WorldWideScience

Sample records for active defrost scheme

  1. An active defrost scheme with a balanced energy consumption and food quality loss in supermarket refrigeration systems

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob; Rasmussen, Bjarne Dindler

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces food quality as a new parameter, together with energy, to determine an optimal cooling time between defrost cycles. A new defrost-on-demand scheme is proposed. It uses a feedback loop consisting of on-line model updating and estimation as well as a model based optimization. ...

  2. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air and...... products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  3. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  4. Supermarket Defrost Cycles As Flexible Reserve

    Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal;

    2015-01-01

    This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time constrai......This work analyses how supermarket defrost cycles can be used as flexible reserve in a smart grid context. The consumption flexibility originates from being able to shift defrost cycles in time, while adhering to the underlying refrigeration systems constraints. It is shown how this time...

  5. Energy demand and comparison of current defrosting technologies of frozen raw materials in defrosting tunnels

    Bezovsky, Marek [Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s., Power Plant Vojany, 076 73 Vojany (Slovakia); Stricik, Michal [The Faculty of Business Economics with seat in Kosice of University of Economics in Bratislava (Slovakia); Prascakova, Maria [Institute of Geotechnics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Kosice (Slovakia)

    2010-08-15

    The optimization process of coal defrosting in defrosting tunnels is solved in this article. Individual technical solutions of defrosting tunnels, as well as energy demands, are dealt with in this report. Defrosting tunnels are used for the defrosting of deep-frozen substrates like coal, ore or powdery substances. There are two different ways of defrosting. The first one is based on convective heating and the second one on radiant heating. Nowadays, convective heating is used much more than radiant heating. However, theory and practice show that the radiant heating is much more efficient. The aim of this article is to describe the design and construction of a multifunctional method of a defrosting tunnel. In the second stage we make experimental measurements of convective and radiant methods of defrosting on a built model. Its third aim is to make energy and economy assessments of defrosting process on the model. Finally, to implement the acquired knowledge in the practice, determining the conditions, in which the change of present-day convective defrosting technology to the new radiant technology becomes effective. (author)

  6. Bonus schemes and trading activity

    Pikulina, E.S.; Renneboog, L.D.R.; ter Horst, J.R.; Tobler, P.N.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about how different bonus schemes affect traders' propensity to trade and which bonus schemes improve traders' performance. We study the effects of linear versus threshold bonus schemes on traders' behavior. Traders buy and sell shares in an experimental stock market on the basis of

  7. The Effect of Various Methods of Defrosting on Microbial Contamination of Frozen Banana Shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis)

    Ladan Mansouri-Najand

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Background and aim: The most common and the best way of preventing microbial decay of marine foods is using freezing technology and the cycles and methods of defrosting have considerable effect on microbial changes of frozen shrimp. Shrimp is one of the marine foods that due to high active water (aw) and neutral PH and autolytic enzymes have high decay. Thus, in this study the effect of various methods of defrosts on microbial contamination of shrimp was investigated. Methods: This study was an empirical design on Penaeus merguiensis. The shrimps were divided into three groups including 1- peeled and headless (PUD), 2- Complete, 3- Headless (with skin) being frosted and defrosted in three cycles. Each group of shrimp was classified in terms of the type of defrosting method in three groups as 1- Microwave, 2- Refrigerator, 3-Water and were investigated in 3 cycles with the interval of 4 days. In this investigation, the total bacteria, Psychrophil bacteria, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were counted in private culture mediums. For data analysis, repeated measure Anova was used. Results: All the bacteria including Psychrophil bacteria, coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus during the cycles had significant reduction process and this reduction showed significant reduction in complete shrimp and defrosting with refrigerator compared to other groups (P<0.05). Conclusions: According to the results, complete shrimp was the best kind of shrimp in terms of microbial load. Thus, avoiding temperature changes during transportation and avoiding unduly defrosts in maintaining the quality of the frozen shrimp is proposed.

  8. Defrosting in an emergent Galileon cosmology

    We study the transition from an emergent Galileon condensate phase of the early universe to a later expanding radiation phase. This defrosting or preheating transition is a consequence of the excitation of matter fluctuations by the coherent Galileon condensate, in analogy to how preheating in inflationary cosmology occurs via the excitation of matter fluctuations through coupling of matter with the coherent inflaton condensate. We show that the minimal coupling of matter (modeled as a massless scalar field) to the Galileon field introduced by Creminelli, Nicolis, and Trincherini in order to generate a scale-invariant spectrum of matter fluctuations is sufficient to lead to efficient defrosting, provided that the effects of the nonvanishing expansion rate of the universe are taken into account. If we neglect the effects of expansion, an additional coupling of matter to the Galileon condensate is required. We study the efficiency of the defrosting mechanism in both cases.

  9. Defrosting in an Emergent Galileon Cosmology

    Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2011-01-01

    We study the transition from an Emergent Galileon condensate phase of the early universe to a later expanding radiation phase. This "defrosting" or "preheating" transition is a consequence of the excitation of matter fluctuations by the coherent Galileon condensate, in analogy to how preheating in inflationary cosmology occurs via the excitation of matter fluctuations through coupling of matter with the coherent inflaton condensate. We show that the "minimal" coupling of matter (modeled as a massless scalar field) to the Galileon field introduced by Creminelli, Nicolis and Trincherini in order to generate a scale-invariant spectrum of matter fluctuations is sufficient to lead to efficient defrosting, provided that the effects of the non-vanishing expansion rate of the universe are taken into account. If we neglect the effects of expansion, an additional coupling of matter to the Galileon condensate is required. We study the efficiency of the defrosting mechanism in both cases.

  10. Activation in the Austrian Social Assistance Scheme

    Leibetseder, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Activation is an essential part of social assistance schemes. This article provides an insight into the implementation of activation in the Austrian social assistance scheme by analyzing the work requirements and support offered in two provinces, Upper Austria and Styria. The main questions...... pressure based on 11 questions. Current practice incorporates supportive forms of activation to a lesser degree than efforts to force people to find work, due to pressures from the caseworker. Although high conditionality is not found to affect the job search activity, the job search requirement itself...

  11. Flexible, transparent, and conductive defrosting glass

    Wang, Jingjing [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Fang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Hongli; Gao, Binyu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Garner, Sean; Cimo, Pat [Corning Incorporated, Corning, NY 14831 (United States); Barcikowski, Zachary [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Mignerey, Alice [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Hu, Liangbing, E-mail: binghu@umd.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Flexible and transparent electronics play a predominant role in the next-generation electrical devices. In this study, a printable aqueous graphene oxide (GO) ink that enables direct deposition of GO onto flexible glass substrates is demonstrated and its application on fabricating a transparent, conductive, and flexible glass device by solution coating process is investigated as well. A uniform GO layer is formed on the flexible glass through Meyer-rod coating followed by an annealing process to reduce GO into graphene. The obtained thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flexible glass has a transmittance of over 40%, as well as a sheet resistance of ∼ 5 × 10{sup 3} Ω/sq. In addition, a defrosting window fabricated from the RGO coated flexible glass is demonstrated, which shows excellent defrosting performance. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of aqueous graphene oxide (GO) suspension is demonstrated. • Scalable printing of GO suspension is achieved with Meyer-rod coating technique. • A flexible glass is utilized as a substrate for the deposition of GO suspension. • Reduced graphene oxide films show improved conductivity with great transmittance. • Its potential to be applied in window defrosting is demonstrated and illustrated.

  12. Flexible, transparent, and conductive defrosting glass

    Flexible and transparent electronics play a predominant role in the next-generation electrical devices. In this study, a printable aqueous graphene oxide (GO) ink that enables direct deposition of GO onto flexible glass substrates is demonstrated and its application on fabricating a transparent, conductive, and flexible glass device by solution coating process is investigated as well. A uniform GO layer is formed on the flexible glass through Meyer-rod coating followed by an annealing process to reduce GO into graphene. The obtained thermally reduced graphene oxide (RGO) flexible glass has a transmittance of over 40%, as well as a sheet resistance of ∼ 5 × 103 Ω/sq. In addition, a defrosting window fabricated from the RGO coated flexible glass is demonstrated, which shows excellent defrosting performance. - Highlights: • A facile synthesis of aqueous graphene oxide (GO) suspension is demonstrated. • Scalable printing of GO suspension is achieved with Meyer-rod coating technique. • A flexible glass is utilized as a substrate for the deposition of GO suspension. • Reduced graphene oxide films show improved conductivity with great transmittance. • Its potential to be applied in window defrosting is demonstrated and illustrated

  13. Development of a demand defrost controller. Final report

    Borton, D.N. [Power Kinetics, Troy, NY (United States); Walker, D.H. [Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and commercialize a demand defrost controller that initiates defrosts of refrigeration systems only when required. The standard method of control is a time clock that usually defrosts too often, which wastes energy. The controller developed by this project uses an algorithm based on the temperature difference between the discharge and return of the display case air curtain along with several time settings to defrost only when needed. This controller was field tested in a supermarket where it controlled defrost of the low-temperature display cases. According to test results the controller could reduce annual energy consumption by 20,000 and 62,000 kWh for hot gas and electric defrost, respectively. The controller saves electric demand as well as energy, is adaptable to ambient air conditions, and provides valuable savings throughout the year. The savings are greatest for low-temperature systems that use the most energy. A less tangible benefit of the demand controller is the improvement in food quality that results from fewer defrosts.

  14. An experimental study on defrosting heat supplies and energy consumptions during a reverse cycle defrost operation for an air source heat pump

    For a space heating air source heat pump (ASHP) unit, when its outdoor coil surface temperature is below both the air dew point temperature and the freezing point of water, frost will form on its outdoor coil surface. Frosting affects its operational performance and energy efficiency. Therefore, periodic defrosting is necessary. Currently, the most widely used standard defrosting method for ASHP units is reverse cycle defrost. The energy that should have been used for space heating is used to melt frost, vaporize the melted frost off outdoor coil surface and heat ambient air during defrosting. It is therefore necessary to study the sources of heat supplies and the end-uses of the heat supplied during a reverse cycle defrost operation. In this paper, firstly, an experimental setup is described and experimental procedures are detailed. This is followed by reporting the experimental results and the evaluation of defrosting efficiency for the experimental ASHP unit. Finally, an evaluation of defrosting heat supplies and energy consumptions during a revere cycle defrost operation for the experimental ASHP unit is presented. The experimental and evaluation results indicated that the heat supply from indoor air contributed to 71.8% of the total heat supplied for defrosting and 59.4% of the supplied energy was used for melting frost. The maximum defrosting efficiency could be up to 60.1%. - Highlights: ► Heat supply and consumption during reverse cycle defrost was experimentally studied. ► Indoor air contributed to >70% of total heat supply when indoor fan was turned on. ► ∼60% of the supplied energy was used for melting frost. ► Alternate heat supply other than indoor air should be explored.

  15. An active interferometer-stabilization scheme with linear phase control

    Vardhan Krishnamachari, Vishnu; Andresen, Esben Ravn; Potma, Eric Olaf

    2006-01-01

    We report a simple and robust computer-based active interferometer stabilization scheme which does not require modulation of the interfering beams and relies on an error signal which is linearly related to the optical path difference. In this setup, a non-collinearly propagating reference laser...... beam stabilizes the interference output of the laser light propagating collinearly through the interferometer. This stabilization scheme enables adjustable phase control with 20 ms switching times in the range from 0.02π radians to 6π radians at 632.8 nm....

  16. Continuous heating of an air-source heat pump during defrosting and improvement of energy efficiency

    Highlights: • The newly designed dual hot gas spray defrosting method was examined. • Uninterrupted heating of an air source heat pump during defrosting. • We compared newly designed dual hot gas and traditional reverse cycle defrost. • Total energy efficiency was increased by 8% compared to traditional method. - Abstract: During winter operation, an air-source heat pump extracts heat from the cold outside air and releases the heat into the living space. At certain outside air conditions, when it operates in heating mode, frost can form on the air-cooled heat exchanger, decreasing the heating performance. Conventionally, reverse-cycle defrosting (RCD) has been the common method of frost removal. But this method requires the interruption of heating during defrosting, as well as a period of time to reheat the cooled pipes of the indoor units after defrosting. In this study, a new technology called continuous heating was developed, which utilize only a hot gas bypass valve to remove the frost from the outdoor heat exchanger and thus enabling the supply of hot air to indoors without any interruption. For this, a new high temperature and low pressure gas bypass method was designed, which is differentiated from the common high pressure hot gas bypass methods by its use of low pressure. Various refrigerant mass flow distributions were examined, and the most effective defrosting mass flow was 50% in this case. Heating capacity was increased by 17% because of continuous heating, and the cumulated energy efficiency was increased by 8% compared to the traditional reverse cycle defrosting over 4 h including two defrost operations. Also, cumulated energy efficiency was increased by 27% compared to electronic heaters that supply the same heating capacity during defrosting. By this new technology, it has been proved that continuous heating and energy savings could be achieved without adopting expensive technologies

  17. Experimental research on a novel cold storage defrost method based on air bypass circulation and electric heater

    Frost accumulation on evaporator decreased cooling capacity and COP (coefficient of performance) of cold storage refrigeration system, so timely and effective defrost was significant to cold storage energy-saving operation. The EHD (electric heat defrosting) method was commonly used in cold storages, however, defrost efficiency of the traditional EHD is rather low, and defrost operation usually caused an unfavorable storage temperature fluctuation, which is harmful to storage quality and shelf-life of stored products. In order to solve the problems existing in the traditional EHD method, a novel defrost method with air bypass circulation and electric heater was proposed for the first time in this paper. Five practical cases of this new method with different defrost heaters and air circulation modes were comparatively studied. The results showed that the case with heater embedded in evaporator fins and air circulating through bypass channel was the optimum implementation way of the new method. Compared with the traditional EHD method, the defrost time of this new method was shortened by 62.1%, defrost energy consumption was reduced by 61.0%, and storage temperature fluctuation was decreased by 70.1%. In addition, the defrost efficiency was up to 77.6%, which was 2.93 times of the traditional EHD method. -- Highlights: ► A novel cold storage defrosting method is proposed for the first time in this paper. ► Five practical cases of this new defrosting method are comparatively studied. ► Heater embedded in fins and air circulated through tunnel is the optimum way. ► Defrosting energy efficiency is 77.6% which is 2.93 times of the traditional method. ► Defrost time is shorten by 62.1%, defrost energy consumption is reduced by 61.0%.

  18. Schemes for applying active lubrication to main engine bearings

    Estupinan, Edgar Alberto; Santos, Ilmar

    2009-01-01

    The work presented here is a theoretical study that describes two different schemes for the oil injection system in actively lubricated main engine bearings. The use of active lubrication in journal bearings helps to enhance the hydrodynamic fluid film by increasing the fluid film thickness and...... orifices circumferentially located around the bearing surface. The pressure distribution of the hydrodynamic fluid film in journal bearings is governed by the Reynolds equation, which is modified to accommodate the dynamics of active lubrication, and which can be numerically solved using finite...... consequently reducing viscous friction losses and vibrations. One refers to active lubrication when conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with dynamically modified hydrostatic lubrication. In this case, the hydrostatic lubrication is modified by injecting oil at controllable pressures, through...

  19. A universal encoding scheme for MIMO transmission using a single active element for PSK modulation schemes

    Alrabadi, Osama; Papadias, C.B.; Kalis, A.;

    2009-01-01

    A universal scheme for encoding multiple symbol streams using a single driven element (and consequently a single radio frequency (RF) frontend) surrounded by parasitic elements (PE) loaded with variable reactive loads, is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is based on creating a MIMO...

  20. Does a physical activity referral scheme improve the physical activity among routine primary health care patients?

    Leijon, Matti E; Bendtsen, Preben; Nilsen, Per; Festin, Karin; Ståhle, A

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity referral (PAR) schemes or concepts occur in varying forms. Because few physical activity intervention studies have been carried out in routine health care settings, it is difficult to translate research findings into daily practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a PAR scheme implemented in routine primary health care. The study did not include a control group and was based on the ordinary staff's work efforts and follow-up measures. During a 2-yea...

  1. A novel defrosting method using heat energy dissipated by the compressor of an air source heat pump

    Highlights: • A novel defrosting method using heat energy dissipated by the compressor was developed and examined. • During the defrosting process, mean temperature difference between the air entering and leaving the indoor coil reached 4.1 °C. • Compared to the traditional method, defrosting time was shortened by 65% while the resuming heating period disappeared. • For the defrosting operation, the total energy consumption was less than 27.9% compared to the traditional method. - Abstract: When an air source heat pump (ASHP) unit is used for space heating at low ambient temperatures in winter, frost may form on its outdoor coil surface. Since the accumulated frost adversely affects its performance and energy efficiency, periodic defrosting of the outdoor coil is necessary. Currently, the reverse-cycle defrosting (RCD) method is widely used for the defrosting of ASHP. However, this operation interrupts space heating during the defrosting process. A time lag occurs to resume heating at end of the defrosting cycle. Moreover, frequent reversing of the 4-way valve may cause mass leakage of the refrigerant, even make the system unsafe. Furthermore, some amount of heat is dissipated to the atmosphere through the compressor casing. To improve the defrosting process and use this waste heat, a novel ASHP unit is developed. The space is heated during the defrosting process using the heat dissipated by the compressor. Experiments using both the RCD method and the novel reverse cycle defrosting (NRCD) method developed in this study are conducted on an ASHP unit of 8.9 kW nominal heating capacity. The experimental results indicated that in the NRCD method, the discharge and suction pressures are increased by 0.33 MPa and 0.14 MPa, respectively, the defrosting time is shortened by 65% while the resuming heating period vanished with the NRCD method, and that the total energy consumption in comparison to RCD method is reduced by 27.9% during the period which is composed

  2. Performances of air source heat pump system for a kind of mal-defrost phenomenon appearing in moderate climate conditions

    Highlights: ► Mal-defrost performances of ASHP in moderate environment are investigated. ► The system COP decreases to 2.3 under environment temperature of 7.9 °C. ► The decrease of the ASHP heating capacity can get to 43.4%. ► The origins of this special mal-defrost phenomenon were discussed. ► Suggestions were proposed to modify the current defrosting control strategies. - Abstract: To quantify the performance drop of the air source heat pump (ASHP) system under a special kind of mal-defrost phenomenon appearing in moderate climate conditions, a field test was conducted for 8 days at the initial stage of a heating season in Beijing, China. The mal-defrost was found with the more than 60% frosted area of the outdoor heat exchanger after the system running 5 days. During this frosting period, the system COP was significantly degraded, only 2.3 under an environment temperature of 7.9 °C. Comparing the test data before and after frosting, it was found that the mal-defrost decreased the COP up to 40.4% and the heating capacity to 43.4%. Such low energy efficiency continued quite a long time until the defrost control was started up manually by the authors. After defrosting, the COP reclaimed to the normal level of 5.0. The origins of this special mal-defrost phenomenon were discussed. And some suggestions were proposed to modify the current defrosting control strategy, which were helpful to avoid the mal-defrost problem in the current ASHP system and therefore improve the system performances

  3. An experimental investigation on reverse-cycle defrosting performance for an air source heat pump using an electronic expansion valve

    Highlights: ► We experimentally studied the defrost performance under two EEV control strategies. ► The two EEV control strategies were fully open and controlled by a DS controller. ► When the EEV was under the DS controller, higher defrosting efficiency was obtained. -- Abstract: When an air source heat pump (ASHP) operates in heating mode, frost can be accumulated on the surface of its finned outdoor coil. Frosting deteriorates the operation and energy efficiency of the ASHP and periodic defrosting becomes necessary. Currently the most widely used standard defrosting method for ASHPs is reverse cycle defrost. On the other hand, electronic expansion valves (EEVs) are commonly used in heat pump/refrigeration systems, including ASHP units, as throttle regulators of refrigerant flow. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of the performance of a reverse cycle defrost operation for a 6.5 kW experimental heating capacity residential ASHP whose outdoor coil had four-parallel refrigerant circuits, and with an EEV as the refrigerant flow throttle regulator. The detailed descriptions of the experimental ASHP unit and the experimental procedures of ASHP are firstly presented. This is followed by reporting the comparative experiments of two control strategies for the EEV to investigate their effects on defrosting performance: the EEV being fully open and the EEV being regulated by a degree of refrigerant superheat (DS) controller. Experimental results revealed that when the EEV was regulated by the DS controller during defrosting, a higher defrosting efficiency and less heat wastage would be resulted in.

  4. Control strategy and experimental study on a novel defrosting method for air-source heat pump

    A new defrosting method - the sensible heat defrosting method, aiming at shelving the various disadvantages of the conventional reverse cycle defrosting was proposed in this paper. The mechanism and process of this method was analysed. To guarantee the reliability, the self-organizing control algorithm with self-learning function was introduced based on the cardinal fuzzy control algorithm. Moreover, the control strategy was enacted; the corresponding self-organizing fuzzy control system was developed; the Micro Controller Unit (MCU) based control unit was accomplished; and the experimental study was conducted to investigate the sample machine of air-source heat pump system. The results of the experiments showed that the self-organizing control algorithm has good control characteristic and effect. On one hand, the adverse shock from the conventional reverse cycle defrosting to the refrigeration system could be avoided through this proposed method; on the other hand, the 'oil rush' could also be eliminated. Besides, the thermal comfort could be greatly improved since the temperature fluctuation range of the supplied water is narrowed by applying this new method in practice.

  5. Air-cooler with frosting and defrosting; Luftkylare med paafrysning och avfrostning

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments in the field of frosted air-coolers. It presents the fundamentals of frost growth and describes the pros and cons of alternative methods of defrosting and its control. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  6. 16 CFR Appendix A3 to Part 305 - Refrigerator-Freezers With Partial Automatic Defrost

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refrigerator-Freezers With Partial Automatic Defrost A3 Appendix A3 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER...

  7. A Novel, Simplified Scheme for Plastics Identification: "JCE" Classroom Activity 104

    Harris, Mary E.; Walker, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    In this Activity, students identify samples of seven types of recyclable plastic by using a flowchart scheme. The flowchart procedure includes making density comparisons of the plastic samples in water and alcohol and observing physical changes of plastic samples subjected to boiling water temperatures and exposure to acetone. This scheme is…

  8. A comparative study of the active force control schemes applied to robot arm

    In this paper, a comparative study of three different types of active force control (AFC) schemes applied to a robotic arm is described. The study particularly focuses on the techniques to compute the estimated inertia matrix (ΙΝ) of a robotic manipulator necessary for the execution of the AFC strategy since the computation of (ΙΝ) is the common central theme to all AFC-based schemes. The first of the three AFC schemes is based on the conventional method of obtaining (ΙΝ), the second uses artificial neural network while the third incorporates an iterative learning algorithm. The study also discusses the characteristics of the (ΙΝ) curves obtained, the trajectory track performance of the schemes and the effects of the modelled disturbances. The robustness of all the AFC schemes are also ascertained in the study. (Author)

  9. Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method Applied to an Active Force Control Scheme

    Endra Pitowarno, Musa Mailah, Hishamuddin Jamaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The active force control (AFC method is known as a robust control scheme that dramatically enhances the performance of a robot arm particularly in compensating the disturbance effects. The main task of the AFC method is to estimate the inertia matrix in the feedback loop to provide the correct (motor torque required to cancel out these disturbances. Several intelligent control schemes have already been introduced to enhance the estimation methods of acquiring the inertia matrix such as those using neural network, iterative learning and fuzzy logic. In this paper, we propose an alternative scheme called Knowledge-Based Trajectory Error Pattern Method (KBTEPM to suppress the trajectory track error of the AFC scheme. The knowledge is developed from the trajectory track error characteristic based on the previous experimental results of the crude approximation method. It produces a unique, new and desirable error pattern when a trajectory command is forced. An experimental study was performed using simulation work on the AFC scheme with KBTEPM applied to a two-planar manipulator in which a set of rule-based algorithm is derived. A number of previous AFC schemes are also reviewed as benchmark. The simulation results show that the AFC-KBTEPM scheme successfully reduces the trajectory track error significantly even in the presence of the introduced disturbances.Key Words:  Active force control, estimated inertia matrix, robot arm, trajectory error pattern, knowledge-based.

  10. A Lightning Activity Forecast Scheme Developed for Summer Thunderstorms in South China

    WANG Fei; ZHANG Yijun; DONG Wansheng

    2010-01-01

    Based on the relationship between lightning flash density and radar echoes and a statistical analysis using satellite and radar observations,a scheme was introduced into the mesoscale model GRAPES(Global and Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction System)to forecast the cloud to ground(CC)flash activities.Because the relationship is a necessary but not sufficient condition for lightning,an additional constraint condition related to temperature of cloud top is added into the scheme to determine whether the lightning activity really occurs.Only if the lightning activity meets the criterion to occur,the CG flash density in a grid is considered to be valid.This was proved to be necessary for reducing the false prediction.Two cases that occurred on the edge of the subtropical high in coastal regions of South China were simulated to examine the efficiency of the scheme.The results showed that the scheme was capable of forecasting lightning activities in South China.The simulated lightning areas agreed with the CG flash observations,and the CG flash density forecast by the model was also consistent with observational results in magnitude.In consideration of the forecast aging of the explicit cloud microphysical scheme in GRAPES,lightning activities can now be forecast accurately within 6 h.

  11. Mapping service activity: the example of childhood obesity schemes in England

    Roberts Helen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is high on the policy agenda of wealthier nations, and many interventions have been developed to address it. This work describes an overview of schemes for obese and overweight children and young people in England, and the 'mapping' approach we used. Methods Our search strategy, inclusion criteria and coding frame had to be suitable for describing a potentially large number of schemes within a short timeframe. Data were collected from key informants, scheme publicity and reports, and via a web-survey. To be included, schemes had to be based in England, follow a structured programme lasting at least two weeks, promote healthy weight, and be delivered exclusively to overweight and/or obese children and young people (age range 4-18. Data were entered into a coding frame recording similar information for each scheme, including any underpinning research evidence, evaluation or monitoring reports. Priority questions were identified in consultation with colleagues from the Department of Health and the Cross Government Obesity Unit. Results Fifty-one schemes were identified. Some operated in multiple areas, and by using estimates of the number of schemes provided by multi-site scheme leads, we found that between 314 and 375 local programmes were running at any time. Uncertainty is largely due to the largest scheme provider undergoing rapid expansion at the time of the mapping exercise and therefore able to provide only an estimate of the number of programmes running. Many schemes were similar in their approach, had been recently established and were following NICE guidelines on interventions to promote healthy weight. Rigorous evaluation was rare. Conclusions Our methods enabled us to produce a rapid overview of service activity across a wide geographic area and a range of organisations and sectors. In order to develop the evidence base for childhood obesity interventions, rigorous evaluation of these schemes is

  12. Smartphone-Based Patients' Activity Recognition by Using a Self-Learning Scheme for Medical Monitoring.

    Guo, Junqi; Zhou, Xi; Sun, Yunchuan; Ping, Gong; Zhao, Guoxing; Li, Zhuorong

    2016-06-01

    Smartphone based activity recognition has recently received remarkable attention in various applications of mobile health such as safety monitoring, fitness tracking, and disease prediction. To achieve more accurate and simplified medical monitoring, this paper proposes a self-learning scheme for patients' activity recognition, in which a patient only needs to carry an ordinary smartphone that contains common motion sensors. After the real-time data collection though this smartphone, we preprocess the data using coordinate system transformation to eliminate phone orientation influence. A set of robust and effective features are then extracted from the preprocessed data. Because a patient may inevitably perform various unpredictable activities that have no apriori knowledge in the training dataset, we propose a self-learning activity recognition scheme. The scheme determines whether there are apriori training samples and labeled categories in training pools that well match with unpredictable activity data. If not, it automatically assembles these unpredictable samples into different clusters and gives them new category labels. These clustered samples combined with the acquired new category labels are then merged into the training dataset to reinforce recognition ability of the self-learning model. In experiments, we evaluate our scheme using the data collected from two postoperative patient volunteers, including six labeled daily activities as the initial apriori categories in the training pool. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed self-learning scheme for activity recognition works very well for most cases. When there exist several types of unseen activities without any apriori information, the accuracy reaches above 80 % after the self-learning process converges. PMID:27106584

  13. A Fourier-based implicit evolution scheme for active surfaces, for object segmentation in volumetric images

    Active contours (AC) and active surfaces (AS) have been used extensively for segmentation and measurement in two- and three-dimensional images. The small time steps used in discretizing the evolution equation of AC/AS with the explicit scheme result in slow execution, whereas the use of the implicit evolution of AS in matrix form imposes very high memory and computational requirements. In this work we present an approach for implementing the implicit scheme for the numerical solution of the partial differential equation of the evolution of an AC/AS. The proposed approach is formulated as a deconvolution of the current contour/surface points with a one-dimensional mask that is performed using the discrete Fourier transform and it is derived using the properties of circulant matrices. The proposed scheme can handle higher accuracy numerical approximation of the discrete derivatives necessary for the method of AC/AS. It also possesses the separability property along different dimensions and it is applicable to implicit evolution of deformable surfaces, without the need to store and invert large sparse matrices. Initial results from the application of the proposed scheme to synthetic and clinical volumetric data demonstrate the correctness and applicability of the method. The computational complexity of the proposed scheme is also derived. (paper)

  14. An efficient numerical scheme for the simulation of parallel-plate active magnetic regenerators

    Torregrosa-Jaime, Bárbara; Corberán, José M.; Payá, Jorge;

    2015-01-01

    A one-dimensional model of a parallel-plate active magnetic regenerator (AMR) is presented in this work. The model is based on an efficient numerical scheme which has been developed after analysing the heat transfer mechanisms in the regenerator bed. The new finite difference scheme optimally...... combines explicit and implicit techniques in order to solve the one-dimensional conjugate heat transfer problem in an accurate and fast manner while ensuring energy conservation. The present model has been thoroughly validated against passive regenerator cases with an analytical solution. Compared to the...

  15. A study of the reverse cycle defrosting performance on a multi-circuit outdoor coil unit in an air source heat pump – Part I: Experiments

    Highlights: ► We experimental study the defrosting performance on a multi-circuit outdoor coil unit in an ASHP unit. ► We find that defrosting is quicker on the airside of upper circuits than that on the lower circuits. ► We discuss the effects of downwards flowing of the melted frost along the outdoor coil surface on defrosting performance. -- Abstract: When an air source heat pump (ASHP) unit operates in heating mode, frost can be accumulated on the surface of its finned outdoor coil which normally has multiple parallel circuits on its refrigerant side for minimized refrigerant pressure loss and enhanced heat transfer efficiency. On its airside, however, there is usually no segmentation corresponding to the number of refrigerant circuit. Frosting deteriorates the operation and energy efficiency of the ASHP unit and periodic defrosting becomes necessary. Currently the most widely used standard defrosting method for ASHPs is reverse cycle defrost. This paper, the first part of a two-part series, reports on the experimental part of a study of the reverse cycle defrosting performance on a multi-circuit outdoor coil unit in an experimental 6.5 kW heating capacity residential ASHP unit. Firstly the experimental ASHP unit is described and experimental procedures detailed. Secondly, the experimental results are reported. This is followed by the discussion on the effects of downwards flowing of the melted frost along a multi-circuit outdoor coil surface on defrosting performance. Finally, the evaluation of the defrosting efficiency for the experimental ASHP unit is provided. In the second part of the series, a modeling analysis on the effects of downwards flowing of the melted frost along the multi-circuit outdoor coil surface on defrosting performance of the experimental ASHP unit will be presented.

  16. Experimental analysis of an air-source transcritical CO2 heat pump water heater using the hot gas bypass defrosting method

    When an air-source CO2 heat pump water heater operates at low ambient temperatures in cold regions in winter, frost can form on the coil surface of its outdoor evaporator. The frost substantially affects the operating performance and energy efficiency of CO2 heat pump water heaters and hence periodic defrosting is essential. In this paper, defrosting characteristics of an air-source CO2 heat pump water heater using the hot gas bypass defrosting method is experimentally studied at different ambient conditions. An experimental setup is developed for this purpose and experimental procedures are detailed. Thereafter, the pressure and temperature in the outdoor evaporator, at the compressor and gas cooler outlets are evaluated during the defrosting period. An energy analysis is then performed of different system components during the defrosting process. Results indicate that 35% of the supplied energy is used for melting the frost, and 7.6% is used to heat the evaporator tubes and fins. About 57.4% of the supplied energy is consumed to increase the internal energy of the gas cooler. The typical efficiency of the hot gas bypass defrosting method applied in the CO2 heat pump water heater ranges from 30 to 40%. It increases with increasing dry bulb temperature, and decreasing relative humidity. - Highlights: • Hot gas bypass defrosting method for transcritical CO2 heat pumps was studied. • An experimental setup was established in an environmental laboratory. • The temperature, pressure and energy consumptions in the system were analysed. • The efficiency of hot gas bypass defrosting method ranged from 30 to 40%. • The effect of ambient conditions on defrosting efficiency was investigated

  17. Does Mixed Reimbursement Schemes Affect Hospital Activity and Productivity? An Analysis of the Case of Denmark

    Hansen, Xenia Brun; Bech, Mickael; Jakobsen, Mads Leth;

    2013-01-01

    literature with a deeper understanding of such mixed reimbursement systems as well as empirically by identifying key design factors that determines the incentives embedded in such a mixed model. Furthermore, we describe how incentives vary in different designs of the mixed reimbursement scheme and assess...... whether different incentives affects the performance of hospitals regarding activity and productivity differently. Information on Danish reimbursement schemes has been collected from documents provided by the regional governments and through interviews with regional administrations. The data cover the...... period from 2007-2010. A theoretical framework identified the key factors in an ABF/block grant model to be the proportion of the national Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) tariff above and below a predefined production target (i.e. the baseline); baseline calculations; the presence of kinks/ceilings; and...

  18. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  19. A magnetic resonance spectroscopy driven initialization scheme for active shape model based prostate segmentation.

    Toth, Robert; Tiwari, Pallavi; Rosen, Mark; Reed, Galen; Kurhanewicz, John; Kalyanpur, Arjun; Pungavkar, Sona; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-04-01

    Segmentation of the prostate boundary on clinical images is useful in a large number of applications including calculation of prostate volume pre- and post-treatment, to detect extra-capsular spread, and for creating patient-specific anatomical models. Manual segmentation of the prostate boundary is, however, time consuming and subject to inter- and intra-reader variability. T2-weighted (T2-w) magnetic resonance (MR) structural imaging (MRI) and MR spectroscopy (MRS) have recently emerged as promising modalities for detection of prostate cancer in vivo. MRS data consists of spectral signals measuring relative metabolic concentrations, and the metavoxels near the prostate have distinct spectral signals from metavoxels outside the prostate. Active Shape Models (ASM's) have become very popular segmentation methods for biomedical imagery. However, ASMs require careful initialization and are extremely sensitive to model initialization. The primary contribution of this paper is a scheme to automatically initialize an ASM for prostate segmentation on endorectal in vivo multi-protocol MRI via automated identification of MR spectra that lie within the prostate. A replicated clustering scheme is employed to distinguish prostatic from extra-prostatic MR spectra in the midgland. The spatial locations of the prostate spectra so identified are used as the initial ROI for a 2D ASM. The midgland initializations are used to define a ROI that is then scaled in 3D to cover the base and apex of the prostate. A multi-feature ASM employing statistical texture features is then used to drive the edge detection instead of just image intensity information alone. Quantitative comparison with another recent ASM initialization method by Cosio showed that our scheme resulted in a superior average segmentation performance on a total of 388 2D MRI sections obtained from 32 3D endorectal in vivo patient studies. Initialization of a 2D ASM via our MRS-based clustering scheme resulted in an average

  20. Active sway control of a gantry crane using hybrid input shaping and PID control schemes

    Mohd Tumari, M. Z.; Shabudin, L.; Zawawi, M. A.; Shah, L. H. Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    This project presents investigations into the development of hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes for active sway control of a gantry crane system. The application of positive input shaping involves a technique that can reduce the sway by creating a common signal that cancels its own vibration and used as a feed-forward control which is for controlling the sway angle of the pendulum, while the proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is used as a feedback control which is for controlling the crane position. The PID controller was tuned using Ziegler-Nichols method to get the best performance of the system. The hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes guarantee a fast input tracking capability, precise payload positioning and very minimal sway motion. The modeling of gantry crane is used to simulate the system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The results of the response with the controllers are presented in time domains and frequency domains. The performances of control schemes are examined in terms of level of input tracking capability, sway angle reduction and time response specification.

  1. Active sway control of a gantry crane using hybrid input shaping and PID control schemes

    This project presents investigations into the development of hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes for active sway control of a gantry crane system. The application of positive input shaping involves a technique that can reduce the sway by creating a common signal that cancels its own vibration and used as a feed-forward control which is for controlling the sway angle of the pendulum, while the proportional integral derivative (PID) controller is used as a feedback control which is for controlling the crane position. The PID controller was tuned using Ziegler-Nichols method to get the best performance of the system. The hybrid input-shaping and PID control schemes guarantee a fast input tracking capability, precise payload positioning and very minimal sway motion. The modeling of gantry crane is used to simulate the system using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. The results of the response with the controllers are presented in time domains and frequency domains. The performances of control schemes are examined in terms of level of input tracking capability, sway angle reduction and time response specification

  2. Enhancing Educational Research and Development Activity through Small Grant Schemes: A Case Study

    Morris, Clare; Fry, Heather

    2006-01-01

    There are many funding schemes in existence for small projects in educational development, but fewer equivalent research schemes. Data from an evaluation of two schemes at one institution are used as the catalyst for considering such schemes in wider contextual and theoretical perspectives. The evaluation analysed success rate data, project…

  3. Beginning of fish defrosting by using non-destructive ultrasonic technique

    During the experiments carried out on the monitoring and the study of fish defrosting by an ultrasonic technique, we have difficulties in detecting the beginning of the thawing which is an important criterion of fish quality control. To address this problem, we use the Singular Value Decomposition method (SVD) which is a mathematical tool that permits to separate the high and low energies of an histogram. The image representing low energy signals indicates the start of the thawing by showing an echo that was hidden in the original image for cod fish. Using transducers for central frequencies above 500 kHz the observed results are not very good. Therefore, this method is suitable for fish which fat content is medium or low.

  4. Improvement of the defrosting process for air-cooled evaporators - Phase 3: technical implementation, laboratory tests and field trials; Verbesserung des Abtauens bei luftbeaufschlagten Verdampfern. Phase 3: technische Umsetzung, Labor- und Feldversuche

    Ehrbar, M.; Bertsch, S.; Schwendener, S. [NTB Interstaatliche Hochschule fuer Technik Buchs, Buchs (Switzerland); Hubacher, P.; Bernal, C.; Hubacher, B. [Hubacher Engineering, Engelburg (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews the results of the third phase of a project that involved the examination of the technical possibilities of decreasing energy consumption during defrosting of heat pump evaporators. The five topics looked at include defrosting at temperatures above 2 {sup o}C using the unit's fan, defrosting with ambient air from the room where the evaporator is located, defrosting using stored heat, optimised hot-gas defrosting and 'natural' defrosting during the time when the system is not running. The authors state that many improvements can be obtained with only moderate technical measures being taken and at low cost.

  5. Formation scheme and antioxidant activity of a novel Maillard pigment, pyrrolothiazolate, formed from cysteine and glucose.

    Noda, Kyoko; Terasawa, Naoko; Murata, Masatsune

    2016-06-15

    We recently identified 6-hydroxy-3[R],7a[S]-dimethyl-7-oxo-2,3-dihydropyrrolo[2,1-b]thiazole-3-calboxylic acid, a novel pyrrolothiazole derivative carrying a carboxy group and named pyrrolothiazolate, as a Mallard pigment formed from l-cysteine and d-glucose. Here we described the formation of its enantiomer, the plausible formation scheme of pyrrolothiazolate, and its antioxidant activity. When d-cysteine was used instead of l-cysteine in the reaction mixture, the enantiomer of pyrrolothiazolate was obtained. The carbon at position 1 of glucose was incorporated into two methyl groups of pyrrolothiazolate. The pigment was considered to be formed through 1-deoxyglucosone (1-DG). The dehydrated isomer of 1-DG would be condensed with the thiol and amino groups of cysteine. This condensate was dehydrated and cyclized to form pyrrolothiazolate. This compound was an antioxidant showing radical scavenging activity. PMID:26987433

  6. A New Decoding Scheme for Errorless Codes for Overloaded CDMA with Active User Detection

    Mousavi, Ali; Marvasti, Farokh

    2010-01-01

    Recently, a new class of binary codes for overloaded CDMA systems are proposed that not only has the ability of errorless communication but also suitable for detecting active users. These codes are called COWDA [1]. In [1], a Maximum Likelihood (ML) decoder is proposed for this class of codes. Although the proposed scheme of coding/decoding show impressive performance, the decoder can be improved. In this paper by assuming more practical conditions for the traffic in the system, we suggest an algorithm that increases the performance of the decoder several orders of magnitude (the Bit-Error-Rate (BER) is divided by a factor of 400 in some Eb/N0's The algorithm supposes the Poison distribution for the time of activation/deactivation of the users.

  7. Effect of gamma-irradiation on frozen shrimps for inactivation of microorganisms and shelf-life extension under defrosted

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on inactivation of microorganisms in frozen shrimps was investigated for improving the hygienic quality and shelf-life after defrosted. Count of total aerobic bacteria in three different kinds of frozen shrimps were decreased below 104 per gram at 4 kGy of irradiation, and showed the similar pattern of inactivation curves under the same frozen condition . Coliforms were eliminated below 4 kGy of irradiation. Radiation-resistance of aerobic bacteria in frozen condition was larger than defrosted condition, and the necessary dose for inactivation of aerobic bacteria below the count of 104 per gram was required 3 kGy at defrosted condition, and 4 kGy at frozen condition. However, freezing could remarkably reduce the production of radiation induced off-odor from shrimps. Trimethylamine content in frozen shrimps did not get effect up to 50 kGy irradiation. Vibrio parahaemolyticus was isolated from 1 to 3 numbers in 100g of frozen shrimps, and necessary dose for elimination was decided as 1.5 to 2.0 kGy in frozen shrimps. Shelf-life of irradiated shrimps at 3 and 5 kGy was found to be 6 days at the storage condition of 5degC, whereas the unirradiated samples were putrefied below 3 days of storage. (author)

  8. Half-Duplex Active Eavesdropping in Fast Fading Channels: A Block-Markov Wyner Secrecy Encoding Scheme

    Amariucai, George T

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of half-duplex active eavesdropping in fast fading channels. The active eavesdropper is a more powerful adversary than the classical eavesdropper. It can choose between two functional modes: eavesdropping the transmission between the legitimate parties (Ex mode), and jamming it (Jx mode) -- the active eavesdropper cannot function in full duplex mode. We consider a conservative scenario, when the active eavesdropper can choose its strategy based on the legitimate transmitter-receiver pair's strategy -- and thus the transmitter and legitimate receiver have to plan for the worst. We show that conventional physical-layer secrecy approaches perform poorly (if at all), and we introduce a novel encoding scheme, based on very limited and unsecured feedback -- the Block-Markov Wyner (BMW) encoding scheme -- which outperforms any schemes currently available.

  9. Validating activity prescription schemes in radionuclide therapy based on TCP and NTCP indexes calculation

    Full text: In this work a formulation for evaluation and acceptance of activity prescription schemes (single or multiple administrations) in radionuclide therapy based on the calculation of Tumor Control Probability (TCP) and Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) is presented. The Poisson model was used for TCP calculation and NTCP by using the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman's (LKB) model. All calculations for biological evaluation of the activity prescription schemes are made from the absorbed dose in mGy/MBq of injected activity calculated from the gammagraphic images. The input data for calculations are activity (MBq) per administration, the number of administration proposed and time interval between administrations (equally spaced). The TCP (Poisson model) calculation was made by determination of Biological Equivalent Dose (BED) using a formulation of linear-quadratic (LQ) model in which cell repair and proliferation during the irradiation at low dose rate (LDR) were considered [2]. Similarly, NTCP (LKB's model) calculation was also done from BED determination, but those calculated for LDR were converted to 2Gy-equivalent dose at high dose rate in order to use the tolerance values tabulated [8] and because it is more understandable for physicians. Kidneys, bone marrow and whole body were considered as critical organs. Proliferation was considered only for bone marrow during the BED calculations. The BED model for LDR reported was extended for multi-exponential dose rate function with any number of terms. A formulation for multiple administrations, equally time-spaced where cumulative dose effects are included, is also tested. The dose distribution was considered homogeneous in tumor volume, keeping in mind that some dose distribution parameters, like equivalent uniform dose (EUD), could be used for description of irradiation effects for non-homogeneous dose distribution, as we could find in applications of radionuclide therapy in real clinical situation

  10. Defrosting the digital library: bibliographic tools for the next generation web.

    Duncan Hull

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists now manage the bulk of their bibliographic information electronically, thereby organizing their publications and citation material from digital libraries. However, a library has been described as "thought in cold storage," and unfortunately many digital libraries can be cold, impersonal, isolated, and inaccessible places. In this Review, we discuss the current chilly state of digital libraries for the computational biologist, including PubMed, IEEE Xplore, the ACM digital library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Citeseer, arXiv, DBLP, and Google Scholar. We illustrate the current process of using these libraries with a typical workflow, and highlight problems with managing data and metadata using URIs. We then examine a range of new applications such as Zotero, Mendeley, Mekentosj Papers, MyNCBI, CiteULike, Connotea, and HubMed that exploit the Web to make these digital libraries more personal, sociable, integrated, and accessible places. We conclude with how these applications may begin to help achieve a digital defrost, and discuss some of the issues that will help or hinder this in terms of making libraries on the Web warmer places in the future, becoming resources that are considerably more useful to both humans and machines.

  11. Defrosting the digital library: bibliographic tools for the next generation web.

    Hull, Duncan; Pettifer, Steve R; Kell, Douglas B

    2008-10-01

    Many scientists now manage the bulk of their bibliographic information electronically, thereby organizing their publications and citation material from digital libraries. However, a library has been described as "thought in cold storage," and unfortunately many digital libraries can be cold, impersonal, isolated, and inaccessible places. In this Review, we discuss the current chilly state of digital libraries for the computational biologist, including PubMed, IEEE Xplore, the ACM digital library, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Citeseer, arXiv, DBLP, and Google Scholar. We illustrate the current process of using these libraries with a typical workflow, and highlight problems with managing data and metadata using URIs. We then examine a range of new applications such as Zotero, Mendeley, Mekentosj Papers, MyNCBI, CiteULike, Connotea, and HubMed that exploit the Web to make these digital libraries more personal, sociable, integrated, and accessible places. We conclude with how these applications may begin to help achieve a digital defrost, and discuss some of the issues that will help or hinder this in terms of making libraries on the Web warmer places in the future, becoming resources that are considerably more useful to both humans and machines. PMID:18974831

  12. Developing a Coding Scheme to Analyse Creativity in Highly-constrained Design Activities

    Dekoninck, Elies; Yue, Huang; Howard, Thomas J.;

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a larger project which aims to investigate the nature of creativity and the effectiveness of creativity tools in highly-constrained design tasks. This paper presents the research where a coding scheme was developed and tested with a designer-researcher who conducted two rounds...... of design and analysis on a highly constrained design task. This paper shows how design changes can be coded using a scheme based on creative ‘modes of change’. The coding scheme can show the way a designer moves around the design space, and particularly the strategies that are used by a creative...... designer to skip from one ‘train of solutions’ to new avenues. The coding scheme can be made more robust by: ensuring design change is always coded relative to a reference design; tightening up definitions of ‘system’, ‘element’ and ‘function’; and using a matrix to develop a more complete set of codes. A...

  13. A study on the effects of Kalman Filter on performance of IPMC-Based Active Vibration Control Scheme

    Bandopadhya, Dibakar; Njuguna, James A. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effectiveness and performance of Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) based active vibration control scheme equipped with the Kalman estimation algorithm. To assess the vibration attenuation efficiency, a rotating flexible manipulator has been modelled integrating two IPMC actuators following the modal approach. The elastic displacements as generalized coordinates for estimating optimal performance is carried out next by discretizing the elastic motion through the ass...

  14. 16 CFR Appendix A5 to Part 305 - Refrigerator-Freezers With Automatic Defrost With Side-Mounted Freezer Without Through-the-Door...

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refrigerator-Freezers With Automatic Defrost With Side-Mounted Freezer Without Through-the-Door Ice Service A5 Appendix A5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND...

  15. 16 CFR Appendix A4 to Part 305 - Refrigerator-Freezers With Automatic Defrost With Top-Mounted Freezer Without Through-the-Door...

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refrigerator-Freezers With Automatic Defrost With Top-Mounted Freezer Without Through-the-Door Ice Service A4 Appendix A4 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER...

  16. 16 CFR Appendix A7 to Part 305 - Refrigerator-freezers With Automatic Defrost With Top-mounted Freezer With Through-the-door Ice...

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refrigerator-freezers With Automatic Defrost With Top-mounted Freezer With Through-the-door Ice Service A7 Appendix A7 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE...

  17. 16 CFR Appendix A8 to Part 305 - Refrigerator-freezers With Automatic Defrost With Side-mounted Freezer With Through-the-door Ice...

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refrigerator-freezers With Automatic Defrost With Side-mounted Freezer With Through-the-door Ice Service A8 Appendix A8 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER...

  18. 16 CFR Appendix A6 to Part 305 - Refrigerator-Freezers With Automatic Defrost With Bottom-Mounted Freezer Without Through-the-Door...

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Refrigerator-Freezers With Automatic Defrost With Bottom-Mounted Freezer Without Through-the-Door Ice Service A6 Appendix A6 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND...

  19. Coordination of nuclear safety regulations and corporate compliance activities. Desirable implementation of the whistle-blower protection scheme in Japan

    Recently, scandals and incidents associated with development and utilization of nuclear energy have attracted social concerns widely. However, there are limitations in preventing nuclear operators from illegal or unethical conduct only through reinforcement and expanding the nuclear safety regulations. From this viewpoint, it has turned out a real issue to develop a desirable coordination between the regulatory system and corporate compliance activities to maintain and further improve nuclear safety. Whistle-blower protection scheme (as depicted 'Declaration to the Competent Minister' in The Law for the Regulation of Nuclear Source Material, Nuclear Fuel Material and Reactors') reveals itself as a promising scheme to promote such coordination of nuclear safety regulations and corporate compliance activities. This study demonstrates that introduction of whistle-blower protection system in the U.S. federal nuclear safety regulations has encouraged developments of Employee Concerns Programs as corporate allegation programs at the U.S. based utility companies, and thereby indicates concrete improvement proposals of whistle-blower protection system enforcement in nuclear safety regulation in Japan that encourages corporate compliance activities. The principal aspects are as follows; (1) Development of compensatory scheme for employees who were discriminated on ground of the declaration, and (2) Clear rulemaking for existing private corporate allegation programs to be compatible with the official whistle-blowing procedure by Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, the Japanese safety regulatory authority. (author)

  20. Active Node Backoff Adjustment Scheme for Improving Throughput and Fairness in IEEE 802.11

    Ch. Ravindra Kumar; M.V.Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Improving throughput and fairness of IEEE 802.11 WLAN is still an interesting research issue in networks, Even though various approaches available, but optimizing the throughput and fairness are the important parametersin MAC layer of data link layer. In this paper we are proposing an efficient MAC scheme called ANBA. The key idea is to enable each AN to adjust its CW to approach the optimal one that can make the throughput maximum and while keeping fair channel sharing among all nodes.

  1. Is MGNREG Scheme complementary to fishing activities? A study on some selected states of India

    Chiranjib Neogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater fish output is taken as a proxy variable for empirical assessment of indirect benefits in terms of enhanced quantity of freshwater fish (output cultivation. It is not unlikely to assess empirically the productivity of subsidized public scheme when rural development or rural asset generations are underlined in the said scheme, MGNREG Act, 2005. Rainwater harvesting is a major component part of the scheme since about 49.5 per cent of the total fund is already utilized on water conservation and obviously it has an impact on the cultivation of freshwater fish output. Time series data on annual expenditure on MGNREG and corresponding freshwater fish output at the state level are taken during the period 2006-07 to 2013-14 for 16 major Indian states. Fixed effect model and random effect models are being applied and the Hausman specification test suggests that fixed effect model is more appropriate than random effect model. Significant differences among the intercepts of the selected states are revealed as per F test. The results of fixed effect panel regression establish that fish output is enhanced by 0.000257 thousand tones or 0.26 tones if MGNREG expenditure rises by one crore or 10 million rupees.

  2. An active 3-dimensional localization scheme for femtocell subscribers using E-UTRAN

    Mohammed, Aquil Mirza

    2012-05-01

    Femtocells provide an efficient solution to overcome the indoor coverage problems and also to deal with the traffic within Macro cells. The possibility of localizing femtocell subscriber stations based on the timing ranging advance parameter (TRAP), obtained from E-UTRAN (Evolved UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network), within the network signal internals is challenging and is studied throughout in this paper. The principle approach to localization based on Euclidean distances from multiple base stations is outlined.We investigate the specifications of the timing parameters or TRAP used for air interface of 4G network as they relate to calculating the subscriber distances. Computer simulation is used to demonstrate the localization accuracy using multiple base station networks when estimating likely locations of femtocell subscribers stations on a twodimensional coordinate mapping system. However, we further extend our simulations to demonstrate expected location accuracy of subscriber stations, for multiple base station networks, on a three dimensional coordinate mapping scheme. The possibility of of error-fixes shows eight times greater accuracy than in previous results is expected to achieve by applying timing advance techniques to Global System for Mobile communications networks, by using a two-dimensional coordinate mapping scheme. We later compare our study with the effect of global positioning system (GPS) by using a three-dimensional coordinate mapping scheme, which is predicted to give an 72.4 cms accuracy of subscriber station location. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Psychosocial mediators of change in physical activity in the Welsh national exercise referral scheme: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial

    Littlecott, Hannah J.; Moore, Graham F; Moore, Laurence; Murphy, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Objective While an increasing number of randomised controlled trials report impacts of exercise referral schemes (ERS) on physical activity, few have investigated the mechanisms through which increases in physical activity are produced. This study examines whether a National Exercise Referral Scheme (NERS) in Wales is associated with improvements in autonomous motivation, self-efficacy and social support, and whether change in physical activity is mediated by change in these psychosocial proc...

  4. An experimental study on the negative effects of downwards flow of the melted frost over a multi-circuit outdoor coil in an air source heat pump during reverse cycle defrosting

    Highlights: • A special experimental rig was built and its details are reported. • The negative effects of downwards flowing of the melted frost were shown. • Defrosting duration was shortened after installing water collecting trays. • Temperature of melted frost decreased after installing trays. - Abstract: When the surface temperature of the outdoor coil in an air source heat pump (ASHP) unit is lower than both freezing point of water and the air dew point, frost can be formed and accumulated over outdoor coil surface. Frosting affects the energy efficiency, and periodic defrosting therefore is necessary. Reverse cycle defrosting is currently the most widely used defrosting method. A previous related study has indicated that during reverse cycle defrosting, downwards flow of the melted frost over a multi-circuit outdoor coil could affect the defrosting performance, without however giving detailed quantitative analysis of the effects. Therefore an experimental study on the effects has been carried out and a quantitative analysis conducted using the experimental data. In this paper, the detailed description of an experimental ASHP unit which was specifically built up is firstly reported. This is followed by presenting experimental results. Result analysis and conclusions are finally given

  5. Integrated separation scheme for measuring a suite of fission and activation products from a fresh mixed fission and activation product sample

    Mixed fission and activation materials resulting from various nuclear processes and events contain a wide range of isotopes for analysis spanning almost the entire periodic table. This work describes the production of a complex synthetic sample containing fission products, activation products, and irradiated soil, and determines the percent chemical recovery of select isotopes through the integrated chemical separation scheme. Based on the results of this experiment, a complex synthetic sample can be prepared with low atom/fission ratios and isotopes of interest accurately and precisely measured following an integrated chemical separation method. (author)

  6. Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling - Part 2: Dynamic behaviour and two-phase thermosiphon defrosting technique

    Highlights: → Experimental study of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling. → Operating sequences alternating between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes. → Validation of the high pressure control system. → Validation of the non-penalizing two-phase thermosiphon defrosting sequence. - Abstract: This article presents the concepts of an air-source heat pump for simultaneous heating and cooling (HPS) designed for hotels and smaller residential, commercial and office buildings in which simultaneous needs in heating and cooling are frequent. The main advantage of the HPS is to carry out simultaneously space heating and space cooling with the same energy input. Ambient air is used as a balancing source to run a heating or a cooling mode. The second advantage is that, during winter, energy recovered by the subcooling of the refrigerant is stored at first in a water tank and used subsequently as a cold source at the water evaporator to improve the average performance and to carry out defrosting of the air evaporator using a two-phase thermosiphon. Unlike conventional air-source heat pumps, defrosting is carried out without stopping the heat production. A R407C HPS prototype was built and tested. The basic concepts of the HPS are detailed in part1 of this article . Its performance on defined operating conditions corresponds to the data given by the selection software of the compressor manufacturer. In the present part of this article, the operation of the high pressure control system, the transitions between heating, cooling and simultaneous modes and the defrosting sequence are analysed and validated experimentally.

  7. Formulation of 36-noded piezoelectric spectral finite element scheme with active/passive layers coupled by Lagrange multipliers

    A novel spectral finite element formulation scheme is presented for modeling a plate structure with surface-mounted piezoelectric transducers. Surface-mounted piezoelectric transducers may asymmetrically distribute the mass in the thickness direction of the plate/panel structure, resulting in a coupled mass matrix in spectral element formulation. A new procedure is developed by equating the layer-wise kinematics of the element using undetermined Lagrange multipliers to achieve the diagonal mass matrix. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the element formulation scheme, a two-dimensional piezoelectric spectral element is constructed with 36 nodes and five active/passive layers (layers: transducer/bond/plate/bond/transducer). The performance of the developed element is illustrated by (a) simulation of Lamb wave propagation and estimation of its velocity, and (b) simulation of the effect of transducer size, its dynamics and shear lag on sensor’s response. The results presented highlight the importance of modeling the dynamics of transducers and understanding the effects on sensor response. The presented technique has relevance in the field of structural health monitoring, wherein it can be used to model and simulate aircraft panels with surface-mounted piezoelectric transducers. (paper)

  8. Oleate lipase activity in Gardnerella vaginalis and reconsideration of existing biotype schemes

    Moncla Bernard J

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative gram positive organism that requires subculture every 1–2 days to maintain viability. It has been linked with bacterial vaginosis (BV, a syndrome that has been associated with increased risk for preterm delivery, pelvic inflammatory disease and HIV acquisition. About 10% of the G. vaginalis isolates have been reported to produce sialidase, but there have not been any studies relating sialidase production and biotype. Sialidase activity is dramatically increased in the vaginal fluid of women with BV and bacterial sialidases have been shown to increase the infectivity of HIV in vitro. There are 8 different biotypes of G. vaginalis. Biotypes 1–4 produce lipase and were reported to be associated with BV and the association of these biotypes with BV is under dispute. Other studies have demonstrated that G. vaginalis biotype 1 can stimulate HIV-1 production. Because of the discrepancies in the literature we compared the methods used to biotype G. vaginalis and investigated the relationship of biotype and sialidase production. Results A new medium for maintenance of Gardnerella vaginalis which allows survival for longer than one week is described. Some isolates only grew well under anaerobic conditions. Sialidase producing isolates were observed in 5 of the 6 biotypes tested. Using 4-methylumbelliferyl-oleate to determine lipase activity, instead of egg yolk agar, resulted in erroneous biotypes and does not provide reliable results. Conclusion Previous studies associating G. vaginalis biotype with bacterial vaginosis were methodologically flawed, suggesting there is not an association of G. vaginalis biotypes and bacterial vaginosis. Sialidase activity was observed in 5 of the 8 biotypes.

  9. GPU-BASED MONTE CARLO DUST RADIATIVE TRANSFER SCHEME APPLIED TO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    A three-dimensional parallel Monte Carlo (MC) dust radiative transfer code is presented. To overcome the huge computing-time requirements of MC treatments, the computational power of vectorized hardware is used, utilizing either multi-core computer power or graphics processing units. The approach is a self-consistent way to solve the radiative transfer equation in arbitrary dust configurations. The code calculates the equilibrium temperatures of two populations of large grains and stochastic heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anisotropic scattering is treated applying the Heney-Greenstein phase function. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object is derived at low spatial resolution by a photon counting procedure and at high spatial resolution by a vectorized ray tracer. The latter allows computation of high signal-to-noise images of the objects at any frequencies and arbitrary viewing angles. We test the robustness of our approach against other radiative transfer codes. The SED and dust temperatures of one- and two-dimensional benchmarks are reproduced at high precision. The parallelization capability of various MC algorithms is analyzed and included in our treatment. We utilize the Lucy algorithm for the optical thin case where the Poisson noise is high, the iteration-free Bjorkman and Wood method to reduce the calculation time, and the Fleck and Canfield diffusion approximation for extreme optical thick cells. The code is applied to model the appearance of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at optical and infrared wavelengths. The AGN torus is clumpy and includes fluffy composite grains of various sizes made up of silicates and carbon. The dependence of the SED on the number of clumps in the torus and the viewing angle is studied. The appearance of the 10 μm silicate features in absorption or emission is discussed. The SED of the radio-loud quasar 3C 249.1 is fit by the AGN model and a cirrus component to account for the far-infrared emission.

  10. Downstream Activities at the Felda Land Development Scheme: Analysis on Motivational Factors of Women’s Participation in Business Activities

    N.A.H. Idris; N.H.M. Salleh; W. Endut

    2014-01-01

    Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) in Malaysia has been a successful land development agency for the past fifty-two years. Established on 1 July 1956, it is the main government instrument in reducing rural poverty in the Federation of Malaya. FELDA itself has grown into a conglomerate with numerous subsidiaries and joint-venture companies engaged in a variety of related upstream and downstream business. This paper deals with women’s participation in downstream activities. It provides ...

  11. Inspection scheme

    As part of the Danish RERTR Program, three fuel elements with LEU U3O8-Al fuel and three fuel elements with LEU U3Si2-Al fuel were manufactured by NUKEM for irradiation testing in the DR-3 reactor at the Risoe National Laboratory in Denmark. The inspection scheme for the elements with U3O8-Al fuel is presented here as an illustration only. The inspection scheme for the elements with U3Si2-Al fuel was very similar. In this example, all document numbers, drawing numbers, and form numbers have been deleted or replaced with a generic identification. (author)

  12. Degradation in urban air quality from construction activity and increased traffic arising from a road widening scheme.

    Font, Anna; Baker, Timothy; Mudway, Ian S; Purdie, Esme; Dunster, Christina; Fuller, Gary W

    2014-11-01

    Road widening schemes in urban areas are often proposed as a solution to traffic congestion and as a means of stimulating economic growth. There is however clear evidence that new or expanded roads rapidly fill with either displaced or induced traffic, offsetting any short-term gains in eased traffic flows. What has not been addressed in any great detail is the impact of such schemes on air quality, with modelled impact predictions seldom validated by measurements after the expansion of road capacity. In this study we made use of a road widening project in London to investigate the impact on ambient air quality (particulate matter, NOX, NO2) during and after the completion of the road works. PM10 increased during the construction period up to 15 μg m(-3) during working hours compared to concentrations before the road works. A box modelling approach was used to determine a median emission factor of 0.0022 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three times larger than that used in the UK emission inventory (0.0007 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1)). Peaks of activity released 0.0130 kg PM10 m(-2) month(-1), three and eight times smaller than the peak values used in the European and US inventories. After the completion of the widening there was an increase in all pollutants from the road during rush hour: 2-4 μg m(-3) for PM10; 1 μg m(-3) for PM2.5; 40 and 8 μg m(-3) for NOX and NO2, respectively. NO2 EU Limit Value was breached after the road development illustrating a notable deterioration in residential air quality. Additionally, PM10, but not PM2.5, glutathione dependent oxidative potential increased after the road was widened consistent with an increase in pro-oxidant components in the coarse particle mode, related to vehicle abrasion processes. These increased air pollution indices were associated with an increase in the number of cars, taxis and LGVs. PMID:25128882

  13. Health Professionals' Perspectives on Exercise Referral and Physical Activity Promotion in Primary Care: Findings from a Process Evaluation of the National Exercise Referral Scheme in Wales

    Din, Nafees U.; Moore, Graham F.; Murphy, Simon; Wilkinson, Clare; Williams, Nefyn H.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: Referring clinicians' experiences of exercise referral schemes (ERS) can provide valuable insights into their uptake. However, most qualitative studies focus on patient views only. This paper explores health professionals' perceptions of their role in promoting physical activity and experiences of a National Exercise…

  14. Tabled Execution in Scheme

    Willcock, J J; Lumsdaine, A; Quinlan, D J

    2008-08-19

    Tabled execution is a generalization of memorization developed by the logic programming community. It not only saves results from tabled predicates, but also stores the set of currently active calls to them; tabled execution can thus provide meaningful semantics for programs that seemingly contain infinite recursions with the same arguments. In logic programming, tabled execution is used for many purposes, both for improving the efficiency of programs, and making tasks simpler and more direct to express than with normal logic programs. However, tabled execution is only infrequently applied in mainstream functional languages such as Scheme. We demonstrate an elegant implementation of tabled execution in Scheme, using a mix of continuation-passing style and mutable data. We also show the use of tabled execution in Scheme for a problem in formal language and automata theory, demonstrating that tabled execution can be a valuable tool for Scheme users.

  15. The Realization of a CO2 Heat Pump Defrosting Method%一种CO2热泵除霜方法的实现

    杨军红

    2016-01-01

    空气源CO2热泵在冬季运行时,由于外部环境温度低、空气湿度大等原因,往往会在蒸发器表面形成霜层,从而降低热泵运行效率,甚至影响热泵机组的正常运行,根据CO2热泵的实际应用,设计一种CO2热泵智能除霜方法,用于解决空气源CO2热泵低温、高湿环境下的除霜问题。%Air source CO2 heat pump running in winter, due to the external environment of low temperature, high air humidity and so on, often formation frost layer in the evaporator surface, thereby reducing the efficiency of the heat pump, and even affect the normal operation of the heat pump units, this paper will according to the practical application of the CO2 heat pump, design a CO2 heat pump intelligent defrosting method, is used to solve the CO2 air source heat pump defrost problem under the low temperature, high humidity environment.

  16. An Enhanced Droop Control Scheme for Resilient Active Power Sharing in Paralleled Two-Stage PV Inverter Systems

    Liu, Hongpeng; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Xiongfei;

    2016-01-01

    Traditional droop-controlled systems assume that the generators are able to provide sufficient power as required. This is however not always true, especially in renewable systems, where the energy sources (e.g., photovoltaic source) may not be able to provide enough power (or even loss of power...... strategy is carried out. Experiments have verified the effectiveness of the proposed droop control scheme....

  17. Can adding web-based support to UK primary care exercise referral schemes improve patients’ physical activity levels? Findings from an internal pilot study.

    Adrian Taylor; Douglas Webb; Sarah Dean; Kate Jolly; Nanette Mutrie; Lucy Yardley

    2015-01-01

    Background: Promoting physical activity (PA) via primary care exercise referral schemes (ERS) is common but there is no rigorous evidence for long term changes in PA (Pavey et al, 2011) among those with chronic conditions. From July 2015, for 15 months, the e-coachER trial began to recruit 1400 patients (in SW England, Birmingham and Glasgow) with one or more chronic conditions including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, osteoarthritis, or depression, who are eligible and about to attend an ER...

  18. Nonstandard finite difference schemes

    Mickens, Ronald E.

    1995-01-01

    The major research activities of this proposal center on the construction and analysis of nonstandard finite-difference schemes for ordinary and partial differential equations. In particular, we investigate schemes that either have zero truncation errors (exact schemes) or possess other significant features of importance for numerical integration. Our eventual goal is to bring these methods to bear on problems that arise in the modeling of various physical, engineering, and technological systems. At present, these efforts are extended in the direction of understanding the exact nature of these nonstandard procedures and extending their use to more complicated model equations. Our presentation will give a listing (obtained to date) of the nonstandard rules, their application to a number of linear and nonlinear, ordinary and partial differential equations. In certain cases, numerical results will be presented.

  19. Fabrication of Z-scheme Ag3PO4/MoS2 composites with enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability for organic pollutant degradation

    Zhu, Chaosheng; Zhang, Lu; Jiang, Bo; Zheng, Jingtang; Hu, Ping; Li, Sujuan; Wu, Mingbo; Wu, Wenting

    2016-07-01

    In this study, highly efficient visible-light-driven Ag3PO4/MoS2 composite photocatalysts with different weight ratios of MoS2 were prepared via the ethanol-water mixed solvents precipitation method and characterized by ICP, XRD, HRTEM, FE-SEM, BET, XPS, UV-vis DRS and PL analysis. Under visible-light irradiation, Ag3PO4/MoS2 composites exhibit excellent photocatalytic activity towards the degradation of organic pollutants in aqueous solution. The optimal composite with 0.648 wt% MoS2 content exhibits the highest photocatalytic activity, which can degrade almost all MB under visible-light irradiation within 60 min. Recycling experiments confirmed that the Ag3PO4/MoS2 catalysts had superior cycle performance and stability. The photocatalytic activity enhancement of Ag3PO4/MoS2 photocatalysts can be mainly ascribed to the efficient separation of photogenerated charge carriers and the stronger oxidation and reduction ability through a Z-scheme system composed of Ag3PO4, Ag and MoS2, in which Ag particles act as the charge separation center. The high photocatalytic stability is due to the successful inhibition of the photocorrosion of Ag3PO4 by transferring the photogenerated electrons of Ag3PO4 to MoS2. The evidence of the Z-scheme photocatalytic mechanism of the composite photocatalysts could be obtained from the active species trapping experiments and the photoluminescence technique.

  20. The effect of various atomic partial charge schemes to elucidate consensus activity-correlating molecular regions: a test case of diverse QSAR models.

    Kumar, Sivakumar Prasanth; Jha, Prakash C; Jasrai, Yogesh T; Pandya, Himanshu A

    2016-03-01

    The estimation of atomic partial charges of the small molecules to calculate molecular interaction fields (MIFs) is an important process in field-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR). Several studies showed the influence of partial charge schemes that drastically affects the prediction accuracy of the QSAR model and focused on the selection of appropriate charge models that provide highest cross-validated correlation coefficient ([Formula: see text] or q(2)) to explain the variation in chemical structures against biological endpoints. This study shift this focus in a direction to understand the molecular regions deemed to explain SAR in various charge models and recognize a consensus picture of activity-correlating molecular regions. We selected eleven diverse dataset and developed MIF-based QSAR models using various charge schemes including Gasteiger-Marsili, Del Re, Merck Molecular Force Field, Hückel, Gasteiger-Hückel, and Pullman. The generalized resultant QSAR models were then compared with Open3DQSAR model to interpret the MIF descriptors decisively. We suggest the regions of activity contribution or optimization can be effectively determined by studying various charge-based models to understand SAR precisely. PMID:25997097

  1. Scheme Program Documentation Tools

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes and discusses two different Scheme documentation tools. The first is SchemeDoc, which is intended for documentation of the interfaces of Scheme libraries (APIs). The second is the Scheme Elucidator, which is for internal documentation of Scheme programs. Although the tools ar...

  2. Electromyographic activity of hand muscles in a motor coordination game: effect of incentive scheme and its relation with social capital.

    Roberto Censolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A vast body of social and cognitive psychology studies in humans reports evidence that external rewards, typically monetary ones, undermine intrinsic motivation. These findings challenge the standard selfish-rationality assumption at the core of economic reasoning. In the present work we aimed at investigating whether the different modulation of a given monetary reward automatically and unconsciously affects effort and performance of participants involved in a game devoid of visual and verbal interaction and without any perspective-taking activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Twelve pairs of participants were submitted to a simple motor coordination game while recording the electromyographic activity of First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, the muscle mainly involved in the task. EMG data show a clear effect of alternative rewards strategies on subjects' motor behavior. Moreover, participants' stock of relevant past social experiences, measured by a specifically designed questionnaire, was significantly correlated with EMG activity, showing that only low social capital subjects responded to monetary incentives consistently with a standard rationality prediction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show that the effect of extrinsic motivations on performance may arise outside social contexts involving complex cognitive processes due to conscious perspective-taking activity. More importantly, the peculiar performance of low social capital individuals, in agreement with standard economic reasoning, adds to the knowledge of the circumstances that makes the crowding out/in of intrinsic motivation likely to occur. This may help in improving the prediction and accuracy of economic models and reconcile this puzzling effect of external incentives with economic theory.

  3. National youth schemes in Malaysia: a survey.

    Phan-Thuy, N

    1983-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on activities and training programmes of the national youth organization in Malaysia - discusses youth unemployment, youth scheme objectives (partic. Integration of rural youth in economic development and community development), institutional framework, activities (leadership development, vocational training, cooperatives, etc.), financing and training participation rate; includes a cost benefit analysis of four land settlement schemes and suggestions for youth ...

  4. 适用主动配电网的差动保护方案研究%Differential protection scheme to apply to active distribution network

    李瑞生

    2015-01-01

    为了解决主动配电网双向潮流对电缆型配电网保护影响,分析了DER接入电缆型配电网对保护带来的问题,提出了适用于主动配电网的差动保护方案。差动保护方案配置集中式线路差动与就地式母线差动保护,适用于电缆线路的配电自动化。DTU 采用内置以太网通信技术,采用专用光纤通道“手拉手”连接。基于光纤通道实现DTU 数据同步,DTU 进出电流传输至集中式差动保护装置,由集中式差动保护装置实现配电网线路保护,DTU就地实现环网柜母线保护,能很好地满足电缆线路ADN接入DG对保护的要求。设计开发了相应的DTU及集中式差动保护装置,应用在实际的电缆线路ADN系统,具有很好的应用前景。%To solve the cable line distribution network protection impact of active distribution network bi-directional current, this paper analyzes the protection problem of the DER access and puts forward the scheme adapt to active distribution network differential protection. The scheme disposes centralized line differential protection and decentralized bus differential protection locally, which is suitable for cable line distribution automation. DTU adopts built-in Ethernet port technology, uses dedicated fiber channel hand in hand to connect. Based on fiber channel to realize synchronous sampling, DTU transfers current-in line and current-out line to centralized differential protection device, centralized differential protection device realizes distribution network line protection, DTU realizes ring main unit bus protection, which can well solve those problems of DG access. Corresponding DTU and centralized protection device are designed and used in the practical cable line ADN system, which has good application prospect.

  5. Convertible Proxy Signcryption Scheme

    李继国; 李建中; 曹珍富; 张亦辰

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, Mambo et al introduced the concept of proxy signature. However, proxy signature can only provide the delegated authenticity and cannot provide confidentiality. Recently, Gamage et al and Chan and Wei proposed different proxy signcryption schemes respectively, which extended the concept of proxy signature.However, only the specified receiver can decrypt and verify the validity of proxy signcryption in their schemes.To protect the receiver' s benefit in case of a later dispute, Wu and Hsu proposed a convertible authenticated encryption scheme, which carn enable the receiver to convert signature into an ordinary one that can be verified by anyone. Based on Wu and Hsu' s scheme and improved Kim' s scheme, we propose a convertible proxy signcryption scheme. The security of the proposed scheme is based on the intractability of reversing the one-way hash function and solving the discrete logarithm problem. The proposed scheme can satisfy all properties of strong proxy signature and withstand the public key substitution attack and does not use secure channel. In addition, the proposed scheme can be extended to convertible threshold proxy signcryption scheme.

  6. Stateless Transitive Signature Schemes

    MA Chun-guang; CAI Man-chun; YANG Yi-xian

    2004-01-01

    A new practical method is introduced to transform the stateful transitive signature scheme to stateless one without the loss of security. According to the approach, two concrete stateless transitive signature schemes based on Factoring and RSA are presented respectively. Under the assumption of the hardness of factoring and one-more- RSA-inversion problem, both two schemes are secure under the adaptive chosen-message attacks in random oracle model.

  7. Efficient Threshold Signature Scheme

    Sattar J Aboud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce a new threshold signature RSA-typed scheme. The proposed scheme has the characteristics of un-forgeable and robustness in random oracle model. Also, signature generation and verification is entirely non-interactive. In addition, the length of the entity signature participate is restricted by a steady times of the length of the RSA signature modulus. Also, the signing process of the proposed scheme is more efficient in terms of time complexity and interaction.

  8. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    , their size etc. are studied before setting up a label scheme. A new labelling study was launched in 2000, the purpose of which is to: * improve the foundation for evaluating the value and effect of labelling schemes * improve the possibilities for pursuing an active consumer policy within the area * give......Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes...

  9. Can adding web-based support to UK primary care exercise referral schemes improve patients’ physical activity levels? Findings from an internal pilot study.

    Adrian Taylor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Promoting physical activity (PA via primary care exercise referral schemes (ERS is common but there is no rigorous evidence for long term changes in PA (Pavey et al, 2011 among those with chronic conditions. From July 2015, for 15 months, the e-coachER trial began to recruit 1400 patients (in SW England, Birmingham and Glasgow with one or more chronic conditions including diabetes, obesity, hypertension, osteoarthritis, or depression, who are eligible and about to attend an ERS. The two-arm parallel RCT is powered to determine if the addition of a web-based, interactive, theory-driven and evidence-based support system called e-coachER (hosted on the ‘LifeGuide’ platform will result in at least 10% more patients who do 150 mins or more per week of accelerometer assessed moderate or vigorous physical activity (MVPA at 12 months. Recruitment into the trial is within primary care, using both mail-merged patient invitations and opportunistic GP invitations (and exercise referrals. Within the trial, after participants are screened, provide consent and complete baseline assessments, they are randomised to receive usual ERS at each site or usual ERS plus a mailed Welcome Pack with registration details to access e-coachER on-line. Inclusion criteria for entering the trial are: (1 Aged 16-74 years; (2 with one or more of the following: obesity (BMI 30-35, hypertension (SBP 140-179 or DBP 90-109, type 2 diabetes, lower limb osteoarthritis, recent history of treatment for depression; (3 Participants who are in the two lowest (of four groups using the GP Physical Activity Questionnaire; (4 have an e-mail address and access to the internet; (5 Eligible for an ERS. The intervention rationale, design and content are reported in another presentation. Aims: This presentation will provide initial findings from a 3 month internal pilot phase with a focus on trial recruitment and initial intervention engagement. We will present data on the

  10. MIDI Programming in Scheme

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    A Scheme representation of Standard MIDI Files is proposed. The Scheme expressions are defined and constrained by an XML-language, which in the starting point is inspired by a MIDI XML event language made by the MIDI Manufactures Association. The representation of Standard MIDI Files in Scheme...... makes it possible to carry out systematic modifications and transformations of MIDI contents with use of pure functional programming. Side by side with the XML-inspired MIDI language, the paper describes an Emacs-based, textual programming environment that supports the MIDI programming process...

  11. Succesful labelling schemes

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    It is usual practice to evaluate the success of a labelling scheme by looking at the awareness percentage, but in many cases this is not sufficient. The awareness percentage gives no indication of which of the consumer segments that are aware of and use labelling schemes and which do not. In the...... spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire....... 664 households returned a completed questionnaire. There were five answering categories for each label in the questionnaire: * have not seen the label before. * I have seen the label before but I do not know the precise contents of the labelling scheme. * I have seen the label before, I do not know...

  12. CSR schemes in agribusiness

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit....../value – Models to compare CSR schemes are rare and often focus on a small number of cases. The authors provide decision makers and researchers with insights into structural conditions through a meta-analysis of a larger number of CSR schemes.......Purpose – The rise of CSR followed a demand for CSR standards and guidelines. In a sector already characterized by a large number of standards, the authors seek to ask what CSR schemes apply to agribusiness, and how they can be systematically compared and analysed. Design...

  13. Scheme of energy utilities

    This scheme defines the objectives relative to the renewable energies and the rational use of the energy in the framework of the national energy policy. It evaluates the needs and the potentialities of the regions and preconizes the actions between the government and the territorial organizations. The document is presented in four parts: the situation, the stakes and forecasts; the possible actions for new measures; the scheme management and the regional contributions analysis. (A.L.B.)

  14. Indirect visual cryptography scheme

    Yang, Xiubo; Li, Tuo; Shi, Yishi

    2015-10-01

    Visual cryptography (VC), a new cryptographic scheme for image. Here in encryption, image with message is encoded to be N sub-images and any K sub-images can decode the message in a special rules (N>=2, 2images are printed on transparency and stacked exactly, the message of original image will be decrypted by human visual system, but any K-1 of them get no information about it. This cryptographic scheme can decode concealed images without any cryptographic computations, and it has high security. But this scheme lacks of hidden because of obvious feature of sub-images. In this paper, we introduce indirect visual cryptography scheme (IVCS), which encodes sub-images to be pure phase images without visible strength based on encoding of visual cryptography. The pure phase image is final ciphertexts. Indirect visual cryptography scheme not only inherits the merits of visual cryptography, but also raises indirection, hidden and security. Meanwhile, the accuracy alignment is not required any more, which leads to the strong anti-interference capacity and robust in this scheme. System of decryption can be integrated highly and operated conveniently, and its process of decryption is dynamic and fast, which all lead to the good potentials in practices.

  15. Secure Order-Specified Multisignature Scheme Based on DSA

    YANG Muxiang; SU Li; LI Jun; HONG Fan

    2006-01-01

    In multisignature schemes signers can sign either in a linear order or not in any specified order, but neither of them is adequate in some scenarios where require mixture using of orderless and ordered multisignature. Most order-specified multisignatures specified the orders as linear ones. In this paper, we proposed an order-specified multisignature scheme based on DSA secure against active insider attack. To our knowledge, it is the first order-specified multisignature scheme based on DSA signature scheme, in which signers can sign in flexible order represented by series-parallel graphs. In the multisignature scheme verification to both signers and signing order are available. The security of the scheme is proved by reduce to an identification scheme that is proved have some concrete security. The running time of verifying a signature is comparable to previous schemes while the running time of multisignature generation and the space needed is less than those schemes.

  16. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  17. Link Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    Slikker, M.

    1999-01-01

    A network is a graph where the nodes represent players and the links represent bilateral interaction between the players. A reward game assigns a value to every network on a fixed set of players. An allocation scheme specifies how to distribute the worth of every network among the players. This allo

  18. Unbiased Adaptive Expectation Schemes

    Antonio Palestrini; Mauro Gallegati

    2015-01-01

    There are situations in which the old-fashioned adaptive expectation process seems to provide a good description of agents' behavior (Chow, 2011). Unfortunately, this expectation scheme may not satisfy the necessary rationality condition (unconditional mean-zero error). This paper shows how to simply fix the problem introducing a bias correction term.

  19. Alternative health insurance schemes

    Keiding, Hans; Hansen, Bodil O.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple model of health insurance with asymmetric information, where we compare two alternative ways of organizing the insurance market. Either as a competitive insurance market, where some risks remain uninsured, or as a compulsory scheme, where however, the level...

  20. Translational activities of EF-Tu [G222D] which cannot be reconciled with the classical scheme of the polypeptide chain elongation cycle.

    Talens, A; Boon, K; Kraal, B; Bosch, L

    1996-08-23

    We have developed a cell-free system of E. coli that enables us to study the in vitro translation of natural mRNA mediated by wild-type or mutant EF-Tu. Various mutant EF-Tu species have been analyzed, one of which, EF-Tu [G222D], appeared to be virtually unable to mediate the translation of natural mRNA. Since this mutant factor is able to participate in translation in vivo by suppressing nonsense and frameshift mutations in cooperation with EF-Tu [A375T], a revision of the generally accepted scheme of the elongation cycle has been proposed (Bosch, L., Vijgenboom, E., & Zeef, L.A.H., 1996, Biochemistry 36). PMID:8780718

  1. Productive Information System Oriented Trust Chain Scheme

    Shen Chang-xiang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Productive information system has high-level security requirements, but Trusted Computing Group’s solution of trust chain isn’t competent. After analysis and comparison of two different trust transfer ways, a new trust chain scheme was designed and its architecture was shown. With independent TPCM as a trust root, this scheme combined the advantages of linear and radial transfer. So that stronger cryptographic algorithm could be adopted by TPCM and applications’ trust attenuation decreased a lot. This scheme was described formally by 6 linear temporal logic rules. It was proved that based on these rules, this scheme could transfer trust from trust root to applications. Meanwhile, it could actively report and handle exceptions in trust chain building and system running. Conclusion and future work were given at the end of this manuscript.

  2. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  3. The Picard Scheme

    Kleiman, Steven L.

    2013-01-01

    We develop in detail most of the theory of the Picard scheme that Grothendieck sketched in two Bourbaki talks and in commentaries on them. Also, we review in brief much of the rest of the theory developed by Grothendieck and by others. But we begin with a twelve-page historical introduction, which traces the development of the ideas from Bernoulli to Grothendieck, and which may appeal to a wider audience.

  4. Towards Symbolic Encryption Schemes

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.; Zenner, Erik

    Symbolic encryption, in the style of Dolev-Yao models, is ubiquitous in formal security models. In its common use, encryption on a whole message is specified as a single monolithic block. From a cryptographic perspective, however, this may require a resource-intensive cryptographic algorithm......-known Needham-Schroeder and Denning-Sacco protocols. To avoid such problems, we advocate the use of refined notions of symbolic encryption that have natural correspondence to standard cryptographic encryption schemes....

  5. Enhanced arbitrated quantum signature scheme using Bell states

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Jian-Wei; Shang, Tao

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the existing arbitrated quantum signature schemes as well as their cryptanalysis, including intercept-resend attack and denial-of-service attack. By exploring the loopholes of these schemes, a malicious signatory may successfully disavow signed messages, or the receiver may actively negate the signature from the signatory without being detected. By modifying the existing schemes, we develop counter-measures to these attacks using Bell states. The newly proposed scheme puts forward the security of arbitrated quantum signature. Furthermore, several valuable topics are also presented for further research of the quantum signature scheme.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of novel Z-scheme photocatalyst WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with high efficient visible light photocatalytic activity

    Chen, Shifu, E-mail: chshifu@chnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Anhui Science and Technology University, Anhui, Fengyang 233100 (China); Department of Chemistry, Huaibei Normal University, Anhui, Huaibei 235000 (China); Hu, Yingfei; Jiang, Xiaoliang; Meng, Sugang; Fu, Xianliang [Department of Chemistry, Huaibei Normal University, Anhui, Huaibei 235000 (China)

    2015-01-15

    Developing a high-efficiency visible light photocatalyst is always a research hotspot in photocatalytic field. In this study, a novel Z-scheme photocatalyst WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with high efficient visible light photocatalytic activity was prepared via ball milling and heat treatment methods. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron spin resonance (ESR), and photoluminescence (PL). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) and fuchsin (BF) under visible light illumination. The results showed that composite WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibits a much higher photocatalytic activity than a single g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The rate constants of photocatalytic degradation of MB and BF for WO{sub 3}(5.0 wt.%)/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} are 4.77 times and 3.84 times that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The characterization results by physical and chemical methods demonstrated that composite WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} is a typical Z-scheme photocatalyst. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity may be attributed to the formation of the Z-scheme system between g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and WO{sub 3}, which could result in the photoexcited electrons of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and photoexcited holes of WO{sub 3} participating in oxidation and reduction reactions, respectively. - Graphical abstract: When WO{sub 3} is combined with g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, a Z-scheme system photocatalyst may be formed because of the short distance between the VB of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and the CB of WO{sub 3}. Consequently, the photogenerated electrons in the CB of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and holes in the VB of WO{sub 3} exhibit excellent reduction and oxidation ability, respectively. - Highlights: • WO{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst with high efficient visible light activity was prepared. • The WO{sub 3}/g

  7. A PRACTICAL PROXY SIGNATURE SCHEME

    Sattar Aboud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A proxy signature scheme is a variation of the ordinary digital signature scheme which enables a proxy signer to generate signatures on behalf of an original signer. In this paper, we present two efficient types of proxy signature scheme. The first one is the proxy signature for warrant partial delegation combines an advantage of two well known warrant partial delegation schemes. This proposed proxy signature scheme is based on the difficulty of solving the discrete logarithm problem. The second proposed scheme is based on threshold delegation the proxy signer power to sign the message is share. We claim that the proposed proxy signature schemes meet the security requirements and more practical than the existing proxy signature schemes.

  8. Jet schemes of determinantal varieties

    Yuen, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    This article studies the scheme structure of the jet schemes of determinantal varieties. We show that in general, these jet schemes are not irreducible. In the case of the determinantal variety $X$ of $r \\times s$ matrices of rank at most one, we give a formula for the dimension of each of the components of its jet schemes. As an application, we compute the log canonical threshold of the pair $(\\mathbb{A}^{rs},X)$.

  9. CONSIDERATIONS CONCERNING GUARANTEE SCHEMES

    EMILIA CLIPICI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available When a large withdrawal from banks occurs, customers withdraw their deposits, so banks are likely to go bankrupt because of liquidity problems. There are several mechanisms that allow the banking system to avoid the phenomenon of massive withdrawals from banks. The most effective one is the deposit insurance. The deposit insurance is seen primarily as a means of protecting depositors of credit institutions, and secondly as a means of ensuring the stability of the banking system. This article described deposit guarantee scheme in Romania and other country.

  10. A New Deferred Sentencing Scheme

    N. K. Chakravarti

    1968-10-01

    Full Text Available A new deferred sentencing scheme resembling double sampling scheme has been suggested from viewpoint of operational and administrative. It is recommended particularly when the inspection is destructive. The O.C. curves of the scheme for two sample sizes of 5 and 10 have been given.

  11. Two Improved Digital Signature Schemes

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, two improved digital signature schemes are presented based on the design of directed signaturescheme [3]. The peculiarity of the system is that only if the scheme is specific recipient, the signature is authenticated.Since the scheme adds the screen of some information parameters, the difficulty of deciphered keys and the security ofdigital signature system are increased.

  12. Secure mediated certificateless signature scheme

    YANG Chen; MA Wen-ping; WANG Xin-mei

    2007-01-01

    Ju et al proposed a certificateless signature scheme with instantaneous revocation by introducing security mediator (SEM) mechanism. This article presents a detailed cryptoanalysis of this scheme and shows that, in their proposed scheme, once a valid signature has been produced, the signer can recover his private key information and the instantaneous revocation property will be damaged. Furthermore, an improved mediated signature scheme, which can eliminate these disadvantages, is proposed, and security proof of the improved scheme under elliptic curve factorization problem (ECFP) assumption and bilinear computational diffie-hellman problem (BCDH) assumption is also proposed.

  13. Packet reversed packet combining scheme

    The packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput combined with ARQ protocols in networks than that of basic ARQ protocols. But packet combining scheme fails to correct errors when the errors occur in the same bit locations of two erroneous copies. In the present work, we propose a scheme that will correct error if the errors occur at the same bit location of the erroneous copies. The proposed scheme when combined with ARQ protocol will offer higher throughput. (author)

  14. A full quantum network scheme

    We present a full quantum network scheme using a modified BB84 protocol. Unlike other quantum network schemes, it allows quantum keys to be distributed between two arbitrary users with the help of an intermediary detecting user. Moreover, it has good expansibility and prevents all potential attacks using loopholes in a detector, so it is more practical to apply. Because the fiber birefringence effects are automatically compensated, the scheme is distinctly stable in principle and in experiment. The simple components for every user make our scheme easier for many applications. The experimental results demonstrate the stability and feasibility of this scheme. (general)

  15. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field

  16. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    Yukalov, V I

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

  17. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.

    2009-11-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of probability operators, associated with the possible options available to the decision maker, plays the role of the algebra of observables in quantum theory of measurements. A scheme is advanced for a practical realization of decision procedures by thinking quantum systems. Such thinking quantum systems can be realized by using spin lattices, systems of magnetic molecules, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices, ensembles of quantum dots, or multilevel atomic systems interacting with electromagnetic field.

  18. Development of a nitrogen-cooled cryoprobe with non-electric defrosting for use in corporeal cavities; Entwicklung einer stickstoffgekuehlten Kryosonde mit nicht-elektrischer Abtauung fuer den Einsatz in Koerperhoehlen

    Schumann, B. [Inst. fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Herzog, R. [Inst. fuer Luft- und Kaeltetechnik GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Krantz, H. [Medizinische Akademie Dresden (Germany); Spoerl, E. [Medizinische Akademie Dresden (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Cryotherapy has been used succesfully for about 20 years in the treatment of benign and malignant neoplasms of the skin or mucous membranes. A problematic circumstance is that cryoprobes applied while still body-warm induce formation of large ice crystals during the cooling process. To evade the adhesive forces developed by these crystals the probe must be defrosted at the end of the procedure. Cryoprobes for use in corporeal cavities must therefore be designed to specific technical requirements. This paper presents target specifications for the new development of a gynaecological cryoprobe. In this connection it explains the thermodynamic principle of function, its constructional realisation, and the technical concept employed for the design of a cryoprobe. (BWI) [Deutsch] Die Kryotherapie wird seit etwa 20 Jahren mit Erfolg zur Behandlung von gut- und boesartigen Neubildungen der Haut und der Schleimhaut eingesetzt. Bei koerperwarm aufgesetzten Kryosoden bilden sich allerdings waehrend des Abkuehlprozesses groessere Eiskristalle heraus, die Haftkraefte ausloesen, so dass die Sonde nach Therapieende abgetaut werden muss. Bei der Anwendung von Kryosonden in Koerperhoehlen ergeben sich deshalb besondere technische Forderungen. Der vorliegende Beitrag stellt die Zielstellung fuer die Neuentwicklung einer gynaekologischen Kryosonde vor. In diesem Zusammenhang wird auf das thermodynamische Funktionsprinzip sowie die konstruktive Umsetzung und das geraetetechnische Konzept eingegangen. (BWI)

  19. Design of a direct Z-scheme photocatalyst: Preparation and characterization of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} with high visible light activity

    Zhang, Jinfeng [Department of Chemistry, Anhui Science and Technology University, Anhui, Fengyang 233100 (China); Department of Chemistry, Huaibei Normal University, Anhui, Huaibei 235000 (China); Hu, Yingfei; Jiang, Xiaoliang [Department of Chemistry, Huaibei Normal University, Anhui, Huaibei 235000 (China); Chen, Shifu, E-mail: chshifu@chnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Anhui Science and Technology University, Anhui, Fengyang 233100 (China); Department of Chemistry, Huaibei Normal University, Anhui, Huaibei 235000 (China); Meng, Sugang; Fu, Xianliang [Department of Chemistry, Huaibei Normal University, Anhui, Huaibei 235000 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A direct Z-scheme photocatalyst Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared. • The photocatalyst exhibited a much higher activity than pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. • Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} as a typical Z-scheme photocatalyst was proved. • e{sup −} in the CB of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and h{sup +} in the VB of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} are quickly combined. • e{sup −} in the CB of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and h{sup +} in the VB of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} participate in redox reaction. - Abstract: A direct Z-scheme photocatalyst Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared by ball milling and heat treatment methods. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface areas, photoluminescence technique (PL), and electron spin resonance (ESR) technology. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The results showed that Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity than pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} under visible light illumination. The rate constants of MB and RhB degradation for Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}(1.0 wt.%)/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} are about 3.4 and 5 times that of pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. The migration of photogenerated carriers adopts a Z-scheme mechanism. The photoexcited electrons in the CB of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and photogenerated holes in the VB of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} are quickly combined, so the photoexcited electrons in the CB of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and holes in the VB of Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} participate in reduction and oxidation reactions, respectively. ·O{sub 2}{sup −}, ·OH and h{sup +} are the major reactive species for the Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}/g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalytic system.

  20. Can adding web-based support to UK primary care exercise referral schemes improve patients’ physical activity levels? Intervention development for the e-coachER study.

    Adrian Taylor

    2015-10-01

    -monitoring health behaviour and health, as well as modifiable options for local physical activity options. Conclusion: The Lifeguide platform for e-coachER is able to collect data on individual usage, and this will be used, along with semi-structured interviews, to conduct a process evaluation to fully understand if, for whom, and how the intervention facilitated long-term PA changes. Supported with funding from the NIHR (HTA Project: 13/25/20

  1. On stochastic finite difference schemes

    Gyongy, Istvan

    2013-01-01

    Finite difference schemes in the spatial variable for degenerate stochastic parabolic PDEs are investigated. Sharp results on the rate of $L_p$ and almost sure convergence of the finite difference approximations are presented and results on Richardson extrapolation are established for stochastic parabolic schemes under smoothness assumptions.

  2. Cost Based Droop Schemes for Economic Dispatch in Islanded Microgrids

    Chen, Feixiong; Chen, Minyou; Li, Qiang;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, cost based droop schemes are proposed, to minimize the total active power generation cost in an islanded microgrid (MG), while the simplicity and decentralized nature of the droop control are retained. In cost based droop schemes, the incremental costs of distributed generators (DGs......) are embedded into the droop schemes, where the incremental cost is a derivative of the DG cost function with respect to output power. In the steady state, DGs share a single common frequency, and cost based droop schemes equate incremental costs of DGs, thus minimizing the total active power generation cost......, in terms of the equal incremental cost principle. Finally, simulation results in an islanded MG with high penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources are presented, to demonstrate the eectiveness, as well as plug and play capability of the cost based droop schemes....

  3. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... regionalising RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system. But if no...

  4. Scheme Design for the Giant Forging Hydraulic Press Active Synchronous Control System%巨型模锻液压机主动同步控制方案的设计

    刘忠伟

    2012-01-01

    The synchronous control system is the essential device to the giant forging hydraulic press. Its synchronization control performance will directly determine product quality. The main causes of working cylinder asynchronism and its effect on synchronous control performance were analyzed. According to the practical problems of synchronous control application, an active synchronism control scheme was proposed based on multi-point driver.%同步控制系统是巨型模锻液压机上必备的关键装置,其同步控制性能的好坏将直接决定产品的质量.在分析主工作缸不同步的成因及对同步控制性能影响的基础上,根据巨型模锻液压机同步控制的实际应用问题,提出一种基于多点驱动的主动同步控制方案.

  5. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  6. Good governance for pension schemes

    Thornton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory and market developments have transformed the way in which UK private sector pension schemes operate. This has increased demands on trustees and advisors and the trusteeship governance model must evolve in order to remain fit for purpose. This volume brings together leading practitioners to provide an overview of what today constitutes good governance for pension schemes, from both a legal and a practical perspective. It provides the reader with an appreciation of the distinctive characteristics of UK occupational pension schemes, how they sit within the capital markets and their social and fiduciary responsibilities. Providing a holistic analysis of pension risk, both from the trustee and the corporate perspective, the essays cover the crucial role of the employer covenant, financing and investment risk, developments in longevity risk hedging and insurance de-risking, and best practice scheme administration.

  7. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  8. On the marginal stability of upwind schemes

    Gressier, J.; Moschetta, J.-M.

    Following Quirk's analysis of Roe's scheme, general criteria are derived to predict the odd-even decoupling. This analysis is applied to Roe's scheme, EFM Pullin's scheme, EIM Macrossan's scheme and AUSM Liou's scheme. Strict stability is shown to be desirable to avoid most of these flaws. Finally, the link between marginal stability and accuracy on shear waves is established.

  9. Active surveillance scheme in three Romanian hospitals reveals a high prevalence and variety of carbapenamase-producing Gram-negative bacteria: a pilot study, December 2014 to May 2015.

    Timofte, Dorina; Panzaru, Carmen Valentina; Maciuca, Iuliana Elena; Dan, Maria; Mare, Anca Delia; Man, Adrian; Toma, Felicia

    2016-06-23

    We report the findings of an active surveillance scheme for detection of asymptomatic carriers with carbapenemase-producing Gram-negative bacteria (CP-GNB) in Romanian hospitals. During a pilot study from December 2014 to May 2015, faecal cultures were screened in three hospitals (two large, one medium-size) for patients newly admitted to selected wards or inpatients transferred from other wards to an intensive-care unit. The study revealed a high prevalence of CP-GNB detected in 22/27 and 28/38 of the carbapenem non-susceptible isolates from Hospitals 1 and 3, respectively. CP-GNB identified through faecal screening included NDM-1-producing Serratia marcescens and Klebsiella pneumoniae, OXA-48-producing K. pneumoniae and OXA-23-producing Acinetobacter baumannii. The distribution of the CP-GNB varied between the hospitals, with NDM-1-producing S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae being prevalent in the north-central part of the country and OXA-23/24-producing A. baumannii, OXA-48-producing K.pneumoniae, Morganella morganii and VIM-2-producing Escherichia coli/Pseudomonas aeruginosa detected in the north-east of the country. Conjugation studies showed that carbapenem resistance was transferable and PCR-based replicon typing identified blaNDM-1 on IncFIIs in S. marcescens and K. pneumoniae from Hospital 1 and blaOXA-48 on IncL plasmids in all Klebsiella spp. isolates from Hospitals 1 and 3. Our findings underline the importance of active surveillance for detection of CP-GNB asymptomatic faecal carriers and suggest a likely endemic spread of CP-GNB in Romania. PMID:27363583

  10. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... analyses of advantages and disadvantages of different electrical injection schemes for the development of the optimal device design for the future generation of electrically pumped nanolasers for terabit communication....

  11. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to ap...

  12. An arbitrated quantum signature scheme

    Zeng, G; Zeng, Guihua; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2002-01-01

    The general principle for a quantum signature scheme is proposed and investigated based on ideas from classical signature schemes and quantum cryptography. The suggested algorithm is implemented by a symmetrical quantum key cryptosystem and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) triplet states and relies on the availability of an arbitrator. We can guarantee the unconditional security of the algorithm, mostly due to the correlation of the GHZ triplet states and the use of quantum one-time pads.

  13. Breeding schemes in reindeer husbandry

    Lars Rönnegård

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper was to investigate annual genetic gain from selection (G, and the influence of selection on the inbreeding effective population size (Ne, for different possible breeding schemes within a reindeer herding district. The breeding schemes were analysed for different proportions of the population within a herding district included in the selection programme. Two different breeding schemes were analysed: an open nucleus scheme where males mix and mate between owner flocks, and a closed nucleus scheme where the males in non-selected owner flocks are culled to maximise G in the whole population. The theory of expected long-term genetic contributions was used and maternal effects were included in the analyses. Realistic parameter values were used for the population, modelled with 5000 reindeer in the population and a sex ratio of 14 adult females per male. The standard deviation of calf weights was 4.1 kg. Four different situations were explored and the results showed: 1. When the population was randomly culled, Ne equalled 2400. 2. When the whole population was selected on calf weights, Ne equalled 1700 and the total annual genetic gain (direct + maternal in calf weight was 0.42 kg. 3. For the open nucleus scheme, G increased monotonically from 0 to 0.42 kg as the proportion of the population included in the selection programme increased from 0 to 1.0, and Ne decreased correspondingly from 2400 to 1700. 4. In the closed nucleus scheme the lowest value of Ne was 1300. For a given proportion of the population included in the selection programme, the difference in G between a closed nucleus scheme and an open one was up to 0.13 kg. We conclude that for mass selection based on calf weights in herding districts with 2000 animals or more, there are no risks of inbreeding effects caused by selection.

  14. Efficient and provably secure identification scheme without random oracles

    LI Yan-ping; WANG Yu-min

    2009-01-01

    The research on the identification scheme is an important and active area in computer and communication security. A series of identification schemes were proposed to improve the efficiency and security of the protocols by various methods. Based on the hardness assumption of the discrete logarithm problem in a gap Diffie-Hellman group and the difficulty of the collusion attack algorithm with k traitors, an efficient identification scheme is presented. Without random oracle models, the proposed scheme is then proved secure against impersonation and reset attacks in both concurrent and reset attack setting. Since the proposed scheme is simple, memory-saving, computation-efficient, and perfectly-secure, it is well suitable for use in smart cards.

  15. Efficient Password-Typed Key Agreement Scheme

    Aboud, Sattar J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we will study Lee, Kim and Yoo, a verifier password typed key agreement scheme and demonstrate that the scheme is not secure. Then, the authors will propose an enhanced verifier typed key agreement scheme relied on Lee, Kim and Yoo scheme and demonstrate that the propose scheme resists against password guessing attack and stolen verifier attack. The authors are claimed that the proposed scheme is more secure and efficient compare with Lee, Kim and Yoo.

  16. Pension scheme in Austria

    Greta Alikaj

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Driven by unfavorable demographic developments and unsustainable, outdated or fragmented systems, pension reform has been at the top of political agendas across the globe for many years now (Prinz, Stanovnik & Stropnik, 2000. Over the last two decades, almost all western European countries have been trimming their public pension systems in an effort to strengthen pension sustainability. One main target of reform was to increase the retirement age. Other measures (e.g. changing the pension calculation, broadening the assessment base, changing the adjustment mechanism were designed to lower replacement rates. The reform process in the wide range of countries addressed by this survey differs considerably from country to country. This is why Allianz first introduced the Pension Sustainability Index (PSI, which combines the various characteristics of pension systems with the factors that influence them to help track and evaluate policy changes made in different countries around the world. In addressing the sustainability of a country’s public pension system, the PSI can give an indication of a country’s need for reforms to maintain long-term financial sustainability. This can be difficult to assess given the many country-specific institutional, technical and legal parameters. The PSI is able to evaluate the long-term sustainability of national pension systems and thus the pressure on governments to reform these (International pension Papers, 1.2014. The speed of reform, however, differs between countries. Those which recently introduced major reforms were able to improve in the PSI ranking because of active steps taken, while others were lost in comparison due to their passive policymaking.

  17. Discrete-time H-infinity robust active queue management scheme for uncertain TCP flow model%不确定TCP流模型的离散H∞鲁棒主动队列管理算法

    周川; 何俊伟; 陈庆伟

    2013-01-01

    Considering the problem of congestion control for the time-varying and uncertain TCP/IP network, we proposed a novel discrete-time robust active queue management (AQM) scheme based on H-infinity feedback control for the TCP flow model with link capacity disturbance and parameter uncertainties simultaneously. In this method, the bandwidth occupied by short-lived connections is treated as the external disturbances, and the effect of both delay and parameter uncertainties is taken into account for the TCP/AQM system model. By using Lyapunov stability theory and LMI techniques, we propose a discrete-time robust H-infinity AQM controller to guarantee the asymptotic stability and robustness of the queue length response of a router queues. Finally the NS-2 simulation results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed method.%针对TCP/IP网络存在参数时变和不确定性下的拥塞控制问题,提出一种新的基于H∞状态反馈控制的离散鲁棒主动列队管理算法(AQM).该方法针对不确定TCP流模型,将短期突发流所占据的带宽作为系统的外部干扰,同时考虑时滞和参数不确定性因素,基于Lyapunov稳定性理论和线性矩阵不等式技术,设计了离散鲁棒状态反馈控制器以保证路由器队列响应的稳定性和鲁棒性.最后,通过NS-2仿真验证了本文方法的有效性.

  18. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. Energy partitioning schemes: a dilemma.

    Mayer, I

    2007-01-01

    Two closely related energy partitioning schemes, in which the total energy is presented as a sum of atomic and diatomic contributions by using the "atomic decomposition of identity", are compared on the example of N,N-dimethylformamide, a simple but chemically rich molecule. Both schemes account for different intramolecular interactions, for instance they identify the weak C-H...O intramolecular interactions, but give completely different numbers. (The energy decomposition scheme based on the virial theorem is also considered.) The comparison of the two schemes resulted in a dilemma which is especially striking when these schemes are applied for molecules distorted from their equilibrium structures: one either gets numbers which are "on the chemical scale" and have quite appealing values at the equilibrium molecular geometries, but exhibiting a counter-intuitive distance dependence (the two-center energy components increase in absolute value with the increase of the interatomic distances)--or numbers with too large absolute values but "correct" distance behaviour. The problem is connected with the quick decay of the diatomic kinetic energy components. PMID:17328441

  20. Nonlinear secret image sharing scheme.

    Shin, Sang-Ho; Lee, Gil-Je; Yoo, Kee-Young

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, most of secret image sharing schemes have been proposed by using Shamir's technique. It is based on a linear combination polynomial arithmetic. Although Shamir's technique based secret image sharing schemes are efficient and scalable for various environments, there exists a security threat such as Tompa-Woll attack. Renvall and Ding proposed a new secret sharing technique based on nonlinear combination polynomial arithmetic in order to solve this threat. It is hard to apply to the secret image sharing. In this paper, we propose a (t, n)-threshold nonlinear secret image sharing scheme with steganography concept. In order to achieve a suitable and secure secret image sharing scheme, we adapt a modified LSB embedding technique with XOR Boolean algebra operation, define a new variable m, and change a range of prime p in sharing procedure. In order to evaluate efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB) and 1.74t⌈log2 m⌉ bit-per-pixel (bpp), respectively. PMID:25140334

  1. Top-quark pair production in a running mass scheme

    Dowling, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-11-15

    Between the Tevatron and LHC, top-quark physics is now becoming an area for precision physics. This has lead to an increase in theoretical activity to match the experimental accuracy of top anti-top production. We discuss the difficulty in properly defining the top-quark mass as measured by experiments and present results for differential distributions of top-quark pair production in a running mass scheme. The use of such a scheme shows better convergence in the perturbative expansion and improves the scale dependence as opposed to the typical on-shell scheme.

  2. Scheme Dependence and Multiple Couplings

    Jack, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For theories with multiple couplings the perturbative $\\beta$-functions for scalar, Yukawa couplings are expressible in terms of contributions corresponding to one particle irreducible graphs and also contributions which are one particle reducible depending on the anomalous dimension. Here we discuss redefinitions, or changes of scheme, which preserve this structure. The redefinitions allow for IPR contributions of a specific form, as is necessary to encompass the relation between MS and momentum subtraction renormalisation schemes. Many multiply 1PR terms in the transformed $\\beta$-function are generated but these can all be absorbed into antisymmetric contributions to the anomalous dimensions which are essentially arbitrary and can be discarded. As an illustration the results are applied to the scheme dependence of the anomalous dimension, which determines the $\\beta$-function, for ${\\cal N}=1$ supersymmetric scalar fermion theories in four dimensions up to four loops.

  3. An evaluation scheme for nanotechnology policies

    Dozens of countries are executing national nanotechnology plans. No rigorous evaluation scheme for these plans exists, although stakeholders—especially policy makers, top-level agencies and councils, as well as the society at large—are eager to learn the outcome of these policies. In this article, we recommend an evaluation scheme for national nanotechnology policies that would be used to review the whole or any component part of a national nanotechnology plan. In this scheme, a component at any level of aggregation is evaluated. The component may be part of the plan’s overarching policy goal, which for most countries is to create wealth and improve the quality of life of their nation with nanotechnology. Alternatively, the component may be a programme or an activity related to a programme. The evaluation could be executed at different times in the policy’s life cycle, i.e., before the policy is formulated, during its execution or after its completion. The three criteria for policy evaluation are appropriateness, efficiency and effectiveness. The evaluator should select the appropriate qualitative or quantitative methods to evaluate the various components of national nanotechnology plans.

  4. Doppler Shift Compensation Schemes in VANETs

    F. Nyongesa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication has received a lot of attention as it is a crucial issue in intravehicle communication as well as in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS. In ITS the focus is placed on integration of communication between mobile and fixed infrastructure to execute road safety as well as nonsafety information dissemination. The safety application such as emergence alerts lays emphasis on low-latency packet delivery rate (PDR, whereas multimedia and infotainment call for high data rates at low bit error rate (BER. The nonsafety information includes multimedia streaming for traffic information and infotainment applications such as playing audio content, utilizing navigation for driving, and accessing Internet. A lot of vehicular ad hoc network (VANET research has focused on specific areas including channel multiplexing, antenna diversity, and Doppler shift compensation schemes in an attempt to optimize BER performance. Despite this effort few surveys have been conducted to highlight the state-of-the-art collection on Doppler shift compensation schemes. Driven by this cause we survey some of the recent research activities in Doppler shift compensation schemes and highlight challenges and solutions as a stock-taking exercise. Moreover, we present open issues to be further investigated in order to address the challenges of Doppler shift in VANETs.

  5. Electrical Injection Schemes for Nanolasers

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2014-01-01

    Three electrical injection schemes based on recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers have been numerically investigated: 1) a vertical p-i-n junction through a post structure; 2) a lateral p-i-n junction with a homostructure; and 3) a lateral p-i-n junction with a...... analysis, the properties of different schemes, i.e., electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current, and internal efficiency as energy requirements for optical interconnects are compared and the physics behind the differences is discussed....

  6. Cost-prioritized droop schemes for autonomous microgrids

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    centralized optimal dispatch control. To better adapt to this non-uniformity, an alternative viewpoint based on reducing the Total Generation Cost (TGC including fuel cost, emission penalty and other operational concerns) of the microgrid is discussed, from which two new cost-prioritized droop schemes...... are developed. The schemes operate by tuning the dispatch priorities of the DGs and curve shapes of their resulting active power versus frequency plots. Their effective reduction of TGC has been verified through simulation....

  7. FODA - TDMA satellite access scheme: description, implementation and environment simulation

    Celandroni, Nedo; Ferro, Erina

    1987-01-01

    A Fifo Ordered Demand Assignment-TDMA (FODA) satellite access scheme is briefly presented and few notes about the current implementation are given. The scheme is designed to handle together packetized data, voice and immages traffic in a multiple access satellite broadcast channel of Mbits band. The channel is shared by as many as 64 simultaneously active earth stations capable to optimally share the channel capacity and also to multiplex the different traffic types, incoming from satellite u...

  8. A scheme for symmetrization verification

    Sancho, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme for symmetrization verification in two-particle systems, based on one-particle detection and state determination. In contrast to previous proposals, it does not follow a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type approach. Moreover, the technique can be used to generate superposition states of single particles.

  9. A scheme for symmetrization verification

    Sancho, Pedro

    2011-08-01

    We propose a scheme for symmetrization verification in two-particle systems, based on one-particle detection and state determination. In contrast to previous proposals, it does not follow a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type approach. Moreover, the technique can be used to generate superposition states of single particles.

  10. Nonlinear Secret Image Sharing Scheme

    Sang-Ho Shin

    2014-01-01

    efficiency and security of proposed scheme, we use the embedding capacity and PSNR. As a result of it, average value of PSNR and embedding capacity are 44.78 (dB and 1.74tlog2⁡m bit-per-pixel (bpp, respectively.

  11. Homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials

    Yang, Min

    2014-02-26

    We present a homogenization scheme for acoustic metamaterials that is based on reproducing the lowest orders of scattering amplitudes from a finite volume of metamaterials. This approach is noted to differ significantly from that of coherent potential approximation, which is based on adjusting the effective-medium parameters to minimize scatterings in the long-wavelength limit. With the aid of metamaterials’ eigenstates, the effective parameters, such as mass density and elastic modulus can be obtained by matching the surface responses of a metamaterial\\'s structural unit cell with a piece of homogenized material. From the Green\\'s theorem applied to the exterior domain problem, matching the surface responses is noted to be the same as reproducing the scattering amplitudes. We verify our scheme by applying it to three different examples: a layered lattice, a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, and a decorated-membrane system. It is shown that the predicted characteristics and wave fields agree almost exactly with numerical simulations and experiments and the scheme\\'s validity is constrained by the number of dominant surface multipoles instead of the usual long-wavelength assumption. In particular, the validity extends to the full band in one dimension and to regimes near the boundaries of the Brillouin zone in two dimensions.

  12. One higher dimensional analog of jet schemes

    Yuen, Cornelia

    2006-01-01

    We develop the theory of truncated wedge schemes, a higher dimensional analog of jet schemes. We prove some basic properties and give an irreducibility criterion for truncated wedge schemes of a locally complete intersection variety analogous to Musta\\c{t}\\v{a}'s for jet schemes. We show that the reduced subscheme structure of a truncated wedge scheme of any monomial scheme is itself a monomial scheme in a natural way by explicitly describing generators of each of the minimal primes of any tr...

  13. Robust Threshold Guillou-Quisquater Signature Scheme

    WANG Hong; ZHANG Zhen-feng; FENG Deng-guo

    2005-01-01

    The deficiencies of the first threshold GuillouQuisquater signature scheme presented by Li-San Liu, ChengKang Chu and Wen-Guey Tzeng are analysised at first, and then a new threshold Guillou-Quisquater signature scheme is presented. The new scheme is unforgeable and robust against any adaptive adversary if the base Guillou-Quisquater signature scheme is unforgeable under the chosen message attack and computing the discrete logarithm modulo a prime is hard.This scheme can also achieve optimal resilience. However,the new scheme does not need the assumption that N is the product of two safe primes. The basic signature scheme underlying the new scheme is exactly Guillou-Quisquater signature scheme, and the additional strong computation assumption introduced by the first threshold Guillou-Quisquater scheme is weaken.

  14. Fair Electronic Payment Scheme Based on DSA

    WANG Shao-bin; HONG Fan; ZHU Xian

    2005-01-01

    We present a multi-signature scheme based on DSA and describes a fair electronic payment scheme based on improved DSA signatures. The scheme makes both sides in equal positions during the course of electronic transaction. A Trusted Third Party (TTP) is involved in the scheme to guarantee the fairness of the scheme for both sides. However, only during the course of registration and dispute resolution will TTP be needed. TTP is not needed during the normal payment stage.

  15. a Study of Multiplexing Schemes for Voice and Data.

    Sriram, Kotikalapudi

    Voice traffic variations are characterized by on/off transitions of voice calls, and talkspurt/silence transitions of speakers in conversations. A speaker is known to be in silence for more than half the time during a telephone conversation. In this dissertation, we study some schemes which exploit speaker silences for an efficient utilization of the transmission capacity in integrated voice/data multiplexing and in digital speech interpolation. We study two voice/data multiplexing schemes. In each scheme, any time slots momentarily unutilized by the voice traffic are made available to data. In the first scheme, the multiplexer does not use speech activity detectors (SAD), and hence the voice traffic variations are due to call on/off only. In the second scheme, the multiplexer detects speaker silences using SAD and transmits voice only during talkspurts. The multiplexer with SAD performs digital speech interpolation (DSI) as well as dynamic channel allocation to voice and data. The performance of the two schemes is evaluated using discrete-time modeling and analysis. The data delay performance for the case of English speech is compared with that for the case of Japanese speech. A closed form expression for the mean data message delay is derived for the single-channel single-talker case. In a DSI system, occasional speech losses occur whenever the number of speakers in simultaneous talkspurt exceeds the number of TDM voice channels. In a buffered DSI system, speech loss is further reduced at the cost of delay. We propose a novel fixed-delay buffered DSI scheme. In this scheme, speech fill-in/hangover is not required because there are no variable delays. Hence, all silences that naturally occur in speech are fully utilized. Consequently, a substantial improvement in the DSI performance is made possible. The scheme is modeled and analyzed in discrete -time. Its performance is evaluated in terms of the probability of speech clipping, packet rejection ratio, DSI

  16. A NEW TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIGNAL DECOMPOSITION SCHEME USING THE EXTREME-LIFTING SCHEME

    Liu Baofang; Ping Xijian; Deng Guanglin; Shao Meizhen

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the signal decomposition method using the extreme-lifting scheme and two two-dimensional decomposition schemes: separable one-dimensional scheme and two-dimensional scheme with quincunx sampling. The structure of the relation "~" between Ex and Ey of these two schemes is symmetrical and both these two schemes have shortcomings)An unsymmetrical scheme of the extreme-lifting scheme is proposed in this paper, which canbe directly used to decompose two-dimensional image and can get better decomposition result than the two schemes with little computation cost.

  17. Ion Polarization Scheme for MEIC

    Kondratenko, A M; Filatov, Yu N; Derbenev, Ya S; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    The choice of a figure 8 shape for the booster and collider rings of MEIC opens wide possibilities for preservation of the ion polarization during beam acceleration as well as for control of the polarization at the collider's interaction points. As in the case of accelerators with Siberian snakes, the spin tune is energy independent but is equal to zero instead of one half. The figure-8 topology eliminates the effect of arcs on the spin motion. There appears a unique opportunity to control the polarization of any particle species including deuterons, using longitudinal fields of small integrated strength (weak solenoids). Contrary to existing schemes, using weak solenoids in figure-8 colliders, one can control the polarization at the interaction points without essentially any effect on the beam's orbital characteristics. A universal scheme for control of the polarization using weak solenoids provides an elegant solution to the problem of ion acceleration completely eliminating resonant beam depolarization. It...

  18. Small-scale classification schemes

    Hertzum, Morten

    2004-01-01

    important means of discretely balancing the contractual aspect of requirements engineering against facilitating the users in an open-ended search for their system requirements. The requirements classification is analysed in terms of the complementary concepts of boundary objects and coordination mechanisms......Small-scale classification schemes are used extensively in the coordination of cooperative work. This study investigates the creation and use of a classification scheme for handling the system requirements during the redevelopment of a nation-wide information system. This requirements...... classification inherited a lot of its structure from the existing system and rendered requirements that transcended the framework laid out by the existing system almost invisible. As a result, the requirements classification became a defining element of the requirements-engineering process, though its main...

  19. Project financing renewable energy schemes

    The viability of many Renewable Energy projects is critically dependent upon the ability of these projects to secure the necessary financing on acceptable terms. The principal objective of the study was to provide an overview to project developers of project financing techniques and the conditions under which project finance for Renewable Energy schemes could be raised, focussing on the potential sources of finance, the typical project financing structures that could be utilised for Renewable Energy schemes and the risk/return and security requirements of lenders, investors and other potential sources of financing. A second objective is to describe the appropriate strategy and tactics for developers to adopt in approaching the financing markets for such projects. (author)

  20. Subranging scheme for SQUID sensors

    Penanen, Konstantin I. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A readout scheme for measuring the output from a SQUID-based sensor-array using an improved subranging architecture that includes multiple resolution channels (such as a coarse resolution channel and a fine resolution channel). The scheme employs a flux sensing circuit with a sensing coil connected in series to multiple input coils, each input coil being coupled to a corresponding SQUID detection circuit having a high-resolution SQUID device with independent linearizing feedback. A two-resolution configuration (course and fine) is illustrated with a primary SQUID detection circuit for generating a fine readout, and a secondary SQUID detection circuit for generating a course readout, both having feedback current coupled to the respective SQUID devices via feedback/modulation coils. The primary and secondary SQUID detection circuits function and derive independent feedback. Thus, the SQUID devices may be monitored independently of each other (and read simultaneously) to dramatically increase slew rates and dynamic range.

  1. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana;

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects of...... the ongoing fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power (mCHP) demonstration projects by addressing the socio‐economic and systems analyses perspectives of a large‐scale promotion scheme of fuel cells. This document constitutes the deliverable of Work Package 1 of the FC4Home project and provides an...... introduction to the policy context for mCHP. Section 1 describes the rationale for the promotion of mCHP by explaining its potential contribution to European energy policy goals. Section 2 addresses the policy context at the supranational European level by outlining relevant EU Directives on support schemes...

  2. Two Avowable Quantum Communication Schemes

    Two avowable quantum communication schemes are proposed. One is an avowable teleportation protocol based on the quantum cryptography. In this protocol one teleports a set of one-particle states based on the availability of an honest arbitrator, the keys and the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen pairs shared by the communication parties and the arbitrator. The key point is that the fact of the teleportation can neither be disavowed by the sender nor be denied by the receiver. Another is an avowable quantum secure direct communication scheme. A one-way Hash function chosen by the communication parties helps the receiver to validate the truth of the information and to avoid disavowing for the sender

  3. Validation scheme for diagnostic tests

    The aim was to develop a scheme for the validation of assays developed in the research laboratory for the successful transfer and implementation in the diagnostic laboratory. Although logistically, temporally and economically challenging, proper validation minimizes the chance of failure and increases the possibility of successful transfer and implementation in the diagnostic laboratory. A properly validated assay, which includes good design, good quality control and good documentation, reduces the chances of liability and increases confidence in the assay both nationally and internationally

  4. LWE-based Identification Schemes

    Silva, Rosemberg; Dahab, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Some hard problems from lattices, like LWE (Learning with Errors), are particularly suitable for application in Cryptography due to the possibility of using worst-case to average-case reductions as evidence of strong security properties. In this work, we show two LWE-based constructions of zero-knowledge identification schemes and discuss their performance and security. We also highlight the design choices that make our solution of both theoretical and practical interest.

  5. Practical E-Payment Scheme

    Mohammad Al-Fayoumi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available E-payment is now one of the most central research areas in e-commerce, mainly regarding online and offline payment scenarios. Customers are generally passive in e-commerce transaction. Relied on a blind signature, this paper introduces an e-payment protocol, in which customers have more initiative, and can terminate the transaction before possible cheats, its security is enhanced. Moreover, the cost of workers and communications falls down considerably while the cost of trusted authority and protecting information is increased. As there is no trusted authority in the proposed scheme, network overcrowding and conspiracy problems can be avoided. Furthermore, the protocol satisfies fairness and non-repudiation. This helps merchant and bank to speed up the financial transaction process and to give user instant services at any time. Also, in this paper, we will discuss an important e-payment protocol namely pay-word scheme and examine its advantages and limitations, which encourages the authors to improve the scheme that keeps all characteristics intact without compromise of the security robustness. The suggested protocol employs the idea of blind signature with the thought of hash chain. We will compare the proposed protocol with pay-word protocol and demonstrate that the proposed protocol offers more security and efficiency, which makes the protocol workable for real world services.

  6. A biometric signcryption scheme without bilinear pairing

    Wang, Mingwen; Ren, Zhiyuan; Cai, Jun; Zheng, Wentao

    2013-03-01

    How to apply the entropy in biometrics into the encryption and remote authentication schemes to simplify the management of keys is a hot research area. Utilizing Dodis's fuzzy extractor method and Liu's original signcryption scheme, a biometric identity based signcryption scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme is more efficient than most of the previous proposed biometric signcryption schemes for that it does not need bilinear pairing computation and modular exponentiation computation which is time consuming largely. The analysis results show that under the CDH and DL hard problem assumption, the proposed scheme has the features of confidentiality and unforgeability simultaneously.

  7. Sellafield Site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    This Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. Several categories of emergencies on the Sellafield Site are mentioned; a building emergency which is confined to one building, a Site emergency standby when the effects of a building emergency go outside that building, a Site emergency alert (District Emergency Standby) when a release of activity affects Site operations and could have serious Site effects and a District Emergency Alert when a radioactivity release may interfere with the normal activity of the General Public. A Drigg Emergency Standby situation would operate similarly at the Drigg Site. The detailed arrangements and responsibilities of appointed personnel are set out in this manual. (UK)

  8. An enhanced biometric authentication scheme for telecare medicine information systems with nonce using chaotic hash function.

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2014-06-01

    Recently, Awasthi and Srivastava proposed a novel biometric remote user authentication scheme for the telecare medicine information system (TMIS) with nonce. Their scheme is very efficient as it is based on efficient chaotic one-way hash function and bitwise XOR operations. In this paper, we first analyze Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and then show that their scheme has several drawbacks: (1) incorrect password change phase, (2) fails to preserve user anonymity property, (3) fails to establish a secret session key beween a legal user and the server, (4) fails to protect strong replay attack, and (5) lacks rigorous formal security analysis. We then a propose a novel and secure biometric-based remote user authentication scheme in order to withstand the security flaw found in Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme and enhance the features required for an idle user authentication scheme. Through the rigorous informal and formal security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible known attacks. In addition, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool and show that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks, including the replay and man-in-the-middle attacks. Our scheme is also efficient as compared to Awasthi-Srivastava's scheme. PMID:24888983

  9. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  10. Ghana - Ghana Compact I Irrigation Schemes

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga...

  11. Wireless Broadband Access and Accounting Schemes

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we propose two wireless broadband access and accounting schemes. In both schemes, the accounting system adopts RADIUS protocol, but the access system adopts SSH and SSL protocols respectively.

  12. EFFICIENCY PROBLEMS RELATED TO PERMANGANATE OXIDATION SCHEMES

    Oxidation schemes for the in-situ destruction of chlorinated solvents, using potassium permanganate, are receiving considerable attention. Indication from field studies and from our own work are that permanganate oxidation schemes have inherent problems that could severely limit...

  13. Secret sharing scheme with inherited characteristic

    Ye Zhenjun; Meng Fanzhen

    2006-01-01

    To assure the shareholders can look for their "legal" attorneys to renew the secret, once the secret sharing scheme is initialized, a secret sharing scheme with inherited characteristic is constructed. In this scheme, each shareholder can produce a new share by his algorithm, which is equivalent to the primary one. Together with other shares, the primary secret can be renewed. Since this scheme is constructed not by replacing the primary share with a new share produced by the dealer in his primitive secret sharing scheme, so no matter how much shares the shareholder produces, these shares can not be gathered together to renew the secret in this scheme. Compared with the existing secret sharing schemes, this scheme provides more agility for the shareholders by investing each of them a function but not affect its security.

  14. MIRD radionuclide data and decay schemes

    Eckerman, Keith F

    2007-01-01

    For all physicians, scientists, and physicists working in the nuclear medicine field, the MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes updated edition is an essential sourcebook for radiation dosimetry and understanding the properties of radionuclides. Includes CD Table of Contents Decay schemes listed by atomic number Radioactive decay processes Serial decay schemes Decay schemes and decay tables This essential reference for nuclear medicine physicians, scientists and physicists also includes a CD with tabulations of the radionuclide data necessary for dosimetry calculations.

  15. Improvement of publicly verifiable authenticated encryption scheme

    LEI Fei-yu; CHEN Wen; MA Chang-she; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A weakness of unforgeability is found in Ma and Chen scheme, and the root cause is the susceptive linear design in the scheme. In order to avoid the weakness and susceptive linear design, an improvement by means of two mechanisms including quadratic residue and composite discrete logarithm is proposed, which can defeat the forgery attacks in Ma and Chen scheme. The new scheme remains good confidentiality, public verifiability and efficiency.

  16. COMPARISON OF VISUAL CRYPTOGRAPHIC SCHEMES

    M.Amarnath Reddy,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual cryptography technique allows the visual information to be encrypted in such a way that their decryption can be performed by human visual system. This technique used to encrypt a image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret images. In visual cryptography there are different technique like sub pixel, error diffusion, Boolean operation etc. Visual cryptography can be applied for copyright for images, access control to user images, Visual authentication and identification any kind images of images like (normal or digital. This paper compares various visual cryptography schemes in terms of security, quality of images, contrast, and reliability of images.

  17. Implicit schemes and LU decompositions

    Implicit methods for hyperbolic equations are analyzed by constructing LU factorizations. It is shown that the solution of the resulting tridiagonal systems in one dimension is well conditioned if and only if the LU factors are diagonally dominant. Stable implicit methods that have diagonally dominant factors are constructed for hyperbolic equations in n space dimesnions. Only two factors are required even in three space dimensions. Acceleration to a steady state is analyzed. When the multidimensional backward Euler method is used with large time steps, it is shown that the scheme approximates a Newton-Raphson iteration procedure

  18. Update on the Pyramid Scheme

    Banks, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We summarize recent work in which we attempt to make a consistent model of LHC physics, from the Pyramid Scheme. The models share much with the NMSSM, in particular, enhanced tree level contributions to the Higgs mass and a preference for small tan {\\beta}. There are 3 different singlet fields, and a new strongly coupled gauge theory, so the constraints of perturbative unification are quite different. We outline our general approach to the model, which contains a Kahler potential for three of the low energy fields, which is hard to calculate. Detailed calculations, based on approximations to the Kahler potential, will be presented in a future publication.

  19. Periodicity of Rauzy scheme and substitutional systems

    Kanel-Belov, Alexei

    2011-01-01

    In the paper the notion of {\\em Rauzy scheme} is introduced. From Rauzy graph Rauzy Scheme can be obtaining by uniting sequence of vertices of ingoing and outgoing degree 1 by arches. This notion is a tool to describe Rauzy graph behavior. For morphic superword we prove periodicity of Rauzy schemes. This is generalization of fact that quadratic irrationals have periodic chain fractions.

  20. Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yun, Deng; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we propose one quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator to sign classical messages. This scheme can preserve the merits in the original arbitrated scheme with some entanglement resources, and provide a higher efficiency in transmission and reduction the complexity of implementation. The arbitrator is costless and only involved in the disagreement case.

  1. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  2. Optimal Timer Based Selection Schemes

    Shah, Virag; Yim, Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Timer-based mechanisms are often used to help a given (sink) node select the best helper node among many available nodes. Specifically, a node transmits a packet when its timer expires, and the timer value is a monotone non-increasing function of its local suitability metric. The best node is selected successfully if no other node's timer expires within a 'vulnerability' window after its timer expiry, and so long as the sink can hear the available nodes. In this paper, we show that the optimal metric-to-timer mapping that (i) maximizes the probability of success or (ii) minimizes the average selection time subject to a minimum constraint on the probability of success, maps the metric into a set of discrete timer values. We specify, in closed-form, the optimal scheme as a function of the maximum selection duration, the vulnerability window, and the number of nodes. An asymptotic characterization of the optimal scheme turns out to be elegant and insightful. For any probability distribution function of the metri...

  3. A New Signature Scheme with Shared Verification

    JIA Xiao-yun; LUO Shou-shan; YUAN Chao-wei

    2006-01-01

    With expanding user demands, digital signature techniques are also being expanded greatly, from single signature and single verification techniques to techniques supporting multi-users. This paper presents a new digital signature scheme vith shared verification based on the fiat-shamir signature scheme. This scheme is suitable not only for digital signatures of one public key, but also for situations where multiple public keys are required. In addition, the scheme can resist all kinds of collusion, making it more practicable and safer. Additionally it is more efficient than other schemes.

  4. Exact Finite Difference Scheme and Nonstandard Finite Difference Scheme for Burgers and Burgers-Fisher Equations

    Lei Zhang; Lisha Wang; Xiaohua Ding

    2014-01-01

    We present finite difference schemes for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation. A new version of exact finite difference scheme for Burgers equation and Burgers-Fisher equation is proposed using the solitary wave solution. Then nonstandard finite difference schemes are constructed to solve two equations. Numerical experiments are presented to verify the accuracy and efficiency of such NSFD schemes.

  5. Hybrid scheme for Brownian semistationary processes

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Lunde, Asger; Pakkanen, Mikko S.

    We introduce a simulation scheme for Brownian semistationary processes, which is based on discretizing the stochastic integral representation of the process in the time domain. We assume that the kernel function of the process is regularly varying at zero. The novel feature of the scheme is to...... approximate the kernel function by a power function near zero and by a step function elsewhere. The resulting approximation of the process is a combination of Wiener integrals of the power function and a Riemann sum, which is why we call this method a hybrid scheme. Our main theoretical result describes the...... asymptotics of the mean square error of the hybrid scheme and we observe that the scheme leads to a substantial improvement of accuracy compared to the ordinary forward Riemann-sum scheme, while having the same computational complexity. We exemplify the use of the hybrid scheme by two numerical experiments...

  6. Hybrid Transmission Scheme for MIMO Relay Channels

    Guangming Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To improve the achievable rate for the MIMO channels, we propose a hybrid transmission (HT scheme that mixes half-duplex decode-and-forward cooperative relaying transmission (DFRH)with direct transmission (DT. In the HT scheme, the source message is divided into two parts: one is transmitted by DFRH scheme and another is transmitted by DT scheme. Precoding and decoding are considered to convert the original MIMO relay channel into several parallel subchannels so that resource allocation can be easily performed. We focus on the spatial subchannel and power allocation problem. The objective of this problem is to maximize the total achievable rate under the constraints of joint total transmission power. Simulation results show that significant capacity gain can be achieved by the HT scheme compared to the DT scheme and the pure DFRH scheme.

  7. Quadruplet scheme of weak interactions

    A possibility to describe lepton and quark weak interactions on the basis of the gauge group SU(4)sub(L)xSU(4)sub(R)xUsup(Y)(1) is discussed. RH (right-handed) currents are included into weak interaction scheme. Possible ways to construct weak interaction theory in a symmetric way with respect to the LH (left-handed) (V-A) and RH(V+A) currents are searched for. Neutral nondiagonal transitions that might explain heavy neutral lepton production in neutrino beams on the basis of gauge theory are discussed. The problem on mixing leptons (quarks) with different quantum numbers is discussed. Applicability of the given model is discussed in connection with some problems of neutrino interaction physics, as well as production and decay of heavy charged and neutral leptons

  8. Staggered Schemes for Fluctuating Hydrodynamics

    Balboa, F; Delgado-Buscalioni, R; Donev, A; Fai, T; Griffith, B; Peskin, C S

    2011-01-01

    We develop numerical schemes for solving the isothermal compressible and incompressible equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics on a grid with staggered momenta. We develop a second-order accurate spatial discretization of the diffusive, advective and stochastic fluxes that satisfies a discrete fluctuation-dissipation balance, and construct temporal discretizations that are at least second-order accurate in time deterministically and in a weak sense. Specifically, the methods reproduce the correct equilibrium covariances of the fluctuating fields to third (compressible) and second (incompressible) order in the time step, as we verify numerically. We apply our techniques to model recent experimental measurements of giant fluctuations in diffusively mixing fluids in a micro-gravity environment [A. Vailati et. al., Nature Communications 2:290, 2011]. Numerical results for the static spectrum of non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations are in excellent agreement between the compressible and incompressible simula...

  9. Yellow light for green scheme

    The article asserts that there could be an investment boom for wind, hydro and bio power in a common Norwegian-Swedish market scheme for green certificates. The Swedish authorities are ready, and the Norwegian government is preparing a report to the Norwegian Parliament. What are the ambitions of Norway, and will hydro power be included? A green certificate market common to more countries have never before been established and requires the solution of many challenging problems. In Sweden, certificate support is expected to promote primarily bioenergy, wind power and small-scale hydro power. In Norway there is an evident potential for wind power, and more hydro power can be developed if desired

  10. Electrical injection schemes for nanolasers

    Lupi, Alexandra; Chung, Il-Sug; Yvind, Kresten

    2013-01-01

    The performance of injection schemes among recently demonstrated electrically pumped photonic crystal nanolasers has been investigated numerically. The computation has been carried out at room temperature using a commercial semiconductor simulation software. For the simulations two electrical...... of 3 InGaAsP QWs on an InP substrate has been chosen for the modeling. In the simulations the main focus is on the electrical and optical properties of the nanolasers i.e. electrical resistance, threshold voltage, threshold current and wallplug efficiency. In the current flow evaluation the lowest...... threshold current has been achieved with the lateral electrical injection through the BH; while the lowest resistance has been obtained from the current post structure even though this model shows a higher current threshold because of the lack of carrier confinement. Final scope of the simulations is the...

  11. Network Regulation and Support Schemes

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Jacobsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    -in tariffs to market-based quota systems, and network regulation approaches, comprising rate-of-return and incentive regulation. National regulation and the vertical structure of the electricity sector shape the incentives of market agents, notably of distributed generators and network operators....... This article seeks to investigate the interactions between the policy dimensions of support schemes and network regulation and how they affect the deployment of distributed generation. Firstly, a conceptual analysis examines how the incentives of the different market agents are affected. In particular......, it will be shown that there frequently exists a trade-off between the creation of incentives for distributed generators and for distribution system operators to facilitate the integration of distributed generation. Secondly, the interaction of these policy dimensions is analyzed, including case studies based...

  12. Upwind schemes for the equations of magnetohydrodynamics

    This dissertation is concerned with applications of upwind schemes to ideal MHD equations. Difficulties in the construction of different schemes are discussed, and for Roe-type schemes a construction method is proposed, based on existence of a mean value Jacobian. It is shown that, in general, the procedure should be done numerically. Then a simplification of the procedure is shown by considering different simple averages. Basic properties of the scheme are preserved, i.e., first order of accuracy and high resolution of stationary discontinuities. Using the Roe-type schemes, explicit schemes to deal with the different time scales problem are considered. It is shown how one can numerically modify characteristic speeds so that the large time steps can be taken. Under certain restrictions convergence of the modified scheme to the weak solution of the system of conservation laws is proved. The Riemann problem for the MHD equations is shown, and an existence of a mixed wave is shown, i.e., switch-off or -on shock followed by an expansion rarefaction wave of the same family. Finally, numerical experiments using 2nd order high resolution schemes are conducted to support the above statements. Performance of the upwind scheme is compared with implicit and centered explicit schemes

  13. A lightweight target-tracking scheme using wireless sensor network

    This paper describes a lightweight target-tracking scheme using wireless sensor network, where randomly distributed sensor nodes take responsibility for tracking the moving target based on the acoustic sensing signal. At every localization interval, a backoff timer algorithm is performed to elect the leader node and determine the transmission order of the localization nodes. An adaptive active region size algorithm based on the node density is proposed to select the optimal nodes taking part in localization. An improved particle filter algorithm performed by the leader node estimates the target state based on the selected nodes' acoustic energy measurements. Some refinements such as optimal linear combination algorithm, residual resampling algorithm, Markov chain Monte Carlo method are introduced in the scheme to improve the tracking performance. Simulation results validate the efficiency of the proposed tracking scheme

  14. On Optimal Designs of Some Censoring Schemes

    Dr. Adnan Mohammad Awad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper  is to explore suitability of some entropy-information measures for introducing a new optimality censoring criterion and to apply it to some censoring schemes from some underlying life-time models.  In addition, the  paper investigates four related issues namely; the  effect of the parameter of parent distribution on optimal scheme, equivalence of schemes based on Shannon and Awad sup-entropy measures, the conjecture that the optimal scheme is one stage scheme, and  a conjecture by Cramer and Bagh (2011 about Shannon minimum and maximum schemes when parent distribution is reflected power. Guidelines for designing an optimal censoring plane are reported together with theoretical and numerical results and illustrations.

  15. A Signature Scheme with Non-Repudiation

    XIN Xiangjun; GUO Xiaoli; XIAO Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Schnorr signature scheme, a new signature scheme with non-repudiation is proposed. In this scheme, only the signer and the designated receiver can verify the signature signed by the signer, and if necessary, both the signer and the designated receiver can prove and show the validity of the signature signed by the signer. The proof of the validity of the signature is noninteractive and transferable. To verify and prove the validity of the signature, the signer and the nominated receiver needn't store extra information besides the signature. At the same time, neither the signer nor the designated receiver can deny a valid signature signed. Then, there is no repudiation in this new signature scheme. According to the security analysis of this scheme, it is found the proposed scheme is secure against existential forgery on adaptive chosen message attack.

  16. CLOUD COMPUTING AND ITS PRICING SCHEMES

    Varun Kamra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is a rapidly emerging technology which involves deployment of various services like software, web services and virtualized infrastructure, as a product on public, private or hybrid clouds on lease basis. These services are charged by the respective pricing scheme for the cloud. The price varies with the number and type of data structures used for query execution. In this paper we describe static and dynamic pricing schemes for cloud cache. In static pricing scheme the prices are fixed for different resources which remain constant with time. Static pricing scheme does not benefit the service provider because it does not reflect the current market value. The dynamic pricing scheme can adapt as the time changes. According to the demand of a resource the pricing is done in dynamic pricing scheme so as to maximize the profit of the service provider. In addition to this, our paper explains characteristics and the delivery models for cloud computing in short.

  17. Alternative schemes for the inertial fusion energy

    The advanced target designs are requiring a lower laser energy for ignition and promising higher energy gains. Two approaches are under development within the European inertial fusion energy project HiPER: the fast ignition scheme with energetic electrons and the shock ignition scheme. The fundamental physical issues and major experimental works related to the alternative ignition schemes as well as the reactor designs are discussed.

  18. Equity-Linked Pension Schemes with Guarantees

    J. Aase Nielsen; Klaus Sandmann; Erik Schlogl

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the level of a return guarantee in an equity-linked pension scheme and the proportion of an investor's contribution needed to finance this guarantee. Three types of schemes are considered: investment guarantee, contribution guarantee and participation surplus. The evaluation of each scheme involves pricing an Asian option, for which relatively tight upper and lower bounds can be calculated in a numerically efficient manner. We find a negative (and ...

  19. Input Scheme for Hindi Using Phonetic Mapping

    Joshi, Nisheeth; Mathur, Iti

    2010-01-01

    Written Communication on Computers requires knowledge of writing text for the desired language using Computer. Mostly people do not use any other language besides English. This creates a barrier. To resolve this issue we have developed a scheme to input text in Hindi using phonetic mapping scheme. Using this scheme we generate intermediate code strings and match them with pronunciations of input text. Our system show significant success over other input systems available.

  20. Numerical schemes for low Mach wave breaking

    Golay, Frédéric; Helluy, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    International audience In this work, we describe a finite volume scheme for the compu- tation of incompressible air-water flows. We use an artificial compressibility approach that permits us to use a completely explicit scheme. We describe successively the low Mach preconditioning of the scheme, the Riemann solver and the non-conservative approach that is used to suppress velocity-pressure oscillations, the second order extensions and the parallel implementation. Then it is applied to the ...

  1. New Certificateless Blind Ring Signature Scheme

    Hua Sun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new certificateless blind ring signature scheme was proposed in this paper. The scheme could not only avoid the problem of certificate management of public key certificate cryptography, but also overcome the inherent key-escrow problem of identity-based public key cryptography. In the last, by using bilinear pairing technique, it was proved that this scheme satisfied the security of existential unforgeability, blindness and unconditional anonymity.

  2. Payment schemes for environmental services in watersheds

    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.‏ United Nations Development Programme

    2004-01-01

    Payment schemes for environmental services (PES) are innovative instruments for natural resources management which are increasingly being applied in Latin America. In a watershed context, PES schemes generally involve the implementation of market mechanisms to compensate upstream landowners in order to maintain or modify a particular land use that is affecting the availability and/or quality of the water resources for downstream users. The Regional Forum on Payment Schemes for Environmental S...

  3. Darboux transformations for a 6-point scheme

    Nieszporski, Maciej

    2006-01-01

    We introduce (binary) Darboux transformation for general differential equation of the second order in two independent variables. We present a discrete version of the transformation for a 6-point difference scheme. The scheme is appropriate to solving a hyperbolic type initial-boundary value problem. We discuss several reductions and specifications of the transformations as well as construction of other Darboux covariant schemes by means of existing ones. In particular we introduce a 10-point ...

  4. Acceleration of Runge-Kutta integration schemes

    Udwadia, Firdaus E.; Phailaung Phohomsiri

    2004-01-01

    A simple accelerated third-order Runge-Kutta-type, fixed time step, integration scheme that uses just two function evaluations per step is developed. Because of the lower number of function evaluations, the scheme proposed herein has a lower computational cost than the standard third-order Runge-Kutta scheme while maintaining the same order of local accuracy. Numerical examples illustrating the computational efficiency and accuracy are presented and the actual speedup when the accelerated alg...

  5. Quantum Authentication Scheme Based on Entanglement Swapping

    Penghao, Niu; Yuan, Chen; Chong, Li

    2016-01-01

    Based on the entanglement swapping, a quantum authentication scheme with a trusted- party is proposed in this paper. With this scheme, two users can perform mutual identity authentication to confirm each other's validity. In addition, the scheme is proved to be secure under circumstances where a malicious attacker is capable of monitoring the classical and quantum channels and has the power to forge all information on the public channel.

  6. Market-Based Debt-Reduction Schemes

    Krugman, Paul R.

    1988-01-01

    Recently much attention has been given to the idea of reducing the debt of developing countries through a "menu approach" of schemes that attempt to harness the discounts on debt in the secondary market. This paper, after reviewing the rationale for the orthodox strategy of concerted lending and the case for debt forgiveness, examines the logic behind several market-based debt reduction schemes. It shows that such schemes will ordinarily benefit both debtor and creditor only when the debtor i...

  7. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  8. Analysis of Paper reduction schemes to develop selection criteria for ofdm signals

    This paper presents a review of different PAPR (Peak to Average Power Ratio) reduction schemes of OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) signals. The schemes that have been considered include Clipping and Filtering, Coding, ACE (Active Contstellation Extension), SLM (Selected Mapping), PTS (Partial Transmit Sequence), TI (Tone Injection) and TR (Tone Reservation). A comparative analysis has been carried out qualitatively. It has been demonstrated how these schemes can be combined with MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) technologies. Finally, criteria for selection of PAPR reduction schemes of OFDM systems are discussed. (author)

  9. A new access scheme in OFDMA systems

    GU Xue-lin; YAN Wei; TIAN Hui; ZHANG Ping

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a dynamic random access scheme for orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems. The key features of the proposed scheme are:it is a combination of both the distributed and the centralized schemes, it can accommodate several delay sensitivity classes,and it can adjust the number of random access channels in a media access control (MAC) frame and the access probability according to the outcome of Mobile Terminals access attempts in previous MAC frames. For floating populated packet-based networks, the proposed scheme possibly leads to high average user satisfaction.

  10. Efficient Certificateless Signcryption Scheme from Weil Pairing

    Gang Yu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Certificateless signcryption has both the advantage of certificateless public key cryptography, which overcome the escrow problem inherited from identity based cryptography without the use of certificates as in traditional public key cryptography, and signcryption which can fulfill both the functions of signature and encryption in a logical signal step. In this paper, we explicit the security model for certificateless signcryption and propose an efficient certificateless signcryption scheme from Weil pairings. The new scheme not only can be proved to be secure in our model but also can simultaneously provide public verifiability and forward security. Furthermore, compared with existing schemes, the new scheme is more efficient.

  11. On the security of two remote user authentication schemes for telecare medical information systems.

    Kim, Kee-Won; Lee, Jae-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The telecare medical information systems (TMISs) support convenient and rapid health-care services. A secure and efficient authentication scheme for TMIS provides safeguarding patients' electronic patient records (EPRs) and helps health care workers and medical personnel to rapidly making correct clinical decisions. Recently, Kumari et al. proposed a password based user authentication scheme using smart cards for TMIS, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various malicious attacks. However, we point out that their scheme is still vulnerable to lost smart card and cannot provide forward secrecy. Subsequently, Das and Goswami proposed a secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care. They simulated their scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted automated validation of Internet security protocols and applications (AVISPA) tool to ensure that their scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. However, we show that their scheme is still vulnerable to smart card loss attacks and cannot provide forward secrecy property. The proposed cryptanalysis discourages any use of the two schemes under investigation in practice and reveals some subtleties and challenges in designing this type of schemes. PMID:24777588

  12. The UNCLE finite element scheme

    A completely general finite element scheme, implemented in the UKAEA Reactor Group is outlined. UNCLE is not a complete, self-contained program. It is a framework of routines that provide the common services required by all general purpose finite element programs, whether for heat transfer, stress analysis or any other linear (or piece-wise linear) problem. These services are: input of mesh, geometry, loads (etc) and material data: matrix and load vector calculation and assembly (including handling of standard boundary conditions); solution of global matrix (elimination and conjugate gradient methods); output (printed and graphical) of initial geometry, displacements, stresses, final geometry etc; facilities for iteration for non-linear problems and time integration; mass matrix reduction, dynamic analysis of reduced problem and expansion of displacements to full problem. The framework is written to handle 1, 2, 3 or more dimensions equally efficiently. To produce a general purpose program for a particular range of applications it is only necessary to provide a set of element subroutines specialised to the application (heat transfer, framework analysis, continuum stress analysis etc)

  13. Comparing basic GBN with packet reversed packet combining scheme, modified packet combining scheme and the combination

    Packet combining scheme is a simple error correction scheme with erroneous copies at the receiver. It offers higher throughput than that of basic ARQ protocols but fails to correct errors when errors occur in the same bit locations of erroneous copies. The Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme corrects errors if they occur at the same bit location. Again, packet combining scheme fails to correct double or higher bit errors. A Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme corrects double or higher bit errors. Some previous studies on three schemes namely PRPC, MPC and MPC with PRPC found that they offer higher throughput over basic stop and wait ARQ protocol. As in networks, GBN (Go Back N) protocol is mostly used in this paper. We make a study of the comparison of schemes with GBN. We find that in practical ranges of packet size, window size and bit error rate, the schemes offer higher throughput than that of basic GBN. (author)

  14. A CLASS OF IPPS SAMPLING SCHEMES

    L.N. Sahoo1# ; S.C. Senapati**2; A.K. Mangaraj***

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a general class of Inclusion Probability Proportional to Size (IPPS sampling schemes for selecting two units from a finite population. All IPPS sampling schemes, identified as particular members of this class, possess some desirable properties with regard to the inclusion probabilities, and provide unbiased and non-negative variance estimators under Horvitz-Thomson (HT model.

  15. Evaluating arguments based on Toulmin's scheme

    Verheij, Bart; Hitchcock, D; Verheij, B

    2006-01-01

    Toulmin's scheme for the layout of arguments (1958) represents an influential tool for the analysis of arguments. The scheme enriches the traditional premises-conclusion model of arguments by distinguishing additional elements, like warrant, backing and rebuttal. The present paper contains a formal

  16. Consolidation of the health insurance scheme

    Association du personnel

    2009-01-01

    In the last issue of Echo, we highlighted CERN’s obligation to guarantee a social security scheme for all employees, pensioners and their families. In that issue we talked about the first component: pensions. This time we shall discuss the other component: the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS).

  17. Novel Link Adaptation Schemes for OFDM System

    LEI Ming; CAI Peng; XU Yue-shan; ZHANG Ping

    2003-01-01

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is the most promising technique supporting the high data rate transmission. The combination of the link adaptation and OFDM can further increase the spectral efficiency. In this paper, we put forward two link adaptation schemes for OFDM system which have the advantages of both flexibility and practicability. Both of the two novel link adaptation schemes are based on the iterative mechanism to allocate the bit and power to subcarriers according to their channel gains and noisy levels which are assumed to be already known at the transmitter. The candidate modulation modes are determined freely before the link adaptation schemes are performed. The distinction between the two novel link adaptation schemes is that in the novel scheme A, the modulation mode is upgraded to the neighboring higher-order mode, while in the novel scheme B the modulation is upgraded to the genuine optimal mode. Therefore, the novel scheme A has the advantage of lower complexity and the novel scheme B has the advantage of higher spectral efficiency.

  18. Finite volume renormalization scheme for fermionic operators

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas [JLAB

    2013-11-01

    We propose a new finite volume renormalization scheme. Our scheme is based on the Gradient Flow applied to both fermion and gauge fields and, much like the Schr\\"odinger functional method, allows for a nonperturbative determination of the scale dependence of operators using a step-scaling approach. We give some preliminary results for the pseudo-scalar density in the quenched approximation.

  19. Mobile Machine for E-payment Scheme

    Sattar J Aboud

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article e-payment scheme by mobile machine is considered. The requirements for a mobile machine in e-payment are presented, particularly when merchant employing accounts for payments and when using advertising. In the proposed scheme we will use the public key infrastructure and certificate for authenticate purchaser and merchant and to secure the communication between them.

  20. Mixed ultrasoft/norm-conserved pseudopotential scheme

    Stokbro, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    A variant of the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotential scheme, where the norm conservation is released for only one or a few angular channels, is presented. Within this scheme some difficulties of the truly ultrasoft pseudopotentials are overcome without sacrificing the pseudopotential softness. (i...

  1. A hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis images

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2003-01-01

    A two-stage hierarchical classification scheme of psoriasis lesion images is proposed. These images are basically composed of three classes: normal skin, lesion and background. The scheme combines conventional tools to separate the skin from the background in the first stage, and the lesion from...

  2. Finite volume renormalization scheme for fermionic operators

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new finite volume renormalization scheme. Our scheme is based on the Gradient Flow applied to both fermion and gauge fields and, much like the Schr\\"odinger functional method, allows for a nonperturbative determination of the scale dependence of operators using a step-scaling approach. We give some preliminary results for the pseudo-scalar density in the quenched approximation.

  3. Splitting scheme for poroelasticity and thermoelasticity problems

    Vabishchevich, P. N.; Vasil'eva, M. V.; Kolesov, A. E.

    2014-08-01

    Boundary value problems in thermoelasticity and poroelasticity (filtration consolidation) are solved numerically. The underlying system of equations consists of the Lamé stationary equations for displacements and nonstationary equations for temperature or pressure in the porous medium. The numerical algorithm is based on a finite-element approximation in space. Standard stability conditions are formulated for two-level schemes with weights. Such schemes are numerically implemented by solving a system of coupled equations for displacements and temperature (pressure). Splitting schemes with respect to physical processes are constructed, in which the transition to a new time level is associated with solving separate elliptic problems for the desired displacements and temperature (pressure). Unconditionally stable additive schemes are constructed by choosing a weight of a three-level scheme.

  4. A DRM Scheme Using File Physical Information

    Cheng Qu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A digital file has both the content and physical information, however the latter was not fully made use of in previous digital rights management (DRM systems. This paper introduces the idea of making use of file physical information to improve the system security and provides a scheme based on this idea to resist the replay attack in DRM systems. In our scheme, compared to commonly used schemes, we remove the dependency on continuous online connection from the client-side to the server-side or the usage of tamper-proof hardware, such as Trusted Platform Module (TPM. The scheme is appropriate for offline digital content usage. Primary experiments demonstrate that our scheme is secure enough to be put into practice use.

  5. A novel key management scheme using biometrics

    Sui, Yan; Yang, Kai; Du, Yingzi; Orr, Scott; Zou, Xukai

    2010-04-01

    Key management is one of the most important issues in cryptographic systems. Several important challenges in such a context are represented by secure and efficient key generation, key distribution, as well as key revocation. Addressing such challenges requires a comprehensive solution which is robust, secure and efficient. Compared to traditional key management schemes, key management using biometrics requires the presence of the user, which can reduce fraud and protect the key better. In this paper, we propose a novel key management scheme using iris based biometrics. Our newly proposed scheme outperforms traditional key management schemes as well as some existing key-binding biometric schemes in terms of security, diversity and/or efficiency.

  6. Threshold Decryption Scheme with Multiple Policies

    FEI Ru-chun; WANG Li-na

    2005-01-01

    Based on the difficulty in computing discrete logarithm and square root on some special conditions, we propose a basic threshold secret sharing scheme for multiple secrets with multiple policies, which allows a group of users to share multiple secret keys and only one secret shadow to be kept by each user. An efficient threshold decryption scheme with multiple policies is designed on the basis of the basic threshold scheme. This decryption scheme allows multiple secret keys to be shared among a group of users, and each user to keep only one secret shadow. Different public keys can be used to encrypt documents. If and only if the number of cooperated users who keep the secret shadows is greater than or equal to the threshold value of the corresponding secret key,they can cooperate to decrypt the documents. It is proved that the proposed scheme has very strong security, unless the attackers can solve the discrete logarithm problem and the square root problem.

  7. Two level scheme solvers for nuclear spectroscopy

    Jansson, Kaj; DiJulio, Douglas; Cederkäll, Joakim

    2011-10-01

    A program for building level schemes from γ-spectroscopy coincidence data has been developed. The scheme builder was equipped with two different algorithms: a statistical one based on the Metropolis method and a more logical one, called REMP (REcurse, Merge and Permute), developed from scratch. These two methods are compared both on ideal cases and on experimental γ-ray data sets. The REMP algorithm is based on coincidences and transition energies. Using correct and complete coincidence data, it has solved approximately half a million schemes without failures. Also, for incomplete data and data with minor errors, the algorithm produces consistent sub-schemes when it is not possible to obtain a complete scheme from the provided data.

  8. A massive momentum-subtraction scheme

    Boyle, Peter; Khamseh, Ava

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new massive renormalization scheme, denoted mSMOM, as a modification of the existing RI/SMOM scheme. We use SMOM for defining renormalized fermion bilinears in QCD at non-vanishing fermion mass. This scheme has properties similar to those of the SMOM scheme, such as the use of non-exceptional symmetric momenta, while in contrast to SMOM, it defines the renormalized fields away from the chiral limit. Here we discuss some of the properties of mSMOM, and present non-perturbative arguments for deriving some renormalization constants. The results of a 1-loop calculation in dimensional regularization are briefly summarised to illustrate some properties of the scheme.

  9. Exact analysis of Packet Reversed Packet Combining Scheme and Modified Packet Combining Scheme; and a combined scheme

    Packet combining scheme is a well defined simple error correction scheme for the detection and correction of errors at the receiver. Although it permits a higher throughput when compared to other basic ARQ protocols, packet combining (PC) scheme fails to correct errors when errors occur in the same bit locations of copies. In a previous work, a scheme known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme that will correct errors which occur at the same bit location of erroneous copies, was studied however PRPC does not handle a situation where a packet has more than 1 error bit. The Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme that can correct double or higher bit errors was studied elsewhere. Both PRPC and MPC schemes are believed to offer higher throughput in previous studies, however neither adequate investigation nor exact analysis was done to substantiate this claim of higher throughput. In this work, an exact analysis of both PRPC and MPC is carried out and the results reported. A combined protocol (PRPC and MPC) is proposed and the analysis shows that it is capable of offering even higher throughput and better error correction capability at high bit error rate (BER) and larger packet size. (author)

  10. Quality Model of Foodstuff in the Control of Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Commercial refrigerating systems need to be defrosted regularly to maintain a satisfactory performance. When defrosting the evaporator coil, the air temperature inside the display cabinet will increase, and float outside the normal temperature range for a period of time, the question is what happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor?This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as ho...

  11. Quality Model of Foodstuff in a Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Commercial refrigerating systems need to be defrosted regularly to maintain a satisfactory performance. When defrosting the evaporator coil, the air temperature inside the display cabinet will increase, and float outside the normal temperature range for a period of time, the question is what happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor?This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as ho...

  12. On stability of difference schemes. Central schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws with source terms

    Mond, M.; Borisov, V. S.

    2009-01-01

    The stability of difference schemes for, in general, hyperbolic systems of conservation laws with source terms are studied. The basic approach is to investigate the stability of a non-linear scheme in terms of its cor- responding scheme in variations. Such an approach leads to application of the stability theory for linear equation systems to establish stability of the corresponding non-linear scheme. It is established the notion that a non-linear scheme is stable if and only if the correspon...

  13. BCS theory of superconductivity: the world's largest Madoff scheme?

    Hirsch, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The time-tested BCS theory of superconductivity is generally accepted to be the correct theory of conventional superconductivity by physicists and, by extension, by the world at large. In a different realm of human activity, until very recently Bernard Madoff's time-tested investment operation was generally accepted as true and legitimate in the financial world. Madoff's Ponzi scheme, where old investors were being paid off by funds contributed by new investors, was fundamentally flawed, yet ...

  14. Complex Modelling Scheme Of An Additive Manufacturing Centre

    Popescu, Liliana Georgeta

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a modelling scheme sustaining the development of an additive manufacturing research centre model and its processes. This modelling is performed using IDEF0, the resulting model process representing the basic processes required in developing such a centre in any university. While the activities presented in this study are those recommended in general, changes may occur in specific existing situations in a research centre.

  15. 7Be decay scheme and the solar-neutrino problem

    The decay scheme of 7Be has been reinvestigated. A known number of 7Be nuclei were produced in a target via the 7Li(p,n) reaction. Following activation, the yield of 478-keV ν-rays from the target was measured. From decay branching ratio to the first excited state of 7Li has been determined to be 10.8 +- 0.4%. The implications of this result for the solar neutrino problem are discussed

  16. Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations

    Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.

    2016-08-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (SPHNG), and a volume-discretized mesh-less code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the SPHNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the SPHNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans length with a greater number of grid cells, we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and SPHNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, SPHNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and time-scales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.

  17. Camouflage, Color Schemes, and Cubism.

    Guhin, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an art activity where students learn about Cubism and color mixing. Explains that the students create camouflaged animals after learning about the work, "Female Torso" (Pablo Picasso). Includes directions for how to create the pictures and states that the assignment can be used with students of all ages. (CMK)

  18. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  19. Numerical schemes for large eddy simulation

    This thesis is devoted to the simulation of incompressible or low Mach turbulent flows, for nuclear safety applications. In particular, we focus on the development and analysis of performing numerical schemes for the Large Eddy Simulation technique. These schemes are based on fractional step methods of pressure correction type and on nonconforming low degree finite elements. Two requirements seems essential to build such schemes, namely a control of kinetic energy and the accuracy for convection dominated flows. Concerning the time marching algorithm, we propose a Crank-Nicolson like scheme for which we prove a kinetic energy control. This scheme has the advantage to be numerically low dissipative (numerical dissipation residual is second order in time). Concerning the low accuracy of the Rannacher-Turek discretization, two approaches are investigated in this work. The first one consists in building a penalized scheme constraining the velocity degrees of freedom tangent to the faces to be written as a linear combination of the normal ones. The second approach relies on the enrichment of the pressure approximation discrete space. Finally, various numerical tests are presented in both two and three dimensions and for general meshes, to illustrate the capacity of the schemes and compare theoretical and experimental results. (author)

  20. Secure Electronic Cash Scheme with Anonymity Revocation

    Baoyuan Kang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In a popular electronic cash scheme, there are three participants: the bank, the customer, and the merchant. First, a customer opens an account in a bank. Then, he withdraws an e-cash from his account and pays it to a merchant. After checking the electronic cash’s validity, the merchant accepts it and deposits it to the bank. There are a number of requirements for an electronic cash scheme, such as, anonymity, unforgeability, unreusability, divisibility, transferability, and portability. Anonymity property of electronic cash schemes can ensure the privacy of payers. However, this anonymity property is easily abused by criminals. In 2011, Chen et al. proposed a novel electronic cash system with trustee-based anonymity revocation from pairing. On demand, the trustee can disclose the identity for e-cash. But, in this paper we point out that Chen et al.’s scheme is subjected to some drawbacks. To contribute secure electronic cash schemes, we propose a new offline electronic cash scheme with anonymity revocation. We also provide the formally security proofs of the unlinkability and unforgeability. Furthermore, the proposed scheme ensures the property of avoiding merchant frauds.

  1. A Spatial Domain Quantum Watermarking Scheme

    Wei, Zhan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Xu, Shu-Jiang; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a spatial domain quantum watermarking scheme. For a quantum watermarking scheme, a feasible quantum circuit is a key to achieve it. This paper gives a feasible quantum circuit for the presented scheme. In order to give the quantum circuit, a new quantum multi-control rotation gate, which can be achieved with quantum basic gates, is designed. With this quantum circuit, our scheme can arbitrarily control the embedding position of watermark images on carrier images with the aid of auxiliary qubits. Besides reversely acting the given quantum circuit, the paper gives another watermark extracting algorithm based on quantum measurements. Moreover, this paper also gives a new quantum image scrambling method and its quantum circuit. Differ from other quantum watermarking schemes, all given quantum circuits can be implemented with basic quantum gates. Moreover, the scheme is a spatial domain watermarking scheme, and is not based on any transform algorithm on quantum images. Meanwhile, it can make sure the watermark be secure even though the watermark has been found. With the given quantum circuit, this paper implements simulation experiments for the presented scheme. The experimental result shows that the scheme does well in the visual quality and the embedding capacity. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 61272514, 61170272, 61373131, 61121061, 61411146001, the program for New Century Excellent Talents under Grant No. NCET-13-0681, the National Development Foundation for Cryptological Research (Grant No. MMJJ201401012) and the Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation under Grant No. 131067, and the Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. ZR2013FM025

  2. An Efficient and Practical Smart Card Based Anonymity Preserving User Authentication Scheme for TMIS using Elliptic Curve Cryptography.

    Amin, Ruhul; Islam, S K Hafizul; Biswas, G P; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Kumar, Neeraj

    2015-11-01

    In the last few years, numerous remote user authentication and session key agreement schemes have been put forwarded for Telecare Medical Information System, where the patient and medical server exchange medical information using Internet. We have found that most of the schemes are not usable for practical applications due to known security weaknesses. It is also worth to note that unrestricted number of patients login to the single medical server across the globe. Therefore, the computation and maintenance overhead would be high and the server may fail to provide services. In this article, we have designed a medical system architecture and a standard mutual authentication scheme for single medical server, where the patient can securely exchange medical data with the doctor(s) via trusted central medical server over any insecure network. We then explored the security of the scheme with its resilience to attacks. Moreover, we formally validated the proposed scheme through the simulation using Automated Validation of Internet Security Schemes and Applications software whose outcomes confirm that the scheme is protected against active and passive attacks. The performance comparison demonstrated that the proposed scheme has lower communication cost than the existing schemes in literature. In addition, the computation cost of the proposed scheme is nearly equal to the exiting schemes. The proposed scheme not only efficient in terms of different security attacks, but it also provides an efficient login, mutual authentication, session key agreement and verification and password update phases along with password recovery. PMID:26433889

  3. A DRM Scheme Using File Physical Information

    Cheng Qu; Yinyan Yu; Zhi Tang; Xiaoyu Cui

    2015-01-01

    A digital file has both the content and physical information, however the latter was not fully made use of in previous digital rights management (DRM) systems. This paper introduces the idea of making use of file physical information to improve the system security and provides a scheme based on this idea to resist the replay attack in DRM systems. In our scheme, compared to commonly used schemes, we remove the dependency on continuous online connection from the client-side to the server-side ...

  4. Renormalization schemes: Where do we stand?

    We consider the status of the current approaches to the application of the renormalization program to the standard SU2L x U1 theory from the standpoint of the interplay of the scheme chosen for such an application and the attendant high-precision tests of the respective loop effects. We thus review the available schemes and discuss their theoretical relationships. We also show how such schemes stand in numerical relation to one another in the context of high-precision Z0 physics, as an illustration. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Palmprint based multidimensional fuzzy vault scheme.

    Liu, Hailun; Sun, Dongmei; Xiong, Ke; Qiu, Zhengding

    2014-01-01

    Fuzzy vault scheme (FVS) is one of the most popular biometric cryptosystems for biometric template protection. However, error correcting code (ECC) proposed in FVS is not appropriate to deal with real-valued biometric intraclass variances. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional fuzzy vault scheme (MDFVS) in which a general subspace error-tolerant mechanism is designed and embedded into FVS to handle intraclass variances. Palmprint is one of the most important biometrics; to protect palmprint templates; a palmprint based MDFVS implementation is also presented. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme not only can deal with intraclass variances effectively but also could maintain the accuracy and meanwhile enhance security. PMID:24892094

  6. Mission Mangalam scheme: Ex ploring the opportunities.

    Dr. Pallavi A. Upadhyay*,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Mission Mangalam has been launched by the Gujarat Government in 2010.It is an integrated poverty alleviation approach and an initiative to empower women. Mission Mangalam is helping women to earn their livelihood and to become independent. These Sakhimandals are linked to banks to fulfill the requirement of fund. Sakhimandals get financial assistance from banks. Some of the core benefits of the scheme can be linked with the health sector as well; Objectives (1 To review the scheme of Mission Mangalam (2 To explore the possibility of health linkage with the scheme (3 To study the perception of beneficiaries and their socio- demographic profile; Methodology: A cross sectional study. Samplesize-152 women members of Sakhimandals in Saraspur ward. Health of all the members of Mandals of Saraspur was checked by the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation. Women of Sakhimandals were interviewed to understand their perception about the scheme as well as about any other health benefit they have experienced for themselves or their family members. 3 Additionally, Community based survey of 50 BPL families was carried out to assess the proportion of families covered under the scheme of Mission Mangalam. Results: Mean age of these women (n=152 was 31.81 years with SD=6.74. Education of maximum number 71(47% of women was up to secondary. Mean income was 5460 Rs/month with SD=1840 .Mean of number of family members is 5.4. 109 (72% women are residing in chali area. 98(64% women were told about this scheme by social worker, others were told about the scheme by her friend or UCD official. Paired t test was carried out to find increase in Hb levels of the beneficiary women. It was found to be significant (p=0.007, t=15.64. Age of women is associated with habit to save money. (p=0.003. There are only 22 (44% out of 50 families visited, who have at least one member enrolled under the scheme. More stringent efforts for universal coverage have to be made by

  7. Higher order Godunov schemes for isothermal hydrodynamics

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we construct higher order Godunov schemes for isothermal flow. Isothermal hydrodynamics serves as a good representation for several systems of astrophysical interest. The schemes designed here have second-order accuracy in space and time and some are third-order accurate for advection. Moreover, several ingredients of these schemes are essential components of even higher order. The methods designed here have excellent ability to represent smooth flow yet capture shocks with high resolution. Several test problems are presented. The algorithms presented here are compared with other algorithms having a comparable formal order of accuracy.

  8. PICOBIT: A Compact Scheme System for Microcontrollers

    St-Amour, Vincent; Feeley, Marc

    Due to their tight memory constraints, small microcontroller based embedded systems have traditionally been implemented using low-level languages. This paper shows that the Scheme programming language can also be used for such applications, with less than 7 kB of total memory. We present PICOBIT, a very compact implementation of Scheme suitable for memory constrained embedded systems. To achieve a compact system we have tackled the space issue in three ways: the design of a Scheme compiler generating compact bytecode, a small virtual machine, and an optimizing C compiler suited to the compilation of the virtual machine.

  9. Algebraic K-theory of generalized schemes

    Anevski, Stella Victoria Desiree

    Nikolai Durov has developed a generalization of conventional scheme theory in which commutative algebraic monads replace commutative unital rings as the basic algebraic objects. The resulting geometry is expressive enough to encompass conventional scheme theory, tropical algebraic geometry and...... geometry over the field with one element. It also permits the construction of important Arakelov theoretical objects, such as the completion \\Spec Z of Spec Z. In this thesis, we prove a projective bundle theorem for the eld with one element and compute the Chow rings of the generalized schemes Sp\\ec ZN...

  10. Autonomous Droop Scheme With Reduced Generation Cost

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, Peng;

    2014-01-01

    . This objective might, however, not suit microgrids well since DGs are usually of different types, unlike synchronous generators. Other factors like cost, efficiency, and emission penalty of each DG at different loading must be considered since they contribute directly to the total generation cost (TGC......) of the microgrid. To reduce this TGC without relying on fast communication links, an autonomous droop scheme is proposed here, whose resulting power sharing is decided by the individual DG generation costs. Comparing it with the traditional scheme, the proposed scheme retains its simplicity and it is hence more...

  11. Consistency of non-minimal renormalisation schemes

    Jack, I

    2016-01-01

    Non-minimal renormalisation schemes such as the momentum subtraction scheme (MOM) have frequently been used for physical computations. The consistency of such a scheme relies on the existence of a coupling redefinition linking it to MSbar. We discuss the implementation of this procedure in detail for a general theory and show how to construct the relevant redefinition up to three-loop order, for the case of a general theory of fermions and scalars in four dimensions and a general scalar theory in six dimensions.

  12. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  13. Improved Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator

    Su, Qi; Li, Wen-Min

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we find a man-in-the-middle attack on the quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator (Luo et al., Int. J. Theor. Phys., 51:2135, 2012). In that scheme, the authors proposed a quantum signature based on quantum one way function which contains both verifying the signer phase and verifying the signed message phase. However, after our analysis we will show that Eve can adopt different strategies in respective phases to forge the signature without being detected. Then we present an improved scheme to increase the security.

  14. Simulation study on the efficiencies of MOET nucleus breeding schemes applying marker assisted selection in dairy cattle

    2009-01-01

    Advantages of breeding schemes using genetic marker information and/or multiple ovulation and embryo transfer(MOET) technology over the traditional approach were extensively evaluated through simulation.Milk yield was the trait of interest and QTL was the genetic marker utilized.Eight dairy cattle breeding scenarios were considered,i.e.,traditional progeny testing breeding scheme(denoted as STANPT),GASPT scheme including a pre-selection of young bulls entering progeny testing based on their own QTL information,MOETPT scheme using MOET technology to generate young bulls and a selection of young bulls limited within the full-sib family,GAMOPT scheme adopting both QTL pre-selection and MOET technology,COMBPT scheme using a mixed linear model which considered QTL genotype instead of the BLUP model in GAMOPT,and three non-progeny testing schemes,i.e.the MOET,GAMO and COMB schemes,corresponding to MOETPT,GAMOPT and COMBPT with progeny testing being part of the system.Animals were selected based on their breeding value which was estimated under an animal model framework.Sequential selection over 17 years was performed in the simulations and 30 replicates were designed for each scenario.The influences of using QTL information and MOET technology on favorable QTL allele frequency,true breeding values,polygenetic breeding values and the accumulated genetic superiority were extensively evaluated,for five different populations including active sires,lactating cows,bull dams,bull sires,and young bulls.The results showed that the combined schemes significantly outperformed other approaches wherein accumulated true breeding value progressed.The difference between schemes exclusively using QTL information or MOET technology was not significant.The STANPT scheme was the least efficient among the 8 schemes.The schemes using MOET technology had a higher polygenetic response than others in the 17th year.The increases of frequency of the favorable QTL allele varied more greatly across

  15. Simulation study on the efficiencies of MOET nucleus breeding schemes applying marker assisted selection in dairy cattle

    LUO WeiZhen; WANG YaChun; ZHANG Yuan

    2009-01-01

    Advantages of breeding schemes using genetic marker information and/or multiple ovulation and em-bryo transfer (MOET) technology over the traditional approach were extensively evaluated through simulation. Milk yield was the trait of interest and QTL was the genetic marker utilized. Eight dairy cattle breeding scenarios were considered, i.e., traditional progeny testing breeding scheme (denoted as STANPT), GASPT scheme including a pre-selection of young bulls entering progeny testing based on their own QTL information, MOETPT scheme using MOET technology to generate young bulls and a selection of young bulls limited within the full-sib family, GAMOPT scheme adopting both QTL pre-selection and MOET technology, COMBPT scheme using a mixed linear model which considered QTL genotype instead of the BLUP model in GAMOPT, and three non-progeny testing schemes, i.e. the MOET, GAMO and COMB schemes, corresponding to MOETPT, GAMOPT and COMBPT with progeny testing being part of the system. Animals were selected based on their breeding value which was es-timated under an animal model framework. Sequential selection over 17 years was performed in the simulations and 30 replicates were designed for each scenario. The influences of using QTL informa-tion and MOET technology on favorable QTL allele frequency, true breeding values, polygenetic breeding values and the accumulated genetic superiority were extensively evaluated, for five different populations including active sires, lactating cows, bull dams, bull sires, and young bulls. The results showed that the combined schemes significantly outperformed other approaches wherein accumulated true breeding value progressed. The difference between schemes exclusively using QTL information or MOET technology was not significant. The STANPT scheme was the least efficient among the 8 schemes. The schemes using MOET technology had a higher polygenetic response than others in the 17th year. The increases of frequency of the favorable QTL

  16. Scheme of thinking quantum systems

    V. I. YUKALOV; Sornette, D.

    2009-01-01

    A general approach describing quantum decision procedures is developed. The approach can be applied to quantum information processing, quantum computing, creation of artificial quantum intelligence, as well as to analyzing decision processes of human decision makers. Our basic point is to consider an active quantum system possessing its own strategic state. Processing information by such a system is analogous to the cognitive processes associated to decision making by humans. The algebra of p...

  17. Modified bunch filling scheme for Indus-2

    Currently Indus-2 is operated with all bunches filled mode. It may be required to fill the ring with different bunch filling patterns in future as per requirements of the users and also to mitigate the problems of ion trapping and beam instabilities. In Indus-2 one can store beam current in maximum of 291 bunches. A bunch-filling scheme has been evolved in which, it is possible to fill Indus-2 with different filling patterns. In the earlier scheme, three patterns of bunch filling are proposed namely all bunches, three symmetric bunches and a single bunch. In this scheme there is problem of bunch overlapping in the buckets, if more than one bunch is extracted from the booster. In the new scheme, a formulation has been derive to avoid the overlapping of bunches. (author)

  18. Lifting scheme of symmetric tight wavelets frames

    ZHUANG BoJin; YUAN WeiTao; PENG LiZhong

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to realize the lifting scheme of tight frame wavelet filters. As for 4-channel tight frame wavelet filter, the tight frame transforms' ma-trix is 2×4, but the lifting scheme transforms' matrix must be 4×4. And in the case of 3-channel tight frame wavelet filter, the transforms' matrix is 2×3, but the lifting scheme transforms' matrix must be 3×3. In order to solve this problem, we intro-duce two concepts: transferred polyphase matrix for 4-channel filters and trans-ferred unitary matrix for 3-channel filters. The transferred polyphase matrix is sym-metric/antisymmetric. Thus, we use this advantage to realize the lifting scheme.

  19. Secure Wake-Up Scheme for WBANs

    Liu, Jing-Wei; Ameen, Moshaddique Al; Kwak, Kyung-Sup

    Network life time and hence device life time is one of the fundamental metrics in wireless body area networks (WBAN). To prolong it, especially those of implanted sensors, each node must conserve its energy as much as possible. While a variety of wake-up/sleep mechanisms have been proposed, the wake-up radio potentially serves as a vehicle to introduce vulnerabilities and attacks to WBAN, eventually resulting in its malfunctions. In this paper, we propose a novel secure wake-up scheme, in which a wake-up authentication code (WAC) is employed to ensure that a BAN Node (BN) is woken up by the correct BAN Network Controller (BNC) rather than unintended users or malicious attackers. The scheme is thus particularly implemented by a two-radio architecture. We show that our scheme provides higher security while consuming less energy than the existing schemes.

  20. A statistical-numerical aerosol parameterization scheme

    J.-P. Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new modal aerosol parameterization scheme, Statistical-Numerical Aerosol Parameterization (SNAP, was developed for studying aerosol processes and aerosol-cloud interactions in regional or global models. SNAP applies statistical fitting on numerical results to generate accurate parameterization formulas without sacrificing details of the growth kernel. Processes considered in SNAP include fundamental aerosol processes, as well as processes related to aerosol-cloud interactions. Comparison of SNAP with numerical solutions, analytical solutions, and binned aerosol model simulations showed that the new method performs well, with accuracy higher than that of the high-order numerical quadrature technique, at much less computation time. The SNAP scheme has been implemented in regional air quality models, producing results very close to those using binned-size schemes or numerical quadrature schemes.

  1. A statistical–numerical aerosol parameterization scheme

    J.-P. Chen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A new modal aerosol parameterization scheme, the statistical–numerical aerosol parameterization (SNAP, was developed for studying aerosol processes and aerosol–cloud interactions in regional or global models. SNAP applies statistical fitting on numerical results to generate accurate parameterization formulas without sacrificing details of the growth kernel. Processes considered in SNAP include fundamental aerosol processes as well as processes related to aerosol–cloud interactions. Comparison of SNAP with numerical solutions, analytical solutions, and binned aerosol model simulations showed that the new method performs well, with accuracy higher than that of the high-order numerical quadrature technique, and with much less computation time. The SNAP scheme has been implemented in regional air quality models, producing results very close to those using binned-size schemes or numerical quadrature schemes.

  2. On the Optimality of Quantum Encryption Schemes

    Kerenidis, I; Kerenidis, Iordanis; Nagaj, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    It is known that 2 bits of entropy are necessary and sufficient to perfectly encrypt a quantum bit (quantum one-time pad). In this paper, we investigate the approximate encryption of single qubits and find the optimal trade-off between the approximation measure epsilon and the amount of classical entropy used. Then, we consider n-qubit encryption schemes which are a composition of independent single-qubit schemes. We give the optimal independent encryption scheme in the 2-norm and prove that composition in the infinity-norm is strictly worse than in the 2-norm. Last, we provide a counterexample to show that the encryption scheme of Ambainis-Smith based on small-bias sets does not work in the infinity-norm.

  3. Improved code-based identification scheme

    Cayrel, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    We revisit the 3-pass code-based identification scheme proposed by Stern at Crypto'93, and give a new 5-pass protocol for which the probability of the cheater is 1/2 (instead of 2/3 in the original Stern's proposal). Furthermore, we propose to use quasi-cyclic construction in order to dramatically reduce the size of the public key. The proposed scheme is zero-knowledge and relies on an NP-complete problem coming from coding theory (namely the q-ary Syndrome Decoding problem). Taking into account a recent study of a generalization of Stern's information-set-decoding algorithm for decoding linear codes over arbitrary finite fields Fq we suggest parameters so that the public key be 34Kbits while those of Stern's scheme is about 66Kbits. This provides a very practical identification (and possibly signature) scheme which is mostly attractive for light-weight cryptography

  4. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATIONS OF WENO SCHEMES IN CONTINUUM PHYSICS

    2001-01-01

    This paper briefly presents the general ideas of high order accurate weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes, and describes the similarities and differences of the two classes of WENO schemes: finite volume schemes and finite difference schemes. We also briefly mention a recent development of WENO schemes,namely an adaptive approach within the finite difference framework using smooth time dependent curvilinear coordinates.``

  5. Splitting schemes for poroelasticity and thermoelasticity problems

    Kolesov, A. E.; Vabishchevich, P. N.; Vasilyeva, M. V.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we consider the coupled systems of linear unsteady partial differential equations, which arise in the modeling of poroelasticity processes. Stability estimates of weighted difference schemes for the coupled system of equations are presented. Approximation in space is based on the finite element method. We construct splitting schemes and give some numerical comparisons for typical poroelasticity problems. The results of numerical simulation of a 3D problem are presented. Special ...

  6. Financing Higher Education: a contributory education scheme

    Flacher, David; Harari-Kermadec, Hugo; Moulin, Léonard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the higher education financing based on the classical contributory versus self-funded pension funding scheme. We provide a brief discussion of how a system based on student debt can be seen 'funded' and why it fails to ensure equity and efficiency and funding for the longer term. We also define a contributory financing scheme for higher education based on income tax and social security contributions, and study its strengths and weaknesses. By contributory, we mean a sc...

  7. An Instability of the Godunov Scheme

    Bressan, Alberto; Jenssen, Helge Kristian; Baiti, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    We construct a solution to a $2\\times 2$ strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws, showing that the Godunov scheme \\cite{Godunov59} can produce an arbitrarily large amount of oscillations. This happens when the speed of a shock is close to rational, inducing a resonance with the grid. Differently from the Glimm scheme or the vanishing viscosity method, for systems of conservation laws our counterexample indicates that no a priori BV bounds or $L^1$ stability estimates can in general be...

  8. Employee-referral schemes and discrimination law

    Connolly, M

    2015-01-01

    Employee-referral schemes (‘introduce a friend’) are in common usage in recruitment. They carry a potential to discriminate by perpetuating an already unbalanced workforce (say, by gender and ethnicity). With this, or course, comes the risk of litigation and bad publicity as well as any inherent inefficiencies associated with discrimination. This article is threefold. First, it examines the present state of the law. Second, it is based on a survey of employers who use these schemes. Third, it...

  9. AI & Law, logic and argument schemes

    Prakken, Henry

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of AI & Law research from the perspective of argument schemes. It starts with the observation that logic, although very well applicable to legal reasoning when there is uncertainty, vagueness and disagreement, is too abstract to give a fully satisfactory classification of legal argument types. It therefore needs to be supplemented with an argument-scheme approach, which classifies arguments not according to their logical form but according to their content, in p...

  10. A networked registration scheme for enhancing trust

    Pickering, J Adrian; Gutteridge, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Society has widely adopted use of electronic data without sufficient attention to the problems of non-repudiation (NR). A universal, transparent scheme is needed to replace the traditional paper-based model that people are familiar with. A registration scheme is proposed that uses a network of registration servers run in a way that is robust to legal and technical challenge. Any user can register potential electronic evidence with one or more of these servers. This enables a user to later ass...

  11. The AGROVOC Concept Scheme : A Walkthrough

    Rajbhandari, Sachit; Keizer, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization is developing a concept based multilingual vocabulary management tool to manage thesauri, authority lists and glossaries expressed as concept schemes ready to be used in a linked data environment. In this paper, we described the evolution of the AGROVOC thesaurus to AGROVOC Concept Scheme based on OWL (web ontology language) model and now shifting to SKOS (simple knowledge organization system) model. The paper explained why and how it evolved ...

  12. Traffic calming schemes : opportunities and implementation strategies.

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van (samenst.)

    2003-01-01

    Commissioned by the Swedish National Road Authority, this report aims to provide a concise overview of knowledge of and experiences with traffic calming schemes in urban areas, both on a technical level and on a policy level. Traffic calming refers to a combination of network planning and engineering measures to enhance road safety as well as other aspects of liveability for the citizens. More specifically, in the current report the starting point is that traffic calming schemes in residentia...

  13. Electronic Payment Scheme to Prevent the Treachery

    FAN Kai; ZHANG Jun; KOU Weidong; XIAO Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    Treachery is one of the restrictions to the development of electronic commerce. To prevent the treachery from the participants in electronic commerce, in this paper a secure electronic payment scheme is proposed and its security is analyzed. This scheme can prevent the treachery only with the aid of an un-trusted third party. It is very simple and it also improves the security and provides the non-repudiation, accountability, fairness and privacy.

  14. A classification scheme for chimera states

    Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Schmidt, Lennart; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.; Krischer, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    We present a universal characterization scheme for chimera states applicable to both numerical and experimental data sets. The scheme is based on two correlation measures that enable a meaningful definition of chimera states as well as their classification into three categories: stationary, turbulent and breathing. In addition, these categories can be further subdivided according to the time-stationarity of these two measures. We demonstrate that this approach both is consistent with previous...

  15. A File Aggregation Scheme for FLUTE

    Neumann, Christoph; Roca, Vincent; Walsh, Rod

    2005-01-01

    This document introduces a logical and physical file aggregation scheme for File Delivery over Unidirectional Transport (FLUTE). The logical file aggregation mechanism is a generalized grouping mechanism, allowing to logically group files. The physical file aggregation scheme allows, additionally to a logical grouping, to more efficiently use Forward Error Correction (FEC) in the context of FLUTE, in particular when dealing with a large number of "small" files. Unlike a solution based on the ...

  16. Analysis of the Iriscode Bioencoding Scheme

    Patrick Lacharme

    2012-01-01

    Cancelable biometrics is a technique used to enhance security and user privacy. These schemes are employed to generate multiple revocable data from the original biometric template. In this paper, the security of binary template transformations is evaluated, through a new transformation for iris templates, called bioencoding scheme. This transformation and its security is analyzed, using Boolean functions and non linear Boolean systems. A general discussion on binary template transformations i...

  17. Basis scheme of personnel training system

    Basic scheme of the training system for NPP personnel of CEZ-EDU personnel training system is described in detail. This includes: specific training both basic and periodic, and professional training meaning specialized and continuous training. The following schemes are shown: licence acquisition and authorisation for PWR-440 Control Room Personnel; upgrade training for job positions of Control Room personnel; maintaining and refresh training; module training for certificate acquisition of servicing shift and operating personnel

  18. Sellafield site (including Drigg) emergency scheme manual

    This Emergency Scheme defines the organisation and procedures available should there be an accident at the Sellafield Site which results in, or may result in, the release of radioactive material, or the generation of a high radiation field, which might present a hazard to employees and/or the general public. This manual covers the general principles of the total emergency scheme and those detailed procedures which are not specific to any single department. (U.K.)

  19. Twin-Schnorr: a security upgrade for the Schnorr identity-based identification scheme.

    Chin, Ji-Jian; Tan, Syh-Yuan; Heng, Swee-Huay; Phan, Raphael Chung-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Most identity-based identification (IBI) schemes proposed in recent literature are built using pairing operations. This decreases efficiency due to the high operation costs of pairings. Furthermore, most of these IBI schemes are proven to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using interactive assumptions such as the one-more RSA inversion assumption or the one-more discrete logarithm assumption, translating to weaker security guarantees due to the interactive nature of these assumptions. The Schnorr-IBI scheme was first proposed through the Kurosawa-Heng transformation from the Schnorr signature. It remains one of the fastest yet most secure IBI schemes under impersonation against passive attacks due to its pairing-free design. However, when required to be secure against impersonators under active and concurrent attacks, it deteriorates greatly in terms of efficiency due to the protocol having to be repeated multiple times. In this paper, we upgrade the Schnorr-IBI scheme to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using only the classical discrete logarithm assumption. This translates to a higher degree of security guarantee with only some minor increments in operational costs. Furthermore, because the scheme operates without pairings, it still retains its efficiency and superiority when compared to other pairing-based IBI schemes. PMID:25692179

  20. Twin-Schnorr: A Security Upgrade for the Schnorr Identity-Based Identification Scheme

    Ji-Jian Chin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most identity-based identification (IBI schemes proposed in recent literature are built using pairing operations. This decreases efficiency due to the high operation costs of pairings. Furthermore, most of these IBI schemes are proven to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using interactive assumptions such as the one-more RSA inversion assumption or the one-more discrete logarithm assumption, translating to weaker security guarantees due to the interactive nature of these assumptions. The Schnorr-IBI scheme was first proposed through the Kurosawa-Heng transformation from the Schnorr signature. It remains one of the fastest yet most secure IBI schemes under impersonation against passive attacks due to its pairing-free design. However, when required to be secure against impersonators under active and concurrent attacks, it deteriorates greatly in terms of efficiency due to the protocol having to be repeated multiple times. In this paper, we upgrade the Schnorr-IBI scheme to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using only the classical discrete logarithm assumption. This translates to a higher degree of security guarantee with only some minor increments in operational costs. Furthermore, because the scheme operates without pairings, it still retains its efficiency and superiority when compared to other pairing-based IBI schemes.

  1. Twin-Schnorr: A Security Upgrade for the Schnorr Identity-Based Identification Scheme

    Heng, Swee-Huay; Phan, Raphael Chung-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Most identity-based identification (IBI) schemes proposed in recent literature are built using pairing operations. This decreases efficiency due to the high operation costs of pairings. Furthermore, most of these IBI schemes are proven to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using interactive assumptions such as the one-more RSA inversion assumption or the one-more discrete logarithm assumption, translating to weaker security guarantees due to the interactive nature of these assumptions. The Schnorr-IBI scheme was first proposed through the Kurosawa-Heng transformation from the Schnorr signature. It remains one of the fastest yet most secure IBI schemes under impersonation against passive attacks due to its pairing-free design. However, when required to be secure against impersonators under active and concurrent attacks, it deteriorates greatly in terms of efficiency due to the protocol having to be repeated multiple times. In this paper, we upgrade the Schnorr-IBI scheme to be secure against impersonation under active and concurrent attacks using only the classical discrete logarithm assumption. This translates to a higher degree of security guarantee with only some minor increments in operational costs. Furthermore, because the scheme operates without pairings, it still retains its efficiency and superiority when compared to other pairing-based IBI schemes. PMID:25692179

  2. A simple multigrid scheme for solving the Poisson equation with arbitrary domain boundaries

    Guillet, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We present a new multigrid scheme for solving the Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions on a Cartesian grid with irregular domain boundaries. This scheme was developed in the context of the Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) schemes based on a graded-octree data structure. The Poisson equation is solved on a level-by-level basis, using a "one-way interface" scheme in which boundary conditions are interpolated from the previous coarser level solution. Such a scheme is particularly well suited for self-gravitating astrophysical flows requiring an adaptive time stepping strategy. By constructing a multigrid hierarchy covering the active cells of each AMR level, we have designed a memory-efficient algorithm that can benefit fully from the multigrid acceleration. We present a simple method for capturing the boundary conditions across the multigrid hierarchy, based on a second-order accurate reconstruction of the boundaries of the multigrid levels. In case of very complex boundaries, small scale features ...

  3. A factorial assessment of the sensitivity of the BATS land-surface parameterization scheme. [BATS (Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme)

    Henderson-Sellers, A. (Macquarie Univ., North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia))

    1993-02-01

    Land-surface schemes developed for incorporation into global climate models include parameterizations that are not yet fully validated and depend upon the specification of a large (20-50) number of ecological and soil parameters, the values of which are not yet well known. There are two methods of investigating the sensitivity of a land-surface scheme to prescribed values: simple one-at-a-time changes or factorial experiments. Factorial experiments offer information about interactions between parameters and are thus a more powerful tool. Here the results of a suite of factorial experiments are reported. These are designed (i) to illustrate the usefulness of this methodology and (ii) to identify factors important to the performance of complex land-surface schemes. The Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) is used and its sensitivity is considered (a) to prescribed ecological and soil parameters and (b) to atmospheric forcing used in the off-line tests undertaken. Results indicate that the most important atmospheric forcings are mean monthly temperature and the interaction between mean monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation, although fractional cloudiness and other parameters are also important. The most important ecological parameters are vegetation roughness length, soil porosity, and a factor describing the sensitivity of the stomatal resistance of vegetation to the amount of photosynthetically active solar radiation and, to a lesser extent, soil and vegetation albedos. Two-factor interactions including vegetation roughness length are more important than many of the 23 specified single factors. The results of factorial sensitivity experiments such as these could form the basis for intercomparison of land-surface parameterization schemes and for field experiments and satellite-based observation programs aimed at improving evaluation of important parameters.

  4. Scheme to Implement Scheme 1 → M Economical Phase-Covariant Telecloning via Cavity QED

    LIU Qi; ZHANG Wen-Hai; YE Liu

    2008-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to implement the economical 1 → M(M = 2k + 1) phase-covariant telecloning without ancilla based on cavity QED. The scheme requires cavity-assisted collision processes between atoms, which cross through the off-resonant cavity field in the vacuum states. During the telecloning process, the cavity is only virtually excited and it thus greatly prolongs the efficient decoherent time. Therefore, our scheme may be realized in experiment in future.

  5. LevelScheme: A level scheme drawing and scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica

    Caprio, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    LevelScheme is a scientific figure preparation system for Mathematica. The main emphasis is upon the construction of level schemes, or level energy diagrams, as used in nuclear, atomic, molecular, and hadronic physics. LevelScheme also provides a general infrastructure for the preparation of publication-quality figures, including support for multipanel and inset plotting, customizable tick mark generation, and various drawing and labeling tasks. Coupled with Mathematica's plotting functions a...

  6. 臭氧-生物活性炭工艺设计中工程方案的选择%Selection of Engineering Scheme in Ozone/Biological Activated Carbon Process Design

    李世峰

    2012-01-01

    Ozone/biological activated carbon ( O3/BAC ) process was developed on the basis of biological activated carbon process, which is recognized as one of the most effective advanced treatment processes in removing organic pollutants and odor from drinking water in the world at present. With the implementation of the Standards for Drinking Water Quality ( GB 5749 - 2006 ) , O3/BAC process has been widely used in upgrading and reconstruction of water treatment plants. In the design, selection of gas source for ozone generator and design of activated carbon tank type related to project investment, operation cost and operation management. In order to facilitate the upgrading and reconstruction project of water treatment plants, it needs to choose the ozone source and tank type reasonably according to the actual situation of the plant.%臭氧-生物活性炭(O3-BAC)工艺是在生物活性炭工艺基础上发展起来的,是目前世界上公认的去除饮用水中有机污染物、嗅味等较为有效的深度处理工艺之一.随着《生活饮用水卫生标准》( GB 5749-2006)的实施,臭氧-生物活性炭工艺广泛应用于给水厂的提标改造中.在其设计中,臭氧气源的选择和活性炭池池型的设计关系到工程的投资、运行成本的高低以及操作管理的难易,需根据各给水厂的实际情况,合理选择臭氧气源和活性炭池池型,以利于给水厂提标改造工程的实施.

  7. Testing hydrodynamics schemes in galaxy disc simulations

    Few, C. G.; Dobbs, C.; Pettitt, A.; Konstandin, L.

    2016-08-01

    We examine how three fundamentally different numerical hydrodynamics codes follow the evolution of an isothermal galactic disc with an external spiral potential. We compare an adaptive mesh refinement code (RAMSES), a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code (sphNG), and a volume-discretised meshless code (GIZMO). Using standard refinement criteria, we find that RAMSES produces a disc that is less vertically concentrated and does not reach such high densities as the sphNG or GIZMO runs. The gas surface density in the spiral arms increases at a lower rate for the RAMSES simulations compared to the other codes. There is also a greater degree of substructure in the sphNG and GIZMO runs and secondary spiral arms are more pronounced. By resolving the Jeans' length with a greater number of grid cells we achieve more similar results to the Lagrangian codes used in this study. Other alterations to the refinement scheme (adding extra levels of refinement and refining based on local density gradients) are less successful in reducing the disparity between RAMSES and sphNG/GIZMO. Although more similar, sphNG displays different density distributions and vertical mass profiles to all modes of GIZMO (including the smoothed particle hydrodynamics version). This suggests differences also arise which are not intrinsic to the particular method but rather due to its implementation. The discrepancies between codes (in particular, the densities reached in the spiral arms) could potentially result in differences in the locations and timescales for gravitational collapse, and therefore impact star formation activity in more complex galaxy disc simulations.

  8. A simple angular transmit diversity scheme using a single RF frontend for PSK modulation schemes

    Alrabadi, Osama Nafeth Saleem; Papadias, Constantinos B.; Kalis, Antonis

    A Simple angular transmit diversity scheme based on switching between a pair of weakly-correlated beam patterns at one end of the wireless link (the wireless handheld terminal) in an outdoor macro-cellular radio channel is proposed. The diversity scheme is employed using a simple switched parasitic...... array (SPA) with a single transceiver, and an array area of 0.0625 square wavelengths. The scheme which requires no channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter, provides mainly a diversity gain to combat against multipath fading. The performance/capacity of the proposed diversity scheme is...

  9. Combining image-processing and image compression schemes

    Greenspan, H.; Lee, M.-C.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation into the combining of image-processing schemes, specifically an image enhancement scheme, with existing compression schemes is discussed. Results are presented on the pyramid coding scheme, the subband coding scheme, and progressive transmission. Encouraging results are demonstrated for the combination of image enhancement and pyramid image coding schemes, especially at low bit rates. Adding the enhancement scheme to progressive image transmission allows enhanced visual perception at low resolutions. In addition, further progressing of the transmitted images, such as edge detection schemes, can gain from the added image resolution via the enhancement.

  10. Feasibility analysis of two identity- based proxy ring signature schemes

    Wang Huaqun; Zhang Lijun; Zhao Junxi

    2007-01-01

    Recently , proxy ring signature schemes have been shown to be useful in various applications , such as electronic polling, electronic payment, etc. Although many proxy ring signature schemes have been proposed, there are only two identity- based proxy ring signature schemes have been proposed until now, I.e., Cheng's scheme and Lang's scheme. It's unlucky that the two identity- based proxy ring signature schemes are unfeasible . This paper points out the reasons why the two identity- based proxy ring signature schemes are unfeasible. In order to design feasible and efficient identity-based proxy ring signature schemes from bilinear pairings , we have to search for other methods .

  11. Dynamic Localization Schemes in Malicious Sensor Networks

    Kaiqi Xiong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSN have recently shown many potential military and civilian applications, especially those used in hostile environments where malicious adversaries can be present. The accuracy of location information is critical for such applications. It is impractical to have a GPS device on each sensor in WSN due to costs. Most of the existing location discovery schemes can only be used in the trusted environment. Recent research has addressed security issues in sensor network localization, but to the best of our knowledge, none have completely solved the secure localization problem. In this paper, we propose novel schemes for secure dynamic localization in sensor networks. These proposed schemes can tolerate up to 50% of beacon nodes being malicious, and they have linear computation time with respect to the number of reference nodes. Our security analysis has showed that our schemes are applicable and resilient to attacks from adversaries. We have further conducted simulations to analyze and compare the performance of these schemes, and to indicate when each should be used. The efficiencies of each method shows why we needed to propose multiple methods.

  12. Simple theory for designing tidal power schemes

    Prandle, D.

    Basic parameters governing the design of tidal power schemes are identified and converted to dimensionless form by reference to (i) the mean tidal range and (ii) the surface area of the enclosed basin. Optimum values for these dimensionless parameters are derived and comparison made with actual engineering designs. A theoretical framework is thus established which can be used (i) to make a rudimentary design at any specific location or (ii) to compare and evaluate designs for various locations. Both one-way (flood or ebb) and two-way (flood and ebb) schemes are examined and, theoretically, the two-way scheme is shown to be more efficient. However, in practice, two-way schemes suffer disadvantages arising from (i) two-way flow through both turbines and sluices and (ii) lower average turbine heads. An important dimensional aspect of tidal power schemes is that, while energy extracted is proportional to the tidal amplitude squared, the requisite sluicing area is proportional to the square root of the tidal amplitude. In consequence, sites with large tidal amplitudes are best suited to tidal power development whereas for sites with low tidal amplitudes sluicing costs may be prohibitive.

  13. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  14. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  15. Financial incentive schemes in primary care

    Gillam S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Gillam Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Institute of Public Health, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Pay-for-performance (P4P schemes have become increasingly common in primary care, and this article reviews their impact. It is based primarily on existing systematic reviews. The evidence suggests that P4P schemes can change health professionals' behavior and improve recorded disease management of those clinical processes that are incentivized. P4P may narrow inequalities in performance comparing deprived with nondeprived areas. However, such schemes have unintended consequences. Whether P4P improves the patient experience, the outcomes of care or population health is less clear. These practical uncertainties mirror the ethical concerns of many clinicians that a reductionist approach to managing markers of chronic disease runs counter to the humanitarian values of family practice. The variation in P4P schemes between countries reflects different historical and organizational contexts. With so much uncertainty regarding the effects of P4P, policy makers are well advised to proceed carefully with the implementation of such schemes until and unless clearer evidence for their cost–benefit emerges. Keywords: financial incentives, pay for performance, quality improvement, primary care

  16. Identification Schemes from Key Encapsulation Mechanisms

    Anada, Hiroaki; Arita, Seiko

    We propose a generic conversion from a key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) to an identification (ID) scheme. The conversion derives the security for ID schemes against concurrent man-in-the-middle (cMiM) attacks from the security for KEMs against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks on one-wayness (one-way-CCA2). Then, regarding the derivation as a design principle of ID schemes, we develop a series of concrete one-way-CCA2 secure KEMs. We start with El Gamal KEM and prove it secure against non-adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks on one-wayness (one-way-CCA1) in the standard model. Then, we apply a tag framework with the algebraic trick of Boneh and Boyen to make it one-way-CCA2 secure based on the Gap-CDH assumption. Next, we apply the CHK transformation or a target collision resistant hash function to exit the tag framework. And finally, as it is better to rely on the CDH assumption rather than the Gap-CDH assumption, we apply the Twin DH technique of Cash, Kiltz and Shoup. The application is not “black box” and we do it by making the Twin DH technique compatible with the algebraic trick. The ID schemes obtained from our KEMs show the highest performance in both computational amount and message length compared with previously known ID schemes secure against concurrent man-in-the-middle attacks.

  17. A Power Efficient Back-off Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks

    S. Mehta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a scheme to save power during the execution of backoff algorithm by avoiding idle listening. Existing MAC protocols for sensor networks reduces energy consumption by introducing an active/sleep duty cycle. But they can’t save energy during the execution of backoff algorithm. The propose scheme could further improve the energy efficiency of senor networks MAC protocols. Analytical results show that the propose scheme has significant improvement in energy consumption over traditional backoff algorithm.

  18. Development of trigger scheme for the ICAL detector of India-based Neutrino Observatory

    The India-based Neutrino Observatory (INO) collaboration has proposed to build a 50 kton magnetized Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector with the primary goal to study neutrino oscillations, employing Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) as active detector elements. Various aspects of a proposed trigger scheme for the ICAL detector are discussed. The associated chance trigger rates are calculated and the trigger efficiency of the scheme for the events of interest for the ICAL detector is determined. An approach toward the implementation of the scheme is also presented.

  19. Effects of small irrigation schemes in farm resource production and climate change adaptation practices in Nepal

    Kabi Prasad Pokhrel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to evaluate the socio-economic as well as environmental impacts of small irrigation schemes in different parts of Nepal so as to help in formulating future policies on small irrigation schemes and subsidy programs. The paper has clearly pointed out the operation and management structure in each of the selected schemes have been playing significant role to increase the farm resource productivity, reduce poverty level, improve farmer participation and to manage available environmental resources in sustainable way. Furthermore, the functions and effectiveness of the Irrigation Management Committees (IMCs and Water Users Groups (WUGs, farmers groups (FG and cooperatives have been actively participated in the overall activities of small scale irrigation schemes to implement effectively.

  20. Power Control Scheme of D-Statcom

    A. Sai Krishna,

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an instantaneous power control scheme of D-STATCOM for power factor and harmonic compensation. The control strategy has been introduced in order to enhance some steady-state performances and elimination of power quality disturbances. Power factor and harmonic current of a controlled feeder section are two vital roles in steady-state power distribution system operation. In this paper, a control scheme with constant power and sinusoidal current compensation is exploited. And the proposed control scheme is designed to correct the power factor. In order to correct the power factor, a power factor control loop is required and therefore included in the control block. The DC voltage across the DC link capacitor must be large enough and kept constant at that value to stabilize the compensation. Therefore, DC link voltage regulator must be added to the control loop. Simulation is performed in two cases.

  1. Scheme for multistep resonance photoionization of atoms

    Liu, Bo; Ning, Xi-Jing

    2001-07-01

    Traditional schemes for multistep resonance photoionization of atoms let every employed laser beam interact with the atoms simultaneously. In such a situation, analyses via time-dependent Schrödinger equation show that high ionization probability requires all the laser beams must be intense enough. In order to decrease laser intensity, we proposed a scheme that the laser beam used to pump the excited atoms (in a higher bound state) into an autoionization state does not interact with the atoms until all the population is transferred by the other lasers from a ground state to the bound state. As an interesting example, we examined three-step photoionization of 235U with our scheme, showing that the intensity of two laser beams can be lowered by two orders of magnitude without losing high ionization probability.

  2. An ECC-Based Blind Signature Scheme

    Fuh-Gwo Jeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is increasingly applied to the E-commerce world, especially to the untraceable payment system and the electronic voting system. Protocols for these systems strongly require the anonymous digital signature property, and thus a blind signature strategy is the answer to it. Chaum stated that every blind signature protocol should hold two fundamental properties, blindness and intractableness. All blind signature schemes proposed previously almost are based on the integer factorization problems, discrete logarithm problems, or the quadratic residues, which are shown by Lee et al. that none of the schemes is able to meet the two fundamental properties above. Therefore, an ECC-based blind signature scheme that possesses both the above properties is proposed in this paper.

  3. Threshold Ring Signature Scheme Based on TPM

    Gong Bei; Jiang Wei; Lin Li; Li Yu; Zhang Xing

    2012-01-01

    The conventional ring signature schemes cannot address the scenario where the rank of members of the ring needs to be distinguished, for example, in electronically commerce application. To solve this problem, we presented a Trusted Platform Module (TPM)-based threshold ring signature schen. Employing a reliable secret Share Distribution Center (SDC), the proposed approach can authenticate the TPM-based identity rank of members of the ring but not track a specific member's identity. A subset including t members with the same identity rank is built. With the signing cooperation of t members of the subset, the ring signature based on Chinese remainder theorem is generated. We proved the anonymity and unforgeability of the proposed scheme and compared it with the threshold ring signature based on Lagrange interpolation polynomial. Our scheme is relatively simpler to calculate.

  4. A numerical scheme for multifluid magnetohydrodynamics

    Falle, S A

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a numerical scheme for multi-fluid hydrodynamics in the limit of small mass densities of the charged particles. The inertia of the charged particles can then be neglected, which makes it possible to write an evolution equation for the magnetic field that can be solved using an implicit scheme. This avoids the severe restriction on the stable timestep that would otherwise arise at high resolution, or when the Hall effect is large. Numerical tests show that the scheme can accurately model steady multi-fluid shock structures both with and without sub-shocks. Although the emphasis is on shocks in molecular clouds, a multi-dimensional version of this code could be applied to any Astrophysical flow in which ambi-polar diffusion or the Hall effect, or both play a significant role.

  5. O Shallow Cumulus Parameterization Schemes for General Circulation Model Planetary Boundary Layers

    Li, Jui-Lin Frank

    that near cloud base the heating and moistening rates are unrealistic for all traditional schemes unless small-scale nonlocal fluxes and cloud root effects are taken into account. We have found that the Betts-Miller adjustment and its modified schemes are very sensitive to small-scale turbulence processes at the cloud base and the choice of temperature and humidity reference profiles. A proper inclusion of subcloud layer adjustment (cloud root effects) into the entire PBL may be necessary in the schemes. The results from running the model with a modified cumulus mass flux scheme and our new scheme give more reasonable convective heating and moistening rates, in agreement with the composite observed budgets of heat and moisture. Unlike the other parameterization schemes, the new eddy diffusion scheme yields upward cloud scale buoyancy fluxes in unstable conditions which agree with observations. Exclusion of nonlocal cumulus fluxes shows too much cumulus-scale cooling and moistening in the upper cloud layer. We conclude that this new scheme is able to represent different kinds of shallow cumulus clouds which range from very weak to very strongly active in a model. Our study suggests that a high vertical resolution one-D PBL model is a useful tool to understand indirect interactions between small-scale and cloud-scale processes and can be used as a complement to observations for the improvement of shallow cumulus parameterization schemes in large-scale models. The new cumulus diffusion scheme is useful for its simplicity and can be easily implemented in a GCM.

  6. Arbitrated quantum signature schemes without using entangled states

    Zou, Xiangfu

    2010-01-01

    A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for demonstrating the authenticity of a digital message or document. For signing quantum messages, some arbitrated quantum signature schemes have being proposed. However, in the existing literature, arbitrated quantum signature schemes depend on entanglement. In this paper, we present two arbitrated quantum signature schemes without utilizing entangled states in the signing phase and the verifying phase. The first proposed scheme can preserve the merits in the existing schemes. Then, we point out, in this scheme and the prior schemes, there exists a problem that Bob can repudiate the integrality of the signatures. To conquer this problem, we construct another arbitrated quantum signature scheme without using quantum entangled states but using a public board. The new scheme has three advantages: it does not utilize entangled states while it can preserve all merits in the existing schemes; the integrality of the signature can avoid being disavowed by the receiver; an...

  7. Tradable white certificate schemes : what can we learn from tradable green certificate schemes?

    Oikonomou, Vlasis; Mundaca, Luis

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the experiences gained from tradable green certificate (TGC) schemes and extract some policy lessons that can lead to a successful design of a market-based approach for energy efficiency improvement, alias tradable white certificate schemes. We use tradable green certificat

  8. Pressure correction schemes for compressible flows

    This thesis is concerned with the development of semi-implicit fractional step schemes, for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations; these schemes are part of the class of the pressure correction methods. The chosen spatial discretization is staggered: non conforming mixed finite elements (Crouzeix-Raviart or Rannacher-Turek) or the classic MA C scheme. An upwind finite volume discretization of the mass balance guarantees the positivity of the density. The positivity of the internal energy is obtained by discretizing the internal energy balance by an upwind finite volume scheme and b y coupling the discrete internal energy balance with the pressure correction step. A special finite volume discretization on dual cells is performed for the convection term in the momentum balance equation, and a renormalisation step for the pressure is added to the algorithm; this ensures the control in time of the integral of the total energy over the domain. All these a priori estimates imply the existence of a discrete solution by a topological degree argument. The application of this scheme to Euler equations raises an additional difficulty. Indeed, obtaining correct shocks requires the scheme to be consistent with the total energy balance, property which we obtain as follows. First of all, a local discrete kinetic energy balance is established; it contains source terms winch we somehow compensate in the internal energy balance. The kinetic and internal energy equations are associated with the dual and primal meshes respectively, and thus cannot be added to obtain a total energy balance; its continuous counterpart is however recovered at the limit: if we suppose that a sequence of discrete solutions converges when the space and time steps tend to 0, we indeed show, in 1D at least, that the limit satisfies a weak form of the equation. These theoretical results are comforted by numerical tests. Similar results are obtained for the baro-tropic Navier-Stokes equations. (author)

  9. Multi-Level Secret Sharing Scheme for Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

    P.V. Siva Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we are concerned with security for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs using threshold cryptography. When we are applying cryptography to MANETs, key management schemes must provide the cryptographic keys in a secure manner and storing the secret information within the nodes, thwarting the activities of malicious nodes inside a network and is how to distribute the role of the trusted authority among the nodes. Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs represent complex distributed systems that comprise wireless mobile nodes that can freely and dynamically self-organize into arbitrary and temporary, ad-hoc network topologies. Secret Sharing Scheme is a method which distributes shares of a secret to a set of participants in such a way that only authorized subset of participants can uniquely reconstruct the secret and an unauthorized subset can get no information about the secret. In this paper we present a new multilevel secret sharing scheme by extending the Shamir’s to the case that the global threshold is strictly greater than the sum of the compartment thresholds and we indicate how to use the threshold secret sharing schemes based on polynomial interpolation. These schemes are based on one-way functions (Discrete Logarithm which are computationally perfect. In the first scheme the number of public shares grows exponentially with the number of participants. To overcome this disadvantage we proposed two efficient schemes in which the number of public shares ate linearly proportional to the number of participants. Both these schemes are similar except that in the third scheme the identities of the participants are also hidden. In this we also addressed the problem of malicious shareholders that aim to corrupt a secret sharing scheme. To prevent such a threat, legitimate shareholders must detect any modification of shares that has not been issued by a node responsible for the sharing of secret S.

  10. LEARNING WITH ERROR BASED SEARCHABLE ENCRYPTION SCHEME

    Zhang Jiuling; Deng Beixing; Li Xing

    2012-01-01

    A learning with error problem based encryption scheme that allows secure searching over the cipher text is proposed.Both the generation of cipher text and the trapdoor of the query are based on the problem of learning with errors.By performing an operation over the trapdoor and the cipher text,it is able to tell if the cipher text is the encryption of a plaintext.The secure searchable encryption scheme is both cipher text and trapdoor indistinguishable.The probabilities of missing and failing match occurrence in searching are both exponentially small.

  11. A Survey of Unix Init Schemes

    Royon, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    In most modern operating systems, init (as in "initialization") is the program launched by the kernel at boot time. It runs as a daemon and typically has PID 1. Init is responsible for spawning all other processes and scavenging zombies. It is also responsible for reboot and shutdown operations. This document describes existing solutions that implement the init process and/or init scripts in Unix-like systems. These solutions range from the legacy and still-in-use BSD and SystemV schemes, to recent and promising schemes from Ubuntu, Apple, Sun and independent developers. Our goal is to highlight their focus and compare their sets of features.

  12. Verification of an objective analysis scheme

    An intermittent data assimilation scheme has been used to produce wind and precipitation fields during the 10 days after the explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 25 April 1986. The wind fields are analyses, the precipitation fields have been generated by the forecast model part of the scheme. The precipitation fields are of fair quality. The quality of the wind fields has been monitored by the ensuing trajectories. These were found to describe the arrival times of radioactive air in good agreement with most observational data, taken all over Europe. The wind analyses are therefore considered to be reliable. 25 refs.; 13 figs

  13. Hilbert schemes of points and Heisenberg algebras

    Let X[n] be the Hilbert scheme of n points on a smooth projective surface X over the complex numbers. In these lectures we describe the action of the Heisenberg algebra on the direct sum of the cohomologies of all the X[n], which has been constructed by Nakajima. In the second half of the lectures we study the relation of the Heisenberg algebra action and the ring structures of the cohomologies of the X[n], following recent work of Lehn. In particular we study the Chern and Segre classes of tautological vector bundles on the Hilbert schemes X[n]. (author)

  14. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  15. Accelerated Simulation Scheme for Solving Financial Problems

    Farshid Mehrdoust

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Monte Carlo simulation method uses random sampling to study properties of systems with components that behave in a random state. More precisely, the idea is to simulate on the computer the behavior of these systems by randomly generating the variables describing the behavior of their components. In this paper, we propose an efficient and reliable simulation scheme based on Monte Carlo algorithm and combining two variance reduction procedures. We simulate a European option price numerically using the proposed simulation scheme.

  16. Security problem on arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Choi, Jeong Woon; Hong, Dowon

    2011-01-01

    Until now, there have been developed many arbitrated quantum signature schemes implemented with a help of a trusted third party. In order to guarantee the unconditional security, most of them take advantage of the optimal quantum one-time encryption method based on Pauli operators. However, we in this paper point out that the previous schemes only provides a security against total break and actually show that there exists a simple existential forgery attack to validly modify the transmitted pair of message and signature. In addition, we also provide a simple method to recover the security against the proposed attack.

  17. Applications of nonstandard finite difference schemes

    Mickens, Ronald E

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this book is to provide a concise introduction to the methods and philosophy of constructing nonstandard finite difference schemes and illustrate how such techniques can be applied to several important problems. Chapter 1 gives an overview of the subject and summarizes previous work. Chapters 2 and 3 consider in detail the construction and numerical implementation of schemes for physical problems involving convection-diffusion-reaction equations that arise in groundwater pollution and scattering of electromagnetic waves using Maxwell's equations. Chapter 4 examines certain

  18. Torsion-free Sheaves and ACM Schemes

    S. GRECO; Notari, R.; Spreafico, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study short exact sequences $ 0 \\to \\mathcal P \\to \\mathcal N \\to \\ii_D(k) \\to 0 $ with $ \\mathcal P, \\mathcal N $ torsion--free sheaves and $ D $ closed projective scheme. This is a classical way to construct and study projective schemes (e.g. see \\cite{hart-1974}, \\cite{hart-2}, \\cite{mdp}, \\cite{serre-1960}). In particular, we give homological conditions on $ \\mathcal P $ and $ \\mathcal N $ that force $ D $ to be ACM, without constrains on its codimension. As last result, ...

  19. A compression tolerant scheme for image authentication

    刘宝锋; 张文军; 余松煜

    2004-01-01

    Image authentication techniques used to protect the recipients against malicious forgery. In this paper, we propose a new image authentication technique based on digital signature. The authentication is verified by comparing the features of the each block in tested image with the corresponding features of the block recorded in the digital signature. The proposed authentication scheme is capable of distinguishing visible but non-malicious changes due to common processing operations from malicious changes. At last our experimental results show that the proposed scheme is not only efficient to protect integrity of image, but also with low computation,which are feasible for practical applications.

  20. UPWIND FINITE VOLUME SCHEMES FOR SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE

    杨青

    2003-01-01

    The mathematical model of semiconductor devices is described by the initial boundary value problem of a system of three nonlinear partial differential equations.One equation in elliptic form is for the electrostatic potential;two equations of convection-dominated diffusion type are for the electron and hole concentrations.Finite volume element procedure are put forward for the electrostatic potential,while upwind volume element schemes for the two concentration equations.Error estimates in L2norm for our numerical schemes are derived.

  1. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1998-01-01

    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  2. Simulation analysis of security performance of DPSKOCDMA network via virtual user scheme

    Vishav Jyoti

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique to enhance the security of an optical code division multipleaccess (OCDMA) system against eavesdropping is proposed. It has been observed that whena single user is active in the network, an eavesdropper can easily sift the data beingtransmitted without decoding. To increase the security, a virtual user scheme is proposed andsimulated on a differential phase shift keying (DPSK) OCDMA system. By using the virtualuser scheme, the security of the DPSK-OCDMA system can be effecti...

  3. Sustitución del descongelante sintético de semen por leche de vaca para la inseminación de hembras bovinas - Substitution of the defrost of synthetic semen for milk of it vacates for the insemination of bovine females

    Botello A. R.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente trabajo propone sustituir el descongelante sintético para semen bovino (DSSB por leche de vaca, como opción sostenible en los programas de inseminación artificial (IA de las hembras bovinas. Por un período de cuatro años (2005 - 2008 se investigaron 780 animales del cruce (Holstein x Cebú con condición corporal mayor e igual a 3,5 y se conformaron dos tratamientos, cada uno compuesto por 390 animales, al primer grupo se le aplicó IA con DSBS y al segundo con leche de vaca, a los que se les midió: la proporción de gestación y nacimientos. Las proporciones fueron comparadas por una prueba de hipótesis de Z.SummaryThe present work intends to substitute the defrost of synthetic bovine semen (DSBS for cow milk, as sustainable alternative in the programs of artificial insemination (AI of the bovine females. For a four year period (2005-2008 780 animals of the cross-breed (Holstein x Cebú were investigated with more corporal condition and similar to 3,5 and they conformed to two treatments, each one composed by 390 animals, to the first group was applied AI with DSBS and a second with cow milk, to those that were measured: the gestation proportion and births. The proportions were compared by a test of hypothesis of Z.

  4. Comparison of actinides and fission products recycling scheme with the normal plutonium recycling scheme in fast reactors

    Salahuddin Asif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple recycling of actinides and non-volatile fission products in fast reactors through the dry re-fabrication/reprocessing atomics international reduction oxidation process has been studied as a possible way to reduce the long-term potential hazard of nuclear waste compared to that resulting from reprocessing in a wet PUREX process. Calculations have been made to compare the actinides and fission products recycling scheme with the normal plutonium recycling scheme in a fast reactor. For this purpose, the Karlsruhe version of isotope generation and depletion code, KORIGEN, has been modified accordingly. An entirely novel fission product yields library for fast reactors has been created which has replaced the old KORIGEN fission products library. For the purposes of this study, the standard 26 groups data set, KFKINR, developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Germany, has been extended by the addition of the cross-sections of 13 important actinides and 68 most important fission products. It has been confirmed that these 68 fission products constitute about 95% of the total fission products yield and about 99.5% of the total absorption due to fission products in fast reactors. The amount of fissile material required to guarantee the criticality of the reactor during recycling schemes has also been investigated. Cumulative high active waste per ton of initial heavy metal is also calculated. Results show that the recycling of actinides and fission products in fast reactors through the atomics international reduction oxidation process results in a reduction of the potential hazard of radioactive waste.

  5. A classification scheme for LWR fuel assemblies

    With over 100 light water nuclear reactors operating nationwide, representing designs by four primary vendors, and with reload fuel manufactured by these vendors and additional suppliers, a wide variety of fuel assembly types are in existence. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, both the Systems Integration Program and the Characteristics Data Base project required a classification scheme for these fuels. This scheme can be applied to other areas and is expected to be of value to many Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management programs. To develop the classification scheme, extensive information on the fuel assemblies that have been and are being manufactured by the various nuclear fuel vendors was compiled, reviewed, and evaluated. It was determined that it is possible to characterize assemblies in a systematic manner, using a combination of physical factors. A two-stage scheme was developed consisting of 79 assembly types, which are grouped into 22 assembly classes. The assembly classes are determined by the general design of the reactor cores in which the assemblies are, or were, used. The general BWR and PWR classes are divided differently but both are based on reactor core configuration. 2 refs., 15 tabs

  6. Creating Culturally Sustainable Agri-Environmental Schemes

    Burton, Rob J. F.; Paragahawewa, Upananda Herath

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is emerging from across Europe that contemporary agri-environmental schemes are having only limited, if any, influence on farmers' long-term attitudes towards the environment. In this theoretical paper we argue that these approaches are not "culturally sustainable," i.e. the actions are not becoming embedded within farming cultures as…

  7. Performance Evaluation of Modified Signcryption Scheme

    Bharat Gupta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Before a message is sent out, the sender of the message would sign it using a digital signature scheme and then encrypt the message (and the signature use a private key encryption algorithm under a randomly chosen message encryption key. The random message encryption key would then be encrypted using the recipient's public key. We call this process two-step approach: “signature-then-encryption”. Concept signcryption, first proposed by Zheng, is a cryptography primitive which combines both the functions of digital signature and public key encryption in a logical single step, and with a computational cost and communication overhead are significantly lower than that needed by traditional signature then encryption. In Zheng’s scheme, the signature verification can be done recipient’s private key at receiverend and its security are based on mainly Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP, reversing one way hash function. In proposed modified signcryption scheme, security is based on the intractability of three hard problems: Discrete Logarithm Problem, reversing one way hash function and to determine prime factors of a composit number. Proposed signcryption scheme has all the benefits of signcryption and is also able to resolve the dispute / problem of non repudiation by independent third party, without compromising with sender and recipient’s private keys.

  8. Pipe blowdown analysis using explicit numerical schemes

    Several explicit numerical schemes were investigated to solve the homogeneous equations of change for one-dimensional fluid flow and heat transfer. The most successful technique investigated is the alternating gradient method which is based on the two-step Lax-Wendroff procedure. Agreement with experimental results is very good. (U.S.)

  9. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  10. Two modified discrete chirp Fourier transform schemes

    樊平毅; 夏香根

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents two modified discrete chirp Fourier transform (MDCFT) schemes.Some matched filter properties such as the optimal selection of the transform length, and its relationship to analog chirp-Fourier transform are studied. Compared to the DCFT proposed previously, theoretical and simulation results have shown that the two MDCFTs can further improve the chirp rate resolution of the detected signals.

  11. A Novel MBAFF Scheme of AVS

    Jian-Wen Chen; Guo-Ping Li; Yun He

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive frame/field coding techniques have been adopted in many international video standards for interlaced sequence coding. When the frame/field adaptation is applied on the picture level, the coding efficiency is improved greatly,compared with the pure frame coding or the pure field coding. The picture-level adaptive frame/field coding (PAFF) selects frame coding or field coding once for one picture. If this frame/field adaptation is extended to Macro Block (MB) level, the coding efficiency will be further increased. In this paper, a novel MB-level adaptive frame/field (MBAFF) coding scheme is proposed. In the proposed MBAFF scheme, the top field of the current picture is used as a reference. The experiments are implemented on the platforms of Audio Video coding Standard (AVS) base profile and H.264/AVC, respectively. On the AVS platform, 0.35dB gain can be achieved averagely, compared with AVS1.0 anchor. On the H.264/AVC platform, 0.16dB gain can be achieved averagely, compared with MBAFF scheme of H.264/AVC. Additionally, an extensive subjective quality enhancement can be achieved by the proposed scheme.

  12. On the Equivalence of Regularization Schemes

    YANG Ji-Feng

    2002-01-01

    We illustrate via the sunset diagram that dimensional regularization ‘deforms' the nonlocal contentsof multi-loop diagrams with its equivalence to cutoff regularization scheme recovered only after sub-divergence wassubtracted. Then we employed a differential equation approach for calculating loop diagrams to verify that dimensionalare argued especially in nonperturbativc perspective.

  13. GVD compensation schemes with considering PMD

    Aiying Yang(杨爱英); Anshi Xu(徐安士); Deming Wu(吴德明)

    2003-01-01

    Three group velocity dispersion (GVD) compensation schemes, i.e., the post-compensation, pre-compensation and hybrid-compensation schemes, are discussed with considering polarization mode disper-sion (PMD). In the 10- and 40-Gbit/s non-return-zero (NRZ) on-off-key (OOK) systems, three physicalfactors, Kerr effect, GVD and PMD are considered. The numerical results show that, when the impactof PMD is taken into account, the GVD pre-compensation scheme performs best with more than 1 dBbetter of average eye-opening penalty (EOP) when input power is up to 10 dBm in the 10-Gbit/s system.However the GVD post-compensation scheme perforns best for the case of 40 Gbit/s with input power lessthan 13 dBm, and GVD pre-compensation will be better if the input power increased beyond this range.The results are different from those already reported under the assumption that the impact of PMD isneglected. Therefore, the research in this paper provide a different insight into the system optimizationwhen PMD, Kerr effect and GVD are considered.

  14. Multiresolution schemes for conservation laws with viscosity

    This paper presents multiresolution schemes for the efficient numerical solution of one-dimensional conservation laws with viscosity. The method, originally developed by A, Harten (Commun. Pure Appl. Math., to appear) for hyperbolic conservation laws, computes the cell average multiresolution representation of the solution which provides much information about the solution's regularity. As a consequence, the possibly expensive ENO (essentially nonoscillatory) reconstruction as well as numerous flux computations are performed only near discontinuities, and thereby the numerical solution procedure becomes considerably more efficient. The multiresolution scheme is also expected to open-quotes followclose quotes possibly unsteady irregularities from one time step to the next. When viscosity is added, predicting the location of the irregularity becomes a problem of estimating the change in shock thickness. To this end, we derive shock width estimates for our 1D prototype equations, which, when combined with the stability restriction of the numerical scheme, provide a reliable mechanism for enlarging the original multiresolution stencil. The numerical experiments for scalar conservation laws indicate the feasibility of multiresolution schemes for the viscous case as well

  15. Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes

    Shah, Jolly

    2011-01-01

    Image applications have been increasing in recent years.Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness,format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.

  16. Performance Study on Image Encryption Schemes

    Jolly Shah; Vikas Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Image applications have been increasing in recent years. Encryption is used to provide the security needed for image applications. In this paper, we classify various image encryption schemes and analyze them with respect to various parameters like tunability, visual degradation, compression friendliness, format compliance, encryption ratio, speed, and cryptographic security.

  17. Harmonic generation with multiple wiggler schemes

    Bonifacio, R.; De Salvo, L.; Pierini, P. [Universita degli Studi, Milano (Italy)

    1995-02-01

    In this paper the authors give a simple theoretical description of the basic physics of the single pass high gain free electron laser (FEL), describing in some detail the FEL bunching properties and the harmonic generation technique with a multiple-wiggler scheme or a high gain optical klystron configuration.

  18. Study of 228Ac decay scheme

    Calibration in energy and efficiency of the system used. Obtainement of singles gamma ray spectra of low and high energy. Reduction of the data obtained in the spectrometer by means of computer: localization and determination of the areas of the peaks, also the analysis of the shape of the peaks for identification of doublets. Checking of the decay scheme

  19. Autonomous droop scheme with reduced generation cost

    Nutkani, Inam Ullah; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    DGs are usually of different types unlike synchronous generators. This paper presents an autonomous droop scheme that takes into consideration the operating cost, efficiency and emission penalty of each DG since all these factors directly or indirectly contributes to the Total Generation Cost (TGC...

  20. Storage System Design Scheme in Virtualization Construction

    Si Zhen-yu

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve resource utilization, it is necessary to integrate storage and data, and the emergence of cloud computing makes it possible. This paper analyzed the study of virtualization and cloud computing, proposed a new scheme based on virtualization, and established a shared storage platform, which made a good complement and perfected the centralized storage platform.

  1. Solid Waste Management Baling Scheme Economics Methodology

    Jan Stenis,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A cost structure is proposed for evaluating and improving the ecological-economic efficiency of baling sub-scheme units within solid waste management schemes that end with, for example, incineration for heat and power production. The methodology proposed employs the previously introduced WAste Managements’ Efficient Decision model (WAMED and the COmpany STatistical BUSiness Tool forEnvironmental Recovery indicator (COSTBUSTER. The previously introduced equality principle and the Efficient Use of Resources for Optimal Production Economy (EUROPE model are applied so to in monetary terms express the emissions in case of bale related fire (sol, pollutions from leachate (liq and odour (g at a scheme. Previously, the EUROPE model has been applied to residuals from producing industry, the construction sector and whole landfills. A case study presents the practical application of the proposedmethodology. It is concluded that the presented novel methodology for evaluation and improvement of the ecological-economic efficiency of solid waste baling management schemes simultaneously decreases thenegative impact on the environment and the health of the population, provides the foundation of an investment appraisal support tool for the implementation of solid waste management projects and enables comparative analysis of estimated, actual and prevented monetary damages from the implementation of baling plant units.

  2. Scheme of adaptive polarization filtering based on Kalman model

    Song Lizhong; Qi Haiming; Qiao Xiaolin; Meng Xiande

    2006-01-01

    A new kind of adaptive polarization filtering algorithm in order to suppress the angle cheating interference for the active guidance radar is presented. The polarization characteristic of the interference is dynamically tracked by using Kalman estimator under variable environments with time. The polarization filter parameters are designed according to the polarization characteristic of the interference, and the polarization filtering is finished in the target cell. The system scheme of adaptive polarization filter is studied and the tracking performance of polarization filter and improvement of angle measurement precision are simulated. The research results demonstrate this technology can effectively suppress the angle cheating interference in guidance radar and is feasible in engineering.

  3. A Hash Based Remote User Authentication and Authenticated Key Agreement Scheme for the Integrated EPR Information System.

    Li, Chun-Ta; Weng, Chi-Yao; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Wang, Chun-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    To protect patient privacy and ensure authorized access to remote medical services, many remote user authentication schemes for the integrated electronic patient record (EPR) information system have been proposed in the literature. In a recent paper, Das proposed a hash based remote user authentication scheme using passwords and smart cards for the integrated EPR information system, and claimed that the proposed scheme could resist various passive and active attacks. However, in this paper, we found that Das's authentication scheme is still vulnerable to modification and user duplication attacks. Thereafter we propose a secure and efficient authentication scheme for the integrated EPR information system based on lightweight hash function and bitwise exclusive-or (XOR) operations. The security proof and performance analysis show our new scheme is well-suited to adoption in remote medical healthcare services. PMID:26349803

  4. Quick Local Repair Scheme using Adaptive Promiscuous Mode in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Joo-Sang Youn

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs, there is frequently disconnected a route consisting of multi- hop from a source to a destination because of the dynamic nature such as the topology change caused by nodes’ mobility. To overcome this situation, existing routing protocols for MANETs have performed route repair scheme to repair the disconnected route. However, existing reactive routing protocols have the problem which is that a source node unnecessarily performs re-discovers the whole path when just one node moves, even if the rest of path needs not to be re-arranged. Therefore, the time for re-discovery of the whole path may often take too long. To solve the problem, we propose a new local repair scheme using promiscuous mode. Our scheme is mainly composed of two parts: adaptive promiscuous mode and quick local repair scheme. Adaptive promiscuous mode is to repeat the switching processes between promiscuous mode and nonpromiscuous mode to overcome energy limit caused by using promiscuous mode in overall time and quick local repair scheme is to fast perform the local re-route discovery process with the information of the active connection in the local area acquired by promiscuous mode. With simulation in the various number of connection, We demonstrate the better network performances achieved with the proposed schemes as compared with AODV as reference model that do not provide local repair scheme.

  5. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on “sensible heat” storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance

  6. Implicit and semi-implicit schemes: Algorithms

    Keppens, R.; Tóth, G.; Botchev, M. A.; van der Ploeg, A.

    1999-06-01

    This study formulates general guidelines to extend an explicit code with a great variety of implicit and semi-implicit time integration schemes. The discussion is based on their specific implementation in the Versatile Advection Code, which is a general purpose software package for solving systems of non-linear hyperbolic (and/or parabolic) partial differential equations, using standard high resolution shock capturing schemes. For all combinations of explicit high resolution schemes with implicit and semi-implicit treatments, it is shown how second-order spatial and temporal accuracy for the smooth part of the solutions can be maintained. Strategies to obtain steady state and time accurate solutions implicitly are discussed. The implicit and semi-implicit schemes require the solution of large linear systems containing the Jacobian matrix. The Jacobian matrix itself is calculated numerically to ensure the generality of this implementation. Three options are discussed in terms of applicability, storage requirements and computational efficiency. One option is the easily implemented matrix-free approach, but the Jacobian matrix can also be calculated by using a general grid masking algorithm, or by an efficient implementation for a specific Lax-Friedrich-type total variation diminishing (TVD) spatial discretization. The choice of the linear solver depends on the dimensionality of the problem. In one dimension, a direct block tridiagonal solver can be applied, while in more than one spatial dimension, a conjugate gradient (CG)-type iterative solver is used. For advection-dominated problems, preconditioning is needed to accelerate the convergence of the iterative schemes. The modified block incomplete LU-preconditioner is implemented, which performs very well. Examples from two-dimensional hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic computations are given. They model transonic stellar outflow and recover the complex magnetohydrodynamic bow shock flow in the switch-on regime

  7. Electricity storage using a thermal storage scheme

    White, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation, many of which have an unpredictably intermittent nature, will inevitably lead to a greater demand for large-scale electricity storage schemes. For example, the expanding fraction of electricity produced by wind turbines will require either backup or storage capacity to cover extended periods of wind lull. This paper describes a recently proposed storage scheme, referred to here as Pumped Thermal Storage (PTS), and which is based on "sensible heat" storage in large thermal reservoirs. During the charging phase, the system effectively operates as a high temperature-ratio heat pump, extracting heat from a cold reservoir and delivering heat to a hot one. In the discharge phase the processes are reversed and it operates as a heat engine. The round-trip efficiency is limited only by process irreversibilities (as opposed to Second Law limitations on the coefficient of performance and the thermal efficiency of the heat pump and heat engine respectively). PTS is currently being developed in both France and England. In both cases, the schemes operate on the Joule-Brayton (gas turbine) cycle, using argon as the working fluid. However, the French scheme proposes the use of turbomachinery for compression and expansion, whereas for that being developed in England reciprocating devices are proposed. The current paper focuses on the impact of the various process irreversibilities on the thermodynamic round-trip efficiency of the scheme. Consideration is given to compression and expansion losses and pressure losses (in pipe-work, valves and thermal reservoirs); heat transfer related irreversibility in the thermal reservoirs is discussed but not included in the analysis. Results are presented demonstrating how the various loss parameters and operating conditions influence the overall performance.

  8. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    Al-saggaf, Alawi A.; Haridas Acharya

    2013-01-01

    By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS), in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message). The eff...

  9. Finite difference schemes for long-time integration

    Haras, Zigo; Taasan, Shlomo

    1993-01-01

    Finite difference schemes for the evaluation of first and second derivatives are presented. These second order compact schemes were designed for long-time integration of evolution equations by solving a quadratic constrained minimization problem. The quadratic cost function measures the global truncation error while taking into account the initial data. The resulting schemes are applicable for integration times fourfold, or more, longer than similar previously studied schemes. A similar approach was used to obtain improved integration schemes.

  10. Simple Numerical Schemes for the Korteweg-deVries Equation

    C. J. McKinstrie; M. V. Kozlov

    2000-12-01

    Two numerical schemes, which simulate the propagation of dispersive non-linear waves, are described. The first is a split-step Fourier scheme for the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The second is a finite-difference scheme for the modified KdV equation. The stability and accuracy of both schemes are discussed. These simple schemes can be used to study a wide variety of physical processes that involve dispersive nonlinear waves.

  11. Fuzzy Commitment Scheme based on Reed Solomon Codes

    Chauhan, Sonam; Sharma, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    The conventional commitment scheme requires both commitment string and a valid key for the sender to verify his commitment. Differ from the conventional commitment scheme; fuzzy commitment scheme accepts the key that is similar to the original key. The new opening key, not identical to the original key, differs from the initial key in some suitable metrics. The fuzziness in the fuzzy commitment scheme tolerate small amount of corruptions. The fuzzy commitment scheme based on the cryptographic...

  12. High-resolution schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Harten, A.

    1982-01-01

    A class of new explicit second order accurate finite difference schemes for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws is presented. These highly nonlinear schemes are obtained by applying a nonoscillatory first order accurae scheme to an appropriately modified flux function. The so derived second order accurate schemes achieve high resolution while preserving the robustness of the original nonoscillatory first order accurate scheme.

  13. A secure and efficient uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care.

    Das, Ashok Kumar; Goswami, Adrijit

    2013-06-01

    Connected health care has several applications including telecare medicine information system, personally controlled health records system, and patient monitoring. In such applications, user authentication can ensure the legality of patients. In user authentication for such applications, only the legal user/patient himself/herself is allowed to access the remote server, and no one can trace him/her according to transmitted data. Chang et al. proposed a uniqueness-and-anonymity-preserving remote user authentication scheme for connected health care (Chang et al., J Med Syst 37:9902, 2013). Their scheme uses the user's personal biometrics along with his/her password with the help of the smart card. The user's biometrics is verified using BioHashing. Their scheme is efficient due to usage of one-way hash function and exclusive-or (XOR) operations. In this paper, we show that though their scheme is very efficient, their scheme has several security weaknesses such as (1) it has design flaws in login and authentication phases, (2) it has design flaws in password change phase, (3) it fails to protect privileged insider attack, (4) it fails to protect the man-in-the middle attack, and (5) it fails to provide proper authentication. In order to remedy these security weaknesses in Chang et al.'s scheme, we propose an improvement of their scheme while retaining the original merit of their scheme. We show that our scheme is efficient as compared to Chang et al.'s scheme. Through the security analysis, we show that our scheme is secure against possible attacks. Further, we simulate our scheme for the formal security verification using the widely-accepted AVISPA (Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) tool to ensure that our scheme is secure against passive and active attacks. In addition, after successful authentication between the user and the server, they establish a secret session key shared between them for future secure communication. PMID

  14. Flexible Cure Rate Modeling Under Latent Activation Schemes

    Cooner, Freda; Banerjee, Sudipto; Bradley P. Carlin; Sinha, Debajyoti

    2007-01-01

    With rapid improvements in medical treatment and health care, many datasets dealing with time to relapse or death now reveal a substantial portion of patients who are cured (i.e., who never experience the event). Extended survival models called cure rate models account for the probability of a subject being cured and can be broadly classified into the classical mixture models of Berkson and Gage (BG type) or the stochastic tumor models pioneered by Yakovlev and extended to a hierarchical fram...

  15. Effect of some factors used to the chicken meat preservation and processing on the protease activity

    The obtained results indicated that the cathepsin activity was higher by about 60% in the extract from thigh than from breast muscles. Freezing and defrosting (not stored) of chicken meat did not influence the breast muscle cathepsin activity while they caused a decrease of activity of about 20% in the case of thigh muscles. The increase in cathepsin activity was noticed in both kinds of muscles during storage at -20 °C up to 4 months (45.6% and 19.4% for thigh and breast muscles respectively). The activity of cathepsin in extract from 5 months stored meat reached 80% in case of breast muscles and 83% in case of thigh muscles in relation to control sample respectively. The cathepsin activity significantly increased during heating of breast muscles up to 60 °C, but in case of thigh muscles it was slightly higher than at 50°C. The heating of cured chicken breast muscles up to 60°C caused a non significant growth in cathepsin activity opposite to raw muscles. The cathepsin activity from all cured samples heated up to 70°C were several times lower in relation to control samples. The cathepsin activity of both thigh and breast muscles were resistant to gamma radiation. The investigated factors caused changes in the activity of cathepsin but none of them caused its total inactivation. The changes of cathepsin activity depended on the kind of muscles and the kind and the value of acting factors

  16. A classification scheme for risk assessment methods.

    Stamp, Jason Edwin; Campbell, Philip LaRoche

    2004-08-01

    This report presents a classification scheme for risk assessment methods. This scheme, like all classification schemes, provides meaning by imposing a structure that identifies relationships. Our scheme is based on two orthogonal aspects--level of detail, and approach. The resulting structure is shown in Table 1 and is explained in the body of the report. Each cell in the Table represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. This report imposes structure on the set of risk assessment methods in order to reveal their relationships and thus optimize their usage.We present a two-dimensional structure in the form of a matrix, using three abstraction levels for the rows and three approaches for the columns. For each of the nine cells in the matrix we identify the method type by name and example. The matrix helps the user understand: (1) what to expect from a given method, (2) how it relates to other methods, and (3) how best to use it. Each cell in the matrix represent a different arrangement of strengths and weaknesses. Those arrangements shift gradually as one moves through the table, each cell optimal for a particular situation. The intention of this report is to enable informed use of the methods so that a method chosen is optimal for a situation given. The matrix, with type names in the cells, is introduced in Table 2 on page 13 below. Unless otherwise stated we use the word 'method' in this report to refer to a 'risk assessment method', though often times we use the full phrase. The use of the terms 'risk assessment' and 'risk management' are close enough that we do not attempt to distinguish them in this report. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. In

  17. ECSM: Energy Efficient Clustering Scheme for Mobile M2M Communication Networks

    Mohammed Saeed Al-kahtani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scheduling the active and idle period of machine ty pe communication devices (MTC such as RFID tags, sensors and smart meters are significant ly important to achieve energy efficiency in the emerging machine to machine (M2M communication networks, which comprises thousands of resource constrained MTC devices (i.e., low data rate, energy and bandwidth. However, only a few studies exist in the literature on node scheduling schemes of M2M communication networks. Most of these schemes consider only the e nergy efficiency of MTC devices and do not support mobility. Thus, we introduce an energy effi cient, node scheduling scheme for mobile M2M (ECSM communication networks. The ECSM schedul ing scheme selects a minimum number of active MTC devices in each cluster and in creases the probability of network coverage. Simulation results show that the ECSM sch eduling scheme outperforms the existing cluster-based and well-known mobility centric LEACH -M and LEACH-ME schemes in terms of network energy consumption and lifetime.

  18. Research on a New Control Scheme of Photovoltaic Grid Power Generation System

    Dong-Hui Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of photovoltaic grid power generation system control scheme to solve the problems of the conventional photovoltaic grid power generation systems is presented. To aim at the oscillation and misjudgment of traditional perturbation observation method, an improved perturbation observation method comparing to the next moment power is proposed, combining with BOOST step-up circuit to realize the maximum power tracking. To counter the harmonic pollution problem in photovoltaic grid power generation system, the deadbeat control scheme in fundamental wave synchronous frequency rotating coordinate system of power grid is presented. A parameter optimization scheme based on positive feedback of active frequency shift island detection to solve the problems like the nondetection zone due to the import of disturbance in traditional island detection method is proposed. Finally, the results in simulation environment by MATLAB/Simulink simulation and experiment environment verify the validity and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  19. Bidirectional Partial Generalized Synchronization in Chaotic and Hyperchaotic Systems via a New Scheme

    WANG Qi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a bidirectional partial generalized (lag, complete, and anticipated) synchronization of a class of continuous-time systems is defined. Then based on the active control idea, a new systematic and concrete scheme is developed to achieve bidirectional partial generalized (lag, complete, and anticipated) synchronization between two chaotic systems or between chaotic and hyperchaotic systems. With the help of symbolic-numerical computation,we choose the modified Chua system, Lorenz system, and the hyperchaotic Tamasevicius-Namajunas-Cenys system to illustrate the proposed scheme. Numerical simulations are used to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. It is interesting that partialchaos synchronization not only can take place between two chaotic systems, but also can take place between chaotic and hyperchaotic systems. The proposed scheme can also be extended to research bidirectional partial generalized (lag, complete, and anticipated) synchronization between other dynamical systems.

  20. A novel control scheme for simultaneous elimination of imbalance, disturbance and voltage harmonic in power systems

    Javad Olamaei; Farnoosh NarjabadiFam; Amid Nazeri

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increasing application of nonlinear and unbalanced electronic equipment and large single phase loads have made voltage imbalance a serious problem in power distribution systems. A novel approach has been proposed to eliminate voltage imbalance and disturbances. The main strategy of this scheme is based on series active filter. By improving control circuit toward existing schemes and proposing a new strategy to control the voltage amplitude, simultaneous elimination of voltage imbalance, faults, voltage harmonics and also compensation of voltage drop in transmission lines become possible. Eventually, the voltage on the load side is a perfectly balanced three phase voltage with specific proper amplitude. The proposed scheme has been simulated in a test network and the results show high capability of this scheme for the complete elimination of imbalance without phase shift.

  1. Scheme for Quantum Computing Immune to Decoherence

    Williams, Colin; Vatan, Farrokh

    2008-01-01

    A constructive scheme has been devised to enable mapping of any quantum computation into a spintronic circuit in which the computation is encoded in a basis that is, in principle, immune to quantum decoherence. The scheme is implemented by an algorithm that utilizes multiple physical spins to encode each logical bit in such a way that collective errors affecting all the physical spins do not disturb the logical bit. The scheme is expected to be of use to experimenters working on spintronic implementations of quantum logic. Spintronic computing devices use quantum-mechanical spins (typically, electron spins) to encode logical bits. Bits thus encoded (denoted qubits) are potentially susceptible to errors caused by noise and decoherence. The traditional model of quantum computation is based partly on the assumption that each qubit is implemented by use of a single two-state quantum system, such as an electron or other spin-1.2 particle. It can be surprisingly difficult to achieve certain gate operations . most notably, those of arbitrary 1-qubit gates . in spintronic hardware according to this model. However, ironically, certain 2-qubit interactions (in particular, spin-spin exchange interactions) can be achieved relatively easily in spintronic hardware. Therefore, it would be fortunate if it were possible to implement any 1-qubit gate by use of a spin-spin exchange interaction. While such a direct representation is not possible, it is possible to achieve an arbitrary 1-qubit gate indirectly by means of a sequence of four spin-spin exchange interactions, which could be implemented by use of four exchange gates. Accordingly, the present scheme provides for mapping any 1-qubit gate in the logical basis into an equivalent sequence of at most four spin-spin exchange interactions in the physical (encoded) basis. The complexity of the mathematical derivation of the scheme from basic quantum principles precludes a description within this article; it must suffice to report

  2. Green investment schemes. Options and issues

    The Kyoto Protocol establishes greenhouse gas emissions targets for the period 2008-2012 for industrialised country Parties and agrees on a number of common approaches to be used to implement those targets. Emissions trading allows countries with surplus emissions allowances to sell to countries that require additional emissions allowances in order to meet their targets. The scale of the financial transactions globally could be in the range 1.25 - 3.5 billion euro per annum. This is a very approximate figure, and depends on the balance of supply and demand and the prevailing allowance price. Certain countries with economies in transition have commitment targets that are well in excess of their current emissions. Green Investment Schemes (GIS) have been discussed as a way of promoting the environmental efficacy of transactions that involve such surplus allowances. The idea would be to ear-mark funds generated from the sale of allowances for use in environmentally-related projects. The GIS would be set up by the seller countries, and would operate as a domestic scheme within their climate policy framework, with operational details to be agreed on a bilateral basis between buyer and seller nations. If supported by the international community for its environmental effectiveness, GIS schemes could be broadly relevant to those non-EU accession countries with economies in transition (EITs) that have surplus AAUs. To date, no projects have been funded under a GIS. Despite discussion in the literature, real progress in setting up such schemes is limited. This is probably due to uncertainties relating to the current ratification status of the Kyoto Protocol, and in advance of the Protocol's entry into force, it is difficult to discern the true level of political support for the idea. Nevertheless, previous work has identified a need on the part of buyers to find a way to 'green' the surplus allowance transactions (Tangen et al (2002)). This paper explores the pros and cons

  3. On the Behavior of Upwind Schemes in the Low Mach Number Limit: II. Godunov Type Schemes

    Guillard, Hervé; Murrone, Angelo

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of Godunov scheme in the low Mach number regime. We study the Riemann problem and show that the interface pressure contains acoustic waves of order Mach even if the initial data are well prepared and contain only pressure fluctuations of order Mach squared. We then propose to modify the fluxes computed by Godunov type schemes by solving a preconditioned Riemann problem instead of the original one. This strategy is applied to VFRoe solvers where we show that it ...

  4. Employee Share Option Scheme And Employees’ Motivation

    Rebecca Yew Ming Yian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Employee stock options scheme (ESOS is a call option on the ordinary share of a company, issued as a form of non-cash compensation or as an incentive tool. ESOS gives an employee the right to buy shares at a fixed price for a defined number of years into the future. The trend toward broad-based share options may come to an end as companies are scaling back due to the changes in accounting standards. Similarly, companies in Malaysia, especially in the banking industry which originally offered share options to their employees are now pulling back this scheme. Does the movement to scale back share options affect employees’ motivation? This is an empirical question which this paper intends to explore. It is hope that the commercial banks will reconsider offering ESOS in rewarding their employees if the research finding indicates that it plays a significant role in motivating employees.

  5. A GENERALIZED CLASS OF PSNR SAMPLING SCHEME

    D. Shukla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present days of advanced electronic technologies in the field of communicationlike mobile phones, e-mail, internet etc. (and so forth the incentive based mail surveys are beingpopular due to their cost effectiveness and rapid approach to individuals. But, a majordisadvantage appears as mail surveys are affected by a huge amount of non-response of units inthe sample. The post-stratified non-response (PSNR scheme is used, in the stratified samplingset-up, when (i frames of stratum are unknown and (ii strata contain some non-responding units.This paper presents a general class of PSNR type sampling scheme by introducing three groupsof earmarked strata based on response pattern along-with two parameters pf the class. TheBayesian approach regarding utilization of prior knowledge (or guess of response pattern isintroduced in the proposed class for estimating the population mean. Several properties of theclass are derived and the results are numerically supported.

  6. Practical Schemes For Privacy & Security Enhanced RFID

    Hoepman, Jaap-Henk

    2009-01-01

    Proper privacy protection in RFID systems is important. However, many of the schemes known are impractical, either because they use hash functions instead of the more hardware efficient symmetric encryption schemes as a efficient cryptographic primitive, or because they incur a rather costly key search time penalty at the reader. Moreover, they do not allow for dynamic, fine-grained access control to the tag that cater for more complex usage scenarios. In this paper we investigate such scenarios, and propose a model and corresponding privacy friendly protocols for efficient and fine-grained management of access permissions to tags. In particular we propose an efficient mutual authentication protocol between a tag and a reader that achieves a reasonable level of privacy, using only symmetric key cryptography on the tag, while not requiring a costly key-search algorithm at the reader side. Moreover, our protocol is able to recover from stolen readers.

  7. Cryptanalysis to a Certificateless Threshold Signature Scheme

    Wenjie Yang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Certificateless public key cryptography is a new paradigm with two interesting features. On one hand, it keeps the certificate free property of identity-based public key cryptography (ID-PKC, while on the other hand, it gets rid of the inherent key escrow problem of ID-PKC. These two distinctive features make certificateless threshold signature schemes more applicable in practice as it removes the cost of transmitting and verifying the public key certificates of the participants who are involved in signing, and yet without the fear of key escrow. In this paper, we analyze the security of an existing certificateless threshold signature (CLTHS scheme recently proposed by Zhong et al.[26]. We show it is insure by demonstrating its three security drawbacks. Especially, we present a kind of public key replacement attack against it. Our attack reveals that it is subject to universal forgeries of type I adversaries

  8. OPERATIONAL MODAL ANALYSIS SCHEMES USING CORRELATION TECHNIQUE

    Zheng Min; Shen Fan; Chen Huaihai

    2005-01-01

    For some large-scale engineering structures in operating conditions, modal parameters estimation must base itself on response-only data. This problem has received a considerable amount of attention in the past few years. It is well known that the cross-correlation function between the measured responses is a sum of complex exponential functions of the same form as the impulse response function of the original system. So this paper presents a time-domain operating modal identification global scheme and a frequency-domain scheme from output-only by coupling the cross-correlation function with conventional modal parameter estimation. The outlined techniques are applied to an airplane model to estimate modal parameters from response-only data.

  9. Approximate Particle Spectra in the Pyramid Scheme

    Banks, Tom

    2012-01-01

    We construct a minimal model within the general class of Pyramid Schemes, which is consistent with both supersymmetry breaking and electroweak symmetry breaking. In order to do computations, we make unjustified approximations to the low energy K\\"ahler potential. The phenomenological viability of the resultant mass spectrum is then examined and compared with current collider limits. We show that, for certain regimes of parameters, the Pyramid Scheme can accommodate the current collider mass constraints on physics beyond the standard model with a tree-level light Higgs mass near 125 GeV. However, in this regime the model exhibits a little hierarchy problem, and one must permit fine-tunings that are generically 5%.

  10. Exclusion from the Health Insurance Scheme

    2003-01-01

    A CERN pensioner, member of the Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), recently provided fake documents in support of claims for medical expenses, in order to receive unjustified reimbursement from the CHIS. The Administrator of the CHIS, UNIQA, suspected a case of fraud: Accordingly, an investigation and interview of the person concerned was carried out and brought the Organization to the conclusion that fraud had actually taken place. Consequently and in accordance with Article VIII 3.12 of the CHIS Rules, it was decided to exclude this member permanently from the CHIS. The Organization takes the opportunity to remind Scheme members that any fraud or attempt to fraud established within the framework of the CHIS exposes them to: - disciplinary action, according to the Staff Rules and Regulations, for CERN members of the personnel; - definitive exclusion from the CHIS for members affiliated on a voluntary basis. Human Resources Division Tel. 73635

  11. Redundancy scheme for multi-layered accelerator control system

    The control system for SRS Indus-2 has three-layered architecture. There are VMEbus based stations at the lower two layers that are controlled by their respective CPU board. The 'Profibus' fieldbus standard is used for communication between these VME stations distributed in the field. There is a Profibus controller board at each station to implement the communication protocol. The mode of communication is master-slave (command-response) type. This paper proposes a scheme to implement redundancy at the lower two layers namely Layer-2 (Supervisory Layer / Profibus-master) and Layer-3 (Equipment Unit Interface Layer / Profibus-slave). The redundancy is for both the CPU and the communication board. The scheme uses two CPU boards and two Profi controller boards at each L-3 station. This helps in decreasing any downtime resulting either from CPU faults or communication board faults that are placed in the field area. Redundancy of Profi boards provides two active communication channels between the stations that can be used in different ways thereby increasing the availability on a communication link. Redundancy of CPU boards provides certain level of auto fault-recovery as one CPU remains active and the other CPU remains in standby mode, which takes over the control of VMEbus in case of any fault in the main CPU. (author)

  12. Simple and High-Accurate Schemes for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    Renzhong Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper constructs a class of simple high-accurate schemes (SHA schemes with third order approximation accuracy in both space and time to solve linear hyperbolic equations, using linear data reconstruction and Lax-Wendroff scheme. The schemes can be made even fourth order accurate with special choice of parameter. In order to avoid spurious oscillations in the vicinity of strong gradients, we make the SHA schemes total variation diminishing ones (TVD schemes for short by setting flux limiter in their numerical fluxes and then extend these schemes to solve nonlinear Burgers’ equation and Euler equations. The numerical examples show that these schemes give high order of accuracy and high resolution results. The advantages of these schemes are their simplicity and high order of accuracy.

  13. Numerical schemes for solving the Euler equations of gas dynamics

    The first-order upwind schemes of Godunov-Van Leer, Steger-Warming, Godunov, Roe, Osher and Glimm; Godunov type scheme I; the second-order upwind schemes of Van Leer, Fromm-Van Leer, Hancock-Van Leer, and Moretti; and the second-order centered schemes of Richtmyer, Mac Cormack, Lerat-Peyrat, and Jameson are described. Their performances for the shock-tube problem proposed by Sod are compared. The schemes of Godunov-Van Leer, Glimm, Fromm-Van Leer, and Hancock-Van Leer produced the best results. All the First-order upwind schemes, the Glimm scheme, the Jameson scheme, and the Hancock-Van Leer scheme can be extended to two dimensions in the finite element setting. 30 references

  14. Improvement of Mixing Function for Modified Upwinding Compact Scheme

    Fu, Huankun; Liu, Chaoqun

    2014-01-01

    The compact scheme has high order accuracy and high resolution, but cannot be used to capture the shock. WENO is a great scheme for shock capturing, but is too dissipative for turbulence and small length scales. We developed a modified upwinding compact scheme which uses an effective shock detector to block compact scheme to cross the shock and a control function to mix the flux with WENO scheme near the shock. The new scheme makes the original compact scheme able to capture the shock sharply and, more important, keep high order accuracy and high resolution in the smooth area, which is particularly important for shock boundary layer and shock acoustic interactions. This work is a continuation to modify the control function for the modified up-winding compact scheme (MUCS). Numerical results show the scheme is successful for 2-D Euler.

  15. On Complex Manifolds and Observable Schemes

    Le-Bert, Rodrigo Vargas

    2012-01-01

    We work out the construction of a Stein manifold from a commutative Arens-Michael algebra, under assumptions that are mild enough for the process to be useful in practice. Then, we do the passage to arbitrary complex manifolds by proposing a suitable notion of scheme. We do this in the abstract language of spectral functors, in view of its potential usefulness in non-commutative geometry.

  16. Lean mainstream schemes for Stata 8 graphics

    Svend Juul

    2003-01-01

    The new Stata 8 graphics are powerful and flexible. Now, a few months after the first release, the graphics still have some shortcomings-both in design and in the manual documenting the program-but progress is being made. The graph layout used throughout the Graphics Reference Manual has led some users to underestimate the potential of the program. This paper presents two schemes for a lean layout, conforming to the mainstream in scientific publishing. Copyright 2003 by StataCorp LP.

  17. Injection schemes for the TOP Linac

    In this report two schemes are studied for the injection in the SCDTL section of the TOP Linac of the proton beam produced by a 7 MeV linear accelerator. The project derives by an agreement between ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) and ISS. In these new versions of the design the constraint of a synchronization of the radio frequencies of the two accelerators is suppressed

  18. Welfare Schemes and Social Protection in India

    Raghbendra Jha

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of welfare schemes in India and their impact on social protection during a period of high economic growth. It summarizes India's performance with respect to select economic and social indicators relative to select low and middle income countries in the Asia Pacific region. It further overviews trends in some key select economic and social indicators for India and discusses India's attainment in Social Protection relative to an index of such protection prov...

  19. Benefit Security Pension Fund Guarantee Schemes

    Fiona Stewart

    2007-01-01

    The issue of pension benefit security has returned to the foreground of both economic and political debate in many OECD countries - following high profile losses of pension benefits due to plan sponsors becoming bankrupt and leaving underfunded pension schemes. Some countries have dealt with pension benefit protection via strong funding rules (the route taken for example by the Dutch authorities). Two OECD papers examine other methods for increasing benefit security in retirement – via pensio...

  20. Thermodynamic scheme of inhomogeneous perfect fluid mixtures

    Zarate, R D; Quevedo, Hernando

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the compatibility between the geometrodynamics and thermodynamics of a binary mixture of perfect fluids which describe inhomogeneous cosmological models. We generalize the thermodynamic scheme of general relativity to include the chemical potential of the fluid mixture with non-vanishing entropy production. This formalism is then applied to the case of Szekeres and Stephani families of cosmological models. The compatibility conditions turn out to impose symmetry conditions on the c...

  1. Attribute Based Multisignature Scheme for Wireless Communications

    2015-01-01

    With rapidly development of wireless communication, more mobile devices are used in our daily life. Although the need for accessing a wireless network is evident, new problems, such as keeping and preserving user identity’s privacy, should be greatly concerned. Attribute based signature scheme is an important cryptographic primitive which provides a powerful way for user to control their privacy. In wireless environment, the capacity of wireless channel is also valuable resources which is lim...

  2. Parasitology: United Kingdom National Quality Assessment Scheme.

    Hawthorne, M; Chiodini, P L; Snell, J J; Moody, A H; Ramsay, A

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the results from parasitology laboratories taking part in a quality assessment scheme between 1986 and 1991; and to compare performance with repeat specimens. METHODS: Quality assessment of blood parasitology, including tissue parasites (n = 444; 358 UK, 86 overseas), and faecal parasitology, including extra-intestinal parasites (n = 205; 141 UK, 64 overseas), was performed. RESULTS: Overall, the standard of performance was poor. A questionnaire distributed to participants sho...

  3. Design of the Misicuni scheme in Bolivia

    Minor, H.-E.; Clarke, I.D.; Riemer, W.

    1987-07-01

    The final concept of the Misicuni water supply and hydroelectric power scheme (500 GWh/year) is defined. A number of aspects of detailed design are described, including the Misicuni dam, main low pressure tunnel, high pressure waterways and hydrology and optimal project dimensions. Largely as a result of of the closer evaluation of geological conditions, a number of important changes had to be made to the project concept; the reasons for these changes are discussed in full. 7 refs.

  4. Security Analysis of Electronic Identity Schemes

    Amdam, Eli Sofie Finnøy

    2009-01-01

    This report is about electronic identity (eID) schemes and a security analysis in the Universal Composable (UC) security framework of Transport Layer Security (TLS) and OpenID. The security analysis show that secure communication session (scs) is realized by Transport Layer Security where TLS is the composition of the key exchange functionality with the message transmission of TLS record Layer. We also show that a TLS protocol, which is a composite protocol with the scs functionality, UC-real...

  5. A simple Cartesian scheme for compressible multimaterials

    Gorsse, Yannick; Milcent, Thomas; TELIB, Haysam

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple numerical method to simulate the interaction of two non-miscible compressible materials separated by an interface. The media considered may have significantly different physical properties and constitutive laws, describing for example fluids or hyperelastic solids. The model is fully Eulerian and the scheme is the same for all materials. We show stiff numerical illustrations in case of gas--gas, gas--water, gas--elastic solid interactions in the large deformation regime.

  6. Efficient Scheme for Chemical Flooding Simulation

    Braconnier Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate an efficient implicit scheme for the numerical simulation of chemical enhanced oil recovery technique for oil fields. For the sake of brevity, we only focus on flows with polymer to describe the physical and numerical models. In this framework, we consider a black oil model upgraded with the polymer modeling. We assume the polymer only transported in the water phase or adsorbed on the rock following a Langmuir isotherm. The polymer reduces the water phase mobility which can change drastically the behavior of water oil interfaces. Then, we propose a fractional step technique to resolve implicitly the system. The first step is devoted to the resolution of the black oil subsystem and the second to the polymer mass conservation. In such a way, jacobian matrices coming from the implicit formulation have a moderate size and preserve solvers efficiency. Nevertheless, the coupling between the black-oil subsystem and the polymer is not fully resolved. For efficiency and accuracy comparison, we propose an explicit scheme for the polymer for which large time step is prohibited due to its CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Levy criterion and consequently approximates accurately the coupling. Numerical experiments with polymer are simulated : a core flood, a 5-spot reservoir with surfactant and ions and a 3D real case. Comparisons are performed between the polymer explicit and implicit scheme. They prove that our polymer implicit scheme is efficient, robust and resolves accurately the coupling physics. The development and the simulations have been performed with the software PumaFlow [PumaFlow (2013 Reference manual, release V600, Beicip Franlab].

  7. A uniform resource identifier scheme for SNMP

    Lopes, Rui Pedro; Oliveira, José Luís

    2002-01-01

    One of the World Wide Web characteristics, besides its omnipresence in computer systems, is the adoption of a universal user interface that is used to access several different services that were previously accessed individually by independent applications. The Internet resources started to be identified by URI schemes, a text string with specific syntax and grammar. Although existing for several services such as http, ftp, gopher and news, these identifiers are not used to identify SNMP resou...

  8. Conservation agriculture is shaped through advisory schemes

    Brives, Hélène; Riousset, Pauline; de Tourdonnet, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    This communication challenges the idea that participatory extension methods are required to develop more sustainable forms of agriculture. It is based on a comparison of two case studies presenting how Conservation Agriculture is promoted by a French agribusiness company. In one case a participatory extension scheme is organized when in the second case CA is promoted through technology transfer. The paper explores how do CA practices evolve when developed through participatory and non partici...

  9. Configuration spaces over Hilbert schemes and applications

    Dias, Danielle

    1996-01-01

    The main themes of this book are to establish the triple formula without any hypotheses on the genericity of the morphism, and to develop a theory of complete quadruple points, which is a first step towards proving the quadruple point formula under less restrictive hypotheses. This book should be of interest to graduate students and researchers in the field of algebraic geometry. The reader is expected to have some basic knowledge of enumerative algebraic geometry and pointwise Hilbert schemes.

  10. Managerial Compensation Schemes with Informed Principals

    Thomas von Ungern-Sternberg

    2000-01-01

    We study managerial compensation schemes for situations, where the current management knows more about the company's expected profitability than the new employee. When a manager is offered a contract with only a low fixed salary but a high profit participation, he is afraid that the company's profit outlook may be quite bad. Employers are aware of this. In equilibrium high profit employers offer their new managers high fixed salaries and low profit participations. They thereby credibly signal...

  11. PYTHON IMPLEMENTATION OF VISUAL SECRET SHARING SCHEMES

    Ruxandra Olimid

    2011-01-01

    Visual secret sharing schemes (VSS) represent an important concept of visual cryptography. They permit the sharing of a secret image between multiple participants so that only authorized groups can recover the secret. This paper considers the software implementation of some black-and-white secret images VSS in Python programming language. PIL (Python Imaging Library) provides strong image processing capabilities, making the library suitable for this kind of implementation. We present samples ...

  12. An iterative initialization scheme for mesoscale studies

    Rao, G. V.; Fisherman, J.

    2011-01-01

    An iterative technique to produce an initial set of consistent meteorological variables on a mesoscale basis is constructed. The development follows closely the earlier pioneering study of Miyakoda & Moyer (1968) who examined the feasibility of such a technique for synoptic scale initialization utilizing the linearized barotropic equations. The proposed scheme, on the other hand, employs the primitive equations of motion and emphasizes the three-dimensional structure. Another difference i...

  13. Traditional and Truncation schemes for Different Multiplier

    Yogesh M. Motey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and proficient in power requirement multiplier is always vital in electronics industry like DSP, image processing and ALU in microprocessors. Multiplier is such an imperative block w ith respect to power consumption and area occupied in the system. In order to meet the demand for high speed, various parallel array multiplication algorithms have been proposed by a number of authors. The array multipliers use a large amount of hardware, consequently consuming a large amount of power. One of the methods for multiplication is based on Indian Vedic mathematics. The total Vedic mathematics is based on sixteen sutras (word formulae and manifests a merged structure of mathematics. The parallel multipliers for example radix 2 and radix 4 booth multiplier does the computations using less number of adders and less number of iterative steps that results in, they occupy less space to that of serial multiplier. Truncated multipliers offer noteworthy enhancements in area, delay, and power. Truncated multiplication provides different method for reducing the power dissipation and area of rounded parallel multipliers in DSP systems. Since in a truncated multiplier the x less significant bits of the full-width product are discarded thus partial products are removed and replaced by a suit- able compensation equations, match the accuracy with hardware cost. A pseudo-carry compensation truncation (PCT scheme, it is for the multiplexer based array multiplier, which yields less average error among existing truncation methods.After studying many research papers it’s found that some of the schemes for multiplier are suitable because their own uniqueness of multiplication. Such schemes are listed in this paper for example the different truncation schemes like constant-correction truncation (CCT, variable -correction truncation (VCT, pseudo-carry compensation truncation (PCT are most suitable for truncated multiplier.

  14. A Proactive Maintenance Scheme for Wireless Systems

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2008-01-01

    In the wireless sector maintenance costs form a large part of the total network operating cost. This paper presents a proactive maintenance scheme for wireless systems which is aimed at reducing the high operational costs encountered in the wireless industry by decreasing maintenance costs and system downtime. An on-line monitoring system is used to identify performance degradation, as well as its possible sources via symbol frequency distribution analysis. It ensures that maintenance occurs ...

  15. Classification schemes for dental school libraries.

    McMaugh, D R

    1979-12-01

    The provision of an efficient and acceptable library system for the dental literature is examined. It is suggested that an index to the dental literature is best provided by a combination of Index Medicus and Medical Subject Headings. The Library of Congress scheme would be best for an autonomous dental school and, where a dental school library is provided by a large medical library, the National Library of Medicine Classification would be suitable for dental student use. PMID:395935

  16. Sovereign Debt Relief Schemes and Welfare

    Aasim M. Husain

    1992-01-01

    This paper shows that concerted debt reduction may be welfare-improving even when the investment disincentive effect of a debt overhang is not large enough to place the debtor country on the wrong side of the debt Laffer curve. Whether the appropriate relief scheme involves debt reduction or new money, however, depends on whether investment disincentives or liquidity constraints dominate. It is shown that, except under very special circumstances, mixed policy packages involving both debt and ...

  17. Droop Scheme With Consideration of Operating Costs

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    considered even though they are different for different types of DGs. This letter thus proposes an alternative droop scheme, which can better distinguish the different operating characteristics and objectives of the DGs grouped together in a weighted droop expression. The power sharing arrived in the steady...... state will meet the intended objectives, as demonstrated in the experiment with a defined objective of minimizing the total microgrid operating cost....

  18. Linear multi-step schemes for BSDEs

    Chassagneux, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    We study the convergence rate of a class of linear multi-step methods for BSDEs. We show that, under a sufficient condition on the coefficients, the schemes enjoy a fundamental stability property. Coupling this result to an analysis of the truncation error allows us to design approximation with arbitrary order of convergence. Contrary to the analysis performed in \\cite{zhazha10}, we consider general diffusion model and BSDEs with driver depending on $z$. The class of methods we consider conta...

  19. Evolutionary Algorithm for Optimal Vaccination Scheme

    The following work uses the dynamic capabilities of an evolutionary algorithm in order to obtain an optimal immunization strategy in a user specified network. The produced algorithm uses a basic genetic algorithm with crossover and mutation techniques, in order to locate certain nodes in the inputted network. These nodes will be immunized in an SIR epidemic spreading process, and the performance of each immunization scheme, will be evaluated by the level of containment that provides for the spreading of the disease

  20. Quality Model of Foodstuff in the Control of Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    as what is the optimal defrost scheme from food quality point of view are answered. This will serve as a prerequisite of designing of optimal control scheme for the commercial refrigeration system, aiming at optimizing a weighed cost function of both food quality and overall energy consumption of...... happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor? This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as how the defrost temperature and duration influence the food temperature, thus the food quality, as well...

  1. INFORMATION FROM THE CERN HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME

    Tel : 7-3635

    2002-01-01

    Please note that, from 1 July 2002, the tariff agreement between CERN and the Hôpital de la Tour will no longer be in force. As a result the members of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme will no longer obtain a 5% discount for quick payment of bills. More information on the termination of the agreement and the implications for our Health Insurance Scheme will be provided in the next issue of the CHIS Bull', due for publication in the first half of July. It will be sent to your home address, so, if you have moved recently, please check that your divisional secretariat has your current address. Tel.: 73635 The Organization's Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) has launched its own Web pages, located on the Website of the Social & Statutory Conditions Group of HR Division (HR-SOC). The address is short and easy-to-remember www.cern.ch/chis The pages currently available concentrate on providing basic information. Over the coming months it is planned to fill out the details and introduce new topics. Please give us ...

  2. A Pyramid Scheme for Particle Physics

    Banks, Tom

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new model, the Pyramid Scheme, of direct mediation of SUSY breaking, which is compatible with the idea of Cosmological SUSY Breaking (CSB). It uses the trinification scheme of grand unification and avoids problems with Landau poles in standard model gauge couplings. It also avoids problems, which have recently come to light, associated with rapid stellar cooling due to emission of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone Boson (PNGB) of spontaneously broken hidden sector baryon number. With a certain pattern of R-symmetry breaking masses, a pattern more or less required by CSB, the Pyramid Scheme leads to a dark matter candidate that decays predominantly into leptons, with cross sections compatible with a variety of recent observations. The dark matter particle is not a thermal WIMP but a particle with new strong interactions, produced in the late decay of some other scalar, perhaps the superpartner of the QCD axion, with a reheat temperature in the TeV range. This is compatible with a variety of scenarios f...

  3. New scheme of optical switch technology of time division

    GAO Ze-hua; QI Yong-xing; JI Yue-feng; QIAN Zong-jue

    2006-01-01

    The optical time division switch scheme using optical scanning was proposed in this paper.Quick switching can be realized by the optical element and optical system based on the proposed scheme.The modulation velocity of the proposed scheme can be of the order of nanosecond,which is quick enough for the next generation of optical communication.This scheme will be a key technology in the optical network.The principle of the scheme is studied.The structure of the scheme is proposed and the performance is analyzed.

  4. A rational function based scheme for solving advection equation

    Xiao, Feng [Gunma Univ., Kiryu (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yabe, Takashi

    1995-07-01

    A numerical scheme for solving advection equations is presented. The scheme is derived from a rational interpolation function. Some properties of the scheme with respect to convex-concave preserving and monotone preserving are discussed. We find that the scheme is attractive in surpressinging overshoots and undershoots even in the vicinities of discontinuity. The scheme can also be easily swicthed as the CIP (Cubic interpolated Pseudo-Particle) method to get a third-order accuracy in smooth region. Numbers of numerical tests are carried out to show the non-oscillatory and less diffusive nature of the scheme. (author).

  5. Error forecasting schemes of error correction at receiver

    To combat error in computer communication networks, ARQ (Automatic Repeat Request) techniques are used. Recently Chakraborty has proposed a simple technique called the packet combining scheme in which error is corrected at the receiver from the erroneous copies. Packet Combining (PC) scheme fails: (i) when bit error locations in erroneous copies are the same and (ii) when multiple bit errors occur. Both these have been addressed recently by two schemes known as Packet Reversed Packet Combining (PRPC) Scheme, and Modified Packet Combining (MPC) Scheme respectively. In the letter, two error forecasting correction schemes are reported, which in combination with PRPC offer higher throughput. (author)

  6. Cryptanalytic Performance Appraisal of Improved CCH2 Proxy Multisignature Scheme

    Raman Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the signature schemes are proposed in which the t out of n threshold schemes are deployed, but they still lack the property of security. In this paper, we have discussed implementation of improved CCH1 and improved CCH2 proxy multisignature scheme based on elliptic curve cryptosystem. We have represented time complexity, space complexity, and computational overhead of improved CCH1 and CCH2 proxy multisignature schemes. We have presented cryptanalysis of improved CCH2 proxy multisignature scheme and showed that improved CCH2 scheme suffered from various attacks, that is, forgery attack and framing attack.

  7. Implicit Upwind Schemes for Low Mach Number Compressible Flows

    Viozat, Cécile

    1997-01-01

    At low Mach number, the Roe scheme presents an excess of artificial viscosity. A correction of this scheme, which uses the preconditioning of Turkel, leads to an improvement of the solution. We refer to this new scheme as the Roe-Turkel scheme. We show that for the Roe-Turkel scheme the convergence of the numerical solution towards the exact solution depends only on the mesh size parameter whereas that of the Roe scheme depends on the ratio between mesh size parameter and Mach number. We also...

  8. Uncertainty of Microphysics Schemes in CRMs

    Tao, W. K.; van den Heever, S. C.; Wu, D.; Saleeby, S. M.; Lang, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Microphysics is the framework through which to understand the links between interactive aerosol, cloud and precipitation processes. These processes play a critical role in the water and energy cycle. CRMs with advanced microphysics schemes have been used to study the interaction between aerosol, cloud and precipitation processes at high resolution. But, there are still many uncertainties associated with these microphysics schemes. This has arisen, in part, from the fact microphysical processes cannot be measured directly; instead, cloud properties, which can be measured, are and have been used to validate model results. The utilization of current and future global high-resolution models is rapidly increasing and are at what has been traditional CRM resolutions and are using microphysics schemes that were developed in traditional CRMs. A potential NASA satellite mission called the Cloud and Precipitation Processes Mission (CaPPM) is currently being planned for submission to the NASA Earth Science Decadal Survey. This mission could provide the necessary global estimates of cloud and precipitation properties with which to evaluate and improve dynamical and microphysical parameterizations and the feedbacks. In order to facilitate the development of this mission, CRM simulations have been conducted to identify microphysical processes responsible for the greatest uncertainties in CRMs. In this talk, we will present results from numerical simulations conducted using two CRMs (NU-WRF and RAMS) with different dynamics, radiation, land surface and microphysics schemes. Specifically, we will conduct sensitivity tests to examine the uncertainty of the some of the key ice processes (i.e. riming, melting, freezing and shedding) in these two-microphysics schemes. The idea is to quantify how these two different models' respond (surface rainfall and its intensity, strength of cloud drafts, LWP/IWP, convective-stratiform-anvil area distribution) to changes of these key ice

  9. CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS) Contributions – Changes for 2012

    HR Department

    2012-01-01

    Following the 2010 five-yearly review of financial and social conditions, which included the CERN Health Insurance Scheme (CHIS), the CERN Council decided in December 2010 to progressively increase the level of contributions over the period 2011-2015.   For 2012, the contribution rate of active and retired CHIS members will be 4.41%. The amounts of the fixed premiums for voluntarily insured members (e.g. users and associates) as well as the supplementary contributions for spouses with income from a professional activity increase accordingly : Voluntary contributions The full contribution based on Reference Salary II is now 1094 CHF per month. This fixed amount contribution is applied to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with normal coverage. Half of this amount (547 CHF) is applied to apprentices as well as to voluntarily affiliated users and associates with reduced coverage. Finally, an amount of 438 CHF is applied to children maintaining their insurance cover on a voluntary and tempo...

  10. Appendix XVIII: 'Batch' approach to new employee entry and some other training schemes of DAE

    Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. - NPCIL is Government of India Enterprise under Department of Atomic Energy engaged in Design, Construction and Operation activities of Nuclear Power Plants. The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of India has a long running induction training programme run by the Human Resource Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC) also known as BARC Training School. This is considered a unique and valuable scheme to impart nuclear knowledge towards meeting the goals of DAE and constitutes one of the important knowledge management activities. This and other training schemes of DAE are presented

  11. Gender and power contestations over water use in irrigation schemes: Lessons from the lake Chilwa basin

    Nkhoma, Bryson; Kayira, Gift

    2016-04-01

    Over the past two decades, Malawi has been adversely hit by climatic variability and changes, and irrigation schemes which rely mostly on water from rivers have been negatively affected. In the face of dwindling quantities of water, distribution and sharing of water for irrigation has been a source of contestations and conflicts. Women who constitute a significant section of irrigation farmers in schemes have been major culprits. The study seeks to analyze gender contestations and conflicts over the use of water in the schemes developed in the Lake Chilwa basin, in southern Malawi. Using oral and written sources as well as drawing evidence from participatory and field observations conducted at Likangala and Domasi irrigation schemes, the largest schemes in the basin, the study observes that women are not passive victims of male domination over the use of dwindling waters for irrigation farming. They have often used existing political and traditional structures developed in the management of water in the schemes to competitively gain monopoly over water. They have sometimes expressed their agency by engaging in irrigation activities that fall beyond the control of formal rules and regulations of irrigation agriculture. Other than being losers, women are winning the battle for water and land resources in the basin.

  12. An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    WSNs (Wireless sensor networks) are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things). Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement) enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas’s currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham) logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs. PMID:27338382

  13. An Energy Efficient Mutual Authentication and Key Agreement Scheme Preserving Anonymity for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Lu, Yanrong; Li, Lixiang; Peng, Haipeng; Yang, Yixian

    2016-01-01

    WSNs (Wireless sensor networks) are nowadays viewed as a vital portion of the IoTs (Internet of Things). Security is a significant issue in WSNs, especially in resource-constrained environments. AKA (Authentication and key agreement) enhances the security of WSNs against adversaries attempting to get sensitive sensor data. Various AKA schemes have been developed for verifying the legitimate users of a WSN. Firstly, we scrutinize Amin-Biswas's currently scheme and demonstrate the major security loopholes in their works. Next, we propose a lightweight AKA scheme, using symmetric key cryptography based on smart card, which is resilient against all well known security attacks. Furthermore, we prove the scheme accomplishes mutual handshake and session key agreement property securely between the participates involved under BAN (Burrows, Abadi and Needham) logic. Moreover, formal security analysis and simulations are also conducted using AVISPA(Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications) to show that our scheme is secure against active and passive attacks. Additionally, performance analysis shows that our proposed scheme is secure and efficient to apply for resource-constrained WSNs. PMID:27338382

  14. Some high resolution numerical schemes for hydrodynamic equation integration

    We present here some high resolution schemes for gas dynamical simulations in on space dimension. In case of Eulerian coordinates the schemes are formulated as a lagrangian step followed by a remap. We insist on numerical results

  15. A NEW EFFICIENT ID-BASED PROXY BLIND SIGNATURE SCHEME

    Ming Yang; Wang Yumin

    2008-01-01

    In a proxy blind signature scheme, the proxy signer is allowed to generate a blind signature on behalf of the original signer. The proxy blind signature scheme is useful in several applications such as e-voting, e-payment, etc. Recently, Zheng, et al. presented an IDentity (ID)-based proxy blind signature. In this paper, a new efficient ID-based proxy blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings is proposed, which can satisfy the security properties of both the proxy signatures and the blind signature schemes. Analysis of the scheme efficiency shows that the new scheme is more efficient than Zheng, et al.'s scheme. The proposed scheme is more practical in the real world.

  16. Statistical Hiding Fuzzy Commitment Scheme for Securing Biometric Templates

    Alawi A. Al-Saggaf

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available By considering the security flaws in cryptographic hash functions, any commitment scheme designed straight through hash function usage in general terms is insecure. In this paper, we develop a general fuzzy commitment scheme called an ordinary fuzzy commitment scheme (OFCS, in which many fuzzy commitment schemes with variety complexity assumptions is constructed. The scheme is provably statistical hiding (the advisory gets almost no statistically advantages about the secret message. The efficiency of our scheme offers different security assurance, and the trusted third party is not involved in the exchange of commitment.The characteristic of our scheme makes it useful for biometrics systems. If the biometrics template is compromised, then there is no way to use it directly again even in secure biometrics systems. This paper combines biometrics and OFCS to achieve biometric protection scheme using smart cards with renewability of protected biometrics template property.

  17. Threshold Signature Scheme Based on Discrete Logarithm and Quadratic Residue

    FEI Ru-chun; WANG Li-na

    2004-01-01

    Digital signature scheme is a very important research field in computer security and modern cryptography.A(k,n) threshold digital signature scheme is proposed by integrating digital signature scheme with Shamir secret sharing scheme.It can realize group-oriented digital signature, and its security is based on the difficulty in computing discrete logarithm and quadratic residue on some special conditions.In this scheme, effective digital signature can not be generated by any k-1 or fewer legal users, or only by signature executive.In addition, this scheme can identify any legal user who presents incorrect partial digital signature to disrupt correct signature, or any illegal user who forges digital signature.A method of extending this scheme to an Abelian group such as elliptical curve group is also discussed.The extended scheme can provide rapider computing speed and stronger security in the case of using shorter key.

  18. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of Digital Multisignature Scheme Based on RSA

    SU Li; CUI Guo-hua; CHEN Jing; YUAN Jun

    2007-01-01

    Zhang et al. proposed a sequential multisignature scheme based on RSA. The scheme has advantages of low computation and communication costs, and so on. However, we find a problem in their scheme that the verifier can not distinguish whether the multisignature is signed by all the signers of the group or only by the last signer. Thus, any single signature created by the last signer can be used as a multisignature created by the whole group members. This paper proposes an improved scheme that can overcome the defect. In the new scheme, the identity messages of all the signers are added in the multisignature and used in verification phase, so that the verifier can know the signature is generated by which signers. Performance analysis shows that the proposed scheme costs less computation than the original scheme in both signature and verification phases. Furthermore, each partial signature is based on the signer's identity certificate, which makes the scheme more secure.

  19. Almost Secure (1-Round, n-Channel) Message Transmission Scheme

    Kurosawa, Kaoru; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    It is known that perfectly secure (1-round, n-channel) message transmission (MT) schemes exist if and only if n ≥ 3t + 1, where t is the number of channels that the adversary can corrupt. Then does there exist an almost secure MT scheme for n = 2t + 1 ? In this paper, we first sum up a number flaws of the previous almost secure MT scheme presented at Crypto 2004. We next show an equivalence between almost secure MT schemes and secret sharing schemes with cheaters. By using our equivalence, we derive a lower bound on the communication complexity of almost secure MT schemes. Finally, we present a near optimum scheme which meets our bound approximately. This is the first construction of provably secure almost secure (1-round, n-channel) MT schemes for n = 2t + 1.

  20. Multidimensional explicit difference schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws

    Van Leer, B.

    1984-01-01

    First- and second-order explicit difference schemes are derived for a three-dimensional hyperbolic system of conservation laws, without recourse to dimensional factorization. All schemes are upwind biased and optimally stable.

  1. Authenticated Encryption Schemes: Current Status and Key Issues

    Min-Shiang Hwang

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nyberg and Ruppel first proposed a signature scheme with message recovery based on DSA in 1993, and the authenticated encryption scheme is a special application of their scheme. Afterward, there are many papers proposed about the authenticated encryption schemes. The signature scheme can reduce the transmitted cost, because the message has been contained in the signature of the message and the signer does not necessary to send the receiver the message and the signature. The scheme is very suitable for the key agreement application, because a key is a small amount of a message. In order to comprehend and interpret the authenticated encryption schemes overall, we discuss the evolution and the existed problems of authenticated encryption schemes.

  2. Accuracy analysis of Lagrangian Godunov scheme using variational theory

    VAN WAGENINGEN-KESSELS,K; LECLERCQ,L; VUIK,K; Hoogendoorn, S.; VAN LIT,H

    2010-01-01

    The kinematic wave model is used to describe dynamic traffic flow. The model equations are solved using the Lagrangian Godunov scheme. Previously, this scheme has been found to be more accurate than the traditional Eulerian Godunov scheme. Furthermore, the variational theory has been applied to solve the model equations even more accurately and under certain conditions exactly. Therefore, it can be used as a benchmark. We analyse the global error of the Lagrangian Godunov scheme. This is the ...

  3. A Structured Multi-signature Scheme Against Forgery Attack

    Wenjun Luo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some classic structured multi-signature programs, such as Burmester’s, Harn’s and Lin’s schemes that can not resist inside attack and outside attack. In this paper, we briefly review Burmester’s program and relate safety analysis, Burmester’s scheme vulnerable to forgery attack. Then we propose a structured multi-signature scheme against forgery attack. In the new scheme, we increase the signature parameter verification to improve security.

  4. Verifiable (t, n) Threshold Signature Scheme Based on Elliptic Curve

    WANG Hua-qun; ZHAO Jun-xi; ZHANG Li-jun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the difficulty of solving the ECDLP (elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem) on the finite field,we present a (t, n) threshold signature scheme and a verifiable key agreement scheme without trusted party. Applying a modified elliptic curve signature equation, we get a more efficient signature scheme than the existing ECDSA (elliptic curve digital signature algorithm) from the computability and security view. Our scheme has a shorter key, faster computation, and better security.

  5. Quantum Communication Scheme Using Non-symmetric Quantum Channel

    CAO Hai-Jing; CHEN Zhong-Hua; SONG He-Shan

    2008-01-01

    A theoretical quantum communication scheme based on entanglement swapping and superdense coding is proposed with a 3-dimensional Bell state and 2-dimensional Bell state function as quantum channel quantum key distribution and quantum secure direct communication can be simultaneously accomplished in the scheme. The scheme is secure and has high source capacity. At last, we generalize the quantum communication scheme to d-dimensional quantum channel.

  6. Quantum Communication Scheme Using Non-symmetric Quantum Channel

    A theoretical quantum communication scheme based on entanglement swapping and superdense coding is proposed with a 3-dimensional Bell state and 2-dimensional Bell state function as quantum channel. quantum key distribution and quantum secure direct communication can be simultaneously accomplished in the scheme. The scheme is secure and has high source capacity. At last, we generalize the quantum communication scheme to d-dimensional quantum channel

  7. Direct scheme for measuring the geometric quantum discord

    Jin, Jia-sen; Yu, Chang-shui; Song, He-shan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to directly measure the exact value of geometric quantum discord of an arbitrary two-qubit state. We only need to perform the projective measurement in the all anti-symmetric subspace and our scheme is parametrically efficient in contrast to the widely adopted quantum state tomography scheme in the sense of less parameter estimations and projectors. Moreover, the present scheme can be easily realized with the current experimental techniques.

  8. An asynchronous spike event coding scheme for programmable analog arrays

    Gouveia, L.C.; Koickal, T.; Hamilton, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a spike event coding scheme for the communication of analog signals in programmable analog arrays. In the scheme presented here no events are transmitted when the signals are constant leading to low power dissipation and traffic reduction in analog arrays. The design process and the implementation of the scheme in a programmable array context are explained. The validation of the presented scheme is performed using a speech signal. Finally, we demonstrate how the event code...

  9. An Advanced Threshold Secret Sharing Scheme for Identifying Cheaters

    XIE Shu-cui; ZHANG Jian-zhong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper an advanced threshold secret sharing scheme for identifying cheaters is proposed by using authentication codes. The performance of the scheme is discussed. The results show that in the scheme the valid shareholders can not only identify the impersonation of an adversary, but also detect cheating of some valid shareholders. In particular one honest shareholder is able to detect cheating of other participants forming a collection, and the information rate of the scheme is higher than that of others.

  10. SWOT Analysis of IP Multimedia Sub System Security Authentication Schemes

    Bukhari, Syed Majid Ali Shah; Khan, Inayat Ullah

    2009-01-01

    SWOT analysis is performed on IMS security authentication schemes to demonstrate the effectiveness of each schemes in terms of multiple parameters and associated dependencies for users and network operators. Due to SWOT tool we have been able to describe strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats in each authentication scheme separately. The analysis performed mostly based on the state of art studies, SWOT tool itself approximates authentication schemes but in the discussion chapter we il...

  11. An Efficient Proactive RSA Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    ZHANG Rui-shan; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A proactive threshold signature scheme is very important to tolerate mobile attack in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient proactive threshold RSA signature scheme for ad hoc networks. The scheme consists of three protocols: the initial secret share distribution protocol, the signature generation protocol and the secret share refreshing protocol. Our scheme has three advantages. First, the signature generation protocol is efficient. Second, the signature generation protocol is resilient. Third, the share refreshing protocol is efficient.

  12. Thermodynamic scheme of inhomogeneous perfect fluid mixtures

    Zarate, R D; Zarate, Ruben D.; Quevedo, Hernando

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the compatibility between the geometrodynamics and thermodynamics of a binary mixture of perfect fluids which describe inhomogeneous cosmological models. We generalize the thermodynamic scheme of general relativity to include the chemical potential of the fluid mixture with non-vanishing entropy production. This formalism is then applied to the case of Szekeres and Stephani families of cosmological models. The compatibility conditions turn out to impose symmetry conditions on the cosmological models in such a way that only the limiting case of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model remains compatible. This result is an additional indication of the incompatibility between thermodynamics and relativity.

  13. Pay-what-you-want pricing schemes

    Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Samahita, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Pay-What-You-Want (PWYW) pricing schemes are becoming increasingly popular. We develop a model incorporating self-image into the buyer’s utility function and introduce heterogeneity in consumption utility and image-sensitivity, generating different purchase decisions and optimal prices across...... individuals. When a good’s fixed price is lower than a threshold fair value, PWYW can lead to a lower utility. This may result in a lower purchase rate and higher average price, accounting for previously unexplained field experimental evidence. An increase in the threshold value decreases the buyer’s utility...... and may further lower the purchase rate, resulting in a further increase in purchase price....

  14. Key Management Scheme on Block Cipher

    Banoth, Rajkumar

    2012-01-01

    mechanism and the sudden absence of any node can’t cause breaking of whole security as the other nodes perform the job in the distributed environment. When computations related to cryptography are distributed, such system becomes more reliable and also fault tolerant. Therefore, this paper reviews research...... that has been carried out on encryption and decryption of text in block cipher. Then it also proposes a new cryptographic mechanism which is more secure and effective as it involves an efficient key management scheme. The experimental results revealed that the proposed mechanism is robust and can be...

  15. Research on Lorry Road User Charging Scheme

    Chao Sui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 2011-2015 Business Plan, a lorry road user charging scheme has been planned to implement by the Coalition Government by 2014. This study will describe the possible impacts of such a system on the road haulage sector and the ways in which logistics providers might utilize different operating practices and technology to improve their operational performance under such circumstances in the UK. And this essay will cover the possible uses for Intelligent Transport Systems and new working practices using specific case study examples. Finally, the impacts of LRUC and several feasible countermeasures will be discussed in the following text.

  16. NEW CLUSTERING SCHEMES FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Mazinani, S. M.; J. Chitizadeh; M. H. Yaghmaee; M. T. Honary; F. Tashtarian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, two clustering algorithms are proposed. In the first one, we investigate a clustering protocol for single hop wireless sensor networks that employs a competitive scheme for cluster head selection. The proposed algorithm is named EECS-M that is a modified version to the well known protocol EECS where some of the nodes become volunteers to be cluster heads with an equal probability.  In the competition phase in contrast to EECS using a fixed competition range for any volunteer no...

  17. Apiary B-Factory separation scheme

    A magnetic beam-separation scheme for an asymmetric-energy B-Factory based on the SLAC electron-positron collider PEP is described that has the following properties: the beams collide head-on and are separated magnetically with sufficient clearance at the parasitic crossing points and at the septum, the magnets have large beam-stay-clear apertures, synchrotron radiation produces low detector backgrounds and acceptable heat loads, and the peak β-function values and contributions to the chromaticities in the IR quadrupoles are moderate. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Benefit Reentitlement Conditions in Unemployment Insurance Schemes

    Andersen, Torben M.; Christoffersen, Mark Strøm; Svarer, Michael

    Unemployment insurance schemes include conditions on past employment history as part of the eligibility conditions. This aspect is often neglected in the literature which primarily focuses on benefit levels and benefit duration. In a search-matching framework we show that benefit duration and...... employment requirements are substitute instruments in affecting job search incentives and thus gross unemployment. We analyse the optimal design of the unemployment insurance system (benefit levels, duration and employment requirements) under a utilitarian social welfare function. Simulations show that a...... higher insurance motive captured by more risk aversion implies higher benefit generosity and more lax employment requirements but also shortened benefit duration....

  19. Benchmarking Collision Avoidance Schemes for Dynamic Environments

    Martinez-Gomez, Luis; Fraichard, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates and compare three state-of-the-art collision avoidance schemes designed to operate in dynamic environments. The first one is an extension of the popular Dynamic Window approach; it is henceforth called TVDW which stands for Time-Varying Dynamic Window. The second one called NLVO builds upon the concept of Non Linear Velocity Obstacle which is a generalization of the Velocity Obstacle concept. The last one is called ICS-Avoid, it draws upon the concept of Inevitable Collis...

  20. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...

  1. An embedding scheme for the Dirac equation

    Crampin, S

    2004-01-01

    An embedding scheme is developed for the Dirac Hamiltonian H. Dividing space into regions I and II separated by surface S, an expression is derived for the expectation value of H which makes explicit reference to a trial function defined in I alone, with all details of region II replaced by an effective potential acting on S and which is related to the Green function of region II. Stationary solutions provide approximations to the eigenstates of H within I. The Green function for the embedded...

  2. The Adler Kostant Symes scheme in physics

    Ovando, Gabriela P.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this material is to review the Adler Kostant Symes scheme as a theory which can be developped succesfully in different contexts. It was useful to describe some mechanical systems, the so called generalized Toda, and now it was proved to be a tool for the study of the linear approach to the motion of n uncoupled harmonic oscillators. The complete integrability of these systems has an algebraic description. In the original theory this is related to ad-invariant functions, but new...

  3. SCHEME ANALYSIS TREE DIMENSIONS AND TOLERANCES PROCESSING

    Constanta RADULESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one of the steps that help us to determine the optimal tolerances depending on thetechnological capability of processing equipment. To determine the tolerances in this way is necessary to takethe study and to represent schematically the operations are used in technological process of making a piece.Also in this phase will make the tree diagram of the dimensions and machining tolerances, dimensions andtolerances shown that the design execution. Determination processes, and operations of the dimensions andtolerances tree scheme will make for a machined piece is both indoor and outdoor.

  4. System Protection Schemes in Eastern Denmark

    Rasmussen, Joana; Rønne-Hansen, Jan; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Jørgensen, Preben; Havsager, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Ph.D. project investigates different aspects of voltage stability in the power system ofEastern Denmark taking into account the large amount of wind power. In the project, a simpleSystem Protection Scheme (SPS) against voltage instability in Eastern Denmark is developed.The SPS design is based on static and dynamic simulation analyses using a large-scale model1that considers a number of realistic power system conditions. The southern part of the 132-kVsystem is prone to voltage stability ...

  5. Pairing schemes for HFB calculations of nuclei

    Duguet, T; Bonche, P

    2005-01-01

    Several pairing schemes currently used to describe superfluid nuclei through Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) calculations are briefly reviewed. We put a particular emphasis on the regularization recipes used in connection with zero-range forces and on the density dependence which usually complement their definition. Regarding the chosen regularization process, the goal is not only to identify the impact it may or may not have on pairing properties of nuclei through spherical 1D HFB calculations but also to assess its tractability for systematic axial 2D and 3D mean-field and beyond-mean-field calculations.

  6. Cosmological SUSY Breaking and the Pyramid Schemes

    Banks, T

    2014-01-01

    I review the ideas of holographic space-time (HST), Cosmological SUSY breaking (CSB), and the Pyramid Schemes, which are the only known models of Tera-scale physics consistent with CSB, current particle data, and gauge coupling unification. There is considerable uncertainty in the estimate of the masses of supersymmetric partners of the standard model particles, but the model predicts that the gluino is probably out of reach of the LHC, squarks may be in reach, and the NLSP is a right handed slepton, which should be discovered soon.

  7. Dirac Gluinos in the Pyramid Scheme

    Banks, T

    2013-01-01

    I point out several terms in the low energy effective Lagrangian of the Pyramid Scheme, which were missed in a previous analysis of the phenomenological consequences of the model. They lead to a Dirac contribution to the gluino mass, much larger than the one loop Majorana mass. The gluino can thus be much heavier than in previous estimates, without introducing corresponding large loop corrections to squark masses. As pointed out by a number of authors, this ameliorates the tension between the predictions of the model, and LHC data. I also point out that the model has corrections to the Higgs potential, both at the tree and loop levels, which may ameliorate fine tuning.

  8. Thermodynamic scheme of inhomogeneous perfect fluid mixtures

    We analyse the compatibility between the geometrodynamics and thermodynamics of a binary mixture of perfect fluids which describe inhomogeneous cosmological models. We generalize the thermodynamic scheme of general relativity to include the chemical potential of the fluid mixture with non-vanishing entropy production. This formalism is then applied to the case of Szekeres and Stephani families of cosmological models. The compatibility conditions turn out to impose symmetry conditions on the cosmological models in such a way that only the limiting case of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model remains compatible. This result is an additional indication of the incompatibility between thermodynamics and relativity

  9. An algebraic approach to association schemes

    Zieschang, Paul-Hermann

    1996-01-01

    The primary object of the lecture notes is to develop a treatment of association schemes analogous to that which has been so successful in the theory of finite groups. The main chapters are decomposition theory, representation theory, and the theory of generators. Tits buildings come into play when the theory of generators is developed. Here, the buildings play the role which, in group theory, is played by the Coxeter groups. - The text is intended for students as well as for researchers in algebra, in particular in algebraic combinatorics.

  10. An Efficent Lossless Compression Scheme for ECG Signal

    O. *El B’charri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac diseases constitute the main cause of mortality around the globe. For detection and identification of cardiac problems, it is very important to monitor the patient's heart activities for long periods during his normal daily life. The recorded signal that contains information about the condition of the heart called electrocardiogram (ECG. As a result, long recording of ECG signal amounts to huge data sizes. In this work, a robust lossless ECG data compression scheme for real-time applications is proposed. The developed algorithm has the advantages of lossy compression without introducing any distortion to the reconstructed signal. The ECG signals under test were taken from the PTB Diagnostic ECG Database. The compression procedure is simple and provides a high compression ratio compared to other lossless ECG compression methods. The compressed ECG data is generated as a text file. The decompression scheme has also been developed using the reverse logic and it is observed that there is no difference between original and reconstructed ECG signal.

  11. Vehicle scheduling schemes for commercial and emergency logistics integration.

    Li, Xiaohui; Tan, Qingmei

    2013-01-01

    In modern logistics operations, large-scale logistics companies, besides active participation in profit-seeking commercial business, also play an essential role during an emergency relief process by dispatching urgently-required materials to disaster-affected areas. Therefore, an issue has been widely addressed by logistics practitioners and caught researchers' more attention as to how the logistics companies achieve maximum commercial profit on condition that emergency tasks are effectively and performed satisfactorily. In this paper, two vehicle scheduling models are proposed to solve the problem. One is a prediction-related scheme, which predicts the amounts of disaster-relief materials and commercial business and then accepts the business that will generate maximum profits; the other is a priority-directed scheme, which, firstly groups commercial and emergency business according to priority grades and then schedules both types of business jointly and simultaneously by arriving at the maximum priority in total. Moreover, computer-based simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of these two models by comparing them with two traditional disaster-relief tactics in China. The results testify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed models. PMID:24391724

  12. Regulatory schemes to achieve optimal flux partitioning in bacterial metabolism

    Tang, Lei-Han; Yang, Zhu; Hui, Sheng; Kim, Pan-Jun; Li, Xue-Fei; Hwa, Terence

    2012-02-01

    The flux balance analysis (FBA) offers a way to compute the optimal performance of a given metabolic network when the maximum incoming flux of nutrient molecules and other essential ingredients for biosynthesis are specified. Here we report a theoretical and computational analysis of the network structure and regulatory interactions in an E. coli cell. An automated scheme is devised to simplify the network topology and to enumerate the independent flux degrees of freedom. The network organization revealed by the scheme enables a detailed interpretation of the three layers of metabolic regulation known in the literature: i) independent transcriptional regulation of biosynthesis and salvage pathways to render the network tree-like under a given nutrient condition; ii) allosteric end-product inhibition of enzyme activity at entry points of synthesis pathways for metabolic flux partitioning according to consumption; iii) homeostasis of currency and carrier compounds to maintain sufficient supply of global commodities. Using the amino-acid synthesis pathways as an example, we show that the FBA result can be reproduced with suitable implementation of the three classes of regulatory interactions with literature evidence.

  13. A new configurational bias scheme for sampling supramolecular structures

    De Gernier, Robin; Mognetti, Bortolo M., E-mail: bmognett@ulb.ac.be [Center for Nonlinear Phenomena and Complex Systems, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Code Postal 231, Campus Plaine, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Curk, Tine [Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Dubacheva, Galina V. [Biosurfaces Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, Paseo Miramon 182, 20009 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Richter, Ralf P. [Biosurfaces Unit, CIC biomaGUNE, Paseo Miramon 182, 20009 Donostia - San Sebastian (Spain); Université Grenoble Alpes, DCM, 38000 Grenoble (France); CNRS, DCM, 38000 Grenoble (France); Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-12-28

    We present a new simulation scheme which allows an efficient sampling of reconfigurable supramolecular structures made of polymeric constructs functionalized by reactive binding sites. The algorithm is based on the configurational bias scheme of Siepmann and Frenkel and is powered by the possibility of changing the topology of the supramolecular network by a non-local Monte Carlo algorithm. Such a plan is accomplished by a multi-scale modelling that merges coarse-grained simulations, describing the typical polymer conformations, with experimental results accounting for free energy terms involved in the reactions of the active sites. We test the new algorithm for a system of DNA coated colloids for which we compute the hybridisation free energy cost associated to the binding of tethered single stranded DNAs terminated by short sequences of complementary nucleotides. In order to demonstrate the versatility of our method, we also consider polymers functionalized by receptors that bind a surface decorated by ligands. In particular, we compute the density of states of adsorbed polymers as a function of the number of ligand–receptor complexes formed. Such a quantity can be used to study the conformational properties of adsorbed polymers useful when engineering adsorption with tailored properties. We successfully compare the results with the predictions of a mean field theory. We believe that the proposed method will be a useful tool to investigate supramolecular structures resulting from direct interactions between functionalized polymers for which efficient numerical methodologies of investigation are still lacking.

  14. Clarification of nuclear risk recognition scheme through dialogue forum

    The design framework and operational guidelines for conducting repetitive dialogue between public and nuclear engineers are described in this paper. An action research project named repetitive dialogue forum has been conducted in two municipalities where nuclear facilities were sited. The qualitative evaluation by public participants indicated that the public trust in the nuclear experts, known as the crucial factor for meaningful communication, was successfully established through the dialogue forum. In addition, the expert showed a marked psychological change from distrust to trust in public. Through a detailed analysis of the comments of the participants raised during the forums, the nuclear risk recognition scheme of the public was clarified. The constituents of the risk recognition scheme about nuclear facilities were identified as follows. The first is related to the technical risk recognition factor including purely technical risk, organizational elements and regulatory elements. The second is the social risk recognition factor including economical and mental elements. The last is the communication factor including the influence of mass media, difficulty in frank communication in local community etc. It became clear that the information provision activities conducted by the government and the nuclear industry were lack of in-depth understanding of actual information needs in the public. Provision of information contents consistent with our observations is recommended for reestablishment of public trust in expert and for more informative dialogical interactions. (author)

  15. Novel Fault Diagnosis Scheme for HVDC System via ESO

    YAN Bing-yong; TIAN Zuo-hua; SHI Song-jiao

    2007-01-01

    A novel fault detection and identification (FDI) scheme for HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current Transmission) system was presented. It was based on the unique active disturbance rejection concept, where the HVDC system faults were estimated using an extended states observer (ESO). Firstly, the mathematical model of HVDC system was constructed, where the system states and disturbance were treated as an extended state. An augment HVDC system was established by using the extended state in rectify side and converter side, respectively. Then, a fault diagnosis filter was established to diagnose the HVDC system faults via the ESO theory. The evolution of the extended state in the augment HVDC system can reflect the actual system faults and disturbances, which can be used for the fault diagnosis purpose. A novel feature of this approach is that it can simultaneously detect and identify the shape and magnitude of the HVDC faults and disturbance. Finally, different kinds of HVDC faults were simulated to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed ESO based FDI approach. Compared with the neural network based or support vector machine based FDI approach, the ESO based FDI scheme can reduce the fault detection time dramatically and track the actual system fault accurately. What's more important, it needs not do complex online calculations and the training of neural network so that it can be applied into practice.

  16. 30 CFR 75.800-2 - Approved circuit schemes.

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved circuit schemes. 75.800-2 Section 75... § 75.800-2 Approved circuit schemes. The following circuit schemes will be regarded as providing the necessary protection to the circuits required by § 75.800: (a) Ground check relays may be used...

  17. A Formal Model for the Security of Proxy Signature Schemes

    GU Chun-xiang; ZHU Yue-fei; ZHANG Ya-juan

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical foundations for the secure proxy signature primitive. We present a formal model for the security of proxy signature schemes, which defines the capabilities of the adversary and the security goals to capture which mean for a proxy signature scheme to be secure. Then, we present an example of proxy signature scheme that can be proven secure in the standard model.

  18. Scheme for Implementation of Quantum Game in Cavity QED

    ZHANG Li-Chun; CAO Shu-Ai; WU Yue-Qin; FANG Mao-Fa; LI Huai-Fan; ZHENG Xiao-Juan; ZHAO Ren; WANG Xin-Wen; LI Ze-Hua

    2008-01-01

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to implement two-player quantum game in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). During the process, the cavity is only virtually excited, thus our scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. The scheme can be realized in the range of current cavity QED techniques.

  19. Picard Groups and Class Groups of Monoid Schemes

    Flores, Jaret; Weibel, Charles

    2013-01-01

    We define and study the Picard group of a monoid scheme and the class group of a normal monoid scheme. To do so, we develop some ideal theory for (pointed abelian) noetherian monoids, including primary decomposition and discrete valuations. The normalization of a monoid turns out to be a monoid scheme, but not always a monoid.

  20. Scheme for Implementation of Quantum Game in Cavity QED

    We propose an experimentally feasible scheme to implement two-player quantum game in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). During the process, the cavity is only virtually excited, thus our scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. The scheme can be realized in the range of current cavity QED techniques.

  1. Financing of large energy projects: The guarantee scheme

    Financing through export credit: Evolution of the concept (buyer's credit, soft loans, concession, BOT, guarantee scheme). Guarantee scheme in Turkey: Thermic power plant; Hydroelectric power plant; The Energy Fund (characteristics, source of financing of the Funds, guarantees). Conclusion of the presented guarantee scheme: Necessary involvement of all the parts for guarantees and financings. (author)

  2. The hybrid Eulerian Lagrangian numerical scheme tested with Chemistry

    A. B. Hansen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A newly developed advection scheme, the Hybrid Eulerian Lagrangian (HEL scheme, has been tested, including a module for atmospheric chemistry, including 58 chemical species, and compared to two other traditional advection schemes; a classical pseudospectral Eulerian method the Accurate Space Derivative (ASD scheme and the bi-cubic semi-Lagrangian (SL scheme using classical rotation tests. The rotation tests have been designed to test and compare the advection schemes for different spatial and temporal resolutions in different chemical conditions (rural and urban and for different shapes (cone and slotted cylinder giving the advection schemes different challenges with respect to relatively slow or fast chemistry and smooth or sharp gradients, respectively. In every test, error measures have been calculated and used for ranking of the advection schemes with respect to performance, i.e. lowest overall errors for all chemical species. Furthermore, the HEL and SL schemes have been compared in a shallow water model, demonstrating the performance in a more realistic non-linear deformation flow.

    The results in this paper show that the new advection scheme, HEL, by far outperforms both the Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian schemes with very low error estimates compared to the two other schemes. Although no analytic solution can be obtained for the performance in the non-linear shallow water model flow, the tracer distribution appears realistic as compared to LMCSL when a mixing between local parcel concentrations is introduced in HEL.

  3. Renormalization-scheme-independent perturbation theory by resumming logarithms

    Dams, C.J.F.; Kleiss, R. H. P.

    2005-01-01

    Results of perturbation theory in quantum field theory generally depend on the renormalization scheme that is in use. In particular, they depend on the scale. We try to make perturbation theory scheme invariant by re-expanding with respect to a scheme invariant quantity. Furthermore, we investigate whether the potentially large logarithms in such an expansion cause inaccuracy and how this can be improved.

  4. Linear Secret Sharing Schemes and Rearrangements of Access Structures

    Liang-liang Xiao; Mu-lan Liu

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study linear secret sharing schemes by monotone span programs, according to the relation between realizing access structures by linear secret sharing schemes and computing monotone Boolean functions by monotone span programs. Weconstruct some linear secret sharing schemes. Furthermore, we study the rearrangements of access structures that is very important in practice.

  5. Activities.

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  6. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  7. European energy labelling scheme for windows

    Belling Skou, Mette (VELUX A/S (Denmark)); Kragh, Jesper (DTU Byg, Denmarks Tekniske Univ., Lyngby (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    In their proposals for revision of the energy labelling directive the European Commission has suggested to include windows. The paper introduces a proposal for an European energy labelling scheme of windows for replacement of windows in the existing building stock taking into consideration the energy performance of windows in both the heating and cooling seasons. The labelling scheme evaluates a methodology where the energy performance in the heating period is established with focus on heat loss and utilization of passive solar energy, whereas the energy performance in the summer (cooling) season will focus on reduction of solar radiation into the building. The methodology is developed with focus on CEN and ISO standardization. With inspiration from the American Energy Star programme for windows, Europe is divided into climate zones where the methodology for each zone is developed on basis of a reference building and climate data. A proposal for labelling will be presented for both heating and cooling seasons in order to enable the user to choose the right product for a specific performance. Based on data from the building stock in the individual climate zones, an energy saving potential for replacement of old windows with new low energy windows will be presented. The possibility for using energy labelling of windows as reference and requirement in the building legislation as an alternative to U-values, will be presented with among others examples from legislation in UK and Denmark.

  8. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NEW CAREER STRUCTURE SCHEME

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    CERN's new Merit Advancement and Promotion Scheme, MAPS, comes into force on 1 September, and all members of staff will soon be receiving the official letter of notification of their assimilation into the new scheme. In this announcement, we take a look at where you can learn about the new system. There will also be an article in the Weekly Bulletin at the end of the month, which will summarise the main changes. During the early summer, HR Division presented the new structure to the staff in the Laboratory via Divisional Information Meetings. The transparencies used in these meetings, along with a list of the most relevant questions and answers, a Career Path Guide as well as a general overview document are available on the HR Division web site http://cern.ch/CERN/Divisions/PE/. Hard copies of the latter document are also available from the Divisional secretariats. The first question most staff members will ask is how they will fit into the new career path structure. Via the same web page, they can type in th...

  9. A subgrid parameterization scheme for precipitation

    S. Turner

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing computing power, the horizontal resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP models is improving and today reaches 1 to 5 km. Nevertheless, clouds and precipitation are still subgrid scale processes for most cloud types, such as cumulus and stratocumulus. Subgrid scale parameterizations for water vapor condensation have been in use for many years and are based on a prescribed PDF of relative humidity spatial variability within the grid, thus providing a diagnosis of the cloud fraction. A similar scheme is developed and tested here. It is based on a prescribed PDF of cloud water variability and a threshold value of liquid water content for droplet collection to derive a rain fraction within the model grid. Precipitation of rainwater raises additional concerns relative to the overlap of cloud and rain fractions, however. The scheme is developed following an analysis of data collected during field campaigns in stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II and fair weather cumulus (RICO and tested in a 1-D framework against large eddy simulations of these observed cases. The new parameterization is then implemented in a 3-D NWP model with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km to simulate real cases of precipitating cloud systems over France.

  10. A subgrid parameterization scheme for precipitation

    S. Turner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing computing power, the horizontal resolution of numerical weather prediction (NWP models is improving and today reaches 1 to 5 km. Nevertheless, clouds and precipitation formation are still subgrid scale processes for most cloud types, such as cumulus and stratocumulus. Subgrid scale parameterizations for water vapor condensation have been in use for many years and are based on a prescribed probability density function (PDF of relative humidity spatial variability within the model grid box, thus providing a diagnosis of the cloud fraction. A similar scheme is developed and tested here. It is based on a prescribed PDF of cloud water variability and a threshold value of liquid water content for droplet collection to derive a rain fraction within the model grid. Precipitation of rainwater raises additional concerns relative to the overlap of cloud and rain fractions, however. The scheme is developed following an analysis of data collected during field campaigns in stratocumulus (DYCOMS-II and fair weather cumulus (RICO and tested in a 1-D framework against large eddy simulations of these observed cases. The new parameterization is then implemented in a 3-D NWP model with a horizontal resolution of 2.5 km to simulate real cases of precipitating cloud systems over France.

  11. Special Protection Scheme at BTPS Power Station

    Ballal, Makarand Sudhakar; Suryawanshi, Hiralal Murlidhar; Ballal, Deepali Makarand; Mishra, Mahesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    After 2003 free licensees' act in power sector, it is observed that many power plants from public sector as well as from private sectors are going to be commissioned. The load growth in India is about more than 10% pa. As these plants are going to connect to the power grid, therefore the grid is going to become more complicated. Also the problems related to grid stability are enhanced. There shall be possibilities regarding failure of grid system and under such circumstance it is always desirable to island minimum single generating unit in power plant of specified geographical area. After islanding the generating unit, this unit has to survive not only for the restoration of grid but also for power supply to important consumers. For the grid stability and effective survival of islanded generating unit, it is mandatory to maintain the power balance equation. This paper focuses on the lacunae's observed in implementation of special protection scheme to carry out islanding operation at Bhusawal Thermal Power Station (BTPS) by considering the case studies. The concepts of islanding, load shedding, generator tripping and along with importance of power balance equation is discussed. Efforts are made to provide the solution for the survival of islanding scheme.

  12. Multiplexing schemes for quantum repeater networks

    Aparicio, Luciano; Van Meter, Rodney

    2011-08-01

    When built, quantum repeaters will allow the distribution of entangled quantum states across large distances, playing a vital part in many proposed quantum technologies. Enabling multiple users to connect through the same network will be key to their real-world deployment. Previous work on repeater technologies has focussed only on simple entanglment production, without considering the issues of resource scarcity and competition that necessarily arise in a network setting. In this paper we simulated a thirteen-node network with up to five flows sharing different parts of the network, measuring the total throughput and fairness for each case. Our results suggest that the Internet-like approach of statistical multiplexing use of a congested link gives the highest aggregate throughput. Time division multiplexing and buffer space multiplexing were slightly less effective, but all three schemes allow the sum of multiple flows to substantially exceed that of any one flow, improving over circuit switching by taking advantage of resources that are forced to remain idle in circuit switching. All three schemes proved to have excellent fairness. The high performance, fairness and simplicity of implementation support a recommendation of statistical multiplexing for shared quantum repeater networks.

  13. Optimized Handover Schemes over WiMAX

    Jerjees, Zina; Al-Raweshidy, H. S.; Al-Banna, Zaineb

    Voice Over Internet Protocol (VoIP) applications have received significant interests from the Mobile WiMAX standard in terms of capabilities and means of delivery multimedia services, by providing high bandwidth over long-range transmission. However, one of the main problems of IEEE 802.16 is that it covers multi BS with too many profiled layers, which can lead to potential interoperability problems. The multi BS mode requires multiple BSs to be scanned synchronously before initiating the transmission of broadcast data. In this paper, we first identify the key issues for VoIP over WiMAX. Then we present a MAC Layer solution to guarantee the demanded bandwidth and supporting a higher possible throughput between two WiMAX end points during the handover. Moreover, we propose a PHY and MAC layers scheme to maintain the required communication channel quality for VoIP during handover. Results show that our proposed schemes can significantly improve the network throughput up to 55%, reducing the data dropped to 70% while satisfying VoIP quality requirements.

  14. Analysis of coastal atmospheric stability schemes

    The delta temperature and sigma theta methods do not correlate well in the determination of atmospheric stability. However, the two values were within one stability class of each other more than 80 per cent of the time. In its present form, the wind speed ratio method cannot be used for determination of atmospheric stability at the two coastal nuclear power plants that were examined. Modified sigma theta (MST) is a small improvement over the conventional sigma theta method. However, MST is still not an acceptable substitute for the temperature difference method in the determination of atmospheric stability. Under conditions which require the use of a backup meteorological monitoring system, stability conditions observed at one plant cannot be used as an indicator of stability at the other plant without the development of a complex correlation scheme. This study has demonstrated the noncomparability among various systems for determining atmospheric stability. The results support the conclusions drawn by other investigators. Future work should be concentrated on a detailed examination of the relationship between the atmospheric stability schemes and the strength of the lake breeze (based on the difference between lake temperature and land temperature) for lake breeze cases. The use of Monin-Obukhov length as an atmospheric stability indicator should also be explored

  15. Information field dynamics for simulation scheme construction

    Enßlin, Torsten A

    2012-01-01

    Information field dynamics (IFD) is introduced here as a framework to derive numerical schemes for the simulation of physical and other fields. Any simulation scheme updates a discretized field representation, the data in a computer's memory, for the next time step according to a discretized, approximate representation of the underlying field dynamics. Assumptions about the continuum field behavior on sub-grid scales are reflected in these rules, e.g. the field might be assumed to be constant within a grid cell, or to be some weighted average of neighboring data points, and the like. In contrast to such parametrized sub-grid field structures, IFD constructs non-parametric sub-grid field configurations from the combination of the data, representing constraints on possible field configurations, and prior assumptions on the sub-grid field statistics. Each of these field configurations can formally be evolved to a later moment since any differential operator of the dynamics can act on fields living in continuous ...

  16. Finite-difference schemes for anisotropic diffusion

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: es@cwi.nl [Centrum Wiskunde and Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM (Netherlands)

    2014-09-01

    In fusion plasmas diffusion tensors are extremely anisotropic due to the high temperature and large magnetic field strength. This causes diffusion, heat conduction, and viscous momentum loss, to effectively be aligned with the magnetic field lines. This alignment leads to different values for the respective diffusive coefficients in the magnetic field direction and in the perpendicular direction, to the extent that heat diffusion coefficients can be up to 10{sup 12} times larger in the parallel direction than in the perpendicular direction. This anisotropy puts stringent requirements on the numerical methods used to approximate the MHD-equations since any misalignment of the grid may cause the perpendicular diffusion to be polluted by the numerical error in approximating the parallel diffusion. Currently the common approach is to apply magnetic field-aligned coordinates, an approach that automatically takes care of the directionality of the diffusive coefficients. This approach runs into problems at x-points and at points where there is magnetic re-connection, since this causes local non-alignment. It is therefore useful to consider numerical schemes that are tolerant to the misalignment of the grid with the magnetic field lines, both to improve existing methods and to help open the possibility of applying regular non-aligned grids. To investigate this, in this paper several discretization schemes are developed and applied to the anisotropic heat diffusion equation on a non-aligned grid.

  17. Pricing Schemes in Cloud Computing: An Overview

    Artan Mazrekaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Computing is one of the technologies with rapid development in recent years where there is increasing interest in industry and academia. This technology enables many services and resources for end users. With the rise of cloud services number of companies that offer various services in cloud infrastructure is increased, thus creating a competition on prices in the global market. Cloud Computing providers offer more services to their clients ranging from infrastructure as a service (IaaS, platform as a service (PaaS, software as a service (SaaS, storage as a service (STaaS, security as a service (SECaaS, test environment as a service (TEaaS. The purpose of providers is to maximize revenue by their price schemes, while the main goal of customers is to have quality of services (QoS for a reasonable price. The purpose of this paper is to compare and discuss several models and pricing schemes from different Cloud Computing providers.

  18. Present and future nuclear power financing schemes

    The financial requirement for nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany for the period up until 1985 was estimated to run up to some DM 100 billion already in the Nuclear Energy Study published by the Dresdner Bank in 1974. This figure is not changed in any way by the reduction the nuclear power program has suffered in the meantime, because the lower requirement for investment capital is more than offset by the price increases that have occurred meanwhile. A capital requirement in the order of DM 100 billion raises major problems for the power producing industry and the banks which, however, are not going to hamper the further expansion of nuclear power, because new financing schemes have been specially developed for the nuclear field. They include financing by leasing, the use of funds from real estate credit institutions for long term financing, borrowing of long term funds in the Euro market, and financing through subsidiaries of the utilities. The new financing schemes also apply to the large financial requirement associated with the nuclear fuel cycle, waste management in particular. In this sector the utilities agree to bear the economic risk of the companies implementing the respective projects. Accordingly, financing will not entail any major difficulties. Another area of great importance is export financing. The German-Brazilian nuclear agreement is a model of this instrument. (orig.)

  19. Single particle level scheme for alpha decay

    The fine structure phenomenon in alpha decay was evidenced by Rosenblum. In this process the kinetic energy of the emitted particle has several determined values related to the structure of the parent and the daughter nucleus. The probability to find the daughter in a low lying state was considered strongly dependent on the spectroscopic factor defined as the square of overlap between the wave function of the parent in the ground state and the wave functions of the specific excited states of the daughter. This treatment provides a qualitative agreement with the experimental results if the variations of the penetrability between different excited states are neglected. Based on single particle structure during fission, a new formalism explained quantitatively the fine structure of the cluster decay. It was suggested that this formalism can be applied also to alpha decay. For this purpose, the first step is to construct the level scheme of this type of decay. Such a scheme, obtained with the super-asymmetric two-center potential, is plotted for the alpha decay of 223Ra. It is interesting to note that, diabatically, the level with spin 3/2 emerging from 1i11/2 (ground state of the parent) reaches an excited state of the daughter in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  20. A Second-Order Unsplit Godunov Scheme for Cell-Centered MHD: the CTU-GLM scheme

    Mignone, A.; Tzeferacos, P.

    2009-01-01

    We assess the validity of a single step Godunov scheme for the solution of the magneto-hydrodynamics equations in more than one dimension. The scheme is second-order accurate and the temporal discretization is based on the dimensionally unsplit Corner Transport Upwind (CTU) method of Colella. The proposed scheme employs a cell-centered representation of the primary fluid variables (including magnetic field) and conserves mass, momentum, magnetic induction and energy. A variant of the scheme, ...

  1. A magnet lattice for a tau-charm factory suitable for both standard scheme and monochromatization scheme

    A versatile magnet lattice for a tau-charm factory is considered in this report. The main feature of this lattice is the possibility to use it for both standard flat beam scheme and beam monochromatization scheme. The detailed description of the lattice is given. The restrictions following the compatibility of both schemes are discussed

  2. A Proxy Blind Signature Scheme Based on ECDLP

    WANGHaiyan; WANGRuchuan

    2005-01-01

    While proxy signature scheme enables an original signer to fully authorize a proxy to sign a message on his or her behalf legally and undeniably, blind signature scheme keeps the message blind from the signer so that the signer cannot make a linkage between the signature and the identity of requester (receiver). Both schemes have been widely applied in the electronic business. A new ECDLP (Elliptic curve discrete problem)-based proxy blind signature scheme is to be proposed in this paper by integrating the security properties of both schemes.

  3. Compact finite difference schemes with spectral-like resolution

    Lele, Sanjiva K.

    1992-01-01

    The present finite-difference schemes for the evaluation of first-order, second-order, and higher-order derivatives yield improved representation of a range of scales and may be used on nonuniform meshes. Various boundary conditions may be invoked, and both accurate interpolation and spectral-like filtering can be accomplished by means of schemes for derivatives at mid-cell locations. This family of schemes reduces to the Pade schemes when the maximal formal accuracy constraint is imposed with a specific computational stencil. Attention is given to illustrative applications of these schemes in fluid dynamics.

  4. A group signature scheme based on quantum teleportation

    Wen Xiaojun; Tian Yuan; Ji Liping; Niu Xiamu, E-mail: wxjun36@gmail.co [Information Countermeasure Technique Research Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we present a group signature scheme using quantum teleportation. Different from classical group signature and current quantum signature schemes, which could only deliver either group signature or unconditional security, our scheme guarantees both by adopting quantum key preparation, quantum encryption algorithm and quantum teleportation. Security analysis proved that our scheme has the characteristics of group signature, non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. Our quantum group signature scheme has a foreseeable application in the e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc.

  5. A new threshold signature scheme based on fuzzy biometric identity

    Yongquan Cai; Ke Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present the first threshold signature scheme based on biometric identity, which is acquired from a recently proposed fuzzy identities-based encryption scheme. An important feature of this scheme, which is different from other previous ID-based threshold signature schemes, is that it can be applied to situations using not only average personal attributes in social contact but also people's noisy biometric inputs as identities. The security of our scheme in the selective-lD model reduces the limit in the hardness of the Decisional BDH Assumption.

  6. Scheme Transformations in the Vicinity of an Infrared Fixed Point

    Ryttov, Thomas; Shrock, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the effect of scheme transformations in the vicinity of an exact or approximate infrared fixed point in an asymptotically free gauge theory with fermions. We show that there is far less freedom in carrying out such scheme transformations in this case than at an ultraviolet fixed point....... We construct a transformation from the $\\bar{MS}$ scheme to a scheme with a vanishing three-loop term in the $\\beta$ function and use this to assess the scheme dependence of an infrared fixed point in SU($N$) theories with fermions. Implications for the anomalous dimension of the fermion bilinear...

  7. On the security of arbitrated quantum signature schemes

    Li, Qin; Wen, Zhonghua; Zhao, Weizhong; Chan, W H

    2012-01-01

    Due to potential capability of providing unconditional security, arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) schemes, whose implementation depends on the participation of a trusted third party, received intense attention in the past decade. Recently, some typical AQS schemes were cryptanalyzed and improved. In this paper, we analyze security property of some AQS schemes and show that all the previous AQS schemes, no matter original or improved, are still insecure in the sense that the messages and the corresponding signatures can be exchanged among different receivers, allowing the receivers to deny accepting the signature of an appointed message. Some further improvement methods on the AQS schemes are also discussed.

  8. A group signature scheme based on quantum teleportation

    In this paper, we present a group signature scheme using quantum teleportation. Different from classical group signature and current quantum signature schemes, which could only deliver either group signature or unconditional security, our scheme guarantees both by adopting quantum key preparation, quantum encryption algorithm and quantum teleportation. Security analysis proved that our scheme has the characteristics of group signature, non-counterfeit, non-disavowal, blindness and traceability. Our quantum group signature scheme has a foreseeable application in the e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc.

  9. Quantum election scheme based on anonymous quantum key distribution

    An unconditionally secure authority-certified anonymous quantum key distribution scheme using conjugate coding is presented, based on which we construct a quantum election scheme without the help of an entanglement state. We show that this election scheme ensures the completeness, soundness, privacy, eligibility, unreusability, fairness, and verifiability of a large-scale election in which the administrator and counter are semi-honest. This election scheme can work even if there exist loss and errors in quantum channels. In addition, any irregularity in this scheme is sensible. (general)

  10. Computational evaluation of convection schemes in fluid dynamics problems

    Ferreira, Valdemir Garcia; Corrêa, Laís; Candezano, Miguel Antonio Caro; Cirilo, Eliandro Rodrigues; Natti, Paulo Laerte; Romeiro, Neyva Maria Lopes; 10.5433/1679-0375.2012v33n2p107

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a computational evaluation of the popular high resolution upwind WACEB, CUBISTA and ADBQUICKEST schemes for solving non-linear fluid dynamics problems. By using the finite difference methodology, the schemes are analyzed and implemented in the context of normalized variables of Leonard. In order to access the performance of the schemes, Riemann problems for 1D Burgers, Euler and shallow water equations are considered. From the numerical results, the schemes are ranked according to their performance in solving these non-linear equations. The best scheme is then applied in the numerical simulation of tridimensional incompressible moving free surface flows.

  11. Exploring the Perceptions of Success in an Exercise Referral Scheme: A Mixed Method Investigation

    Mills, Hayley; Crone, Diane; James, David V. B.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exercise referral schemes feature as one of the prevalent primary care physical activity interventions in the United Kingdom, without extensive understanding of how those involved in providing and participating view success. The present research explores and reveals the constituents of "success," through comparison, contradiction, and…

  12. Universal service obligations: the role of subsidization schemes and the consequences of accounting separation

    MIRABEL François; Poudou, Jean-Christophe; Roland, Michel

    2007-01-01

    This paper (i) highlights the role that unit subsidies can play in the compensation scheme of a Universal Service Obligation (USO), and (ii) shows that welfare may be reduced when regulation requires accounting separation of network activities for vertically integrated USO providers. This suggests that accounting separation should be avoided when a USO is implemented.

  13. Universal Service Obligations: The Role of Subsidization Schemes and the Consequences of Accounting Separation

    This paper (i) highlights the role that unit subsidies can play in the compensation scheme of a Universal Service Obligation (USO), and (ii) shows that welfare may be reduced when regulation requires accounting separation of network activities for vertically integrated USO providers. This suggests that accounting separation should be avoided when a USO is implemented. (authors)

  14. BCS theory of superconductivity: the world's largest Madoff scheme?

    Hirsch, J E

    2009-01-01

    The time-tested BCS theory of superconductivity is generally accepted to be the correct theory of conventional superconductivity by physicists and, by extension, by the world at large. In a different realm of human activity, until very recently Bernard Madoff's time-tested investment operation was generally accepted as true and legitimate in the financial world. Madoff's Ponzi scheme, where old investors were being paid off by funds contributed by new investors, was fundamentally flawed, yet was able to thrive for decades because of many vested interests. `Red flags' suggesting its illegitimacy were ignored. Here I suggest that the same is true of BCS theory. There are an increasing number of `red flags' that strongly suggest the possibility that BCS theory may be fundamentally flawed. For example, an ever-growing number of superconductors are being classified as `unconventional', not described by the conventional BCS theory and each requiring a different physical mechanism. In addition, I argue that BCS theo...

  15. Development of a general nodalization scheme for PWR simulators

    The paper deals with the development of four nodalizations of PWR simulators for Cathare 2 V1.3E code. The nodalizations have been set up using the same general scheme for the considered facilities (Lobi, Spes, Bethsy, Lstf). The geometrical configuration of the various plants considered has been reproduced representing the different zones with the same elements in the code. Criteria already tested for nodalizations development have been followed to assure the geometrical fidelity to the represented systems and new criteria have been introduced to assure the maximum possible similarity among the nodalizations. This activity will lead to reduce the effect of differences in the nodalization when comparing calculations of similar experiments, in particular counterpart tests performed in differently scaled facilities. The nodalizations that have been set up are suitable for every kind of transient. The four nodalizations have been tested at a steady state level against experimental data derived from the facilities. (author)

  16. Reliability data collection in the UK: the NCSR scheme

    Some of the general aspects of reliability data collection are discussed and illustrated with an example of a recent Safety and Reliability Systems (SRS) project concerned with high economic risk in the field of advanced manufacturing technology. Any data collection scheme must aim to provide the information required to enable the correct decisions to be taken in order to reach specified objectives. These objectives should be well defined and documented at the outset. In the current context they are improvements in the reliability of complex technical systems to improve economy of operation and/or safety. It may be for existing plant or for proposed systems in the design stage. The case study chosen contained examples of plant equipment in fuel reprocessing and active handling lines, for example robots, computer controlled cutting tools and automatic guided vehicles. New classification methods and the integration of several different computer applications packages were needed. (author)

  17. Collective agri-environment schemes: How can regionalenvironmental cooperatives enhance farmers’ intentions foragri-environment schemes?

    Dijk, van W.F.A.; Lokhorst, A.M.; Berendse, F.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of agri-environment schemes (AES) in enhancing biodiversity on farmland and creating a long-lasting change in farmers’ motivation towards a more environmental-friendly practice is still strongly debated. Applying a regional approach has been advocated widely to make AES more ecolog

  18. General Scheme for the Construction of a Protected Qubit Subspace

    Aharon, N.; Drewsen, M.; Retzker, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new robust decoupling scheme suitable for half integer angular momentum states. The scheme is based on continuous dynamical decoupling techniques by which we create a protected qubit subspace. Our scheme predicts a coherence time of ~1 second, as compared to typically a few milliseco......We present a new robust decoupling scheme suitable for half integer angular momentum states. The scheme is based on continuous dynamical decoupling techniques by which we create a protected qubit subspace. Our scheme predicts a coherence time of ~1 second, as compared to typically a few...... milliseconds for the bare states. We show how single qubit gates and an ensemble coupling to a cavity mode can be implemented efficiently. Our scheme can be realized with state-of-the-art experimental setups and thus has immediate applications for quantum information science, and in particular for systems of...

  19. An optimized finite-difference scheme for wave propagation problems

    Zingg, D. W.; Lomax, H.; Jurgens, H.

    1993-01-01

    Two fully-discrete finite-difference schemes for wave propagation problems are presented, a maximum-order scheme and an optimized (or spectral-like) scheme. Both combine a seven-point spatial operator and an explicit six-stage time-march method. The maximum-order operator is fifth-order in space and is sixth-order in time for a linear problem with periodic boundary conditions. The phase and amplitude errors of the schemes obtained using Fourier analysis are given and compared with a second-order and a fourth-order method. Numerical experiments are presented which demonstrate the usefulness of the schemes for a range of problems. For some problems, the optimized scheme leads to a reduction in global error compared to the maximum-order scheme with no additional computational expense.

  20. Secure and Efficient Anonymous Authentication Scheme in Global Mobility Networks

    Jun-Sub Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, Mun et al. pointed out that Wu et al.’s scheme failed to achieve user anonymity and perfect forward secrecy and disclosed the passwords of legitimate users. And they proposed a new enhancement for anonymous authentication scheme. However, their proposed scheme has vulnerabilities that are susceptible to replay attack and man-in-the-middle attack. It also incurs a high overhead in the database. In this paper, we examine the vulnerabilities in the existing schemes and the computational overhead incurred in the database. We then propose a secure and efficient anonymous authentication scheme for roaming service in global mobility network. Our proposed scheme is secure against various attacks, provides mutual authentication and session key establishment, and incurs less computational overhead in the database than Mun et al.'s scheme.