoxib and atorvastatin in commercial solid drugs. The experimental aspects related to the quantification validity are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. 21 CFR 310.540 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach...

    2010-04-01

    ... offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. 310.540 Section 310.540 Food and Drugs FOOD... ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as stomach acidifiers. (a) Betaine hydrochloride, glutamic...-counter (OTC) drug products for use as stomach acidifiers. Because of the lack of adequate data...

  8. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method.

  9. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Buddenborg, Sarah K; Adema, Coen M.; Sullivan, John T.; Loker, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy–based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biolog...

  10. Influence of environmental factors on the contents of active ingredients and radical scavenging property of potentilla fruticosa in the main production areas of China

    Extracts from Potentilla fruticosa have been applied in traditional medicine and exhibited antioxidant property, but little has been known about the diversity of phytochemicals and properties on this species from different growing environment. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active ingredient contents and radical scavenging property of P. fruticosa from different production areas of China in order to discover a location could produce high-quality resources for pharmaceutical products. The contents of tannin, total flavonoids, and rutin were determined and varied within the range of 7.64 ± 0.43 ∼ 10.68 ± 0.67 percentage, 2.29 ± 0.34 ∼ 5.37 ± 0.36 percentage, and 0.19 ± 0.053 ∼ 0.79 ± 0.125 percentage, respectively. Radical scavenging property was quantified, with the IC /sub 50/ of 7.24 ± 0.423 to 17.23 ± 0.551 μ g mL-1. Principal component analysis, multiple linear stepwise regression analysis, and path analysis were conducted to further analysis the relationship between the variations of active ingredients and radical scavenging capacity and growth environment. The results showed dominant environmental factors for these variations were rapidly available nitrogen, rapidly available phosphorus, pH, July average temperature, and annual sunshine duration. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation was observed between pH, annual sunshine duration and active ingredients and radical scavenging property (p<0.05). Considering the high active ingredient contents and strong radical scavenging property, leaf extracts from P. fruticosa could become useful supplements for pharmaceutical products as a new antioxidant agent, and Huzhu Northern Mountain in Qinghai Province and E-mei Mountain in Sichuan Province were selected as favorable production locations. (author)

  11. Capillary-induced Homogenization of Matrix in Paper: A Powerful Approach for the Quantification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using Mass Spectrometry Imaging

    de Menezes, Maico; de Oliveira, Diogo Noin; Catharino, Rodrigo Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present a novel approach for the quantification of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using mass spectrometry imaging. This strategy uses a filter paper previously “eluted” with a MALDI matrix solution as a support for analyte application. Samples are submitted to mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and quantification through characteristic fingerprints is ultimately performed. Results for the content of rosuvastatin from a known formulation are comparable to those obtained with a validated HPLC method. PMID:27439589

  12. Homeopathy – what are the active ingredients? An exploratory study using the UK Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex interventions

    Weiss Marjorie; Thompson Trevor DB

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Research in homeopathy has traditionally addressed itself to defining the effectiveness of homeopathic potencies in comparison to placebo medication. There is now increasing awareness that the homeopathic consultation is in itself a therapeutic intervention working independently or synergistically with the prescribed remedy. Our objective was to identify and evalute potential "active ingredients" of the homeopathic approach as a whole, in a prospective formal case series, ...

  13. In vitro effects of buyang huanwu decoction and its ingredients on inhibiting the specific binding of 3H-platelet activating factor to its receptor in rabbits

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pharmacologic action of traditional Chinese medicine compound is the comprehensive effect of various ingredients, and the interactions of various ingredients are closely correlated with the final effect. In order to reveal the compatibility mechanism of buyang huanwu decoction (BHD)'s prescription in treating and preventing ischemic cerebrovascular disease, we need to explore the effect and relation of ingredients in prescription except for considering the effect of each ingredient on the whole prescription.OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of BHD and its ingredients in the prescription on the specific binding of 3H-platelet activating factor (PAF) to its receptor (PAFR)in rabbits in vitro, and to analyze the action of each ingredient in the prescription.DESIGN: A decomposed recipe study based on orthogonal test.SETTING: Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine.MATERIALS: Five healthy adult New Zealand rabbits of either gender were provided by the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese medicine. The prescription herbal pieces were purchased from Foshan Kangpu Pharmaceuticals Company and Jianmin Pharmaceuticals Company, and were appraised by Professor Yanchen Xu from College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 3H-PAF was supplied by Amersham Co.,Ltd.(Specific activity:6.475 TBq/mmol;batch number:200402); PAF standard by Biomol Co., Ltd.(batch number: P1318V).METHODS: This experiment was carried out in the Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between September and December 2004. ① The seven influencing factors were selected: such as Shenghuangqi , Dangguiwei, Chishao, Dilong, Taoren, Honghua, Chuanxiong. Each factor was divided into two levels, selected or not selected. The tests were arranged according to L8 (27) orthogonal test table. ②The specific binding of 3H-PAF to its receptors in rabbits was measured by

  14. 77 FR 55488 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Designation of Attorney in Fact

    2012-09-10

    ... SECURITY United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Agency Information Collection Activities: Designation of Attorney in Fact The Department of Homeland Security, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement... Budget. Comments should be addressed to OMB Desk Officer, for United States Immigration and...

  15. The simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures by isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Lau, O W; Chan, K; Lau, Y K; Wong, W C

    1989-01-01

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of active ingredients in cough-cold mixtures using isocratic reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography has been developed. It involves the use of an octadecylsilane column as the stationary phase with methanol, water, tetrahydrofuran, phosphoric acid mixtures as mobile phase including sodium dioctylsulphosuccinate as the ion-pair agent. The pH of the mobile phase was adjusted to 4.6 by means of phosphoric acid and ammonium hydroxide solutions. The proposed method involves the simple dilution of the samples with the mobile phase and the addition of metoclopramide hydrochloride as the internal standard. The active ingredients under investigation were chlorpheniramine, codeine, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, ethylmorphine, phenylephrine, phenylpropanolamine and pholcodine, which exist as various combinations in cough-cold mixtures. The optimum composition of the mobile phase and the optimum flow rate were determined and are reported. The method was applied to the determination of active ingredients in seven commercially available cough-cold mixtures. PMID:2577452

  16. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  17. "Natural" ingredients in cosmetic dermatology.

    Baumann, Leslie; Woolery-Lloyd, Heather; Friedman, Adam

    2009-06-01

    Recently, both clinical and bench research has begun to provide scientific validation for the use of certain botanical ingredients. Related findings regarding proposed biological mechanisms of action have translated into clinical practice. Botanical compounds for which dermatologic and cosmetic applications have emerged include: olive oil, chamomile, colloidal oatmeal, oat kernal extract, feverfew, acai berry, coffee berry, curcumin, green tea, pomegranate, licorice, paper mulberry, arbutin, and soy. Many of these botanical sources offer biologically active components that require further in vitro and in vivo investigation in order for us to properly educate ourselves, and our patients, regarding over-the-counter products based on these ingredients. PMID:19562883

  18. A survey of the syntheses of active pharmaceutical ingredients for antiretroviral drug combinations critical to access in emerging nations.

    Pinheiro, Eloan Dos Santos; Antunes, Octavio Augusto Ceva; Fortunak, Joseph M D

    2008-09-01

    irrelevant, except for "advanced salvage" drugs such as enfuvirtide. In resource-poor settings cost is a huge factor that limits drug access, resulting in high rates of new infection and subsequent mortality. IP coverage, where granted, can keep access prices for essential ARVs higher than would otherwise be the case. Large, innovator companies have made drugs available at prices very close to the cost of manufacturing for "lowest income" countries. Generic providers in India and elsewhere provide the largest supply of drugs for the developing world. The recent issuance of Voluntary and Compulsory Licenses (VLs, CLs) through the World Trade Organization's TRIP (Treaty Respecting Intellectual Property) provisions arguably contribute to bringing down access prices. The utilization of improved science, pooled purchasing and intelligent procurement practices all definitely contribute to access. This work surveys the production processes for several critical ARVs. These are discussed in terms of scale up, raw material/intermediates and active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) costs. In some cases new routes to APIs or critical intermediates are needed. Based on potential new chemistries, there are significant opportunities to reduce cost for a number of critical ARVs. PMID:18571246

  19. Hypoglycemic effects of clove (Syzygium aromaticum flower buds) on genetically diabetic KK-Ay mice and identification of the active ingredients.

    Kuroda, Minpei; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Ohtomo, Takayuki; Yamada, Junji; Nishiyama, Tozo; Mae, Tatsumasa; Kishida, Hideyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2012-04-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum flower buds) EtOH extract significantly suppressed an increase in blood glucose level in type 2 diabetic KK-A(y) mice. In-vitro evaluation showed the extract had human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ ligand-binding activity in a GAL4-PPAR-γ chimera assay. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOH extract resulted in the isolation of eight compounds, of which dehydrodieugenol (2) and dehydrodieugenol B (3) had potent PPAR-γ ligand-binding activities, whereas oleanolic acid (4), a major constituent in the EtOH extract, had moderate activity. Furthermore, 2 and 3 were shown to stimulate 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation through PPAR-γ activation. These results indicate that clove has potential as a functional food ingredient for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and that 2-4 mainly contribute to its hypoglycemic effects via PPAR-γ activation. PMID:21987283

  20. Active Ingredient Analysis of Tibet Cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum%西藏人工栽培灵芝活性成分分析

    饶恩铭; 刘涛; 次仁德吉; 宋博文

    2015-01-01

    In order to understand the main active ingredient in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum, this article collected the local cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum as the raw materials, used anthrone-sulfuric acid spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, pre-column derivatization RP-HPLC method to analyze the main active ingredient. The results showed that the contents of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, triterpenoids, amino acids in Tibet cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum were:1.199g/100g, 1.63%, 8.898g/100g. Compared with national coverage, the active ingredient of cultivated Ganoderma Lucidum is richer, and the acid and triterpenoids content is higher than that in other regions.%为了解西藏人工栽培灵芝的主要活性成分,采集当地栽培的灵芝为原材料,分别采用蒽酮-硫酸分光法、紫外分光光度法、柱前衍生化RP-HPLC方法,分析其主要活性成分。结果表明,西藏人工栽培的灵芝中灵芝多糖、三萜类、氨基酸含量依次为:1.199g/100g、1.63%、8.898g/100g,经与国内报道相比较,西藏人工灵芝活性成分比较丰富,氨基酸和三萜类含量高于其他区域。

  1. Homeopathy – what are the active ingredients? An exploratory study using the UK Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex interventions

    Weiss Marjorie

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in homeopathy has traditionally addressed itself to defining the effectiveness of homeopathic potencies in comparison to placebo medication. There is now increasing awareness that the homeopathic consultation is in itself a therapeutic intervention working independently or synergistically with the prescribed remedy. Our objective was to identify and evalute potential "active ingredients" of the homeopathic approach as a whole, in a prospective formal case series, which draws on actual consultation data, and is based on the MRC framework for the evaluation of complex interventions. Methods Following on from a theoretical review of how homeopathic care might mediate its effects, 18 patients were prospectively recruited to a case series based at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital. Patients, who lived with one of three index conditions, were interviewed before and after a five visit "package of care". All consultations were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Additional data, including generic and condition-specific questionnaires, artwork and "significant other" reports were collected. Textual data was subject to thematic analysis and triangulated with other sources. Results We judged that around one third of patients had experienced a major improvement in their health over the study period, a third had some improvement and a third had no improvement. Putative active ingredients included the patients' "openness to the mind-body connection", consultational empathy, in-depth enquiry into bodily complaints, disclosure, the remedy matching process and, potentially, the homeopathic remedies themselves. Conclusion This study has has identified, using primary consultation and other data, a range of factors that might account for the effectiveness of homeopathic care. Some of these, such as empathy, are non-specific. Others, such as the remedy matching process, are specific to homeopathy. These findings counsel against the use of

  2. Homeopathy – what are the active ingredients? An exploratory study using the UK Medical Research Council's framework for the evaluation of complex interventions

    Thompson, Trevor DB; Weiss, Marjorie

    2006-01-01

    Background Research in homeopathy has traditionally addressed itself to defining the effectiveness of homeopathic potencies in comparison to placebo medication. There is now increasing awareness that the homeopathic consultation is in itself a therapeutic intervention working independently or synergistically with the prescribed remedy. Our objective was to identify and evalute potential "active ingredients" of the homeopathic approach as a whole, in a prospective formal case series, which draws on actual consultation data, and is based on the MRC framework for the evaluation of complex interventions. Methods Following on from a theoretical review of how homeopathic care might mediate its effects, 18 patients were prospectively recruited to a case series based at Bristol Homeopathic Hospital. Patients, who lived with one of three index conditions, were interviewed before and after a five visit "package of care". All consultations were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Additional data, including generic and condition-specific questionnaires, artwork and "significant other" reports were collected. Textual data was subject to thematic analysis and triangulated with other sources. Results We judged that around one third of patients had experienced a major improvement in their health over the study period, a third had some improvement and a third had no improvement. Putative active ingredients included the patients' "openness to the mind-body connection", consultational empathy, in-depth enquiry into bodily complaints, disclosure, the remedy matching process and, potentially, the homeopathic remedies themselves. Conclusion This study has has identified, using primary consultation and other data, a range of factors that might account for the effectiveness of homeopathic care. Some of these, such as empathy, are non-specific. Others, such as the remedy matching process, are specific to homeopathy. These findings counsel against the use of placebo-controlled RCT designs in

  3. Genotoxicity evaluation of the herbicide Garlon(®) and its active ingredient (triclopyr) in fish (Anguilla anguilla L.) using the comet assay.

    Guilherme, Sofia; Santos, Maria A; Gaivão, Isabel; Pacheco, Mário

    2015-09-01

    Triclopyr-based herbicides are broadly used worldwide for site preparation and forest vegetation management. Thus, following application, these agrochemicals can inadvertently reach the aquatic ecosystems. Garlon(®) is one of the most popular commercial denominations of this group of herbicides, considered as highly toxic to fish, even by its manufacturer. Although DNA is frequently regarded as a target of pesticide toxicity, the genotoxic potential of Garlon(®) to fish remains completely unknown. Hence, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of Garlon(®) and its active ingredient (triclopyr), clarifying the underlying mechanisms. Therefore, the comet assay, implemented as the standard procedure, with an extra step involving DNA lesion-specific repair enzymes (formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase and endonuclease III), was used to identify DNA damage in blood cells of Anguilla anguilla L. Short-term exposures (1 and 3 days) to Garlon(®) and triclopyr were carried out, adopting environmentally realistic concentrations (67.6 and 270.5 µg L(-1) Garlon(®) and 30 and 120 µg L(-1) triclopyr). The results concerning the nonspecific DNA damage proved the risk of the herbicide Garlon(®) and its active ingredient triclopyr in both tested concentrations and exposure lengths. In addition, the higher genotoxic potential of the formulation, in comparison with the active ingredient, was demonstrated. When the additional breaks corresponding to net enzyme-sensitive sites were considered, none of the conditions revealed significant levels of oxidative damage. This identification of the genotoxic properties of triclopyr-based herbicides to fish highlights the need to develop less hazardous formulations, as well as the adoption of mitigation measures related to the application of these agrochemicals in the framework of forestry and agriculture sustainable management. PMID:24623388

  4. Genotoxic Potential of Two Herbicides and their Active Ingredients Assessed with Comet Assay on a Fish Cell Line, Epithelioma Papillosum Cyprini (EPC)

    Syberg, Kristian; Rank, Jette; Jensen, Klara;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the epithelioma papillosum cyprini (EPC) cell line handling procedure for the comet assay to investigate the genotoxic potential of widely used pesticides. The effects of various media and handling of the EPC cell line were examined. Results indicated...... that avoiding trypsin to detach cells led to lower level of DNA damage in the negative control. Further, two commonly used herbicides (Dezormon and Optica trio) and their four active ingredients (4-chloro-o-tolyloxyacetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propionic acid, 2...

  5. Development of RP-HPLC method for Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredient (Gallic acid) from Stem Bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

    Hafsa Deshmukh; Pradnya J. Prabhu

    2011-01-01

    A simple, precise and sensitive, RP-HPLC method with UV detection at 271nm was developed and validated for qualitative determination of active ingredient Gallic acid from stem bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn. Separation was performed on a ThermoMOS 2 HYPERSIL C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 5µm ODS 3) using mobile phase comprising of 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid : Acetonitrile (400 cm3 : 600 cm3) with a flow rate of 1 ml/minute with a short run time of 13 minute. The method was validated accordi...

  6. Comparative analysis of the effects of locally used herbicides and their active ingredients on a wild-type wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain.

    Braconi, Daniela; Sotgiu, Michele; Millucci, Lia; Paffetti, Alessandro; Tasso, Flavia; Alisi, Chiara; Martini, Silvia; Rappuoli, Roberto; Lusini, Paola; Sprocati, Anna Rosa; Rossi, Claudio; Santucci, Annalisa

    2006-04-19

    Herbicides are released to the environment with potential ecotoxicological risks for mammals. Yeast is a good model to elucidate toxicity mechanisms. We investigated how three commercial herbicides (Proper Energy, Pointer, and Silglif) and their active ingredients (respectively, fenoxaprop-P-ethyl, tribenuron methyl, and glyphosate) can affect biological activities of an oenological Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, which may be resident on grape vineyards of the same geographical areas where herbicides are used. The use of commercial grade herbicides employed in Italy allowed us to reproduce the same conditions applied in crops; at the same time, assaying pure single active compounds made it possible to compare the effects obtained with commercial formulations. Interestingly, we found that while pure active compounds affect cell growth and metabolism at a lower extent, commercial preparations have a significant major negative influence on yeast biology. PMID:16608247

  7. Analytical method (HPLC, validation used for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use and its finite product Tilodem 50, hydrosoluble powder

    Maria Neagu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API for the finite product Tilodem 50 - hydrosoluble powder was acomkplished in the respect of last European Pharmacopoeia.The method for analysis used in this purpose was the compendial method „Tylosin tartrate for veterinary use” in EurPh. in vigour edition and represent a variant developed and validation „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are the followings: Selectivity, Linearity, Linearity range, Detection and Quantification limits, Precision, Repeatability (intra day, Inter-Day Reproductibility, Accuracy, Robustness, Solutions’ stability and System suitability. According to the European Pharmacopoeia, the active pharmaceutical ingredient is consistent, in terms of quality, if it contains Tylosin A - minimum 80% and the amount of Tylosin A, B, C, D, at minimum 95%. Identification and determination of each component separately (Tylosin A, B, C, D is possible by chromatographic separation-HPLC. Validation of analytical methods is presented below.

  8. 圆孢蘑菇有效成分的定性分析%Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredients of Agaricus gennadii

    白世俊; 包锦渊

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to confirm the active ingredients of Agaricus gennadii. [Method] The water extraction method, alcohol extraction method and petroleum ether extraction method were used to extracted the chemical ingredients of Agaricus gennadii, and analyzed them. [Result]The results show that Agaricus gennadii contains protein,carbohydrates,organic acids,coumarin and lactones,etc. ,may also contains saponins and steroidal triterpenes,but does not contain alkaloids,cardiac glycosides,volatile oils,phenols and tannins,etc. [Conclusion] The study makes people to fully know Agaricus gennadii.%[目的]确定圆孢蘑菇(Agaricus gennadii)的有效成分.[方法]采用水提法、醇提法和石油醚提取法对圆孢蘑菇的有效成分进行定性提取和分析.[结果]圆孢蘑菇中含有蛋白质、糖类、有机酸、香豆素与内酯等物质,可能含有皂苷和甾体三萜类,不含生物碱、强心苷、挥发油、酚类和鞣质等.[结论]该研究可使人们更加清楚地了解圆孢蘑菇.

  9. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of five active ingredients of Eucommiae cortex in normal and ovariectomized mice by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    An, Jing; Hu, Fangdi; Wang, Changhong; Zhang, Zijia; Yang, Li; Wang, Zhengtao

    2016-09-01

    1. Pinoresinol di-O-β-d-glucopyranoside (PDG), geniposide (GE), geniposidic acid (GA), aucubin (AN) and chlorogenic acid (CA) are the representative active ingredients in Eucommiae cortex (EC), which may be estrogenic. 2. The ultra high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of the five ingredients showed good linearity, low limits of quantification and high extraction recoveries, as well as acceptable precision, accuracy and stability in mice plasma and tissue samples (liver, spleen, kidney and uterus). It was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of PDG, GE, GA, AN and CA between normal and ovariectomized (OVX) mice. 3. The results indicated that except CA, the plasma and tissue concentrations of PDG, GE, GA in OVX mice were all greater than those in normal mice. AN could only be detected in the plasma and liver homogenate of normal mice, which was poorly absorbed in OVX mice and low in other measured tissues. PDG, GE and GA seem to be better absorbed in OVX mice than in normal mice proved by the remarkable increased value of AUC0-∞ and Cmax. It is beneficial that PDG, GE, GA have better plasma absorption and tissue distribution in pathological state. PMID:27232980

  10. Digestible energy requirement for females of Rhamdia quelen on reproductive activity fed with ration based on vegetal ingredients

    Robie A Bombardelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the growth and reproductive parameters of Rhamdia quelen females fed with pelleted ration containing different levels of digestible energy, and to evaluate the vigor of their offspring. The breeders were placed in tanks under conditions of photoperiod and natural temperature. The fishes were fed for 255 days with isoproteic rations pelleted containing 35% of crude protein (CP and five levels of the digestible energy (DE (2700, 2950, 3200, 3450, 3700 kcal kg-1. The fishes were distributed in a randomized experimental design compounded by five treatments and three repetitions. A 16-m² tank containing six females and three males was considered as one experimental unit. The weight and weight gain was evaluated. During the reproductive season the females were induced to breeding by hormonal manipulation and were evaluated the percentage of spawning females, the total fecundity, relative fecundity (number of oocytes per gram of spawning females, the fertilization ratio, the time to hatching and the vigor of larvae. The growth and reproductive parameters were not influenced (P > 0.05 by the increasing levels of digestible energy of the rations. The feeding of R. quelen females in breeding fit can be carried out with 2700 kcal kg-1 pelletized ration based on vegetal ingredients, without damage to reproductive performance.

  11. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available Easy-to-Read Drug Facts Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ...

  12. Organic Pesticide Ingredients

    ... Control a pest Integrated Pest Management What are pesticides? Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides ... Other types of pesticides Disponible en español Organic Pesticide Ingredients Organic foods are not necessarily pesticide-free. ...

  13. Discovering novel ingredient pairings in molecular gastronomy using network analysis

    Ključevšek, Aleksander; Krapić, Luka

    2016-01-01

    Molecular gastronomy is a distinct sub-discipline of food science that takes an active role in examining chemical and physical properties of ingredients and as such lends itself to more scientific approaches to finding novel ingredient pairings. With thousands of ingredients and molecules, which participate in the creation of each ingredient's flavour, it can be difficult to find compatible flavours in an efficient manner. Existing literature is focused mainly on analysis of already establish...

  14. Ingredients for sustained excellence

    Point Lepreau, a 680MWe CANDU reactor, has, since startup, been one of the world's best performing reactors. Many of the ingredients for this success can be found at other plants, but Pt Lepreau has found a ''chemistry'' that has sustained its performance at a very high level. Our belief is that this is the result of two major influences: Pt Lepreau is the only nuclear unit in a small utility, all its nuclear expertise exists at the station, and all necessary disciplines can be readily galvanized to solve problems and get work done. The structure of the organization is simple, with station management involvement in day to day activities. This fosters accountability and a natural efficiency that does not need slogans to achieve its purpose. Turning to the factors that have contributed to the station's success, the IAEA's technical exchange visit in July 1990 identified four items ''which are particularly noteworthy since they can be developed and used widely in the nuclear industry to enhance safety and availability. These are: quality assurance applications; the degree to which system engineers are employed; the dedication of skilled resources to and thoroughness of outage planning; and the in-house development of computers to assist directly in the day to day, medium and long term management of the generating station''. (Author)

  15. Research Progress in the Active Ingredients of Rose & Rose Wine%玫瑰花有效成分及玫瑰花酒的研究进展

    胡晓燕; 沈才洪; 敖宗华; 杨学琴; 黄张君; 钟霞

    2014-01-01

    玫瑰花具有令人愉悦的香气,是一种适合开发保健酒的良好原料。主要对玫瑰花的有效成分、有效成分的提取方法、有效成分应用功能、玫瑰花酒生产等的研究进展作了简要的综述。%Rose has pleasant aroma and is suitable for the development of healthcare wine. In this paper, the research progress in the active ingre-dients of rose and their extraction and application, and the production of rose wine was reviewed.

  16. 离子液体在活性药物成分中的应用%The application of ionic liquids in active pharmaceutical ingredients

    孟坤燕; 齐明辉; 陈宜俍; 赵文杰; 任国宾

    2011-01-01

    离子液体具有独特的可调节的理化性能,近年来离子液体在活性药物成分中的应用成为国际上研究的前沿和热点.该文在介绍离子液体特性的基础上,综述了离子液体形式的活性药物成分的制备、表征和研究意义.%Ionic liquids (Ils) possess unique tunable physical and chemical properties. Recently, the application of Ils in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) has become the frontier of international pharmaceutical research. The synthesis, characterization and significance of Ils-APIs are summarized based on the properties of Ils.

  17. Monitoring and Control of a Continuous Grignard Reaction for the Synthesis of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using Inline NIR spectroscopy

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Nielsen, Jesper; Jønch Pedersen, Michael;

    2012-01-01

    the stoichiometric ratio, leading the path to full process automation. The feedback control loop relies on NIR transmission measurements performed in a flow cell where, in contrast to labor-intensive offline HPLC analytical methods, the whole reaction product can be scanned in real time without sample...... be used to obtain information about its dynamic behavior. This information is very useful for process control design, assessment of analytical tools and definition of sampling times. In this work, a systematic procedure for chemometric model building is followed, after which a discussion is made on......Inline near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been used to monitor a continuous synthesis of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) intermediate by a Grignard alkylation reaction. The reaction between a ketone substrate and allylmagnesium chloride may form significant impurities with excess...

  18. Highly sensitive solid forms discrimination on the whole tablet of the active ingredients in quercetin dietary supplements by NMR crystallography approaches.

    Miclaus, Maria O; Filip, Xenia; Filip, Claudiu; Martin, Flavia A; Grosu, Ioana G

    2016-05-30

    Similarly to synthetic drugs, the exact crystalline form of active ingredients in solid formulations of dietary supplements may directly influence the dissolution rate, bioavailability, and stability of the final product, but this information is usually not provided by manufacturers. Working on the examples of two commercial quercetin dietary supplements a quick, reliable, and sensitive method is introduced for quercetin solid forms discrimination directly on the marketed products, without the need for prior sample preparation. It exploits the complementarity between solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ss-NMR) and Powder X-Ray Diffraction (PXRD), which proved essential for performing a complete and accurate solid-state characterization of the two commercial products, and for obtaining new insights into the complex quercetin solid-forms landscape. The method can be readily generalized also to other dietary supplements based on bio-flavonoids/polyphenols. PMID:26970982

  19. Review on active ingredients from Cannabis sativa leaves and its pharmacological characteristics%汉麻叶活性成分及其药理特性的研究概况

    杜军强; 何锦风; 何聪芬; 蒲彪; 李靖宇; 蒋勇

    2011-01-01

    Cannabis saliva leaves contains a variety of active ingredients, including cannabinoid and non -cannabinoid. Active ingredients from Cannahis saliva leaves have a high application value in the pharmacy and other fields. In this paper, the pharmacological characteristics of cannabinoid, non-cannabinoid and unknown active ingredients was summarized.%汉麻叶含有多种活性成分,包括大麻酚类化合物和非大麻酚类化合物.汉麻叶的活性成分在医药等领域有极高的应用价值.本文就大麻酚类化合物,非大麻酚类化合物和未知活性成分的药理特性展开综述.

  20. Determination of everolimus in everolimus active pharmaceutical ingredient by HPLC%HPLC法测定依维莫司原料药中依维莫司

    孙莉君; 沈海梅; 马海霞; 董大伟; 王越; 杨静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish an HPLC method for determination of everolimus in everolimus active pharmaceutical ingredient. Methods The separation was performed on a Hypersil-ODS C18column with acetonitrile - water (70∶30) as mobile phases. The detection wavelength was set at 276 nm. The column temperature was 50℃. The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min with injection volume of 10μL.Results Everolimus had good linearity in the ranges of 63 — 1 008μg/mL (r= 0.999 7). The average recovery was 100.45% with RSD 0.64% (n=9).Conclusion The method is simple and specific, and can be used effectively for quality control of everolimus active pharmaceutical ingredient.%目的:建立HPLC法测定依维莫司原料药中依维莫司。方法采用Hypersil-ODS C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);流动相:乙腈–水(70∶30);检测波长:276 nm;柱温:50℃;体积流量:0.8 mL/min;进样量:10μL。结果依维莫司在63~1008μg/mL线性关系良好(r=0.9997),平均回收率为100.45%,RSD值为0.64%(n=9)。结论所建立的操作简便,专属性强,可用于依维莫司原料药的质量控制。

  1. Activation and active labour market policies in OECD countries: stylized facts and evidence on their effectiveness

    John P. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Activation policies aimed at getting working-age people off benefits and into work have become a buzzword in labour market policies. Yet they are defined and implemented differently across OECD countries and their success rates vary too. The Great Recession has posed a severe stress test for these policies with some commentators arguing that they are at best 'fair weather' policies.  This paper sheds light on these issues mainly via the lens of recent OECD research.  It presents the sty...

  2. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  3. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  4. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, ... and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs ...

  5. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain ... Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can ...

  6. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts Meth ( ... treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You ...

  7. Functional ingredients from microalgae

    Buono, S.; Langellotti, A.L.; Martello, A.; Rinna, F.; Fogliano, V.

    2014-01-01

    A wide variety of natural sources are under investigation to evaluate their possible use for new functional ingredient formulation. Some records attested the traditional and ancient use of wild harvested microalgae as human food but their cultivation for different purposes started about 40 years ago

  8. Ingredients of supergravity

    Freedman, D. [Department of Mathematics and Center for Theoretical Physics, M.I.T., Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Proeyen, A. van [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)

    2011-11-15

    These notes give a summary of lectures given in Corfu in 2010 on basic ingredients in the study of supergravity. It also summarizes initial chapters of a forthcoming book 'Supergravity' by the same authors. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Rapid isolation and identification of active antioxidant ingredients from Gongju using HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) and postcolumn derivatization.

    Cui, Gang; Niu, Yaru; Wang, Hong; Dong, Jing; Yuki, Hashi; Chen, Shizhong

    2012-05-30

    Flos Chrysanthemi (Gongju, GJ) is used to prepare a herbal tea that is commonly consumed as a health beverage in Asia and is believed to contain abundant beneficial antioxidants. To rapidly identify the chemical constituents and to obtain the profile related to antioxidant activity, an online analytical method combining high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector-electrospray ionization-ion-trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF-MS(n)) and postcolumn derivatization (PCD) has been applied for a precise and thorough identification of the chemical constituents. Meanwhile, the antioxidant profile has also been characterized by directly measuring the scavenging activity of each compound for the free radical produced by DPPH. As a result, 13 compounds have been identified in GJ, 7 of which account for its antioxidant activity. The established LC-MS(n)-PCD system has proved to offer a useful strategy for correlating the chemical profile with the bioactivities of the components without their isolation and purification, and may be used for multicomponent analysis of active substances in other foods and herbs. PMID:22540938

  10. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio–active ingredients from six varieties of Medicago sativa

    Caunii Angela

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive research has been performed worldwide and important evidences were collected to show the immense potential of plants used in various traditional therapeutic systems. The aim of this work is to investigate the different extracting solvents in terms of the influence of their polarity on the extracting ability of bioactive molecules (phenolic compounds from the M. sativa flowers. Results The total phenolic content of samples was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu (FC procedure and their antioxidant activity was assayed through in vitro radical decomposing activity using the radical DPPH° assay (IUPAC name for DPPH is (phenyl–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl iminoazanium. The results showed that water was better than methanol and acetic acid for extracting bioactive compounds, in particular for total phenolic compounds from the flowers of alfalfa. The average content of bioactive molecules in methanol extract was 263.5±1.02 mg GAE/100g of dry weight lyophilized extract. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. However, all extracts were free–radical inhibitors, but the water extract was more potent than the acetic and the methanol ones. The order of inhibitor effectiveness (expressed by IC50 proved to be: water extract (0.924mg/mL > acetic acid extract (0.154mg/mL > methanol (0.079mg/mL. The profiles of each extract (fingerprint were characterized by FT–MIR spectroscopy. Conclusions The present study compares the fingerprint of different extracts of the M. sativa flowers, collected from the wild flora of Romania. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. The dependence of the extract composition on the solvent polarity (acetic acid vs. methanol vs. water was revealed by UV–VIS spectrometry and Infrared fingerprint.

  11. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Yi, Haijing; Yan CHEN; LIU Jun; Jie ZHANG; Wei GUO; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via sp...

  12. Antimicrobial activity of a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate (Olbas(®) Tropfen) in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients.

    Hamoud, Razan; Sporer, Frank; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Plant extracts and essential oils have been widely studied and used as antimicrobial agents in the last decades. In our study we investigated the antimicrobial activities of Olbas(®) Tropfen (in the following named Olbas), a traditionally used complex essential oil distillate, in comparison to its individual essential oil ingredients. Olbas (10 g) consists of three major components such as peppermint oil (5.3 g), eucalyptus oil (2.1 g), and cajuput oil (2.1 g) and of two minor constituents like juniper berry oil (0.3 g) and wintergreen oil (0.2 g). The composition of Olbas and the five individual essential oils were characterized by GLC-MS. According to GLC-MS analysis 1,8-cineol is the main component of the complex essential oil distillate followed by menthol and menthone. The minimum inhibitory and minimum microbicidal concentrations of Olbas and each of the single essential oils were evaluated in 17 species/strains of bacteria and fungi. Time-kill assay was performed to compare the microbicidal activity of Olbas and peppermint oil during several time intervals. Olbas displayed a high antimicrobial activity against all test strains used in this study, among them antibiotic resistant MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) and VRE (vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus). Its antimicrobial activity was comparable to that of peppermint oil which was the most potent one of all individual essential oils tested. In the time kill assay Olbas as well as peppermint oil demonstrated similar microbicidal activities. Based on its wide antimicrobial properties Olbas can be a useful agent for the treatment of uncomplicated infections of skin and respiratory tract. PMID:22739414

  13. Extraction and Separation of Active Ingredients in Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill and the Study of their Antifungal Effects

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Guo, Wei; Xiao, Weilie; Yao, Yuncong

    2016-01-01

    Schisandra chinensis extracts (SEs) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. This study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of S. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. Concentrated active fractions (SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III) were obtained from S. chinensis via specific extraction and separation. Then, lignan-like substances, such as Schisanhenol B, were detected via High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-ElectroSpray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) analyses of the active fractions. Moreover, the results from biological tests on colony growth inhibition and spore germination indicated that SE-I, SE-II, and SE-III could inhibit hyphal growth and spore generation of three important plant pathogenic fungi (Monilinia fructicola, Fusarium oxysporum, and Botryosphaeria dothidea). The study of the mechanisms of resistant fungi revealed that the oxidation resistance system, including reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), was activated. The expression of genes related to defense, such as pathogenesis-related protein (PR4), α-farnesene synthase (AFS), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) were shown to be up-regulated after treatment with SEs, which suggested an increase in apple immunity and that fruits were induced to effectively defend against the infection of pathogenic fungi (B. dothidea). This study revealed that SEs and their lignans represent promising resources for the development of safe, effective, and multi-targeted agents against pathogenic fungi. PMID:27152614

  14. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... Weed, Pot) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What ... About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800- ...

  15. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... Search form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, ... Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? Do You or a Loved ...

  16. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) ... Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other Drugs You can call 1-800-662- ...

  17. Continuous Hydrolysis and Liquid–Liquid Phase Separation of an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Intermediate Using a Miniscale Hydrophobic Membrane Separator

    Cervera Padrell, Albert Emili; Morthensen, Sofie Thage; Lewandowski, Daniel Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    capillary pressure (Laplace pressure) combined with a large number of pores per unit area offering low pressure drop. The separation device can easily be operated by means of a back-pressure regulator ensuring flow-independent separation efficiency. Simple monitoring and control strategies as well as...... scaling-up/out approaches are proposed, concluding that membrane-based L-L separation may become a standard unit operation for continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing....... a PTFE membrane with 28 cm2 of active area. A less challenging separation of water and toluene was achieved at total flow rates as high as 80 mL/min, with potential to achieve even higher flow rates. The operability and flexibility of the membrane separator and a plate coalescer were compared...

  18. Alcohol Facts

    ... alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin— ... of malt liquor 12 ounces of beer Being drunk can make a person feel very silly, angry, ...

  19. 黄芪的有效成分提取与纳滤提取应用分析%Active Ingredients Extracted and Nanofiltration Application in Astragalus Extract

    郭立忠; 吴镝

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze the active ingredients of astragalus diarrhea extraction and nanofiltration extracted application,astragalus traditional extraction process improvements. Methods APS,saponins as subjects,the use of orthogonal experimental design and analysis of numerical range analysis by comparing the effects of different extraction temperature,time and number of ingredients,and the extraction process in boiling alcohol shen added effect of cel ulase,nanofiltration comparison,the evaporation method. Results The experimental results showed that the temperature < 80 ℃, extracting 2 times,and each time 60 min nanofiltration concentrated extract was the optimum water extraction of astragalus. Conclusion Compared to traditional boiling alcohol precipitation extraction,astragalus of nanofiltration extraction process in the economic,technical y strong advantages,it has some promotional value in guiding the preparation of manufacturing,clinical applications.%目的:分析黄芪的有效成分提取和纳滤提取的应用,对传统的黄芪提取工艺进行改进。方法将黄芪多糖、总皂甙作为实验对象,使用正交实验设计并用极差分析法分析数值,对比不同提取温度、时间和次数对成分含量的影响,并在水煮醇沉提取工艺中加入了纤维素酶,比较纳滤、蒸发方法的效果。结果实验表明温度<80℃、提取2次且每次60 min的纳滤浓缩提取是黄芪水提的最佳工艺。结论相比较传统水煮醇沉提取法,黄芪的纳滤浓缩提取工艺在经济、技术上有很强的优越性,在指导制剂生产、临床应用中具有一定的推广价值。

  20. Influence of Process Parameters on Content Uniformity of a Low Dose Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in a Tablet Formulation According to GMP

    Muselík Jan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the development and production of tablets using direct compression of powder mixtures. The aim was to describe the impact of filler particle size and the time of lubricant addition during mixing on content uniformity according to the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP process validation requirements. Processes are regulated by complex directives, forcing the producers to validate, using sophisticated methods, the content uniformity of intermediates as well as final products. Cutting down of production time and material, shortening of analyses, and fast and reliable statistic evaluation of results can reduce the final price without affecting product quality. The manufacturing process of directly compressed tablets containing the low dose active pharmaceutical ingredient (API warfarin, with content uniformity passing validation criteria, is used as a model example. Statistic methods have proved that the manufacturing process is reproducible. Methods suitable for elucidation of various properties of the final blend, e.g., measurement of electrostatic charge by Faraday pail and evaluation of mutual influences of researched variables by partial least square (PLS regression, were used. Using these methods, it was proved that the filler with higher particle size increased the content uniformity of both blends and the ensuing tablets. Addition of the lubricant, magnesium stearate, during the blending process improved the content uniformity of blends containing the filler with larger particles. This seems to be caused by reduced sampling error due to the suppression of electrostatic charge.

  1. Development of Genotoxic Impurities Control in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient%原料药中基因毒性杂质控制的研究进展

    王萍; 徐彩虹; 陈仙; 胡爱玲; 楼朝; 金秀芳; 龚俊强; 陈轶群

    2015-01-01

    目的 介绍原料药(active pharmaceutical ingredient,API)中基因毒性杂质控制的法规要求、评估方法和控制方法.方法 通过学习欧美法规发展历史,理解国际高端市场对基因毒性杂质控制的监管期望,提出原料药中基因毒性杂质风险评估方法.结果与结论 企业基于半定量评估,结合清除研究数据,建立科学的控制策略,使实际工艺中所有可能涉及的基因毒性杂质风险得到明确鉴别和控制,是达到监管期望的有效途径.

  2. Development of RP-HPLC method for Qualitative Analysis of Active Ingredient (Gallic acid from Stem Bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

    Hafsa Deshmukh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and sensitive, RP-HPLC method with UV detection at 271nm was developed and validated for qualitative determination of active ingredient Gallic acid from stem bark of Dendrophthoe falcate Linn. Separation was performed on a ThermoMOS 2 HYPERSIL C18 column (250 cm × 4.6 mm, 5µm ODS 3 using mobile phase comprising of 0.1% Orthophosphoric acid : Acetonitrile (400 cm3 : 600 cm3 with a flow rate of 1 ml/minute with a short run time of 13 minute. The method was validated according to the regulatory guidelines with respect to linearity, system suitability, precision, solution stability, accuracy, robustness, assay and recovery. Detector response was linear for HPLC in the range of 0.04 to 0.16 mg/cm3. The system suitability, precision, solution stability, accuracy, robustness, assay and recovery was assessed by calculating % COV for all these parameters which is less than two as expected. The recovery of the method for Gallic acid was found 98.94% which shows that method is accurate. The described method has the advantage of being rapid and easy hence it can be applied for routine quality control analysis of Gallic acid from Dendrophthoe falcate Linn.

  3. Study on cinnamon hypoglycemic active ingredient extraction method%肉桂降糖活性成分提取方法的研究

    卢春连; 陆志科

    2014-01-01

    用乙醇回流提取法、超声波提取法、新装置提取法提取肉桂降糖活性成分。结果表明,新装置提取法比回流提取法、超声波提取法提取效率高,且快速简便。新装置提取法提取肉桂降糖活性成分的最佳条件为:多功能提取器装置,提取溶剂为95%乙醇,提取时间2 h,产品粗提率达21.0%。%Three methods were compared of preparing cinnamon hypoglycemic active ingredients:the etha-nol refluxing extraction,ultrasonic extraction and the new device extraction. The results showed that the new device extraction was superior to ethanol refluxing extraction and ultrasonic extraction,and the meth-od was fast and simple. The best conditions of the method were:multi-extractor device,solvent of 95%ethanol,and the time of extraction was 2 h,the coarse product rate was 21. 0% .

  4. Action of the insect growth regulator fluazuron, the active ingredient of the acaricide Acatak®, in Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Calligaris, Izabela Braggião; De Oliveira, Patricia Rosa; Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of fluazuron (active ingredient of the acaricide Acatak®) and its effects on Rhipicephalus sanguineus nymphs fed on rabbits exposed to different doses of this insect growth regulator. Three different doses of fluazuron (20 mg/kg, 40 mg/kg, and 80 mg/kg) were applied on the back of hosts (via "pour on"), while distilled water was applied to the Control group. On the first day of treatment with fluazuron (24 h), hosts were artificially infested with R. sanguineus nymphs. Once fully engorged, nymphs were removed and placed in identified Petri dishes in Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) incubator for 7 days. After this period, engorged nymphs were processed for ultramorphological analysis. The results revealed alterations in the ultramorphology of many chitinous structures (smaller hypostome and chelicerae, less sclerotized scutum, fewer sensilla, fewer pores, absence of grooves, marginal and cervical strips and festoons in the body, even the anal plaque was damaged) that play essential roles for the survivor of ticks and that can compromise the total or partial development of nymphs and emergence of adults after periodic molting. Our findings confirm the efficacy of fluazuron, a more specific and less aggressive chemical to the environment and human health, and that does not induce resistance, in nymphs of the tick R. sanguineus in artificially infested rabbits treated with this arthropod growth regulator (AGR), indicating that it could be used in the control of this stage of the biological cycle of the tick R. sanguineus. PMID:24000046

  5. Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in ethnomedicine Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis and its medicinal preparation by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection.

    Zeng, Yikun; Tang, Zhuxing; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

    2007-10-01

    A simple and rapid capillary electrophoresis (CE) with electrcochemical detection (ED) method has been established for the simultaneous determination of seven active ingredients in the stems and roots of Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis and its medicinal preparation, including (+)-catechin, rutin, gentisic acid, vallinic acid, salicylic acid, quercetin, and protocatechuic acid. The effects of working potential, pH, and concentration of running buffer, separation voltage, and injection time on CE-ED are systematically investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the seven analytes could be completely separated within 23 min in a borax running buffer (pH 8.7). A good linear relationship is obtained over three orders of magnitude with detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3) ranging from 5x10(-8) g/mL to 3x10(-7) g/mL for the analytes. The proposed method is successfully used in the analysis of real samples after a relatively simple extraction procedure, and the assay results are satisfactory. PMID:17988450

  6. Isotopic finger-printing of active pharmaceutical ingredients by 13C NMR and polarization transfer techniques as a tool to fight against counterfeiting.

    Bussy, Ugo; Thibaudeau, Christophe; Thomas, Freddy; Desmurs, Jean-Roger; Jamin, Eric; Remaud, Gérald S; Silvestre, Virginie; Akoka, Serge

    2011-09-30

    The robustness of adiabatic polarization transfer methods has been evaluated for determining the carbon isotopic finger-printing of active pharmaceutical ingredients. The short time stabilities of the adiabatic DEPT and INEPT sequences are very close to that observed with the one pulse sequence, but the DEPT long time stability is not sufficient for isotopic measurements at natural abundance or low enrichment. Using the INEPT sequence for (13)C isotopic measurements induces a dramatic reduction in the experimental time without deterioration in short time or long time stability. It appears, therefore, to be a method of choice for obtaining the isotopic finger-print of different ibuprofen samples in a minimum time. The results obtained on 13 commercial ibuprofen samples from different origins show that this strategy can be used effectively to determine (13)C distribution within a given molecule and to compare accurately differences in the isotopic distribution between different samples of the given molecule. The present methodology is proposed as a suitable tool to fight against counterfeiting. PMID:21872037

  7. Ingredients of Huangqi decoction slow biliary fibrosis progression by inhibiting the activation of the transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Du Jin-Xing

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huangqi decoction was first described in Prescriptions of the Bureau of Taiping People's Welfare Pharmacy in Song Dynasty (AD 1078, and it is an effective recipe that is usually used to treat consumptive disease, anorexia, and chronic liver diseases. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1 plays a key role in the progression of liver fibrosis, and Huangqi decoction and its ingredients (IHQD markedly ameliorated hepatic fibrotic lesions induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL. However, the mechanism of IHQD on hepatic fibrotic lesions is not yet clear. The purpose of the present study is to elucidate the roles of TGFβ1 activation, Smad-signaling pathway, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK in the pathogenesis of biliary fibrosis progression and the antifibrotic mechanism of IHQD. Methods A liver fibrosis model was induced by ligation of the common bile duct (BDL in rats. Sham-operation was performed in control rats. The BDL rats were randomly divided into two groups: the BDL group and the IHQD group. IHQD was administrated intragastrically for 4 weeks. At the end of the fifth week after BDL, animals were sacrificed for sampling of blood serum and liver tissue. The effect of IHQD on the TGFβ1 signaling pathway was evaluated by western blotting and laser confocal microscopy. Results Decreased content of hepatic hydroxyproline and improved liver function and histopathology were observed in IHQD rats. Hepatocytes, cholangiocytes, and myofibroblasts in the cholestatic liver injury released TGFβ1, and activated TGFβ1 receptors can accelerate liver fibrosis. IHQD markedly inhibited the protein expression of TGFβ1, TGFβ1 receptors, Smad3, and p-ERK1/2 expression with no change of Smad7 expression. Conclusion IHQD exert significant therapeutic effects on BDL-induced fibrosis in rats through inhibition of the activation of TGFβ1-Smad3 and TGFβ1-ERK1/2 signaling pathways.

  8. Transcriptome analysis of buds and leaves using 454 pyrosequencing to discover genes associated with the biosynthesis of active ingredients in Lonicera japonica Thunb.

    Liu He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lonicera japonica Thunb. is a plant used in traditional Chinese medicine known for its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-carcinogenic, and antiviral pharmacological properties. The major active secondary metabolites of this plant are chlorogenic acid (CGA and luteoloside. While the biosynthetic pathways of these metabolites are relatively well known, the genetic information available for this species, especially the biosynthetic pathways of its active ingredients, is limited. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained one million reads (average length of 400 bp in a whole sequence run using a Roche/454 GS FLX titanium platform. Altogether, 85.69% of the unigenes covering the entire life cycle of the plant were annotated and 325 unigenes were assigned to secondary metabolic pathways. Moreover, 2039 unigenes were predicted as transcription factors. Nearly all of the possible enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of CGA and luteoloside were discovered in L. japonica. Three hydroxycinnamoyl transferase genes, including two hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase genes and one hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA shikimate/quinate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT gene featuring high similarity to known genes from other species, were cloned. The HCT gene was discovered for the first time in L. japonica. In addition, 188 candidate cytochrome P450 unigenes and 245 glycosyltransferase unigenes were found in the expressed sequence tag (EST dataset. CONCLUSION: This study provides a high quality EST database for L. japonica by 454 pyrosequencing. Based on the EST annotation, a set of putative genes involved in CGA and luteoloside biosynthetic pathways were discovered. The database serves as an important source of public information on genetic markers, gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in L. japonica.

  9. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide.

    Zhang, Si-Ming; Buddenborg, Sarah K; Adema, Coen M; Sullivan, John T; Loker, Eric S

    2015-01-01

    In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO) for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features) to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP), glutathione S-transferases (GST), and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter) and solute linked carrier (influx transporter). Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP) genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70) were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide's lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and has been

  10. Altered Gene Expression in the Schistosome-Transmitting Snail Biomphalaria glabrata following Exposure to Niclosamide, the Active Ingredient in the Widely Used Molluscicide Bayluscide.

    Si-Ming Zhang

    Full Text Available In view of the call by the World Health Organization (WHO for elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025, use of molluscicides in snail control to supplement chemotherapy-based control efforts is likely to increase in the coming years. The mechanisms of action of niclosamide, the active ingredient in the most widely used molluscicides, remain largely unknown. A better understanding of its toxicology at the molecular level will both improve our knowledge of snail biology and may offer valuable insights into the development of better chemical control methods for snails. We used a recently developed Biomphalaria glabrata oligonucleotide microarray (31K features to investigate the effect of sublethal exposure to niclosamide on the transcriptional responses of the snail B. glabrata relative to untreated snails. Most of the genes highly upregulated following exposure of snails to niclosamide are involved in biotransformation of xenobiotics, including genes encoding cytochrome P450s (CYP, glutathione S-transferases (GST, and drug transporters, notably multi-drug resistance protein (efflux transporter and solute linked carrier (influx transporter. Niclosamide also induced stress responses. Specifically, six heat shock protein (HSP genes from three super-families (HSP20, HSP40 and HSP70 were upregulated. Genes encoding ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB and coatomer, all of which are involved in vesicle trafficking in the Golgi of mammalian cells, were also upregulated. Lastly, a hemoglobin gene was downregulated, suggesting niclosamide may affect oxygen transport. Our results show that snails mount substantial responses to sublethal concentrations of niclosamide, at least some of which appear to be protective. The topic of how niclosamide's lethality at higher concentrations is determined requires further study. Given that niclosamide has also been used as an anthelmintic drug for decades and

  11. Analysis on the active ingredients of lavender honey from Xinjiang province%新疆薰衣草蜜活性成分的分析

    潘柳; 张琦; 毛秀丽; 黄俊逸

    2012-01-01

    The reduced sugar, amylase value, total protein, total phenolic acid and anti-oxidative activities (DPPH radical scavenging activity test) of lavender honey, black locust honey and linden honey were determined and compared. The results showed that the content of amylase value, total phenolic acid and total protein in lavender honey are 14.8 mL/g.h, (200.8+6.9) IJg/g and (25.35+2.74) mg/100 g, respectively, all of which are higher than that of the other two kinds of honey, but the content of reduced sugar is lower, which is 74%. Three kinds of bee honeys have anti-oxidative activity. The scavenging capacities of lavender honey and linden honey don't exhibit an obvious difference, which are stronger than that of black locust honey. In addition, total phenolic acid content have no obvious correlation with anti-oxidative activities. It suggests that there are other active ingredients contributing to the anti-oxidative activities in honey.%以薰衣草蜜、洋槐蜜和椴树蜜3种蜂蜜为材料,对蜂蜜中的还原糖含量、淀粉酶值、蛋白质含量、总酚酸含量和它们清除DPPH自由基的能力进行分析。结果表明:薰衣草蜜中的淀粉酶值、总酚酸含量、蛋白质的含量分别为14.8mL/g·h、(200.8±6.9)μg/g和(25.35±2.74)mg/100g,均高于其他2种蜜,但还原糖含量比其他2种蜂蜜略低,为74%。3种蜂蜜均具有抗氧化的作用,薰衣草蜜与椴树蜜对DPPH自由基的清除能力相当,均高于洋槐蜜。总酚酸含量与抗氧化能力之间无明显相关性,说明蜂蜜中还含有其他的抗氧化活性成分。

  12. HPLC法测定达格列净原料药中有关物质%Determination of related substances in dapagliflozin active pharmaceutical ingredients by HPLC

    陈稳; 郑津津; 王晨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for determination of related substances in dapagliflozin active pharmaceutical ingredients.Methods HPLC method was adopted. The determination was carried out on Diamonsil C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase consisted of 0.02 mol/L sodium dihydrogen phosphate - methanol - tetrahydrofuran (60∶35∶5) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detective wavelength was set at 220 nm, the column temperature was at 35℃, and the injection volume was 10μL.Results Dapagliflozin and its related substances had good separation. The LOQ of the related substances, such as Z1, Z2, F1, F2, and F3 were1.34, 1.54, 1.42, 1.71, and 2.11 ng, respectively. The average recoveries were 98.9%, 97.6%, 103.2%, 102.4%, and 102.8% with RSD values of 1.8%, 1.3%, 1.5%, 0.7%, and 1.7%, respectively.Conclusion The method is sensitive and accurate, and can be used for quality control of related substances in dapagliflozin active pharmaceutical ingredients.%目的:建立达格列净原料药中有关物质的测定方法。方法采用 HPLC法。Diamonsil C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);以0.02 mol/L磷酸二氢钠水溶液–甲醇–四氢呋喃(60∶35∶5)为流动相;体积流量1.0 mL/min;检测波长220 nm;柱温35℃;进样量为10μL。结果达格列净与各杂质的分离度良好,杂质Z1、Z2、F1、F2、F3的定量限分别为3.22、3.83、3.65、4.33、4.92 ng,平均回收率分别为98.9%、97.6%、103.2%、102.4%、102.8%,RSD值分别为1.8%、1.3%、1.5%、0.7%、1.7%。结论本方法检测灵敏度高,精密度好,可以用于达格列净原料药中有关物质的质量控制。

  13. Determination of related substances in ambrisentan active pharmaceutical ingredients%HPLC法测定安立生坦原料药中有关物质

    陈保来; 李家春; 仲艳; 郭庆明; 沈旺; 王振中; 萧伟

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立安立生坦原料药中有关物质的测定方法。方法采用HPLC法。Waters Atlantis T3色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm);以0.02%三氟乙酸水溶液–0.01%三氟乙酸乙腈溶液为流动相,进行梯度洗脱;柱温30℃;体积流量1.0 mL/min;自动进样器控温5℃;检测波长220 nm。结果安立生坦与各杂质的分离度良好,杂质Z1、Z2、Z3、Z4、DP1的定量限分别为2.14、2.54、2.44、2.45、2.41 ng,平均回收率分别为102.9%、96.0%、93.1%、104.6%、115.2%,RSD值分别为2.1%、4.6%、2.9%、2.7%、4.9%(n=10)。结论该方法检测灵敏度高,精密度好,可以用于安立生坦原料药中有关物质的质量控制。%Objective To establish a method for determination of related substances in ambrisentan active pharmaceutical ingredients. Methods HPLC method was adopted. The determination was performed on Waters Atlantis T3 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5μm) with mobile phase consisted of 0.02% trifluoroacetic acid - acetonitrile (containing 0.01% trifluoroacetic acid) with gradient elution. The temperature of column was set at 30℃. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min with automatic injection volume of 5μL. The detective wavelength was set at 220 nm. Results Ambrisentan and its related substances could be separated completely. The LOQ of the related substances, such as Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, and DP1 were 2.14, 2.54, 2.44, 2.45, and 2.41 ng, respectively. They all had good linearity. The average recovery were 102.9%, 96.0%, 93.1%, 104.6%, and 115.2%with RSD values of 2.1%, 4.6%, 2.9%, 2.7%, and 4.9%(n = 10), respectively. Conclusion The method is sensitive and accurate, and can be used for quality control of related substances in ambrisentan active pharmaceutical ingredients.

  14. Development and validation of a stability-indicating reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of nebivolol impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredients and pharmaceutical formulation.

    Thummala, Veera Raghava Raju; Lanka, Mohana Krishna

    2015-10-01

    A sensitive, stability-indicating gradient reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the quantitative estimation of nebivolol impurities in active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and pharmaceutical formulation. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) with mobile phase of a gradient mixture. The flow rate of the mobile phase was 0.18 mL/min with column temperature of 30 degrees C and detection wavelength of 281 nm. The relative response factor values of (R*)-2-( benzylamino)-1-((S*)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl) ethanol ((R x S*) NBV-), (R)-1-((R)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((S)-2-((S)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl-amino) ethanol ((RRSS) NBV-3), 1-(chroman-2-yl)-2-(2-(6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethyl amino) ethanol (monodesfluoro impurity), (S)-1-((R)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((R)-2 (S*)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethylamino) ethanol hydrochloride ((RSRS) NBV-3) and (R*)-1-((S*)-6-fluorochroman-2-yl)-2-((S*)-2-((S*)-6-fluoro-chroman-2-yl)-2-hydroxyethylamino) ethanol ((R* S* S* S*) NBV-2) were 0.65, 0.91, 0.68, 0.92 and 0.91 respectively. Nebivolol formulation sample was subjected to the stress conditions of acid, base, oxidative, hydrolytic, thermal, humidity and photolytic degradation. Nebivolol was found to degrade significantly under peroxide stress condition. The degradation products were well resolved from nebivolol and its impurities. The peak purity test results confirmed that the nebivolol peak was homogenous and pure in all stress samples and the mass balance was found to be more than 98%, thus proving the stability-indicating power of the method. The developed method was validated according to International Conference on Hormonization (ICH) guidelines with respect to specificity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, accuracy, precision and robustness. PMID:26930962

  15. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... form Search Menu Home Drugs That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Cigarette and Tobacco Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) ... addiction and treatment. Watch Videos Information About Drugs Alcohol Cocaine Heroin Marijuana Meth Pain Medicines Tobacco Other ...

  16. Fucoxanthin: A Promising Medicinal and Nutritional Ingredient

    Hui Zhang; Yibo Tang; Ying Zhang; Shuofeng Zhang; Jing Qu; Xu Wang; Ran Kong; Chunchao Han; Zhenquan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Fucoxanthin, an allenic carotenoid, can be isolated from edible brown seaweeds. Recent studies have reported that fucoxanthin has many physiological functions and biological properties, such as antiobesity, antitumor, antidiabetes, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities, as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular protective effects. Therefore, fucoxanthin can be used as both medicinal and nutritional ingredient to prevent and treat chronic diseases. Although fucoxa...

  17. Identification, synthesis and characterization of an unknown process related impurity in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI–IT/MS, 1H, 13C and 1H–1H COSY NMR

    Saji Thomas; Saroj Kumar Paul; Subhash Chandra Joshi; Vineet Kumar; Ashutosh Agarwal; Dharam Vir

    2014-01-01

    A new impurity was detected during high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient. The structure of unknown impurity was postulated based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization and ion trap analyzer (LC/ESI–IT/MS) analysis. Proposed structure of impurity was unambiguously confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization using 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), 1H–1H co...

  18. Detoxification of alpha- and beta-Thujones (the active ingredients of absinthe): site specificity and species differences in cytochrome P450 oxidation in vitro and in vivo.

    Höld, K M; Sirisoma, N S; Casida, J E

    2001-05-01

    Alpha- and beta-Thujones are active ingredients in the liqueur absinthe and in herbal medicines and seasonings for food and drinks. Our earlier study established that they are convulsants and have insecticidal activity, acting as noncompetitive blockers of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel, and identified 7-hydroxy-alpha-thujone as the major metabolite and 4-hydroxy-alpha- and -beta-thujones and 7,8-dehydro-alpha-thujone as minor metabolites in the mouse liver microsome-NADPH system. We report here unexpected site specificity and species differences in the metabolism of the thujone diastereomers in mouse, rat, and human liver microsomes and human recombinant P450 (P450 3A4), in orally treated mice and rats, and in Drosophila melanogaster. Major differences are apparent on comparing in vitro microsome-NADPH systems and in vivo urinary metabolites. Hydroxylation at the 2-position is observed only in mice where conjugated 2R-hydroxy-alpha-thujone is the major urinary metabolite of alpha-thujone. Hydroxylation at the 4-position gives one or both of 4-hydroxy-alpha- and -beta-thujones depending on the diastereomer and species studied with conjugated 4-hydroxy-alpha-thujone as the major urinary metabolite of alpha- and beta-thujones in rats. Hydroxylation at the 7-position of alpha- and beta-thujones is always a major pathway, but the conjugated urinary metabolite is minor except with beta-thujone in the mouse. Site specificity in glucuronidation favors excretion of 2R-hydroxy- and 4-hydroxy-alpha-thujone glucuronides rather than those of three other hydroxythujones. Two dehydro metabolites are observed from both alpha- and beta-thujones, the 7,8 in the P450 systems and the 4,10 in urine. Two types of evidence establish that P450-dependent oxidations of alpha- and beta-thujones are detoxification reactions: three P450 inhibitors block the metabolism of alpha- and beta-thujones and strongly synergize their toxicity in Drosophila; six metabolites

  19. Dynamics of active pharmaceutical ingredients loads in a Swiss university hospital wastewaters and prediction of the related environmental risk for the aquatic ecosystems.

    Daouk, Silwan; Chèvre, Nathalie; Vernaz, Nathalie; Widmer, Christèle; Daali, Youssef; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine

    2016-03-15

    The wastewater contamination of a Swiss university hospital by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) residues was evaluated with a three months monitoring campaign at the outlet of the main building. Flow-proportional samples were collected with an automatic refrigerated sampler and analyzed for 15 API, including antibiotics, analgesics, antiepileptic and anti-inflammatory drugs, by using a validated LC-MS/MS method. The metals Gd and Pt were also analyzed using ICP-MS. Measured concentrations were compared to the predicted ones calculated after the drug average consumption data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. The hospital contribution to the total urban load was calculated according to the consumption data obtained from city pharmacies. Lastly, the environmental hazard and risk quotients (RQ) related to the hospital fraction and the total urban consumption were calculated. Median concentrations of the 15 selected compounds were ranging from 0.04 to 675 μg/L, with a mean detection frequency of 84%. The ratio between predicted and measured environmental concentrations (PEC/MEC) has shown a good accuracy for 5 out of 15 compounds, revealing over- and under-estimations of the PEC model. Mean daily loads were ranging between 0.01 and 14.2g/d, with the exception of paracetamol (109.7 g/d). The hospital contribution to the total urban loads varied from 2.1 to 100% according to the compound. While taking into account dilution and removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plant, only the hospital fraction of the antibiotics ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole showed, respectively, a high (RQ>1) and moderate (RQ>0.1) risk for the aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, when considering the total urban consumption, 7 compounds showed potential deleterious effects on aquatic organisms (RQ>1): gabapentin, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, ibuprofen, diclofenac and mefenamic acid. In order to reduce inputs of API residues originating from hospitals various

  20. Content of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient with Somatostatin by UPLC Method%UPLC法测定生长抑素原料药的含量

    张承军; 王秀梅; 王建良; 贾长久; 李兰兰

    2012-01-01

    目的:建立快速、准确、灵敏的测定生长抑素原料药的方法.方法:采用沃特世ACQUITY超高液相色谱系统(UPLC),以磷酸(取磷酸11 mL,加水900 mL,用三乙胺调pH至2.3,用水稀释至刻度1 000 mL处)为流动相,(A)-乙腈 (B)梯度洗脱,流速:0.3 mL/min;检测波长为215 nm;柱温45℃;进样体积2μL.结果:生长抑素在0.005 149 2~0.128 73 mg / mL范围内有良好的线性关系(R2= 0.999 3),平均回收率(n=9)为99.1%.结论:UPLC法检测快速、准确、灵敏度高、重复性好,为生长抑素原料药的质量控制提供了一种快速准确的方法.%Objective: To establish a rapid, accurate and sensitive method to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with somatostatin. Method: Waters ACQUITY UPLC was adopted. Phosphoric acid-triethylamine buffer solution was as mobile phase A and acetonitrile as B, gradient elution was used with flow rate of 0.3 mL/min; detection wave length was 215 nm; column temperature was 45 ℃; injection volume was 2μL. Result: Somatostatin has a great linearity (R2 = 0.999 3) from 0.005 149 2 mg/mL to 0.128 73 mg/mL. Average recovery rate (n= 9) is 99.1%. Conclusion: UPLC method, which is rapid, accurate, sensitive and with good repeatability, could service for quality control of somatostatin (API).

  1. Ibuprofen-in-cyclodextrin-in-W/O/W emulsion - Improving the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency of a model active ingredient.

    Hattrem, Magnus N; Kristiansen, Kåre A; Aachmann, Finn L; Dille, Morten J; Draget, Kurt I

    2015-06-20

    A challenge in formulating water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions is the uncontrolled release of the encapsulated compound prior to application. Pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals usually have amphipathic nature, which may contribute to leakage of the active ingredient. In the present study, cyclodextrins (CyDs) were used to impart a change in the relative polarity and size of a model compound (ibuprofen) by the formation of inclusion complexes. Various inclusion complexes (2-hydroxypropyl (HP)-β-CyD-, α-CyD- and γ-CyD-ibuprofen) were prepared and presented within W/O/W emulsions, and the initial and long-term encapsulation efficiency was investigated. HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen provided the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen in comparison to a W/O/W emulsion with unassociated ibuprofen confined within the inner water phase, with a four-fold increase in the encapsulation efficiency. An improved, although lower, encapsulation efficiency was obtained for the inclusion complex γ-CyD-ibuprofen in comparison to HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, whereas α-CyD-ibuprofen had a similar encapsulation efficiency to that of unassociated ibuprofen. The lower encapsulation efficiency of ibuprofen in combination with α-CyD and γ-CyD was attributed to a lower association constant for the γ-CyD-ibuprofen inclusion complex and the ability of α-CyD to form inclusion complexes with fatty acids. For the W/O/W emulsion prepared with HP-β-CyD-ibuprofen, the highest encapsulation of ibuprofen was obtained at hyper- and iso-osmotic conditions and by using an excess molar ratio of CyD to ibuprofen. In the last part of the study, it was suggested that the chemical modification of the HP-β-CyD molecule did not influence the encapsulation of ibuprofen, as a similar encapsulation efficiency was obtained for an inclusion complex prepared with mono-1-glucose-β-CyD. PMID:25839416

  2. Method for the determination of Pd-catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of high-energy polarized-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence.

    Marguí, E; Van Meel, K; Van Grieken, R; Buendía, A; Fontàs, C; Hidalgo, M; Queralt, I

    2009-02-15

    In medicinal chemistry, Pd is perhaps the most-widely utilized precious metal, as catalyst in reactions which represent key transformations toward the synthesis of new active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). The disadvantage of this metal-catalyzed chemistry is that expensive and toxic metal residues are invariably left bound to the desired product. Thus, stringent regulatory guidelines exist for the amount of residual Pd that a drug candidate is allowed to contain. In this work, a rapid and simple method for the determination of Pd in API samples by high-energy polarized-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry has been developed and validated according to the specification limits of current legislation (10 mg kg(-1) Pd) and the International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH guidelines). Sample and calibration standards preparation includes a first step of homogenization and then, in a second step, the pressing of the powdered material into pellets without any chemical treatment. The use of several synthetic calibration standards made of cellulose to simulate the API matrix appears to be an effective means to obtain reliable calibration curves with a good spread of data points over the working range. With the use of the best measuring conditions, the limit of detection (0.11 mg kg(-1) Pd) as well as the limit of quantitation (0.37 mg kg(-1) Pd) achieved meet rigorous requirements. The repeatability of the XRF measurement appeared to be less than 2%, while the precision of the whole method was around 7%. Trueness was evaluated by analyzing spiked API samples at the level of the specification limit and calculating the recovery factor, which was better than 95%. To study the applicability of the developed methodology for the intended purpose, three batches of the studied API were analyzed for their Pd content, and the attained results were comparable to those obtained by the

  3. Mathematical Art-O-Facts: Activities to Introduce, Reinforce, or Assess Geometry & Measurement

    Kuhns, Catherine Jones

    2008-01-01

    This book is loaded with hands-on measurement and geometry activities that will get students rolling up their sleeves, excited to use their math skills. The author has created these activities to supplement a teacher's existing math curriculum. They are flexibly designed for use as either introductory, reinforcement, or assessment activities. This…

  4. The Marfan Syndrome. Fact Sheet [and] Physical Education and Activity Guidelines.

    National Marfan Foundation, Port Washington, NY.

    This document consists of two brochures, the first explaining the Marfan Syndrome and a second providing guidelines for physical education and activity for people who have this syndrome are provided. The brochure on factual information about Marfan syndrome outlines the associated medical problems involving the cardiovascular system, the skeleton,…

  5. Phlorizin, an Active Ingredient of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Increases Proliferative Potential of Keratinocytes with Inhibition of MiR135b and Increased Expression of Type IV Collagen.

    Choi, Hye-Ryung; Nam, Kyung-Mi; Lee, Hyun-Sun; Yang, Seung-Hye; Kim, Young-Soo; Lee, Jongsung; Date, Akira; Toyama, Kazumi; Park, Kyoung-Chan

    2016-01-01

    E. senticosus extract (ESE), known as antioxidant, has diverse pharmacologic effects. It is also used as an antiaging agent for the skin and phlorizin (PZ) is identified as a main ingredient. In this study, the effects of PZ on epidermal stem cells were investigated. Cultured normal human keratinocytes and skin equivalents are used to test whether PZ affects proliferative potential of keratinocytes and how it regulates these effects. Skin equivalents (SEs) were treated with ESE and the results showed that the epidermis became slightly thickened on addition of 0.002% ESE. The staining intensity of p63 as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is increased, and integrin α6 was upregulated. Analysis of ESE confirmed that PZ is the main ingredient. When SEs were treated with PZ, similar findings were observed. In particular, the expression of integrin α6, integrin β1, and type IV collagen was increased. Levels of mRNA for type IV collagen were increased and levels of miR135b were downregulated. All these findings suggested that PZ can affect the proliferative potential of epidermal cells in part by microenvironment changes via miR135b downregulation and following increased expression of type IV collagen. PMID:27042261

  6. Phlorizin, an Active Ingredient of Eleutherococcus senticosus, Increases Proliferative Potential of Keratinocytes with Inhibition of MiR135b and Increased Expression of Type IV Collagen

    Hye-Ryung Choi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available E. senticosus extract (ESE, known as antioxidant, has diverse pharmacologic effects. It is also used as an antiaging agent for the skin and phlorizin (PZ is identified as a main ingredient. In this study, the effects of PZ on epidermal stem cells were investigated. Cultured normal human keratinocytes and skin equivalents are used to test whether PZ affects proliferative potential of keratinocytes and how it regulates these effects. Skin equivalents (SEs were treated with ESE and the results showed that the epidermis became slightly thickened on addition of 0.002% ESE. The staining intensity of p63 as well as proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is increased, and integrin α6 was upregulated. Analysis of ESE confirmed that PZ is the main ingredient. When SEs were treated with PZ, similar findings were observed. In particular, the expression of integrin α6, integrin β1, and type IV collagen was increased. Levels of mRNA for type IV collagen were increased and levels of miR135b were downregulated. All these findings suggested that PZ can affect the proliferative potential of epidermal cells in part by microenvironment changes via miR135b downregulation and following increased expression of type IV collagen.

  7. Earthquake Facts

    ... Us Earthquakes Hazards Data & Products Learn Monitoring Research Earthquake Facts The largest recorded earthquake in the United ... we know, there is no such thing as "earthquake weather" . Statistically, there is an equal distribution of ...

  8. Food Ingredients as Anti-Obesity Agents.

    Saito, Masayuki; Yoneshiro, Takeshi; Matsushita, Mami

    2015-11-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a site of adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis after cold exposure, and is involved in the regulation of energy expenditure and body fatness. BAT can be activated and recruited by not only cold exposure but also by various food ingredients including capsaicin in chili pepper and catechins in green tea, which would be easily and safely applicable to our daily life for preventing obesity. PMID:26421678

  9. 复方卡力孜然凝胶剂主要活性成分体外经皮渗透%In vitro Percutaneous Penetration of Main Active Ingredient from Fufang Kali Ziran Gel

    邢建国; 王新春; 赵媛; 马建红; 薛桂蓬; 刘桂花

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究不同透皮促进剂对复方卡力孜然凝胶剂3种有效成分体外经皮渗透的影响,筛选有效的透皮吸收促进剂.方法:采用改良Franz扩散池法、离体鼠皮进行体外透皮试验,HPLC测定透皮吸收促进剂对3种有效成分补骨脂素、异补骨脂素及蛇床子素的累积透过量及透皮速率的影响.结果:不同促透剂对复方卡力孜然凝胶剂中补骨脂素、异补骨脂素及蛇床子素体外透皮吸收产生不同的影响,确定2%氮酮为促进剂时3种有效成分的促透效果最好.结论:2%氮酮能够促进复方卡力孜然凝胶剂3种有效成分的有效渗透,透皮吸收过程符合Higuchi方程.%Objective: To study on effects of in vitro percutaneous penetration of different penetration enhancers for three active ingredients from Fufang Kali Ziran gel, and to screen out effective transdermal absorption enhancers. Method;In vitro transdermal test was used by modified Franz diffusion cell method and in vitro rat skin, effect of cumulative penetration volume and penetration rate from transdermal absorption enhancers for three active ingredients ( psoralen, isopsoralen and osthole) was determined by HPLC. Result; Different enhancers were found to have different degree in vitro penetration enhancing effect on psoralen, isopsoralen and osthole in Fufang Kali Ziran gel,determined 2% azone had optimum promoting effect as enhancers to three active ingredients. Conclusion;2% azone could promote effective penetration of three active ingredients from Fufang Kali Ziran gel. This process of penetration absorption could be in line with Higuchi equation.

  10. Identification, synthesis and characterization of an unknown process related impurity in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI-IT/MS, 1H, 13C and 1H-1H COSY NMR

    Saji Thomas; Saroj Kumar Paul; Subhash Chandra Joshi; Vineet Kumar; Ashutosh Agarwal; Dharam Vir

    2014-01-01

    A new impurity was detected during high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient. The structure of unknown impurity was postulated based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization and ion trap analyzer (LC/ESI-IT/MS) analysis. Proposed structure of impurity was unambiguously confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization using 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR), 1H-1H correlation spectro-scopy (COSY) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Based on the spectroscopic and spectrometric data, unknown impurity was characterized as 5-carbamoyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-10-yl propionate.

  11. Identification, synthesis and characterization of an unknown process related impurity in eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient by LC/ESI–IT/MS, 1H, 13C and 1H–1H COSY NMR

    Saji Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new impurity was detected during high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC analysis of eslicarbazepine acetate active pharmaceutical ingredient. The structure of unknown impurity was postulated based on liquid chromatography mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization and ion trap analyzer (LC/ESI–IT/MS analysis. Proposed structure of impurity was unambiguously confirmed by synthesis followed by characterization using 1H, 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (NMR, 1H–1H correlation spectroscopy (COSY and infrared spectroscopy (IR. Based on the spectroscopic and spectrometric data, unknown impurity was characterized as 5-carbamoyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[b,f]azepin-10-yl propionate.

  12. An analysis of ingredient and nutritional labeling for wine

    Battaglene Tony

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingredient and nutritional information are currently mandatory in many countries for food labeling. Although wine is generally exempt from this requirement, regulatory changes are being actively considered by authorities across the globe. In this paper, a review of the current international requirements for the presentation of ingredient and nutritional information is undertaken. A literature review of studies into consumer's requirements and understanding of such information is undertaken and the potential costs to producers analysed. The study makes a number of conclusions on whether ingredient and nutritional labeling is appropriate for wine and investigates the effectiveness, usefulness and impact of such a labeling regime.

  13. HRSA Data Fact Sheets

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) Data Fact Sheets provide summary data about HRSA’s activities in each Congressional District, County, State,...

  14. Anti-Phytopthora capsici Activities and Potential Use as Antifungal in Agriculture of Alpinia galanga Swartz, Curcuma longa Linn, Boesenbergia pandurata Schut and Chromolaena odorata: Bioactivities Guided Isolation of Active Ingredients

    Wilart Pompimon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Plant derived fungicides are now being subjects of many research groups. These secondary metabolites have enormous potential to inspire and influence modern agrochemical research. The study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity and their potential use as fungicides in the agriculture of crude extracts and purified compounds derived from plants used in traditional medicines. Approach: Four medicinal plants including A. galanga, C. longa, B. pandurata and C. odorata were selected and percolated with hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone or methanol. The extracts were purified and elucidated their chemical structures. Disc mycelial growth inhibition was applied in order to determine their anti P. capsici activity and the field study was performed to determine their potential use in controlling fungal infection in chili plants compared with commercial fungicides such as captan and bio-control Trichoderma virens. Results: All crude extract inhibited mycelial growth of the fungus performed with similar efficacy. ED90 was equal to 300 ppm. Among plants studied B. pandurata was the most potent against P. capsici. The proposed active ingredients were pinostrobin and pinocembrin. In the field study, pinocembrin mediated the same anti P. capsici activity as captan. B. pandurata can protect chili from infection, thus increasing crop yield of chili comparable to Trichoderma virens. Conclusion: The results clearly showed that the extracts of the four plants studied could be considered as potential sources of novel fungicides. Particularly, B. pandurata has a very high potential as raw material for developing the antifungal molecule of non-petrochemical, naturally eco-friendly, easily obtainable and not toxic to human beings and environment, at least for use in chili growing.

  15. Snack, Facts

    Smith, Suzanne M.

    2005-01-01

    The American diet has undergone substantial changes, a fact that has negatively impacted the dental health of children. Primary prevention is the ideal method to address the current increased incidence of tooth decay. Educating kids, and their parents, about the qualities of snacks as well as the role of frequency of snacking could help to reduce…

  16. Reptile Facts.

    Steinheimer, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Describes an award-winning bulletin board for introducing a unit on reptiles. This interactive bulletin board contains fun facts and counters common misconceptions about reptiles. Twelve true-false statements are hidden behind pull-up flaps. Four pictures ask students to identify the difference between often-confused animals. (PR)

  17. Drug Facts

    Full Text Available ... Health Drug Abuse Hurts Bodies Drug Abuse Hurts Brains Drug Abuse and Mental Health Problems Often Happen Together The Link Between Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS Recovery & Treatment Drug Treatment Facts Does Drug Treatment Work? Types of Drug Treatment What Is a Relapse? ...

  18. An analysis of ingredient and nutritional labeling for wine

    Battaglene Tony

    2014-01-01

    Ingredient and nutritional information are currently mandatory in many countries for food labeling. Although wine is generally exempt from this requirement, regulatory changes are being actively considered by authorities across the globe. In this paper, a review of the current international requirements for the presentation of ingredient and nutritional information is undertaken. A literature review of studies into consumer's requirements and understanding of such information is undertaken an...

  19. Observational facts regarding the joint activities of the southwest vortex and plateau vortex after its departure from the Tibetan Plateau

    Yu, Shuhua; Gao, Wenliang; Xiao, Dixiang; Peng, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Using atmospheric observational data from 1998 to 2013, station rainfall data, TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) data, as well as annual statistics for the plateau vortex and shear line, the joint activity features of sustained departure plateau vortexes (SDPVs) and southwest vortexes (SWVs) are analyzed. Some new and useful observational facts and understanding are obtained about the joint activities of the two types of vortex. The results show that: (1) The joint active period of the two vortexes is from May to August, and mostly in June and July. (2) The SDPVs of the partnership mainly originate near Zaduo, while the SWVs come from Jiulong. (3) Most of the two vortexes move in almost the same direction, moving eastward together with the low trough. The SDPVs mainly act in the area to the north of the Yangtze River, while the SWVs are situated across the Yangtze River valley. (4) The joint activity of the two vortexes often produces sustained regional heavy rainfall to the south of the Yellow River, influencing wide areas of China, and even as far as the Korean Peninsula, Japan and Vietnam. (5) Most of the two vortexes are baroclinic or cold vortexes, and they both become strengthened in terms of their joint activity. (6) When the two vortexes move over the sea, their central pressure descends and their rainfall increases, especially for SWVs. (7) The two vortexes might spin over the same area simultaneously when there are tropical cyclones in the eastern and southern seas of China, or move southward together if a tropical cyclone appears near Hainan Island.

  20. Application of Refractometry in Purification Technology of Active Ingredients from Citrus aurantium by Macroporous Resin%折光法在树脂精制枳实中有效成分的应用

    曾文雪; 姚珍珍; 涂瑶生; 陈银芳; 宋小玲; 王跃生

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨折光法在大孔树脂纯化工艺中应用的可行性.方法:选取枳实提取物为研究对象,经AB-8型大孔吸附树脂精制有效部位,用水与50%乙醇洗脱,间隔取样,在线监测洗脱液的折光率并分析其变化规律,同时以HPLC和UV检测作为参比,判断洗脱过程中始点和终点.结果:枳实有效部位精制过程中水洗终点为第4 BV(折光率0),亦即50%乙醇洗脱始点,50%乙醇洗脱终点为第9 BV(折光率16).结论:折光法准确可靠、便捷快速,具有较强的实践指导意义.%Objective: To explore application feasibility of refractometry in purification technology of macroporous resin. Method: Taking extract of Citrus aurantium as research object, active ingredients in it was refined by AB-8 macroporous resin, washed with water and 50% ethanol, interval sampled, refractive ratio of eluent was monitored on line and analyzed its regularity. At the same time, HPLC and UV spectrophotometric method was used to determine hesperidin as references, and to judge initiation point and terminal point during elution. Result: In purification process of active ingredients from C. aurantium, water elution terminal point 4 BV ( refractive index 0) of which was the initiation point by 50% ethanol, 9 BV (refractive index 16) of 50% ethanol elution was the terminal point. Conclusion: Refractometry was accurate, reliable, convenient, quickly in purification technology of active ingredients of TCM, it had a strong practical significance.

  1. A preliminary analysis of the active ingredients from the seeds of Polygonum orientale against Mythimna separata%红蓼种子中杀黏虫活性成分的初步分析

    姚赛群; 胡冠芳; 刘敏艳; 张新瑞

    2011-01-01

    [目的]对红蓼种子乙酸乙酯萃取物中具有潜在杀虫活性的化合物进行初步分析,为指导开发利用杀虫植物资源提供依据.[方法]采用硅胶柱层析和气相色谱-质谱(GC-MS)联用法,以5龄黏虫为试虫;对红蓼种子萃取物的有效杀虫活性成分进行分析,应用色谱峰面积归一法测定各组分的相对百分含量.[结果]极性(甲醇)组分共分离出37个色谱峰,鉴定了其中的35个组分,占总含量的94.46%.弱极性(二氯甲烷)组分共分离出39个色谱峰,鉴定出39个组分.[结论]从成分的化学结构推断,红蓼种子的杀虫活性可能存在于14种成分中,主要成分为酮、醇、开环萜和五环三萜烷类化合物.%[Objective] Active ingredients of the ethyl acetate fraction from seeds of Polygonum orientale Linn, were analyzed to provide the basis for the exploitation of the insecticidal plant resources. [Method] Insecticidal ingredients from the seeds of P. orientale fractions were analyzed against the 5th instar larvae of Mythimna separata Walker by using silica gel colurnn-chromatographer (CO and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The relative percentage of each composition was determined by area normalization. [Result] Thirty-seven peaks were found, 35 of which were identified, representing 94.46% of the total contents in polar fraction. Thirty-nine peaks were found, all of which were identified in low polar fraction. [Conclusion] It was deduced that the insecticidal active ingredients in P. orientale seeds were 14 chemical compounds, belonging to ketone, alcohol, terpene with open-ring and pentacyclic triterpene classes.

  2. The validation of the analytical method (HPLC, use for identification and assay of the pharmaceutical active ingredient, colistine sulphate and the finished product Colidem 50 – hydrosoluble powder, in SC DELOS impex ‘96 SRL

    Maria Neagu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In SC DELOS IMPEX ’96 SRL the quality of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API for the finished product Colidem 50 - hydrosoluble powder is make according to European Pharmacopoeia, curent edition. The method for analysis use in this purpose is the compendial method „Colistine sulphate” in E.P. in current edition and represent a optimized variant, developed and validated „in house”.The parameters which was included in the methodology validation for chromatographic method are the follow: Selectivity/Specificity, Linearity, Range of Linearity, Limit of Detection and Limit of Quantification, Precision (Repeatability - intra day, inter-Day Reproducibility, Accuracy, Robustness, Stability Solutions and System Suitability.

  3. Rapid Detection of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients in Weak Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient Signal Drugs by Paper Substrate-Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering Spectrometry%纸基-表面增强拉曼光谱法快速检测弱主药信号药品中的主药成分

    李晓; 陈梦云; 王磊; 张倩倩; 方芳; 苗丽; 陆峰

    2015-01-01

    A rapid detection method of active pharmaceutical ingredients( API) in weak API signal drugs by surface enhanced Raman scattering ( SERS) technology combined with paper substrate was established in this work. By soaking the filter paper in silver nanoparticles solution ( Ag NPs) to synthesize Ag NPs-paper as the substrate, and then the sample solution was dropping on the substrate with SERS detection. On the basis of strengthen ability of Ag NPs-paper, result of SERS detection and optimal preparation conditions, the fast identification method of weak API signal drugs was established. In this case, the SERS spectra of weak API signal drugs and their standards SERS spectra were obtained, where the correlation coefficient of weak API signal drug SERS spectra and its standard was more than 0. 9. The result showed that by this method, the low content API in weak API signal drugs could be well investigated, and the deficiencies of the normal Raman spectroscopy efficiently was also overcome. In conclusion, the synthesize method of Ag NPs-paper was simple, and the strengthen effect of this Ag NPs-paper on the intensity was obviously observed. Paper substrate-SERS method was simple, rapid and sensitive, and could be used to detect weak API signal drugs, presenting broad application prospects in the rapid detection of weak API signal drugs.%建立了弱主药信号药品中主药成分的纸基-表面增强拉曼光谱( SERS)快速检测方法。采用浸泡法制备纳米银溶胶滤纸SERS基底(简称银胶纸),将待检样品滴加于银胶纸上进行SERS检测。通过考察银胶纸制备条件、银胶纸增强能力、SERS检测结果,建立用于弱主药信号药品中主药成分的快速检测方法。通过本方法获得弱主药信号药品中主药成分的SERS图谱,与其对应标准品图谱的相关系数大于0.9,较好地检测出弱主药信号药品中的主药成分,有效克服了常规拉曼光谱分析的不足之处。新型银胶纸制备简

  4. Severe anaphylaxis: the secret ingredient.

    Buergi, Andreas; Jung, Barbara; Padevit, Christian; John, Hubert; Ganter, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    In this case report, we describe a healthy urological patient who suffered severe intraoperative anaphylaxis to chlorhexidine, an ingredient contained in frequently used lubricants (Instillagel, Endosgel). Chlorhexidine is a well-known skin disinfectant and antiseptic component in mouthwash or other over the counter antiseptic pharmaceuticals. There is little awareness that commonly used lubricants may contain hidden chlorhexidine. After severe intraoperative anaphylaxis, it is important to investigate all potential (including hidden) agents that might have caused this life-threatening reaction. PMID:25611155

  5. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDY OF NAGAKESHARA (MESUA FERREA LINN) - AN INGREDIENT IN VYAGHRIHAREETAKI AVALEHA

    C Roshy Joseph; Ilanchezhian R; Patgiri Biswajyoti; CR Harish

    2010-01-01

    Herbs are staging a come-back and the herbal renaissance is “the happening” all over the globe. Ironical fact – Ayurvedic System of medicine is still struggling to reach the heights beyond numerous hurdles in its path. One such hurdle is controversy over botanical identity of drugs. Among the many drugs under controversy the drug nagakeshara is also one. The drug nagakeshara is found as an ingredient in many of the Ayurvedic formulations. Nagakeshara is an ingredient in Vyaghrihareetaki Avale...

  6. 羽裂蟹甲草对家蝇和白纹伊蚊的杀虫活性和活性成分%Insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Cacalia tangutica against Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus

    黄继光; 赵欢欢; 苗辉; 徐汉虹

    2012-01-01

    To study the insecticidal activities and active ingredients of Cacalia tangutica,the methanol extracts of C.tangutica against Musca domestica and Aedes albopictus were bioassayed with feeding method and dipping method.The active ingredients of C.tangutica were isolated and identified.Results indicated that the methanol extracts from different parts of C.tangutica showed highly insecticidal activities against adult M.domestica and the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus.Nine compounds (stigmasterol,friedelin,7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin,umbelliferone,daphnetin,daphnetin-8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,quercetin,kaempferol and β-daucosterol) were isolated and identified from extracts of leaves and flowers of C.tangutica.Among them,friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol were firstly isolated from this plant.At 48 h after treatment,the corrected mortalities of adult M.domestica caused by friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol at the dosage of 500 μg/g were 88.33%,69.90% and 77.04%,respectively.At 72 h after treatment,the corrected mortalities of the 4th instar larvae of A.albopictus caused by friedelin,quercetin and kaempferol at the concentration of 50 μg/g were 88.49%,72.22%and 71.06%,respectively.The studies suggest that C.tangutica would be a promising control agent on medical insects and deserves a further study.%为探明羽裂蟹甲草Cacalia tangutica的杀虫活性及其活性成分,通过拌糖饲喂法和浸渍法测定了羽裂蟹甲草甲醇提取物对家蝇Musca domestica成虫和白纹伊蚊Aedes albopictus 4龄幼虫的毒杀活性,并采用色谱分离技术和现代波谱技术对羽裂蟹甲草中的化学成分进行了分离鉴定.结果表明:该植物不同部位甲醇提取物对家蝇成虫和白纹伊蚊4龄幼虫均具有较高的生物活性.从该植物叶和花甲醇提取物中分离鉴定了豆甾醇、无羁萜、7-羟基-8-甲氧基香豆素、7-羟基香豆素、7,8-二羟基香豆素、瑞香素-8-O-β-D-葡萄糖苷、槲皮素

  7. Blood Facts and Statistics

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  8. Ba-Wei-Di-Huang-Wan through its active ingredient loganin counteracts substance P-enhanced NF-κB/ICAM-1 signaling in rats with bladder hyperactivity.

    Tsai, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Chung-Hsin; Cheng, Chen-Hung; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-09-01

    Overt bladder afferent activation may exacerbate endogenous substance P (SP) release to induce intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-mediated inflammation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production leading to hyperactive bladder. Ba-Wei-Die-Huang-Wan (BWDHW), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat lower urinary tract symptoms in patients by undefined mechanisms. We explored the possible mechanisms and the active components of BWDHW on exogenous SP-induced bladder hyperactivity. BWDHW contained six major components: loganin, paeoniflorin, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, and paeonol by high-performance liquid chromatography. In urethane-anesthetized female Wistar rats, we evaluated transcystometrogram, pelvic afferent nerve activity by electrophysiologic recording techniques, ICAM-1 expression by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, ROS amount by an ultrasensitive chemiluminescence method and possible ROS sources from the different leukocytes by specific stains in SP-treated bladder. BWDHW and its major component loganin dose-dependently inhibited H2 O2 and HOCl activity in vitro. Intragastrical BWDHW (250 mg/kg) and loganin (5 mg/kg) twice daily for 2 weeks did not affect the baseline micturition parameters. Intra-arterial SP (20 µg/rat) through neurokinin-1 receptor activation increased voiding frequency (shortened intercontraction intervals), pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, bladder ROS amount, neutrophils adhesion to venous endothelium, CD68 (monocyte/macrophage), and mast cell infiltration in the inflamed bladder. BWDHW and loganin pretreatment significantly depressed SP-enhanced pelvic afferent nerve activity, bladder NF-κB/ICAM-1 expression, leukocyte infiltration, and ROS amount, and subsequently improved bladder hyperactivity. In conclusion, our results suggest that BWDHW and its active component loganin improves bladder hyperactivity via inhibiting SP/neurokinin-1

  9. Development and Validation of a Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Hydrocortisone Acetate Active Ingredient, Propyl Parahydroxybenzoate and Methyl Parahydroxybenzoate Preservatives, Butylhydroxyanisole Antioxidant, and Their Degradation Products in a Rectal Gel Formulation.

    Ascaso, Magda; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García, Mireia; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep R; Fàbregas, Anna; Carrillo, Carolina; Sarrate, Rocío; Suñé-Negre, Josep M

    2015-01-01

    A stability indicating method was established through a stress study, wherein different methods of degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and temperature) were studied simultaneously to determine the active ingredient hydrocortisone acetate, preservatives propyl parahydroxybenzoate, and methyl parahydroxybenzoate, antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), and their degradation products in a semisolid dosage gel form. The proposed method was suitably validated using a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column and gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in different proportions according to a planned program at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The diode array detector was set at 240 nm for the active substance and two preservatives, and 290 nm for BHA. The validation study was conducted according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for specificity, linearity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy. The method was used for QC of hydrocortisone acetate gel and for the stability studies with the aim of quantifying the active substance, preservatives, antioxidant, and degradation products. It has proved to be suitable as a fast and reliable method for QC. PMID:25857875

  10. Lactose in dairy ingredients: Effect on processing and storage stability.

    Huppertz, Thom; Gazi, Inge

    2016-08-01

    Lactose is the main carbohydrate in the milk of most species. It is present in virtually all dry dairy ingredients, with levels ranging from lactose powders. The presence of lactose has a strong effect on ingredient processing and stability. Lactose can negatively influence powder properties and lead to undesirable effects, such as the stickiness of powder resulting in fouling during drying, or caking and related phenomena during storage. In addition, being a reducing carbohydrate, lactose can also participate in the Maillard reaction with free amino groups of proteins, peptides, and free AA. In this review, the influence of the presence (or absence) of lactose on physiochemical properties of dairy ingredients is reviewed, with particular emphasis on behavior during processing and storage. Particularly important features in this respect are whether lactose is in the (glassy) amorphous phase or in the crystalline phase, which is strongly affected by precrystallization conditions (e.g., in lactose, permeate, and whey powders) and by drying conditions. Furthermore, the moisture content and water activity of the ingredients are important parameters to consider, as they determine both mobility and reactivity, influencing Maillard reactions and concomitant browning, the crystallization of amorphous lactose during storage of dairy ingredients, glass transitions temperatures, and associated stickiness and caking phenomena. For the stickiness and caking, a crucial aspect to take into account is powder particle surface composition in relation to the bulk powder. Lactose is typically underrepresented at the powder surface, as a result of which deviations between observed lactose-induced caking and stickiness temperatures, and determined glass transition temperatures arise. By considering lactose as an integral part of ingredient composition along with all other compositional and environmental properties, lactose behavior in dairy ingredients can be understood, controlled, and