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  1. Activation of PPARδ up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic β-cells

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a β-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPARδ), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPARδ mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPARδ up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPARδ plays an important role in protecting pancreatic β-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  2. Activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulates fatty acid oxidation and energy uncoupling genes of mitochondria and reduces palmitate-induced apoptosis in pancreatic {beta}-cells

    Wan, Jun; Jiang, Li; Lue, Qingguo; Ke, Linqiu [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Li, Xiaoyu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Sichuan University, No. 14, 3rd Section, Renmin South Road, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Tong, Nanwei, E-mail: buddyjun@hotmail.com [Department of Endocrinology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, 37 Guoxue Lane, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2010-01-15

    Recent evidence indicates that decreased oxidative capacity, lipotoxicity, and mitochondrial aberrations contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {delta} (PPAR{delta}) activation on lipid oxidation, mitochondrial function, and insulin secretion in pancreatic {beta}-cells. After HIT-T15 cells (a {beta}-cell line) were exposed to high concentrations of palmitate and GW501516 (GW; a selective agonist of PPAR{delta}), we found that administration of GW increased the expression of PPAR{delta} mRNA. GW-induced activation of PPAR{delta} up-regulated carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCAD), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2); alleviated mitochondrial swelling; attenuated apoptosis; and reduced basal insulin secretion induced by increased palmitate in HIT cells. These results suggest that activation of PPAR{delta} plays an important role in protecting pancreatic {beta}-cells against aberrations caused by lipotoxicity in metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

  3. Up-regulation of CLDN1 in gastric cancer is correlated with reduced survival

    The genetic changes in gastric adenocarcinoma are extremely complex and reliable tumor markers have not yet been identified. There are also remarkable geographical differences in the distribution of this disease. Our aim was to identify the most differentially regulated genes in 20 gastric adenocarcinomas from a Norwegian selection, compared to matched normal mucosa, and we have related our findings to prognosis, survival and chronic Helicobacter pylori infection. Biopsies from gastric adenocarcinomas and adjacent normal gastric mucosa were obtained from 20 patients immediately following surgical resection of the tumor. Whole genome, cDNA microarray analysis was performed on the RNA isolated from the sample pairs to compare the gene expression profiles between the tumor against matched mucosa. The samples were microscopically examined to classify gastritis. The presence of H. pylori was examined using microscopy and immunohistochemistry. 130 genes showed differential regulation above a predefined cut-off level. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Claudin-1 (CLDN1) were the most consistently up-regulated genes in the tumors. Very high CLDN1 expression in the tumor was identified as an independent and significant predictor gene of reduced post-operative survival. There were distinctly different expression profiles between the tumor group and the control mucosa group, and the histological subsets of mixed type, diffuse type and intestinal type cancer demonstrated further sub-clustering. Up-regulated genes were mapped to cell-adhesion, collagen-related processes and angiogenesis, whereas normal intestinal functions such as digestion and excretion were associated with down-regulated genes. We relate the current findings to our previous study on the gene response of gastric epithelial cells to H. pylori infection. CLDN1 was highly up-regulated in gastric cancer, and CLDN1 expression was independently associated with a poor post-operative prognosis, and may have important prognostic

  4. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    Yong-lin Zhao; Jin-ning Song; Xu-dong Ma; Bin-fei Zhang; Dan-dong Li; Hong-gang Pang

    2016-01-01

    Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postu-lated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injuryvia its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone signiifcantly reduced the levels ofamyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser404 (p-tau (S404)), and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S404) levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury.

  5. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    Yong-lin Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postulated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injury via its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the levels of amyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser 404 (p-tau (S 404 , and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S 404 levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury.

  6. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    Zhao, Yong-lin; Song, Jin-ning; Ma, Xu-dong; Zhang, Bin-fei; Li, Dan-dong; Pang, Hong-gang

    2016-01-01

    Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postulated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injury via its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the levels of amyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser404(p-tau (S404)), and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S404) levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury.

  7. Activating transcription factor 3 is not up-regulated in hypospadias patients in Japan

    Toshiaki Takahashi; Akihiro Shimotakahara; Katsumi Miyahara; Geoffrey J Lane; Atsuyuki Yamataka

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aetiology of hypospadias is largely uncharacterized. Some of the researchers have advocated that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), an oestrogen-responsive transcription factor, is up-regulated in patients with hypospadias. The purpose is to evaluate the universality of this fact; we studied the expression of ATF3 protein in prepuce tissue obtained from hypospadias and phimosis patients living in metropolitan Tokyo. Materials and Methods: Prepuce tissue was obtained fro...

  8. Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses Down-regulate AKT1, whereas AKT2 Up-regulation and Activation Associates with Tumors

    O'Shaughnessy, Ryan F L; Akgũl, Baki; Storey, Alan; Pfister, Herbert; Harwood, Catherine A; Byrne, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Epithelial tumorigenesis has been linked to AKT up-regulation. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause anogenital cancers and anogenital HPV infection up-regulates AKT activity. Mounting evidence points to a role for cutaneous HPVs as etiologic factors in skin tumorigenesis. High-risk cutaneous β HPVs have been linked to carcinogenesis in immunosuppressed patients, and high-risk cutaneous HPV8 genes enhance tumorigenesis in transgenic mice. We find that, in contrast to anogenital HPVs, cutaneous H...

  9. Activating transcription factor 3 is not up-regulated in hypospadias patients in Japan

    Toshiaki Takahashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aetiology of hypospadias is largely uncharacterized. Some of the researchers have advocated that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3, an oestrogen-responsive transcription factor, is up-regulated in patients with hypospadias. The purpose is to evaluate the universality of this fact; we studied the expression of ATF3 protein in prepuce tissue obtained from hypospadias and phimosis patients living in metropolitan Tokyo. Materials and Methods: Prepuce tissue was obtained from outer foreskin at the time of surgery, quickly prepared for paraffin-embedded sectioning and stained immunohistochemically for ATF3. Two researchers blindly evaluated immunoreactivity and scored it semi-quantitatively as nil = 0, weak = 1, or strong = 2, to give a final staining intensity score (SIS. Subjects were 18 hypospadias patients and 17 phimosis patients (as controls who had surgery between January, 2009 and March, 2010. Results: All subjects lived in metropolitan Tokyo, Japan. Mean ages at surgery were 2.9 ± 1.0 and 3.9 ± 2.4 years, respectively (P > 0.05. SIS was not statistically different between hypospadias patients (1.4 ± 0.5 and controls (1.5 ± 0.5, (P > 0.05. Conclusions: Our data suggest that ATF3 is not highly associated with hypospadias in metropolitan Tokyo. Differences in ethnicity might have influenced our results.

  10. Ceramide-induced TCR up-regulation

    Menné, C; Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Dietrich, J;

    2000-01-01

    kinase C activity. Thus, an increase in protein kinase C activity affects TCR recycling kinetics leading to a new TCR equilibrium with a reduced level of TCR expressed at the T cell surface. Down-regulation of TCR expression compromises T cell activation. Conversely, TCR up-regulation is expected to...... pathway. Finally, we showed that TCR up-regulation probably plays a physiological role by increasing T cell responsiveness. Thus, by affecting the TCR recycling kinetics, T cells have the potential both to up- and down-regulate TCR expression and thereby adjust T cell responsiveness....... increase T cell responsiveness. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize potential pathways for TCR up-regulation. We found that ceramide affected TCR recycling dynamics and induced TCR up-regulation in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Experiments applying phosphatase...

  11. Acute morphine activates satellite glial cells and up-regulates IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia in mice via matrix metalloprotease-9

    Berta Temugin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Activation of spinal cord glial cells such as microglia and astrocytes has been shown to regulate chronic opioid-induced antinociceptive tolerance and hyperalgesia, due to spinal up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β. Matrix metalloprotease-9 (MMP-9 has been implicated in IL-1β activation in neuropathic pain. However, it is unclear whether acute opioid treatment can activate glial cells in the peripheral nervous system. We examined acute morphine-induced activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs and up-regulation of IL-1β in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs, and further investigated the involvement of MMP-9 in these opioid-induced peripheral changes. Results Subcutaneous morphine injection (10 mg/kg induced robust peripheral glial responses, as evidenced by increased GFAP expression in DRGs but not in spinal cords. The acute morphine-induced GFAP expression is transient, peaking at 2 h and declining after 3 h. Acute morphine treatment also increased IL-1β immunoreactivity in SGCs and IL-1β activation in DRGs. MMP-9 and GFAP are expressed in DRG neurons and SGCs, respectively. Confocal analysis revealed a close proximity of MMP-9 and GFAP immunostaining. Importantly, morphine-induced DRG up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation was abolished after Mmp9 deletion or naloxone pre-treatment. Finally, intrathecal injections of IL-1β-selective siRNA not only reduced DRG IL-1β expression but also prolonged acute morphine-induced analgesia. Conclusions Acute morphine induces opioid receptors- and MMP-9-dependent up-regulation of GFAP expression and IL-1β activation in SGCs of DRGs. MMP-9 could mask and shorten morphine analgesia via peripheral neuron-glial interactions. Targeting peripheral glial activation might prolong acute opioid analgesia.

  12. Up-Regulation of Hepatic Alpha-2-HS-Glycoprotein Transcription by Testosterone via Androgen Receptor Activation

    Jakob Voelkl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetuin-A (alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, AHSG, a liver borne plasma protein, contributes to the prevention of soft tissue calcification, modulates inflammation, reduces insulin sensitivity and fosters weight gain following high fat diet or ageing. In polycystic ovary syndrome, fetuin-A levels correlate with free androgen levels, an observation pointing to androgen sensitivity of fetuin-A expression. The present study thus explored whether the expression of hepatic fetuin-A is modified by testosterone. Methods: HepG2 cells were treated with testosterone and androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, and were silenced with androgen receptor siRNA. To test the in vivo relevance, male mice were subjected to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for 7 weeks. AHSG mRNA levels were determined by quantitative RT-PCR and fetuin-A protein abundance by Western blotting. Results: In HepG2 cells, AHSG mRNA expression and fetuin-A protein abundance were both up-regulated following testosterone treatment. The human alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein gene harbors putative androgen receptor response elements in the proximal 5 kb promoter sequence relative to TSS. The effect of testosterone on AHSG mRNA levels was abrogated by silencing of the androgen receptor in HepG2 cells. Moreover, treatment of HepG2 cells with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide in presence of endogenous ligands in the medium significantly down-regulated AHSG mRNA expression and fetuin-A protein abundance. In addition, ADT of male mice was followed by a significant decrease of hepatic Ahsg mRNA expression and fetuin-A protein levels. Conclusions: Testosterone participates in the regulation of hepatic fetuin-A expression, an effect mediated, at least partially, by androgen receptor activation.

  13. Cyanide-induced death of dopaminergic cells is mediated by uncoupling protein-2 up-regulation and reduced Bcl-2 expression

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications that are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell line (N27 cells). Following pharmacological up-regulation of UCP-2 by treatment with Wy14,643, cyanide reduced cellular Bcl-2 expression by increasing proteasomal degradation of the protein. The increased turnover of Bcl-2 was mediated by an increase of oxidative stress following UCP-2 up-regulation. The oxidative stress involved depletion of mitochondrial glutathione (mtGSH) and increased H2O2 generation. Repletion of mtGSH by loading cells with glutathione ethyl ester reduced H2O2 generation and in turn blocked the cyanide-induced decrease of Bcl-2. To determine if UCP-2 mediated the response, RNAi knock down was conducted. The RNAi decreased cyanide-induced depletion of mtGSH, reduced H2O2 accumulation, and inhibited down-regulation of Bcl-2, thus blocking cell death. To confirm the role of Bcl-2 down-regulation in the cell death, it was shown that over-expression of Bcl-2 by cDNA transfection attenuated the enhancement of cyanide toxicity after UCP-2 up-regulation. It was concluded that UCP-2 up-regulation sensitizes cells to cyanide by increasing cellular oxidative stress, leading to an increase of Bcl-2 degradation. Then the reduced Bcl-2 levels sensitize the cells to cyanide-mediated cell death.

  14. Up-regulation of microglial cathepsin C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    Fan Kai

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cathepsin C (Cat C functions as a central coordinator for activation of many serine proteases in inflammatory cells. It has been recognized that Cat C is responsible for neutrophil recruitment and production of chemokines and cytokines in many inflammatory diseases. However, Cat C expression and its functional role in the brain under normal conditions or in neuroinflammatory processes remain unclear. Our previous study showed that Cat C promoted the progress of brain demyelination in cuprizone-treated mice. The present study further investigated the Cat C expression and activity in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced neuroinflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods C57BL/6 J mice were intraperitoneally injected with either 0.9% saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg. Immunohistochemistry (IHC and in situ hybridization (ISH were used to analyze microglial activation, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, iNOS mRNAs expressions and cellular localization of Cat C in the brain. Nitrite assay was used to examine microglial activation in vitro; RT-PCR and ELISA were used to determine the expression and release of Cat C. Cat C activity was analyzed by cellular Cat C assay kit. Data were evaluated for statistical significance with paired t test. Results Cat C was predominantly expressed in hippocampal CA2 neurons in C57BL/6 J mice under normal conditions. Six hours after LPS injection, Cat C expression was detected in cerebral cortical neurons; whereas, twenty-four hours later, Cat C expression was captured in activated microglial cells throughout the entire brain. The duration of induced Cat C expression in neurons and in microglial cells was ten days and three days, respectively. In vitro, LPS, IL-1β and IL-6 treatments increased microglial Cat C expression in a dose-dependent manner and upregulated Cat C secretion and its activity. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that LPS and proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 induce the

  15. Activation of corticotropin releasing factor receptors up regulates collagen production by hepatic stellate cells via promoting p300 expression.

    Wang, Changzhen; Yang, Shan; Huang, Jingjing; Chen, Songlin; Li, Yuan; Li, Quanqiang

    2016-05-01

    Liver fibrosis is characterized with the over expression and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins, including collagens. The causative factors in the over production of collagens are not fully understood. This study aims to test a hypothesis that activation of corticotropin releasing factor receptors up regulates the expression of collagen in hepatic stellate cells. In this study, human hepatic stellate cell line, LX-2 cells were cultured. Expression of collagens by LX-2 cells was assessed by real time RT-PCR, Western blotting. The results showed that, upon exposure to urocortin in the culture, LX-2 cells (a human hepatic stellate cell line) increased the expression of collagen IV (Col4) markedly. The exposure to urocortin also enhanced the levels of pTip60, H3K9, RNA polymerase II and forkhead box protein 3 at the collagen promoter locus as well as increase in the expression of Col4 mRNA and protein in the cells. Blocking p300 efficiently suppressed the urocortin-induced Col4 expression in LX-2 cells and unveiled an apoptosis-inducing effect of urocortin. In conclusion, activation of CRF receptors is capable of enforcing the production of Col4 by LX-2 cells via up regulating the p300 pathway, which may contribute to the development of liver fibrosis. PMID:26756093

  16. Human papillomavirus up-regulates MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and activity by inducing interleukin-8 in lung adenocarcinomas.

    Ming-Yuh Shiau

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV infection is associated with non-smoking female lung cancer. Our previous report demonstrated that HPV 16 promotes lung tumor cell progression by up-regulating interleukin-17 (IL-17. IL-17 and its downstream signaling mediator, interleukin-8 (IL-8, have been implicated to modulate a variety of pro-angiogenic factors and play important roles in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Accordingly, we hypothesized that HPV infection may potentiate tumorigenic and metastatic characteristics of the infected cells through IL-8. The goal of the present study was to determine whether HPV infection in lung adenocarcinoma cells can promote the expression of IL-8 and metalloproteinases (MMPs to make the transformed cells equipped with angiogenic and metastatic characteristics. The expression of IL-8 and MMPs in HPV 16 E6-transfected H1299 cells was analyzed to examine the hypothesis. HPV 16 E6 up-regulates pro-angiogenic MMP-2 and MMP-9 through inducing IL-8 expression in lung cancer cells. The results indicate that, in addition to cell proliferation-related machinery, HPV infection promotes the expression and activities of angiogenic and metastatic molecules in lung adenocarcinoma cells. The cytokines induced by HPV infection may work together to confer the malignant and tumorigenic potentials on the infected cells by promoting machineries of growth, angiogenic and metastatic characteristics.

  17. Prenatal Ethanol Exposure Up-Regulates the Cholesterol Transporters ATP-Binding Cassette A1 and G1 and Reduces Cholesterol Levels in the Developing Rat Brain

    Zhou, Chunyan; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Xiaolu; Costa, Lucio G.; Guizzetti, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Cholesterol plays a pivotal role in many aspects of brain development; reduced cholesterol levels during brain development, as a consequence of genetic defects in cholesterol biosynthesis, leads to severe brain damage, including microcephaly and mental retardation, both of which are also hallmarks of the fetal alcohol syndrome. We had previously shown that ethanol up-regulates the levels of two cholesterol transporters, ABCA1 (ATP binding cassette-A1) and ABCG1, leading to increased cho...

  18. Glucose activation of islets of Langerhans up-regulates Toll-like receptor 5: possible mechanism of protection

    Weile, Christian Roar Andersen; Josefsen, Knud Elnegaard; Buschard, Karsten Stig

    2011-01-01

    binding of flagellin from pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella and Listeria species. We have found that the expression of TLR5 is up-regulated by glucose activation of isolated islets of Langerhans, in contrast to other investigated TLRs (TLR-2, -3, -4, -6 and -9. Stimulation of islets with 10 mm...... glucose increased the levels of TLR5 mRNA 10-fold (P=0·03) and the TLR-5 protein levels twofold (P=0·04). Furthermore, the protein level of downstream signalling molecule myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) increased 1·6-fold (P=0·01). Activation of TLR-5 in islets lead to a marked...

  19. Internal focus of attention in anxiety-sensitive females up-regulates amygdale activity: an fMRI study.

    Pfleiderer, Bettina; Berse, Timo; Stroux, Daniel; Ewert, Adrianna; Konrad, Carsten; Gerlach, Alexander L

    2014-11-01

    Cognitive behavioral models of panic disorder (PD) stress the importance of an increased attentional focus towards bodily symptoms in the onset and maintenance of this debilitating anxiety disorder. In this fMRI mental tracking paradigm, we looked at the effects of focusing one's attention internally (interoception) vs. externally (exteroception) in a well-studied group at risk for PD-that is anxiety-sensitive females (AS-high). We hypothesized that AS-high subjects compared to control subjects will present higher arousal and decreased valence scores during interoception and parallel higher activity in brain areas which are associated with fear and interoception. 24 healthy female students with high levels of anxiety sensitivity and 24 healthy female students with normal levels of anxiety sensitivity serving as control group were investigated by 3 T fMRI. Subjects either focused their attention on their heartbeats (internal condition) or on neutral tones (external condition). Task performance was monitored by reporting the number of heartbeats or tones after each block. State of arousal and emotional valence were also assessed. The high anxiety-sensitive group reported higher arousal scores compared to controls during the course of the experiment. Simultaneously, fMRI results indicated higher activation in anxiety-sensitive participants than in controls during interoception in a network of cortical and subcortical brain regions (thalamus, amygdala, parahippocampus) that overlaps with known fear circuitry structures. In particular, the activity of the right amygdala was up-regulated. Future prospective-longitudinal studies are needed to validate the role of the amygdala for transition to disorder. Attention to internal body functions up-regulates the activity of interoceptive and fear-relevant brain regions in anxiety-sensitive females, a high-risk group for the development of anxiety disorders. PMID:24898851

  20. TNF-α-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by phosphatidylcholine in intestinal epithelial cells

    Griffiths Gareth

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylcholine (PC is a major lipid of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. We recently showed that mucus from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis has low levels of PC. Clinical studies reveal that the therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus using slow release preparations is beneficial. The positive role of PC in this disease is still unclear; however, we have recently shown that PC has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory property. It could be demonstrated that the exogenous application of PC inhibits membrane-dependent actin assembly and TNF-α-induced nuclear NF-κB activation. We investigate here in more detail the hypothesis that the exogenous application of PC has anti-inflammatory properties. Methods PC species with different fatty acid side chains were applied to differentiated and non-differentiated Caco-2 cells treated with TNF-α to induce a pro-inflammatory response. We analysed TNF-α-induced NF-κB-activation via the transient expression of a NF-κB-luciferase reporter system. Pro-inflammatory gene transcription was detected with the help of a quantitative real time (RT-PCR analysis. We assessed the binding of TNF-α to its receptor by FACS and analysed lipid rafts by isolating detergent resistant membranes (DRMs. Results The exogenous addition of all PC species tested significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced pro-inflammatory signalling. The expression levels of IL-8, ICAM-1, IP-10, MCP-1, TNF-α and MMP-1 were significantly reduced after PC pre-treatment for at least two hours. The effect was comparable to the inhibition of NF-kB by the NF-kB inhibitor SN 50 and was not due to a reduced binding of TNF-α to its receptor or a decreased surface expression of TNF-α receptors. PC was also effective when applied to the apical side of polarised Caco-2 cultures if cells were stimulated from the basolateral side. PC treatment changed the compartmentation of the TNF-α-receptors 1 and 2 to DRMs. Conclusion PC

  1. Up-Regulation of Pressure-activated Ca2+-permeable Cation Channel in Intact Vascular Endothelium of Hypertensive Rats

    Hoyer, J.; Kohler, R.; Haase, W.; Distler, A.

    1996-10-01

    In endothelial cells, stretch-activated cation channels have been proposed to act as mechanosensors for changes in hemodynamic forces. We have identified a novel mechanosensitive pressure-activated channel in intact endothelium from rat aorta and mesenteric artery. The 18-pS cation channel responded with a multifold increase in channel activity when positive pressure was applied to the luminal cell surface with the patch pipette and inactivated at negative pipette pressure. Channel permeability ratio for K+, Na+, and Ca2+ ions was 1:0.98:0.23. Ca2+ influx through the channel was sufficient to activate a neighboring Ca2+-dependent K+ channel. Hemodynamic forces are chronically disturbed in arterial hypertension. Endothelial cell dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension. In two comparative studies, density of the pressure-activated channel was found to be significantly higher in spontaneously hypertensive rats and renovascular hypertensive rats compared with their respective normotensive controls. Channel activity presumably leads to mechanosensitive Ca2+ influx and induces cell hyperpolarization by K+ channel activity. Both Ca2+ influx and hyperpolarization are known to induce a vasodilatory endothelial response by stimulating endothelial nitric oxide (NO) production. Up-regulation of channel density in hypertension could, therefore, represent a counterregulatory mechanism of vascular endothelium.

  2. Radiation-induced up regulation of telomerase activity escapes PI3-kinase inhibition in two malignant glioma cell lines

    Tumor relapse after radiotherapy is a great concern in the treatment of high-grade gliomas. Inhibition of the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway is known to radio-sensitize cancer cells and to delay their DNA repair after irradiation. In this study, we show that the radiosensitization of CB193 and T98G, two high-grade glioma cell lines, by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, correlates with the induction of G1 and G2/M arrest, but is inconsistently linked to a delayed DNA double-strand break (DSBs) repair. The PI3K/AKT pathway has been shown to activate radioprotective factors such as telomerase, whose inhibition may contribute to the radiosensitization of cancer cells. However, we show that radiation up regulates telomerase activity in LY-294002-treated glioma cells as well as untreated controls, demonstrating a PI3K/AKT-independent pathway of telomerase activation. Our study suggests that radiosensitizing strategies based on PI3-kinase inhibition in high-grade gliomas may be optimized by additional treatments targeting either telomerase activity or telomere maintenance. (authors)

  3. Regulation of store-operated Ca2+ entry activity by cell cycle dependent up-regulation of Orai2 in brain capillary endothelial cells

    Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) via Orai1 and STIM1 complex is supposed to have obligatory roles in the regulation of cellular functions of vascular endothelial cells, while little is known about the contribution of Orai2. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses indicated the expression of Orai2 and STIM2, in addition to Orai1 and STIM1 in bovine brain capillary endothelial cell line, t-BBEC117. During the exponential growth of t-BBEC117, the knockdown of Orai1 and STIM1 significantly reduced the SOCE activity, whereas Orai2 and STIM2 siRNAs had no effect. To examine whether endogenous SOCE activity contributes to the regulation of cell cycle progression, t-BBEC117 were synchronized using double thymidine blockage. At the G2/M phase, Ca2+ influx via SOCE was decreased and Orai2 expression was increased compared to the G0/G1 phase. When Orai2 was knocked down at the G2/M phase, the decrease in SOCE was removed, and cell proliferation was partly attenuated. Taken together, Orai1 significantly contributes to cell proliferation via the functional expression, which is presumably independent of the cell cycle phases. In construct, Orai2 is specifically up-regulated during the G2/M phase, negatively modulates the SOCE activity, and may contribute to the regulation of cell cycle progression in brain capillary endothelial cells. - Highlights: • Orai1 is essential for SOCE activity in brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). • Cell cycle independent expression of Orai1 regulated SOCE and cell proliferation. • Orai2 was up-regulated only at G2/M phase and this consequently reduced SOCE. • Orai2 as well as Orai1 is a key player controlling SOCE and proliferation in BCECs

  4. Regulation of store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry activity by cell cycle dependent up-regulation of Orai2 in brain capillary endothelial cells

    Kito, Hiroaki [Department of Molecular & Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Pharmacology, Division of Pathological Sciences, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Yamamura, Hisao; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Hideto [Department of Molecular & Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Ohya, Susumu [Department of Molecular & Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Pharmacology, Division of Pathological Sciences, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Kyoto (Japan); Asai, Kiyofumi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Imaizumi, Yuji, E-mail: yimaizum@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular & Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-04-10

    Store-operated Ca{sup 2+} entry (SOCE) via Orai1 and STIM1 complex is supposed to have obligatory roles in the regulation of cellular functions of vascular endothelial cells, while little is known about the contribution of Orai2. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses indicated the expression of Orai2 and STIM2, in addition to Orai1 and STIM1 in bovine brain capillary endothelial cell line, t-BBEC117. During the exponential growth of t-BBEC117, the knockdown of Orai1 and STIM1 significantly reduced the SOCE activity, whereas Orai2 and STIM2 siRNAs had no effect. To examine whether endogenous SOCE activity contributes to the regulation of cell cycle progression, t-BBEC117 were synchronized using double thymidine blockage. At the G2/M phase, Ca{sup 2+} influx via SOCE was decreased and Orai2 expression was increased compared to the G0/G1 phase. When Orai2 was knocked down at the G2/M phase, the decrease in SOCE was removed, and cell proliferation was partly attenuated. Taken together, Orai1 significantly contributes to cell proliferation via the functional expression, which is presumably independent of the cell cycle phases. In construct, Orai2 is specifically up-regulated during the G2/M phase, negatively modulates the SOCE activity, and may contribute to the regulation of cell cycle progression in brain capillary endothelial cells. - Highlights: • Orai1 is essential for SOCE activity in brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs). • Cell cycle independent expression of Orai1 regulated SOCE and cell proliferation. • Orai2 was up-regulated only at G2/M phase and this consequently reduced SOCE. • Orai2 as well as Orai1 is a key player controlling SOCE and proliferation in BCECs.

  5. Human Papillomavirus Up-Regulates MMP-2 and MMP-9 Expression and Activity by Inducing Interleukin-8 in Lung Adenocarcinomas

    Shiau, Ming-Yuh; Fan, Li-Ching; Yang, Shun-Chun; Tsao, Chang-Hui; Lee, Huei; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Lai, Li-Chuan; Chang, Yih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with non-smoking female lung cancer. Our previous report demonstrated that HPV 16 promotes lung tumor cell progression by up-regulating interleukin-17 (IL-17). IL-17 and its downstream signaling mediator, interleukin-8 (IL-8), have been implicated to modulate a variety of pro-angiogenic factors and play important roles in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Accordingly, we hypothesized that HPV infection may potentiate tumorigenic and metastat...

  6. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor up-regulates GTP-cyclohydrolase I activity and tetrahydrobiopterin levels in primary dopaminergic neurones

    Bauer, M; Suppmann, S; Meyer, M;

    2002-01-01

    the mode of action for that up-regulation is not directly connected to the regulation of GTPCH I transcription. We conclude that GDNF, in addition to its action in structural differentiation, also promotes differentiation regarding expression and enzymatic activity of a crucial component in the...

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Activation of Activating Transcription Factor 6 Decreases Insulin Gene Expression via Up-Regulation of Orphan Nuclear Receptor Small Heterodimer Partner

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Yong Deuk; Lee, Kyeong-Min; Min, Ae-Kyung; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Hye-Soon; Won, Kyu-Chang; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up; Choi, Hueng-Sik; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The highly developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) structure of pancreatic β-cells is a key factor in β-cell function. Here we examined whether ER stress-induced activation of activating transcription factor (ATF)-6 impairs insulin gene expression via up-regulation of the orphan nuclear receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP; NR0B2), which has been shown to play a role in β-cell dysfunction. We examined whether ER stress decreases insulin gene expression, and this process is mediated by ATF6. A...

  8. Thrombomodulin reduces tumorigenic and metastatic potential of lung cancer cells by up-regulation of E-cadherin and down-regulation of N-cadherin expression.

    Zheng, Nana; Huo, Zihe; Zhang, Bin; Meng, Mei; Cao, Zhifei; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Quansheng

    2016-08-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an endothelial cell membrane protein and plays critical roles in anti-thrombosis, anti-inflammation, vascular endothelial protection, and is traditionally regarded as a "vascular protection god". In recent years, although TM has been reported to be down-regulated in a variety of malignant tumors including lung cancer, the role and mechanism of TM in lung cancer are enigmatic. In this study, we found that induction of TM overexpression by cholesterol-reducing drug atorvastatin significantly diminished the tumorigenic capability of the lung cancer cells. Moreover, we demonstrated that TM overexpression caused G0/G1 phase arrest and markedly reduced the colony forming capability of the cells. Furthermore, overexpression of TM inhibited cell migration and invasion. Consistently, depletion of TM promoted cell growth, reduced the cell population at the G0/G1 phase, and enhanced cell migratory ability. Mechanistic study revealed that TM up-regulated E-cadherin but down-regulated N-cadherin expression, resulting in reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the lung cancer cells. Moreover, silencing TM expression led to decreased E-cadherin and increased N-cadherin. Taken together, our study suggests that TM functions as a tumor suppressive protein, providing a conceptual framework for inducing TM overexpression as a sensible strategy and approach for novel anti-lung cancer drug discovery. PMID:27223053

  9. Chemical diversity of biologically active metabolites in the sclerotia of Inonotus obliquus and submerged culture strategies for up-regulating their production.

    Zheng, Weifa; Miao, Kangjie; Liu, Yubing; Zhao, Yanxia; Zhang, Meimei; Pan, Shenyuan; Dai, Yucheng

    2010-07-01

    Inonotus obliquus (Fr.) Pilat is a white rot fungus belonging to the family Hymenochaetaceae in the Basidiomycota. In nature, this fungus rarely forms a fruiting body but usually an irregular shape of sclerotial conk called 'Chaga'. Characteristically, I. obliquus produces massive melanins released to the surface of Chaga. As early as in the sixteenth century, Chaga was used as an effective folk medicine in Russia and Northern Europe to treat several human malicious tumors and other diseases in the absence of any unacceptable toxic side effects. Chemical investigations show that I. obliquus produces a diverse range of secondary metabolites including phenolic compounds, melanins, and lanostane-type triterpenoids. Among these are the active components for antioxidant, antitumoral, and antiviral activities and for improving human immunity against infection of pathogenic microbes. Geographically, however, this fungus is restricted to very cold habitats and grows very slowly, suggesting that Chaga is not a reliable source of these bioactive compounds. Attempts for culturing this fungus axenically all resulted in a reduced production of bioactive metabolites. This review examines the current progress in the discovery of chemical diversity of Chaga and their biological activities and the strategies to modulate the expression of desired pathways to diversify and up-regulate the production of bioactive metabolites by the fungus grown in submerged cultures for possible drug discovery. PMID:20532760

  10. Wedelolactone Regulates Lipid Metabolism and Improves Hepatic Steatosis Partly by AMPK Activation and Up-Regulation of Expression of PPARα/LPL and LDLR.

    Yun Zhao

    Full Text Available Hyperlipidemia is considered one of the greatest risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the anti-hyperlipidemic effect and the underlying mechanism of wedelolactone, a plant-derived coumestan, in HepG2 cells and high-fat diet (HFD-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters. We showed that in cultured HepG2 cells, wedelolactone up-regulated protein levels of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα as well as the gene expression of AMPK, PPARα, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, and the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR. Meanwhile, administration of wedelolactone for 4 weeks decreased the lipid profiles of plasma and liver in HFD-induced hyperlipidemic hamsters, including total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C. The activation of AMPK and up-regulation of PPARα was also observed with wedelolactone treatment. Furthermore, wedelolactone also increased the activities of superoxidase dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and decreased the level of the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA in the liver, therefore decreasing the activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT. In conclusion, we provide novel experimental evidence that wedelolactone possesses lipid-lowering and steatosis-improving effects, and the underlying mechanism is, at least in part, mediated by the activation of AMPK and the up-regulation of PPARα/LPL and LDLR.

  11. Exercise preconditioning reduces ischemia reperfusion-induced focal cerebral infarct volume through up-regulating the expression of HIF-1α.

    Wang, Lu; Deng, Wenqian; Yuan, Qiongjia; Yang, Huijun

    2015-03-01

    To study the effect and mechanism of exercise preconditioning on focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion induced cerebral infarction via rat model; Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups at random: ischemia reperfusion group (IR, n=24), sham group (sham, n=12) and exercise preconditioning group (EP, n=24). Group EP carried out moderate exercise preconditioning for 4 weeks (swimming with non-weight bearing, 60 minutes/day, 6 days/week), Rats in Group EP and IR were established cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury model by Zea Longa's thread method. The cerebral infarct volume in rat of different group was evaluated after 2%TTC staining, expression of HIF-1α in rats' brain was detected by real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochmeistry method and western blot. No cerebral infarction and significant expression of HIF-1α in Group sham. Compared with Group IR, there was smaller infarct volume and stronger HIF-1α expression in Group EP (Pexercise preconditioning reduces ischemia reperfusion induced focal cerebral infarct volume through up-regulating the expression of HIF-1α. PMID:25796156

  12. Interferon-β-induced activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase mediates apoptosis through up-regulation of CD95 in CH31 B lymphoma cells

    Type I interferon (IFN)-induced antitumor action is due in part to apoptosis, but the molecular mechanisms underlying IFN-induced apoptosis remain largely unresolved. In the present study, we demonstrate that IFN-β induced apoptosis and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in the murine CH31 B lymphoma cell line, and this was accompanied by the up-regulation of CD95, but not CD95-ligand (CD95-L), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), or TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Pretreatment with anti-CD95-L mAb partially prevented the IFN-β-induced loss of ΔΨm, suggesting that the interaction of IFN-β-up-regulated CD95 with CD95-L plays a crucial role in the induction of fratricide. IFN-β induced a sustained activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), but not extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). The IFN-β-induced apoptosis and loss of ΔΨm were substantially compromised in cells overexpressing a dominant-negative form of JNK1 (dnJNK1), and it was slightly enhanced in cells carrying a constitutively active JNK construct, MKK7-JNK1 fusion protein. The IFN-β-induced up-regulation of CD95 together with caspase-8 activation was also abrogated in the dnJNK1 cells while it was further enhanced in the MKK7-JNK1 cells. The levels of cellular FLIP (c-FLIP), competitively interacting with caspase-8, were down-regulated by stimulation with IFN-β but were reversed by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin. Collectively, the IFN-β-induced sustained activation of JNK mediates apoptosis, at least in part, through up-regulation of CD95 protein in combination with down-regulation of c-FLIP protein

  13. Methotrexate up-regulates ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 and reduces the frequency of T lymphocytes in the glioblastoma microenvironment.

    Figueiró, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Catiúscia P; Bergamin, Letícia S; Rockenbach, Liliana; Mendes, Franciane B; Jandrey, Elisa Helena F; Moritz, Cesar Eduardo J; Pettenuzzo, Letícia F; Sévigny, Jean; Guterres, Silvia S; Pohlmann, Adriana R; Battastini, Ana Maria O

    2016-06-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a deadly cancer characterized by a pro-tumoral immune response. T-regulatory (Treg) lymphocytes suppress effector immune cells through cytokine secretion and the adenosinergic system. Ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 plays a crucial role in Treg-mediated immunosuppression in the GBM microenvironment (GME). Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressive drug that can increase the extracellular concentration of adenosine. In this manuscript, C6 GBM cells were treated with 1.0 μM MTX, and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 expression and extracellular AMP metabolism were analyzed in vitro. For in vivo studies, rats with implanted GBM were treated for 10 days with MTX-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules (MTX-LNCs, 1 mg/kg/day). The activity of ectonucleotidase and the expression of NTPDase1/CD39 and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 were measured. The frequencies of T lymphocytes (CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), and CD4(+)CD25(high)CD39(+)) were quantified. In vitro, treatment with MTX increased CD73 expression and activity in C6 cells, which is in agreement with higher levels of extracellular adenosine. In vivo, MTX-LNC treatment increased CD39 expression on CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes. In addition, MTX-LNC treatment up-regulated CD73 expression in tissue isolated from GBM, a finding that is in agreement with the higher activity of this enzyme. More specifically, the treatment increased CD73 expression on CD3(+)CD4(+) and CD3(+)CD8(+) lymphocytes. Treatment with MTX-LNCs decreased the frequencies of T-cytotoxic, T-helper, and Treg lymphocytes in the GME. Although more studies are necessary to better understand the complex cross-talk mediated by supra-physiological concentrations of adenosine in the GME, these studies demonstrate that MTX treatment increases CD73 enzyme expression and AMP hydrolysis, leading to an increase in adenosine production and immunosuppressive capability. PMID:26910734

  14. PPAR-γ activation increases insulin secretion through the up-regulation of the free fatty acid receptor GPR40 in pancreatic β-cells.

    Hyo-Sup Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been reported that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ and their synthetic ligands have direct effects on pancreatic β-cells. We investigated whether PPAR-γ activation stimulates insulin secretion through the up-regulation of GPR40 in pancreatic β-cells. METHODS: Rat insulinoma INS-1 cells and primary rat islets were treated with rosiglitazone (RGZ and/or adenoviral PPAR-γ overexpression. OLETF rats were treated with RGZ. RESULTS: PPAR-γ activation with RGZ and/or adenoviral PPAR-γ overexpression increased free fatty acid (FFA receptor GPR40 expression, and increased insulin secretion and intracellular calcium mobilization, and was blocked by the PLC inhibitors, GPR40 RNA interference, and GLUT2 RNA interference. As a downstream signaling pathway of intracellular calcium mobilization, the phosphorylated levels of CaMKII and CREB, and the downstream IRS-2 and phospho-Akt were significantly increased. Despite of insulin receptor RNA interference, the levels of IRS-2 and phospho-Akt was still maintained with PPAR-γ activation. In addition, the β-cell specific gene expression, including Pdx-1 and FoxA2, increased in a GPR40- and GLUT2-dependent manner. The levels of GPR40, phosphorylated CaMKII and CREB, and β-cell specific genes induced by RGZ were blocked by GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist. Finally, PPAR-γ activation up-regulated β-cell gene expressions through FoxO1 nuclear exclusion, independent of the insulin signaling pathway. Based on immunohistochemical staining, the GLUT2, IRS-2, Pdx-1, and GPR40 were more strongly expressed in islets from RGZ-treated OLETF rats compared to control islets. CONCLUSION: These observations suggest that PPAR-γ activation with RGZ and/or adenoviral overexpression increased intracellular calcium mobilization, insulin secretion, and β-cell gene expression through GPR40 and GLUT2 gene up-regulation.

  15. Liver X receptor agonist T0901317 reduces atherosclerotic lesions in apoE-/- mice by up-regulating NPC1 expression

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we studied the effect of liver X receptor (LXR) agonist T0901317 on Niemann-Pick C1 protein (NPC1) expression in apoE-/- mice. Male apoE-/- mice were randomized into 4 groups, baseline group (n=10), control group (n=14), treatment group (n=14) and prevention group (n=14). All of the mice were fed with a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet containing 15% fat and 0.25% cholesterol. The baseline group treated with vehicle was sacrificed after 8 weeks of the diet. The control group and the prevention group were treated with either vehicle or T0901317 daily by oral gavage for 14 weeks. The treatment group was treated with vehicle for 8 weeks, and then was treated with the agonist T0901317 for additional 6 weeks. Gene and protein expression was analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. Plasma lipid concentrations were measured by commercially enzymatic methods. We used RNA interference technology to silence NPC1 gene expression in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells and then detected the effect of LXR agonist T0901317 on cholesterol efflux. Plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I concentrations were markedly increased in T0901317-treated groups. T0901317 treatment reduced the aortic atherosclerotic lesion area by 64.2% in the prevention group and 58.3% in the treatment group. LXR agonist treatment increased NPC1 mRNA expression and protein levels in the small intestine, liver and aorta of apoE-/- mice. Compared with the normal cells, cholesterol efflux of siRNA THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells was significantly decreased, whereas cholesterol efflux of LXR agonist T0901317-treated THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells was significantly increased. Our results suggest that LXR agonist T0901317 inhibits atherosclerosis development in apoE-/- mice, which is related to up-regulating NPC1 expression.

  16. Substance P primes lipoteichoic acid- and Pam3CysSerLys4-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating Toll-like receptor 2.

    Tancowny, Brian P; Karpov, Victor; Schleimer, Robert P; Kulka, Marianna

    2010-10-01

    Substance P (SP) is a neuropeptide with neuroimmunoregulatory activity that may play a role in susceptibility to infection. Human mast cells, which are important in innate immune responses, were analysed for their responses to pathogen-associated molecules via Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the presence of SP. Human cultured mast cells (LAD2) were activated by SP and TLR ligands including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA), and mast cell leukotriene and chemokine production was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gene expression by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Mast cell degranulation was determined using a β-hexosaminidase (β-hex) assay. SP treatment of LAD2 up-regulated mRNA for TLR2, TLR4, TLR8 and TLR9 while anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE) stimulation up-regulated expression of TLR4 only. Flow cytometry and western blot confirmed up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR8. Pretreatment of LAD2 with SP followed by stimulation with Pam3CSK4 or LTA increased production of leukotriene C4 (LTC(4) ) and interleukin (IL)-8 compared with treatment with Pam3CSK4 or LTA alone (>2-fold; P<0·01). SP alone activated 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) nuclear translocation but also augmented Pam3CSK4 and LTA-mediated 5-LO translocation. Pam3CSK4, LPS and LTA did not induce LAD2 degranulation. SP primed LTA and Pam3CSK4-mediated activation of JNK, p38 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and activated the nuclear translocation of c-Jun, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2) and cyclic-AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) transcription factors. Pretreatment with SP followed by LTA stimulation synergistically induced production of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8)/IL-8, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2)/monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and IL-6 protein. SP primes TLR2-mediated activation of human mast cells by up-regulating TLR expression and

  17. Cyanide-induced Death of Dopaminergic Cells is Mediated by Uncoupling Protein-2 Up-regulation and Reduced Bcl-2 Expression

    Zhang, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, L.; Borowitz, J.L.; Isom, G.E.

    2009-01-01

    Cyanide is a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and produces mitochondria-mediated death of dopaminergic neurons and sublethal intoxications are associated with a Parkinson-like syndrome. Cyanide toxicity is enhanced when mitochondrial uncoupling is stimulated following up-regulation of uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2). In this study, the role of a pro-survival protein, Bcl-2, in cyanide-mediated cell death was determined in a rat dopaminergic immortalized mesencephalic cell l...

  18. Mycobacterial and HIV infections up-regulated human zinc finger protein 134, a novel positive regulator of HIV-1 LTR activity and viral propagation.

    Ronald Benjamin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concurrent occurrence of HIV and Tuberculosis (TB infections influence the cellular environment of the host for synergistic existence. An elementary approach to understand such coalition at the molecular level is to understand the interactions of the host and the viral factors that subsequently effect viral replication. Long terminal repeats (LTR of HIV genome serve as a template for binding trans-acting viral and cellular factors that regulate its transcriptional activity, thereby, deciding the fate of HIV pathogenesis, making it an ideal system to explore the interplay between HIV and the host. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, using biotinylated full length HIV-1 LTR sequence as bait followed by MALDI analyses, we identified and further characterized human-Zinc-finger-protein-134 (hZNF-134 as a novel positive regulator of HIV-1 that promoted LTR-driven transcription and viral production. Over-expression of hZNF-134 promoted LTR driven luciferase activity and viral transcripts, resulting in increased virus production while siRNA mediated knockdown reduced both the viral transcripts and the viral titers, establishing hZNF-134 as a positive effector of HIV-1. HIV, Mycobacteria and HIV-TB co-infections increased hZNF-134 expressions in PBMCs, the impact being highest by mycobacteria. Corroborating these observations, primary TB patients (n = 22 recorded extraordinarily high transcript levels of hZNF-134 as compared to healthy controls (n = 16. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: With these observations, it was concluded that hZNF-134, which promoted HIV-1 LTR activity acted as a positive regulator of HIV propagation in human host. High titers of hZNF-134 transcripts in TB patients suggest that up-regulation of such positive effectors of HIV-1 upon mycobacterial infection can be yet another mechanism by which mycobacteria assists HIV-1 propagation during HIV-TB co-infections. hZNF-134, an uncharacterized host protein, thus

  19. Tumor-Derived Microvesicles Induce, Expand and Up-Regulate Biological Activities of Human Regulatory T Cells (Treg)

    Marta Szajnik; Malgorzata Czystowska; Szczepanski, Miroslaw J.; Magis Mandapathil; Whiteside, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tumor-derived microvesicles (TMV) or exosomes are present in body fluids of patients with cancer and might be involved in tumor progression. The frequency and suppressor functions of peripheral blood CD4(+)CD25(high)FOXP3(+) Treg are higher in patients with cancer than normal controls. The hypothesis is tested that TMV contribute to induction/expansion/and activation of human Treg. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: TMV isolated from supernatants of tumor cells but not normal cells i...

  20. The Proteasome Activator PA28γ, a Negative Regulator of p53, Is Transcriptionally Up-Regulated by p53

    Zhen-Xing Wan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available PA28γ (also called REGγ, 11Sγ or PSME3 negatively regulates p53 activity by promoting its nuclear export and/or degradation. Here, using the RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE method, we identified the transcription start site of the PA28γ gene. Assessment with the luciferase assay demonstrated that the sequence −193 to +16 is the basal promoter. Three p53 binding sites were found within the PA28γ promoter utilizing a bioinformatics approach and were confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation and biotinylated DNA affinity precipitation experiments. The p53 protein promotes PA28γ transcription, and p53-stimulated transcription of PA28γ can be inhibited by PA28γ itself. Our results suggest that PA28γ and p53 form a negative feedback loop, which maintains the balance of p53 and PA28γ in cells.

  1. Up-Regulation of Interleukin-9 and the Interleukin-9-Associated Calcium-Activated Chloride Channel hCLCA1 in Nasal Mucosa Following In Vivo Allergen Challenge

    Hauber Hans-Peter

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-9 is a pleiotropic T helper 2-type cytokine that has been shown to be up-regulated in allergic airway disease, including asthma. IL-9 has been demonstrated to be a potent stimulus for the production and secretion of mucus from airway epithelial cells via induction of a calcium-activated chloride channel, hCLCA1. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of IL-9 and hCLCA1 following allergen challenge in the nasal mucosa of allergic rhinitis patients. Nasal biopsies were obtained from allergic rhinitis patients out of allergen season both before (baseline and after local antigen challenge with either ragweed or diluent (control. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization were used to assess IL-9 protein and hCLCA1 messenger ribonucleic acid. Eosinophils and T cells were detected using immunohistochemistry. IL-9 and hCLCA1 were very low at baseline, and expression was significantly up-regulated following ragweed challenge. Whereas the number of eosinophils increased after allergen challenge, T-cell counts did not change significantly. The results of this study demonstrate the relationship between specific allergen challenge and expression of both IL-9 and hCLCA1, suggesting a possible mechanism for the increased production of mucus from airway epithelial cells in allergic rhinitis.

  2. Up-regulation and Pre-activation of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Jun Shen, Yu-qi Qiao, Zhi-hua Ran, Tian-rong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: TRAF3 and TRAF5 share a common ancestral gene, and interact as essential components of signaling pathways in immunity. TRAF3 and TRAF5 are overexpressed in the colon of rat/mouse models with colitis. However, the expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease have not been elucidated. The aim of the present study is to explore the potential roles of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.Methods: Plasma levels of TRAF3 and TRAF5 proteins were detected by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Colonic expression of TRAF3 and TRAF5 proteins was detected by western blot analysis. Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR was applied for gene expression. Inflamed intestinal mucosa and non-inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal mucosa was analyzed from healthy controls.Results: The plasma levels of TRAF3 and TRAF5 were significantly higher both in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in healthy controls. Only soluble TRAF5 showed a weak correlation with endoscopic disease activity index (Baron score in patients with ulcerative colitis (spearman's r=0.358, P=0.022. Gene expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were significantly higher both in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in healthy controls (all P<0.0001. Gene and protein expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 were significantly higher in inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in non-inflamed colonic mucosa and normal mucosa of healthy controls (all P<0.0001. Furthermore, gene and protein expressions of TRAF3 and TRAF5 were also significantly higher in non-inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis than in normal mucosa of healthy controls.Conclusions: TRAF3 and TRAF5 are overexpressed in inflammatory bowel disease. Although the endoscopic appearance

  3. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase induced by EGFR/ERK activation promotes tumor growth in pancreatic cancer

    Bian, Yong, E-mail: drbiany@126.com [Department of Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023 (China); Yu, Yun [College of Pharmacy, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023 (China); Wang, Shanshan; Li, Lin [Department of Science and Technology, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, 210023 (China)

    2015-08-07

    Lipid metabolism is dysregulated in many human diseases including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancers. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme involved in de novo lipid biosynthesis, is significantly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and associates with tumor progression. However, limited data is available to understand underlying biological functions and clinical significance of overexpressed FASN in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, upregulated FASN was more frequently observed in PDAC tissues compared with normal pancreas in a tissue microarray. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that high expression level of FASN resulted in a significantly poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown or inhibition of endogenous FASN decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in HPAC and AsPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR/ERK signaling accounts for elevated FASN expression in PDAC as ascertained by performing siRNA assays and using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that FASN exhibits important roles in tumor growth and EGFR/ERK pathway is responsible for upregulated expression of FASN in PDAC. - Highlights: • Increased expression of FASN indicates a poor prognosis in PDAC. • Elevated FASN favors tumor growth in PDAC in vitro. • Activation of EGFR signaling contributes to elevated FASN expression.

  4. Up-regulation of fatty acid synthase induced by EGFR/ERK activation promotes tumor growth in pancreatic cancer

    Lipid metabolism is dysregulated in many human diseases including atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancers. Fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key lipogenic enzyme involved in de novo lipid biosynthesis, is significantly upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and associates with tumor progression. However, limited data is available to understand underlying biological functions and clinical significance of overexpressed FASN in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Here, upregulated FASN was more frequently observed in PDAC tissues compared with normal pancreas in a tissue microarray. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis revealed that high expression level of FASN resulted in a significantly poor prognosis of PDAC patients. Knockdown or inhibition of endogenous FASN decreased cell proliferation and increased cell apoptosis in HPAC and AsPC-1 cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that EGFR/ERK signaling accounts for elevated FASN expression in PDAC as ascertained by performing siRNA assays and using specific pharmacological inhibitors. Collectively, our results indicate that FASN exhibits important roles in tumor growth and EGFR/ERK pathway is responsible for upregulated expression of FASN in PDAC. - Highlights: • Increased expression of FASN indicates a poor prognosis in PDAC. • Elevated FASN favors tumor growth in PDAC in vitro. • Activation of EGFR signaling contributes to elevated FASN expression

  5. EMMPRIN/CD147 up-regulates urokinase-type plasminogen activator: implications in oral tumor progression

    An elevated level of EMMPRIN in cancer tissues have been correlated with tumor invasion in numerous cancers including oral cavity and larynx. Although EMMPRIN's effect has been generally attributed to its MMP inducing activity, we have previously demonstrated in breast cancer model that EMMPRIN can also enhance invasion by upregulating uPA. In this study, the role of EMMPRIN in regulating uPA and invasion was investigated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression. Precancerous and invasive oral tumoral tissues were used as well as the corresponding cell lines, DOK and SCC-9 respectively. The paracrine regulation of uPA by EMMPRIN was investigated by treating culture cells with EMMPRIN-enriched membrane vesicles. UPA expression was analyzed by qPCR and immunostaining and the consequence on the invasion capacity was studied using modified Boyden chamber assay, in the presence or absence of EMMPRIN blocking antibody, the uPA inhibitor amiloride or the MMP inhibitor marimastat. OSCC tumors were shown to express more EMMPRIN and uPA compared to dysplastic lesions. The corresponding cell models, SCC-9 and DOK cells, displayed similar expression pattern. In both cell types EMMPRIN upregulated the expression of uPA as well as that of MMP-2 and MMP-9. EMMPRIN treatment led to a significant increase in cell invasion both in the invasive SCC-9 and in the less invasive dysplastic DOK cells, in an MMP and uPA dependent manner. Our results suggest that the upregulation of uPA contributes to EMMPRIN's effect in promoting oral tumor invasion

  6. A RAPID UP-REGULATION IN UCP3 TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVITY IN RESPONSE TO MODERATE INTENSITY EXERCISE IN RAT SKELETAL MUSCLE

    Keiko Kusuhara

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 3 (UPC3 is a candidate protein transporter that uncouples oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. A number of studies on UCP3 functions under various physiological conditions have suggested that the function of UCP3 is not limited only to regulation of whole-body energy metabolism but is also involved in regulation of substrate (lipids and glucose metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the time course of UCP3 mRNA expression in rat skeletal muscle during a 1 h bout of treadmill exercise and to examine whether changes in fat/glucose metabolism modulates UCP3 mRNA expression. The pattern of UCP3 mRNA expression during the exercise was biphasic in both the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles. UCP3 expression increased at 5 min of exercise (soleus: 232%, p < 0.05, gastrocnemius: 185%, p < 0.05, respectively, and at the end of the exercise (196%, p < 0.05 and 193%, p < 0.05, respectively. UCP3 mRNA expression was still increased at 3 h post-exercise in both muscles, 200% (p < 0.05 and 237% (p < 0.05, respectively. However, at 20 min of the exercise, UCP3 mRNA expression was similar to control levels in both muscles (104% and 97%, respectively. The time course of plasma free fatty acid (FFA did not follow the same time course as UCP3 mRNA expression. Plasma FFA peaked at the end of the exercise, suggesting that FFA did not play a role in inducing UCP3 mRNA expression. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4 mRNA expression did not change during or after exercise. These data indicated a rapid acceleration in UCP3's transcription activity in response to exercise, and suggest that potential factor(s other than changes in fat/glucose metabolism regulate UCP3 gene expression during moderate exercise

  7. Genetic mutations in adipose triglyceride lipase and myocardial up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptor-γ in patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy

    Hirano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: khirano@cnt-osaka.com [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Tatsuya [Center for Medical Research and Education, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ikeda, Yoshihiko [Department of Pathology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita 565-8565 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Satoshi [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Zaima, Nobuhiro [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Kinki University, 3327-204, Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuhiro [Division of Neurology/Molecular Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Suzuki, Akira [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakata, Yasuhiko [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1, Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); and others

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is a rare severe heart disease. •PPARγ is up-regulated in myocardium in patients with TGCV. •Possible vicious cycle for fatty acid may be involved in pathophysiology of TGCV. -- Abstract: Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, also known as PNPLA2) is an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglyceride (TG). Genetic ATGL deficiency is a rare multi-systemic neutral lipid storage disease. Information regarding its clinical profile and pathophysiology, particularly for cardiac involvement, is still very limited. A previous middle-aged ATGL-deficient patient in our institute (Case 1) with severe heart failure required cardiac transplantation (CTx) and exhibited a novel phenotype, “Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)”. Here, we tried to elucidate molecular mechanism underlying TGCV. The subjects were two cases with TGCV, including our second case who was a 33-year-old male patient (Case 2) with congestive heart failure requiring CTx. Case 2 was homozygous for a point mutation in the 5′ splice donor site of intron 5 in the ATGL, which results in at least two types of mRNAs due to splicing defects. The myocardium of both patients (Cases 1 and 2) showed up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptors (PPARs), key transcription factors for metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which was in contrast to these molecules’ lower expression in ATGL-targeted mice. We investigated the intracellular metabolism of LCFAs under human ATGL-deficient conditions using patients’ passaged skin fibroblasts as a model. ATGL-deficient cells showed higher uptake and abnormal intracellular transport of LCFA, resulting in massive TG accumulation. We used these findings from cardiac specimens and cell-biological experiments to construct a hypothetical model to clarify the pathophysiology of the human disorder. In patients with TGCV, even when hydrolysis of intracellular TG

  8. Genetic mutations in adipose triglyceride lipase and myocardial up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptor-γ in patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy

    Highlights: •Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is a rare severe heart disease. •PPARγ is up-regulated in myocardium in patients with TGCV. •Possible vicious cycle for fatty acid may be involved in pathophysiology of TGCV. -- Abstract: Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, also known as PNPLA2) is an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglyceride (TG). Genetic ATGL deficiency is a rare multi-systemic neutral lipid storage disease. Information regarding its clinical profile and pathophysiology, particularly for cardiac involvement, is still very limited. A previous middle-aged ATGL-deficient patient in our institute (Case 1) with severe heart failure required cardiac transplantation (CTx) and exhibited a novel phenotype, “Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)”. Here, we tried to elucidate molecular mechanism underlying TGCV. The subjects were two cases with TGCV, including our second case who was a 33-year-old male patient (Case 2) with congestive heart failure requiring CTx. Case 2 was homozygous for a point mutation in the 5′ splice donor site of intron 5 in the ATGL, which results in at least two types of mRNAs due to splicing defects. The myocardium of both patients (Cases 1 and 2) showed up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptors (PPARs), key transcription factors for metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which was in contrast to these molecules’ lower expression in ATGL-targeted mice. We investigated the intracellular metabolism of LCFAs under human ATGL-deficient conditions using patients’ passaged skin fibroblasts as a model. ATGL-deficient cells showed higher uptake and abnormal intracellular transport of LCFA, resulting in massive TG accumulation. We used these findings from cardiac specimens and cell-biological experiments to construct a hypothetical model to clarify the pathophysiology of the human disorder. In patients with TGCV, even when hydrolysis of intracellular TG

  9. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  10. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in high-fat diet-induced obese mice by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity

    Liu, Wei-Xin, E-mail: weixinliu@yahoo.com [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Ting; Zhou, Feng; Wang, Ying; Xing, Jun-Wei; Zhang, Shen [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Gu, Shou-Zhi [Department of Anatomy, Seirei Christopher College, Hamamatsu 433-8558 (Japan); Sang, Li-Xuan [Department of Cadre Ward II, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Dai, Cong [Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110001, Liaoning (China); Wang, Hai-Lan [Guangdong Province Hospital for Occupational Disease Prevention and Treatment, Guangzhou 510300, Guangdong (China)

    2015-04-10

    Obesity is associated with increased colonic inflammation, which elevates the risk of colon cancer. Although exercise exerts anti-inflammatory actions in multiple chronic diseases associated with inflammation, it is unknown whether this strategy prevents colonic inflammation in obesity. We hypothesized that voluntary exercise would suppress colonic inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ. Male C57Bl/6J mice fed either a control diet (6.5% fat, CON) or a high-fat diet (24% fat, HFD) were divided into sedentary, voluntary exercise or voluntary exercise with PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662 (10 mg/kg/day). All interventions took place for 12 weeks. Compared with CON-sedentary group, HFD-sedentary mice gained significantly more body weight and exhibited metabolic disorders. Molecular studies revealed that HFD-sedentary mice had increased expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in the colons, which were associated with decreased expression and activity of PPAR-γ. Voluntary exercise markedly attenuated body weight gain, improved metabolic disorders, and normalized the expression of inflammatory mediators and activation of NF-κB in the colons in HFD-mice while having no effects in CON-animals. Moreover, voluntary exercise significantly increased expression and activity of PPAR-γ in the colons in both HFD- and CON-animals. However, all of these beneficial effects induced by voluntary exercise were abolished by GW9662, which inhibited expression and activity of PPAR-γ. The results suggest that decreased PPAR-γ activity in the colon of HFD-induced obesity may facilitate the inflammatory response and colon carcinogenesis. Voluntary exercise prevents colonic inflammation in HFD-induced obesity by up-regulating PPAR-γ activity. - Highlights: • Obesity down-regulates PPAR-γ in the colon. • Down-regulated colonic PPAR-γ may facilitate inflammatory

  11. Gamma-ray irradiation induce suppression of TNF-α production via up-regulation of maitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1

    Complete text of publication follows. Ionizing irradiation induces DNA damage and activates a lot of signalling pathways, such as ATM and p53, due to repair the DNA damage. On the other hand, irradiation also induces activation of extracellular signal regulated protein kinase (ERK1/2) through trans-activation of EGF receptor. However, EGF-receptor-independent signalling pathways induced by irradiation are unclear. Here, we studied gamma-ray irradiation-induced signaling pathways focusing mitogen-activated kinase (MAPK), such as ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK in human keratinocyte HaCat cells, which express EGF receptor, and mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells, which express EGF receptor at low level. These cells were irradiated by gamma-ray (0.05-2.5 Gy) from 137Cs source (0.96 Gy/min), and phosphorylated MAPKs were detected by immune blotting. Gamma-ray irradiation (0.1- 2.5Gy) induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HaCat cells. However, dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK was occurred 15 min after the irradiation, indicating activation of MAPK phosphatase (MKP). On the other hand, dephosphorylation of not only p38 MAPK but also ERK1/2 were induced 15 min after irradiation (0.5 Gy) in RAW264.7 cells. At the same time point, expression of MKP-1, which dephosphorylates ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, was significantly increased. Up-regulation of MKP-1 and dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK were also observed in irradiated mouse peritoneal macrophage. Because phosphorylation of p38 MAPK mediates pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α , we examined the change in production of TNF-α after irradiation. Production of TNF-α was suppressed in 0.5 Gy irradiated RAW264.7 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that gamma-ray irradiation induces up-regulation of MKP-1, leading to dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK and suppression of TNF-α production in RAW264.7cells, though ERK1/2 is activated through activation of EGF receptor in HaCat cells.

  12. Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer and is up-regulated upon heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition

    Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) is involved in the complex process of cellular stress response. However, its exact role in cancer is discussed controversially because both tumor suppressive and oncogenic effects have been described. Here we followed-up on our previous observation that inhibition of Hsp90 may increase ATF3 expression and sought to determine the role of ATF3 in colon cancer. Regulation of ATF3 was determined in cancer cells using signaling inhibitors and a heat-shock protein-90 (Hsp90) antagonist. Human HCT116 cancer cells were stably transfected with an ATF3-shRNA or a luciferase-shRNA expression plasmid and alterations in cell motility were assessed in migration assays. The impact of ATF3 down-regulation on cancer growth and metastasis were investigated in a subcutaneous tumor model, a model of hepatic tumor growth and in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. Human colon cancer tissues were analyzed for ATF3 expression. The results show that therapeutic Hsp90 inhibition substantially up-regulates the expression of ATF3 in various cancer cells, including colon, gastric and pancreatic cancer. This effect was evident both in vitro and in vivo. RNAi mediated knock-down of ATF3 in HCT116 colon cancer cells significantly increased cancer cell migration in vitro. Moreover, in xenogenic mouse models, ATF3 knock-down promoted subcutaneous tumor growth and hepatic metastasis, as well as peritoneal carcinomatosis. Importantly, ATF3 expression was lower in human colon cancer specimens, as compared to corresponding normal surrounding tissues, suggesting that ATF3 may represent a down-regulated tumor suppressor in colon cancer. In conclusion, ATF3 down-regulation in colon cancer promotes tumor growth and metastasis. Considering that blocking Hsp90 induces ATF3 expression, Hsp90 inhibition may represent a valid strategy to treat metastatic colon cancer by up-regulating this anti-metastatic transcription factor

  13. Treatment with 670 nm light up regulates cytochrome C oxidase expression and reduces inflammation in an age-related macular degeneration model.

    Rana Begum

    Full Text Available Inflammation is an umbrella feature of ageing. It is present in the aged retina and many retinal diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD. In ageing and in AMD mitochondrial function declines. In normal ageing this can be manipulated by brief exposure to 670 nm light on the retina, which increases mitochondrial membrane potential and reduces inflammation. Here we ask if 670 nm exposure has the same ability in an aged mouse model of AMD, the complement factor H knockout (CFH(-/- where inflammation is a key feature. Further, we ask whether this occurs when 670 nm is delivered briefly in environmental lighting rather than directly focussed on the retina. Mice were exposed to 670 nm for 6 minutes twice a day for 14 days in the form of supplemented environmental light. Exposed animals had significant increase in cytochrome c oxidase (COX, which is a mitochondrial enzyme regulating oxidative phosphorylation.There was a significant reduction in complement component C3, an inflammatory marker in the outer retina. Vimetin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP expression, which reflect retinal stress in Muller glia, were also significantly down regulated. There were also significant changes in outer retinal macrophage morphology. However, amyloid beta (Aβ load, which also increases with age in the outer retina and is pro-inflammatory, did not change. Hence, 670 nm is effective in reducing inflammation probably via COX activation in mice with a genotype similar to that in 50% of AMD patients even when brief exposures are delivered via environmental lighting. Further, inflammation can be reduced independent of Aβ. The efficacy revealed here supports current early stage clinical trials of 670 nm in AMD patients.

  14. The potential impact of low dose ionizing γ-radiation on immune response activity up-regulated by Ikaros in IM-9 B lymphocytes

    The biological effects of low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) remain insufficiently understood. We examined for the scientific evidence to show the biological effects of LDIR using radiation-sensitive immune cells. We found that Ikaros protein was responded to low dose-dependent effects of gamma radiation in IM-9 B lymphocytes. Ikaros encodes zinc finger transcription factors that is important regulators of a hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) progression to the B lymphoid lineage development, differentiation and proliferation. In this study, we observed that cell proliferation was enhanced from 10% to 20% by LDIR (0.05 Gy) in IM-9 B lymphocytes. The Ikaros protein was phosphorylated in its serine/threonine (S/T) region and decreased its DNA binding activity in the cells exposed to LDIR. We found that Ikaros phosphorylation was up-regulated by CK2/AKT pathway and the residues of ser-304 and ser-306 in Ikaros was phosphorylated by LDIR. We also observed that Ikaros protein was localized from the nucleus to the cytoplasm after LDIR and bound with Autotaxin (ENPP2, ATX) protein, stimulating proliferation, migration and survival of immune cells. In addition, we found that the lysoPLD activity of ATX was dependent on Ikaros-ATX binding activity. These results indicate that the Ikaros is an important regulator of immune activation. Therefore, we suggest that low dose ionizing radiation can be considered as a beneficial effects, stimulating the activation of immune cells.

  15. Translational up-regulation and high-level protein expression from plasmid vectors by mTOR activation via different pathways in PC3 and 293T cells.

    Prashanthi Karyala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Though 293T cells are widely used for expression of proteins from transfected plasmid vectors, the molecular basis for the high-level expression is yet to be understood. We recently identified the prostate carcinoma cell line PC3 to be as efficient as 293T in protein expression. This study was undertaken to decipher the molecular basis of high-level expression in these two cell lines. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a survey of different cell lines for efficient expression of platelet-derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B, β-galactosidase (β-gal and green fluorescent protein (GFP from plasmid vectors, PC3 was found to express at 5-50-fold higher levels compared to the bone metastatic prostate carcinoma cell line PC3BM and many other cell lines. Further, the efficiency of transfection and level of expression of the reporters in PC3 were comparable to that in 293T. Comparative analyses revealed that the high level expression of the reporters in the two cell lines was due to increased translational efficiency. While phosphatidic acid (PA-mediated activation of mTOR, as revealed by drastic reduction in reporter expression by n-butanol, primarily contributed to the high level expression in PC3, multiple pathways involving PA, PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 appear to contribute to the abundant reporter expression in 293T. Thus the extent of translational up-regulation attained through the concerted activation of mTOR by multiple pathways in 293T could be achieved through its activation primarily by the PA pathway in PC3. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies reveal that the high-level expression of proteins from plasmid vectors is effected by translational up-regulation through mTOR activation via different signaling pathways in the two cell lines and that PC3 is as efficient as 293T for recombinant protein expression. Further, PC3 offers an advantage in that the level of expression of the protein can be regulated by simple addition of n-butanol to

  16. Up-regulation of activating transcription factor 4 induces severe loss of dopamine nigral neurons in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    Gully, Joseph C; Sergeyev, Valeriy G; Bhootada, Yogesh; Mendez-Gomez, Hector; Meyers, Craig A; Zolotukhin, Sergey; Gorbatyuk, Marina S; Gorbatyuk, Oleg S

    2016-08-01

    Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a member of the PERK signaling pathway, which directly binds endoplasmic reticulum stress target genes and plays a crucial role in both adaptations to stress and activation of apoptosis. Previous publications demonstrated conflicting evidence on the role of ATF4 in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we used recombinant adeno-associate virus (rAAV)-mediated gene transfer to investigate if the sustained up-regulation of ATF4 launches a pro-survival or pro-death trend in the dopamine (DA) cells of the substantia nigra pars compacta in a rat model of Parkinson-like neurodegeneration induced by human alpha-synuclein (αS) overexpression. We showed that ATF4 does not protect nigral DA neurons against an αS-induced pathology. Moreover, the rAAV-mediated overexpression of ATF4 resulted in severe nigra-striatal degeneration via activation of caspases 3/7. PMID:27233218

  17. Deferoxamine-mediated up-regulation of HIF-1α prevents dopaminergic neuronal death via the activation of MAPK family proteins in MPTP-treated mice.

    Guo, Chuang; Hao, Li-Juan; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Chai, Rui; Zhang, Shuai; Gu, Yu; Gao, Hui-Ling; Zhong, Man-Li; Wang, Tao; Li, Jia-Yi; Wang, Zhan-You

    2016-06-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that an abnormal accumulation of iron in the substantia nigra (SN) is one of the defining characteristics of Parkinson's disease (PD). Accordingly, the potential neuroprotection of Fe chelators is widely acknowledged for the treatment of PD. Although desferrioxamine (DFO), an iron chelator widely used in clinical settings, has been reported to improve motor deficits and dopaminergic neuronal survival in animal models of PD, DFO has poor penetration to cross the blood-brain barrier and elicits side effects. We evaluated whether an intranasal administration of DFO improves the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal axis and investigated the molecular mechanisms of intranasal DFO treatment in preventing MPTP-induced neurodegeneration. Treatment with DFO efficiently alleviated behavioral deficits, increased the survival of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons, and decreased the action of astrocytes in the SN and striatum in an MPTP-induced PD mouse model. Interestingly, we found that DFO up-regulated the expression of HIF-1α protein, TH, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and down-regulated the expression of α-synuclein, divalent metal transporter with iron-responsive element (DMT1+IRE), and transferrin receptor (TFR). This was accompanied by a decrease in iron-positive cells in the SN and striatum of the DFO-treated group. We further revealed that DFO treatment significantly inhibited the MPTP-induced phosphorylation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and differentially enhanced the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/P38 kinase. Additionally, the effects of DFO on increasing the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were further validated in vitro and in vivo. In SH-SY5Y cells, the DFO-mediated up-regulation of HIF-1α occurred via the activation of

  18. Up-Regulation of CYP2C19 Expression by BuChang NaoXinTong via PXR Activation in HepG2 Cells

    Wu, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Huan; Qu, Qiang; Tan, Shen-Lan; Ruan, Jun-Shan; Qu, Jian; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is an important drug-metabolizing enzyme (DME), which is responsible for the biotransformation of several kinds of drugs such as proton pump inhibitors, platelet aggregation inhibitors and antidepressants. Previous studies showed that Buchang NaoXinTong capsules (NXT) increased the CYP2C19 metabolic activity in vitro and enhanced the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in vivo. However, the underlying molecular mechanism remained unclear. In the present study, we examined whether Pregnane X receptor (PXR) plays a role in NXT-mediated regulation of CYP2C19 expression. Methods We applied luciferase assays, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), Western blotting and cell-based analysis of metabolic activity experiments to investigate the NXT regulatory effects on the CYP2C19 promoter activity, the mRNA/ protein expression and the metabolic activity. Results Our results demonstrated that NXT significantly increased the CYP2C19 promoter activity when co-transfected with PXR in HepG2 cells. Mutations in PXR responsive element abolished the NXT inductive effects on the CYP2C19 promoter transcription. Additionally, NXT incubation (150 and 250μg/mL) also markedly up-regulated endogenous CYP2C19 mRNA and protein levels in PXR-transfected HepG2 cells. Correspondingly, NXT leaded to a significant enhancement of the CYP2C19 catalytic activity in PXR-transfected HepG2 cells. Conclusion In summary, this is the first study to suggest that NXT could induce CYP2C19 expression via PXR activation. PMID:27467078

  19. Rhodioloside ameliorates depressive behavior via up-regulation of monoaminergic system activity and anti-inflammatory effect in olfactory bulbectomized rats.

    Zhang, Xu; Du, Qianming; Liu, Chao; Yang, Yan; Wang, Jianing; Duan, Suqian; Duan, Junguo

    2016-07-01

    Rhodioloside, a major constituent from roots of Rhodiola rosea, has been previously confirmed to alleviate the hyperactivity in olfactory bulbectomized (OBX) rats exposed to the open field and to decrease the immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). However, its antidepressant effects and mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the antidepressant effect and the potential mechanisms of rhodioloside in OBX rats. ELISA kits, HPLC-MS and western blot analysis were applied to explore the underlying antidepressant mechanisms of rhodioloside. Rhodioloside (20, 40mg/kg) significantly reversed OBX-induced reduction in sucrose consumption. It was also observed that administration of rhodioloside (20, 40mg/kg) decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, as well as normalized the monoaminergic system changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of OBX rats. These results confirmed the antidepressant-like effect of rhodioloside, which might be primarily based on its up-regulation of the monoaminergic system activity and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27214337

  20. Innate immune-stimulating and immune genes up-regulating activities of three types of alginate from Sargassum siliquosum in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Yudiati, Ervia; Isnansetyo, Alim; Murwantoko; Ayuningtyas; Triyanto; Handayani, Christina Retna

    2016-07-01

    The Total Haemocyte Count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity, Phagocytic Activity/Index and Total Protein Plasma (TPP) were examined after feeding the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with diets supplemented with three different types of alginates (acid, calcium and sodium alginates). Immune-related genes expression was evaluated by quantitative Real Time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results indicated that the immune parameters directly increased according to the doses of alginates and time. The 2.0 g kg(-1) of acid and sodium alginate treatments were gave better results. Four immune-related genes expression i.e. LGBP, Toll, Lectin, proPO were up regulated. It is therefore concluded that the supplementation of alginate of Sargassum siliquosum on the diet of L. vannamei enhanced the innate immunity as well as the expression of immune-related genes. It is the first report on the simultaneous evaluation of three alginate types to enhance innate immune parameters and immune-related genes expression in L. vannamei. PMID:26993614

  1. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    Ji, Guoping [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China); Liu, Dongxu [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong Province 250012 (China); Liu, Jing [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Gao, Hui [Department of Orthodontics, Tianjin Stomatological Hospital, Tianjin 300041 (China); Yuan, Xiao, E-mail: yuanxiaoqd@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, The Affiliated Qingdao Municipal Hospital, Qingdao University, Qingdao, Shandong Province 266075 (China); Shen, Gang, E-mail: ganshen2007@163.com [Department of Orthodontics, College of Stomatology, Ninth People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai Research Institute of Stomatology, Shanghai 200011 (China)

    2010-01-01

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-{kappa}B activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-{kappa}B. Moreover, depletion of p38{alpha} using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-{kappa}B activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-{kappa}B signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The {alpha} isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-{kappa}B following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  2. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase up-regulates NF-κB transcriptional activation through RelA phosphorylation during stretch-induced myogenesis

    p38 MAPK and nuclear factor-B (NF-B) signaling pathways play an indispensable role in the control of skeletal myogenesis. The specific contribution of these signaling pathways to the response of myoblast to the mechanical stimulation and the molecular mechanisms underlying this response remain unresolved. Using an established in vitro model, we now show that p38 MAP kinase activity regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-κB in response to mechanical stimulation of myoblasts. Furthermore, SB203580 blocked stretch-induced NF-κB activation during myogenesis, not through down-regulation of degradation of IκB-α, and consequent translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-κB to the nucleus. It is likely that stretch-induced NF-κB activation by phosphorylation of p65 NF-κB. Moreover, depletion of p38α using siRNA significantly reduces stretch-induced phosphorylation of RelA and NF-κB activity. These results provides the first evidence of a cross-talk between p38 MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways during stretch-induced myogenesis, with phosphorylation of RelA being one of the effectors of this promyogenic mechanism. The α isoform of p38MAP kinase regulates the transcriptional activation of NF-κB following stimulation with cyclic stretch.

  3. H2O2-Activated Up-Regulation of Glutathione in Arabidopsis Involves Induction of Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Cysteine Synthesis in the Chloroplast

    Guillaume Queval; Dorothée Thominet; Hélène Vanacker; Myroslawa Miginiac-Maslow; Bertrand Gakière; Graham Noctor

    2009-01-01

    Glutathione is a key player in cellular redox homeostasis and, therefore, in the response to H2O2, but the factors regulating oxidation-activated glutathione synthesis are still unclear. We investigated H2O2-induced glutathione synthesis in a conditional Arabidopsis catalase-deficient mutant (cat2). Plants were grown from seed at elevated CO2 for 5 weeks, then transferred to air in either short-day or long-day conditions. Compared to cat2 at elevated CO2 or wild-type plants in any condition, transfer of cat2 to air in both photoperiods caused measurable oxidation of the leaf glutathione pool within hours. Oxidation continued on subsequent days and was accompanied by accumulation of glutathione. This effect was stronger in cat2 transferred to air in short days, and was not linked to appreciable increases in the extractable activities of or transcripts encoding enzymes involved in the committed pathway of glutathione synthesis. In contrast, it was accompanied by increases in serine, O-acetylserine, and cysteine. These changes in metabolites were accompanied by induction of genes encoding adenosine phosphosulfate reductase (APR), particularly APR3, as well as a specific serine acetyltransferase gene (SAT2.1) encoding a chloroplastic SAT. Marked induction of these genes was only observed in cat2 transferred to air in short-day conditions, where cysteine and glutathione accumulation was most dramatic. Unlike other SAT genes, which showed negligible induction in cat2, the relative abundance of APR and SAT2.1 transcripts was closely correlated with marker transcripts for H2O2 signaling. Together, the data underline the importance of cysteine synthesis in oxidant-induced up-regulation of glutathione synthesis and suggest that the chloroplast makes an important contribution to cysteine production under these circumstances.

  4. PDGFRα up-regulation mediated by sonic hedgehog pathway activation leads to BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma cells with BRAF mutation

    Sabbatino, Francesco; Wang, Yangyang; Wang, Xinhui; Flaherty, Keith T.; Yu, Ling; Pepin, David; Scognamiglio, Giosue'; Pepe, Stefano; Kirkwood, John M; Cooper, Zachary A; Frederick, Dennie T.; Wargo, Jennifer A.; Ferrone, Soldano; Ferrone, Cristina R.

    2014-01-01

    Control of BRAF(V600E) metastatic melanoma by BRAF inhibitor (BRAF-I) is limited by intrinsic and acquired resistance. Growth factor receptor up-regulation is among the mechanisms underlying BRAF-I resistance of melanoma cells. Here we demonstrate for the first time that PDGFRα up-regulation causes BRAF-I resistance. PDGFRα inhibition by PDGFRα-specific short hairpin (sh)RNA and by PDGFRα inhibitors restores and increases melanoma cells' sensitivity to BRAF-I in vitro and in vivo. This effect...

  5. Advanced glycation end-products induce apoptosis in pancreatic islet endothelial cells via NF-κB-activated cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin E2 up-regulation.

    Kuo-Cheng Lan

    Full Text Available Microvascular complications eventually affect nearly all patients with diabetes. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs resulting from hyperglycemia are a complex and heterogeneous group of compounds that accumulate in the plasma and tissues in diabetic patients. They are responsible for both endothelial dysfunction and diabetic vasculopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of AGEs on pancreatic islet microvascular endothelial cells. The mechanism underlying the apoptotic effect of AGEs in pancreatic islet endothelial cell line MS1 was explored. The results showed that AGEs significantly decreased MS1 cell viability and induced MS1 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. AGEs dose-dependently increased the expressions of cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose polymerase in MS1 cells. Treatment of MS1 cells with AGEs also resulted in increased nuclear factor (NF-κB-p65 phosphorylation and cyclooxygenase (COX-2 expression. However, AGEs did not affect the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-related molecules in MS1 cells. Pretreatment with NS398 (a COX-2 inhibitor to inhibit prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production reversed the induction of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and MS1 cell viability. Moreover, AGEs significantly increased the receptor for AGEs (RAGE protein expression in MS1 cells, which could be reversed by RAGE neutralizing antibody. RAGE Neutralizing antibody could also reverse the induction of cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP and decreased cell viability induced by AGEs. These results implicate the involvement of NF-κB-activated COX-2/PGE2 up-regulation in AGEs/RAGE-induced islet endothelial cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity. These findings may provide insight into the pathological processes within the pancreatic islet microvasculature induced by AGEs accumulation.

  6. The sGC activator inhibits the proliferation and migration, promotes the apoptosis of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via the up regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2

    Background: Different types of pulmonary hypertension (PH) share the same process of pulmonary vascular remodeling, the molecular mechanism of which is not entirely clarified by far. The abnormal biological behaviors of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an important role in this process. Objectives: We investigated the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) by the sGC activator, and explored the effect of PAI-2 on PASMCs proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Methods: After the transfection with PAI-2 overexpression vector and specific siRNAs or treatment with BAY 41-2272 (an activator of sGC), the mRNA and protein levels of PAI-2 in cultured human PASMCs were detected, and the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of PASMCs were investigated. Results: BAY 41-2272 up regulated the endogenous PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. In PAI-2 overexpression group, the proliferation and migration of PASMCs were inhibited significantly, and the apoptosis of PASMCs was increased. In contrast, PAI-2 knockdown with siRNA increased PASMCs proliferation and migration, inhibited the apoptosis. Conclusions: PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration and promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. Therefore, sGC activator might alleviate or reverse vascular remodeling in PH through the up-regulation of PAI-2. - Highlights: • sGC activator BAY41-2272 up regulated PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. • PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration of human PASMCs. • PAI-2 overexpression promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. • sGC activator might alleviate the vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension

  7. The sGC activator inhibits the proliferation and migration, promotes the apoptosis of human pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells via the up regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2

    Zhang, Shuai [Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation Disorders, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Zou, Lihui [Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China); National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China); Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuanhua; Zhai, Zhenguo [Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation Disorders, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Xiao, Fei [Institute of Geriatrics, Beijing Hospital, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China); National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China); Wang, Chen, E-mail: chenwangcjfh@163.com [Beijing Institute of Respiratory Medicine, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Capital Medical University, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); Beijing Key Laboratory of Respiratory and Pulmonary Circulation Disorders, 8 Gongti South Rd, Beijing (China); National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Diseases, 1 Dahua Rd, Beijing (China)

    2015-03-15

    Background: Different types of pulmonary hypertension (PH) share the same process of pulmonary vascular remodeling, the molecular mechanism of which is not entirely clarified by far. The abnormal biological behaviors of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) play an important role in this process. Objectives: We investigated the regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) by the sGC activator, and explored the effect of PAI-2 on PASMCs proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Methods: After the transfection with PAI-2 overexpression vector and specific siRNAs or treatment with BAY 41-2272 (an activator of sGC), the mRNA and protein levels of PAI-2 in cultured human PASMCs were detected, and the proliferation, apoptosis and migration of PASMCs were investigated. Results: BAY 41-2272 up regulated the endogenous PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. In PAI-2 overexpression group, the proliferation and migration of PASMCs were inhibited significantly, and the apoptosis of PASMCs was increased. In contrast, PAI-2 knockdown with siRNA increased PASMCs proliferation and migration, inhibited the apoptosis. Conclusions: PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration and promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. Therefore, sGC activator might alleviate or reverse vascular remodeling in PH through the up-regulation of PAI-2. - Highlights: • sGC activator BAY41-2272 up regulated PAI-2 in PASMCs, on the mRNA and protein level. • PAI-2 overexpression inhibits the proliferation and migration of human PASMCs. • PAI-2 overexpression promotes the apoptosis of human PASMCs. • sGC activator might alleviate the vascular remodeling in pulmonary hypertension.

  8. Dioxin-induced up-regulation of the active form of vitamin D is the main cause for its inhibitory action on osteoblast activities, leading to developmental bone toxicity

    Dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, TCDD) is known to cause bone toxicity, particularly during animal development, although its action mechanism to cause this toxicity has yet to be elucidated. Mouse pups were exposed to TCDD via dam's milk that were administered orally with 15 μg TCDD/kg b.w. on postnatal day 1. Here we report that TCDD causes up-regulation of vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase in kidney, resulting in a 2-fold increase in the active form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, in serum. This action of TCDD is not caused by changes in parathyroid hormone, a decrease in vitamin D degrading enzyme, vitamin D 24-hydroxylase, or alterations in serum Ca2+ concentration. Vitamin D is known to affect bone mineralization. Our data clearly show that TCDD-exposed mice exhibit a marked decrease in osteocalcin and collagen type 1 as well as alkaline phosphatase gene expression in tibia by postnatal day 21, which is accompanied with a mineralization defect in the tibia, lowered activity of osteoblastic bone formation, and an increase in fibroblastic growth factor-23, a sign of increased vitamin D effect. Despite these significant effects of TCDD on osteoblast activities, none of the markers of osteoclast activities was found to be affected. Histomorphometry confirmed that osteoblastic activity, but not bone resorption activity, was altered by TCDD. A prominent lesion commonly observed in these TCDD-treated mice was impaired bone mineralization that is characterized by an increased volume and thickness of osteoids lining both the endosteum of the cortical bone and trabeculae. Together, these data suggest that the impaired mineralization resulting from reduction of the osteoblastic activity, which is caused by TCDD-induced up-regulation of vitamin D, is responsible for its bone developmental toxicity.

  9. Lipopolysaccharide up-regulates IL-6R alpha expression in cultured leptomeningeal cells via activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Bai-Ren; Zhao, Hua-Zhou; Kuang, Fang; Fan, Juan; Duan, Xiao-Li; Ju, Gong

    2008-09-01

    To clarify the response of leptomeningeal cells to immune stimulation, the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on expression of IL-6 receptors in the cultured leptomeningeal cells was investigated. The results showed that the expression of IL-6R alpha was invisible in the purified leptomeningeal cells while it was seen in the cells when they were co-cultured with astrocytes. On the other hand, GP130 was moderately expressed in both conditions. Following incubation with different doses of LPS, IL-6R alpha expression in purified leptomeningeal cells was increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner, while GP130 level remained unchanged. Concomitantly, phosphorylated ERK1/2 level was increased following LPS stimulation and its inhibition by PD98059 attenuated the LPS-induced increase of IL-6R alpha expression. These data indicate that leptomeningeal cells can respond to immunogenic stimuli as manifested by expression of cytokine receptors. Moreover, ERK1/2 pathway seems to be involved in the process of LPS-induced IL-6R alpha up-regulation in leptomeningeal cells. PMID:18357518

  10. Up-regulation of mitochondrial activity and acquirement of brown adipose tissue-like property in the white adipose tissue of fsp27 deficient mice.

    Shen Yon Toh

    Full Text Available Fsp27, a member of the Cide family proteins, was shown to localize to lipid droplet and promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We aimed to understand the biological role of Fsp27 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Fsp27(-/- mice and Fsp27/lep double deficient mice were generated and we examined the adiposity, whole body metabolism, BAT and WAT morphology, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression changes in these mouse strains. Furthermore, we isolated mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs from wildtype and Fsp27(-/- mice, followed by their differentiation into adipocytes in vitro. We found that Fsp27 is expressed in both brown adipose tissue (BAT and white adipose tissue (WAT and its levels were significantly elevated in the WAT and liver of leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Fsp27(-/- mice had increased energy expenditure, lower levels of plasma triglycerides and free fatty acids. Furthermore, Fsp27(-/-and Fsp27/lep double-deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and display increased insulin sensitivity. Moreover, white adipocytes in Fsp27(-/- mice have reduced triglycerides accumulation and smaller lipid droplets, while levels of mitochondrial proteins, mitochondrial size and activity are dramatically increased. We further demonstrated that BAT-specific genes and key metabolic controlling factors such as FoxC2, PPAR and PGC1alpha were all markedly upregulated. In contrast, factors inhibiting BAT differentiation such as Rb, p107 and RIP140 were down-regulated in the WAT of Fsp27(-/- mice. Remarkably, Fsp27(-/- MEFs differentiated in vitro show many brown adipocyte characteristics in the presence of the thyroid hormone triiodothyronine (T3. Our data thus suggest that Fsp27 acts as a novel regulator in vivo to control WAT identity, mitochondrial activity and insulin sensitivity.

  11. Valproic acid inhibits neural progenitor cell death by activation of NF-κB signaling pathway and up-regulation of Bcl-XL

    Han Seol

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At the beginning of neurogenesis, massive brain cell death occurs and more than 50% of cells are eliminated by apoptosis along with neuronal differentiation. However, few studies were conducted so far regarding the regulation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs death during development. Because of the physiological role of cell death during development, aberration of normal apoptotic cell death is detrimental to normal organogenesis. Apoptosis occurs in not only neuron but also in NPCs and neuroblast. When growth and survival signals such as EGF or LIF are removed, apoptosis is activated as well as the induction of differentiation. To investigate the regulation of cell death during developmental stage, it is essential to investigate the regulation of apoptosis of NPCs. Methods Neural progenitor cells were cultured from E14 embryonic brains of Sprague-Dawley rats. For in vivo VPA animal model, pregnant rats were treated with VPA (400 mg/kg S.C. diluted with normal saline at E12. To analyze the cell death, we performed PI staining and PARP and caspase-3 cleavage assay. Expression level of proteins was investigated by Western blot and immunocytochemical assays. The level of mRNA expression was investigated by RT-PCR. Interaction of Bcl-XL gene promoter and NF-κB p65 was investigated by ChIP assay. Results In this study, FACS analysis, PI staining and PARP and caspase-3 cleavage assay showed that VPA protects cultured NPCs from cell death after growth factor withdrawal both in basal and staurosporine- or hydrogen peroxide-stimulated conditions. The protective effect of prenatally injected VPA was also observed in E16 embryonic brain. Treatment of VPA decreased the level of IκBα and increased the nuclear translocation of NF-κB, which subsequently enhanced expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to indicate the reduced death of NPCs by VPA at developmentally

  12. Up-regulation of lipolysis genes and increased production of AMP-activated protein kinase protein in the skeletal muscle of rats after resistance training.

    An, Jae-Heung; Yoon, Jin-Hwan; Suk, Min-Hwa; Shin, Yun-A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lipogenesis- and lipolysis-related genes and proteins in skeletal muscles after 12 weeks of resistance training. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into control (resting) and resistance training groups. A tower-climbing exercise, in which rats climbed to the top of their cage with a weight applied to their tails, used for resistance training. After 12 weeks, rats from the resistance training group had lower body weights (411.66±14.71 g vs. 478.33±24.63 g in the control), there was no significant difference between the two groups in the concentrations of total cholesterol, and high or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, the concentration of triglyceride was lower in resistance-trained rats (59.83±14.05 μg/mL vs 93.33±33.89 μg/mL in the control). The mRNA expression levels of the lipogenesis-related genes sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and fatty acid synthase were not significantly different between the resistance-trained and control rats; however, mRNA expression of the lipolysis-related carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 and malonyl-CoA decarboxylase increased significantly with resistance training. AMP-activated protein kinase protein levels also significantly increased in resistance training group compared with in the control group. These results suggested that resistance exercise training contributing to reduced weight gain may be in part be due to increase the lipolysis metabolism and energy expenditure in response to resistance training. PMID:27419110

  13. Up-regulation of interleukin-8 expressions induced by mast cell tryptase via protease activated receptor-2 in endothelial cell line

    LU Chao; ZHAO Feng-di; LI Xiao-bo; YIN Lian-hua

    2005-01-01

    Background Protease activated receptor-2 is cleaved and activated by trypsin or mast cell tryptase and may play an important role in inflammation. However, it is unknown whetehr PAR-2 can mediate tryptase-induced inflammatory reaction. This study was conduct to investigate wheter PAR-2 could be the activated by mast cell tryptase and medicated the tryptase induced interleukin-8 expression in endothelial cells.Methods Protease activated receptor-2 expression was found in endothelial cell lines ECV304 cell by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Interleukin-8 stimulated by purified human mast cell tryptase was determined by RT-PCR and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data were analysed by the S-N-K one-way ANOVA test.Results The present study shows that mRNA and protein of protease activated receptor-2 could be expressed in ECV304 cells, and tryptase upregulated the expression levels of both interleukin-8 mRNA and protein. The increased expression of interleukin-8 was inhibited by an antiprotease activated receptor-2 monoclonal antibody, SAM11. An additional band was observed by Western blotting after the incubation of ECV304 cells with tryptase for 2 hours, which suggested that protease activated receptor-2 was activated. Conclusion Protease activated receptor-2 can mediate the mast cell tryptase stimulated expression of interleukin-8 in ECV304 cell.

  14. IL-6 cooperates with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha-ligands to induce liver fatty acid binding protein (LFABP) up-regulation

    Vida, Margarita; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Cuevas, Miguel; Pavón, Francisco J.; González-Rodriguez, Águeda; Gavito, Ana L.; Cuesta, Antonio L.; Valverde, Ángela M.; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Baixeras, Elena

    2013-01-01

    [Background]: LFABP plays a critical role in the uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids (FA) and other peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ligands. PPARα activation by PPARα ligands bound to LFABP results in gene expression of FA oxidation enzymes and de novo LFABP. The cytokine IL-6 is involved in regulating liver lipid oxidation. [Aims]: To study the ability of IL-6 to modulate the expression of the LFABP in hepatocytes. Methods: HepG2 and mouse primary hepat...

  15. α-Dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC) isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium inhibits LPS induced MAPK activation and up regulates HO-1 expression in murine RAW 264.7 macrophage

    Chakraborty, Prarthana; Saraswat, Ghungroo; Kabir, Syed N., E-mail: snkabir@iicb.res.in

    2014-05-15

    Three phenolic glycosides isolated from the heartwood of Pterocarpus marsupium showed significant free radical and superoxide ion scavenging activity and antioxidant potential that were comparable to, or several folds higher than those of standard antioxidants, trolox and ascorbic acid. The effective concentrations of these compounds were far below their cytotoxic levels. Compound 3, which was characterized to be α-dihydroxychalcone-glycoside (α-DHC), was the most potent one. Subsequent studies demonstrated that α-DHC effectively reduced nitric oxide and cytokine production by the LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. The compound effectively attenuated the expression of inflammation-mediating enzymes COX-2 and iNOS at the mRNA as well as protein levels in a concentration dependent manner. It prevented phosphorylation of all the three MAPKs (JNK, ERK, p38) and eventually blocked the activation of downstream elements contributing to inflammation. Phosphorylation of IκB-α and subsequent translocation of NF-κB into the nucleus were restricted, while the expression of stress responsive gene HO-1 was up-regulated. α-DHC targeted Keap-1 by modifying its cysteine thiols, dissociating it from Nrf-2 and facilitating nuclear entry of the latter; and this in turn induced HO-1 expression. Thus α-DHC exerts its anti-inflammatory activity in a dual manner: by down regulating MAPKs and restricting nuclear stabilization of NF-κB at one end, and by disrupting Nrf-2–Keap-1 complex on the other. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory potential together with its high therapeutic index envisages α-DHC as a prospective candidate molecule for the development of therapeutic strategy against inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • α-DHC isolated from Pterocarpus marsupium has significant antioxidant potential. • α-DHC inhibits NO, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. • α-DHC down-regulates of COX-2, iNOS expression in LPS

  16. Dexamethasone up-regulates skeletal muscle maximal Na+,K+ pump activity by muscle group specific mechanisms in humans

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Goodmann, Craig; McKenna, Michael J.;

    2005-01-01

    Dexamethasone, a widely clinically used glucocorticoid, increases human skeletal muscle Na+,K+ pump content, but the effects on maximal Na+,K+ pump activity and subunit specific mRNA are unknown. Ten healthy male subjects ingested dexamethasone for 5 days and the effects on Na+,K+ pump content......, maximal activity and subunit specific mRNA level (a1, a2, ß1, ß2, ß3) in deltoid and vastus lateralis muscle were investigated. Before treatment, maximal Na+,K+ pump activity, as well as a1, a2, ß1 and ß2 mRNA levels were higher (P < 0.05) in vastus lateralis than in deltoid. Dexamethasone treatment...... increased Na+,K+ pump maximal activity in vastus lateralis and deltoid by 14 ± 7% (P < 0.05) and 18 ± 6% (P < 0.05) as well as Na+,K+ pump content by 18 ± 9% (P < 0.001) and 24 ± 8% (P < 0.01), respectively. Treatment with dexamethasone resulted in a higher a1, a2, ß1 and ß2 mRNA expression in the deltoid...

  17. Tumor-suppressive activity of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 against kidney cancer cells via up-regulation of FOXO3.

    Lee, Jongsung; Park, See-Hyoung

    2016-10-01

    1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 has been known to have the tumor-suppressive activity in various kinds of tumors. However, the exact effect and working mechanism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on the tumor-suppressive activity in human kidney cancer cells remains poorly understood. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 has cytotoxicity to ACHN cells and inhibited ACHN cell proliferation compared to the vehicle control. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 increased the expression of the cleaved PARP1, active Caspase3, Bax, and Bim but decreased the expression of Bcl2 in ACHN cells. Moreover, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 down-regulated the phosphorylated Akt and Erk which might lead to apoptosis through activation of FOXO3 in ACHN cells. Transfection of siRNA against FOXO3 attenuated the pro-apoptotic BimEL expression in ACHN cells treated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. These results suggest that FOXO3 is involved in the apoptosis induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. PMID:27181027

  18. Compartment- and malignance-dependent up-regulation of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and dipetidylpeptidase-IV activity in human brain gliomas

    Mareš, Vladislav; Stremeňová, J.; Lisá, Věra; Kozáková, Hana; Marek, J.; Syrůček, M.; Šoula, O.; Šedo, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 7 (2012), s. 931-940. ISSN 0213-3911 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase * dipeptidylpeptidase IV-like activity * CD26 * FAP-1 alpha * human gliomas Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 2.281, year: 2012

  19. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand MCC-555 imparts anti-proliferative response in pancreatic cancer cells by PPARgamma-independent up-regulation of KLF4

    MCC-555 is a novel PPARα/γ dual ligand of the thiazolidinedione class and was recently developed as an anti-diabetic drug with unique properties. MCC-555 also has anti-proliferative activity through growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in several cancer cell types. Our group has shown that MCC-555 targets several proteins in colorectal tumorigenesis including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-activated gene (NAG-1) which plays an important role in chemoprevention responsible for chemopreventive compounds. NAG-1 is a member of the TGF-β superfamily and is involved in tumor progression and development; however, NAG-1's roles in pancreatic cancer have not been studied. In this report, we found that MCC-555 alters not only NAG-1 expression, but also p21 and cyclin D1 expression. NAG-1 and p21 expression was not blocked by PPARγ-specific antagonist GW9662, suggesting that MCC-555-induced NAG-1 and p21 expression is independent of PPARγ activation. However, decreasing cyclin D1 by MCC-555 seems to be affected by PPARγ activation. Further, we found that the GC box located in the NAG-1 promoter play an important role in NAG-1 transactivation by MCC-555. Subsequently, we screened several transcription factors that may bind to the GC box region in the NAG-1 promoter and found that KLF4 potentially binds to this region. Expression of KLF4 precedes NAG-1 and p21 expression in the presence of MCC-555, whereas blocking KLF4 expression using specific KLF4 siRNA showed that both NAG-1 and p21 expression by MCC-555 was blocked. In conclusion, MCC-555's actions on anti-proliferation involve both PPARγ-dependent and -independent pathways, thereby enhancing anti-tumorigenesis in pancreatic cancer cells. -- Highlights: ► PPARα/γ ligand MCC-555 exhibits anti-proliferative activity in pancreatic cancer cells. ► MCC-555 affects KLF4 expression following by NAG-1 and p21 expression in a PPARγ independent manner. ► MCC-555 also affects cyclin D1 down

  20. The TLR4 D299G and T399I SNPs are constitutively active to up-regulate expression of Trif-dependent genes.

    Georgina L Hold

    Full Text Available Dysregulated Toll-Like Receptor (TLR signalling and genetic polymorphisms in these proteins are linked to many human diseases. We investigated TLR4 functional variants D299G and T399I to assess the impact on LPS-induced responsiveness in comparison to wild-type TLR4. The mechanism by which this occurs in unclear as these SNPs do not lie within the lipid A binding domain or dimerisation sites of the LPS-TLR4/MD2 receptor complexes. Transfection of TLR4D299G, TLR4T399I or TLR4D299G. T399I into HEK cells resulted in constitutive activation of an NF-κB reporter gene and a blunting of the LPS-induced reporter activation compared to WT-TLR4. Unstimulated human monocyte/macrophages, from patients with the D299G and T399I SNPs demonstrated a downregulation of many genes, particularly Tram/Trif signalling pathway constitutents compared to the TLR4 wild-type subjects supporting the concept of basal receptor activity. Monocyte/macrophages from carriers of the TLR4 D299G and T399I polymorphisms stimulated with LPS showed >6 fold lower levels of NF-κB and ∼12 fold higher IFN-β gene expression levels compared to wild-type subjects (P<0.05; MWU test and dramatically altered resultant cytokine profiles. We conclude that these TLR4 SNPs affect constitutive receptor activity which impacts on the hosts ability to respond to LPS challenge leading to a dysregulated sub-optimal immune response to infection.

  1. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Activity and Acquirement of Brown Adipose Tissue-Like Property in the White Adipose Tissue of Fsp27 Deficient Mice

    Toh, Shen Yon; Gong, Jingyi; Du, Guoli; Li, John Zhong; Yang, Shuqun; Ye, Jing; Yao, Huilan; Zhang, Yinxin; Xue, Bofu; Li, Qing; Yang, Hongyuan; Wen, Zilong; Li, Peng

    2008-01-01

    Fsp27, a member of the Cide family proteins, was shown to localize to lipid droplet and promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We aimed to understand the biological role of Fsp27 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Fsp27 −/− mice and Fsp27/lep double deficient mice were generated and we examined the adiposity, whole body metabolism, BAT and WAT morphology, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression changes in these mouse st...

  2. Up-Regulation of Mitochondrial Activity and Acquirement of Brown Adipose Tissue-Like Property in the White Adipose Tissue of Fsp27 Deficient Mice

    Shen Yon Toh; Jingyi Gong; Guoli Du; John Zhong Li; Shuqun Yang; Jing Ye; Huilan Yao; Yinxin Zhang; Bofu Xue; Qing Li; Hongyuan Yang; Zilong Wen; Peng Li

    2008-01-01

    Fsp27, a member of the Cide family proteins, was shown to localize to lipid droplet and promote lipid storage in adipocytes. We aimed to understand the biological role of Fsp27 in regulating adipose tissue differentiation, insulin sensitivity and energy balance. Fsp27(-/-) mice and Fsp27/lep double deficient mice were generated and we examined the adiposity, whole body metabolism, BAT and WAT morphology, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial activity, and gene expression changes in these mouse s...

  3. Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency selectively up-regulates delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices in rat liver: prevention by normalization of omega-3 fatty acid status.

    Hofacer, Rylon; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Magrisso, I Jack; Benoit, Stephen C; McNamara, Robert K

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids. PMID:22024496

  4. Striatal but not frontal cortical up-regulation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in rats exposed to immune activation in utero and cannabinoid treatment in adolescence.

    Idrizi, Rejhan; Malcolm, Peter; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Suresh Sundram

    2016-06-30

    In utero maternal immune activation (MIA) and cannabinoid exposure during adolescence constitute environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. We investigated these risk factors alone and in combination ("two-hit") on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and neuregulin-1 receptor (ErbB4) levels in the rat brain. EGFR but not ErbB4 receptor protein levels were significantly increased in the nucleus accumbens and striatum of "two-hit" rats only, with no changes seen at the mRNA level. These findings support region specific EGF-system dysregulation as a plausible mechanism in this animal model of schizophrenia pathogenesis. PMID:27138815

  5. Scorpion in Combination with Gypsum: Novel Antidiabetic Activities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice by Up-Regulating Pancreatic PPARγ and PDX-1 Expressions

    Weidong Xie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of diabetes without any side effects remains a challenge in medicine. In this study, antidiabetic activity and the mechanism of action of scorpion combined with gypsum (SG were investigated. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were orally administrated with scorpion (200 mg kg−1 per day in combination with gypsum (200 mg kg−1 per day for 5 weeks. SG treatment resulted in decreased body weight, blood glucose and lipid levels, and increased serum and pancreatic insulin levels in diabetic mice. Furthermore, SG significantly increased the number and volume of beta cells in the Islets of Langerhans and promoted peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1 expressions in pancreatic tissues. However, scorpion or gypsum alone had no significant effect in this animal model. Metformin showed a slight or moderate effect in this diabetic model, but this effect was weak compared with that of SG. Taken together, SG showed a new antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. This effect may possibly be involved in enhancing beta-cell regeneration and promoting insulin secretion by targeting PPARγ and PDX-1. Moreover, this new effect of SG offers a promising step toward the treatment of diabetic patients with beta-cell failure as a complementary and alternative medicine.

  6. Inhibition of radiation-induced up-regulation of leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells with the platelet-activating factor inhibitor, BN52021

    Purpose: The inflammatory process is likely involved in normal tissue damage after radiation exposure, yet few studies have directly evaluated the factors that might be involved in the regulation of inflammation after irradiation in vivo. We tested the hypothesis that platelet-activating factor, a neutrophil agonist synthesized by endothelial cells, is involved in the upregulation of radiation-induced leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions by using an inhibitor of its receptor, BN52021. Methods and Materials: Fischer-344 rats with dorsal skin-fold window chambers were randomized to three experimental groups: control (sham irradiation); 6 Gy radiation; and 6 Gy + BN52021. BN52021 (0.5 mg/kg) was administered 5 min prior to 6 Gy radiation. Leukocytes were stained in vivo with i.v. acridine orange for visualization with fluorescent microscopy. Venous vessel diameters were measured and numbers of rolling leukocytes were counted per 30-s period. The number of adhering leukocytes per unit surface area was also determined. Differences among the three experimental groups for rolling and adhering leukocytes were analyzed using a mixed-effects linear model with vessel shear rate used as a covariate. Results are reported as means ± standard errors. Results: Irradiation caused upregulation of leukocyte rolling, as compared with sham-treated controls (p = 0.04): the BN compound in addition to radiation did not downregulate this effect. Irradiation also upregulated leukocyte adhesion (p < 0.001), but the addition of BN52021 prior to irradiation blocked this effect. The drug did not affect heart rate or blood pressure. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that radiation-induced upregulation of leukocyte adhesion is mediated by platelet-activating factor. These results are consistent with prior reports that platelet-activating factor is not involved in leukocyte rolling, which involves separate families of adhesion molecules from those that regulate adhesion. BN

  7. B4GALT3 up-regulation by miR-27a contributes to the oncogenic activity in human cervical cancer cells.

    Sun, Yanrui; Yang, Xi; Liu, Min; Tang, Hua

    2016-06-01

    β-1,4-Galactosyltransferase III (B4GALT3) is an enzyme responsible for the generation of poly-N-acetyllactosamine and is involved in tumorigenesis. However, B4GALT3-dysregulation and its role in cervical cancer cells are unknown. Herein, we found that B4GALT3 was upregulated in cervical cancer tissues compared to adjacent non-tumor tissues. B4GALT3-overexpression promoted, whereas B4GALT3-knockdown suppressed the cellular migration, invasion and EMT of HeLa and C33A cervical cancer cells. To explore the mechanism of dysregulation, B4GALT3 was predicted to be a target of miR-27a. EGFP and pGL3-promoter reporter assay showed miR-27a binds to B4GALT3 3'UTR region but enhanced its expression. RT-qPCR showed miR-27a was also upregulated and presented positive correlation with B4GALT3-expression in cervical cancer tissues. miR-27a-overexpression promoted, but blocking-miR-27a repressed these malignancies in HeLa and C33A cells. Furthermore, shR-B4GALT3 counteracted the promotion of malignancies induced by miR-27a, suggesting miR-27a upregulates B4GALT3 to enhance tumorigenic activities. In addition, we found that B4GALT3 significantly enhances β1-integrin stability, thus mediating promotion of B4GALT3 on malignancy in cervical cancer cells. Altogether, our findings evidenced that B4GALT3 upregulated by miR-27a contributes to the tumorigenic activities by β1-integrin pathway and might provide potential biomarkers for cervical cancer. PMID:26987623

  8. Vascular endothelial growth factor C promotes cervical cancer metastasis via up-regulation and activation of RhoA/ROCK-2/moesin cascade

    The elevated expression of vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is correlated with clinical cervical cancer metastasis and patient survival, which is interpreted by VEGF-C functions to stimulate angiogenesis and lymphatic genesis. However, the direct impact of VEGF-C on cervical cancer cell motility remains largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of VEGF-C on actin cytoskeleton remodeling and on cervical cancer cell migration and invasion and how the actin-regulatory protein, moesin regulated these effects through RhoA/ROCK-2 signaling pathway. On cervical carcinoma cell line SiHa cells, exposure of VEGF-C triggered remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of membrane ruffles, which was required for cell movement. VEGF-C significantly enhanced SiHa cells horizontal migration and three-dimensional invasion into matrices. These actions were dependent on increased expression and phosphorylation of the actin-regulatory protein moesin and specific moesin siRNA severely impaired VEGF-C stimulated-cell migration. The extracellular small GTPase RhoA/ROCK-2 cascade mediated the increased moesin expression and phosphorylation, which was discovered by the use of Y-27632, a specific inhibitor of Rho kinase and by transfected constitutively active, dominant-negative RhoA as well as ROCK-2 SiRNA. Furthermore, in the surgical cervical specimen from the patients with FIGO stage at cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia and I-II cervical squamous cell carcinoma, the expression levels of moesin were found to be significantly correlated with tumor malignancy and metastasis. These results implied that VEGF-C promoted cervical cancer metastasis by upregulation and activation of moesin protein through RhoA/ROCK-2 pathway. Our findings offer new insight into the role of VEGF-C on cervical cancer progression and may provide potential targets for cervical cancer therapy

  9. Intracolonical administration of protease-activated receptor-2 agonists produced visceral hyperalgesia by up-regulating serotonin in the colon of rats.

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Hong-xi; Sung, Joseph J Y; Bian, Zhao-xiang

    2009-03-15

    This study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanism of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) agonist-induced visceral hyperalgesia. Male Sprague-Dawley rat pups were submitted to colonic injection of PAR-2 agonist for 6 consecutive days. The visceral sensitivity to colorectal distention was evaluated by electromyography. The enterochromaffin (EC) cell number, 5-HT content and tryrptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein expression were detected with immunohistochemistry, fluorescent measurement and Western blot analysis. PAR-2 agonist induced a significant increase of visceral nociceptive response to colorectal distention and a series of neurochemical changes in rat colon, including proliferation of EC cells, increased 5-HT content and enhanced TPH expression. Expression of PAR-2 in EC cells was reported for the first time. Further, selective 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist alosteron significantly inhibited PAR-2-induced visceral hyperalgesia. The enhanced 5-HT signaling is likely responsible for the visceral hyperalgesia induced by PAR-2 agonist. Interruption of this pathway is a possible target for the treatment of visceral hyperalgesia in gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:19374846

  10. Nicotine Elevated Intracellular Ca2+ in Rat Airway Smooth Muscle Cells via Activating and Up-Regulating α7-Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Yongliang Jiang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by airway remodeling with airway smooth muscle (ASM hypertrophy and hyperplasia. Since tobacco use is the key risk factor for the development of COPD and intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i plays a major role in both cell proliferation and differentiation, we hypothesized that nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR activation plays a role in the elevation of [Ca2+]i in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs. Methods: We examined the expression of nAChR and characterized the functions of α7-nAChR in ASMCs. Results: RT-PCR analysis showed that α2-7, β2, and β3-nAChR subunits are expressed in rat ASMCs, with α7 being one of the most abundantly expressed subtypes. Chronic nicotine exposure increased α7-nAChR mRNA and protein expression, and elevated resting [Ca2+]i in cultured rat ASMCs. Acute application of nicotine evoked a rapid increase in [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner, and the response was significantly enhanced in ASMCs cultured with 1 µM nicotine for 48 hours. Nicotine-induced Ca2+ response was reversibly blocked by the α7-nAChR nicotinic antagonists, methyllycaconitine and α-bungarotoxin. Small interfering RNA suppression of α7-nAChR also substantially blunted the Ca2+ responses induced by nicotine. Conclusion: These observations suggest that nicotine elevates [Ca2+]i in ASMCs through α7-nAChR-mediated signals pathways, and highlight the possibility that α7-nAChR can be considered as a potential target for the treatment of airway remodeling.that nicotine elevates [Ca2+]i in ASMCs through α7-nAChR-mediated signals pathways, and highlight the possibility that α7-nAChR can be considered as a potential target for the treatment of airway remodeling.

  11. Ginkgo biloba Extract (EGb 761®) Inhibits Glutamate-induced Up-regulation of Tissue Plasminogen Activator Through Inhibition of c-Fos Translocation in Rat Primary Cortical Neurons.

    Cho, Kyu Suk; Lee, Ian Myungwon; Sim, Seobo; Lee, Eun Joo; Gonzales, Edson Luck; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Kwon, Kyoung Ja; Han, Seol-Heui

    2016-01-01

    EGb 761(®) , a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves, has antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties in experimental models of neurodegenerative disorders such as stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) acts a neuromodulator and plays a crucial role in the manifestation of neurotoxicity leading to exaggerated neuronal cell death in neurological insult conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of EGb 761 on the basal and glutamate-induced activity and expression of tPA in rat primary cortical neurons. Under basal condition, EGb 761 inhibited both secreted and cellular tPA activities, without altering tPA mRNA level, as modulated by the activation of p38. Compared with basal condition, EGb 761 inhibited the glutamate-induced up-regulation of tPA mRNA resulting in the normalization of overt tPA activity and expression. c-Fos is a component of AP-1, which plays a critical role in the modulation of tPA expression. Interestingly, EGb 761 inhibited c-Fos nuclear translocation without affecting c-Fos expression in glutamate-induced rat primary cortical neurons. These results demonstrated that EGb 761 can modulate tPA activity under basal and glutamate-stimulated conditions by both translational and transcriptional mechanisms. Thus, EGb 761 could be a potential and effective therapeutic strategy in tPA-excessive neurotoxic conditions. PMID:26478151

  12. IL-1-induced ERK1/2 activation up-regulates p21Waf1/Cip1 protein by inhibition of degradation via ubiquitin-independent pathway in human melanoma cells A375

    IL-1 inhibits the proliferation of human melanoma cells A375 by arresting the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase, which accompanies the increase of p21Waf1/Cip1 (p21) protein. Here, we demonstrate that IL-1 induces the stabilization of p21 protein via ERK1/2 pathway. The degradation of p21 was inhibited by IL-1, however the ubiquitination level of p21 was not affected. In addition, the degradation of non-ubiquitinated form of lysine less mutant p21-K6R was also inhibited by IL-1, suggesting that IL-1 stabilized p21 protein via ubiquitin-independent pathway. Furthermore, the inhibition of p21 protein degradation was prevented by a selective inhibitor of ERK1/2 pathway, PD98059. These results suggest that IL-1-induced ERK1/2 activation leads to the up-regulation of p21 by inhibiting degradation via ubiquitin-independent pathway in human melanoma cells A375.

  13. Tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) induces cell proliferation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells through NFκB activation and cyclin D1 up-regulation

    Cigarette smoke contains several carcinogens known to initiate and promote tumorigenesis as well as metastasis. Nicotine is one of the major components of the cigarette smoke and the 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) is a tobacco-specific carcinogen. Here, we demonstrated that NNK stimulated cell proliferation in normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) and small airway epithelial cells (SAEC). Cells exposed to NNK resulted in an increase in the level of cyclin D1 protein (as early as 3-6 h). Increased phosphorylation of the Rb Ser795 was detected at 6-15 h after NNK treatment and thereby promoted cells entering into the S phase (at 15-21 h). The increased cyclin D1 protein level was induced through activation of the transcription factor, nuclear factor kB (NFκB), in the NHBE cells. Treatment of the NHBE cells with PD98059, an ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase)-specific inhibitor, specifically suppressed the NNK-induced IκBα phosphorylation at position 32 of the serine residue, suggesting that the ERK1/2 kinase was involved in the IκBα phosphorylation induced by NFκB activation. To determine whether the NNK-induced NFκB activation and cyclin D1 induction were also observed in vivo, A/J mice were treated with NNK (9.1 mg) for 20 weeks and the results showed a significant induction of cyclin D1 and NFκB translocation determined by immunoblotting analyses. We further demonstrated that the nicotine acetylcholine receptor (nAchR), which contains the α3-subunit, was the major target mediating NNK-induced cyclin D1 expression in the NHBE cells. In summary, our findings demonstrate for the first time that NNK could stimulate normal human bronchial cell proliferation through activation of the NFκB, which in turn up-regulated the cyclin D1 expression

  14. Moojenactivase, a novel pro-coagulant PIIId metalloprotease isolated from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, activates coagulation factors II and X and induces tissue factor up-regulation in leukocytes.

    Sartim, Marco A; Costa, Tassia R; Laure, Helen J; Espíndola, Milena S; Frantz, Fabiani G; Sorgi, Carlos A; Cintra, Adélia C O; Arantes, Eliane C; Faccioli, Lucia H; Rosa, José C; Sampaio, Suely V

    2016-05-01

    Coagulopathies following snakebite are triggered by pro-coagulant venom toxins, in which metalloproteases play a major role in envenomation-induced coagulation disorders by acting on coagulation cascade, platelet function and fibrinolysis. Considering this relevance, here we describe the isolation and biochemical characterization of moojenactivase (MooA), a metalloprotease from Bothrops moojeni snake venom, and investigate its involvement in hemostasis in vitro. MooA is a glycoprotein of 85,746.22 Da, member of the PIIId group of snake venom metalloproteases, composed of three linked disulfide-bonded chains: an N-glycosylated heavy chain, and two light chains. The venom protease induced human plasma clotting in vitro by activating on both blood coagulation factors II (prothrombin) and X, which in turn generated α-thrombin and factor Xa, respectively. Additionally, MooA induced expression of tissue factor (TF) on the membrane surface of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which led these cells to adopt pro-coagulant characteristics. MooA was also shown to be involved with production of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-8 and MCP-1, suggesting an association between MooA pro-inflammatory stimulation of PBMC and TF up-regulation. We also observed aggregation of washed platelets when in presence of MooA; however, the protease had no effect on fibrinolysis. Our findings show that MooA is a novel hemostatically active metalloprotease, which may lead to the development of coagulopathies during B. moojeni envenomation. Moreover, the metalloprotease may contribute to the development of new diagnostic tools and pharmacological approaches applied to hemostatic disorders. PMID:26026608

  15. Nitric oxide up-regulates endothelial expression of angiotensin II type 2 receptors.

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Medini, Sawsan; Bisha, Marion; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Bas, Murat; Kojda, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Increasing vascular NO levels following up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered beneficial in cardiovascular disease. Whether such beneficial effects exerted by increased NO-levels include the vascular renin-angiotensin system remains elucidated. Exposure of endothelial cells originated from porcine aorta, mouse brain and human umbilical veins to different NO-donors showed that expression of the angiotensin-II-type-2-receptor (AT2) mRNA and protein is up-regulated by activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, protein kinase G and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase without changing AT2 mRNA stability. In mice, endothelial-specific overexpression of eNOS stimulated, while chronic treatment with the NOS-blocker l-nitroarginine inhibited AT2 expression. The NO-induced AT2 up-regulation was associated with a profound inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-activity. In endothelial cells this reduction of ACE-activity was reversed by either the AT2 antagonist PD 123119 or by inhibition of transcription with actinomycin D. Furthermore, in C57Bl/6 mice an acute i.v. bolus of l-nitroarginine did not change AT2-expression and ACE-activity suggesting that inhibition of ACE-activity by endogenous NO is crucially dependent on AT2 protein level. Likewise, three weeks of either voluntary or forced exercise training increased AT2 expression and reduced ACE-activity in C57Bl/6 but not in mice lacking eNOS suggesting significance of this signaling interaction for vascular physiology. Finally, aortic AT2 expression is about 5 times greater in female as compared to male C57Bl/6 and at the same time aortic ACE activity is reduced in females by more than 50%. Together these findings imply that endothelial NO regulates AT2 expression and that AT2 may regulate ACE-activity. PMID:27235748

  16. Up-regulation of reciprocal inhibition by explosive strength training

    Geertsen, Svend Sparre; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    At the onset of dorsiflexion disynaptic reciprocal inhibition (DRI) of soleus motoneurones is increased in order to prevent activation of the antagonistic plantarflexors. This is caused by descending facilitation of transmission in the DRI pathway. Since the risk of eliciting stretch reflexes in...... the ankle plantarflexors at the onset of dorsiflexion is larger the quicker the movement, we hypothesized that DRI may be up-regulated when subjects are trained to perform dorsiflexion movements as quickly as possible.   For this purpose, 15 healthy human subjects (7 male, 8 female) with an average...... by 6% before the training and by 22% after the training, which was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05).    This suggests that DRI at the onset of movement may be up-regulated in healthy subjects following explosive strength training in order to ensure efficient suppression of the...

  17. Up-regulation of endothelin type B receptors in the human internal mammary artery in culture is dependent on protein kinase C and mitogen-activated kinase signaling pathways

    Nilsson, David; Gustafsson, Lotta; Wackenfors, Angelica; Gesslein, Bodil; Edvinsson, Lars; Paulsson, Per; Ingemansson, Richard; Malmsjö, Malin

    2008-01-01

    Up-regulation of vascular endothelin type B (ETB) receptors is implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Culture of intact arteries has been shown to induce similar receptor alterations and has therefore been suggested as a suitable method for, ex vivo, in detail delineation of the...

  18. Interferon-γ-induced activation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1 up-regulates the tumor suppressing microRNA-29 family in melanoma cells

    Schmitt Martina J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The type-II-cytokine IFN-γ is a pivotal player in innate immune responses but also assumes functions in controlling tumor cell growth by orchestrating cellular responses against neoplastic cells. The role of IFN-γ in melanoma is not fully understood: it is a well-known growth inhibitor of melanoma cells in vitro. On the other hand, IFN-γ may also facilitate melanoma progression. While interferon-regulated genes encoding proteins have been intensively studied since decades, the contribution of miRNAs to effects mediated by interferons is an emerging area of research. We recently described a distinct and dynamic regulation of a whole panel of microRNAs (miRNAs after IFN-γ-stimulation. The aim of this study was to analyze the transcriptional regulation of miR-29 family members in detail, identify potential interesting target genes and thus further elucidate a potential signaling pathway IFN-γ → Jak→ P-STAT1 → miR-29 → miR-29 target genes and its implication for melanoma growth. Results Here we show that IFN-γ induces STAT1-dependently a profound up-regulation of the miR-29 primary cluster pri-29a~b-1 in melanoma cell lines. Furthermore, expression levels of pri-29a~b-1 and mature miR-29a and miR-29b were elevated while the pri-29b-2~c cluster was almost undetectable. We observed an inverse correlation between miR-29a/b expression and the proliferation rate of various melanoma cell lines. This finding could be corroborated in cells transfected with either miR-29 mimics or inhibitors. The IFN-γ-induced G1-arrest of melanoma cells involves down-regulation of CDK6, which we proved to be a direct target of miR-29 in these cells. Compared to nevi and normal skin, and metastatic melanoma samples, miR-29a and miR-29b levels were found strikingly elevated in certain patient samples derived from primary melanoma. Conclusions Our findings reveal that the miR-29a/b1 cluster is to be included in the group of IFN- and STAT

  19. Intratracheal transplantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells reduced airway inflammation and up-regulated CD4⁺CD25⁺ regulatory T cells in asthmatic mouse.

    Ge, Xiahui; Bai, Chong; Yang, Jianming; Lou, Guoliang; Li, Qiang; Chen, Ruohua

    2013-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells attenuate the severity of lung injury due to their immunomodulatory properties. The effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells on asthma is seldom reported. We have examined the effect of BMSCs on airway inflammation in asthma. Forty female BALB/c mice were equally randomised into PBS group, BMSCs treatment group, BMSCs control group and asthmatic group. Reactivity of the airway to acetylcholine was measured by barometric plethysmography. Cytokine profiles of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Morphometric analysis was done with haematoxylin and periodic-acid Schiff staining. Engraftment of BMSCs in asthmatic mice significantly decreased the number of eosinophils and mononuclear cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and the airway (P cell hyperplasia and responsiveness to acetylcholine were significantly reduced in BMSCs treatment groups. Moreover, BMSCs engraftment caused significant increases the ratio of Treg in pulmonary lymph node and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-12 levels in BALF and serum. We conclude that BMSCs engraftment ameliorated airway inflammation and improved lung function in asthmatic mouse and the protective effect might be mediated by upregulating Treg and partly involved with increasing IL-10. PMID:23483727

  20. Oxidised LDL up-regulate CD36 expression by the Nrf2 pathway in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

    D'Archivio, Massimo; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; Filesi, Carmela; Varì, Rosaria; Maggiorella, Maria Teresa; Sernicola, Leonardo; Santangelo, Carmela; Giovannini, Claudio; Masella, Roberta

    2008-06-25

    The effect of oxLDL on CD36 expression has been assessed in preadipocytes induced to differentiate. Novel evidence is provided that oxLDL induce a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-independent CD36 overexpression, by up-regulating nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The nuclear translocation of Nrf2 appeared to depend on PKC pathway activation. In adipocytes, the CD36 up-regulation may indicate a compensation mechanism to meet the demand of excess oxLDL and oxidised lipids in blood, reducing the risk of atherogenesis. Besides strengthening the hypothesis that oxLDL can contribute to the onset of insulin-resistance, data herein presented highlight the significance of oxLDL-induced CD36 overexpression within the cellular defence response. PMID:18514070

  1. Osthole decreases beta amyloid levels through up-regulation of miR-107 in Alzheimer's disease.

    Jiao, Yanan; Kong, Liang; Yao, Yingjia; Li, Shaoheng; Tao, Zhenyu; Yan, Yuhui; Yang, Jingxian

    2016-09-01

    Accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in the brain plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although osthole has been shown to neuroprotective activity in AD, the exact molecular mechanism of its neuroprotective effects has not yet been fully elucidated. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to regulate multiple aspects of AD development and progression, indicating that targeting miRNAs could be a novel strategy to treat AD. In the current study, we investigated whether a natural coumarin derivative osthole could up-regulate miR-107, resulting in facilitating the cells survival, reducing LDH leakage, inhibiting apoptosis and reducing beta amyloid (Aβ) production in AD. We found that osthole treatment significantly up-regulate miR-107 expression and inhibited BACE1, one of the targets of miR-107. Administration of osthole to APP/PS1 transgenic mice resulted in a significant improvement in learning and memory function, which was associated with a significant a decrease in Aβ in the hippocampal and cortex region of the brain. Our findings demonstrated that osthole plays a neuroprotective activity role in part through up-regulate miR-107 in AD. PMID:27143098

  2. Sesamin induces melanogenesis by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase up-regulation via cAMP signaling pathway

    Zequn Jiang; Shasha Li; Yunyi Liu; Pengyi Deng; Jianguo Huang; Guangyuan He

    2011-01-01

    In this study,we confirmed that sesamin,an active lignan isolated from sesame seed and oil,is a novel skin-tanning compound.The melanin content and tyrosinase activity were increased by sesamin in a dose-dependent manner in B16 melanoma cells.The mRNA and protein levels of tyrosinase were also enhanced after the treatment with sesamin.Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin induced and sustained up-regulation of microphthalmiaassociated transcription factor (MITF).Sesamin could activate cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB),but it had no effect on the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or Akt.Moreover,sesamin activated protein kinase A (PKA) via a cAMP-dependent pathway.Consistent with these results,sesamin-mediated increase of melanin synthesis was reduced significantly by H-89,a PKA inhibitor,but not by SB203580,a p38 MAPK inhibitor or by LY294002,a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor.Sesamin-mediated phosphorylation of CREB and induction of MITF and tyrosinase expression were also inhibited by H-89.These findings indicated that sesamin could stimulate melanogenesis in B16 cells via the up-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase,which was,in turn,due to the activation of cAMP signaling.

  3. Sesamin induces melanogenesis by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase up-regulation via cAMP signaling pathway.

    Jiang, Zequn; Li, Shasha; Liu, Yunyi; Deng, Pengyi; Huang, Jianguo; He, Guangyuan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we confirmed that sesamin, an active lignan isolated from sesame seed and oil, is a novel skin-tanning compound. The melanin content and tyrosinase activity were increased by sesamin in a dose-dependent manner in B16 melanoma cells. The mRNA and protein levels of tyrosinase were also enhanced after the treatment with sesamin. Western blot analysis revealed that sesamin induced and sustained up-regulation of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Sesamin could activate cAMP response element (CRE) binding protein (CREB), but it had no effect on the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or Akt. Moreover, sesamin activated protein kinase A (PKA) via a cAMP-dependent pathway. Consistent with these results, sesamin-mediated increase of melanin synthesis was reduced significantly by H-89, a PKA inhibitor, but not by SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor or by LY294002, a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor. Sesamin-mediated phosphorylation of CREB and induction of MITF and tyrosinase expression were also inhibited by H-89. These findings indicated that sesamin could stimulate melanogenesis in B16 cells via the up-regulation of MITF and tyrosinase, which was, in turn, due to the activation of cAMP signaling. PMID:21896570

  4. SARS coronavirus papain-like protease induces Egr-1-dependent up-regulation of TGF-β1 via ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 pathway.

    Li, Shih-Wein; Wang, Ching-Ying; Jou, Yu-Jen; Yang, Tsuey-Ching; Huang, Su-Hua; Wan, Lei; Lin, Ying-Ju; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2016-01-01

    SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) papain-like protease (PLpro) has been identified in TGF-β1 up-regulation in human promonocytes (Proteomics 2012, 12: 3193-205). This study investigates the mechanisms of SARS-CoV PLpro-induced TGF-β1 promoter activation in human lung epithelial cells and mouse models. SARS-CoV PLpro dose- and time-dependently up-regulates TGF-β1 and vimentin in A549 cells. Dual luciferase reporter assays with TGF-β1 promoter plasmids indicated that TGF-β1 promoter region between -175 to -60, the Egr-1 binding site, was responsible for TGF-β1 promoter activation induced by SARS-CoV PLpro. Subcellular localization analysis of transcription factors showed PLpro triggering nuclear translocation of Egr-1, but not NF-κB and Sp-1. Meanwhile, Egr-1 silencing by siRNA significantly reduced PLpro-induced up-regulation of TGF-β1, TSP-1 and pro-fibrotic genes. Furthermore, the inhibitors for ROS (YCG063), p38 MAPK (SB203580), and STAT3 (Stattic) revealed ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 pathway involving in Egr-1 dependent activation of TGF-β1 promoter induced by PLpro. In a mouse model with a direct pulmonary injection, PLpro stimulated macrophage infiltration into lung, up-regulating Egr-1, TSP-1, TGF-β1 and vimentin expression in lung tissues. The results revealed that SARS-CoV PLpro significantly triggered Egr-1 dependent activation of TGF-β1 promoter via ROS/p38 MAPK/STAT3 pathway, correlating with up-regulation of pro-fibrotic responses in vitro and in vivo. PMID:27173006

  5. Fulvestrant up regulates UGT1A4 and MRPs through ERα and c-Myb pathways: a possible primary drug disposition mechanism.

    Edavana, Vineetha K; Penney, Rosalind B; Yao-Borengasser, Aiwei; Williams, Suzanne; Rogers, Lora; Dhakal, Ishwori B; Kadlubar, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Fulvestrant (Faslodex™) is a pure antiestrogen that is effective in treating estrogen receptor-(ER) positive breast cancer tumors that are resistant to selective estrogen receptor modulators such as tamoxifen. Clinical trials investigating the utility of adding fulvestrant to other therapeutics have not been shown to affect cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism. Effects on phase II metabolism and drug resistance have not been explored. This study demonstrates that fulvestrant up regulates the expression of UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1A4 (UGT1A4) >2.5- and >3.5-fold in MCF7 and HepG2 cells, respectively. Up regulation occurred in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and was inhibited by siRNA silencing of ERα. Fulvestrant also up regulates multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs). There was an up regulation of MRP2 (1.5- and 3.5-fold), and MRP3 (5.5- and 4.5-fold) in MCF7 and HepG2 cell lines, respectively, and an up regulation of MRP1 (4-fold) in MCF7 cells. UGT1A4 mRNA up regulation was significantly correlated with UGT1A4 protein expression, anastrozole glucuronidation, ERα mRNA expression and MRP mRNA expression, but not with ERα protein expression. Genetic variants in the UGT1A4 promoter (-163A, -217G and -219T) reduced the basal activity of UGT1A4 by 40-60%. In silico analysis indicated that transcription factor c-Myb binding capacity may be affected by these variations. Luciferase activity assays demonstrate that silencing c-Myb abolished UGT1A4 up regulation by fulvestrant in promoters with the common genotype (-163G, -217 T and -219C) in MCF7 cells. These data indicate that fulvestrant can influence the disposition of other UGT1A4 substrates. These findings suggest a clinically significant role for UGT1A4 and MRPs in drug efficacy. PMID:24298433

  6. Active structures to reduce torsional vibrations

    Matthias, M.; Schlote, D.; Atzrodt, H.

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes the development of different active measures to reduce torsional vibrations in power trains. The measures are based on concepts developed for active mounts to reduce the transmission of structure-borne sound. To show the potential of these active measures and investigate their mode of operation to influence torsional vibrations, numerical simulations of powertrains with different active measures were done. First experimental results from tests on an experimental (reduced size) power train were used to align the numerical models. The work was done within the project 'LOEWE-Zentrum AdRIA: Adaptronik - Research, Innovation, Application' funded by the German federal state of Hessen, and the Project AKTos: 'Active control of torsional vibrations by coupling elements' placed in the research Framework program 'Navigation and Maritime Technology for the 21st Century' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology.

  7. Up-regulation of miR-98 and unraveling regulatory mechanisms in gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Cao, Jing-Li; Zhang, Lu; Li, Jian; Tian, Shi; Lv, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Xue-Qin; Su, Xing; Li, Ying; Hu, Yi; Ma, Xu; Xia, Hong-Fei

    2016-01-01

    MiR-98 expression was up-regulated in kidney in response to early diabetic nephropathy in mouse and down-regulated in muscle in type 2 diabetes in human. However, the expression prolife and functional role of miR-98 in human gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remained unclear. Here, we investigated its expression and function in placental tissues from GDM patients and the possible molecular mechanisms. The results showed that miR-98 was up-regulated in placentas from GDM patients compared with normal placentas. MiR-98 over-expression increased global DNA methylational level and miR-98 knockdown reduced global DNA methylational level. Further investigation revealed that miR-98 could inhibit Mecp2 expression by binding the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (Mecp2), and then led to the expression dysregulation of canonical transient receptor potential 3 (Trpc3), a glucose uptake related gene. More importantly, in vivo analysis found that the expression level of Mecp2 and Trpc3 in placental tissues from GDM patients, relative to the increase of miR-98, was diminished, especially for GDM patients over the age of 35 years. Collectively, up-regulation of miR-98 in the placental tissues of human GDM is linked to the global DNA methylation via targeting Mecp2, which may imply a novel regulatory mechanism in GDM. PMID:27573367

  8. 顺势疗法药物山金车30C通过上调核苷酸切除修复基因的表达减少紫外线照射后大肠杆菌的DNA损伤%Potential of the homeopathic remedy, Arnica Montana 30C,to reduce DNA damage in Escherichia coli exposed to ultraviolet irradiation through up-regulation of nucleotide excision repair genes

    Sreemanti Das; Santu Kumar Saha; Arnab De; Durba Das; Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhs

    2012-01-01

    -exposed bacteria were then supplemented with either AM-30C (drug) or placebo (P-30C).The drug-treated and placebo-treated bacteria were subjected to assay for DNA damage and oxidative stress 90 min after UV exposure.Several protocols like comet assay,gel electrophoresis for DNA ladder and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation,and biomarker measurement like superoxide dismutase (SOD),catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were conducted.The mRNA expressions of the excision repair genes like ultraviolet repair uvrA,B and C genes (or also known as excision repair genes) were estimated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method.RESULTS:The UV-exposed bacteria showed DNA damage and oxidative stress,as revealed by an increase in ROS generation,and a decrease in SOD,CAT and GSH activities.As compared to placebo,the AM-30C-treated bacteria showed less DNA damage and oxidative stress as manifested by a decrease in ROS generation,and an increase in SOD,CAT and GSH activities.AM-30C also up-regulated the expression of repair genes as compared to the control.CONCLUSION:AM-30C helped repair the DNA damage through up-regulation of repair genesand also ameliorated the oxidative stress through the reduction of ROS generation and suitable modulation of anti-oxidative stress enzymes.

  9. SIRT1 expression and activity are up-regulated in the brain tissue of epileptic patients and rat models%SIRT1在癫痫患者及大鼠脑组织中的表达与活性

    陈永平; 谢运兰; 王衡; 陈阳美

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression and activity of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) in the temporal lobe of epileptic patients and rat models and explore its role in the occurrence and progression of epilepsy. Methods The temporal lobe tissue of epileptic patients and rat models (induced by lithium-pilocarpine) were examined for SERT1 expression using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting and also for SIRT1 activity using SIRT1 Deacetylase Assay Kit. Results Immunohistochemistry detected positive SIRT1 expression mainly in the cytoplasm of the neurons in both human and rat brains, and the epileptic groups showed stronger SIRT1 immunoreactivity than the control group. Western blotting and activity assay showed that the expression and activity of SIRT1 were significantly increased in the temporal lobe of patients with refractory epilepsy as compared with the tissues samples from non-epileptic patients (P0.05). In the rat models of epilepsy, SIRT1 expression was up-regulated at 6, 24, and 72 h and at 7,14, 30, and 60 days after kindling (P<0.05) and SIRT1 activity was significantly increased at 6, 24, and 72 h and at 7 and 14 days (P0.05), with the peak level of SIRT1 expression and activity occurring at 72 h. Conclusion Up-regulation of SIRT1 expression and activity in the temporal lobe of epileptic patients and rat models may play an important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy.%目的 研究沉默信号调控因子1 (SIRT1)在难治性癫痫患者及癫痫大鼠颞叶脑组织中的表达与活性,探讨其与癫痫发生发展的关系.方法 在难治性癫痫患者及氯化锂-匹罗卡品癫痫大鼠颞叶脑组织中,应用蛋白免疫组织化学、免疫印迹技术检测其表达情况,应用SIRT1去乙酰化活性检测试剂盒检测其活性.结果 蛋白免疫组化结果显示:SIRT1主要表达于人与大鼠神经元细胞浆中,且癫痫组SIRT1的表达明显强于对照组.蛋白免疫印迹及活性检测结果显示:相对

  10. Affiliative behavior attenuates stress responses of GI tract via up-regulating hypothalamic oxytocin expression.

    Babygirija, Reji; Cerjak, Diana; Yoshimoto, Sazu; Gribovskaja-Rupp, Irena; Bülbül, Mehmet; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-07-01

    Hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) has stress-attenuating effects. Social interaction in a positive environment continuously activates OXT release system. We have recently shown that pair housing restores delayed gastric emptying following chronic heterotypic stress, via up-regulation of OXT mRNA expression in rats. We tested the hypothesis that affiliative behavior attenuates stress responses via upregulating OXT expression. Adult male SD rats were divided into two groups: the rat with a stressed partner (RSP) and the rat with a non-stressed partner (RNSP). RSPs were pair housed with a partner that received different types of stress for 7 consecutive days (chronic heterotypic stress). RNSPs were pair housed with a partner who did not receive any stress. After each stress loading, the rats were returned to their home cages and the behaviors of RSPs and RNSPs toward their partners were videotaped. After the study completion, RSPs and RNSPs were loaded with acute restraint stress. Then, gastric emptying and colonic transit were measured. Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) and OXT expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) were evaluated by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The time of affiliative behaviors toward their partners was increased in RSPs, compared to that of RNSPs. Delayed gastric emptying and accelerated colonic transit induced by acute restraint stress were significantly attenuated in RSPs, compared to RNSPs. CRF expression was reduced, while OXT expression was increased in RSPs in response to acute stress, compared to controls. It is suggested that affiliative behaviors may upregulate hypothalamic OXT expression, which in turn attenuates stress responses. PMID:22464293

  11. Mutations in BALB mitochondrial DNA induce CCL20 up-regulation promoting tumorigenic phenotypes

    Sligh, James [Department of Medicine—Dermatology Division, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 857 24 (United States); University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Janda, Jaroslav [University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Jandova, Jana, E-mail: jjandova@email.arizona.edu [Department of Medicine—Dermatology Division, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 857 24 (United States); University of Arizona Cancer Center, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    -κB activation inhibited CCL20 expression in mtBALB cybrids and decreased their migratory capabilities. Thus, acquired mtDNA mutations may promote tumorigenic phenotypes through up-regulation of chemokine CCL20.

  12. Mutations in BALB mitochondrial DNA induce CCL20 up-regulation promoting tumorigenic phenotypes

    -κB activation inhibited CCL20 expression in mtBALB cybrids and decreased their migratory capabilities. Thus, acquired mtDNA mutations may promote tumorigenic phenotypes through up-regulation of chemokine CCL20

  13. Active compressor engine silencer reduces exhaust noise

    An active industrial silencer on a compressor engine at a Tenneco Gas station has reduced low-frequency 'rumbling' noise by 8 dB during trials while lowering backpressure about 90$. This 8 dB reduction of the piston firing frequency corresponds to a more than 80% decrease in emitted acoustic power. The silencing unit, installed on one of six engines at the station near Eden, N.Y., continues in operation. Based on the results, the manufacturer is identifying additional compressor sites for further tests. This paper reviews this project

  14. Cholinergic Abnormalities, Endosomal Alterations and Up-Regulation of Nerve Growth Factor Signaling in Niemann-Pick Type C Disease

    Cabeza Carolina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurotrophins and their receptors regulate several aspects of the developing and mature nervous system, including neuronal morphology and survival. Neurotrophin receptors are active in signaling endosomes, which are organelles that propagate neurotrophin signaling along neuronal processes. Defects in the Npc1 gene are associated with the accumulation of cholesterol and lipids in late endosomes and lysosomes, leading to neurodegeneration and Niemann-Pick type C (NPC disease. The aim of this work was to assess whether the endosomal and lysosomal alterations observed in NPC disease disrupt neurotrophin signaling. As models, we used i NPC1-deficient mice to evaluate the central cholinergic septo-hippocampal pathway and its response to nerve growth factor (NGF after axotomy and ii PC12 cells treated with U18666A, a pharmacological cellular model of NPC, stimulated with NGF. Results NPC1-deficient cholinergic cells respond to NGF after axotomy and exhibit increased levels of choline acetyl transferase (ChAT, whose gene is under the control of NGF signaling, compared to wild type cholinergic neurons. This finding was correlated with increased ChAT and phosphorylated Akt in basal forebrain homogenates. In addition, we found that cholinergic neurons from NPC1-deficient mice had disrupted neuronal morphology, suggesting early signs of neurodegeneration. Consistently, PC12 cells treated with U18666A presented a clear NPC cellular phenotype with a prominent endocytic dysfunction that includes an increased size of TrkA-containing endosomes and reduced recycling of the receptor. This result correlates with increased sensitivity to NGF, and, in particular, with up-regulation of the Akt and PLC-γ signaling pathways, increased neurite extension, increased phosphorylation of tau protein and cell death when PC12 cells are differentiated and treated with U18666A. Conclusions Our results suggest that the NPC cellular phenotype causes neuronal

  15. Reducing the emission from offshore activities

    The goal to reduce the emissions from the Norwegian shelf is in part based on international commitments, in part on national targets. The traditional means has been based on direct regulation of environmentally damaging emissions. In recent years, economical instruments such as taxes have been used increasingly. But close cooperation between the industry and the authorities is also important. Norway's largest single contribution of carbon dioxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds (nmVOC) comes from the offshore activities. Although the total emission of carbon dioxide increased in the period from 1991 to 1996, the emission per unit production decreased by 30 %. This is largely due to the CO2 tax that was introduced in 1991 which motivated process optimisation, operational improvements and more efficient energy generation. Nevertheless, this trend has recently been reversed; the emission per unit production is now increasing. An important reason for this is the fact that many fields are approaching their final stage of production. Norway has failed to meet the obligations imposed by the LRTAP convention about nmVOC. According to the 1999 Gothenburg Protocol to Abate Acidification, Eutrophication and Ground-level Ozone, Norway must reduce the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) to 156 000 tonnes by 2010, which means a reduction of 29 % compared to the emission level of 1990. nmVOC emission related to buoy loading and storage must be reduced by 70 %. Emissions to sea of oil, chemicals and organic compounds from drilling and well operations and produced water represent great challenges to the offshore activities in the coming years. The recent development of drilling technology has created few dry drill holes and so considerably reduced the emissions of chemicals and drilling waste. Finally, the article lists some of the most important international agreements concerning emission to air from the Norwegian shelf: (1) United Nations Framework Convention on

  16. Sildenafil prevents the up-regulation of transient receptor potential canonical channels in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Kiso, Hironori [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Medicine, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ohba, Takayoshi [Department of Cell Physiology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Iino, Kenji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Terata, Yutaka [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Medicine, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Murakami, Manabu [Department of Pharmacology, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ono, Kyoichi [Department of Cell Physiology, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hirow@doc.med.akita-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Medicine, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan); Ito, Hiroshi [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Medicine, Akita University Graduate School of Medicine (Japan)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC1, 3 and 6) are up-regulated by ET-1. •Sildenafil inhibited hypertrophic responses (BNP, Ca entry, NFAT activation). •Sildenafil suppressed TRPC1, 3 and 6 expression. -- Abstract: Background: Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPCs) channels are up-regulated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Sildenafil inhibits TRPC6 activation and expression, leading to the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effects of sildenafil on the expression of other TRPCs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in addition to its effects of TRPC6, sildenafil blocks the up-regulation of other TRPC channels to suppress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods and results: In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, a 48 h treatment with 10 nM endothelin (ET)-1 induced hypertrophic responses characterized by nuclear factor of activated T cells activation and enhancement of brain natriuretic peptide expression and cell surface area. Co-treatment with sildenafil (1 μM, 48 h) inhibited these ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses. Although ET-1 enhanced the gene expression of TRPCs, sildenafil inhibited the enhanced gene expression of TRPC1, C3 and C6. Moreover, co-treatment with sildenafil abolished the augmentation of SOCE in the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that sildenafil inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by suppressing the up-regulation of TRPC expression.

  17. Sildenafil prevents the up-regulation of transient receptor potential canonical channels in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    Highlights: •Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC1, 3 and 6) are up-regulated by ET-1. •Sildenafil inhibited hypertrophic responses (BNP, Ca entry, NFAT activation). •Sildenafil suppressed TRPC1, 3 and 6 expression. -- Abstract: Background: Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPCs) channels are up-regulated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Sildenafil inhibits TRPC6 activation and expression, leading to the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effects of sildenafil on the expression of other TRPCs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in addition to its effects of TRPC6, sildenafil blocks the up-regulation of other TRPC channels to suppress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods and results: In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, a 48 h treatment with 10 nM endothelin (ET)-1 induced hypertrophic responses characterized by nuclear factor of activated T cells activation and enhancement of brain natriuretic peptide expression and cell surface area. Co-treatment with sildenafil (1 μM, 48 h) inhibited these ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses. Although ET-1 enhanced the gene expression of TRPCs, sildenafil inhibited the enhanced gene expression of TRPC1, C3 and C6. Moreover, co-treatment with sildenafil abolished the augmentation of SOCE in the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that sildenafil inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by suppressing the up-regulation of TRPC expression

  18. Estradiol improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2 on vascular wall.

    Liu, Zhaoyu; Gou, Yulan; Zhang, Hongyu; Zuo, Houjuan; Zhang, Haimou; Liu, Zhengxiang; Yao, Dachun

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that estrogens have protective effects in cardiovascular diseases, even though the results from human clinical trials remain controversial, while most of the animal experiments confirmed this effect, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that estradiol (E2) treatment significantly increases the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in mice and in vitro in human aorta endothelial cells. Further investigation shows that E2 up-regulates SOD2 through tethering of estrogen receptor (ER) to Sp1 and the increased binding of Sp1 to GC-box on the SOD2 promoter, where ERα responses E2-mediated gene activation, and ERβ maintains basal gene expression level. The E2/ER-mediated SOD2 up-regulation results in minimized ROS generation, which highly favors healthy cardiovascular function. Gene therapy through lentivirus-carried endothelium-specific delivery to the vascular wall in high-fat diet (HFT) mice shows that the SOD2 expression in endothelial cells normalizes E2 deficiency-induced ROS generation with ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular damage, while SOD2 knockdown worsens the problem despite the presence of E2, indicating that E2-induced SOD2 expression plays an important vasculoprotective role. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the mechanism by which E2 improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2 in endothelial cells. In turn, this suggests a novel gene therapy through lentivirus-carried gene delivery to vascular wall for E2 deficiency-induced cardiovascular damage in postmenopausal women. PMID:25462070

  19. Estradiol improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2 on vascular wall

    Zhaoyu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that estrogens have protective effects in cardiovascular diseases, even though the results from human clinical trials remain controversial, while most of the animal experiments confirmed this effect, but the detailed mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that estradiol (E2 treatment significantly increases the expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2 in mice and in vitro in human aorta endothelial cells. Further investigation shows that E2 up-regulates SOD2 through tethering of estrogen receptor (ER to Sp1 and the increased binding of Sp1 to GC-box on the SOD2 promoter, where ERα responses E2-mediated gene activation, and ERβ maintains basal gene expression level. The E2/ER-mediated SOD2 up-regulation results in minimized ROS generation, which highly favors healthy cardiovascular function. Gene therapy through lentivirus-carried endothelium-specific delivery to the vascular wall in high-fat diet (HFT mice shows that the SOD2 expression in endothelial cells normalizes E2 deficiency-induced ROS generation with ameliorated mitochondrial dysfunction and vascular damage, while SOD2 knockdown worsens the problem despite the presence of E2, indicating that E2-induced SOD2 expression plays an important vasculoprotective role. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the mechanism by which E2 improves cardiovascular function through up-regulation of SOD2 in endothelial cells. In turn, this suggests a novel gene therapy through lentivirus-carried gene delivery to vascular wall for E2 deficiency-induced cardiovascular damage in postmenopausal women.

  20. Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Hydroxamic Acid Derivatives as Potential High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) Receptor CLA-1 Up-Regulating Agents

    Yu Du; Yanbin Wu; Bin Hong; Yuan Yang; Xiaojian Jia; Li Wang; Xiaofang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Trichostatin A (TSA) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) were reported in our recent publication as novel human high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor CD36 and Lysosomal integral membrane protein-II Analogous-1 (CLA-1) up-regulators. As part of a broader effort to more fully explore the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of CLA-1 up-regulators, we synthesized a series of hydroxamic acid derivatives and evaluated their CLA-1 up-regulating activities in HepG2 cells. Some compounds e...

  1. Gene and functional up-regulation of the BCRP/ABCG2 transporter in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Sukowati Caecilia HC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2 is one member of ABC transporters proteins super family responsible of drug resistance. Since data on ABCG2 expression in liver malignances are scanty, here we report the expression of ABCG2 in adult human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in both in vivo and in vitro models with different degree of malignancy. Methods In cell lines derived from human hepatocellular carcinoma, ABCG2 gene expression was assessed by reverse transcription quantitative real time PCR and function by Hoechst 33342 efflux assay; protein content was assessed by SDS-PAGE Western blot. Results ABCG2 expression was found to be highest in the most undifferentiated cell lines, and this was related with a higher functional activity. ABCG2 expression was sensitive to antineoplastic drugs since exposure to 5 μM doxorubicin for 24 hours resulted in significant up-regulations of ABCG2 in all cell lines, particularly in those lines with low basal ABCG2 expression (p Conclusions Our results suggest a correlation of ABCG2 gene expression and differentiation stage both in human and HCC derived cell lines. The rapid up-regulation of ABCG2 to exposure to doxorubicin emphasizes the importance of this transporter in accounting for drug resistance in liver tumors.

  2. Up-regulation of podoplanin involves in neuronal apoptosis in LPS-induced neuroinflammation.

    Song, Yan; Shen, Jianhong; Lin, Yuchang; Shen, Jiabing; Wu, Xinming; Yan, Yaohua; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhou, Ying; Cao, Maohong; Liu, Yonghua

    2014-08-01

    Podoplanin (PDPN) is a mucin-type transmembrane sialoglycoprotein expressed in multiple tissues in adult animals, including the brain, lungs, kidney, and lymphoid organs. Studies of this molecule have demonstrated its great importance in tumor metastasis, platelet aggregation, and lymphatic vessel formation. However, information regarding its regulation and possible function in the central nervous system is still limited. In this study, we performed a neuroinflammatory model by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) lateral ventral injection in adult rats and detected increased expression of PDPN in the brain cortex. Immunofluorescence indicated that PDPN was located in the neurons, but not astrocytes. Moreover, there was a concomitant up-regulation of active caspase-3, cyclin D1, and CDK4 in vivo and vitro studies. In addition, the expression of these three proteins in cortical primary neurons was decreased after knocking down PDPN by siRNA. Collectively, all these results suggested that the up-regulation of PDPN might be involved in neuronal apoptosis in neuroinflammation after LPS injection. PMID:24821010

  3. Utrophin up-regulation by an artificial transcription factor in transgenic mice.

    Elisabetta Mattei

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a severe muscle degenerative disease, due to absence of dystrophin. There is currently no effective treatment for DMD. Our aim is to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin related gene utrophin in DMD, complementing in this way the lack of dystrophin functions. To this end we designed and engineered several synthetic zinc finger based transcription factors. In particular, we have previously shown that the artificial three zinc finger protein named Jazz, fused with the appropriate effector domain, is able to drive the transcription of a test gene from the utrophin promoter "A". Here we report on the characterization of Vp16-Jazz-transgenic mice that specifically over-express the utrophin gene at the muscular level. A Chromatin Immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP demonstrated the effective access/binding of the Jazz protein to active chromatin in mouse muscle and Vp16-Jazz was shown to be able to up-regulate endogenous utrophin gene expression by immunohistochemistry, western blot analyses and real-time PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger based transcription factor. The achievement of Vp16-Jazz transgenic mice validates the strategy of transcriptional targeting of endogenous genes and could represent an exclusive animal model for use in drug discovery and therapeutics.

  4. The role of HIF-1 in up-regulating MICA expression on human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells during hypoxia/reoxygenation

    Li Fu S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain A (MICA plays a dual role in adaptive and innate immune responses. Increasing evidence demonstrates that MICA is closely correlated with acute and chronic kidney allograft rejection. Therefore, understanding the activation mechanisms of MICA is important in kidney transplantation. We previously demonstrated that ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI could up-regulate MICA expression on mouse kidney allografts. Since hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1 is the master regulator of cellular adaptive responses to hypoxia during IRI, here we investigate whether HIF-1 could up-regulate MICA expression and its influence on NK cell cytotoxicity. Results We find that HIF-1alpha plays an important role in up-regulating MICA expression, inducing IFNgamma secretion and NK cell cytotoxicity during hypoxia/reoxygenation. First, we generated a HIF-1alphaDELTAODD-expressing adenovirus to stably and functionally express HIF-1alpha in human renal proximal tubular epithelial (HK-2 cells under normoxia conditions. HIF-1alpha over-expression in HK-2 cells induces MICA expression and enhances NK cell cytotoxic activity towards cells that express HIF-1alpha. Second, we used a hypoxia/reoxygenation cell model to simulate IRI in vitro and found that the suppression of HIF-1alpha by RNAi induces down-regulation of MICA expression and inhibits NK cytotoxicity. In antibody blocking experiments, an anti-MICA mAb was able to down-regulate NK cell cytotoxic activity towards HK-2 cells that over-expressed HIF-1alpha. Moreover, when NK cells were co-cultured with the HK-2 cells expressing MICA, which was up-regulated by over-expression of HIF-1alpha, there was a significant increase in the secretion of IFNgamma. In the presence of the blocking MICA mAb, IFNgamma secretion was significantly decreased. Conclusions These results demonstrate that hypoxia/reoxygenation-promoted MICA expression on HK-2 cells is

  5. E2F-1 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via PUMA up-regulation and Bax translocation

    PUMA is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member that has been shown to be involved in apoptosis in many cell types. We sought to ascertain whether induction of PUMA plays a crucial role in E2F-1-induced apoptosis in melanoma cells. PUMA gene and protein expression levels were detected by real-time PCR and Western blot in SK-MEL-2 and HCT116 cell lines after Ad-E2F-1 infection. Activation of the PUMA promoter by E2F-1 overexpression was detected by dual luciferase reporter assay. E2F-1-induced Bax translocation was shown by immunocytochemistry. The induction of caspase-9 activity was measured by caspase-9 colorimetric assay kit. Up-regulation of the PUMA gene and protein by E2F-1 overexpression was detected by real-time PCR and Western blot analysis in the SK-MEL-2 melanoma cell line. In support of this finding, we found six putative E2F-1 binding sites within the PUMA promoter. Subsequent dual luciferase reporter assay showed that E2F-1 expression could increase the PUMA gene promoter activity 9.3 fold in SK-MEL-2 cells. The role of PUMA in E2F-1-induced apoptosis was further investigated in a PUMA knockout cell line. Cell viability assay showed that the HCT116 PUMA-/- cell line was more resistant to Ad-E2F-1-mediated cell death than the HCT116 PUMA+/+ cell line. Moreover, a 2.2-fold induction of the PUMA promoter was also noted in the HCT116 PUMA+/+ colon cancer cell line after Ad-E2F-1 infection. Overexpression of a truncated E2F-1 protein that lacks the transactivation domain failed to up-regulate PUMA promoter, suggesting that PUMA may be a transcriptional target of E2F-1. E2F-1-induced cancer cell apoptosis was accompanied by Bax translocation from the cytosol to mitochondria and the induction of caspase-9 activity, suggesting that E2F-1-induced apoptosis is mediated by PUMA through the cytochrome C/Apaf-1-dependent pathway. Our studies strongly demonstrated that E2F-1 induces melanoma cell apoptosis via PUMA up-regulation and Bax translocation. The signaling

  6. SET protein up-regulated testosterone production in the cultured preantral follicles

    Xu Boqun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We found previously that the expression of SET gene was up-regulated in polycystic ovaries. Evidences suggested that SET protein was essential for regulating both the promoter activity of CYP17A1 and the biological activity of P450c17. In this study, we explored whether SET regulated androgen production in preantral follicles. Methods The mouse preantral follicles were cultured in vitro. Testosterone secretion and expression of steroidogenic enzymes were observed in the preantral follicles treated in vitro by SET overexpression and knockdown. Results Testosterone levels in the media of the AdCMV-SET infected follicles significantly increased, and the CYP17A1 and HSD3B2 expression also significantly increased (P P  Conclusions SET played a positive role in regulating ovarian androgen biosynthesis by enhancing the transcription of steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1 and HSD3B2, which maybe contribute to the hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

  7. Cardiovascular function following reduced aerobic activity

    Raven, P. B.; Welch-O'Connor, R. M.; Shi, X.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a sustained reduction of physical activity (deconditioning) would alter the cardiovascular regulatory function. METHODS: Nineteen young, healthy volunteers participated in physical deconditioning for a period of 8 wk. Before (pre) and following (post) physical deconditioning, the responses of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP, measured by Finapres), central venous pressure (CVP), stroke volume (SV, Doppler), and forearm blood flow (FBF, plethysmography) were determined during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The carotid baroreflex (CBR) function was assessed using a train of pulsatile neck pressure (NP) and suction, and the aortic baroreflex control of HR was assessed during steady-state phenylephrine (PE) infusion superimposed by LBNP and NP to counteract the PE increased CVP and carotid sinus pressure, respectively. RESULTS: Active physical deconditioning significantly decreased maximal oxygen uptake (-7%) and LBNP tolerance (-13%) without a change in baseline hemodynamics. Plasma volume (-3% at P = 0.135), determined by Evans Blue dilution, and blood volume (-4% at P = 0.107) were not significantly altered. During LBNP -20 to -50 torr, there was a significantly greater drop of SV per unit decrease in CVP in the post- (14.7 +/- 1.6%/mm Hg) than predeconditioning (11.2 +/- 0.7%/mm Hg) test accompanied by a greater tachycardia. Deconditioning increased the aortic baroreflex sensitivity (pre vs post: -0.61 +/- 0.12 vs -0.84 +/- 0.14 bpm.mm-1 Hg, P = 0.009) and the slope of forearm vascular resistance (calculated from [MAP-CVP]/FBF) to CVP (-2.75 +/- 0.26 vs -4.94 +/- 0.97 PRU/mm Hg, P = 0.086). However, neither the CBR-HR (-0.28 +/- 0.03 VS -0.39 +/- 0.10 bpm.mm-1 Hg) nor the CBR-MAP (-0.37 +/- 0.16 vs -0.25 +/- 0.07 mm Hg/mm Hg) gains were statistically different between pre- and postdeconditioning. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the functional modification of the cardiac pressure

  8. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 up-regulation by PPAR-β/δ prevents lipid-induced endothelial dysfunction.

    Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Jiménez, Rosario; Mahmoud, Ayman Moawad; Barroso, Emma; Gómez-Guzmán, Manuel; Sánchez, Manuel; Cogolludo, Ángel; García-Redondo, Ana B; Briones, Ana M; Vázquez-Carrera, Manuel; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan

    2015-11-01

    Fatty acids cause endothelial dysfunction involving increased ROS (reactive oxygen species) and reduced NO (nitric oxide) bioavailability. We show that in MAECs (mouse aortic endothelial cells), the PPARβ/δ (peroxisome- proliferator-activated receptor β/δ) agonist GW0742 prevented the decreased A23187-stimulated NO production, phosphorylation of eNOS (endothelial nitric oxide synthase) at Ser1177 and increased intracellular ROS levels caused by exposure to palmitate in vitro. The impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine in mouse aorta induced by palmitate was restored by GW0742. In vivo, GW0742 treatment prevented the reduced aortic relaxation, phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177, and increased ROS production and NADPH oxidase in mice fed on a high-fat diet. The PPARβ/δ antagonist GSK0660 abolished all of these protective effects induced by GW0742. This agonist enhanced the expression of CPT (carnitine palmitoyltransferase)-1. The effects of GW0742 on acetylcholine- induced relaxation in aorta and on NO and ROS production in MAECs exposed to palmitate were abolished by the CPT-1 inhibitor etomoxir or by siRNA targeting CPT-1. GW0742 also inhibited the increase in DAG (diacylglycerol), PKCα/βII (protein kinase Cα/βII) activation, and phosphorylation of eNOS at Thr495 induced by palmitate in MAECs, which were abolished by etomoxir. In conclusion, PPARβ/δ activation restored the lipid-induced endothelial dysfunction by up-regulation of CPT-1, thus reducing DAG accumulation and the subsequent PKC-mediated ROS production and eNOS inhibition. PMID:26253087

  9. Transcript profiling reveals that cysteine protease inhibitors are up-regulated in tuber sprouts after extended darkness.

    Grandellis, Carolina; Giammaria, Veronica; Fantino, Elisa; Cerrudo, Ignacio; Bachmann, Sandra; Santin, Franco; Ulloa, Rita M

    2016-07-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers are an excellent staple food due to its high nutritional value. When the tuber reaches physiological competence, sprouting proceeds accompanied by changes at mRNA and protein levels. Potato tubers become a source of carbon and energy until sprouts are capable of independent growth. Transcript profiling of sprouts grown under continuous light or dark conditions was performed using the TIGR 10K EST Solanaceae microarray. The profiles analyzed show a core of highly expressed transcripts that are associated to the reactivation of growth. Under light conditions, the photosynthetic machinery was fully activated; the highest up-regulation was observed for the Rubisco activase (RCA), the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and the Photosystem II 22 kDa protein (CP22) genes, among others. On the other hand, sprouts exposed to continuous darkness elongate longer, and after extended darkness, synthesis of chloroplast components was repressed, the expression of proteases was reduced while genes encoding cysteine protease inhibitors (CPIs) and metallocarboxypeptidase inhibitors (MPIs) were strongly induced. Northern blot and RT-PCR analysis confirmed that MPI levels correlated with the length of the dark period; however, CPI expression was strong only after longer periods of darkness, suggesting a feedback loop (regulation mechanism) in response to dark-induced senescence. Prevention of cysteine protease activity in etiolated sprouts exposed to extended darkness could delay senescence until they emerge to light. PMID:27075731

  10. Genes involved in carnitine synthesis and carnitine uptake are up-regulated in the liver of sows during lactation

    Rosenbaum, Susann; Ringseis, Robert; Most, Erika; Hillen, Sonja; Becker, Sabrina; Erhardt, Georg; Reiner, Gerald; Eder, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Convincing evidence exist that carnitine synthesis and uptake of carnitine into cells is regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARA), a transcription factor which is physiologically activated during fasting or energy deprivation. Sows are typically in a negative energy balance during peak lactation. We investigated the hypothesis that genes involved in carnitine synthesis and uptake in the liver of sows are up-regulated during peak lactation. FINDINGS:Tra...

  11. Up-regulated expression of extracellular matrix remodeling genes in phagocytically challenged trabecular meshwork cells.

    Kristine M Porter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cells in the trabecular meshwork (TM, the tissue responsible for draining aqueous humor out of the eye, are known to be highly phagocytic. Phagocytic function in TM cells is thought to play an important role in the normal functioning of the outflow pathway. Dysfunction of phagocytosis could lead to abnormalities of outflow resistance and increased intraocular pressure (IOP. However, the molecular mechanisms triggered by phagocytosis in TM cells are completely unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Gene expression profile analysis of human TM cells phagocytically challenged to E. coli or pigment under physiological and oxidative stress environment were performed using Affymetrix U133 plus 2.0 array and analyzed with Genespring GX. Despite the differential biological response elicited by E. coli and pigment particles, a number of genes, including MMP1, MMP3, TNFSF11, DIO2, KYNU, and KCCN2 showed differential expression with both phagocytic ligands in all conditions. Data was confirmed by qPCR in both human and porcine TM cells. Metacore pathway analysis and the usage of recombinant adenovirus encoding the dominant negative mutant of IkB identified NF-κB as a transcription factor mediating the up-regulation of at least MMP1 and MMP3 in TM cells with phagocytosis. In-gel zymography demonstrated increased collagenolytic and caseinolytic activities in the culture media of TM cells challenge to E. coli. In addition, collagenolytic I activity was further confirmed using the self-quenched fluorescent substrate DQ-Collagen I. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report for the first time the differential gene expression profile of TM cells phagocytically challenged with either E. coli or pigment. Our data indicate a potential role of phagocytosis in outflow pathway tissue homeostasis through the up-regulation and/or proteolytic activation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes.

  12. Evaluating Active Interventions to Reduce Student Procrastination

    Martin, Joshua Deckert

    2015-01-01

    Procrastination is a pervasive problem in education. In computer science, procrastination and lack of necessary time management skills to complete programming projects are viewed as primary causes of student attrition. The most effective techniques known to reduce procrastination are resource-intensive and do not scale well to large classrooms. In this thesis, we examine three course interventions designed to both reduce procrastination and be scalable for large classrooms. Reflective writ...

  13. Improved insulin sensitivity associated with reduced mitochondrial complex IV assembly and activity.

    Deepa, Sathyaseelan S; Pulliam, Daniel; Hill, Shauna; Shi, Yun; Walsh, Michael E; Salmon, Adam; Sloane, Lauren; Zhang, Ning; Zeviani, Massimo; Viscomi, Carlo; Musi, Nicolas; Van Remmen, Holly

    2013-04-01

    Mice lacking Surf1, a complex IV assembly protein, have ∼50-70% reduction in cytochrome c oxidase activity in all tissues yet a paradoxical increase in lifespan. Here we report that Surf1(-/-) mice have lower body (15%) and fat (20%) mass, in association with reduced lipid storage, smaller adipocytes, and elevated indicators of fatty acid oxidation in white adipose tissue (WAT) compared with control mice. The respiratory quotient in the Surf1(-/-) mice was significantly lower than in the control animals (0.83-0.93 vs. 0.90-0.98), consistent with enhanced fat utilization in Surf1(-/-) mice. Elevated fat utilization was associated with increased insulin sensitivity measured as insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as an increase in insulin receptor levels (∼2-fold) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4; ∼1.3-fold) levels in WAT in the Surf1(-/-) mice. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) mRNA and protein was up-regulated by 2.5- and 1.9-fold, respectively, in WAT from Surf1(-/-) mice, and the expression of PGC-1α target genes and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis was elevated. Together, these findings point to a novel and unexpected link between reduced mitochondrial complex IV activity, enhanced insulin sensitivity, and increased mitochondrial biogenesis that may contribute to the increased longevity in the Surf1(-/-) mice. PMID:23241310

  14. Hepatic and Nephric NRF2 Pathway Up-Regulation, an Early Antioxidant Response, in Acute Arsenic-Exposed Mice

    Jinlong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic arsenic (iAs, a proven human carcinogen, damages biological systems through multiple mechanisms, one of them being reactive oxygen species (ROS production. NRF2 is a redox-sensitive transcription factor that positively regulates the genes of encoding antioxidant and detoxification enzymes to neutralize ROS. Although NRF2 pathway activation by iAs has been reported in various cell types, however, the experimental data in vivo are very limited and not fully elucidated in humans. The present investigation aimed to explore the hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway upregulation in acute arsenic-exposed mice in vivo. Our results showed 10 mg/kg NaAsO2 elevated the NRF2 protein and increased the transcription of Nrf2 mRNA, as well as up-regulated NRF2 downstream targets HO-1, GST and GCLC time- and dose-dependently both in the liver and kidney. Acute NaAsO2 exposure also resulted in obvious imbalance of oxidative redox status represented by the increase of GSH and MDA, and the decrease of T-AOC. The present investigation reveals that hepatic and nephric NRF2 pathway expression is an early antioxidant defensive response upon iAs exposure. A better knowledge about the NRF2 pathway involvment in the cellular response against arsenic could help improve the strategies for reducing the cellular toxicity related to this metalloid.

  15. 幽门螺杆菌VacA通过激活NF-kB诱导巨噬细胞分泌及凋亡%Helicobacter pylori VacA up-regulates secretion of macrophages by activating nuclear factor kB

    黎村艳; 张艳; 余敏君; 刘志杰; 于文

    2009-01-01

    -DA fluorescent probe. The apoptosis rate of macrophages was tested by flow cytometry. The effect of PDTC, an inhibitor of NF-kB, on the secretion and apoptosis of macrophages transfected with the recombinant plasmids, was also studied. The activity of NF-kB was examined in THP-1 cells by electrophoretic mobility gel shift assay(EMSA). Re-suits At 6 h after transfection, the level of TNF-α and IL-1 β in macrophages transfected with the recombi-nant plasmids was significantly higher than that of the control group (P <0.05). At 6 h or 12 h after trans-fection, the level of NO and ROS in macrophages transfected with the recombinant plasmids was significantly higher than that of the control group (P <0.05). At 16 h after transfection, the apoptosis rate of macropha-ges transfected with the recombinant plasmids was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). PDTC decreased the production of TNF-α, IL-1 β, NO, ROS and apoptosis rate induced by VacA. VacA was found to trigger NF-kB activation. Conclusion The over-expression of VacA fusion protein can up-regulate secretion and apoptosis of macrophages. Activation of NF-kB is probably involved in the produc-tion of TNF-α, IL-1β, NO, ROS and apoptosis induced by VacA.

  16. The Aldo-Keto Reductase AKR1B10 Is Up-Regulated in Keloid Epidermis, Implicating Retinoic Acid Pathway Dysregulation in the Pathogenesis of Keloid Disease.

    Jumper, Natalie; Hodgkinson, Tom; Arscott, Guyan; Har-Shai, Yaron; Paus, Ralf; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2016-07-01

    Keloid disease is a recurrent fibroproliferative cutaneous tumor of unknown pathogenesis for which clinical management remains unsatisfactory. To obtain new insights into hitherto underappreciated aspects of keloid pathobiology, we took a laser capture microdissection-based, whole-genome microarray analysis approach to identify distinct keloid disease-associated gene expression patterns within defined keloid regions. Identification of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme AKR1B10 as highly up-regulated in keloid epidermis suggested that an imbalance of retinoic acid metabolism is likely associated with keloid disease. Here, we show that AKR1B10 transfection into normal human keratinocytes reproduced the abnormal retinoic acid pathway expression pattern we had identified in keloid epidermis. Cotransfection of AKR1B10 with a luciferase reporter plasmid showed reduced retinoic acid response element activity, supporting the hypothesis of retinoic acid synthesis deficiency in keloid epidermis. Paracrine signals released by AKR1B10-overexpressing keratinocytes into conditioned medium resulted in up-regulation of transforming growth factor-β1, transforming growth factor-β2, and collagens I and III in both keloid and normal skin fibroblasts, mimicking the typical profibrotic keloid profile. Our study results suggest that insufficient retinoic acid synthesis by keloid epidermal keratinocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of keloid disease. We refocus attention on the role of injured epithelium in keloid disease and identify AKR1B10 as a potential new target in future management of keloid disease. PMID:27025872

  17. Antitumor effects of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, against gastric cancer cells via death receptor 5 up-regulation.

    Sachiko Hirai

    Full Text Available Up-regulated sirtuin 1 (SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylase, deacetylates p53 and inhibits its transcriptional activity, leading to cell survival. SIRT1 overexpression has been reported to predict poor survival in some malignancies, including gastric cancer. However, the antitumor effect of SIRT1 inhibition remains elusive in gastric cancer. Here, we investigated the antitumor mechanisms of a sirtuin inhibitor, tenovin-6, in seven human gastric cancer cell lines (four cell lines with wild-type TP53, two with mutant-type TP53, and one with null TP53. Interestingly, tenovin-6 induced apoptosis in all cell lines, not only those with wild-type TP53, but also mutant-type and null versions, accompanied by up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5. In the KatoIII cell line (TP53-null, DR5 silencing markedly attenuated tenovin-6-induced apoptosis, suggesting that the pivotal mechanism behind its antitumor effects is based on activation of the death receptor signal pathway. Although endoplasmic reticulum stress caused by sirtuin inhibitors was reported to induce DR5 up-regulation in other cancer cell lines, we could not find marked activation of its related molecules, such as ATF6, PERK, and CHOP, in gastric cancer cells treated with tenovin-6. Tenovin-6 in combination with docetaxel or SN-38 exerted a slight to moderate synergistic cytotoxicity against gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, tenovin-6 has potent antitumor activity against human gastric cancer cells via DR5 up-regulation. Our results should be helpful for the future clinical development of sirtuin inhibitors.

  18. Radiation induces invasiveness of pancreatic cancer via up-regulation of heparanase

    The full text of the publication follows. Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive neoplasms with an extremely low survival rate. Because most pancreatic carcinoma patients miss the opportunity for complete surgical resection at the time of diagnosis, radiotherapy remains a major component of treatment modalities. However, pancreatic cancer often shows resistance to radiation therapy. Ionizing radiation (IR)-induced aggressiveness is emerging as one of the important mechanisms responsible for the limited benefit of radiation therapy in pancreatic cancer, but the identity of downstream effectors responsible for this effect remains poorly investigated. Here we report that IR promotes pancreatic cancer aggressiveness through up-regulation of the heparanase. Heparanase is a predominant mammalian enzyme capable of degrading heparan sulfate (HS), the main polysaccharide component of the basement membrane and other types of extracellular matrix (ECM). Cleavage of HS by heparanase leads to disassembly of ECM, enables cell invasion, releases HS-bound angiogenic and growth factors from the ECM depots, and generates bioactive HS fragments. We found that clinically relevant doses of IR augment invasive ability of pancreatic cells in vitro and in vivo via induction of heparanase. Our results indicate that the effect of IR on heparanase expression is mediated by Egr1 transcription factor. Moreover, specific inhibitor of heparanase enzymatic activity abolished IR-induced invasiveness of pancreatic carcinoma cells in vitro, while combined treatment with IR and the heparanase inhibitor, but not IR alone, attenuated ortho-topic pancreatic tumor progression in vivo. The proposed up-regulation of heparanase by IR represents a new molecular pathway through which IR may promote pancreatic tumor aggressiveness, providing explanation for the limited benefit from radiation therapy in pancreatic cancer. Our research is expected to offer a new approach to improve the efficacy of

  19. Stimuli Reduce the Dimensionality of Cortical Activity.

    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    The activity of ensembles of simultaneously recorded neurons can be represented as a set of points in the space of firing rates. Even though the dimension of this space is equal to the ensemble size, neural activity can be effectively localized on smaller subspaces. The dimensionality of the neural space is an important determinant of the computational tasks supported by the neural activity. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the sensory cortex of alert rats during periods of ongoing (inter-trial) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that dimensionality grows linearly with ensemble size, and grows significantly faster during ongoing activity compared to evoked activity. We explain these results using a spiking network model based on a clustered architecture. The model captures the difference in growth rate between ongoing and evoked activity and predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size that could be tested in high-density multi-electrode recordings. Moreover, we present a simple theory that predicts the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality. This upper bound is inversely proportional to the amount of pair-wise correlations and, compared to a homogeneous network without clusters, it is larger by a factor equal to the number of clusters. The empirical estimation of such bounds depends on the number and duration of trials and is well predicted by the theory. Together, these results provide a framework to analyze neural dimensionality in alert animals, its behavior under stimulus presentation, and its theoretical dependence on ensemble size, number of clusters, and correlations in spiking network models. PMID:26924968

  20. Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities.

    Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L

    1989-02-01

    Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974

  1. Mechanism of phytoestrogen puerarin-mediated cytoprotection following oxidative injury: Estrogen receptor-dependent up-regulation of PI3K/Akt and HO-1

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. The phytoestrogen puerarin, the main isoflavone glycoside found in the root of Pueraria lobata, has been used for various medicinal purposes in traditional Chinese medicines for thousands of years. Recent studies have indicated that the estrogen receptor (ER), through interaction with p85, regulates phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) activity, revealing a physiologic, non-nuclear function of ER that may be relevant in cytoprotection. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen puerarin inhibits tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent Gβ1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of Hepa1c1c7 and HepG2 cells with puerarin significantly reduced t-BHP-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Also, puerarin up-regulated HO-1 expression and this expression conferred cytoprotection against oxidative injury induced by t-BHP. Moreover, puerarin induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of puerarin-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Puerarin-induced up-regulation of HO-1 and cytoprotection against t-BHP were abolished by silencing Nrf2 expression with specific siRNA. Also, puerarin-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that puerarin augments cellular antioxidant defense capacity through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the Gβ1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress

  2. Up-regulation of abscisic acid signaling pathway facilitates aphid xylem absorption and osmoregulation under drought stress.

    Guo, Huijuan; Sun, Yucheng; Peng, Xinhong; Wang, Qinyang; Harris, Marvin; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-01

    The activation of the abscisic acid (ABA) signaling pathway reduces water loss from plants challenged by drought stress. The effect of drought-induced ABA signaling on the defense and nutrition allocation of plants is largely unknown. We postulated that these changes can affect herbivorous insects. We studied the effects of drought on different feeding stages of pea aphids in the wild-type A17 of Medicago truncatula and ABA signaling pathway mutant sta-1. We examined the impact of drought on plant water status, induced plant defense signaling via the abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), and salicylic acid (SA) pathways, and on the host nutritional quality in terms of leaf free amino acid content. During the penetration phase of aphid feeding, drought decreased epidermis/mesophyll resistance but increased mesophyll/phloem resistance of A17 but not sta-1 plants. Quantification of transcripts associated with ABA, JA and SA signaling indicated that the drought-induced up-regulation of ABA signaling decreased the SA-dependent defense but increased the JA-dependent defense in A17 plants. During the phloem-feeding phase, drought had little effect on the amino acid concentrations and the associated aphid phloem-feeding parameters in both plant genotypes. In the xylem absorption stage, drought decreased xylem absorption time of aphids in both genotypes because of decreased water potential. Nevertheless, the activation of the ABA signaling pathway increased water-use efficiency of A17 plants by decreasing the stomatal aperture and transpiration rate. In contrast, the water potential of sta-1 plants (unable to close stomata) was too low to support xylem absorption activity of aphids; the aphids on sta-1 plants had the highest hemolymph osmolarity and lowest abundance under drought conditions. Taken together this study illustrates the significance of cross-talk between biotic-abiotic signaling pathways in plant-aphid interaction, and reveals the mechanisms leading to alter

  3. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  4. Non-thermal plasma treatment diminishes fungal viability and up-regulates resistance genes in a plant host.

    Panngom, Kamonporn; Lee, Sang Hark; Park, Dae Hoon; Sim, Geon Bo; Kim, Yong Hee; Uhm, Han Sup; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can have either harmful or beneficial effects on biological systems depending on the dose administered and the species of organism exposed, suggesting that application of reactive species can possibly produce contradictory effects in disease control, pathogen inactivation and activation of host resistance. A novel technology known as atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma represents a means of generating various reactive species that adversely affect pathogens (inactivation) while simultaneously up-regulating host defense genes. The anti-microbial efficacy of this technology was tested on the plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and its susceptible host plant species Solanum lycopercicum. Germination of fungal spores suspended in saline was decreased over time after exposed to argon (Ar) plasma for 10 min. Although the majority of treated spores exhibited necrotic death, apoptosis was also observed along with the up-regulation of apoptosis related genes. Increases in the levels of peroxynitrite and nitrite in saline following plasma treatment may have been responsible for the observed spore death. In addition, increased transcription of pathogenesis related (PR) genes was observed in the roots of the susceptible tomato cultivar (S. lycopercicum) after exposure to the same Ar plasma dose used in fungal inactivation. These data suggest that atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma can be efficiently used to control plant fungal diseases by inactivating fungal pathogens and up-regulating mechanisms of host resistance. PMID:24911947

  5. Up-regulation of renal Na+, K+-ATPase: the possible novel mechanism of leptin-induced hypertension.

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Jamroz-Wiśniewska, Anna; Borkowska, Ewelina; Wójcicka, Grazyna

    2004-01-01

    Hyperleptinemia may be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated hypertension, however, the mechanism of hypertensive effect of leptin has not been elucidated. We investigated the effect of experimental hyperleptinemia on renal function, renal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and ouabain-sensitive H(+), K(+)-ATPase activities in the rat. Leptin administered for 7 days (0.25 mg/kg twice daily sc) decreased food intake on 6th and 7th day of treatment but had no effect on body weight. Systolic blood pressure was 30.5% higher in leptin-treated animals. Urinary excretion of sodium decreased by 35.0% following leptin treatment. Leptin had no effect on potassium and phosphate excretion as well as on creatinine clearance. The activity of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the renal cortex and medulla was higher in leptin-treated rats by 32.4% and 84.2%, respectively. In contrast, leptin had no effect on either cortical or medullary ouabain-sensitive H(+), K(+)-ATPase. In pair-fed group, in which food intake was reduced to the level observed in leptin-treated group, no changes in sodium metabolism and renal Na(+), K(+)-ATPase were observed. Leptin decreased urinary excretion of nitric oxide metabolites by 55.0% and urinary excretion of cGMP by 26.3%. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide tended to be higher and urinary excretion of urodilatin was 64.9% higher in leptin-treated animals. These data suggest that hyperleptinemia decreases natriuresis by up-regulating Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and stimulating tubular sodium reabsorption. This effect is mediated, at least in part, by deficiency of nitric oxide (NO). Abnormal renal sodium retention and vasoconstriction associated with NO deficiency may contribute to leptin-induced hypertension and to blood pressure elevation in hypertensive obese individuals. PMID:15156072

  6. INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS

    Bartoloni, Fernando Heering; Monteiro Leite Ciscato, Luiz Francisco; Augusto, Felipe Alberto; Baader, Wilhelm Josef

    2010-01-01

    INVERSE ELECTRON TRANSFER IN PEROXYOXALATE CHEMIEXCITATION USING EASILY REDUCIBLE ACTIVATORS. Chemiluminescence properties of the peroxyoxalate reaction in the presence of activators bearing electron withdrawing substituents were studied, to evaluate the possible occurrence of an inverse electron tr

  7. PSG gene expression is up-regulated by lysine acetylation involving histone and nonhistone proteins.

    Soledad A Camolotto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification that plays a central role in eukaryotic transcriptional activation by modifying chromatin and transcription-related factors. Human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG are the major secreted placental proteins expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast at the end of pregnancy and represent early markers of cytotrophoblast differentiation. Low PSG levels are associated with complicated pregnancies, thus highlighting the importance of studying the mechanisms that control their expression. Despite several transcription factors having been implicated as key regulators of PSG gene family expression; the role of protein acetylation has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we explored the role of acetylation on PSG gene expression in the human placental-derived JEG-3 cell line. Pharmacological inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs up-regulated PSG protein and mRNA expression levels, and augmented the amount of acetylated histone H3 associated with PSG 5'regulatory regions. Moreover, PSG5 promoter activation mediated by Sp1 and KLF6, via the core promoter element motif (CPE, -147/-140, was markedly enhanced in the presence of the HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA. This effect correlated with an increase in Sp1 acetylation and KLF6 nuclear localization as revealed by immunoprecipitation and subcellular fractionation assays. The co-activators PCAF, p300, and CBP enhanced Sp1-dependent PSG5 promoter activation through their histone acetylase (HAT function. Instead, p300 and CBP acetyltransferase domain was dispensable for sustaining co-activation of PSG5 promoter by KLF6. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results are consistent with a regulatory role of lysine acetylation on PSG expression through a relaxed chromatin state and an increase in the transcriptional activity of Sp1 and KLF6 following an augmented Sp1 acetylation and KLF6 nuclear localization.

  8. Repeated 0.5 Gy gamma-ray irradiation attenuates autoimmune disease in MRL-lpr/lpr mice with up-regulation of regulatory T cells

    Complete text of publication follows. MRL-lpr/lpr mice present a single gene mutation on the Fas (CD95) gene that leads to reduced signaling for apoptosis. With aging, these mice spontaneously develop autoimmune disease and are used as a model of systemic lupus erythematosus. We previously reported attenuation of autoimmune disease in MRL-lpr/lpr mice by repeated γ-ray irradiation (0.5 Gy each time). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of this attenuation focusing the highly activated CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ T cells, which are characteristically involved in autoimmune pathology in these mice. We measured the weight of the spleen and the population of CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ T cells. Splenomegaly and increase in percentage of CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ T cells, which occur with aging in non-irradiated mice, were suppressed in irradiated mice. To investigate the function of CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ T cells, we isolated these cells from splenocytes by magnetic cell sorting. Isolated CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ T cells were more resistant to irradiation-induced cell death than isolated CD4+ T cells. Although high proliferation rate and IL-6 production were observed in isolated CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ T cells, the proliferation rate and IL-6 production were lower in the cells isolated from the irradiated mice. Moreover, the production of autoantibodies (anti-collagen antibody and anti-single strand DNA antibody) was also lowered by irradiation. These results indicate that activation of CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ T cells and progression of pathology would be suppressed by repeated 0.5 Gy γ-ray irradiation. To uncover the mechanism of the immune suppression, we analyzed population of regulatory T cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+), which suppress activated T cells and excessive autoimmune responses. Intriguingly, significant increase of the percentage of regulatory T cells was observed in irradiated mice. In conclusion, we found that repeated 0.5 Gy γ-ray irradiation suppresses proliferation rate of CD3+CD4-CD8-B220+ T

  9. MicroRNA-276 promotes egg-hatching synchrony by up-regulating brm in locusts.

    He, Jing; Chen, Qianquan; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Feng; Yang, Meiling; Hao, Shuguang; Guo, Xiaojiao; Chen, Dahua; Kang, Le

    2016-01-19

    Developmental synchrony, the basis of uniform swarming, migration, and sexual maturation, is an important strategy for social animals to adapt to variable environments. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying developmental synchrony are largely unexplored. The migratory locust exhibits polyphenism between gregarious and solitarious individuals, with the former displaying more synchronous sexual maturation and migration than the latter. Here, we found that the egg-hatching time of gregarious locusts was more uniform compared with solitarious locusts and that microRNA-276 (miR-276) was expressed significantly higher in both ovaries and eggs of gregarious locusts than in solitarious locusts. Interestingly, inhibiting miR-276 in gregarious females and overexpressing it in solitarious females, respectively, caused more heterochronic and synchronous hatching of progeny eggs. Moreover, miR-276 directly targeted a transcription coactivator gene, brahma (brm), resulting in its up-regulation. Knockdown of brm not only resulted in asynchronous egg hatching in gregarious locusts but also impaired the miR-276-induced synchronous egg hatching in solitarious locusts. Mechanistically, miR-276 mediated brm activation in a manner that depended on the secondary structure of brm, namely, a stem-loop around the binding site of miR-276. Collectively, our results unravel a mechanism by which miR-276 enhances brm expression to promote developmental synchrony and provide insight into regulation of developmental homeostasis and population sustaining that are closely related to biological synchrony. PMID:26729868

  10. Top-down and bottom-up regulation of macroalgal community structure on a Kenyan reef

    Mörk, Erik; Sjöö, Gustaf Lilliesköld; Kautsky, Nils; McClanahan, Tim R.

    2009-09-01

    Top-down and bottom-up regulation in the form of grazing by herbivores and nutrient availability are important factors governing macroalgal communities in the coral reef ecosystem. Today, anthropogenic activities, such as over-harvesting of herbivorous fish and sea urchins and increased nutrient loading, are altering the interaction of these two structuring forces. The present study was conducted in Kenya and investigates the relative importance of herbivory and nutrient loading on macroalgal community dynamics, by looking at alterations in macroalgal functional groups, species diversity ( H') and biomass within experimental quadrats. The experiment was conducted in situ for 42 days during the dry season. Cages excluding large herbivorous fish and sea urchins were used in the study and nutrient addition was conducted using coated, slow-release fertilizer (nitrogen and phosphorous) at a site where herbivory is generally low and nutrient levels are relatively high for the region. Nutrient addition increased tissue nutrient content in the algae, and fertilized quadrats had 24% higher species diversity. Herbivore exclusion resulted in a 77% increase in algal biomass, mainly attributable to a >1000% increase in corticated forms. These results are in accordance with similar studies in other regions, but are unique in that they indicate that, even when prevailing nutrient levels are relatively high and herbivore pressure is relatively low, continued anthropogenic disturbance results in further ecological responses and increased reef degradation.

  11. Up-Regulation of KPNB1 Involves in Neuronal Apoptosis Following Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Adult Rats.

    Dai, Aihua; Liu, Xiaorong; Zhang, Yu; Han, Lijian; Zhu, Liang; Ni, Haidan; Chen, Rongrong; Cao, Maohong

    2015-11-01

    Kpnb1, also known as Importin β1, is a member of the Karyopherin protein family which plays a important role in nuclear import and export pathways. Its expression has been shown to be responsive to stress, such as heat shock, ethanol and oxidative stress. Previous studies demonstrated that Kpnb1 had anti-apoptotic in cervical cancer. These together prompted us to explore whether Kpnb1 has some association with neuron apoptosis in the pathophysiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In our study, an ICH model was established by injecting into the right basal ganglia of adult rats with their autologous whole blood and assessed by behavioral tests. We found Kpnb1 were significantly up-regulated adjacent to the hematoma following ICH by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Double immunofluorenscence manifested Kpnb1 was strikingly increased in neurons, not astrocytes or microglia. Furthermore, we also found that kpnb1 had co-localizations with active-caspase-3 which is a neuronal apoptosis marker suggesting its role in neuronal apoptosis. What's more, our in vitro study, using Kpnb1 RNA interference in PC12 cells, further indicated that Kpnb1 might exert its pro-apoptotic function on neuronal apoptosis. Therefore, Kpnb1 may play a role in the neuronal apoptosis following ICH. PMID:26303509

  12. Cathepsin B is up-regulated and mediates extracellular matrix degradation in trabecular meshwork cells following phagocytic challenge.

    Kristine Porter

    Full Text Available Cells in the trabecular meshwork (TM, a tissue responsible for draining aqueous humor out of the eye, are known to be highly phagocytic. Phagocytic activity in TM cells is thought to play an important role in outflow pathway physiology. However, the molecular mechanisms triggered by phagocytosis in TM cells are unknown. Here we investigated the effects of chronic phagocytic stress on lysosomal function using different phagocytic ligands (E. coli, carboxylated beads, collagen I-coated beads, and pigment. Lysotracker red co-localization and electron micrographs showed the maturation of E. coli- and collagen I-coated beads-containing phagosomes into phagolysosomes. Maturation of phagosomes into phagolysosomes was not observed with carboxylated beads or pigment particles. In addition, phagocytosis of E. coli and collagen I-coated beads led to increased lysosomal mass, and the specific up-regulation and activity of cathepsin B (CTSB. Higher levels of membrane-bound and secreted CTSB were also detected. Moreover, in vivo zymography showed the intralysosomal degradation of ECM components associated with active CTSB, as well as an overall increased gelatinolytic activity in phagocytically challenged TM cells. This increased gelatinolytic activity with phagocytosis was partially blocked with an intracellular CTSB inhibitor. Altogether, these results suggest a potential role of phagocytosis in outflow pathway tissue homeostasis through the up-regulation and/or proteolytic activation of extracellular matrix remodeling genes.

  13. Chronic up-regulation of the SHH pathway normalizes some developmental effects of trisomy in Ts65Dn mice.

    Dutka, Tara; Hallberg, Dorothy; Reeves, Roger H

    2015-02-01

    Down Syndrome (DS) is a highly complex developmental genetic disorder caused by trisomy for human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). All individuals with DS exhibit some degree of brain structural changes and cognitive impairment; mouse models such as Ts65Dn have been instrumental in understanding the underlying mechanisms. Several phenotypes of DS might arise from a reduced response of trisomic cells to the Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) growth factor. If all trisomic cells show a similar reduced response to SHH, then up-regulation of the pathway in trisomic cells might ameliorate multiple DS phenotypes. We crossed Ptch1tm1Mps/+ mice, in which the canonical SHH pathway is expected to be up-regulated in every SHH-responsive cell due to the loss of function of one allele of the pathway suppressor, Ptch1, to the Ts65Dn DS model and assessed the progeny for possible rescue of multiple DS-related phenotypes. Down-regulation of Ptch produced several previously unreported effects on development by itself, complicating interpretation of some phenotypes, and a number of structural or behavioral effects of trisomy were not compensated by SHH signaling. However, a deficit in a nest-building task was partially restored in Ts;Ptch+/- mice, as were the structural anomalies of the cerebellum seen in Ts65Dn mice. These results extend the body of evidence indicating that reduced response to SHH in trisomic cells and tissues contributes to various aspects of the trisomic phenotype. PMID:25511459

  14. Weak up-regulation of serum response factor in gastric ulcers in patients with co-morbidities is associated with increased risk of recurrent bleeding

    Chang Wei-Lun

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum response factor (SRF is crucial for gastric ulcer healing process. The study determined if gastric ulcer tissues up-regulate SRF and if such up-regulation correlated with co-morbidities and the risk of recurrent bleeding. Methods Ulcer and non-ulcer tissues were obtained from 142 patients with active gastric ulcers for SRF expression assessed by immunohistochemistry. Based on the degree of SRF expression between these two tissue types, SRF up-regulation was classified as strong, intermediate, and weak patterns. The patients were followed-up to determine if SRF up-regulation correlated to recurrent bleeding. Results Gastric ulcer tissues had higher SRF expression than non-ulcer tissues (p p p p = 0.03 higher risk of recurrent gastric ulcer bleeding. Conclusions SRF expression is higher in gastric ulcer tissues than in non-ulcer tissues. Weak SRF up-regulation, combined with the presence of co-morbidities, increase the risk of the recurrent gastric ulcer bleeding.

  15. DMPD: Mechanism of age-associated up-regulation in macrophage PGE2 synthesis. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 15331118 Mechanism of age-associated up-regulation in macrophage PGE2 synthesis. Wu...e-associated up-regulation in macrophage PGE2 synthesis. PubmedID 15331118 Title Mechanism of age-associated... up-regulation in macrophage PGE2 synthesis. Authors Wu D, Meydani SN. Publicatio

  16. Hes1 potentiates T cell lymphomagenesis by up-regulating a subset of notch target genes.

    Darryll D Dudley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hairy/Enhancer of Split (Hes proteins are targets of the Notch signaling pathway and make up a class of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH proteins that function to repress transcription. Data from Hes1 deficient mice suggested that Hes1, like Notch1, is necessary for the progression of early T cell progenitors. Constitutive activation of Notch is known to cause T cell leukemia or lymphoma but whether Hes1 has any oncogenic activity is not known. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated mice carrying a Hes1 transgene under control of the proximal promote of the lck gene. Hes1 expression led to a reduction in numbers of total thymocytes, concomitant with the increased percentage and number of immature CD8+ (ISP T cells and sustained CD25 expression in CD4+CD8+ double positive (DP thymocytes. Hes1 transgenic mice develop thymic lymphomas at about 20 weeks of age with a low penetrance. However, expression of Hes1 significantly shortens the latency of T cell lymphoma developed in Id1 transgenic mice, where the function of bHLH E proteins is inhibited. Interestingly, Hes1 increased expression of a subset of Notch target genes in pre-malignant ISP and DP thymocytes, which include Notch1, Notch3 and c-myc, thus suggesting a possible mechanism for lymphomagenesis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated for the first time that Hes1 potentiates T cell lymphomagenesis, by up-regulating a subset of Notch target genes and by causing an accumulation of ISP thymocytes particularly vulnerable to oncogenic transformation.

  17. Modified AS1411 Aptamer Suppresses Hepatocellular Carcinoma by Up-Regulating Galectin-14.

    Cho, Yuri; Lee, Yun Bin; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Dong Hyeon; Cho, Eun Ju; Yu, Su Jong; Kim, Yoon Jun; Kim, Jong In; Im, Jong Hun; Lee, Jung Hwan; Oh, Eun Ju; Yoon, Jung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Aptamers are small synthetic oligonucleotides that bind to target proteins with high specificity and affinity. AS1411 is an aptamer that binds to nucleolin, which is overexpressed in the cytoplasm and occurs on the surface of cancer cells. We investigated the therapeutic potential of aptamers in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by evaluating anti-tumor effects and confirming the affinity and specificity of AS1411- and modified AS1411-aptamers in HCC cells. Cell growth was assessed using the MTS assay, and cell death signaling was explored by immunoblot analysis. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed to evaluate the affinity and specificity of AS1411-aptamers in SNU-761 HCC cells. We investigated the in vivo effects of the AS1411-aptamer using BALB/c nude mice in a subcutaneous xenograft model with SNU-761 cells. Treatment with a modified AS1411-aptamer significantly decreased in vitro (under normoxic [P = 0.035] and hypoxic [P = 0.018] conditions) and in vivo (under normoxic conditions, P = 0.041) HCC cell proliferation compared to control aptamers. AS1411- and control aptamers failed to control HCC cell proliferation. However, AS1411- and the modified AS1411-aptamer did not induce caspase activation. Decrease in cell growth by AS1411 or modified AS1411 was not prevented by caspase or necrosis inhibitors. In a microarray, AS1411 significantly enhanced galectin-14 expression. Suppression of HCC cell proliferation by the modified AS1411-aptamer was attenuated by galectin-14 siRNA transfection. Modified AS1411-aptamer suppressed HCC cell growth in vitro and in vivo by up-regulating galectin-14 expressions. Modified AS1411-aptamers may have therapeutic potential as a novel targeted therapy for HCC. PMID:27494117

  18. Mu opioid receptor up-regulation and participation in excitability of hippocampal pyramidal cell electrophysiology

    Chronic administration of opiate antagonists to rats results in up-regulation of their brain opioid receptors. Using subcellular fractionation techniques, brain opioid receptors were resolved into two membrane populations, one associated with synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) and the other enriched in smooth endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi (microsomes). This study addressed in part the question of whether an antagonist induces up-regulation uniformly in these two populations. Rats were administered naltrexone by subcutaneously implanted osmotic minipumps. Forebrain mu receptor levels were determined by homologous displacement of (3H)D-ala2-mePhe4-gly-ol5-enkephalin (DAGO) followed by computer estimation of binding parameters. Receptor levels in crude membranes rose 77% after treatment. Microsomes displayed a 92% increase, a two-fold greater change than in SPMs (51%). These results establish that naltrexone induces up-regulation of both membrane populations; and that microsomal and SPM receptors represent discrete populations of intracellular and cell surface sites, respectively. Binding experiments on isolated hippocampi also demonstrated up-regulation (71%) of mu receptors. To demonstrate up-regulation of opioid receptors electrophysiologically, hippocampal slices were prepared from rats which had been chronically treated with naltrexone. After superfusion with DAGO, these slices showed a 42% greater population spike output than controls in response to the same EPSP input. Hippocampi from animals treated for two weeks showed an additional increase in sensitivity. The results support a disinhibitory role for opioids in pyramidal cell hyper-excitability. More importantly, they demonstrate a significant physiological correlate to opioid receptor up-regulation

  19. Up-regulation of endothelin receptors induced by cigarette smoke--involvement of MAPK in vascular and airway hyper-reactivity

    Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2010-01-01

    hyper-reactivity plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and airway diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that endothelin receptor up-regulation mediates vascular and airway hyper-reactivity in response to endothelin-1 (ET-1, endothelin receptor agonist) in cardiovascular and......-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and subsequently results in the up-regulation of endothelin receptors in the vasculature and airways, which mediates vascular and airway hyper-reactivity, one of the important pathogenic characteristics of cardiovascular and airway diseases. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of...... how cigarette smoke causes up-regulation of endothelin receptors in the vasculature and airways may provide new strategies for the treatment of cigarette smoke-associated cardiovascular and lung diseases....

  20. The prevention and treatment of hypoadiponectinemia-associated human diseases by up-regulation of plasma adiponectin.

    Hossain, Md Murad; Mukheem, Abdul; Kamarul, Tunku

    2015-08-15

    Hypoadiponectinemia is characterized by low plasma adiponectin levels that can be caused by genetic factors, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mutations in the adiponectin gene or by visceral fat deposition/obesity. Reports have suggested that hypoadiponectinemia is associated with dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperuricemia, metabolic syndrome, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes mellitus and various cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies have highlighted several potential strategies to up-regulate adiponectin secretion and function, including visceral fat reduction through diet therapy and exercise, administration of exogenous adiponectin, treatment with peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists (e.g., thiazolidinediones (TZDs)) and ligands (e.g., bezafibrate and fenofibrate) or the blocking of the renin-angiotensin system. Likewise, the up-regulation of the expression and stimulation of adiponectin receptors by using adiponectin receptor agonists would be an effective method to treat obesity-related conditions. Notably, adiponectin is an abundantly expressed bioactive protein that also exhibits a wide spectrum of biological properties, such as insulin-sensitizing, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities. Although targeting adiponectin and its receptors has been useful for treating diabetes and other metabolic-related diseases in experimental studies, current drug development based on adiponectin/adiponectin receptors for clinical applications is scarce, and there is a lack of available clinical trial data. This comprehensive review discusses the strategies that are presently being pursued to harness the potential of adiponectin up-regulation. In addition, we examined the current status of drug development and its potential for clinical applications. PMID:25818192

  1. Ellagic acid plays a protective role against UV-B-induced oxidative stress by up-regulating antioxidant components in human dermal fibroblasts

    Baek, Beomyeol; Lee, Su Hee; Lim, Hye-Won

    2016-01-01

    Ellagic acid (EA), an antioxidant polyphenolic constituent of plant origin, has been reported to possess diverse pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities. This work aimed to clarify the skin anti-photoaging properties of EA in human dermal fibroblasts. The skin anti-photoaging activity was evaluated by analyzing the reactive oxygen species (ROS), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), total glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity levels as well as cell viability in dermal fibroblasts under UV-B irradiation. When fibroblasts were exposed to EA prior to UV-B irradiation, EA suppressed UV-B-induced ROS and proMMP-2 elevation. However, EA restored total GSH and SOD activity levels diminished in fibroblasts under UV-B irradiation. EA had an up-regulating activity on the UV-B-reduced Nrf2 levels in fibroblasts. EA, at the concentrations used, was unable to interfere with cell viabilities in both non-irradiated and irradiated fibroblasts. In human dermal fibroblasts, EA plays a defensive role against UV-B-induced oxidative stress possibly through an Nrf2-dependent pathway, indicating that this compound has potential skin antiphotoaging properties. PMID:27162481

  2. Bromelain treatment reduces CD25 expression on activated CD4+ T cells in vitro✩

    Secor, Eric R.; Singh, Anurag; Guernsey, Linda A.; McNamara, Jeff T.; Zhan, Lijun; Maulik, Nilanjana; Thrall, Roger S.

    2009-01-01

    Bromelain (Br), an extract from pineapple stem with cysteine protease activity, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in a number of inflammatory models. We have previously shown that Br treatment decreased activated CD4+ T cells and has a therapeutic role in an ovalbumin-induced murine model of allergic airway disease. The current study was designed to determine the effect of Br on CD4+ T cell activation, specifically the expression of CD25 in vitro. CD25 is up regulated upon T cell activation, f...

  3. Up-regulation of Kir2.1 by ER stress facilitates cell death of brain capillary endothelial cells

    Highlights: → We found that application of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with tunicamycin to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) induced cell death. → The ER stress facilitated the expression of inward rectifier K+ channel (Kir2.1) and induced sustained membrane hyperpolarization. → The membrane hyperpolarization induced sustained Ca2+ entry through voltage-independent nonspecific cation channels and consequently facilitated cell death. → The Kir2.1 up-regulation by ER stress is, at least in part, responsible for cell death of BCECs under pathological conditions. -- Abstract: Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) form blood brain barrier (BBB) to maintain brain homeostasis. Cell turnover of BCECs by the balance of cell proliferation and cell death is critical for maintaining the integrity of BBB. Here we found that stimuli with tunicamycin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, up-regulated inward rectifier K+ channel (Kir2.1) and facilitated cell death in t-BBEC117, a cell line derived from bovine BCECs. The activation of Kir channels contributed to the establishment of deeply negative resting membrane potential in t-BBEC117. The deep resting membrane potential increased the resting intracellular Ca2+ concentration due to Ca2+ influx through non-selective cation channels and thereby partly but significantly regulated cell death in t-BBEC117. The present results suggest that the up-regulation of Kir2.1 is, at least in part, responsible for cell death/cell turnover of BCECs induced by a variety of cellular stresses, particularly ER stress, under pathological conditions.

  4. Rosiglitazone but not losartan prevents Nrf-2 dependent CD36 gene expression up-regulation in an in vivo atherosclerosis model

    Caballero-Hidalgo A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiazolidinediones exert anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative roles and attenuate atherosclerosis by mechanisms partially independent of their metabolizing actions. High doses of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R blocker losartan (LST seem to promote fat cell formation by preserving PPARγ activity. Methods C57BL/6J diet-induced atherosclerotic susceptible mice randomly received a normal or a high-fat high-cholesterol (HFHC diet and were treated with rosiglitazone (RG, LST or a vehicle for 12 weeks. Results HFHC was associated with increased PPARγ gene expression without an over regulation of PPARγ responsive genes, whereas RG and LST treatments were found to maintain PPARγ activity without resulting in increased PPARγ gene expression. A better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant profile in mice treated with RG regarding LST was observed in spite of a similar PPARγ preserved activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed that animals under HFHC diet treated with RG showed a significant nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (Nrf2-dependent down-regulation of the expression of the CD36 gene. Conclusion The PPARγ agonist RG exerts antioxidant properties that significantly reduced Nrf-2-dependent CD-36 up-regulation in mice under HFHC diet. Because LST treatment was also associated with a preserved PPARγ activity, our data suggests that these RG antioxidant effects are partially independent of its PPARγ metabolizing properties.

  5. Therapeutic effect of gamma-ray on collagen-induced arthritis via up-regulation of regulatory T cells

    Complete text of publication follows. We previously showed that small doses of total-body irradiation prevent type I diabetes, chemically induced hepatotoxicity and autoimmune disease in respective animal model. Here, we studied the effect of 0.5 Gy gamma-ray irradiation on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1J mice. CIA is the most widely used as an arthritis model so far. Immunization of DBA/1J mice with type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant induces the development of arthritis. The histopathology of CIA is characterized by synovitis, pannus density, which are quite similar to human rheumatoid arthritis. Mice were immunized with type II collagen, and exposed to gamma-rays (0.5 Gy per week for 5 weeks). We observed delayed onset and reduced severity of the pathology of arthritis in irradiated CIA mice compared to non-irradiated CIA mice. The incidence of CIA was also reduced by the irradiation. Moreover, bone degradation and increase of spleen weight were suppressed by the irradiation. Production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-6, which play important roles in the onset of CIA, was suppressed by the irradiation. The level of anti-collagen II antibody, which is essential for the onset of CIA, was also lower in irradiated CIA mice. The population of plasma cells was increased in CIA mice, but irradiation blocked this increase. Since regulatory T cells, which suppress activated T cells, are involved in amelioration of autoimmune disease, the population of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells was measured. Intriguingly, a significant increase of these regulatory T cells was found in irradiated CIA mice. In conclusion, our data suggest that 0.5 Gy gamma-ray irradiation could ameliorate CIA by inhibiting cytokines and autoantibody production, and through induction of regulatory T cells. Furthermore, since interleukin-6 is also known to be involved in differentiation of naive T cells into regulatory T cells, irradiation

  6. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

    Liucheng Ding

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM/TENS group (n=15, DM group (n=15 and control group (n=15. The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG.

  7. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

    Ding, Liucheng; Song, Tao; Yi, Chaoran; Huang, Yi; Yu, Wen; Ling, Lin; Dai, Yutian; Wei, Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM)/TENS group (n=15), DM group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min) for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG. PMID:23468996

  8. Temperature shift and host cell contact up-regulate sporozoite expression of Plasmodium falciparum genes involved in hepatocyte infection.

    Anthony Siau

    proteins involved in hepatocyte invasion, while the other two were predominantly expressed during hepatic parasite development. The genome-wide up-regulation of expression observed supports the hypothesis that the shift from the mosquito to the mammalian host contributes to activate quiescent salivary gland sporozoites into a state of readiness for the hepatic stages. Functional studies on four of the up-regulated genes validated our approach as one means to determine the repertoire of proteins implicated during the early events of the Plasmodium infection, and in this case that of P. falciparum, the species responsible for the severest forms of malaria.

  9. Exposure to diesel exhaust up-regulates iNOS expression in ApoE knockout mice

    Traffic related particulate matter air pollution is a risk factor for cardiovascular events; however, the biological mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that diesel exhaust (DE) inhalation induces up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which is known to contribute to vascular dysfunction, progression of atherosclerosis and ultimately cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Methods: ApoE knockout mice (30-week) were exposed to DE (at 200 μg/m3 of particulate matter) or filtered-air (control) for 7 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). iNOS expression in the blood vessels and heart was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. To examine iNOS activity, thoracic aortae were mounted in a wire myograph, and vasoconstriction stimulated by phenylephrine (PE) was measured with and without the presence of the specific inhibitor for iNOS (1400 W). NF-κB (p65) activity was examined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-κB (p65) was determined by real-time PCR. Results: DE exposure significantly enhanced iNOS expression in the thoracic aorta (4-fold) and heart (1.5 fold). DE exposure significantly attenuated PE-stimulated vasoconstriction by ∼ 20%, which was partly reversed by 1400 W. The mRNA expression of iNOS and NF-κB was significantly augmented after DE exposure. NF-κB activity was enhanced 2-fold after DE inhalation, and the augmented NF-κB activity was positively correlated with iNOS expression (R2 = 0.5998). Conclusions: We show that exposure to DE increases iNOS expression and activity possibly via NF-κB-mediated pathway. We suspect that DE exposure-caused up-regulation of iNOS contributes to vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis, which could ultimately lead to urban air pollution-associated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. - Highlights: → Exposed ApoE knockout mice (30-week) to diesel exhaust (DE) for 7 weeks. → Examine iNOS expression and activity in the blood vessels and heart. → DE exposure enhanced

  10. Sox11 Reduces Caspase-6 Cleavage and Activity.

    Elaine Waldron-Roby

    Full Text Available The apoptotic cascade is an orchestrated event, whose final stages are mediated by effector caspases. Regulatory binding proteins have been identified for caspases such as caspase-3, -7, -8, and -9. Many of these proteins belong to the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP family. By contrast, caspase-6 is not believed to be influenced by IAPs, and little is known about its regulation. We therefore performed a yeast-two-hybrid screen using a constitutively inactive form of caspase-6 for bait in order to identify novel regulators of caspase-6 activity. Sox11 was identified as a potential caspase-6 interacting protein. Sox11 was capable of dramatically reducing caspase-6 activity, as well as preventing caspase-6 self- cleavage. Several regions, including amino acids 117-214 and 362-395 within sox11 as well as a nuclear localization signal (NLS all contributed to the reduction in caspase-6 activity. Furthermore, sox11 was also capable of decreasing other effector caspase activity but not initiator caspases -8 and -9. The ability of sox11 to reduce effector caspase activity was also reflected in its capacity to reduce cell death following toxic insult. Interestingly, other sox proteins also had the ability to reduce caspase-6 activity but to a lesser extent than sox11.

  11. A critical role of IFNγ in priming MSC-mediated suppression of T cell proliferation through up-regulation of B7-H1

    2008-01-01

    Bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to possess immunosuppressive properties, e.g., by inhibiting T cell proliferation. Activated T cells can also enhance the immunosuppression ability of MSCs. The precise mechanisms underlying MSC-mediated immunosuppression remain largely undefined, although both cell-cell contact and soluble factors have been implicated; nor is it clear how the immunosuppressive property of MSCs is modulated by T cells. Using MSCs isolated from mouse bone marrow, we show here that interferon gamma (IFNγ), a well-known proinflammatory cytokine produced by activated T cells, plays an important role in priming the immunosuppressive property of MSCs. Mechanistically, IFNγ acts directly on MSCs and leads to up-regulation of B7-H1, an inhibitory surface molecule in these stem cells. MSCs primed by activated T cells derived from IFNγ-/- mouse exhibited dramatically reduced ability to suppress T cell proliferation, a defect that can be rescued by supplying exogenous IFNy. Moreover, siRNA-mediated knockdown of B7-H1 in MSCs abolished immunosuppression by these cells. Taken together, our results suggest that IFNy plays a critical role in triggering the immunosuppresion by MSCs through upregulating B7-H1 in these cells, and provide evidence supporting the cell-cell contact mechanism in MSC-mediated immunosuppression.

  12. Reduced Chitinase Activities in Ant Plants of the Genus Macaranga

    Heil, Martin; Fiala, Brigitte; Linsenmair, K. Eduard; Boller, Thomas

    Many plant species have evolved mutualistic associations with ants, protecting their host against detrimental influences such as herbivorous insects. Letourneau (1998) reported in the case of Piper that ants defend their plants principally against stem-boring insects and also reduce fungal infections on inflorescences. Macaranga plants that were experimentally deprived of their symbiotic Crematogaster ants suffered heavily from shoot borers and pathogenic fungi (Heil 1998). Here we report that ants seem to reduce fungal infections actively in the obligate myrmecophyte Macarangatriloba (Euphorbiaceae), while ant-free plants can be easily infected. We also found extremely low chitinase activity in Macaranga plants. The plants' own biochemical defense seems to be reduced, and low chitinase activity perhaps may represent a predisposition for the evolution of myrmecophytism. These plants are therefore highly dependent on their ants, which obviously function not only as an antiherbivore defense but also as an effective agent against fungal pathogens.

  13. Combined Treatment With Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Gamma Ligands and Gamma Radiation Induces Apoptosis by PPARγ-Independent Up-Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Signals in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    Han, Eun Jong; Im, Chang-Nim; Park, Seon Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Eun-Yi [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hee, E-mail: gobrian@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To investigate possible radiosensitizing activities of the well-known peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ ligand ciglitazone and novel PPARγ ligands CAY10415 and CAY10506 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity was assessed using a clonogenic cell survival assay. To investigate the mechanism underlying PPARγ ligand-induced radiosensitization, the subdiploid cellular DNA fraction was analyzed by flow cytometry. Activation of the caspase pathway by combined PPARγ ligands and γ-radiation treatment was detected by immunoblot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry. Results: The 3 PPARγ ligands induced cell death and ROS generation in a PPARγ-independent manner, enhanced γ-radiation–induced apoptosis and caspase-3–mediated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in vitro. The combined PPARγ ligand/γ-radiation treatment triggered caspase-8 activation, and this initiator caspase played an important role in the combination-induced apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands may enhance the γ-radiation-induced DNA damage response, possibly by increasing γ-H2AX expression. Moreover, the combination treatment significantly increased ROS generation, and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine inhibited the combined treatment-induced ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicated that the combined treatment of PPARγ ligands and γ-radiation synergistically induced DNA damage and apoptosis, which was regulated by ROS.

  14. TGF-β1 promotes scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulating MicroRNA-21

    Liu, Ying; Li, Yue; Li, Ning; Teng, Wen; Wang, Min; Zhang, Yingbo; Xiao, Zhibo

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1, upregulated in keloid tissue, promotes the proliferation, collagen formation and differentiation of dermal fibroblasts. miR-21 is one of microRNAs first found in human genome. The aim of our study is to explore the mechanisms of miR-21 in TGF-β1-induced scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation. In the present study, first we found that TGF-β1 promoted scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulating miR-21 expression, which could be attenuated when miR-21 was inhibited. Overexpression of miR-21 had similar effect as TGF-β1 on proliferation and transdifferentiation. Additionally, TGF-β1 increased the expressions and activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in keloid fibroblasts, which was suppressed by miR-21 inhibition. Finally, the results demonstrated that PTEN/AKT signaling pathway played important role in TGF-β1-induced transdifferentiation. In conclusion, our study suggests that TGF-β1 promotes keloid fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulation of miR-21 and PTEN/AKT signalling pathway plays important role in this process, which provides a potential theoretical basis for clinical treatment of skin scars. PMID:27554193

  15. TGF-β1 promotes scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulating MicroRNA-21.

    Liu, Ying; Li, Yue; Li, Ning; Teng, Wen; Wang, Min; Zhang, Yingbo; Xiao, Zhibo

    2016-01-01

    TGF-β1, upregulated in keloid tissue, promotes the proliferation, collagen formation and differentiation of dermal fibroblasts. miR-21 is one of microRNAs first found in human genome. The aim of our study is to explore the mechanisms of miR-21 in TGF-β1-induced scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation. In the present study, first we found that TGF-β1 promoted scar fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulating miR-21 expression, which could be attenuated when miR-21 was inhibited. Overexpression of miR-21 had similar effect as TGF-β1 on proliferation and transdifferentiation. Additionally, TGF-β1 increased the expressions and activities of MMP2 and MMP9 in keloid fibroblasts, which was suppressed by miR-21 inhibition. Finally, the results demonstrated that PTEN/AKT signaling pathway played important role in TGF-β1-induced transdifferentiation. In conclusion, our study suggests that TGF-β1 promotes keloid fibroblasts proliferation and transdifferentiation via up-regulation of miR-21 and PTEN/AKT signalling pathway plays important role in this process, which provides a potential theoretical basis for clinical treatment of skin scars. PMID:27554193

  16. Candida albicans up-regulates the Fas-L expression in liver Natural Killer and Natural Killer T cells.

    Renna, María Sol; Figueredo, Carlos Mauricio; Rodríguez-Galán, María Cecilia; Icely, Paula Alejandra; Cejas, Hugo; Cano, Roxana; Correa, Silvia Graciela; Sotomayor, Claudia Elena

    2015-11-01

    After Candida albicans arrival to the liver, the local production of proinflammatory cytokines and the expanded intrahepatic lymphocytes (IHL) can be either beneficial or detrimental to the host. Herein we explored the balance between protective inflammatory reaction and liver damage, focusing our study on the contribution of TNF-α and Fas-Fas-L pathways in the hepatocellular apoptosis associated to C. albicans infection. A robust tissue reaction and a progressive increase of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were observed in infected animals. Blocking the biological activity of TNF-α did not modify the number of apoptotic cells observed in C. albicans infected animals. Fas-L molecule was up regulated on purified hepatic mononuclear cells and its expression progressed with the infection. In the IHL compartment, the absolute number of Fas-L+ NK and NKT cells increased on days 1 and 3 of the infection. C. albicans was also able to up regulate Fas-L expression in normal liver NK and NKT cells after in vitro contact. The innate receptor TLR2 was involved in this phenomenon. In the interplay between host factors and evasion strategies exploited by pathogens, the mechanism supported here could represent an additional way that allows this fungus to circumvent protective immune responses in the liver. PMID:26101139

  17. P2Y2 receptor up-regulation induced by guanosine or UTP in rat brain cultured astrocytes.

    Ballerini, P; Di Iorio, P; Caciagli, F; Rathbone, M P; Jiang, S; Nargi, E; Buccella, S; Giuliani, P; D'Alimonte, I; Fischione, G; Masciulli, A; Romano, S; Ciccarelli, R

    2006-01-01

    Among P2 metabotropic ATP receptors, P2Y2 subtype seems to be peculiar as its upregulation triggers important biological events in different cells types. In non-stimulated cells including astrocytes, P2Y2 receptors are usually expressed at levels lower than P2Y1 sites, however the promoter region of the P2Y2 receptors has not yet been studied and little is known about the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the expression of this ATP receptor. We showed that not only UTP and ATP are the most potent and naturally occurring agonist for P2Y2 sites, but also guanosine induced an up-regulation of astrocyte P2Y2 receptor mRNA evaluated by Northern blot analysis. We also focused our attention on this nucleoside since in our previous studies it was reported to be released by cultured astrocytes and to exert different neuroprotective effects. UTP and guanosine-evoked P2Y2 receptor up-regulation in rat brain cultured astrocytes was linked to an increased P2Y2-mediated intracellular calcium response, thus suggesting an increased P2Y2 activity. Actinomycin D, a RNA polymerase inhibitor, abrogated both UTP and guanosine-mediated P2Y2 up-regulation, thus indicating that de novo transcription was required. The effect of UTP and guanosine was also evaluated in astrocytes pretreated with different inhibitors of signal transduction pathways including ERK, PKC and PKA reported to be involved in the regulation of other cell surface receptor mRNAs. The results show that ERK1-2/MAPK pathway play a key role in the P2Y2 receptor up-regulation mediated by either UTP or guanosine. Moreover, our data suggest that PKA is also involved in guanosine-induced transcriptional activation of P2Y2 mRNA and that increased intracellular calcium levels and PKC activation may also mediate P2Y2 receptor up-regulation triggered by UTP. The extracellular release of ATP under physiological and pathological conditions has been widely studied. On the contrary, little is known about the release of

  18. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-ß mediated fibrosis

    Watson, Chris J

    2012-07-07

    AbstractBackgroundMechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA) expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis.Methods and resultsThe effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts.ConclusionWe postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  19. Mechanical stretch up-regulates the B-type natriuretic peptide system in human cardiac fibroblasts: a possible defense against transforming growth factor-β mediated fibrosis

    Watson Chris J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical overload of the heart is associated with excessive deposition of extracellular matrix proteins and the development of cardiac fibrosis. This can result in reduced ventricular compliance, diastolic dysfunction, and heart failure. Extracellular matrix synthesis is regulated primarily by cardiac fibroblasts, more specifically, the active myofibroblast. The influence of mechanical stretch on human cardiac fibroblasts’ response to pro-fibrotic stimuli, such as transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, is unknown as is the impact of stretch on B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP and natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPRA expression. BNP, acting via NPRA, has been shown to play a role in modulation of cardiac fibrosis. Methods and results The effect of cyclical mechanical stretch on TGFβ induction of myofibroblast differentiation in primary human cardiac fibroblasts and whether differences in response to stretch were associated with changes in the natriuretic peptide system were investigated. Cyclical mechanical stretch attenuated the effectiveness of TGFβ in inducing myofibroblast differentiation. This finding was associated with a novel observation that mechanical stretch can increase BNP and NPRA expression in human cardiac fibroblasts, which could have important implications in modulating myocardial fibrosis. Exogenous BNP treatment further reduced the potency of TGFβ on mechanically stretched fibroblasts. Conclusion We postulate that stretch induced up-regulation of the natriuretic peptide system may contribute to the observed reduction in myofibroblast differentiation.

  20. Reduced administered activity, reduced acquisition time, and preserved image quality for the new CZT camera.

    Oddstig, Jenny; Hedeer, Fredrik; Jögi, Jonas; Carlsson, Marcus; Hindorf, Cecilia; Engblom, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For a 1-day myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) the recommendations for administered activity stated in the EANM guidelines results in an effective dose of up to 16 mSv per patient. Recently, a gamma camera system, based on cadmium zinc telluride (CZT) technology, was introduced. This technique has the potential to reduce the effective dose and scan time compared to the conventional NaI gamma camera. The aim of this study was to investigate if the effective dose can be reduced with a...

  1. Up-regulation of intestinal vascular endothelial growth factor by Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli.

    Gaëlle Cane

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis has been recently described as a novel component of inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been found increased in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis mucosa. To question whether a pro-inflammatory Escherichia coli could regulate the expression of VEGF in human intestinal epithelial cells, we examine the response of cultured human colonic T84 cells to infection by E. coli strain C1845 that belongs to the typical Afa/Dr diffusely adhering E. coli family (Afa/Dr DAEC. METHODOLOGY: VEGF mRNA expression was examined by Northern blotting and q-PCR. VEGF protein levels were assayed by ELISA and its bioactivity was analysed in endothelial cells. The bacterial factor involved in VEGF induction was identified using recombinant E. coli expressing Dr adhesin, purified Dr adhesin and lipopolysaccharide. The signaling pathway activated for the up-regulation of VEGF was identified using a blocking monoclonal anti-DAF antibody, Western blot analysis and specific pharmacological inhibitors. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: C1845 bacteria induce the production of VEGF protein which is bioactive. VEGF is induced by adhering C1845 in both a time- and bacteria concentration-dependent manner. This phenomenon is not cell line dependent since we reproduced this observation in intestinal LS174, Caco2/TC7 and INT407 cells. Up-regulation of VEGF production requires: (1 the interaction of the bacterial F1845 adhesin with the brush border-associated decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55 acting as a bacterial receptor, and (2 the activation of a Src protein kinase upstream of the activation of the Erk and Akt signaling pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate that a Afa/Dr DAEC strain induces an adhesin-dependent activation of DAF signaling that leads to the up-regulation of bioactive VEGF in cultured human intestinal cells. Thus, these results suggest a link between an entero-adherent, pro

  2. Identification of up-regulated genes in human uterine leiomyoma by suppression subtractive hybridization

    2002-01-01

    In searching for differentially expressed genes in human uterine leiomyomas (ULs), suppression sub-tractive hybridization was used to construct an UL up-regulated library, which turned out to represent 88genes. After two rounds of screening by reverse Northern analysis, twenty genes were proved to be up-regulated, including seventeen known genes and three genes with unknown function. All these genes werefirstly associated with UL. Three genes with notable difference were selected for Northern confirmationOur results proved the authenticity of the twenty genes. One gene named Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) showedup-regulation in 4/6 of the patients and investigation of tissue distribution indicated that it had obviousexpression in prostate, testis, liver, heart and skeletal muscle.

  3. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    Berbeé, J.F.P.; Boon, M.R.; Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Bartelt, A.; Schlein, C.; Worthmann, A.; Kooijman, S.; Hoeke, G.; Mol, I.M.; John, C.; Jung, C.; Vazirpanah, N.; Brouwers, L.P.J.; Gordts, P.L.S.M.; Esko, J.D.; Hiemstra, P.S.; Havekes, L.M.; Scheja, L.; Heeren, J.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by b3-adrenergic rece

  4. Up-regulation of the chemokine CCL21 in the skin of subjects exposed to irritants

    Kuznitzky Raquel; Ruiz Lascano Alejandro; Ortiz Susana; Eberhard Yanina; Serra Horacio

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Expression of murine CCL21 by dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) has been demonstrated to be one of the most important steps in Langerhans cell emigration from skin. Previously, our group and others have found that this chemokine is up-regulated in different human inflammatory skin diseases mediated by diverse specific immune responses. This study was carried out to investigate the involvement of CCL21 in human skin after challenge with irritant agents responsible fo...

  5. Influence of Apoptin on Up-regulation of the Expression of Bad and Bax

    GUO Tai; YANG Qian

    2005-01-01

    The chicken anemia virus protein, apoptin, which manifests selectivity and specificity to tumor cells, induces a p53-independent and Bcl-2-insensitive type of apoptosis in various human tumor cells. In this study, the apoptin gene was cloned from the total DNA of chicken anemia virus, and the recombinant vector was constructed. We used oligonucleotide microarray to study the changes of four genes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bad and Bax. The post-transfection with the recombinant was also studied. The pro-apoptotic genes(Bad and Bax) and anti-apoptosis genes(Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) were up-regulated in contrast to the controls. According to the published data, either Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL can form non-functional heterodimers by Bad and Bax binding together, resulting in blocking partly the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. However, apoptosis could be inhibited by neither the endogenous Bcl-xL nor Bcl-2 over-expression. The experiments show that the apoptin-induced apoptotic pathway is related to the up-regulation of Bad and Bax. Bad was up-regulated by apoptin; then this up-regulated product of Bad was in favor of displacing Bax from binding to Bcl-xL or Bcl-2. Consequently, Bax exerted a pro-apoptotic dysfunction to mitochondria, thereby inducing the release of cytochrome c. Finally, apoptin induced the apoptosis of HHCC cells. These results indicate that the oligonucleotide microarray can reveal the genes related to the apoptosis induced by apoptin in HHCC cells.

  6. Gene up-regulation in response to predator kairomones in the water flea, Daphnia pulex

    Okada Yasukazu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous cases of predator-induced polyphenisms, in which alternate phenotypes are produced in response to extrinsic stimuli, have been reported in aquatic taxa to date. The genus Daphnia (Branchiopoda, Cladocera provides a model experimental system for the study of the developmental mechanisms and evolutionary processes associated with predator-induced polyphenisms. In D. pulex, juveniles form neckteeth in response to predatory kairomones released by Chaoborus larvae (Insecta, Diptera. Results Previous studies suggest that the timing of the sensitivity to kairomones in D. pulex can generally be divided into the embryonic and postembryonic developmental periods. We therefore examined which of the genes in the embryonic and first-instar juvenile stages exhibit different expression levels in the presence or absence of predator kairomones. Employing a candidate gene approach and identifying differentially-expressed genes revealed that the morphogenetic factors, Hox3, extradenticle and escargot, were up-regulated by kairomones in the postembryonic stage and may potentially be responsible for defense morph formation. In addition, the juvenile hormone pathway genes, JHAMT and Met, and the insulin signaling pathway genes, InR and IRS-1, were up-regulated in the first-instar stage. It is well known that these hormonal pathways are involved in physiological regulation following morphogenesis in many insect species. During the embryonic stage when morphotypes were determined, one of the novel genes identified by differential display was up-regulated, suggesting that this gene may be related to morphotype determination. Biological functions of the up-regulated genes are discussed in the context of defense morph formation. Conclusions It is suggested that, following the reception of kairomone signals, the identified genes are involved in a series of defensive phenotypic alterations and the production of a defensive phenotype.

  7. Up-regulation of alveolar macrophage matrix metalloproteinases in HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema

    Kaner, Robert J.; Santiago, Francisco; Crystal, Ronald G.

    2009-01-01

    HIV1+ smokers develop emphysema at an earlier age and with a higher incidence than HIV1– smokers. Since human alveolar macrophages (AMs) are capable of producing proteases that degrade extracellular matrix components, we hypothesized that up-regulation of AM matrix metalloproteinases may be associated with the emphysema of HIV1+ smokers. Microarray analysis was used to screen which matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) genes were expressed by AM of HIV1+ smokers with early emphysema. For each of t...

  8. Caveolin-1 Up-regulation during Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition Is Mediated by Focal Adhesion Kinase*

    Bailey, Kelly M.; Liu, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence has shown that caveolin-1 is up-regulated in a number of metastatic cancers and can influence various aspects of cell migration. However, in general, the role of caveolin-1 in cancer progression is poorly understood. In the present study, we examined alterations in caveolin-1 expression during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the ability of caveolin-1 to alter cancer cell adhesion, an aspect of cell motility. We employed two EMT cell models, the human embryonic...

  9. Eurycomanone induce apoptosis in HepG2 cells via up-regulation of p53

    Zakaria Yusmazura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eurycomanone is a cytotoxic compound found in Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Previous studies had noted the cytotoxic effect against various cancer cell lines. The aim of this study is to investigate the cytotoxicity against human hepato carcinoma cell in vitro and the mode of action. The cytotoxicity of eurycomanone was evaluated using MTT assay and the mode of cell death was detected by Hoechst 33258 nuclear staining and flow cytometry with Annexin-V/propidium iodide double staining. The protein expression Bax, Bcl-2, p53 and cytochrome C were studied by flow cytometry using a spesific antibody conjugated fluorescent dye to confirm the up-regulation of p53 and Bax in cancer cells. Results The findings suggested that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on cancerous liver cell, HepG2 and less toxic on normal cells Chang's liver and WLR-68. Furthermore, various methods proved that apoptosis was the mode of death in eurycomanone-treated HepG2 cells. The characteristics of apoptosis including chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and apoptotic bodies were found following eurycomanone treatment. This study also found that apoptotic process triggered by eurycomanone involved the up-regulation of p53 tumor suppressor protein. The up-regulation of p53 was followed by the increasing of pro-apoptotic Bax and decreasing of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. The increased of cytochrome C levels in cytosol also results in induction of apoptosis. Conclusion The data suggest that eurycomanone was cytotoxic on HepG2 cells by inducing apoptosis through the up-regulation of p53 and Bax, and down-regulation of Bcl-2.

  10. Up-regulation of interleukin 4/B-cell stimulatory factor 1 receptor expression

    The expression of interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptors on resting T and B lymphocytes was enhanced 4- to 8-fold by IL-4 stimulation of these cells. Other agents such as lipopolysaccharide and anti-IgM for B cells and concanvalain A for T cells also caused increased IL-4 receptor expression, although to a somewhat smaller degree than IL-4. Using a newly developed flow cytometric analysis based on the binding of biotinylated IL-4 and phycoerythrin-streptavidin, it was observed that receptor up-regulation in a T-cell population treated with IL-4 was a feature of the majority of the T cells. Analysis of IL-4 by cross-linkage of 125I-labeled IL-4 to IL-4 receptor with disuccinimidyl suberate indicated that the IL-4 IL-4 receptor complex was the same size in the resting and up-regulated cells, implying that the same receptor species found in resting cells was up-regulated in response IL-4

  11. Moclobemide up-regulates proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in chronically stressed mice

    Yun-fengLI; You-zhiZHANG; Yan-qinLIU; Heng-linWANG; LiYUAN; Zhi-puLUO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the action mechanism of antidepressants. METHODS: The PC 12 cell proliferation was detected by flow cytometry,. The proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells and level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Treatment with N-methylaspartate (NMDA)600 μmol/L for 3 d significantly decreased the percentage of S-phase in PC12 cells, while in the presence of classical antidepressant, moclobemide (MOC) 2 and 10 μnol/L, the percentage in S-phase increased. Furthermore,the proliferation of progenitor cells in hippocampal dentate gyrus (subgranular zone), as well as the level of BDNF in hippocampus significantly decreased in chronically stressed mice, while chronic administration with MOC 40 mg/kg (ip) up-regulated the progenitor cell proliferation and BDNF level in the same time course. CONLUSION:Up-regulation of the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells is one of the action mechanisms for MOC, which may be closely related to the elevation of BDNF level at the same time. These results also extend evidence for our hypothesis that up-regulation of the hippocampal neurogenesis is one of the common mechanisms for antidepressants.

  12. Moclobemide up-regulates proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells in chronically stressed mice

    Yun-feng LI; You-zhi ZHANG; Yan-qin LIU; Heng-lin WANG; Li YUAN; Zhi-pu LUO

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To explore the action mechanism of antidepressants. METHODS: The PC12 cell proliferation was detected by flow cytometry,. The proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells and level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Treatment with N-methylaspartate (NMDA)600 μmol/L for 3 d significantly decreased the percentage of S-phase in PC12 cells, while in the presence of classical antidepressant, moclobemide (MOC) 2 and 10 μmol/L, the percentage in S-phase increased. Furthermore,the proliferation of progenitor cells in hippocampal dentate gyrus (subgranular zone), as well as the level of BDNF in hippocampus significantly decreased in chronically stressed mice, while chronic administration with MOC 40mg/kg (ip) up-regulated the progenitor cell proliferation and BDNF level in the same time course. CONLUSION:Up-regulation of the proliferation of hippocampal progenitor cells is one of the action mechanisms for MOC, which may be closely related to the elevation of BDNF level at the same time. These results also extend evidence for our hypothesis that up-regulation of the hippocampal neurogenesis is one of the common mechanisms for antidepressants.

  13. Effects of ethanol on voltage-sensitive Na-channels in cultured skeletal muscle: Up-regulation as a result of chronic treatment

    The effects of acute and chronic treatment with ethanol were studied on the number and activity of tetrodotoxin-sensitive Na-channels in cultured rat skeletal muscle. The number of channels was determined by measurements of specific binding of [3H] saxitoxin (STX) in whole cell preparations. Measurements were also made of the frequency and rate of rise of spontaneously occurring action potentials, which are the physiologic expression of Na-channel density. Acute ethanol (37.5-150 mM), while causing depolarization of membrane potential and blockade of electrical activity, was without effect on specific STX binding. Neither methanol, acetaldehyde nor ethylene glycol had significant effects on these properties when given acutely in the same concentrations as ethanol. Chronic ethanol caused dose-related increases in STX binding and action potential properties with maximal levels being attained after 3 days of treatment at a concentration of 150 mM. On removal of ethanol from the culture medium all properties returned to control levels after 48 hr. Both increased external K+ and tetrodotoxin, which up-regulate Na-channels by reducing cytosolic Ca++, potentiated the ethanol-induced increase in Na-channel density. The increase in STX binding was not associated with changes in affinity of the binding sites for the ligand but was completely prevented by treatment with cycloheximide and actinomycin D. The results demonstrate that ethanol interacts with the cell membrane to induce synthesis of STX-binding sites

  14. Polydatin up-regulates clara cell secretory protein to suppress phospholipase A2 of lung induced by LPS in vivo and in vitro

    Jie Chen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS remains one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children. The damage to membrane phospholipids leads to the collapse of the bronchial alveolar epithelial barrier during acute lung injury (ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Phospholipase A2 (PLA2, a key enzyme in the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids, plays an important traumatic role in pulmonary inflammation, and Clara cell secretory protein (CCSP is an endogenous inhibitor of PLA2. Our previous study showed that polydatin (PD, a monocrystalline extracted from a traditional Chinese medicinal herb (Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb, et Zucc, reduced PLA2 activity and sPLA2-IIA mRNA expression and mitigated LPS-induced lung injury. However, the potential mechanism for these effects has not been well defined. We have continued to investigate the effect of PD on LPS-induced expression of CCSP mRNA and protein in vivo and in vitro. Results Our results suggested that the CCSP mRNA level was consistent with its protein expression. CCSP expression was decreased in lung after LPS challenge. In contrast, PD markedly increased CCSP expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In particular, CCSP expression in PD-pretreated rat lung was higher than in rats receiving only PD treatment. Conclusion These results indicated that up-regulation of CCSP expression causing inhibition of PLA2 activation may be one of the crucial protective mechanisms of PD in LPS-induced lung injury.

  15. Synergistic effect of interleukin 1 alpha on nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-induced up-regulation of human beta-defensin 2 in middle ear epithelial cells

    Park Raekil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that beta-defensins have antimicrobial activity against nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and that interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1 alpha up-regulates the transcription of beta-defensin 2 (DEFB4 according to new nomenclature of the Human Genome Organization in human middle ear epithelial cells via a Src-dependent Raf-MEK1/2-ERK signaling pathway. Based on these observations, we investigated if human middle ear epithelial cells could release IL-1 alpha upon exposure to a lysate of NTHi and if this cytokine could have a synergistic effect on beta-defensin 2 up-regulation by the bacterial components. Methods The studies described herein were carried out using epithelial cell lines as well as a murine model of acute otitis media (OM. Human cytokine macroarray analysis was performed to detect the released cytokines in response to NTHi exposure. Real time quantitative PCR was done to compare the induction of IL-1 alpha or beta-defensin 2 mRNAs and to identify the signaling pathways involved. Direct activation of the beta-defensin 2 promoter was monitored using a beta-defensin 2 promoter-Luciferase construct. An IL-1 alpha blocking antibody was used to demonstrate the direct involvement of this cytokine on DEFB4 induction. Results Middle ear epithelial cells released IL-1 alpha when stimulated by NTHi components and this cytokine acted in an autocrine/paracrine synergistic manner with NTHi to up-regulate beta-defensin 2. This synergistic effect of IL-1 alpha on NTHi-induced beta-defensin 2 up-regulation appeared to be mediated by the p38 MAP kinase pathway. Conclusion We demonstrate that IL-1 alpha is secreted by middle ear epithelial cells upon exposure to NTHi components and that it can synergistically act with certain of these molecules to up-regulate beta-defensin 2 via the p38 MAP kinase pathway.

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B is up-regulated and exogenous VEGF-B is neuroprotective in a culture model of Parkinson's disease

    Zhang Shiling

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD results from the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and the consequent deficit of dopamine released in the striatum. Current oral dopamine replacement or surgical therapies do not address the underlying issue of neurodegeneration, they neither slow nor halt disease. Neurotrophic factors have shown preclinical promise, but the choice of an appropriate growth factor as well as the delivery has proven difficult. In this study, we used a rotenone rat midbrain culture model to identify genes that are changed after addition of the neurotoxin. (1 We challenged rat midbrain cultures with rotenone (20 nM, a pesticide that has been shown to be toxic for dopaminergic neurons and that has been a well-characterized model of PD. A gene chip array analysis demonstrated that several genes were up-regulated after the rotenone treatment. Interestingly transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGF-B was evident, while vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A levels remained unaltered. The results from the gene chip array experiment were verified with real time PCR and semi-quantitative western analysis using β-actin as the internal standard. (2 We have also found evidence that exogenously applied VEGF-B performed as a neuroprotective agent facilitating neuron survival in an even more severe rotenone culture model of PD (40 nM rotenone. VEGF-B has very recently been added to the list of trophic factors that reduce effects of neurodegeneration, as was shown in an in vivo model of motor neuron degeneration, while lacking potential adverse angiogenic activity. The data of an in vivo protective effect on motor neurons taken together with the presented results demonstrate that VEGF-B is a new candidate trophic factor distinct from the GDNF family of trophic factors. VEGF-B is activated by neurodegenerative challenges to the midbrain, and exogenous application of VEGF-B has a

  17. A reduced energy supply strategy in active vibration control

    In this paper, a control strategy is presented and numerically tested. This strategy aims to achieve the potential performance of fully active systems with a reduced energy supply. These energy needs are expected to be comparable to the power demands of semi-active systems, while system performance is intended to be comparable to that of a fully active configuration. The underlying strategy is called 'global semi-active control'. This control approach results from an energy investigation based on management of the optimal control process. Energy management encompasses storage and convenient restitution. The proposed strategy monitors a given active law without any external energy supply by considering purely dissipative and energy-demanding phases. Such a control law is offered here along with an analysis of its properties. A suboptimal form, well adapted for practical implementation steps, is also given. Moreover, a number of numerical experiments are proposed in order to validate test findings

  18. Reduced photoinhibition under low irradiance enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth) secondary metabolites, phenyl alanine lyase and antioxidant activity.

    Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo), phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL) and antioxidant (DPPH) in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s) for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 μmol/m(2)/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin) was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 μmol/m(2)/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM) under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH) than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe) under this condition. PMID:22754297

  19. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  20. Thymoquinone up-regulates PTEN expression and induces apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells

    The use of innocuous naturally occurring compounds to overcome drug resistance and cancer recalcitrance is now in the forefront of cancer research. Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive constituent of the volatile oil derived from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. TQ has shown promising anti-carcinogenic and anti-tumor activities through different mechanisms. However, the effect of TQ on cell signaling and survival pathways in resistant cancer cells has not been fully delineated. Here, we report that TQ greatly inhibits doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/DOX cell proliferation. TQ treatment increased cellular levels of PTEN proteins, resulting in a substantial decrease of phosphorylated Akt, a known regulator of cell survival. The PTEN expression was accompanied with elevation of PTEN mRNA. TQ arrested MCF-7/DOX cells at G2/M phase and increased cellular levels of p53 and p21 proteins. Flow cytometric analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a significant increase in Sub-G1 cell population and appearance of DNA ladders following TQ treatment, indicating cellular apoptosis. TQ-induced apoptosis was associated with disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases and PARP cleavage in MCF-7/DOX cells. Moreover, TQ treatment increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio via up-regulating Bax and down-regulating Bcl2 proteins. More importantly, PTEN silencing by target specific siRNA enabled the suppression of TQ-induced apoptosis resulting in increased cell survival. Our results reveal that up-regulation of the key upstream signaling factor, PTEN, in MCF-7/DOX cells inhibited Akt phosphorylation, which ultimately causes increase in their regulatory p53 levels affecting the induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Overall results provide mechanistic insights for understanding the molecular basis and utility of the anti-tumor activity of TQ.

  1. Thymoquinone up-regulates PTEN expression and induces apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells

    Arafa, El-Shaimaa A.; Zhu Qianzheng [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Shah, Zubair I. [James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wani, Gulzar; Barakat, Bassant M.; Racoma, Ira [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); El-Mahdy, Mohamed A., E-mail: Mohamed.el-mahdy@osumc.edu [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wani, Altaf A., E-mail: wani.2@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); DNA Research Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-10

    The use of innocuous naturally occurring compounds to overcome drug resistance and cancer recalcitrance is now in the forefront of cancer research. Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive constituent of the volatile oil derived from seeds of Nigella sativa Linn. TQ has shown promising anti-carcinogenic and anti-tumor activities through different mechanisms. However, the effect of TQ on cell signaling and survival pathways in resistant cancer cells has not been fully delineated. Here, we report that TQ greatly inhibits doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7/DOX cell proliferation. TQ treatment increased cellular levels of PTEN proteins, resulting in a substantial decrease of phosphorylated Akt, a known regulator of cell survival. The PTEN expression was accompanied with elevation of PTEN mRNA. TQ arrested MCF-7/DOX cells at G2/M phase and increased cellular levels of p53 and p21 proteins. Flow cytometric analysis and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a significant increase in Sub-G1 cell population and appearance of DNA ladders following TQ treatment, indicating cellular apoptosis. TQ-induced apoptosis was associated with disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential and activation of caspases and PARP cleavage in MCF-7/DOX cells. Moreover, TQ treatment increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio via up-regulating Bax and down-regulating Bcl2 proteins. More importantly, PTEN silencing by target specific siRNA enabled the suppression of TQ-induced apoptosis resulting in increased cell survival. Our results reveal that up-regulation of the key upstream signaling factor, PTEN, in MCF-7/DOX cells inhibited Akt phosphorylation, which ultimately causes increase in their regulatory p53 levels affecting the induction of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Overall results provide mechanistic insights for understanding the molecular basis and utility of the anti-tumor activity of TQ.

  2. Pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg): a novel secreted protein up-regulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Yang, Jiayue; Li, Ling; Raptis, Dimitri; Li, Xiaoshan; Li, Fengfei; Chen, Bijun; He, Jiajia; Graf, Rolf; Sun, Zilin

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has insulin resistance (IR) or reduced β-cell mass, partially due to an increased β-cell apoptosis rate. Pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg) is a secretory protein produced in the pancreas and up-regulated dramatically during pancreatic disease. Recent studies revealed that β-cells undergoing apoptosis induce PSP/reg expression in surviving neighboring cells. Further experiments demonstrated that PSP/reg was elevated during disease progressi...

  3. Over-expression of Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice via up-regulation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells

    Highlights: ► This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the role of Stat5b in NOD mice. ► Over-expression of wild type Stat5b transgene protects NOD mice against diabetes. ► This protection may be mediated by the up-regulation of CD4+CD25+ Tregs. -- Abstract: The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins play a critical role in cytokine signaling required for fine tuning of immune regulation. Previous reports showed that a mutation (L327M) in the Stat5b protein leads to aberrant cytokine signaling in the NOD mice. To further elaborate the role of Stat5b in diabetes, we established a NOD transgenic mouse that over-expresses the wild type Stat5b gene. The incidences of spontaneous diabetes as well as cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes were significantly reduced and delayed in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice compared to their littermate controls. The total cell numbers of CD4+ T cells and especially CD8+ T cells in the spleen and pancreatic lymph node were increased in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice. Consistent with these findings, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice showed a higher proliferation capacity and up-regulation of multiple cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Furthermore, the number and proportion of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells were significantly increased in transgenic mice although in vitro suppression ability of the regulatory T-cells was not affected by the transgene. Our results suggest that Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the NOD mice by regulating the numbers and function of multiple immune cell types, especially by up-regulating CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

  4. Low level laser therapy reduces inflammation in activated Achilles tendinitis

    Bjordal, Jan M.; Iversen, Vegard; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro B.

    2006-02-01

    Objective: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been forwarded as therapy for osteoarthritis and tendinopathy. Results in animal and cell studies suggest that LLLT may act through a biological mechanism of inflammatory modulation. The current study was designed to investigate if LLLT has an anti-inflammatory effect on activated tendinitis of the Achilles tendon. Methods: Seven patients with bilateral Achilles tendonitis (14 tendons) who had aggravated symptoms by pain-inducing activity immediately prior to the study. LLLT (1.8 Joules for each of three points along the Achilles tendon with 904nm infrared laser) and placebo LLLT were administered to either Achilles tendons in a random order to which patients and therapist were blinded. Inflammation was examined by 1) mini-invasive microdialysis for measuring the concentration of inflammatory marker PGE II in the peritendinous tissue, 2) ultrasound with Doppler measurement of peri- and intratendinous blood flow, 3) pressure pain algometry and 4) single hop test. Results: PGE 2- levels were significantly reduced at 75, 90 and 105 minutes after active LLLT compared both to pre-treatment levels (p=0.026) and to placebo LLLT (p=0.009). Changes in pressure pain threshold (PPT) were significantly different (P=0.012) between groups. PPT increased by a mean value of 0.19 kg/cm2 [95%CI:0.04 to 0.34] after treatment in the active LLLT group, while pressure pain threshold was reduced by -0.20 kg/cm2 [95%CI:-0.45 to 0.05] after placebo LLLT. Conclusion: LLLT can be used to reduce inflammatory musculskeletal pain as it reduces inflammation and increases pressure pain threshold levels in activity-induced pain episodes of Achilles tendinopathy.

  5. UP-REGULATION OF HEPATIC RECEPTOR FOR GROWTH HORMONE IN THE FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS) AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION WITH EXOGENOUS GH

    2001-01-01

    The iodination efficiency of salmon GH(Sgh) was 38.82%,using a modification of the chloramine-T method. The specific activity of the 125I-Sgh was about 40 μCi/μg protein. The results of binding assay showed a single class of high affinity and low-capacity binding site in flounder liver. Long-term administration with exogenous GH can induce the up-regulation of hepatic GH receptor in total binding capacity though there was no significant difference of association constant among any groups. Considering that there was no significant difference in capacity of free binding sites of livers from control and experimental fish, this result also indicated that the liver from experimental fish, compared to that from control fish, had more occupied binding sites.

  6. Isoreserpine promotes {beta}-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Gwak, Jungsug; Song, Taeyun [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jie-Young; Yun, Yeon-Sook [Laboratory of Radiation Cancer Science, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul 139-706 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Il-Whan [Department of Microbiology, Center for Viral Disease Research, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Yongsu [Department of Genetic Engineering, and Graduate School of Biotechnology, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jae-Gook [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Sangtaek, E-mail: ohsa@inje.ac.kr [PharmacoGenomics Research Center, Inje University, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-09-25

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular {beta}-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular {beta}-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular {beta}-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of {beta}-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  7. Isoreserpine promotes β-catenin degradation via Siah-1 up-regulation in HCT116 colon cancer cells

    Aberrant accumulation of intracellular β-catenin in intestinal epithelial cells is a frequent early event during the development of colon cancer. To identify small molecules that decrease the level of intracellular β-catenin, we performed cell-based chemical screening using genetically engineered HEK293 reporter cells to detect compounds that inhibit TOPFlash reporter activity, which was stimulated by Wnt3a-conditioned medium. We found that isoreserpine promoted the degradation of intracellular β-catenin by up-regulation of Siah-1 in HEK293 and HCT116 colon cancer cells. Moreover, isoreserpine repressed the expression of β-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF)-dependent genes, such as cyclin D1 and c-myc, resulting in the suppression of HCT116 cell proliferation. Our findings suggest that isoreserpine can potentially be used as a chemotherapeutic agent against colon cancer.

  8. Recent approaches for reducing hemolytic activity of chemotherapeutic agents.

    Jeswani, Gunjan; Alexander, Amit; Saraf, Shailendra; Saraf, Swarnlata; Qureshi, Azra; Ajazuddin

    2015-08-10

    Drug induced hemolysis is a frequent complication associated with chemotherapy. It results from interaction of drug with erythrocyte membrane and leads to cell lysis. In recent past, various approaches were made to reduce drug-induced hemolysis, which includes drug polymer conjugation, drug delivery via colloidal carriers and hydrogels, co-administration of botanical agents and modification in molecular chemistry of drug molecules. The basic concept behind these strategies is to protect the red blood cells from membrane damaging effects of drugs. There are several examples of drug polymer conjugate that either are approved by Food and Drug Administration or are under clinical trial for delivering drugs with reduced toxicities. Likewise, colloidal carriers are also used successfully nowadays for the delivery of various chemotherapeutic agents like gemcitabine and amphotericin B with remarkable decrease in their hemolytic activity. Similarly, co-administration of botanical agents with drugs works as secondary system proving protection and strength to erythrocyte membranes. In addition to the above statement, interaction hindrance between RBC and drug molecule by molecular modification plays an important role in reducing hemolysis. This review predominantly describes the above recent approaches explored to achieve the reduced hemolytic activity of drugs especially chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:26047758

  9. Up-Regulation of Rhoa/Rho Kinase Pathway by Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

    Jeehye Maeng

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP, a repressor for Na,K-ATPase has been implicated in the development of systemic hypertension, as proved by TCTP-over-expressing transgenic (TCTP-TG mice. Aorta of TCTP-TG exhibited hypercontractile response compared to that of non-transgenic mice (NTG suggesting dys-regulation of signaling pathways involved in the vascular contractility by TCTP. Because dys-regulation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway is implicated in increased vascular contractility, we examined whether TCTP induces alterations in RhoA pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. We found that TCTP over-expression by adenovirus infection up-regulated RhoA pathway including the expression of RhoA, and its downstream signalings, phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target protein (MYPT-1, and myosin light chain (MLC. Conversely, lentiviral silencing of TCTP reduced the RhoA expression and Rho kinase signalings. Using immunohistochemical and Western blotting studies on aortas from TCTP-TG confirmed the elevated expression of RhoA and increase in p-MLC (phosphorylated MLC. In contrast, down-regulation of RhoA and p-MLC were found in aortas from heterozygous mice with deleted allele of TCTP (TCTP+/−. We conclude that up-regulation of TCTP induces RhoA-mediated pathway, and that TCTP-induced RhoA plays a role in the regulation in vasculature. Modulation of TCTP may offer a therapeutic target for hypertension and in vascular contractility dysfunction.

  10. Hypoxic stress up-regulates Kir2.1 expression and facilitates cell proliferation in brain capillary endothelial cells.

    Yamamura, Hideto; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Yamamura, Hisao; Asai, Kiyofumi; Imaizumi, Yuji

    2016-08-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is mainly composed of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs), astrocytes and pericytes. Brain ischemia causes hypoxic encephalopathy and damages BBB. However, it remains still unclear how hypoxia affects BCECs. In the present study, t-BBEC117 cells, an immortalized bovine brain endothelial cell line, were cultured under hypoxic conditions at 4-5% oxygen for 72 h. This hypoxic stress caused hyperpolarization of resting membrane potential. Patch-clamp recordings revealed a marked increase in Ba(2+)-sensitive inward rectifier K(+) current in t-BBEC117 cells after hypoxic culture. Western blot and real-time PCR analyses showed that Kir2.1 expression was significantly up-regulated at protein level but not at mRNA level after the hypoxic culture. Ca(2+) imaging study revealed that the hypoxic stress enhanced store-operated Ca(2+) (SOC) entry, which was significantly reduced in the presence of 100 μM Ba(2+). On the other hand, the expression of SOC channels such as Orai1, Orai2, and transient receptor potential channels was not affected by hypoxic stress. MTT assay showed that the hypoxic stress significantly enhanced t-BBEC117 cell proliferation, which was inhibited by approximately 60% in the presence of 100 μM Ba(2+). We first show here that moderate cellular stress by cultivation under hypoxic conditions hyperpolarizes membrane potential via the up-regulation of functional Kir2.1 expression and presumably enhances Ca(2+) entry, resulting in the facilitation of BCEC proliferation. These findings suggest potential roles of Kir2.1 expression in functional changes of BCECs in BBB following ischemia. PMID:27235552

  11. Low-chromium reduced-activation ferritic steels for fusion

    Klueh, R.L.; Alexander, D.J.; Kenik, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Development of reduced-activation ferritic steels has concentrated on high-chromium (8-10 wt% Cr) steels. However, there are advantages for a low-chromium steel, and initial ORNL studies on reduced-activation steels were on compositions with 2.25 to 12% Cr. Those studies showed an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.25V-0.1C (2 1/4Cr-2WV) steel to have the highest strenglth of the steels studied. Although this steel had the best strength, Charpy impact properties were inferior to those of an Fe-9Cr-2W-0.25V-0.07Ta-0.1C (9Cr-2WVTa) and an Fe-2.25Cr-2W-0.1C (2 1/4Cr-2W) steel. Therefore, further development of the low-chromium Cr-W steels was required. These results indicate that it is possible to develop low-chromium reduced-activation ferritic steels that have tensile and impact properties as good or better than those of high-chromium (7-9% Cr) steels. Further improvement of properties should be possible by optimizing the composition.

  12. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca2+ influx

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  13. Colitis up-regulates local glucocorticoid activation and down-regulates inactivation in colonic tissue

    Bryndová, Jana; Žbánková, Šárka; Kment, M.; Pácha, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2004), s. 549-553. ISSN 0036-5521 R&D Projects: GA MZd NK6723 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : colitis * 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenasa * dextran sulphate Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.824, year: 2004

  14. Up-regulation of the chemokine CCL21 in the skin of subjects exposed to irritants

    Kuznitzky Raquel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of murine CCL21 by dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC has been demonstrated to be one of the most important steps in Langerhans cell emigration from skin. Previously, our group and others have found that this chemokine is up-regulated in different human inflammatory skin diseases mediated by diverse specific immune responses. This study was carried out to investigate the involvement of CCL21 in human skin after challenge with irritant agents responsible for inducing Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ICD. Results Eleven normal individuals were challenged with different chemical or physical irritants. Two patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD were also challenged with the relevant antigen in order to have a positive control for CCL21 expression. Macroscopic as well as microscopic responses were evaluated. We observed typical ICD responses with mostly mononuclear cells in perivascular areas, but a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells away from the inflamed blood vessels and in the epidermis at 24 hours. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of CCL21 by lymphatic endothelial cells in all the biopsies taken from ICD and ACD lesions compared to normal skin. Kinetic study at 10, 48, 96 and 168 hours after contact with a classical irritant (sodium lauryl sulphate showed that the expression of CCL21 was increased in lymphatic vessels at 10 hours, peaked at 48 hours, and then gradually declined. There was a strong correlation between CCL21 expression and the macroscopic response (r = 0.69; p = 0.0008, but not between CCL21 and the number of infiltrating cells in the lesions. Conclusions These results provide new evidence for the role of CCL21 in inflammatory processes. Since the up-regulation of this chemokine was observed in ICD and ACD, it is tempting to speculate that this mechanism operates independently of the type of dermal insult, facilitating the emigration of CCR7+ cells.

  15. ACE2 gene expression is up-regulated in the human failing heart

    Allen Jennifer C

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ACE2 is a novel homologue of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE. ACE2 is highly expressed in human heart and animal data suggest that ACE2 is an essential regulator of cardiac function in vivo. Since overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system contributes to the progression of heart failure, this investigation assessed changes in gene expression of ACE2, ACE, AT1 receptor and renin in the human failing heart. Methods The sensitive technique of quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the level of mRNA expression of ACE and ACE2 in human ventricular myocardium from donors with non-diseased hearts (n = 9, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC, n = 11 and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, n = 12. Following logarithmic transformation of the data, a one-way analysis of variance was performed for each target gene followed by a Dunnett's test to compare the two disease groups IDC and ICM versus control. Results As anticipated, ACE mRNA was found to be significantly increased in the failing heart with a 3.1 and 2.4-fold up-regulation found in IDC and ICM relative to non-diseased myocardium. Expression of ACE2 mRNA was also significantly up-regulated in IDC (2.4-fold increase and ICM (1.8-fold increase versus non-diseased myocardium. No change in angiotensin AT1 receptor mRNA expression was found in failing myocardium and renin mRNA was not detected. Conclusions These data suggest that ACE2 is up-regulated in human IDC and ICM and are consistent with the hypothesis that differential regulation of this enzyme may have important functional consequences in heart failure. This strengthens the hypothesis that ACE2 may be a relevant target for the treatment of heart failure and will hopefully spur further studies to clarify the functional effects in human myocardium of ACE2 derived peptides.

  16. The Natural Antimicrobial Enzyme Lysozyme is Up-Regulated in Gastrointestinal Inflammatory Conditions.

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2014-01-01

    The cells that line the mucosa of the human gastrointestinal tract (GI, that is, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum) are constantly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as different pH, enzymes, and bacterial flora. With exception of the oral cavity, these microenvironments also contain remnant cocktails of secreted enzymes and bacteria from upper organs along the tract. The density of the GI bacteria varies, from 103/mL near the gastric outlet, to 1010/mL at the ileocecal valve, to 1011 to 1012/mL in the colon. The total microbial population (ca. 1014) exceeds the total number of cells in the tract. It is, therefore, remarkable that despite the prima facie inauspicious mixture of harmful secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. To counteract the hostile microenvironment, the GI epithelia react by speeding cell exfoliation (the GI mucosa has a turnover time of two to three days), by increasing peristalsis, by eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial compounds, such as defensin-5 and lysozyme. Only recently, lysozyme was found up-regulated in Barrett's oesophagitis, chronic gastritis, gluten-induced atrophic duodenitis (coeliac disease), collagenous colitis, lymphocytic colitis, and Crohn's colitis. This up-regulation is a response directed to the special types of bacteria recently detected in these diseases. The aim of lysozyme up-regulation is to protect individual mucosal segments to chronic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms connected to the crosstalk between the intraluminal bacterial flora and the production of lysozyme released by the GI mucosae, are discussed. Bacterial resistance continues to exhaust our supply of commercial antibiotics. The potential use of lysozyme to treat infectious diseases is receiving much attention. PMID:25437608

  17. The Natural Antimicrobial Enzyme Lysozyme is Up-Regulated in Gastrointestinal Inflammatory Conditions

    Carlos A. Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The cells that line the mucosa of the human gastrointestinal tract (GI, that is, oral cavity, oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum are constantly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as different pH, enzymes, and bacterial flora. With exception of the oral cavity, these microenvironments also contain remnant cocktails of secreted enzymes and bacteria from upper organs along the tract. The density of the GI bacteria varies, from 103/mL near the gastric outlet, to 1010/mL at the ileocecal valve, to 1011 to 1012/mL in the colon. The total microbial population (ca. 1014 exceeds the total number of cells in the tract. It is, therefore, remarkable that despite the prima facie inauspicious mixture of harmful secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. To counteract the hostile microenvironment, the GI epithelia react by speeding cell exfoliation (the GI mucosa has a turnover time of two to three days, by increasing peristalsis, by eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial compounds, such as defensin-5 and lysozyme. Only recently, lysozyme was found up-regulated in Barrett’s oesophagitis, chronic gastritis, gluten-induced atrophic duodenitis (coeliac disease, collagenous colitis, lymphocytic colitis, and Crohn’s colitis. This up-regulation is a response directed to the special types of bacteria recently detected in these diseases. The aim of lysozyme up-regulation is to protect individual mucosal segments to chronic inflammation. The molecular mechanisms connected to the crosstalk between the intraluminal bacterial flora and the production of lysozyme released by the GI mucosae, are discussed. Bacterial resistance continues to exhaust our supply of commercial antibiotics. The potential use of lysozyme to treat infectious diseases is receiving much attention.

  18. Receptor protein tyrosine kinase EphB4 is up-regulated in colon cancer

    Hewett Peter J; Douglas Evelyn L; Slomka Stefan; Stephenson Sally-Anne; Hardingham Jennifer E

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background We have used commercially available cDNA arrays to identify EphB4 as a gene that is up-regulated in colon cancer tissue when compared with matched normal tissue from the same patient. Results Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of the EphB4 gene has shown that its expression is increased in 82% of tumour samples when compared with the matched normal tissue from the same patient. Using immunohistochemistry and Western analysis techniques with an EphB4-specific an...

  19. Coral resilience to ocean acidification and global warming through pH up-regulation

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Falter, Jim; Trotter, Julie; Montagna, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Rapidly rising levels of atmospheric CO2 are not only causing ocean warming, but also lowering seawater pH hence the carbonate saturation state of the oceans, on which many marine organisms depend to calcify their skeletons(1,2). Using boron isotope systematics(3), we show how scleractinian corals up-regulate pH at their site of calcification such that internal changes are approximately one-half of those in ambient seawater. This species-dependent pH-buffering capacity enables aragonitic cora...

  20. Chronic morphine treatment up-regulates mu opioid receptor binding in cells lacking Filamin A

    Onoprishvili, Irma; Simon, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the effects of morphine and other agonists on the human mu opioid receptor (MOP) expressed in M2 melanoma cells, lacking the actin cytoskeleton protein filamin A and in A7, a sub clone of the M2 melanoma cells, stably transfected with filamin A cDNA. The results of binding experiments showed, that after chronic morphine treatment (24 hr) of A7 cells, MOP binding sites were down-regulated to 63% of control, whereas, unexpectedly, in M2 cells, MOP binding was up-regulated to 188...

  1. Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.

    Chen, Lin; Schrementi, Megan E; Ranzer, Matthew J; Wilgus, Traci A; DiPietro, Luisa A

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase β1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound. PMID:24465509

  2. Blockade of mast cell activation reduces cutaneous scar formation.

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally, mast cells stimulate collagen synthesis by dermal fibroblasts, suggesting they may also influence scar formation. To examine the contribution of mast cells in tissue repair, we determined the effects the mast cell inhibitor, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG, on several parameters of dermal repair including, inflammation, re-epithelialization, collagen fiber organization, collagen ultrastructure, scar width and wound breaking strength. Mice treated with DSCG had significantly reduced levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, and CXCL1. Although DSCG treatment reduced the production of inflammatory mediators, the rate of re-epithelialization was not affected. Compared to control, inhibition of mast cell activity caused a significant decrease in scar width along with accelerated collagen re-organization. Despite the reduced scar width, DSCG treatment did not affect the breaking strength of the healed tissue. Tryptase β1 exclusively produced by mast cells was found to increase significantly in the course of wound healing. However, DSCG treatment did not change its level in the wounds. These results indicate that blockade of mast cell activation reduces scar formation and inflammation without further weakening the healed wound.

  3. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Promotes the Migration of Corneal Epithelial Stem/progenitor Cells by Up-regulation of MMPs through the Phosphorylation of Akt

    Chen, Jialin; Chen, Peng; Backman, Ludvig J; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    The migration of limbal epithelial stem cells is important for the homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelium. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been found to promote corneal epithelial wound healing by activating corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells. However, the possible effect of CNTF on the migration of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells is not clear. This study found the expression of CNTF in mouse corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (TKE2) to be up-regulated ...

  4. Addition of interferon-alpha to a standard maturation cocktail induces CD38 up-regulation and increases dendritic cell function

    Trepiakas, Redas; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Met, Ozcan; Svane, Inge Marie

    2009-01-01

    functional relationship between CD38, IFN-alpha and TLR3. Thus, CD38 appear to be a relevant marker for activation by TLR3 or IFN-alpha. Addition of IFN-alpha to the sDC cocktail results in up-regulation of both CD38 and CD83 and improved capacity for induction of autologous T-cell responses despite few...

  5. Uterine Expression of NDRG4 Is Induced by Estrogen and Up-Regulated during Embryo Implantation Process in Mice

    Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Jian-Mei; He, Ya-Ping; Shi, Yan; Sun, Zhao-Gui; Shi, Hui-Juan; Wang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Embryo implantation is an essential step for the establishment of pregnancy and dynamically regulated by estrogen and progesterone. NDRG4 (N-myc down-regulated gene 4) is a tumor suppressor that participates in cell survival, tumor invasion and angiogenesis. The objective of this study was to preliminarily explore the role of NDRG4 in embryo implantation. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitive RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), we found that uterine expression of NDRG4 was increased along with puberal development, and its expression in adult females reached the peak at the estrus stage during the estrus cycle. Furthermore, uterine NDRG4 expression was significantly induced by the treatment of estradiol (E2) both in pre-puberty females and ovariectomized adult females. Uterine expression pattern of NDRG4 during the peri-implantation period in mice was determined by IHC, qRT-PCR and Western blot. It was observed that NDRG4 expression was up-regulated during the implantation process, and its expression level at the implantation sites was significantly higher than that at the inter-implantation sites. Meanwhile, an increased expression in NDRG4 was associated with artificial decidualization as well as the activation of delayed implantation. By qRT-PCR and Western blot, we found that the in vitro decidualization of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) was accompanied by up-regulation of NDRG4 expression, whereas knockdown of its expression in these cells by siRNA inhibited the decidualization process. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that NDRG4 protein expression was decreased in human villus tissues of recurrent miscarriage (RM) patients compared to normal pregnant women. Collectively, these data suggested that uterine NDRG4 expression could be induced by estrogen, and NDRG4 might play an important role during early pregnancy. PMID:27175791

  6. LINE-1 family member GCRG123 gene is up-regulated in human gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma

    Gang-Shi Wang; Meng-Wei Wang; Ben-Yan Wu; Xin-Yan Yang; Wei-Hua Wang; Wei-Di You

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To analyze the expression profiles of a human gastric-cancer-related gene,GCRG123,in human gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma tissues,and to perform bioinformatics analysis on GCRG123.METHODS:In situ hybridization was used to explore the GCRG123 expression pattern in paraffin-embedded gastric tissues,including 15 cases of signet-ring cell carcinoma,15 of intestinal-type adenocarcinoma,and 15 of normal gastric mucosa.Northnem blotting was used to analyze the differences in GCRG123 expression between stomach signet-ring cell carcinoma and intestinal-type adenocarcinoma tissues.Online software,including BLAST,Multalin and BLAT,were applied for bioinformatics analysis.National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and the University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) databases were used for the analyses.RESULTS:The in situ hybridization signal appeared as blue precipitates restricted to the cytoplasm.Ten out of 15 cases of gastric signet ring cell carcinoma,normal gastric mucosal epithelium and pyloric glands showed high GCRG123 expression.Low GCRG123 expressionv was observed in gastric intestinal-type adenocarcinoma and normal gastric glands.Northern blotting revealed that GCRG123 was up-regulated in signet-ring cell carcinoma tissue but down-regulated in intestinal-type adenocarcinoma tissue.BLAST and Multalin analyses revealed that the GCRG123 sequence had 92% similarity with the ORF2 sequence of human long interspersed nuclear element retrotransposons (LINE-1,L1).BLAT analysis indicated that GCRG123 mapped to all chromosomes.GCRG123 was found to integrate in the intron-17 and -23 of Rb,5' flanking region of IL-2 and clotting factor IX genes.CONCLUSION:GCRG123,an active member of the L1family,was up-regulated in human gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma.

  7. Cilostazol Upregulates Autophagy via SIRT1 Activation: Reducing Amyloid-β Peptide and APP-CTFβ Levels in Neuronal Cells.

    Hye Rin Lee

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a vital pathway for the removal of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ and the aggregated proteins that cause Alzheimer's disease (AD. We previously found that cilostazol induced SIRT1 expression and its activity in neuronal cells, and thus, we hypothesized that cilostazol might stimulate clearances of Aβ and C-terminal APP fragment β subunit (APP-CTFβ by up-regulating autophagy.When N2a cells were exposed to soluble Aβ1-42, protein levels of beclin-1, autophagy-related protein5 (Atg5, and SIRT1 decreased significantly. Pretreatment with cilostazol (10-30 μM or resveratrol (20 μM prevented these Aβ1-42 evoked suppressions. LC3-II (a marker of mammalian autophagy levels were significantly increased by cilostazol, and this increase was reduced by 3-methyladenine. To evoke endogenous Aβ overproduction, N2aSwe cells (N2a cells stably expressing human APP containing the Swedish mutation were cultured in medium with or without tetracycline (Tet+ for 48 h and then placed in Tet- condition. Aβ and APP-CTFβ expressions were increased after 12~24 h in Tet- condition, and these increased expressions were significantly reduced by pretreating cilostazol. Cilostazol-induced reductions in the expressions of Aβ and APP-CTFβ were blocked by bafilomycin A1 (a blocker of autophagosome to lysosome fusion. After knockdown of the SIRT1 gene (to ~40% in SIRT1 protein, cilostazol failed to elevate the expressions of beclin-1, Atg5, and LC3-II, indicating that cilostazol increases these expressions by up-regulating SIRT1. Further, decreased cell viability induced by Aβ was prevented by cilostazol, and this inhibition was reversed by 3-methyladenine, indicating that the protective effect of cilostazol against Aβ induced neurotoxicity is, in part, ascribable to the induction of autophagy. In conclusion, cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing the activation of SIRT1, and thereby enhances Aβ clearance and increases cell viability.

  8. Development for low-activation concrete design reducing radioactive waste

    Full text: Concrete is very valuable and inexpensive material, however it can be changed to be expensive and hard to deal with in use of a nuclear plant after long operation. One of the counter plans for the above is to use low-activation concrete instead of the ordinary concrete, that will reduce radioactive waste and could be even below clearance level in decommissioning and that is very useful in term of life cycle cost. Radioactive analysis showed that Co and Eu were the major target elements which decide the radioactivity level of reinforced concrete in decommissioning stage, and a several material were selected as a low-activation raw material from wide survey of raw materials for concrete (typically aggregates and cements). With the canditate of raw materials, several low-activation concrete were proposed for various portion of light water reactor plant, which reduction ratio were 1/10 to 1/30 which were mainly consist of limestone and low heat cement or white cement, and 1/100 to 1/300 which were mainly consist of alumina aggregate or quartz and high almina cement, comparing to the ordinary concrete in ΣDi/Ci unit, where 'Di' indicates concentration of each residual radioisotope, Ci defined by IAEA as a clearance level, and suffition of 'i' indicates each radioisotope. National funded project for development of low-activation design method for reduction of radioactive waste below clearance level were started from 2005 with aiming (1) development of a database on the content of target elements, which transform radioactive nuclides, in raw materials of reinforced concrete, (2) development of calculation tools for estimation of residual radioactivity of plant components, and (3) development of low-activation materials for concrete such as cements and reinforcing steel bars for structural components. For the optimized design for applying low-activation concrete to the reactor portion, effective evaluation of neutron spectrum in the certain portion including

  9. Coagulation factor Xa drives tumor cells into apoptosis through BH3-only protein Bim up-regulation

    Coagulation Factor (F)Xa is a serine protease that plays a crucial role during blood coagulation by converting prothrombin into active thrombin. Recently, however, it emerged that besides this role in coagulation, FXa induces intracellular signaling leading to different cellular effects. Here, we show that coagulation factor (F)Xa drives tumor cells of epithelial origin, but not endothelial cells or monocytes, into apoptosis, whereas it even enhances fibroblast survival. FXa signals through the protease activated receptor (PAR)-1 to activate extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38. This activation is associated with phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB, and in tumor cells with up-regulation of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic protein Bim, leading to caspase-3 cleavage, the main hallmark of apoptosis. Transfection of tumor cells with dominant negative forms of CREB or siRNA for either PAR-1, Bim, ERK1 and/or p38 inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of FXa. In fibroblasts, FXa-induced PAR-1 activation leads to down-regulation of Bim and pre-treatment with PAR-1 or Bim siRNA abolishes proliferation. We thus provide evidence that beyond its role in blood coagulation, FXa plays a key role in cellular processes in which Bim is the central player in determining cell survival

  10. N-glycoprotein analysis discovers new up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue.

    Nicastri, Annalisa; Gaspari, Marco; Sacco, Rosario; Elia, Laura; Gabriele, Caterina; Romano, Roberto; Rizzuto, Antonia; Cuda, Giovanni

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of death due to cancer worldwide. Therefore, the identification of high-specificity and -sensitivity biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal cancer is urgently needed. Post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, are known to play an important role in cancer progression. In the present work, we used a quantitative proteomic technique based on (18)O stable isotope labeling to identify differentially expressed N-linked glycoproteins in colorectal cancer tissue samples compared with healthy colorectal tissue from 19 patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. We identified 54 up-regulated glycoproteins in colorectal cancer samples, therefore potentially involved in the biological processes of tumorigenesis. In particular, nine of these (PLOD2, DPEP1, SE1L1, CD82, PAR1, PLOD3, S12A2, LAMP3, OLFM4) were found to be up-regulated in the great majority of the cohort, and, interestingly, the association with colorectal cancer of four (PLOD2, S12A2, PLOD3, CD82) has not been hitherto described. PMID:25247386

  11. Neural cell 3D microtissue formation is marked by cytokines' up-regulation.

    Yinzhi Lai

    Full Text Available Cells cultured in three dimensional (3D scaffolds as opposed to traditional two-dimensional (2D substrates have been considered more physiologically relevant based on their superior ability to emulate the in vivo environment. Combined with stem cell technology, 3D cell cultures can provide a promising alternative for use in cell-based assays or biosensors in non-clinical drug discovery studies. To advance 3D culture technology, a case has been made for identifying and validating three-dimensionality biomarkers. With this goal in mind, we conducted a transcriptomic expression comparison among neural progenitor cells cultured on 2D substrates, 3D porous polystyrene scaffolds, and as 3D neurospheres (in vivo surrogate. Up-regulation of cytokines as a group in 3D and neurospheres was observed. A group of 13 cytokines were commonly up-regulated in cells cultured in polystyrene scaffolds and neurospheres, suggesting potential for any or a combination from this list to serve as three-dimensionality biomarkers. These results are supportive of further cytokine identification and validation studies with cells from non-neural tissue.

  12. Up-regulation of -opioid receptors in the spinal cord of morphine-tolerant rats

    Subrata Basu Ray; Himanshu Gupta; Yogendra Kumar Gupta

    2004-03-01

    Though morphine remains the most powerful drug for treating pain, its effectiveness is limited by the development of tolerance and dependence. The mechanism underlying development of tolerance to morphine is still poorly understood. One of the factors could be an alteration in the number of m-receptors within specific parts of the nervous system. However, reports on changes in the -opioid receptor density in the spinal cord after chronic morphine administration are conflicting. Most of the studies have used subcutaneously implanted morphine pellets to produce tolerance. However, it does not simulate clinical conditions, where it is more common to administer morphine at intervals, either by injections or orally. In the present study, rats were made tolerant to morphine by injecting increasing doses of morphine (10–50 mg/kg, subcutaneously) for five days. In vitro tissue autoradiography for localization of -receptor in the spinal cord was done using [3H]-DAMGO. As compared to the spinal cord of control rats, the spinal cord of tolerant rats showed an 18.8% increase or up-regulation in the density of -receptors in the superficial layers of the dorsal horn. This up-regulation of -receptors after morphine tolerance suggests that a fraction of the receptors have been rendered desensitized, which in turn could lead to tolerance.

  13. Reduced superoxide dismutase activity in xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts

    This study was performed in order to assess the possible protective effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) on ultraviolet (UV) damage in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblasts. SOD activity in fibroblasts originating from seven xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients was significantly lower than that in normal cells (p less than 0.005). Average SOD activity in XP cells belonging to complementation group A was 3.68 +/- 0.54 (n = 7) and that in normal human cells was 5.79 +/- 1.59 (n = 6). Addition of SOD before and during UV irradiation (UVB and UVC) to the cells caused no change in the amount of unscheduled DNA synthesis and UV survival. A possible involvement of reduced SOD in XP and a possible protective effect by SOD on UV damage is discussed

  14. NR4A orphan nuclear receptors influence retinoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid signaling via up-regulation of fatty acid binding protein 5

    Volakakis, Nikolaos; Joodmardi, Eliza [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Perlmann, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.perlmann@licr.ki.se [Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ltd., Box 240, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); The Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Karolinska Institute, S-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-25

    The orphan nuclear receptor (NR) Nurr1 is expressed in the developing and adult nervous system and is also induced as an immediate early gene in a variety of cell types. In silico analysis of human promoters identified fatty acid binding protein 5 (FABP5), a protein shown to enhance retinoic acid-mediated PPAR{beta}/{delta} signaling, as a potential Nurr1 target gene. Nurr1 has previously been implicated in retinoid signaling via its heterodimerization partner RXR. Since NRs are commonly involved in cross-regulatory control we decided to further investigate the regulatory relationship between Nurr1 and FABP5. FABP5 expression was up-regulated by Nurr1 and other NR4A NRs in HEK293 cells, and Nurr1 was shown to activate and bind to the FABP5 promoter, supporting that FABP5 is a direct downstream target of NR4A NRs. We also show that the RXR ligand docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can induce nuclear translocation of FABP5. Moreover, via up-regulation of FABP5 Nurr1 can enhance retinoic acid-induced signaling of PPAR{beta}/{delta} and DHA-induced activation of RXR. We also found that other members of the NR4A orphan NRs can up-regulate FABP5. Thus, our findings suggest that NR4A orphan NRs can influence signaling events of other NRs via control of FABP5 expression levels.

  15. Up-regulation of PD-L1 on Monocytes and Dendritic Cells by HIV-1 derived TLR Ligands

    Meier, Angela; Bagchi, Aranya; Sidhu, Harlyn K.; Alter, Galit; Suscovich, Todd J.; Kavanagh, Daniel G.; Streeck, Hendrik; Brockman, Mark A.; LeGall, Sylvie; Hellman, Judith; Altfeld, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    Increased PD-L1 expression has been reported in HIV-1-infected individuals, but the mechanisms leading to PD-L1-up-regulation remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that HIV-1-derived TLR7/8 ligands can induce MyD88-dependent up-regulation of PD-L1 on pDCs, mDCs and monocytes. These data suggest a mechanism through which HIV-1-derived TLR ligands might contribute to the functional impairment of virus-specific PD-1+ T cells by inducing the up-regulation of PD-L1 on antigen-presenting cells.

  16. Up-regulation of ALG-2 in hepatomas and lung cancer tissue

    la Cour, Jonas Marstrand; Mollerup, Jens; Winding, Pernille; Tarabykina, Svetlana; Sehested, Maxwell; Berchtold, Martin W

    2003-01-01

    antibodies against ALG-2 did neither detect mouse recombinant ALG-2 nor endogenous ALG-2 in Jurkat cell lysates, whereas our own affinity-purified antibody recognized recombinant as well as endogenous ALG-2. The specificity of the antibody was shown by preabsorbtion experiments and on ALG-2-deficient cells......ALG-2 was isolated in a screen for proteins involved in programmed cell death and is the first Ca(2+)-binding protein found to be directly involved in apoptosis. We have generated polyclonal antibodies that are suitable for detecting ALG-2 using different immunological methods. Three commercial...... result confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. Staining of four different lung cancer tissue microarrays including specimens of 263 patients showed that ALG-2 is mainly localized to epithelial cells and significantly up-regulated in small-cell lung cancers and in non-small-cell lung cancers. Our...

  17. Receptor protein tyrosine kinase EphB4 is up-regulated in colon cancer

    Hewett Peter J

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used commercially available cDNA arrays to identify EphB4 as a gene that is up-regulated in colon cancer tissue when compared with matched normal tissue from the same patient. Results Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the expression of the EphB4 gene has shown that its expression is increased in 82% of tumour samples when compared with the matched normal tissue from the same patient. Using immunohistochemistry and Western analysis techniques with an EphB4-specific antibody, we also show that this receptor is expressed in the epithelial cells of the tumour tissue and either not at all, or in only low levels, in the normal tissue. Conclusion The results presented here supports the emerging idea that Eph receptors play a role in tumour formation and suggests that further elucidation of this signalling pathway may identify useful targets for cancer treatment therapies.

  18. Up-regulation of β-adrenoreceptors by drugs which cause depression

    A number of drugs associated with depressive episodes in man were investigated for their effects on rat cortical β-adrenoceptors, in view of the down-regulation of β-adrenoceptors caused by chronic administration of anti-depressant drugs. Scatchard analyses of [3H]dihydro-alprenolol binding data provided Bmax and KD values for the cortical β-adrenoceptors. Up-regulation of the receptors occurred after daily injections of phenobarbitone for seven days (by 55%), pentobarbitone (by 143%), reserpine (by 82%) and propranolol (by 64%). β-adrenoceptors were not affected by daily injections of clonidine, chlorpromazine and flupenthixol for seven days. This work confirms the up-regulatory effect on β-adrenoceptors of certain drugs which produce depressions in man

  19. Neuronal changes resulting in up-regulation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors after peripheral nerve injury

    Peter D.Drummond

    2014-01-01

    Under normal conditions, the sympathetic neurotransmitter noradrenaline inhibits the pro-duction and release of pro-inlfammatory cytokines. However, after peripheral nerve and tissue injury, pro-inflammatory cytokines appear to induce the expression of the alpha1A-adreno-ceptor subtype on immune cells and perhaps also on other cells in the injured tissue. In turn, noradrenaline may act on up-regulated alpha1-adrenoceptors to increase the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. In addition, the release of inflammatory mediators and nerve growth factor from keratinocytes and other cells may augment the expression of al-pha1-adrenoceptors on peripheral nerve ifbers. Consequently, nociceptive afferents acquire an abnormal excitability to adrenergic agents, and inlfammatory processes build. These mechanisms could contribute to the development of sympathetically maintained pain in conditions such as post-herpetic neuralgia, cutaneous neuromas, amputation stump pain and complex regional pain syndrome.

  20. Hypoxia up-regulates mitochondrial genome-encoded transcripts in Arabidopsis roots.

    Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-04-28

    Plants are frequently exposed to limitations in oxygen availability during their lifetime. During evolution, they have developed a number of physiological and morphological adaptations to tolerate oxygen and other stress conditions. These include regulation of growth by gene expression and ATP generation. The regulation of nuclear genes after hypoxia and anoxia is well studied; however, the regulation of mitochondrial genes in response to oxygen stress has not been characterized to date. Therefore, we have established an Arabidopsis mitochondrial genome-specific microarray that accommodates probes for all mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes and conserved open reading frames. Our analysis showed an up-regulation of mitochondrial transcripts in Arabidopsis roots after 48 h of hypoxia. Since no significant difference was detected in the expression of mitochondrial RNA polymerases or the mitochondrial DNA content per cell, we propose a transcriptional mode of induction of mitochondrial gene expression under hypoxia. PMID:27002184

  1. Periostin is up-regulated in high grade and high stage prostate cancer

    Schraml Peter

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of periostin is an indicator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer but a detailed analysis of periostin expression in prostate cancer has not been conducted so far. Methods Here, we evaluated periostin expression in prostate cancer cells and peritumoural stroma immunohistochemically in two independent prostate cancer cohorts, including a training cohort (n = 93 and a test cohort (n = 325. Metastatic prostate cancers (n = 20, hormone refractory prostate cancers (n = 19 and benign prostatic tissues (n = 38 were also analyzed. Results In total, strong epithelial periostin expression was detectable in 142 of 418 (34.0% of prostate carcinomas and in 11 of 38 benign prostate glands (28.9%. Increased periostin expression in carcinoma cells was significantly associated with high Gleason score (p Conclusions Our data indicate that periostin up-regulation is related to increased tumour aggressiveness in prostate cancer and might be a promising target for therapeutical interventions in primary and metastatic prostate cancer.

  2. Water deprivation up-regulates urine osmolality and renal aquaporin 2 in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus).

    Xu, Meng-Meng; Wang, De-Hua

    2016-04-01

    To better understand how desert rodents adapt to water scarcity, we examined urine osmolality, renal distribution and expression of aquaporins (AQPs) in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) during 7 days of water deprivation (WD). Urine osmolality of the gerbils during WD averaged 7503 mOsm kg(-1). Renal distributions of AQP1, AQP2, and AQP3 were similar to that described in other rodents. After the 7 day WD, renal AQP2 was up-regulated, while resting metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss decreased by 43% and 36%, respectively. Our data demonstrated that Mongolian gerbils showed high urine concentration, renal AQPs expression and body water conservation to cope with limited water availability, which may be critical for their survival during dry seasons in cold deserts. PMID:26806059

  3. PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism reduces enzymatic activity

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) modifies a variety of nuclear proteins by poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation, and plays diverse roles in molecular and cellular processes. A common PARP1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 762, resulting in the substitution of alanine (Ala) for valine (Val) in the catalytic domain has been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. To characterize the functional effect of this polymorphism on PARP1, we performed in vitro enzymatic analysis on PARP1-Ala762 and PARP1-Val762. We found that PARP1-Ala762 displayed 57.2% of the activity of PARP1-Val762 for auto-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation and 61.9% of the activity of PARP1-Val762 for trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of histone H1. The kinetic characterization revealed that the K m of PARP1-Ala762 was increased to a 1.2-fold of the K m of PARP1-Val762 for trans-poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation. Thus, the PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism reduces the enzymatic activity of PARP1 by increasing K m. This finding suggests that different levels of poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP1 might aid in understanding Cancer risk of carriers of the PARP1 Val762Ala polymorphism

  4. Low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration with up-regulation of dynamin II expression.

    Wen-Chung Tsai

    Full Text Available Low-level laser therapy (LLLT is commonly used to treat sports-related tendinopathy or tendon injury. Tendon healing requires tenocyte migration to the repair site, followed by proliferation and synthesis of the extracellular matrix. This study was designed to determine the effect of laser on tenocyte migration. Furthermore, the correlation between this effect and expression of dynamin 2, a positive regulator of cell motility, was also investigated. Tenocytes intrinsic to rat Achilles tendon were treated with low-level laser (660 nm with energy density at 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 J/cm(2. Tenocyte migration was evaluated by an in vitro wound healing model and by transwell filter migration assay. The messenger RNA (mRNA and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were determined by reverse transcription/real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR and Western blot analysis respectively. Immunofluorescence staining was used to evaluate the dynamin 2 expression in tenocytes. Tenocytes with or without laser irradiation was treated with dynasore, a dynamin competitor and then underwent transwell filter migration assay. In vitro wound model revealed that more tenocytes with laser irradiation migrated across the wound border to the cell-free zone. Transwell filter migration assay confirmed that tenocyte migration was enhanced dose-dependently by laser. Real-time PCR and Western-blot analysis demonstrated that mRNA and protein expressions of dynamin 2 were up-regulated by laser irradiation dose-dependently. Confocal microscopy showed that laser enhanced the expression of dynamin 2 in cytoplasm of tenocytes. The stimulation effect of laser on tenocytes migration was suppressed by dynasore. In conclusion, low-level laser irradiation stimulates tenocyte migration in a process that is mediated by up-regulation of dynamin 2, which can be suppressed by dynasore.

  5. Up-regulation and profibrotic role of osteopontin in human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a progressive and lethal disorder characterized by fibroproliferation and excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix in the lung. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using oligonucleotide arrays, we identified osteopontin as one of the genes that significantly distinguishes IPF from normal lungs. Osteopontin was localized to alveolar epithelial cells in IPF lungs and was also significantly elevated in bronchoalveolar lavage from IPF patients. To study the fibrosis-relevant effects of osteopontin we stimulated primary human lung fibroblasts and alveolar epithelial cells (A549 with recombinant osteopontin. Osteopontin induced a significant increase of migration and proliferation in both fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Epithelial growth was inhibited by the pentapeptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS and antibody to CD44, while fibroproliferation was inhibited by GRGDS and antibody to alphavbeta3 integrin. Fibroblast and epithelial cell migration were inhibited by GRGDS, anti-CD44, and anti-alphavbeta3. In fibroblasts, osteopontin up-regulated tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 and type I collagen, and down-regulated matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1 expression, while in A549 cells it caused up-regulation of MMP-7. In human IPF lungs, osteopontin colocalized with MMP-7 in alveolar epithelial cells, and application of weakest link statistical models to microarray data suggested a significant interaction between osteopontin and MMP-7. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide a potential mechanism by which osteopontin secreted from the alveolar epithelium may exert a profibrotic effect in IPF lungs and highlight osteopontin as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in this incurable disease.

  6. Identification of genes up-regulated in response to Cd exposure in Brassica juncea L.

    Minglin, Lang; Yuxiu, Zhang; Tuanyao, Chai

    2005-12-19

    In this paper, the fluorescent mRNA differential display (DD) technique was applied to analyze transcriptional regulation in response to Cd treatment in a heavy-metal accumulator, Brassica juncea. 154 DD bands were identified, of which fragments corresponding to 15 and 13 cDNAs were successfully cloned from leaves and roots, respectively. Many of the genes were confirmed to have a 2-5 fold increase in expression in both roots and leaves after 48 h Cd exposure (approximately 22.4 ppm). However, several isolated genes, e.g., DD2, DD21, DD22, showed a reversed mRNA expression pattern. Sequencing revealed those Cd-induced up-regulated genes displayed mRNAs corresponding to 19 different genes, 18 of which had a clear identity to Arabidopsis thaliana sequences and a putative function was assigned to 15 of them, including the auxin-responsive GH3, ARF-like small GTPases/ARFs, ARD/ARD', APS reductase, Nop, catalase, zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger), diacylglycerol kinase, and haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase families. Three cDNAs corresponded to predicted membrane proteins (KOG3491) or a ribosome-associated membrane protein RAMP4. One other clone, DD26, did not show significant identities to any translated sequence in the GenBank database, suggesting it may either encode unidentified proteins, or correspond to un-translated, non-conserved regions of mRNA molecules. These Cd-responsive up-regulated genes are mostly also regulated by abiotic or biotic stresses, e.g., dehydration, chilling, high salt, auxin, heat and infection, in other plants. The present study leads to an increased understanding of genes and/or the biochemical pathways involved in heavy-metal resistance and accumulation in plants. PMID:16226851

  7. Up-regulation of CatSper genes family by selenium

    Movahedin Mansoureh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CatSper1-4 are a unique family of sperm cation channels, which are exclusively expressed in the testis and play an important role in sperm motility and male fertility. Despite their vital role in male fertility, almost nothing is known about the factors regulating their expression. Here, we investigated the effects of selenium (Se on the expression of CatSper genes and sperm parameters in aging versus young male mice. Methods Forty 11-13 months aging male mice and forty 2-3 months young adult male mice were used. The animals were divided in two experimental groups: first group including aging males and second group comprising of young adult males, both treated with Se. The experimental groups were injected intra-peritoneally with Se (0.2 mg/kg daily, for up to 5 weeks. Two other groups, aging and young adult mice without Se treatment were used as controls. All the animals were rapidly sacrificed by cervical dislocation on the days 21, 28, 35 and 42 after Se treatment. Subsequently, the morphology of the collected sperms was analyzed, and one of the testes from each mouse used for semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The significancy of the data was analyzed using ANOVA. Results and Discussion Our data revealed that there was a significant up-regulation of CatSper genes in the experimental groups compared to the control ones. Furthermore, the results of sperm analysis showed that the sperm parameters were improved in the aging as well as young adult male mice following Se treatment. Conclusion Se treatment in the aging subjects could up-regulate the expression of CatSper genes, and therefore results in elevation of sperm motility. Furthermore, Se treatment improved sperm parameters, especially morphology and viability rates.

  8. Loss of Fatty Acid Binding Protein 4/aP2 Reduces Macrophage Inflammation Through Activation of SIRT3.

    Xu, Hongliang; Hertzel, Ann V; Steen, Kaylee A; Bernlohr, David A

    2016-03-01

    Activation of proinflammatory macrophages plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. Previous work using high fat-fed mice has shown that ablation of the adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP4/aP2) in macrophages leads to an antiinflammatory state both in situ and in vivo, and the mechanism is linked, in part, to increased intracellular monounsaturated fatty acids and the up-regulation of uncoupling protein 2. Here, we show that loss of FABP4/aP2 in macrophages additionally induces sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression and that monounsaturated fatty acids (C16:1, C18:1) lead to increased SIRT3 protein expression. Increased expression of SirT3 in FABP4/aP2 null macrophages occurs at the protein level with no change in SirT3 mRNA. When compared with controls, silencing of SIRT3 in Raw246.7 macrophages leads to increased expression of inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2. In contrast, loss of SIRT3 in FABP4/aP2-deficient macrophages attenuates the suppressed inflammatory signaling, reduced reactive oxygen species production, lipopolysaccharide-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and increased fatty acid oxidation. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory phenotype of FABP4/aP2 null mice is mediated by increased intracellular monounsaturated fatty acids leading to the increased expression of both uncoupling protein 2 and SirT3. PMID:26789108

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) confers resistance to apoptosis in EBV-positive B-lymphoma cells through up-regulation of survivin

    Resistance to apoptosis is an important component of the overall mechanism which drives the tumorigenic process. EBV is a ubiquitous human gamma-herpesvirus which preferentially establishes latent infection in viral infected B-lymphocytes. EBNA1 is typically expressed in most forms of EBV-positive malignancies and is important for replication of the latent episome in concert with replication of the host cells. Here, we investigate the effects of EBNA1 on survivin up-regulation in EBV-infected human B-lymphoma cells. We present evidence which demonstrates that EBNA1 forms a complex with Sp1 or Sp1-like proteins bound to their cis-element at the survivin promoter. This enhances the activity of the complex and up-regulates survivin. Knockdown of survivin and EBNA1 showed enhanced apoptosis in infected cells and thus supports a role for EBNA1 in suppressing apoptosis in EBV-infected cells. Here, we suggest that EBV encoded EBNA1 can contribute to the oncogenic process by up-regulating the apoptosis suppressor protein, survivin in EBV-associated B-lymphoma cells.

  10. Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor Promotes the Migration of Corneal Epithelial Stem/progenitor Cells by Up-regulation of MMPs through the Phosphorylation of Akt.

    Chen, Jialin; Chen, Peng; Backman, Ludvig J; Zhou, Qingjun; Danielson, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    The migration of limbal epithelial stem cells is important for the homeostasis and regeneration of corneal epithelium. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been found to promote corneal epithelial wound healing by activating corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells. However, the possible effect of CNTF on the migration of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells is not clear. This study found the expression of CNTF in mouse corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells (TKE2) to be up-regulated after injury, on both gene and protein level. CNTF promoted migration of TKE2 in a dose-dependent manner and the peak was seen at 10 ng/ml. The phosphorylation level of Akt (p-Akt), and the expression of MMP3 and MMP14, were up-regulated after CNTF treatment both in vitro and in vivo. Akt and MMP3 inhibitor treatment delayed the migration effect by CNTF. Finally, a decreased expression of MMP3 and MMP14 was observed when Akt inhibitor was applied both in vitro and in vivo. This study provides new insights into the role of CNTF on the migration of corneal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and its inherent mechanism of Up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases through the Akt signalling pathway. PMID:27174608

  11. The flavonoid casticin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated up-regulation of DR5

    Sanyuan Tang; Guangjin Yuan; Zhengyang Yu; Leilan Yin; Hao Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms by which the flavonoid casticin enhances tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis in colon cancer cells. Methods: Human colon cancer HT-29 cells were treated with TRAIL or casticin. Cytotoxicity was examined by MTT assay, and apoptosis determined by morphological observation and flow cytometric analysis. Death receptor 5 (DR5), DR4, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response markers, including glucose regulating protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein), were examined with western blot. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection was employed to knock down CHOP. Results: HT-29 cells were resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, but casticin, at subtoxic concentrations, potentiated HT-29 cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Casticin up-regulated the expression of DR5 time- and dose-dependent manners, but had no effect on the expression of DR4. Also, casticin increased the levels of ER stress response markers (GRP78, ATF4 and CHOP) in a similar way to DR5. Knockdown of CHOP by specific siRNA, or salubrinal, an ER stress inhibitor, abolished the up-regulation of DR5 and enhancement of TRAIL-induced apoptosis by casticin. Conclusion: Casticin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells by ER stress-mediated up-regulation of DR5.

  12. Vitamin K2-enhanced liver regeneration is associated with oval cell expansion and up-regulation of matrilin-2 expression in 2-AAF/PH rat model.

    Lin, M; Sun, P; Zhang, G; Xu, X; Liu, G; Miao, H; Yang, Y; Xu, H; Zhang, L; Wu, P; Li, M

    2014-03-01

    Normal liver has a great potential of regenerative capacity after partial hepatectomy. In clinic, however, most patients receiving partial hepatectomy are usually suffering from chronic liver diseases with severely damaged hepatocyte population. Under these conditions, activation of hepatic progenitor cell (oval cell in rodents) population might be considered as an alternative mean to enhance liver functional recovery. Vitamin K2 has been shown to promote liver functional recovery in patients with liver cirrhosis. In this study, we explored the possibility of vitamin K2 treatment in activating hepatic oval cell for liver regeneration with the classic 2-acetamido-fluorene/partial hepatectomy (2-AAF/PH) model in Sprague-Dawley rats. In 2-AAF/PH animals, vitamin K2 treatment induced a dose-dependent increase of liver regeneration as assessed by the weight ratio of remnant liver versus whole body and by measuring serum albumin level. In parallel, a drastic expansion of oval cell population as assessed by anti-OV6 and anti-CK19 immunostaining was noticed in the periportal zone of the remnant liver. Since matrilin-2 was linked to oval cell proliferation and liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, we assessed its expression at both the mRNA and protein levels. The results revealed a significant increase after vitamin K2 treatment in parallel with the expansion of oval cell population. Consistently, knocking down matrilin-2 expression in vivo largely reduced vitamin K2-induced liver regeneration and oval cell proliferation in 2-AAF/PH animals. In conclusion, these data suggest that vitamin K2 treatment enhances liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, which is associated with oval cell expansion and matrilin-2 up-regulation. PMID:24236453

  13. Platycodon grandiflorum extract represses up-regulated adipocyte fatty acid binding protein triggered by a high fat feeding in obese rats

    Yoon Shin Park; Yoosik Yoon; Hong Seok Ahn

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Platycodon grandiflorum extract (PGE) on lipid metabolism and FABP mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue of high fat diet-induced obese rats.METHODS: PGE was treated to investigate the inhibitory effect on the pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 differentiation and pancreatic lipase activity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with an average weight of 439.03 ± 7.61 g were divided into four groups: the control groups that fed an experimental diet alone (C and H group) and PGE treatment groups that administered PGE along with a control diet or HFD at a concentration of 150 mg/kg body weight (C + PGE and H + PGE group, respectively) for 7 wk. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerol (TG) concentrations were measured from the tail vein of rats. Adipocyte cell area was measured from subcutaneous adipose tissue and the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) mRNA expression was analyzed by northern blot analysis.RESULTS: PGE treatment inhibited 3T3-L1 pre-adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation, and also decreased pancreatic lipase activity. In this experiment, PGE significantly reduced plasma TC and TG concentrations as well as body weight and subcutaneous adipose tissue weight. PGE also significantly decreased the size of subcutaneous adipocytes. Furthermore, it significantly repressed the up-regulation of FABP mRNA expression induced by a high-fat feeding in subcutaneous adipose tissue.CONCLUSION: PGE has a plasma lipid lowering-effect and anti-obesity effect in obese rats fed a high fat diet.From these results, we can suggest the possibility that PGE can be used as a food ingredient or drug component to therapeutically control obesity.

  14. Metronomic Ceramide Analogs Inhibit Angiogenesis in Pancreatic Cancer through Up-regulation of Caveolin-1 and Thrombospondin-1 and Down-regulation of Cyclin D1

    Guido Bocci

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the antitumor and antiangiogenic activity of metronomic ceramide analogs and their relevant molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Human endothelial cells [human dermal microvascular endothelial cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC] and pancreatic cancer cells (Capan-1 and MIA PaCa-2 were treated with the ceramide analogs (C2, AL6, C6, and C8, at low concentrations for 144 hours to evaluate any antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects and inhibition of migration and to measure the expression of caveolin-1 (CAV-1 and thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 mRNAs by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Assessment of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation and of CAV-1 and cyclin D1 protein expression was performed by ELISA. Maximum tolerated dose (MTD gemcitabine was compared against metronomic doses of the ceramide analogs by evaluating the inhibition of MIA PaCa-2 subcutaneous tumor growth in nude mice. RESULTS: Metronomic ceramide analogs preferentially inhibited cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in endothelial cells. Low concentrations of AL6 and C2 caused a significant inhibition of HUVEC migration. ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation were significantly decreased after metronomic ceramide analog treatment. Such treatment caused the overexpression of CAV-1 and TSP-1 mRNAs and proteins in endothelial cells, whereas cyclin D1 protein levels were reduced. The antiangiogenic and antitumor impact in vivo of metronomic C2 and AL6 regimens was similar to that caused by MTD gemcitabine. CONCLUSIONS: Metronomic C2 and AL6 analogs have antitumor and antiangiogenic activity, determining the up-regulation of CAV-1 and TSP-1 and the suppression of cyclin D1.

  15. Identification of Dehydroxytrichostatin A as a Novel Up-Regulator of the ATP-Binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1

    Shuyi Si

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1 mediates the cellular efflux of excess cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I. ABCA1 plays an important role in high-density lipoprotein (HDL biogenesis and reverse cholesterol transport. By using a cell-based screening model for the ABCA1 up-regulator and column chromatography, an active compound, 9179B, was isolated. Through analysis of its NMR data, 9179B was identified as dehydroxytrichostatin A. We found that 9179B increased the transcription of ABCA1 in a cell-based reporter assay, with an EC50 value of 2.65 μM. 9179B up-regulated ABCA1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and RAW264.7 cells. It also up-regulated the expression of scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI as well as the uptake of DiI-HDL in RAW264.7 cells. This compound stimulated ApoA-I-mediated cellular cholesterol efflux from RAW 264.7 cells. We further found that 9179B was a potent histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.08 μM. Reporter gene assays showed that the regulation of ABCA1 transcription by 9179B was mainly mediated by the −171/−75 bp promoter region. Together, our results indicate that 9179B is an ABCA1 up-regulator and dehydroxytrichostatin A may be a novel anti-atherogenic compound.

  16. Human p38δ MAP kinase mediates UV irradiation induced up-regulation of the gene expression of chemokine BRAK/CXCL14

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family comprises ERK, JNK, p38 and ERK5 (big-MAPK, BMK1). UV irradiation of squamous cell carcinoma cells induced up-regulation of gene expression of chemokine BRAK/CXCL14, stimulated p38 phosphorylation, and down-regulated the phosphorylation of ERK. Human p38 MAPKs exist in 4 isoforms: p38α, β, γ and δ. The UV stimulation of p38 phosphorylation was not inhibited by the presence of SB203580 or PD169316, inhibitors of p38α and β, suggesting p38 phosphorylation was not dependent on these 2 isoforms and that p38γ and/or δ was responsible for the phosphorylation. In fact, inhibition of each of these 4 p38 isoforms by the introduction of short hairpin (sh) RNAs for respective isoforms revealed that only shRNA for p38δ attenuated the UV-induced up-regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression. In addition, over-expression of p38 isoforms in the cells showed the association of p38δ with ERK1 and 2, concomitant with down-regulation of ERK phosphorylation. The usage of p38δ isoform by UV irradiation is not merely due to the abundance of this p38 isoform in the cells. Because serum deprivation of the cells also induced an increase in BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression, and in this case p38α and/or β isoform is responsible for up-regulation of BRAK/CXCL14 gene expression. Taken together, the data indicate that the respective stress-dependent action of p38 isoforms is responsible for the up-regulation of the gene expression of the chemokine BRAK/CXCL14.

  17. OxLDL up-regulates Niemann-Pick type C1 expression through ERK1/2/COX-2/ PPARα-signaling pathway in macrophages

    Xiaohua yu; Chaoke Tang; Xiaoxu Li; Guojun Zhao; Ji Xiao; Zhongcheng Mo; Kai Yin; Zhisheng Jiang; Yuchang Fu; Xiaohui Zha

    2012-01-01

    The Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) is located mainly in the membranes of the late endosome/lysosome and controls the intracellular cholesterol trafficking from the late endosome/lysosome to the plasma membrane.It has been reported that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) can up-regulate NPC1 expression.However,the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood.In this study,we investigated the effect of oxLDL stimulation on NPC1 expression in THP-1 macrophages.Our results showed that oxLDL up-regulated NPC1 expression at both mRNA and protein levels in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner.In addition,oxLDL also induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2).Treatment with oxLDL significantly increased cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)mRNA and protein expression in the macrophages,and these increases were suppressed by the ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 or ERK1/2 small interfering RNA (siRNA) treatment.OxLDL up-regulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) at the mRNA and protein levels,which could be abolished by COX-2 siRNA or COX-2 inhibitor NS398 treatment in these macrophages.OxLDL dramatically elevated cellular cholesterol efflux,which was abrogated by inhibiting ERK1/2 and/or COX-2.In addition,oxLDL-induced NPC1 expression and cellular cholesterol effiux were reversed by PPARα siRNA or GW6471,an antagonist of PPARα.Taken together,these results provide the evidence that oxLDL can up-regulate the expression of the NPC1 through ERK1/2/COX-2/PPARα-signaling pathway in macrophages.

  18. Activated Sludge Ozonation to Reduce Sludge Production in MBR

    HE Sheng-bing; XUE Gang; WANG Bao-zhen

    2005-01-01

    The total experimental period was divided into two stages.At the first stage, a series of batch studies were carried out to get an understanding of the effect of ozonation on sludge properties. At the following stages, three MBRs with different amounts of activated sludge to be ozonated were run in parallel for a long period to evaluate the influence of sludge ozonation on sludge yield and permeate quality.Through batch study, it was found that ozone could disrupt the cell walls and caused the release of plasm from the cells,then the amounts of soluble organics in the solution increased with ozonation time. With the rise of soluble organics, the amount of soluble organics to be mineralized increased as well, which wonld reduce the soluble organics content. For the counteraction between these two aspects, a pseudo-balance could be achieved, and soluble organics would vary in a limited range. Sludge ozonation also increased the contents of nitrogen and phosphorus in the solution. In addition, ozonation was effective in improving sludge settling property. On the basis of batch study, a suitable ozone dosage of 0.16 kgO3/kgMLSS wasdetermined. Three systems were run in parallel for a total period of 39 days, it was demonstrated that a part of activated sludge ozonation could reduce sludge production significantly, and biological performance of mineralization and nitrification would not be inhibited due to sludge ozonation. Experimental results proved that the combination of ozonation unit with MBR unit could achieve an excellent quality of permeate as well as a small quantity of sludge production, and economic analysis indicated that an additional ozonation operating cost for treatment of both wastewater and sludge was only 0.096Yuan (US $0.011,5)/m3 wastewater.

  19. Insecticide-Mediated Up-Regulation of Cytochrome P450 Genes in the Red Flour Beetle (Tribolium castaneum

    Xiao Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some cytochrome P450 (CYP genes are known for their rapid up-regulation in response to insecticide exposures in insects. To date, however, limited information is available with respect to the relationships among the insecticide type, insecticide concentration, exposure duration and the up-regulated CYP genes. In this study, we examined the transcriptional response of eight selected CYP genes, including CYP4G7, CYP4Q4, CYP4BR3, CYP12H1, CYP6BK11, CYP9D4, CYP9Z5 and CYP345A1, to each of four insecticides in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR revealed that CYP4G7 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by cypermethrin (1.97- and 2.06-fold, respectively, permethrin (2.00- and 2.03-fold and lambda-cyhalothrin (1.73- and 1.81-fold, whereas CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 can be significantly up-regulated by imidacloprid (1.99- and 1.83-fold when 20-day larvae were exposed to each of these insecticides at the concentration of LC20 for 24 h. Our studies also showed that similar levels of up-regulation can be achieved for CYP4G7, CYP4BR3 and CYP345A1 by cypermethrin, permethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin or imidacloprid with approximately one fourth of LC20 in 6 h. Our study demonstrated that up-regulation of these CYP genes was rapid and only required low concentrations of insecticides, and the up-regulation not only depended on the CYP genes but also the type of insecticides. Our results along with those from previous studies also indicated that there were no specific patterns for predicting the up-regulation of specific CYP gene families based on the insecticide classification.

  20. Farnesoid X receptor up-regulates expression of Lipid transfer inhibitor protein in liver cells and mice

    Li, Liangpeng [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medical Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Hong [Department of Hematology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400037 (China); Peng, Jiahe; Wang, Yongchao; Zhang, Yan; Dong, Jinyu; Liu, Xiaohua; Guo, Dongmei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medical Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Jiang, Yu, E-mail: yujiang61@gmail.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medical Science, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2013-11-29

    Highlights: •FXR up-regulates apoF. •It binds to ER1 element. •It activates apoF gene promoter. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein F is a component protein mainly secreted by liver and resides on several lipoprotein classes. It can inhibit lipids transfer between different lipoproteins. FXR is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily which is also highly expressed in the liver. It modulates bile acids synthesis and lipids metabolism by transcriptional regulation. We aimed to determine whether apoF can be regulated by FXR. The FXR agonist Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and GW4064 both can activate the expression of apoF in liver cell lines and in C57/BL6 mouse liver. This is dependent on the binding of FXR to the FXR element ER1 (−2904 to −2892 bp) in the apoF gene promoter. Taken together, we have identified apoF as likely another target gene of FXR.

  1. Farnesoid X receptor up-regulates expression of Lipid transfer inhibitor protein in liver cells and mice

    Highlights: •FXR up-regulates apoF. •It binds to ER1 element. •It activates apoF gene promoter. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein F is a component protein mainly secreted by liver and resides on several lipoprotein classes. It can inhibit lipids transfer between different lipoproteins. FXR is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily which is also highly expressed in the liver. It modulates bile acids synthesis and lipids metabolism by transcriptional regulation. We aimed to determine whether apoF can be regulated by FXR. The FXR agonist Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and GW4064 both can activate the expression of apoF in liver cell lines and in C57/BL6 mouse liver. This is dependent on the binding of FXR to the FXR element ER1 (−2904 to −2892 bp) in the apoF gene promoter. Taken together, we have identified apoF as likely another target gene of FXR

  2. Up-Regulation of PAI-1 and Down-Regulation of uPA Are Involved in Suppression of Invasiveness and Motility of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells by a Natural Compound Berberine

    Wang, Xuanbin; Wang, Ning; Li, Hongliang; Liu, Ming; Cao, Fengjun; Yu, Xianjun; Zhang, Jingxuan; Tan, Yan; Xiang, Longchao; Feng, Yibin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death and its prognosis remains poor due to the high risk of tumor recurrence and metastasis. Berberine (BBR) is a natural compound derived from some medicinal plants, and accumulating evidence has shown its potent anti-tumor activity with diverse action on tumor cells, including inducing cancer cell death and blocking cell cycle and migration. Molecular targets of berberine involved in its inhibitory effect on the invasiveness remains not yet clear. In this study, we identified that berberine exhibits a potent inhibition on the invasion and migration of HCC cells. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent down-regulation of expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in berberine-treated HCC cells. Furthermore, berberine inactivated p38 and Erk1/2 signaling pathway in HCC cells. Primarily, this may be attributed to the up-regulation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a tumor suppressor that can antagonize uPA receptor and down-regulation of uPA. Blockade of uPA receptor-associated pathways leads to reduced invasiveness and motility of berberine-treated HCC cells. In conclusion, our findings identified for the first time that inactivation of uPA receptor by up-regulation of PAI-1 and down-regulation of uPA is involved in the inhibitory effect of berberine on HCC cell invasion and migration. PMID:27092498

  3. NADPH Oxidase NOX1 Controls Autocrine Growth of Liver Tumor Cells through Up-regulation of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway*

    Sancho, Patricia; Fabregat, Isabel

    2010-01-01

    FaO rat hepatoma cells proliferate in the absence of serum through a mechanism that requires activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. The aim of this work was to analyze the molecular mechanisms that control EGFR activation in these and other liver tumor cells. Reactive oxygen species production is observed a short time after serum withdrawal in FaO cells, coincident with up-regulation of the NADPH oxidase NOX1. NOX1-targeted knockdown, the use of antioxidants, or ph...

  4. PTX3 is up-regulated in epithelial mammary cells during S. aureus intramammary infection in goat

    Joel Fernando Soares Filipe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxins are a superfamily of conserved molecules with immune functions such as complement activation and opsonization. PTX3 is the prototypic long pentraxin and is produced by different cell populations after pro-inflammatory stimuli. Different studies have demonstrated the up-regulation of PTX3 during ruminant mastitis, but its role is still unknown.The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of PTX3 in the immune response to S. aureus intra-mammary infection (IMI. Given that no data are available on PTX3 expression in goat tissues, we first studied its pattern of expression  in goat normal tissues. Then we investigated the role of PTX3 during mammary infection, comparing its expression in healthy and infected blood, milk and tissues.Six healthy goats were infused with PBS in the right udder and with S. aureus in the left udder. Mammary biopsies from udders were collected 30h post infection, formalin fixed and routinely processed for microscopic evaluation or immediately stored in RNAlater.Tissue samples were collected at the slaughterhouse from healthy goats and were immediately stored in RNAlater.Blood and milk were collected from healthy and infected goats; cells from blood and milk were isolated and processed for RNA extraction or for cytospins; milk fat globules were obtained through milk centrifugation and immediately processed for RNA extraction.Total RNA from different organs, blood or milk cells, milk fat globules and mammary tissues was extracted and used as template in qPCR for PTX3.PTX3 expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry on formalin fixed paraffin embedded mammary tissue samples and on cytospins of isolated goat blood and milk cells.PTX3 mRNA was expressed with very high levels in bone marrow, mammary gland, aorta, pancreas, skin and lung. Given the high expression in the mammary gland, we investigated which cell population expressed PTX3. PTX3 was mainly expressed in the apical cytoplasmic portion of

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi infection induces up-regulation of cardiac muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in vivo and in vitro

    K. Peraza-Cruces

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of chagasic cardiomyopathy is not completely understood, but it has been correlated with parasympathetic denervation (neurogenic theory and inflammatory activity (immunogenic theory that could affect heart muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR expression. In order to further understand whether neurogenic and/or immunogenic alterations are related to changes in mAChR expression, we studied two models of Trypanosoma cruzi infection: 1 in 3-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats chronically infected with T. cruzi and 2 isolated primary cardiomyocytes co-cultured with T. cruzi and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. Using [³H]-quinuclidinylbenzilate ([³H]-QNB binding assays, we evaluated mAChR expression in homogenates from selected cardiac regions, PBMC, and cultured cardiomyocytes. We also determined in vitro protein expression and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in serum and cell culture medium by ELISA. Our results showed that: 1 mAChR were significantly (P < 0.05 up-regulated in right ventricular myocardium (means ± SEM; control: 58.69 ± 5.54, N = 29; Chagas: 72.29 ± 5.79 fmol/mg, N = 34 and PBMC (control: 12.88 ± 2.45, N = 18; Chagas: 20.22 ± 1.82 fmol/mg, N = 19, as well as in cardiomyocyte transmembranes cultured with either PBMC/T. cruzi co-cultures (control: 24.33 ± 3.83; Chagas: 43.62 ± 5.08 fmol/mg, N = 7 for both or their conditioned medium (control: 37.84 ± 3.84, N = 4; Chagas: 54.38 ± 6.28 fmol/mg, N = 20; 2 [³H]-leucine uptake was increased in cardiomyocytes co-cultured with PBMC/T. cruzi-conditioned medium (Chagas: 21,030 ± 2321; control 10,940 ± 2385 dpm, N = 7 for both; P < 0.05; 3 plasma IL-6 was increased in chagasic rats, IL-1β, was increased in both plasma of chagasic rats and in the culture medium, and TNF-α level was decreased in the culture medium. In conclusion, our results suggest that cytokines are involved in the up-regulation of mAChR in chronic Chagas disease.

  6. Platycodon grandiflorum root attenuates vascular endothelial cell injury by oxidized low-density lipoprotein and prevents high-fat diet-induced dyslipidemia in mice by up-regulating antioxidant proteins.

    Chung, Mi Ja; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Park, Jeong-Won; Lee, Young Jin; Ham, Seung-Shi

    2012-05-01

    We hypothesized that a Platycodon grandiflorum root (PG) ethyl acetate extract (PGEA) would help reduce the vascular cell injury caused by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and prevent high-fat (HF) diet-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress by up-regulating antioxidant proteins. We investigated the protective effects of PGEA against vascular endothelial cell injury induced by oxLDL and dyslipidemia induced by an HF diet, and the mechanisms underlying these effects were studied. The protective effects of PGEA were investigated with respect to calf pulmonary arterial endothelial (CPAE) cell viability and the lactate dehydrogenase release during oxLDL treatment. The in vivo effects of PGEA were examined using C57BL/6 mice, which were fed an HF diet for 9 weeks. The HF diet was supplemented with 0, 25, or 75 mg/kg PGEA during the last 4 weeks of the experimental period. Histologic analyses of hepatic lipid accumulation were performed. The changes in antioxidant protein levels induced by PGEA, which protects against HF diet-induced oxidative stress, were measured using a proteomics approach. We found that PGEA exhibited antioxidant activity. In CPAE cells, PGEA inhibited both oxLDL-induced cell death and lactate dehydrogenase release. In the HF diet-induced obese mice that received PGEA, we observed significantly reduced plasma and hepatic lipid levels, demonstrating that PGEA has beneficial effects on hyperlipidemia. In addition, we found that PGEA caused the up-regulation of antioxidant proteins. These findings suggest that the antioxidant effects of PGEA may protect against oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:22652376

  7. Endurance exercise and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplementation up-regulate CYP17A1 and stimulate testosterone biosynthesis.

    Rosario Barone

    Full Text Available A new role for fat supplements, in particular conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, has been delineated in steroidogenesis, although the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been elucidated. The aims of the present study were to identify the pathway stimulated by CLA supplementation using a cell culture model and to determine whether this same pathway is also stimulated in vivo by CLA supplementation associated with exercise. In vitro, Leydig tumour rat cells (R2C supplemented with different concentrations of CLA exhibited increasing testosterone biosynthesis accompanied by increasing levels of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. In vivo, trained mice showed an increase in free plasma testosterone and an up-regulation of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein. The effect of training on CYP17A1 expression and testosterone biosynthesis was significantly higher in the trained mice supplemented with CLA compared to the placebo. The results of the present study demonstrated that CLA stimulates testosterone biosynthesis via CYP17A1, and endurance training led to the synthesis of testosterone in vivo by inducing the overexpression of CYP17A1 mRNA and protein in the Leydig cells of the testis. This effect was enhanced by CLA supplementation. Therefore, CLA-associated physical activity may be used for its steroidogenic property in different fields, such as alimentary industry, human reproductive medicine, sport science, and anti-muscle wasting.

  8. Up-regulation of DNA-dependent protein kinase correlates with radiation resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DNA-PK is a nuclear protein with serine/threonine kinase activity and forms a complex consisting of the DNA-PKcs and a heterodimer of Ku70 and Ku80 proteins. Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that the DNA-PK complex formation is one of the major pathways by which mammalian cells respond to DNA double-strand breaks induced by ionizing radiation. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between expression levels of DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and Ku80 proteins and radiation sensitivity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and in OSCC patients treated with preoperative radiation therapy. The OSCC cell lines greatly differed in their response to irradiation, as assessed by a standard colony formation assay. However, the expression levels of the DNA-PK complex proteins were all similar, and there was no association between the magnitude of their expression and the tumor radiation sensitivity. Expression of DNA-PK complex proteins increased after radiation treatment, and the increased values correlated with the tumor radiation resistance. Expression of DNA-PKcs and Ku70 after irradiation was increased in the surviving cells of OSCC tissues irradiated preoperatively. These results suggest that up-regulation of DNA-PK complex protein, especially DNA-PKcs, after radiation treatment correlates to radiation resistance. DNA-PKcs might be a molecular target for a novel radiation sensitization therapy of OSCC. (author)

  9. Constitutive, Institutive and Up-Regulation of Carotenogenesis Regulatory Mechanism via In Vitro Culture Model System and Elicitors

    Phyto hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a regulatory role in many physiological processes in plants and is regulated and controlled by specific key factors or genes. Different environmental stress conditions such as water, drought, cold, light, and temperature result in increased amounts of ABA. The action of ABA involves modification of gene expression and analysis of in vitro callus model system cultures revealed several potential of constitutive, institutive and up-regulation acting regulatory mechanisms. Therefore, this study was aimed at establishing in vitro cultures as potential research tools to study the regulatory mechanisms of the carotenoid biosynthesis in selected plant species through a controlled environment. The presence and absence of zeaxanthin and neoxanthin in callus cultures and intact plants could be explained by changes in gene expression in response to stress. Abiotic stress can alter gene expression and trigger cellular metabolism in plants. This study suggested that the key factors which involved in regulatory mechanisms of individual carotenoid biosynthesis in a particular biology system of plants can be either be silenced or activated. Therefore, based on the results in this study environmental stress is made possible for enhancement or enrichment of certain carotenoid of interest in food crops without altering the genes. (author)

  10. Zirconium ions up-regulate the BMP/SMAD signaling pathway and promote the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts.

    Yongjuan Chen

    Full Text Available Zirconium (Zr is an element commonly used in dental and orthopedic implants either as zirconia (ZrO2 or in metal alloys. It can also be incorporated into calcium silicate-based ceramics. However, the effects of in vitro culture of human osteoblasts (HOBs with soluble ionic forms of Zr have not been determined. In this study, primary culture of human osteoblasts was conducted in the presence of medium containing either ZrCl4 or Zirconium (IV oxynitrate (ZrO(NO32 at concentrations of 0, 5, 50 and 500 µM, and osteoblast proliferation, differentiation and calcium deposition were assessed. Incubation of human osteoblast cultures with Zr ions increased the proliferation of human osteoblasts and also gene expression of genetic markers of osteoblast differentiation. In 21 and 28 day cultures, Zr ions at concentrations of 50 and 500 µM increased the deposition of calcium phosphate. In addition, the gene expression of BMP2 and BMP receptors was increased in response to culture with Zr ions and this was associated with increased phosphorylation of SMAD1/5. Moreover, Noggin suppressed osteogenic gene expression in HOBs co-treated with Zr ions. In conclusion, Zr ions appear able to induce both the proliferation and the differentiation of primary human osteoblasts. This is associated with up-regulation of BMP2 expression and activation of BMP signaling suggesting this action is, at least in part, mediated by BMP signaling.

  11. Abraxane, the Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel Can Induce Drug Resistance by Up-Regulation of P-gp.

    Zhao, Minzhi; Lei, Chunni; Yang, Yadong; Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Gong, He; Liu, Juan; Fang, Xiangdong; Hu, Zhiyuan; Fang, Qiaojun

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can actively pump paclitaxel (PTX) out of cells and induces drug resistance. Abraxane, a nanoparticle (NP) formulation of PTX, has multiple clinical advantages over the single molecule form. However, it is still unclear whether Abraxane overcomes the common small molecule drug resistance problem mediated by P-gp. Here we were able to establish an Abraxane-resistant cell line from the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We compared the transcriptome of A549/Abr resistant cell line to that of its parental cell line using RNA-Seq technology. Several pathways were found to be up or down regulated. Specifically, the most significantly up-regulated gene was ABCB1, which translates into P-glycoprotein. We verified the overexpression of P-glycoprotein and confirmed its function by reversing the drug resistance with P-gp inhibitor Verapamil. The results suggest that efflux pathway plays an important role in the Abraxane-resistant cell line we established. However, the relevance of this P-gp mediated Abraxane resistance in tumors of lung cancer patients remains unknown. PMID:26182353

  12. A few shared up-regulated genes may influence conidia to yeast transformation in dimorphic fungal pathogens.

    Kirkland, Theo N

    2016-08-01

    The small number of fungi that commonly cause disease in normal people share the capacity to grow as mycelia in the soil at 25°C and as yeast (or spherules) in mammals at 37°C. This remarkable conversion has long been a topic of interest in medical mycology. The conidia to yeast conversion has been studied by transcription profiling in several fungal species, including Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Coccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatitidis, and Talaromyces marneffei One limitation of transcriptional profiling is determining which genes are involved in the process of conversion to yeast as opposed to a result of conversion to yeast. If there are genes that are up-regulated in the yeast phase of more than one dimorphic, pathogenic fungus they might be required for conversion to yeast (or spherules). To address this issue, 24 up-regulated genes common to Coccidioides spp spherules and H. capsulatum yeasts were identified. Four homologs of these genes were also found in P. brasiliensis, B. dermatitidis or T. marneffei genes that were up-regulated in yeast. 4-hydroxyphenylpurvate dioxygenase, a gene involved in tyrosine metabolism and melanin synthesis that has been shown to be required for yeast conversion, is conserved and up-regulated in yeast in all five species. Another up-regulated gene that is conserved in all five species is a MFS sugar porter. These results suggest that a minority of up-regulated yeast (or spherule) genes are conserved across species and raises the possibility that conserved up-regulated genes may be of special interest for differentiation of mycelium into yeast. PMID:27118798

  13. Protective Role of Ca Against NaCl Toxicity in Jerusalem Artichoke by Up-Regulation of Antioxidant Enzymes

    XUE Yan-Feng; LIU Ling; LIU Zhao-Pu; S. K.MEHTA; ZHAO Geng-Mao

    2008-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of external Ca2+ on Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) under salt stress was studied through biochemical and physiological analyses of Jerusalem artichoke seedlings treated with or without 10 mol L-1 CaCl2, 150 mmol L-1 NaCl, and/or 5 mmol L-1 ethylene-bis(oxyethylenenitrilo)-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for five days. Exposure to NaCl (150 mmol L-1) decreased growth, leaf chlorophyll content, and photosynthetic rate of Jerusalem artichoke seedlings. NaCl treatment showed 59% and 37% higher lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage, respectively, than the control. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) were decreased by NaCl, indicating an impeded antioxidant defense mechanism of Jerusalem artichoke grown under salt stress. Addition of 10 mmol L-1 CaCl2 to the salt solutions significantly decreased the damaging effect of NaCl on growth and chlorophyll content and simultaneously restored the rate of photosynthesis almost to the level of the control. Ca2+ addition decreased the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content and electrolyte leakage from NaCl-treated seedlings by 47% and 24%, respectively, and significantly improved the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT in NaCl-treated plants. Addition of ECTA, a specific chelator of Ca2+, decreased the growth, chlorophyll content, and photosynthesis, and increased level of MDA and electrolyte leakage from NaCl-treated plants and from the control plants. ECTA addition to the growth medium also repressed the activities of SOD, POD, and CAT in NaCl-treated and control seedlings. External Ca2+ might protect Jerusalem artichoke against NaCl stress by up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes and thereby decreasing the oxidative stress.

  14. Isoflurane Preconditioning Induces Neuroprotection by Up-Regulation of TREK1 in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Ischemic Injury

    Wang, Kun; Kong, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the neuroprotection and mechanism of isoflurane on rats with spinal cord ischemic injury. Total 40 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the four groups (n=10). Group A was sham-operation group; group B was ischemia group; group C was isoflurane preconditioning group; group D was isoflurane preconditioning followed by ischemia treatment group. Then the expressions of TWIK-related K+ channel 1 (TREK1) in the four groups were detected by immunofluorescent assay, real time-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) and western blot. The primary neurons of rats were isolated and cultured under normal and hypoxic conditions. Besides, the neurons under two conditions were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-TREK1 and lentivirual to overexpress and silence TREK1. Additionally, the neurons were treated with isoflurane or not. Then caspase-3 activity and cell cycle of neurons under normal and hypoxic conditions were detected. Furthermore, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate (NADH) was detected using NAD+/NADH quantification colorimetric kit. Results showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of TREK1 increased significantly in group C and D. In neurons, when TREK1 silenced, isoflurane treatment improved the caspase-3 activity. In hypoxic condition, the caspase-3 activity and sub-G1 cell percentage significantly increased, however, when TREK1 overexpressed the caspase-3 activity and sub-G1 cell percentage decreased significantly. Furthermore, both isoflurane treatment and overexpression of TREK1 significantly decreased NADH. In conclusion, isoflurane-induced neuroprotection in spinal cord ischemic injury may be associated with the up-regulation of TREK1. PMID:27469140

  15. Low-chromium reduced-activation ferritic steels

    Steels are being developed for fusion-reactor applications that contain only elements that produce radioactive isotopes that decay to low levels in a reasonable time. These reduced-activation or fast induced-radioactivity decay ferritic steels are being developed to be analogous to the Cr-Mo steels presently in the fusion program, but with molybdenum replaced by tungsten. In this paper, steels with 2-1/4% Cr will be discussed. To determine the effect of tungsten and vanadium on these steels, heats were produced with 2% W, with 0.25% V, with 1% W and 0.25% V, and with 2% W and 0.25% V. Tempering and microstructural studies were made and tensile and impact tests were conducted. Preliminary results indicate that it should be possible to develop a low-chromium Cr-W steel without molybdenum or niobium. Such steels should have properties as good as or better than the three Cr-Mo steels presently being considered as candidates for fusion-reactor applications. 22 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  16. A computer language for reducing activation analysis data

    A program, written in FORTRAN, which defines a language for reducing activation analysis data is described. An attempt was made to optimize the choice of commands and their definitions so as to concisely express what should be done, make the language natural to use and easy to learn, arranqe a system of checks to guard against communication errors and have the language be inclusive. Communications are effected through commands, and these can be given in almost any order. Consistency checks are done and diagnostic messages are printed automatically to guard against the incorrect use of commands. Default options on the commands allow instructions to be expressed concisely while providing a capability to specify details for the data reduction process. The program has been implemented on a UNIVAC 1108 computer. A complete description of the commands, the algorithms used, and the internal consistency checks used are given elsewhere. The applications of the program and the methods for obtaining data automatically have already been described. (T.G.)

  17. Materials design data for reduced activation martensitic steel type EUROFER

    Tavassoli, A.-A. F.; Alamo, A.; Bedel, L.; Forest, L.; Gentzbittel, J.-M.; Rensman, J.-W.; Diegele, E.; Lindau, R.; Schirra, M.; Schmitt, R.; Schneider, H. C.; Petersen, C.; Lancha, A.-M.; Fernandez, P.; Filacchioni, G.; Maday, M. F.; Mergia, K.; Boukos, N.; Baluc; Spätig, P.; Alves, E.; Lucon, E.

    2004-08-01

    Materials design limits derived so far from the data generated in Europe for the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic (RAFM) steel type Eurofer are presented. These data address the short-term needs of the ITER Test Blanket Modules and a DEMOnstration fusion reactor. Products tested include plates, bars, tubes, TIG and EB welds, as well as powder consolidated blocks and solid-solid HIP joints. Effects of thermal ageing and low dose neutron irradiation are also included. Results are sorted and screened according to design code requirements before being introduced in reference databases. From the physical properties databases, variations of magnetic properties, modulus of elasticity, density, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, mean and instantaneous linear coefficients of thermal expansion versus temperature are derived. From the tensile and creep properties databases design allowable stresses are derived. From the instrumented Charpy impact and fracture toughness databases, ductile to brittle transition temperature, toughness and behavior of materials in different fracture modes are evaluated. From the fatigue database, total strain range versus number of cycles to failure curves are plotted and used to derive fatigue design curves. Cyclic curves are also derived and compared with monotonic hardening curves. Finally, irradiated and aged materials data are compared to ensure that the safety margins incorporated in unirradiated design limits are not exceeded.

  18. L-DOPA neurotoxicity is mediated by up-regulation of DMT1-IRE expression.

    Fang Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underlying neurotoxicity caused by L-DOPA are not yet completely known. Based on recent findings, we speculated that the increased expression of divalent metal transporter 1 without iron-response element (DMT1-IRE induced by L-DOPA might play a critical role in the development of L-DOPA neurotoxicity. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of astrocyte-conditioned medium (ACM and siRNA DMT-IRE on L-DOPA neurotoxicity in cortical neurons. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We demonstrated that neurons treated with L-DOPA have a significant dose-dependent decrease in neuronal viability (MTT Assay and increase in iron content (using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, DMT1-IRE expression (Western blot analysis and ferrous iron (55Fe(II uptake. Neurons incubated in ACM with or without L-DOPA had no significant differences in their morphology, Hoechst-33342 staining or viability. Also, ACM significantly inhibited the effects of L-DOPA on neuronal iron content as well as DMT1-IRE expression. In addition, we demonstrated that infection of neurons with siRNA DMT-IRE led to a significant decrease in DMT1-IRE expression as well as L-DOPA neurotoxicity. CONCLUSION: The up-regulation of DMT1-IRE and the increase in DMT1-IRE-mediated iron influx play a key role in L-DOPA neurotoxicity in cortical neurons.

  19. Radiation up-regulated the expression of VEGF in a canine oral melanoma cell line

    To evaluate radiosensitivity and the effects of radiation on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors in the canine oral melanoma cell line, TLM 1, cells were irradiated with doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gray (Gy). Survival rates were then determined by a MTT assay, while vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 and -2 expression was measured by flow cytometry and apoptotic cell death rates were investigated using an Annexin assay. Additionally, a commercially available canine VEGF ELISA kit was used to measure VEGF. Radiosensitivity was detected in TLM 1 cells, and mitotic and apoptotic cell death was found to occur in a radiation dose dependent manner. VEGF was secreted constitutively and significant up-regulation was observed in the 8 and 10 Gy irradiated cells. In addition, a minor portion of TLM 1 cells expressed vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-1 intracellularly. VEGFR-2 was detected in the cytoplasm and was down-regulated following radiation with increasing dosages. In TLM 1 cells, apoptosis plays an important role in radiation induced cell death. It has also been suggested that the significantly higher VEGF production in the 8 and 10 Gy group could lead to tumour resistance. (author)

  20. Up-regulation of fas reverses cisplatin resistance of human small cell lung cancer cells

    Wu Wei

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/Aim Fas/FasL system is a major regulator of apoptosis. The mechanisms by which Fas mediates cisplatin resistance remain unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of Fas over-expression on cisplatin resistance of small cell lung cancer cells and its possible mechanisms. Materials and methods Fas was over-expressed in H446/CDDP cells by infection with the adenoviruses containing Fas. Sensitivity of Fas-overexpressed H446/CDDP cells to cisplatin was evaluated using MTT assay. Expressions of Fas, GST-π and ERCC1 were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Apoptosis rate was examined by FACS. Results Over-expression of Fas in H446/CDDP cells significantly decreased the expressions of GST-π and ERCC1 at mRNA and protein levels, and increased the cell apoptosis. Furthermore, up-regulation of Fas significantly decreased the tolerance of H446/CDDP cells to cisplatin. Conclusion Over-expression of Fas reverses drug resistance of H446/CDDP cells, possibly due to the increased cell sensitivity to apoptosis and the decreased expressions of GST-π and ERCC1.

  1. Hypoxia Up-Regulates Galectin-3 in Mammary Tumor Progression and Metastasis.

    de Oliveira, Joana T; Ribeiro, Cláudia; Barros, Rita; Gomes, Catarina; de Matos, Augusto J; Reis, Celso A; Rutteman, Gerard R; Gärtner, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment encompasses several stressful conditions for cancer cells such as hypoxia, oxidative stress and pH alterations. Galectin-3, a well-studied member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal family of lectins has been implicated in multiple steps of metastasis as cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, promotion of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, both its aberrantly up- and down-regulated expression was observed in several types of cancer. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate galectin-3 expression in neoplastic settings are not clear. In order to demonstrate the putative role of hypoxia in regulating galectin-3 expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT), in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. In malignant CMT cells, hypoxia was observed to induce expression of galectin-3, a phenomenon that was almost completely prevented by catalase treatment of CMT-U27 cells. Increased galectin-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Under hypoxic conditions the expression of galectin-3 shifts from a predominant nuclear location to cytoplasmic and membrane expressions. In in vivo studies, galectin-3 was overexpressed in hypoxic areas of primary tumors and well-established metastases. Tumor hypoxia thus up-regulates the expression of galectin-3, which may in turn increase tumor aggressiveness. PMID:26222311

  2. Hypoxia Up-Regulates Galectin-3 in Mammary Tumor Progression and Metastasis.

    Joana T de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The tumor microenvironment encompasses several stressful conditions for cancer cells such as hypoxia, oxidative stress and pH alterations. Galectin-3, a well-studied member of the beta-galactoside-binding animal family of lectins has been implicated in multiple steps of metastasis as cell-cell and cell-ECM adhesion, promotion of angiogenesis, cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. However, both its aberrantly up- and down-regulated expression was observed in several types of cancer. Thus, the mechanisms that regulate galectin-3 expression in neoplastic settings are not clear. In order to demonstrate the putative role of hypoxia in regulating galectin-3 expression in canine mammary tumors (CMT, in vitro and in vivo studies were performed. In malignant CMT cells, hypoxia was observed to induce expression of galectin-3, a phenomenon that was almost completely prevented by catalase treatment of CMT-U27 cells. Increased galectin-3 expression was confirmed at the mRNA level. Under hypoxic conditions the expression of galectin-3 shifts from a predominant nuclear location to cytoplasmic and membrane expressions. In in vivo studies, galectin-3 was overexpressed in hypoxic areas of primary tumors and well-established metastases. Tumor hypoxia thus up-regulates the expression of galectin-3, which may in turn increase tumor aggressiveness.

  3. Endurance training increases brain lactate uptake during hypoglycemia by up regulation of brain lactate transporters.

    Aveseh, Malihe; Nikooie, Rohollah; Sheibani, Vahid; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2014-08-25

    The capacity of the brain to metabolize non-glucose substrates under hypoglycemic state maintains its energy requirements. We hypothesized that exercise-induced increase in capacity for brain utilization of lactate by up regulation of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) may contribute metabolic substrates during hypoglycemia in diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin. The induced diabetes increased MCT1 and MCT2 expression in the cortex and the hippocampus in the sedentary diabetic animals. There were exercise-induced increases in MCT1 in the cortex and the hippocampus and MCT2 expression in the cortex in trained diabetic animals; whereas, no changes were found in the healthy trained animals. Both diabetic and healthy trained animals showed higher values for brain lactate uptake during insulin-induced hypoglycemia when animals were intraperitoneally injected by L(+)-lactic acid. However, the response of counterregulatory hormones during hypoglycemia were blunted in the diabetic trained animals which indicates to carefully monitoring of glycemic targets both during and following prolonged exercise. PMID:25004253

  4. Schisandra polysaccharide increased glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4.

    Jin, Dun; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Wei-Wei; Mao, Guang-Hua; Zou, Ye; Wang, Wei; Li, Qian; Chen, Yao; Wang, Xin-Tong; Yang, Liu-Qing; Wu, Xiang-Yang

    2016-06-01

    In our previous study, a polysaccharide was extracted from Schisandra Chinensis (Trucz.) Baill and found with anti-diabetic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-diabetic effects of the low weight molecular polysaccharide (SCPP11) purified from crude Schisandra polysaccharide and illustrate the underlying mechanism in buffalo rat liver cells. The insulin resistance model of BRL cells was established by incubating with insulin solution for 24h. The effects of SCPP11 on regulating related protein and mRNA expression in an insulin and AMPK signal pathway were investigated by western blot and RT-PCR analysis. SCPP11 showed no cytotoxicity to BRL cells and could improve the glucose consumption in BRL cells. SCPP11 increased the protein expression of Akt, p-AMPK and GLUT-4 in BRL cells. Moreover, SCPP11 could enhance the mRNA expression levels of IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, GLUT-4, AMPKα and PPAR-γ in BRL cells at the same time. In conclusion, SCPP11 possessed effects in improving glucose consumption by up-regulating the expression of GLUT-4 which might occur via insulin and AMPK signal pathway and could be a potential functional food to prevent and mitigate the insulin resistance condition. PMID:26993529

  5. Salsolinol Up-Regulates Oxytocin Expression and Release During Lactation in Sheep.

    Górski, K; Marciniak, E; Zielińska-Górska, M; Misztal, T

    2016-03-01

    Salsolinol (1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline) is a dopamine-derived compound present in the central nervous system and pituitary gland. Several previous studies on lactating sheep and rats have reported that salsolinol plays a crucial role in the regulation of prolactin secretion. The present study investigated the effects of salsolinol, which was infused into the third ventricle of the brain, on oxytocin expression and release in lactating sheep, 48 h after weaning of 8-week-old lambs. Serial 30-min infusions of salsolinol and vehicle were performed at 30-min intervals from 10.00 to 15.00 h. Blood samples were collected every 10 min. The supraoptic nucleus (SON), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and posterior pituitary were collected immediately after the experiment. Expression levels of mRNAs for oxytocin and peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), the terminal enzyme in the oxytocin synthesis pathway, were measured using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Oxytocin peptide content in the posterior pituitary was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and plasma oxytocin concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. Salsolinol treatment significantly up-regulated oxytocin and PAM gene expression in the SON (P Oxytocin peptide content in the posterior pituitary and the area under the response curve of plasma oxytocin were significantly (P sheep than in control animals. The present study shows for the first time that salsolinol stimulates oxytocin secretion during lactation in sheep. PMID:26749292

  6. Cloning and characterization of an up-regulated GA 20-oxidase gene in hybrid maize

    Jinkun Du; Yingyin Yao; Zhongfu Ni; Qixin Sun

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that GA content and metabolism are positively correlated with a faster shoot growth rate of hybrid, and recently, genes participating in both GA biosynthesis and GA response pathways were also found to be differentially expressed between wheat hybrid and its parental inbreds. In this study, an up-regulated GA 20-oxidase gene in a maize hybrid, designated ZmGA20, was cloned. ZmGA20 contains an open reading frame (ORF) encoding 391 amino acid residues. BLASTX searches in GenBank revealed that the ZmGA20 is homologous to the sequences of GA20ox proteins from different species, and analysis also indicated that ZmGA20 had typical features of GA 20-oxidase proteins, including a "LPWKET" sequence. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that ZmGA20 was expressed in different tissues and/or organs. The expression level of ZmGA20 in the hybrid was higher than that in two parents (in roots, leaves, stems and embryo, and ears). The abundance of ZmGA20 transcript was equal to that of the highly expressed parents, which provided molecular evidence for the observed GA content heterosis in maize hybrids.

  7. Periostin is up-regulated in high grade and high stage prostate cancer

    Expression of periostin is an indicator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer but a detailed analysis of periostin expression in prostate cancer has not been conducted so far. Here, we evaluated periostin expression in prostate cancer cells and peritumoural stroma immunohistochemically in two independent prostate cancer cohorts, including a training cohort (n = 93) and a test cohort (n = 325). Metastatic prostate cancers (n = 20), hormone refractory prostate cancers (n = 19) and benign prostatic tissues (n = 38) were also analyzed. In total, strong epithelial periostin expression was detectable in 142 of 418 (34.0%) of prostate carcinomas and in 11 of 38 benign prostate glands (28.9%). Increased periostin expression in carcinoma cells was significantly associated with high Gleason score (p < 0.01) and advanced tumour stage (p < 0.05) in the test cohort. Whereas periostin expression was weak or absent in the stroma around normal prostate glands, strong periostin expression in tumour stroma was found in most primary and metastatic prostate cancers. High stromal periostin expression was associated with higher Gleason scores (p < 0.001). There was a relationship between stromal periostin expression and shortened PSA relapse free survival times in the training cohort (p < 0.05). Our data indicate that periostin up-regulation is related to increased tumour aggressiveness in prostate cancer and might be a promising target for therapeutical interventions in primary and metastatic prostate cancer

  8. Glucocorticoid up-regulation of high-affinity interleukin 6 receptors on human epithelial cells

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a potent pleiotropic cytokine, known, among others, to stimulate immunoglobulin production by B cells and to trigger acute-phase protein synthesis by hepatocytes. Similar to IL-1, it is produced by monocytes and macrophages following an inflammatory challenge. Analysis of IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) expression on different human cell lines indicates that dexamethasone could up-regulate the number of IL-6R on one epithelial cell line (UAC) and on two hepatoma cell lines (HepG2 and Hep3B). This effect was confirmed by Scatchard analysis of binding experiments, using [35S]methionine and [35S]cysteine metabolically labeled IL-6. It was confirmed at the level of mRNA expression by Northern blot analysis. These results provide evidence for a link between IL-6 and glucocorticoids. They could represent an example of a system in which one role of glucocorticoids is to define more accurately the target of cytokines, and they could explain, at least partly, the frequently observed synergy between IL-6 and glucocorticoids, notably in the case of hepatocytes

  9. Transcriptional up-regulation of antioxidant genes by PPARδ inhibits angiotensin II-induced premature senescence in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Research highlights: → Activation of PPARδ by GW501516 significantly inhibited Ang II-induced premature senescence in hVSMCs. → Agonist-activated PPARδ suppressed generation of Ang II-triggered ROS with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. → GW501516 up-regulated expression of antioxidant genes, such as GPx1, Trx1, Mn-SOD and HO-1. → Knock-down of these antioxidant genes abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence. -- Abstract: This study evaluated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ as a potential target for therapeutic intervention in Ang II-induced senescence in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs). Activation of PPARδ by GW501516, a specific agonist of PPARδ, significantly inhibited the Ang II-induced premature senescence of hVSMCs. Agonist-activated PPARδ suppressed the generation of Ang II-triggered reactive oxygen species (ROS) with a concomitant reduction in DNA damage. Notably, GW501516 up-regulated the expression of antioxidant genes, such as glutathione peroxidase 1, thioredoxin 1, manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1. siRNA-mediated down-regulation of these antioxidant genes almost completely abolished the effects of GW501516 on ROS production and premature senescence in hVSMCs treated with Ang II. Taken together, the enhanced transcription of antioxidant genes is responsible for the PPARδ-mediated inhibition of premature senescence through sequestration of ROS in hVSMCs treated with Ang II.

  10. Up-regulation and time course of protein kinase C immunoreactivity during persistent inflammation of the rat spinal cord

    Liping Yang; Qingjun Li

    2008-01-01

    -immunoreactive particles, in the ipsi- and contralateral dorsal horn were investigated during different stages of inflammatory pain using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: All 42 rats were included in the final analysis, without any loss. Pain reaction: consistent with previous findings, it was determined that a unilateral injection of formalin into the hind-paw resulted in significant edema and induced a series of nociceptive responses, such as licking, biting, or shaking the injected paw. The maximal inflammation change was observed 1 day after formalin injection and changes did not disappear until the day 7. Number of the PKC positive neurons: results demonstrated that the number of PKC immunoreactive neurons in the dorsal horn increased slightly after formalin injection at 1 hour, compared with the control group. PKC immunoreactivity was up-regulated at day 1, reduced at day 3, and appeared to recover at day 7. The number of PKC-positive neurons in the contralateral side was less than the ipsilateral side at each time sampled. Distribution of PKC immunoparticles over the neurons: PKC immunoreactivity was observed in the nucleus and cytoplasm, as well as on or near the membrane of neurons and synaptosomes in the spinal cord of the control group. PKC activated and translocated from nucleus to the membrane-associated site following formalin treatment. Significant changes were observed at 1 hour and 1 day. The intensity of staining was stronger in the ipsilateral side than the contralateral side at all time points following formalin injection (P < 0.01), whereas the expression patterns of PKC immunoreactivity in the nuclei were very similar in the right and left hemispheres.CONCLUSION: PKC expression in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord peaked at 1 hour and 24 hours, and was very obvious at 24 hours. Protein kinase C expression in the spinal cord increased bilaterally, although it was greater in the ipsilateral hemisphere. In addition, PKC expression at the neuronal membrane and synaptosome

  11. Poncirin Induces Apoptosis in AGS Human Gastric Cancer Cells through Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway by up-Regulation of Fas Ligand

    Venu Venkatarame Gowda Saralamma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Poncirin, a natural bitter flavanone glycoside abundantly present in many species of citrus fruits, has various biological benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities. The anti-cancer mechanism of Poncirin remains elusive to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of Poncirin in AGS human gastric cancer cells (gastric adenocarcinoma. The results revealed that Poncirin could inhibit the proliferation of AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was observed Poncirin induced accumulation of sub-G1 DNA content, apoptotic cell population, apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation, and DNA fragmentation in a dose-dependent manner in AGS cells. The expression of Fas Ligand (FasL protein was up-regulated dose dependently in Poncirin-treated AGS cells Moreover, Poncirin in AGS cells induced activation of Caspase-8 and -3, and subsequent cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. Inhibitor studies’ results confirm that the induction of caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in Poncirin-treated AGS cells was led by the Fas death receptor. Interestingly, Poncirin did not show any effect on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm, pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and Bak and anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-xL in AGS-treated cells followed by no activation in the mitochondrial apoptotic protein caspase-9. This result suggests that the mitochondrial-mediated pathway is not involved in Poncirin-induced cell death in gastric cancer. These findings suggest that Poncirin has a potential anti-cancer effect via extrinsic pathway-mediated apoptosis, possibly making it a strong therapeutic agent for human gastric cancer.

  12. Unsaturated compounds induce up-regulation of CD86 on dendritic cells in the in vitro sensitization assay LCSA.

    Frohwein, Thomas Armin; Sonnenburg, Anna; Zuberbier, Torsten; Stahlmann, Ralf; Schreiner, Maximilian

    2016-04-01

    Unsaturated compounds are known to cause false-positive reactions in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) but not in the guinea pig maximization test. We have tested a panel of substances (succinic acid, undecylenic acid, 1-octyn-3-ol, fumaric acid, maleic acid, linoleic acid, oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, squalene, and arachidonic acid) in the loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA) to evaluate whether unspecific activation of dendritic cells is a confounder for sensitization testing in vitro. Eight out of 10 tested substances caused significant up-regulation of CD86 on dendritic cells cocultured with keratinocytes and would have been classified as sensitizers; only succinic acid was tested negative, and squalene had to be excluded from data analysis due to poor solubility in cell culture medium. Based on human data, only undecylenic acid can be considered a true sensitizer. The true sensitizing potential of 1-octyn-3-ol is uncertain. Fumaric acid and its isomer maleic acid are not known as sensitizers, but their esters are contact allergens. A group of 18- to 20-carbon chain unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic acid, oleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and arachidonic acid) elicited the strongest reaction in vitro. This is possibly due to the formation of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators in the cell culture causing nonspecific activation of dendritic cells. In conclusion, both the LLNA and the LCSA seem to provide false-positive results for unsaturated fatty acids. The inclusion of T cells in dendritic cell-based in vitro sensitization assays may help to eliminate false-positive results due to nonspecific dendritic cell activation. This would lead to more accurate prediction of sensitizers, which is paramount for consumer health protection and occupational safety. PMID:25975990

  13. AMPK-mediated up-regulation of mTORC2 and MCL-1 compromises the anti-cancer effects of aspirin

    Hua, Hui; Yin, Yancun; Wang, Jiao; Luo, Ting; Jiang, Yangfu

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor that may inhibit cell proliferation or promote cell survival during stresses. Besides cyclooxygenase, AMPK is another target of the nonsteroid anti-inflammatory agent aspirin. Preclinical and clinical investigations demonstrate that aspirin can inhibit several types of cancer such as colorectal adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about the cellular response to aspirin that may lead to aspirin resistance. Here, we show that aspirin induces the expression of MCL-1 in HepG2 and SW480 cells through AMPK-mTOR-Akt/ERK axis. Treatment of HepG2 and SW480 cells with aspirin leads to increased MCL-1 expression, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Inhibition of Akt/MEK abrogates the induction of MCL-1 by aspirin. Aspirin activates AMPK, which in turn up-regulates mTORC2 activity, Akt, ERK1/2 phosphorylation and MCL-1 expression. MCL-1 knockdown sensitizes cancer cells to aspirin-induced apoptosis. Combination of aspirin and AMPK, Akt or MEK inhibitor results in more significant inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis than single agent. Moreover, sorafenib blocks aspirin-induced MCL-1 up-regulation. Combination of aspirin and sorafenib leads to much more cell death and less cell proliferation than each drug alone. Treatment of HCC and colon cancer xenografts with both aspirin and sorafenib results in more significant tumor suppression than single agent. These data demonstrate that AMPK-mediated up-regulation of mTORC2 and MCL-1 may compromise the anticancer effects of aspirin. Combination of aspirin and sorafenib may be an effective regimen to treat HCC and colon cancer. PMID:26918349

  14. Diesel exhaust particles induce oxidative stress, proinflammatory signaling, and P-glycoprotein up-regulation at the blood-brain barrier

    Hartz, Anika M.S.; Bauer, Björn; Block, Michelle L.; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Miller, David S.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we report that diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), a major constituent of urban air pollution, affect blood-brain barrier function at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Isolated rat brain capillaries exposed to DEPs showed increased expression and transport activity of the key drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (6 h EC50 was ∼5 μg/ml). Up-regulation of P-glycoprotein was abolished by blocking transcription or protein synthesis. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase or pretreatment of c...

  15. Neurons efficiently repair glutamate-induced oxidative DNA damage by a process involving CREB-mediated up-regulation of apurinic endonuclease 1

    Yang, Jenq-Lin; Tadokoro, Takashi; Keijzers, Guido;

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, activates receptors coupled to membrane depolarization and Ca(2+) influx that mediates functional responses of neurons including processes such as learning and memory. Here we show that reversible nuclear oxidative DNA damage occurs in...... inhibitor (KN-93) blocked the ability of glutamate to induce CREB phosphorylation and APE1 expression. Selective depletion of CREB using RNA interference prevented glutamate-induced up-regulation of APE1. Thus, glutamate receptor stimulation triggers Ca(2+)- and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species...

  16. Constitutive adipocyte mTORC1 activation enhances mitochondrial activity and reduces visceral adiposity in mice.

    Magdalon, Juliana; Chimin, Patricia; Belchior, Thiago; Neves, Rodrigo X; Vieira-Lara, Marcel A; Andrade, Maynara L; Farias, Talita S; Bolsoni-Lopes, Andressa; Paschoal, Vivian A; Yamashita, Alex S; Kowaltowski, Alicia J; Festuccia, William T

    2016-05-01

    Mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) loss of function reduces adiposity whereas partial mTORC1 inhibition enhances fat deposition. Herein we evaluated how constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes modulates adiposity in vivo. Mice with constitutive mTORC1 activation in adipocytes induced by tuberous sclerosis complex (Tsc)1 deletion and littermate controls were evaluated for body mass, energy expenditure, glucose and fatty acid metabolism, mitochondrial function, mRNA and protein contents. Adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion reduced visceral, but not subcutaneous, fat mass, as well as adipocyte number and diameter, phenotypes that were associated with increased lipolysis, UCP-1 content (browning) and mRNA levels of pro-browning transcriptional factors C/EBPβ and ERRα. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion enhanced mitochondrial oxidative activity, fatty acid oxidation and the expression of PGC-1α and PPARα in both visceral and subcutaneous fat. In brown adipocytes, however, Tsc1 deletion did not affect UCP-1 content and basal respiration. Adipocyte Tsc1 deletion also reduced visceral adiposity and enhanced glucose tolerance, liver and muscle insulin signaling and adiponectin secretion in mice fed with purified low- or high-fat diet. In conclusion, adipocyte-specific Tsc1 deletion enhances mitochondrial activity, induces browning and reduces visceral adiposity in mice. PMID:26923434

  17. Type II VLDLR promotes cell migration by up-regulation of VEGF, MMP2 and MMP7 in breast cancer cells

    Lei He; Yanjun Lu; Jianli Guo

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) has been considered as a multiple function receptor due to binding numerous ligands, causing endocytosis and regulating cel ular signaling. Our group previously reported that type II VLDLR overexpression in breast cancer tissues. The purpose of this study is to characterize type II VLDLR activities during cel migration using breast cancer cel lines. Methods:Western blotting was used to test protein expression. Cel migration was analyzed by Scratch wound assay. The mRNA expression was tested by realtime-PCR. Reporter assay was to test the transcription activity. Results:Scratch wound and Report assay indicated up-regulated VLDLR II expression promotes cel migration via activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The target genes such as VEGF, MMP2 and MMP7 were upregulated in VLDLR II overexpressed cel s. On the contrary, cel s treated with TFPI had an inhibition ef ect of cel migration response to down-regulation of VLDLR II. Conclusion:Type II VLDLR conferred a migration and invasion advantage by activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway, then up-regulating VEGF, MMP2 and MMP7 in breast cancer cel s.

  18. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada); Cheng, Jung-Chien [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada); Huang, He-Feng, E-mail: huanghefg@hotmail.com [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Leung, Peter C.K., E-mail: peter.leung@ubc.ca [Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310006 (China); Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Child and Family Research Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V5Z 4H4 (Canada)

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells.

  19. Up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor superfamily genes in early phases of photoreceptor degeneration.

    Sem Genini

    Full Text Available We used quantitative real-time PCR to examine the expression of 112 genes related to retinal function and/or belonging to known pro-apoptotic, cell survival, and autophagy pathways during photoreceptor degeneration in three early-onset canine models of human photoreceptor degeneration, rod cone dysplasia 1 (rcd1, X-linked progressive retinal atrophy 2 (xlpra2, and early retinal degeneration (erd, caused respectively, by mutations in PDE6B, RPGRORF15, and STK38L. Notably, we found that expression and timing of differentially expressed (DE genes correlated with the cell death kinetics. Gene expression profiles of rcd1 and xlpra2 were similar; however rcd1 was more severe as demonstrated by the results of the TUNEL and ONL thickness analyses, a greater number of genes that were DE, and the identification of altered expression that occurred at earlier time points. Both diseases differed from erd, where a smaller number of genes were DE. Our studies did not highlight the potential involvement of mitochondrial or autophagy pathways, but all three diseases were accompanied by the down-regulation of photoreceptor genes, and up-regulation of several genes that belong to the TNF superfamily, the extrinsic apoptotic pathway, and pro-survival pathways. These proteins were expressed by different retinal cells, including horizontal, amacrine, ON bipolar, and Müller cells, and suggest an interplay between the dying photoreceptors and inner retinal cells. Western blot and immunohistochemistry results supported the transcriptional regulation for selected proteins. This study highlights a potential role for signaling through the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in early cell death events and suggests that retinal cells other than photoreceptors might play a primary or bystander role in the degenerative process.

  20. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in allergic rhinitis

    Uddman Rolf

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptors enable the host to recognize a large number of pathogen-associated molecular patterns such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide, viral RNA, CpG-containing DNA and flagellin. Toll-like receptors have also been shown to play a pivotal role in both innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of Toll-like receptors as a primary part of our microbe defense system has been shown in several studies, but their possible function as mediators in allergy and asthma remains to be established. The present study was designed to examine the expression of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis, focusing on changes induced by exposure to pollen. Methods 27 healthy controls and 42 patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis volunteered for the study. Nasal biopsies were obtained before and during pollen season as well as before and after allergen challenge. The seasonal material was used for mRNA quantification of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 with real-time polymerase chain reaction, whereas specimens achieved in conjunction with allergen challenge were used for immunohistochemical localization and quantification of corresponding proteins. Results mRNA and protein representing Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 could be demonstrated in all specimens. An increase in protein expression for all three receptors could be seen following allergen challenge, whereas a significant increase of mRNA only could be obtained for Toll-like receptor 3 during pollen season. Conclusion The up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 and 4 in the nasal mucosa of patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis supports the idea of a role for Toll-like receptors in allergic airway inflammation.

  1. Homeobox A7 stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation by up-regulating estrogen receptor-alpha

    Highlights: •HOXA7 regulates MCF7 cell proliferation. •HOXA7 up-regulates ERα expression. •HOXA7 mediates estrogen-induced MCF7 cell proliferation. -- Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common hormone-dependent malignancy in women. Homeobox (HOX) transcription factors regulate many cellular functions, including cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The aberrant expression of HOX genes has been reported to be associated with human reproductive cancers. Estradiol (E2) and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER)-alpha and ER-beta, are known to play critical roles in the regulation of breast cancer cell growth. However, an understanding of the potential relationship between HOXA7 and ER in breast cancer cells is limited. In this study, our results demonstrate that knockdown of HOXA7 in MCF7 cells significantly decreased cell proliferation and ERα expression. In addition, HOXA7 knockdown attenuated E2-induced cell proliferation as well as progesterone receptor (PR) expression. The stimulatory effects of E2 on cell proliferation and PR expression were abolished by co-treatment with ICI 182780, a selective ERα antagonist. In contrast, overexpression of HOXA7 significantly stimulated cell proliferation and ERα expression. Moreover, E2-induced cell proliferation, as well as PR expression, was enhanced by the overexpression of HOXA7. Neither knockdown nor overexpression of HOXA7 affected the ER-beta levels. Our results demonstrate a novel mechanistic role for HOXA7 in modulating breast cancer cell proliferation via regulation of ERα expression. This finding contributes to our understanding of the role HOXA7 plays in regulating the proliferation of ER-positive cancer cells

  2. Orphan receptor GPR15/BOB is up-regulated in rheumatoid arthritis

    Cartwright, Alison; Schmutz, Caroline; Askari, Ayman; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Middleton, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Chemokine receptors on leukocytes mediate the recruitment and accumulation of these cells within affected joints in chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Identification of involved receptors offers potential for development of therapeutic interventions. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression of orphan receptor GPR15/BOB in the synovium of RA and non-RA patients and in peripheral blood of RA patients and healthy donors. GPR15/BOB protein and messenger RNA expression were examined in RA and non-RA synovium by immunofluorescence and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) respectively. GPR15/BOB expression on peripheral blood leukocytes was analysed by flow cytometry and GPR15/BOB messenger RNA was examined in peripheral blood monocytes by RT-PCR. GPR15/BOB protein was observed in CD68+ and CD14+ macrophages in synovia, with greater expression in RA synovia. GPR15/BOB protein was expressed in all patient synovia whereas in non-RA synovia expression was low or absent. Similarly GPR15/BOB messenger RNA was detected in all RA and a minority of non-RA synovia. GPR15/BOB protein was expressed on peripheral blood leukocytes from RA and healthy individuals with increased expression by monocytes and neutrophils in RA. GPR15/BOB messenger RNA expression was confirmed in peripheral blood monocytes. In conclusion GPR15/BOB is expressed by macrophages in synovial tissue and on monocytes and neutrophils in peripheral blood, and expression is up-regulated in RA patients compared to non-RA controls. This orphan receptor on monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils may play a role in RA pathophysiology. PMID:24725539

  3. Up-regulated expression of l-caldesmon associated with malignancy of colorectal cancer

    Kim Kyung-Hee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Caldesmon (CaD, a major actin-associated protein, is found in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells. Smooth muscle caldesmon, h-CaD, is a multifunctional protein, and non-muscle cell caldesmon, l-CaD, plays a role in cytoskeletal architecture and dynamics. h-CaD is thought to be an useful marker for smooth muscle tumors, but the role(s of l-CaD has not been examined in tumors. Methods Primary colon cancer and liver metastasis tissues were obtained from colon cancer patients. Prior to chemoradiotherapy (CRT, normal and cancerous tissues were obtained from rectal cancer patients. Whole-tissue protein extracts were analyzed by 2-DE-based proteomics. Expression and phosphorylation level of main cellular signaling proteins were determined by western blot analysis. Cell proliferation after CaD siRNA transfection was monitored by MTT assay. Results The expression level of l-CaD was significantly increased in primary colon cancer and liver metastasis tissues compared to the level in the corresponding normal tissues. In cancerous tissues obtained from the patients showing poor response to CRT (Dworak grade 4, the expression of l-CaD was increased compared to that of good response group (Dworak grade 1. In line with, l-CaD positive human colon cancer cell lines were more resistant to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU and radiation treatment compared to l-CaD negative cell lines. Artificial suppression of l-CaD increased susceptibility of colon cancer cells to 5-FU, and caused an increase of p21 and c-PARP, and a decrease of NF-kB and p-mTOR expression. Conclusion Up-regulated expression of l-CaD may have a role for increasing metastatic property and decreasing CRT susceptibility in colorectal cancer cells.

  4. Over-expression of Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice via up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells

    Jin, Yulan; Purohit, Sharad [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Chen, Xueqin; Yi, Bing [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); She, Jin-Xiong, E-mail: jshe@georgiahealth.edu [Center for Biotechnology and Genomic Medicine, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States); Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA (United States)

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the role of Stat5b in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of wild type Stat5b transgene protects NOD mice against diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This protection may be mediated by the up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} Tregs. -- Abstract: The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins play a critical role in cytokine signaling required for fine tuning of immune regulation. Previous reports showed that a mutation (L327M) in the Stat5b protein leads to aberrant cytokine signaling in the NOD mice. To further elaborate the role of Stat5b in diabetes, we established a NOD transgenic mouse that over-expresses the wild type Stat5b gene. The incidences of spontaneous diabetes as well as cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes were significantly reduced and delayed in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice compared to their littermate controls. The total cell numbers of CD4{sup +} T cells and especially CD8{sup +} T cells in the spleen and pancreatic lymph node were increased in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice. Consistent with these findings, CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells from the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice showed a higher proliferation capacity and up-regulation of multiple cytokines including IL-2, IFN-{gamma}, TNF-{alpha} and IL-10 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Furthermore, the number and proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells were significantly increased in transgenic mice although in vitro suppression ability of the regulatory T-cells was not affected by the transgene. Our results suggest that Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the NOD mice by regulating the numbers and function of multiple immune cell types, especially by up-regulating CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells.

  5. Up-regulation of Nrf2 is involved in FGF21-mediated fenofibrate protection against type 1 diabetic nephropathy.

    Cheng, Yanli; Zhang, Jingjing; Guo, Weiying; Li, Fengsheng; Sun, Weixia; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Chi; Lu, Xuemian; Tan, Yi; Feng, Wenke; Fu, Yaowen; Liu, Gilbert C; Xu, Zhonggao; Cai, Lu

    2016-04-01

    The lipid lowering medication, fenofibrate (FF), is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) agonist, possessing beneficial effects for type 2 diabetic nephropathy (DN). We investigated whether FF can prevent the development of type 1 DN, and the underlying mechanisms. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were treated with oral gavage of FF at 100mg/kg every other day for 3 and 6 months. Diabetes-induced renal oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, lipid and collagen accumulation, and renal dysfunction were accompanied by significant decrease in PI3K, Akt, and GSK-3β phosphorylation as well as an increase in the nuclear accumulation of Fyn [a negative regulator of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2)]. All these adverse effects were significantly attenuated by FF treatment. FF also significantly increased fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression and enhanced Nrf2 function in diabetic and non-diabetic kidneys. Moreover, FF-induced amelioration of diabetic renal damage, including the stimulation of PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Fyn pathway and the enhancement of Nrf2 function were abolished in FGF21-null mice, confirming the critical role of FGF21 in FF-induced renal protection. These results suggest for the first time that FF prevents the development of DN via up-regulating FGF21 and stimulating PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β/Fyn-mediated activation of the Nrf2 pathway. PMID:26849944

  6. Six1 induces protein synthesis signaling expression in duck myoblasts mainly via up-regulation of mTOR

    Haohan Wang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As a critical transcription factor, Six1 plays an important role in the regulation of myogenesis and muscle development. However, little is known about its regulatory mechanism associated with muscular protein synthesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of overexpression ofSix1 on the expression of key protein metabolism-related genes in duck myoblasts. Through an experimental model where duck myoblasts were transfected with a pEGFP-duSix1 construct, we found that overexpression of duckSix1 could enhance cell proliferation activity and increase mRNA expression levels of key genes involved in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway, while the expression of FOXO1, MuRF1and MAFbx was not significantly altered, indicating thatSix1 could promote protein synthesis in myoblasts through up-regulating the expression of several related genes. Additionally, in duck myoblasts treated with LY294002 and rapamycin, the specific inhibitors ofPI3K and mTOR, respectively, the overexpression of Six1 could significantly ameliorate inhibitive effects of these inhibitors on protein synthesis. Especially, the mRNA expression levels of mTOR and S6K1 were observed to undergo a visible change, and a significant increase in protein expression of S6K1 was seen. These data suggested that Six1plays an important role in protein synthesis, which may be mainly due to activation of the mTOR signaling pathway.

  7. Meta-analysis of gene expression profiles indicates genes in spliceosome pathway are up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

    Xu, Weijin; Huang, Huixing; Yu, Long; Cao, Lihuan

    2015-04-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the commonest kind of malignant tumors, which accounts for more than 500,000 cases of newly diagnosed cancer annually. Many microarray studies for identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HCC have been conducted, but results have varied across different studies. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of publicly available microarray Gene Expression Omnibus datasets, which covers five independent studies, containing 753 HCC samples and 638 non-tumor liver samples. We identified 192 DEGs that were consistently up-regulated in HCC vs. normal liver tissue. For the 192 up-regulated genes, we performed Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis. To our surprise, besides several cell growth-related pathways, spliceosome pathway was also up-regulated in HCC. For further exploring the relationship between spliceosome pathway and HCC, we investigated the expression data of spliceosome pathway genes in 15 independent studies in Nextbio database ( https://www.nextbio.com/b/nextbioCorp.nb ). It was found that many genes of spliceosome pathway such as HSPA1A, SNRPE, SF3B2, SF3B4 and TRA2A genes which we identified to be up-regulated in our meta-analysis were generally overexpressed in HCC. At last, using real-time PCR, we also found that BUD31, SF3B2, SF3B4, SNRPE, SPINK1, TPA2A and HSPA1A genes are significantly up-regulated in clinical HCC samples when compared to the corresponding non-tumorous liver tissues. Our study for the first time indicates that many genes of spliceosome pathway are up-regulated in HCC. This finding might put new insights for people's understanding about the relationship of spliceosome pathway and HCC. PMID:25731616

  8. Expression of ABCA3, a causative gene for fatal surfactant deficiency, is up-regulated by glucocorticoids in lung alveolar type II cells

    We have shown previously that the ATP-binding cassette transporter ABCA3 is expressed predominantly at the limiting membrane of the lamellar bodies in lung alveolar type II cells. Very recently, an ABCA3 gene mutation was reported in human newborns with fatal surfactant deficiency. In the present study, we have shown in rat lung that expression of the ABCA3 protein is dramatically increased after embryonic day (E) 20.5 just before birth. Expression was also markedly induced even at E18.5 when dexamethasone (Dex), which is known to accelerate surfactant formation, was administered to pregnant female rats for 3 days from E15.5. Since Dex increased the ABCA3 mRNA expression level in human alveolar type II cell line A549 cells 4-fold, we cloned and characterized the promoter region of the human ABCA3 gene. Promoter activity of the 5'-flanking region of the ABCA3 gene, which contains a potential glucocorticoid-responsive element (GRE), was up-regulated about 2-fold. Up-regulation by Dex was not observed when the GRE-containing region was deleted or when a point mutation was introduced into the GRE, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay using Dex-treated A549 nuclear extracts demonstrated specific binding of the glucocorticoid receptor to the GRE. These findings demonstrate that glucocorticoid-induced up-regulation of ABCA3 expression in vivo is mediated by transcriptional activation through the GRE in the promoter, and suggest that ABCA3 plays an important role in the formation of pulmonary surfactant, probably by transporting lipids such as cholesterol

  9. Up-regulation of thromboxane A2 receptor expression by lipid soluble smoking particles through post-transcriptional mechanisms

    Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yaping; Edvinsson, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    /ml for 24h) resulted in markedly elevated contractile responses to the Tx analog U46619, compared with the control DMSO. There was no increase in TP receptor mRNA expression, while the protein expression was significantly enhanced. This up-regulation was not affected by a general transcriptional...... pathways are not involved in TP receptor up-regulation. Study on TP receptor mRNA stability showed that during organ culture, the TP receptor mRNA was stable in both DMSO and DSP group, but the latter elicited a tendency to stabilize the TP receptor mRNA at higher level. Thus, post...

  10. Akt inhibition up-regulates MMP1 through a CCN2-dependent pathway in human dermal fibroblasts

    Bujor, Andreea M.; Nakerakanti, Sashidar; Morris, Erin; Hant, Faye N; Trojanowska, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Akt is a key signalling molecule that was found to be down-regulated in chronic wounds. Akt blockade has dual antifibrotic effects in human dermal fibroblasts, by up-regulating matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP1) and down-regulating collagen gene expression (J Invest Dermatol 2008: 128: 1906). The aim of this study was to gain additional insights into the mechanism of MMP1 up-regulation following Akt blockade. As previous studies showed that CCN2 can be a positive regulator of MMP1, we examined...

  11. Towards a reduced activation structural materials database for fusion reactors

    Full text: The development of First Wall, Blanket and Divertor materials which are capable of withstanding many years the high neutron and heat fluxes, is a critical path to fusion power. Therefore, the timely availability of a sound materials database has become an indispensable element in international fusion road maps. In order to provide a related materials database for design, construction, licensing and safe operation of the ITER Test Blanket Modules and of a DEMO reactor, a wealth of R and D results on the European reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel EUROFER, and on oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) variants have become available, mainly in the temperature window 250-700 deg. C. Industrial EUROFER-batches of 3.5 and 8.0 tons have been produced with a variety of semi-finished, quality-assured product forms. Extensive chipless shaping and joining experience taking into account different welding procedures and powder technology product forms have demonstrated that EUROFER type steel complies with a wide range of established manufacturing processes. EUROFER is also resistant to high temperature aging, and the existing creep-rupture properties (∼30000 h) indicated long term stability and predictability. To increase the thermal efficiency of blankets beyond 45%, high temperature resistant SiCf/SiC channel inserts for liquid metal coolant tubes are developed. Mechanical and thermal properties of various SiCf/SiC composits have been measured after neutron radiation. Regarding radiation damage resistance of blanket structural materials, a broad based reactor irradiation programme counts several steps from 2 needs to be removed, the design is presently based on tiles made of W (∼2000 deg. C), as well as on structural materials like W-alloy (∼700-1300 deg. C) and RAF(M)-ODS steel (∼650 deg. C). Severe plastic deformation of pure W and W alloys improves ductility, but does not prevent from re-crystallisation between 850 and 1200 deg. C. For the

  12. Pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg): a novel secreted protein up-regulated in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Yang, Jiayue; Li, Ling; Raptis, Dimitri; Li, Xiaoshan; Li, Fengfei; Chen, Bijun; He, Jiajia; Graf, Rolf; Sun, Zilin

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has insulin resistance (IR) or reduced β-cell mass, partially due to an increased β-cell apoptosis rate. Pancreatic stone protein/regenerating protein (PSP/reg) is a secretory protein produced in the pancreas and up-regulated dramatically during pancreatic disease. Recent studies revealed that β-cells undergoing apoptosis induce PSP/reg expression in surviving neighboring cells. Further experiments demonstrated that PSP/reg was elevated during disease progression in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the association between PSP/reg and T2DM patients is unknown. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate PSP/reg in different clinical stages of T2DM and evaluate its correlation with chronic complications of diabetes. A total of 1,121 participants (479 males, 642 females; age range 23-80 years) were enrolled in this study. PSP/reg serum values were measured by a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We analyzed its correlation with clinical and biochemical parameters in subjects with T2DM at different clinical phases. Statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0 software. Correlations of PSP/reg and clinical parameters were performed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Differences between groups were determined by Nemenyi test. PSP/reg was elevated in high-risk and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) patients (preg was significantly up-regulated in newly diagnosed T2DM patients and long-term diabetes patients with complications (preg levels correlated with the duration of diabetes (preg is significantly up-regulated in T2DM patients, and PSP/reg levels are related to the duration of diabetes. Therefore, PSP/reg might be useful as a predictor of T2DM and disease progression. PMID:25234740

  13. The mechanism of functional up-regulation of P2X3 receptors of trigeminal sensory neurons in a genetic mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM-1.

    Swathi K Hullugundi

    Full Text Available A knock-in (KI mouse model of FHM-1 expressing the R192Q missense mutation of the Cacna1a gene coding for the α1 subunit of CaV2.1 channels shows, at the level of the trigeminal ganglion, selective functional up-regulation of ATP -gated P2X3 receptors of sensory neurons that convey nociceptive signals to the brainstem. Why P2X3 receptors are constitutively more responsive, however, remains unclear as their membrane expression and TRPV1 nociceptor activity are the same as in wildtype (WT neurons. Using primary cultures of WT or KI trigeminal ganglia, we investigated whether soluble compounds that may contribute to initiating (or maintaining migraine attacks, such as TNFα, CGRP, and BDNF, might be responsible for increasing P2X3 receptor responses. Exogenous application of TNFα potentiated P2X3 receptor-mediated currents of WT but not of KI neurons, most of which expressed both the P2X3 receptor and the TNFα receptor TNFR2. However, sustained TNFα neutralization failed to change WT or KI P2X3 receptor currents. This suggests that endogenous TNFα does not regulate P2X3 receptor responses. Nonetheless, on cultures made from both genotypes, exogenous TNFα enhanced TRPV1 receptor-mediated currents expressed by a few neurons, suggesting transient amplification of TRPV1 nociceptor responses. CGRP increased P2X3 receptor currents only in WT cultures, although prolonged CGRP receptor antagonism or BDNF neutralization reduced KI currents to WT levels. Our data suggest that, in KI trigeminal ganglion cultures, constitutive up-regulation of P2X3 receptors probably is already maximal and is apparently contributed by basal CGRP and BDNF levels, thereby rendering these neurons more responsive to extracellular ATP.

  14. A novel brain-enriched E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF182 is up regulated in the brains of Alzheimer's patients and targets ATP6V0C for degradation

    Sikorska Marianna

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations in multiple cellular pathways contribute to the development of chronic neurodegeneration such as a sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD. These, in turn, involve changes in gene expression, amongst which are genes regulating protein processing and turnover such as the components of the ubiquitin-proteosome system. Recently, we have identified a cDNA whose expression was altered in AD brains. It contained an open reading frame of 247 amino acids and represented a novel RING finger protein, RNF182. Here we examined its biochemical properties and putative role in brain cells. Results RNF182 is a low abundance cytoplasmic protein expressed preferentially in the brain. Its expression was elevated in post-mortem AD brain tissue and the gene could be up regulated in vitro in cultured neurons subjected to cell death-inducing injuries. Subsequently, we have established that RNF182 protein possessed an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and stimulated the E2-dependent polyubiquitination in vitro. Yeast two-hybrid screening, overexpression and co-precipitation approaches revealed, both in vitro and in vivo, an interaction between RNF182 and ATP6V0C, known for its role in the formation of gap junction complexes and neurotransmitter release channels. The data indicated that RNF182 targeted ATP6V0C for degradation by the ubiquitin-proteosome pathway. Overexpression of RNF182 reduced cell viability and it would appear that by itself the gene can disrupt cellular homeostasis. Conclusion Taken together, we have identified a novel brain-enriched RING finger E3 ligase, which was up regulated in AD brains and neuronal cells exposed to injurious insults. It interacted with ATP6V0C protein suggesting that it may play a very specific role in controlling the turnover of an essential component of neurotransmitter release machinery.

  15. Ergosterol purified from medicinal mushroom Amauroderma rude inhibits cancer growth in vitro and in vivo by up-regulating multiple tumor suppressors.

    Li, Xiangmin; Wu, Qingping; Xie, Yizhen; Ding, Yinrun; Du, William W; Sdiri, Mouna; Yang, Burton B

    2015-07-10

    We have previously screened thirteen medicinal mushrooms for their potential anti-cancer activities in eleven different cell lines and found that the extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest capacity in inducing cancer cell death. The current study aimed to purify molecules mediating the anti-cancer cell activity. The extract of Amauroderma rude was subject to fractionation, silica gel chromatography,and HPLC. We purified a compound and identified it as ergosterol by EI-MS and NMR,which was expressed at the highest level in Amauroderma rude compared with other medicinal mushrooms tested. We found that ergosterol induced cancer cell death,which was time and concentration dependent. In the in vivo experiment, normal mice were injected with murine cancer cell line B16 that is very aggressive and caused mouse death severely. We found that treatment with ergosterol prolonged mouse survival. We found that ergosterol-mediated suppression of breast cancer cell viability occurred through apoptosis and that ergosterol up-regulated expression of the tumor suppressor Foxo3. In addition, the Foxo3 down-stream signaling molecules Fas, FasL,BimL, and BimS were up-regulated leading to apoptosis in human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231. Our results suggest that ergosterol is the main anti-cancer ingredient in Amauroderma rude, which activated the apoptotic signal pathway. Ergosterol may serve as a potential lead for cancer therapy. PMID:26098777

  16. α-Hispanolol sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via death receptor up-regulation

    Mota, Alba, E-mail: amota@iib.uam.es [Unidad de Terapias Farmacológicas, Área de Genética Humana, Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (IIER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Jiménez-Garcia, Lidia, E-mail: ljimenez@isciii.es [Unidad de Terapias Farmacológicas, Área de Genética Humana, Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (IIER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Herránz, Sandra, E-mail: sherranz@isciii.es [Unidad de Terapias Farmacológicas, Área de Genética Humana, Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (IIER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Heras, Beatriz de las, E-mail: lasheras@ucm.es [Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM), Madrid (Spain); Hortelano, Sonsoles, E-mail: shortelano@isciii.es [Unidad de Terapias Farmacológicas, Área de Genética Humana, Instituto de Investigación de Enfermedades Raras (IIER), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-08-01

    Hispanolone derivatives have been previously described as anti-inflammatory and antitumoral agents. However, their effects on overcoming Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic effects of the synthetic hispanolone derivative α-hispanolol (α-H) in several tumor cell lines, and we evaluated the induction of apoptosis, as well as the TRAIL-sensitizing potential of α-H in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Our data show that α-H decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa, MDA-MB231, U87 and HepG2 cell lines, with a more prominent effect in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, α-H had no effect on non-tumoral cells. α-H induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and also increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreasing antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, X-IAP and IAP-1) in HepG2 cells. Specific inhibition of caspase-8 abrogated the cascade of caspase activation, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway has a critical role in the apoptotic events induced by α-H. Furthermore, combined treatment of α-H with TRAIL enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, activating caspase-8 and caspase-9. This correlated with up-regulation of both the TRAIL death receptor DR4 and DR5. DR4 or DR5 neutralizing antibodies abolished the effect of α-H on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that sensitization was mediated through the death receptor pathway. Our results demonstrate that α-H induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 through activation of caspases and induction of the death receptor pathway. In addition, we describe a novel function of α-H as a sensitizer on TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. - Highlights: • α-Hispanolol induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. • α-Hispanolol induced activation of caspases and the death receptor pathway. • α-Hispanolol enhanced

  17. α-Hispanolol sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis via death receptor up-regulation

    Hispanolone derivatives have been previously described as anti-inflammatory and antitumoral agents. However, their effects on overcoming Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) resistance remain to be elucidated. In this study, we analyzed the cytotoxic effects of the synthetic hispanolone derivative α-hispanolol (α-H) in several tumor cell lines, and we evaluated the induction of apoptosis, as well as the TRAIL-sensitizing potential of α-H in the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Our data show that α-H decreased cell viability in a dose-dependent manner in HeLa, MDA-MB231, U87 and HepG2 cell lines, with a more prominent effect in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, α-H had no effect on non-tumoral cells. α-H induced activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 and also increased levels of the proapoptotic protein Bax, decreasing antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, X-IAP and IAP-1) in HepG2 cells. Specific inhibition of caspase-8 abrogated the cascade of caspase activation, suggesting that the extrinsic pathway has a critical role in the apoptotic events induced by α-H. Furthermore, combined treatment of α-H with TRAIL enhanced apoptosis in HepG2 cells, activating caspase-8 and caspase-9. This correlated with up-regulation of both the TRAIL death receptor DR4 and DR5. DR4 or DR5 neutralizing antibodies abolished the effect of α-H on TRAIL-induced apoptosis, suggesting that sensitization was mediated through the death receptor pathway. Our results demonstrate that α-H induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 through activation of caspases and induction of the death receptor pathway. In addition, we describe a novel function of α-H as a sensitizer on TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. - Highlights: • α-Hispanolol induced apoptosis in the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. • α-Hispanolol induced activation of caspases and the death receptor pathway. • α-Hispanolol enhanced

  18. Transgenic up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII in forebrain leads to increased anxiety-like behaviors and aggression

    Hasegawa Shunsuke

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have demonstrated essential roles for alpha-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (alpha-CaMKII in learning, memory and long-term potentiation (LTP. However, previous studies have also shown that alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice display a dramatic decrease in anxiety-like and fearful behaviors, and an increase in defensive aggression. These findings indicated that alpha-CaMKII is important not only for learning and memory but also for emotional behaviors. In this study, to understand the roles of alpha-CaMKII in emotional behavior, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-CaMKII in the forebrain and analyzed their behavioral phenotypes. Results We generated transgenic mice overexpressing alpha-CaMKII in the forebrain under the control of the alpha-CaMKII promoter. In contrast to alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in anxiety-like behaviors in open field, elevated zero maze, light-dark transition and social interaction tests, and a decrease in locomotor activity in their home cages and novel environments; these phenotypes were the opposite to those observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice. In addition, similarly with alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in aggression. However, in contrast to the increase in defensive aggression observed in alpha-CaMKII (+/- heterozygous knockout mice, alpha-CaMKII overexpressing mice display an increase in offensive aggression. Conclusion Up-regulation of alpha-CaMKII expression in the forebrain leads to an increase in anxiety-like behaviors and offensive aggression. From the comparisons with previous findings, we suggest that the expression levels of alpha-CaMKII are associated with the state of emotion; the expression level of alpha-CaMKII positively correlates with the anxiety state and strongly affects

  19. Characterization of a Pinus pinaster cDNA encoding an auxin up-regulated putative peroxidase in roots.

    Charvet-Candela, V; Hitchin, S; Reddy, M S; Cournoyer, B; Marmeisse, R; Gay, G

    2002-03-01

    As part of a study to identify host plant genes regulated by fungal auxin during ectomycorrhiza formation, we differentially screened a cDNA library constructed from roots of auxin-treated Pinus pinaster (Ait.) Sol. seedlings. We identified three cDNAs up-regulated by auxin. Sequence analysis of one of these cDNAs, PpPrx75, revealed the presence of an open reading frame of 216 amino acids with the characteristic consensus sequences of plant peroxidases. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., Arachis hypogaea L. and Stylosanthes humilis HBK cationic peroxidases. Amino acid sequence identities in the conserved domains of plant peroxidases ranged from 60 to 100%. In PpPrx75, there are five cysteine residues and one histidine residue that are found at conserved positions among other peroxidases. A potential glycosylation site (NTS) is present in the deduced sequence. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PpPrx75 is closely related to two A. thaliana peroxidases. The PpPrx75 cDNA was induced by active auxins, ethylene, abscisic acid and quercetin, a flavonoid possibly involved in plant-microorganism interactions. Transcript accumulation was detected within 3 h following root induction by auxin, and the amount of mRNA increased over the following 24 h. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide did not inhibit indole-3-acetic acid-induced transcript accumulation, suggesting that PpPrx75 induction is a primary (direct) response to auxin. This cDNA can be used to study expression of an auxin-regulated peroxidase during ectomycorrhiza formation. PMID:11874719

  20. Translation initiation factor 5A in Picrorhiza is up-regulated during leaf senescence and in response to abscisic acid.

    Parkash, Jai; Vaidya, Tanmay; Kirti, Shruti; Dutt, Som

    2014-05-25

    Translation initiation, the first step of protein synthesis process is the principal regulatory step controlling translation and involves a pool of translation initiation factors. In plants, from recent studies it is becoming evident that these translation initiation factors impact various aspects of plant growth and development in addition to their role in protein synthesis. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF5A is one such factor which functions in start site selection for the eIF2-GTP-tRNAi ternary complex within the ribosomal-bound preinitiation complex and also stabilizes the binding of GDP to eIF2. In the present study we have cloned and analysed a gene (eIF5a) encoding eIF5A from Picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth.) a medicinal plant of the western Himalayan region. The full length eIF5a cDNA consisted of 838 bp with an open reading frame of 480 bp, 88 bp 5' untranslated region and 270 bp 3' untranslated region. The deduced eIF5A protein contained 159 amino acids with a molecular weight of 17.359 kDa and an isoelectric point of 5.59. Secondary structure analysis revealed eIF5A having 24.53% α-helices, 8.81% β-turns, 23.27% extended strands and 43.40% random coils. pk-eIF5a transcript was found to be expressing during the active growth phase as well as during leaf senescence stage, however, highest expression was observed during leaf senescence stage. Further, its expression was up-regulated in response to exogenous application of abscisic acid. Both high intensity as well as low intensity light decreased the expression of pk-eIF5a. The findings suggest eIF5a to be an important candidate to develop genetic engineering based strategies for delaying leaf senescence. PMID:24656625

  1. Up-regulation of K{sub ir}2.1 by ER stress facilitates cell death of brain capillary endothelial cells

    Kito, Hiroaki [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Yamazaki, Daiju [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Biological Chemistry, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto (Japan); Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Ohya, Susumu; Yamamura, Hisao [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Asai, Kiyofumi [Department of Molecular Neurobiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan); Imaizumi, Yuji, E-mail: yimaizum@phar.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nagoya City University, Nagoya (Japan)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} We found that application of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with tunicamycin to brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) induced cell death. {yields} The ER stress facilitated the expression of inward rectifier K{sup +} channel (K{sub ir}2.1) and induced sustained membrane hyperpolarization. {yields} The membrane hyperpolarization induced sustained Ca{sup 2+} entry through voltage-independent nonspecific cation channels and consequently facilitated cell death. {yields} The K{sub ir}2.1 up-regulation by ER stress is, at least in part, responsible for cell death of BCECs under pathological conditions. -- Abstract: Brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) form blood brain barrier (BBB) to maintain brain homeostasis. Cell turnover of BCECs by the balance of cell proliferation and cell death is critical for maintaining the integrity of BBB. Here we found that stimuli with tunicamycin, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducer, up-regulated inward rectifier K{sup +} channel (K{sub ir}2.1) and facilitated cell death in t-BBEC117, a cell line derived from bovine BCECs. The activation of K{sub ir} channels contributed to the establishment of deeply negative resting membrane potential in t-BBEC117. The deep resting membrane potential increased the resting intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration due to Ca{sup 2+} influx through non-selective cation channels and thereby partly but significantly regulated cell death in t-BBEC117. The present results suggest that the up-regulation of K{sub ir}2.1 is, at least in part, responsible for cell death/cell turnover of BCECs induced by a variety of cellular stresses, particularly ER stress, under pathological conditions.

  2. Piano Playing Reduces Stress More than Other Creative Art Activities

    Toyoshima, Kumiko; Fukui, Hajime; Kuda, Kiyoto

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have been conducted on the physiological effects of creative art activities. In this study, the effects of creative art activities on human stress were investigated, and their effects were compared in 57 healthy college students (27 males and 30 females). Subjects were divided into four groups, each of which participated in 30-minute…

  3. Cotton Benzoquinon Reductase: Up-Regulation During Early Fiber Development and Heterologous Expresson and Characterization in Pichia Pastoris

    Benzoquinone reductase (BR) is an enzyme which catalyzes the bivalent redox reactions of quinones without the production of free radical intermediates. Using 2-D PAGE, two proteins were found to be up-regulated in wild-type cotton ovules during the fiber initiation stage. These proteins were excis...

  4. Up-regulation of bradykinin receptors in rat bronchi via I kappa B kinase-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway

    Lei, Ying; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Yongxiao; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    IkappaB kinase (IKK)-mediated intracellular signaling mechanisms may be involved in airway hyperresponsiveness through up-regulation of bradykinin receptors. This study was designed to examine if organ culture of rat bronchial segments induces airway hyperresponsiveness to bradykinin and if inhib...

  5. Exogenous NAD(+) decreases oxidative stress and protects H2O2-treated RPE cells against necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy.

    Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Ke-Ke; Tong, Yao; Zhou, Ya-Li; Wang, Yi-Xiao; Zhao, Pei-Quan; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death by inducing ATP depletion and DNA repair, is believed to be a prominent pathology in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study, we showed that and 0.1 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) administration significantly blocked RPE cell death induced by 300 μM H2O2. Further investigation showed that H2O2 resulted in increased intracellular ROS level, activation of PARP-1 and subsequently necrotic death of RPE cells. Exogenous NAD(+) administration significantly decreased intracellular and intranuclear ROS levels in H2O2-treated RPE cells. In addition, NAD(+) administration to H2O2-treated RPE cells inhibited the activation of PARP-1 and protected the RPE cells against necrotic death. Moreover, exogenous NAD(+) administration up-regulated autophagy in the H2O2-treated RPE cells. Inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 blocked the decrease of intracellular and intranuclear ROS level. Besides, inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 abolished the protection of exogenous NAD(+) against H2O2-induced cell necrotic death. Taken together, our findings indicate that that exogenous NAD(+) administration suppresses H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protects RPE cells against PARP-1 mediated necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy. The results suggest that exogenous NAD(+) administration might be potential value for the treatment of AMD. PMID:27240523

  6. Exogenous NAD+ decreases oxidative stress and protects H2O2-treated RPE cells against necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy

    Zhu, Ying; Zhao, Ke-ke; Tong, Yao; Zhou, Ya-li; Wang, Yi-xiao; Zhao, Pei-quan; Wang, Zhao-yang

    2016-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, which can lead to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cell death by inducing ATP depletion and DNA repair, is believed to be a prominent pathology in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the present study, we showed that and 0.1 mM nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) administration significantly blocked RPE cell death induced by 300 μM H2O2. Further investigation showed that H2O2 resulted in increased intracellular ROS level, activation of PARP-1 and subsequently necrotic death of RPE cells. Exogenous NAD+ administration significantly decreased intracellular and intranuclear ROS levels in H2O2-treated RPE cells. In addition, NAD+ administration to H2O2-treated RPE cells inhibited the activation of PARP-1 and protected the RPE cells against necrotic death. Moreover, exogenous NAD+ administration up-regulated autophagy in the H2O2-treated RPE cells. Inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 blocked the decrease of intracellular and intranuclear ROS level. Besides, inhibition of autophagy by LY294002 abolished the protection of exogenous NAD+ against H2O2-induced cell necrotic death. Taken together, our findings indicate that that exogenous NAD+ administration suppresses H2O2-induced oxidative stress and protects RPE cells against PARP-1 mediated necrotic death through the up-regulation of autophagy. The results suggest that exogenous NAD+ administration might be potential value for the treatment of AMD. PMID:27240523

  7. miR-6734 Up-Regulates p21 Gene Expression and Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Colon Cancer Cells

    Kang, Moo Rim; Park, Ki Hwan; Yang, Jeong-Ook; Lee, Chang Woo; Oh, Soo Jin; Yun, Jieun; Lee, Myeong Youl; Han, Sang-Bae; Kang, Jong Soon

    2016-01-01

    Recently, microRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression in terms of both gene silencing and gene activation. Here, we investigated the effects of miR-6734, which has a sequence homology with a specific region of p21WAF1/CIP1 (p21) promoter, on cancer cell growth and the mechanisms involved in this effect. miR-6734 up-regulated p21 expression at both mRNA and protein levels and chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis using biotin-labeled miR-6734 confirmed the association of miR-6734 with p21 promoter. Moreover, miR-6734 inhibited cancer cell growth and induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCT-116 cells, which was abolished by knockdown of p21. The phosphorylation of Rb and the cleavage of caspase 3 and PARP were suppressed by miR-6734 transfection in HCT-116 cells and these effects were also reversed by p21 knockdown. In addition, miR-6734 transfection caused prolonged induction of p21 gene and modification of histones in p21 promoter, which are typical aspects of a phenomenon referred to as RNA activation (RNAa). Collectively, our results demonstrated that miR-6734 inhibits the growth of colon cancer cells by up-regulating p21 gene expression and subsequent induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, suggesting its role as an important endogenous regulator of cancer cell proliferation and survival. PMID:27509128

  8. Up-Regulation of P21 Inhibits TRAIL-Mediated Extrinsic Apoptosis, Contributing Resistance to SAHA in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Xing Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: P21, a multifunctional cell cycle-regulatory molecule, regulates apoptotic cell death. In this study we examined the effect of altered p21 expression on the sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia cells in response to HDAC inhibitor SAHA treatment and investigated the underlying mechanism. Methods: Stably transfected HL60 cell lines were established in RPMI-1640 with supplementation of G-418. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Western blot was applied to assess the protein expression levels of target genes. Cell apoptosis was monitored by AnnexinV-PE/7AAD assay. Results: We showed HL60 cells that that didn't up-regulate p21 expression were more sensitive to SAHA-mediated apoptosis than NB4 and U937 cells that had increased p21 level. Enforced expression of p21 in HL60 cells reduced sensitivity to SAHA and blocked TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, p21 silencing in NB4 cells enhanced SAHA-mediated apoptosis and lethality. Finally, we found that combined treatment with SAHA and rapamycin down-regulated p21 and enhanced apoptosis in AML cells. Conclusion: We conclude that up-regulated p21 expression mediates resistance to SAHA via inhibition of TRAIL apoptotic pathway. P21 may serve as a candidate biomarker to predict responsiveness or resistance to SAHA-based therapy in AML patients. In addition, rapamycin may be an effective agent to override p21-mediated resistance to SAHA in AML patients.

  9. Ischemic preconditioning reduces hemodynamic response during metaboreflex activation.

    Mulliri, Gabriele; Sainas, Gianmarco; Magnani, Sara; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Milia, Nicola; Orrù, Andrea; Roberto, Silvana; Marongiu, Elisabetta; Milia, Raffaele; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) has been shown to improve exercise performance and to delay fatigue. However, the precise mechanisms through which IP operates remain elusive. It has been hypothesized that IP lowers the sensation of fatigue by reducing the discharge of group III and IV nerve endings, which also regulate hemodynamics during the metaboreflex. We hypothesized that IP reduces the blood pressure response during the metaboreflex. Fourteen healthy males (age between 25 and 48 yr) participated in this study. They underwent the following randomly assigned protocol: postexercise muscle ischemia (PEMI) test, during which the metaboreflex was elicited after dynamic handgrip; control exercise recovery session (CER) test; and PEMI after IP (IP-PEMI) test. IP was obtained by occluding forearm circulation for three cycles of 5 min spaced by 5 min of reperfusion. Hemodynamics were evaluated by echocardiography and impedance cardiography. The main results were that after IP the mean arterial pressure response was reduced compared with the PEMI test (means ± SD +3.37 ± 6.41 vs. +9.16 ± 7.09 mmHg, respectively). This was the consequence of an impaired venous return that impaired the stroke volume during the IP-PEMI more than during the PEMI test (-1.43 ± 15.35 vs. +10.28 ± 10.479 ml, respectively). It was concluded that during the metaboreflex, IP affects hemodynamics mainly because it impairs the capacity to augment venous return and to recruit the cardiac preload reserve. It was hypothesized that this is the consequence of an increased nitric oxide production, which reduces the possibility to constrict venous capacity vessels. PMID:26936782

  10. Sensory stimuli reduce the dimensionality of cortical activity

    Mazzucato, Luca; Fontanini, Alfredo; La Camera, Giancarlo

    Neural ensembles in alert animals generate complex patterns of activity. Although cortical activity unfolds in a space whose dimension is equal to the number of neurons, it is often restricted to a lower dimensional subspace. Dimensionality is the minimal number of dimensions that accurately capture neural dynamics, and may be related to the computational tasks supported by the neural circuit. Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the insular cortex of alert rats during periods of `ongoing' (spontaneous) and stimulus-evoked activity. We find that the dimensionality grows with ensemble size, and does so significantly faster during ongoing compared to evoked activity. We explain both results using a recurrent spiking network with clustered architecture, and obtain analytical results on the dependence of dimensionality on ensemble size, number of clusters, and pair-wise noise correlations. The theory predicts a characteristic scaling with ensemble size and the existence of an upper bound on dimensionality, which grows with the number of clusters and decreases with the amount of noise correlations. To our knowledge, this is the first mechanistic model of neural dimensionality in cortex during both spontaneous and evoked activity.

  11. Burnout Is Associated with Reduced Parasympathetic Activity and Reduced HPA Axis Responsiveness, Predominantly in Males

    Wieke de Vente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is mounting evidence that burnout is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Stress-related dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis may explain the enhanced risk for CVD. To test this hypothesis, 55 patients (34 males and 21 females with burnout on sickness absence and 40 healthy participants (16 males and 24 females were exposed to a psychosocial stressor consisting of mental arithmetic and public speech. Physiological variables (i.e., blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, vascular resistance, cortisol, and alpha-amylase were measured. Basal levels, reactivity, and recovery were compared between groups. In male patients, baseline systolic blood pressure was higher, whereas basal alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity were lower than in healthy males. In female patients, a tendency for lower basal cortisol was found as compared to healthy females. Furthermore, reduced basal heart rate variability and a trend for elevated basal cardiac output were observed in both male and female patients. Burnout is characterised by dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis, which was more pronounced in males than in females. This study further supports burnout as being a risk factor for CVD through dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis.

  12. High expression of sphingosine kinase 1 and S1P receptors in chemotherapy-resistant prostate cancer PC3 cells and their camptothecin-induced up-regulation

    Although most of pharmacological therapies for cancer utilize the apoptotic machinery of the cells, the available anti-cancer drugs are limited due to the ability of prostate cancer cells to escape from the anti-cancer drug-induced apoptosis. A human prostate cancer cell line PC3 is resistant to camptothecin (CPT). To elucidate the mechanism of this resistance, we have examined the involvement of sphingosine kinase (SPHK) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor in CPT-resistant PC3 and -sensitive LNCaP cells. PC3 cells exhibited higher activity accompanied with higher expression levels of protein and mRNA of SPHK1, and also elevated expression of S1P receptors, S1P1 and S1P3, as compared with those of LNCaP cells. The knockdown of SPHK1 by small interfering RNA and inhibition of S1P receptor signaling by pertussis toxin in PC3 cells induced significant inhibition of cell growth, suggesting implication of SPHK1 and S1P receptors in cell proliferation in PC3 cells. Furthermore, the treatment of PC3 cells with CPT was found to induce up-regulation of the SPHK1/S1P signaling by induction of both SPHK1 enzyme and S1P1/S1P3 receptors. These findings strongly suggest that high expression and up-regulation of SPHK1 and S1P receptors protect PC3 cells from the apoptosis induced by CPT

  13. Diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide up-regulate the expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase via an AP-1-dependent pathway.

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chen, Haw-Wen; Yang, Jaw-Ji; Sheen, Lee-Yan; Lii, Chong-Kuei

    2007-02-01

    Garlic organosulfur compounds are recognized as potential chemopreventive compounds. This protection is related to the induction of phase II detoxification enzymes. We previously reported that diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) up-regulate the gene expression of the pi class of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP) and that an enhancer element named GPE I is required for this induction. In the present study, we further investigated the signal pathway involved in DADS and DATS up-regulation of this detoxification enzyme in Clone 9 cells. Cells were cultured with 25-200 micromol/L of DADS or DATS for 24 h. Western and Northern blots showed that both garlic allyl sulfides concentration dependently induced GSTP protein and mRNA expression, respectively. Changes in GST activity toward ethacrynic acid were consistent with the increase in GSTP expression (P effectiveness of DADS and DATS on GSTP expression is likely related to the JNK-AP-1 and ERK-AP-1 signaling pathways and, thus, that DADS and DATS enhance the binding of AP-1 to GPE I. PMID:17263507

  14. Localization of a filarial phosphate permease that is up-regulated in response to depletion of essential Wolbachia endobacteria.

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Hoerauf, Achim; Pfarr, Kenneth M

    2014-03-01

    Wolbachia of filarial nematodes are essential, obligate endobacteria. When depleted by doxycycline worm embryogenesis, larval development and worm survival are inhibited. The molecular basis governing the endosymbiosis between Wolbachia and their filarial host is still being deciphered. In rodent filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis, a nematode encoded phosphate permease gene (Ls-ppe-1) was up-regulated at the mRNA level in response to Wolbachia depletion and this gene promises to have an important role in Wolbachia-nematode endosymbiosis. To further characterize this gene, the regulation of phosphate permease during Wolbachia depletion was studied at the protein level in L. sigmodontis and in the human filaria Onchocerca volvulus. And the localization of phosphate permease (PPE) and Wolbachia in L. sigmodontis and O. volvulus was investigated in untreated and antibiotic treated worms. Depletion of Wolbachia by tetracycline (Tet) resulted in up-regulation of Ls-ppe-1 in L. sigmodontis. On day 36 of Tet treatment, compared to controls (Con), >98% of Wolbachia were depleted with a 3-fold increase in mRNA levels of Ls-ppe-1. Anti-Ls-PPE serum used in Western blots showed up-regulation of Ls-PPE at the protein level in Tet worms on day 15 and 36 of treatment. Immunohistology revealed the localization of Wolbachia and Ls-PPE in the embryos, microfilariae and hypodermis of L. sigmodontis female worms and up-regulation of Ls-PPE in response to Wolbachia depletion. Expression of O. volvulus phosphate permease (Ov-PPE) studied using anti-Ov-PPE serum, showed up-regulation of Ov-PPE at the protein level in doxycycline treated Wolbachia depleted O. volvulus worms and immunohistology revealed localization of Ov-PPE and Wolbachia and up-regulation of Ov-PPE in the hypodermis and embryos of doxycycline treated worms. Ls-PPE and Ov-PPE are upregulated upon Wolbachia depletion in same tissues and regions where Wolbachia are located in untreated worms, reinforcing a link

  15. Blockade of Mast Cell Activation Reduces Cutaneous Scar Formation

    Lin Chen; Megan E Schrementi; Ranzer, Matthew J.; Wilgus, Traci A.; Luisa A DiPietro

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the skin initiates a cascade of well-orchestrated events that ultimately leads to repair of the wound. The inflammatory response is key to wound healing both through preventing infection and stimulating proliferation and remodeling of the skin. Mast cells within the tissue are one of the first immune cells to respond to trauma, and upon activation they release pro-inflammatory molecules to initiate recruitment of leukocytes and promote a vascular response in the tissue. Additionally...

  16. Scutellarein Reduces Inflammatory Responses by Inhibiting Src Kinase Activity

    Sung, Nak Yoon; Kim, Mi-Yeon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant pigments that have been demonstrated to exert various pharmacological effects including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the molecular mechanisms in terms of exact target proteins of flavonoids are not fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of scutellarein (SCT), a flavonoid isolated from Erigeron breviscapus, Clerodendrum phlomidis and Oroxylum i...

  17. Appeasing Nihilists? Some Economic Thoughts on Reducing Terrorist Activity

    Jan Schnellenbach

    2005-01-01

    Recent contributions to the economics of terrorism have given contradicting recommendations for campaigning against terrorism, from the proposal to deprive terrorists of their resources to the proposal of raising the opportunity costs of terrorism by increasing the wealth of the affected regions. Within a simple framework which differentiates between the decision to become an active terrorist and the decision to support terrorists and which allows for reciprocal reactions to anti- terrorism p...

  18. Large Roads Reduce Bat Activity across Multiple Species

    Justin Kitzes; Adina Merenlender

    2014-01-01

    Although the negative impacts of roads on many terrestrial vertebrate and bird populations are well documented, there have been few studies of the road ecology of bats. To examine the effects of large roads on bat populations, we used acoustic recorders to survey bat activity along ten 300 m transects bordering three large highways in northern California, applying a newly developed statistical classifier to identify recorded calls to the species level. Nightly counts of bat passes were analyz...

  19. T Lymphocyte Activation Threshold is Increased in Reduced Gravity

    Adams, Charley L.; Gonzalez, M.; Sams, C. F.

    2000-01-01

    There have been substantial advances in molecular and cellular biology that have provided new insight into the biochemical and genetic basis of lymphocyte recognition, activation and expression of distinct functional phenotypes. It has now become evident that for both T and B cells, stimuli delivered through their receptors can result in either clonal expansion or apoptosis. In the case of T cells, clonal expansion of helper cells is accompanied by differentiation into two major functional subsets which regulate the immune response. The pathways between the membrane and the nucleus and their molecular components are an area of very active investigation. This meeting will draw together scientists working on diverse aspects of this problem, including receptor ligand interactions, intracellular pathways that transmit receptor mediated signals and the effect of such signal transduction pathways on gene regulation. The aim of this meeting is to integrate the information from these various experimental approaches into a new synthesis and molecular explanation of T cell activation, differentiation and death.

  20. Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Population is Up-Regulated in Chicken Skeletal Muscle Cells Treated with Forskolin

    Bridge, K. Y.; Young, R. B.; Vaughn, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is promoted by in vivo administration of beta-adrenergic receptor (betaAR) agonists. These compounds presumably exert their physiological action through the betaAR, and alterations in the population of betaAR could potentially change the ability of the cell to respond to the betaAR agonists. Since the intracellular chemical signal generated by the betaAR is cyclic AMP (cAMP), experiments were initiated in primary chicken muscle cell cultures to determine if artificial elevation of intracellular cAMP by treatment with forskolin would alter the population of functional betaAR expressed on the surface of muscle cells. Chicken skeletal muscle cells after 7 days in culture were employed for the experiments because muscle cells have attained a steady state with respect to muscle protein metabolism at this stage. Cells were treated with 0-10 microM forskolin for a total of three days. At the end of the 1, 2, and 3 day treatment intervals, the concentration of cAMP and the betaAR population were measured. Receptor population was measured in intact muscle cell cultures as the difference between total binding of [H-3]CGP-12177 and non-specific binding of [H-3]CGP-12177 in the presence of 1 microM propranolol. Intracellular cAMP concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay. The concentration of cAMP in forskolin-treated cells increased up to 10-fold in a dose dependent manner. Increasing concentrations of forskolin also led to an increase in betaAR population, with a maximum increase of approximately 50% at 10 microM. This increase in PAR population was apparent after only 1 day of treatment, and the pattern of increase was maintained for all 3 days of the treatment period. Thus, increasing the intracellular concentration of cAMP leads to up-regulation of betaAR population. The effect of forskolin on the quantity and apparent synthesis rate of the heavy chain of myosin (mhc) were also investigated. A maximum increase of 50% in the quantity of mhc

  1. Development of ferritic steels for reduced activation: the US program

    The Cr-Mo ferritic (martensitic) steels are candidates for the structural components of fusion reactors. Irradiation of such steels in a fusion environment produces long-lived radioactive isotopes, which lead to difficult radioactive waste disposal problems once the structure is removed from service. Such problems could be reduced by using steels that contain only elements that produce radioactive isotopes that decay to low levels in a reasonable time (tens of years instead of hundreds or thousands of years). The US Department of Energy has a program to develop steels to meet the criteria for shallow land burial as opposed to deep geologic storage. A review of the alloy development programs indicates that ferritic steels that meet these criteria can be developed

  2. Textured bearing surface in artificial joints to reduce macrophage activation

    Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Nishi, Naoki; Chikaura, Hiroto; Nakashima, Yuta; Miura, Hiromasa; Higaki, Hidehiko; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Fujiwara, Yukio; Komohara, Yoshihiro; Takeya, Motohiro

    2015-12-01

    Micro slurry-jet erosion has been proposed as a precision machining technique for the bearing surfaces of artificial joints in order to reduce the total amount of polyethylene wear and to enlarge the size of the wear debris. The micro slurry-jet erosion method is a wet blasting technique which uses alumina particles as the abrasive medium along with compressed air and water to create an ideal surface. Pin-on-disc wear tests with multidirectional sliding motion on the textured surface of a \\text{Co}-\\text{Cr}-\\text{Mo} alloy counterface for polyethylene resulted in both a reduction of wear as well as enlargement of the polyethylene debris size. In this study, primary human peripheral blood mononuclear phagocytes were incubated with the debris, and it was elucidated that the wear debris generated on the textured surface regulated secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α, indicating a reduction in the induced tissue reaction and joint loosening.

  3. Functionally Selective AT(1) Receptor Activation Reduces Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    Hostrup, Anders; Christensen, Gitte Lund; Bentzen, Bo Hjort; Liang, Bo; Aplin, Mark; Grunnet, Morten; Hansen, Jakob Lerche; Jespersen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    physiological functions of AngII. The AT(1)R mediates its effects through both G protein-dependent and independent signaling, which can be separated by functionally selective agonists. In the present study we investigate the effect of AngII and the ß-arrestin biased agonist [SII]AngII on ischemia......-reperfusion injury in rat hearts. Isolated hearts mounted in a Langendorff perfused rat heart preparations showed that preconditioning with [SII]AngII reduced the infarct size induced by global ischemia from 46±8.4% to 22±3.4%. In contrast, neither preconditioning with AngII nor postconditioning with AngII or [SII...

  4. Exposure to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone accelerates malignant progression of lung cancer cells through up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase 1B10

    Inhalation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust, exerts fatal damage against a variety of cells involved in respiratory function. Here, we show that treatment with high concentrations of 9,10-PQ evokes apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, 9,10-PQ at its concentrations of 2 and 5 μM elevated the potentials for proliferation, invasion, metastasis and tumorigenesis, all of which were almost completely inhibited by addition of an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, inferring a crucial role of ROS in the overgrowth and malignant progression of lung cancer cells. Comparison of mRNA expression levels of six aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells advocated up-regulation of AKR1B10 as a major cause contributing to the lung cancer malignancy. In support of this, the elevation of invasive, metastatic and tumorigenic activities in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells was significantly abolished by the addition of a selective AKR1B10 inhibitor oleanolic acid. Intriguingly, zymographic and real-time PCR analyses revealed remarkable increases in secretion and expression, respectively, of matrix metalloproteinase 2 during the 9,10-PQ treatment, and suggested that the AKR1B10 up-regulation and resultant activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are predominant mechanisms underlying the metalloproteinase induction. In addition, HPLC analysis and cytochrome c reduction assay in in vitro 9,10-PQ reduction by AKR1B10 demonstrated that the enzyme catalyzes redox-cycling of this quinone, by which ROS are produced. Collectively, these results suggest that AKR1B10 is a key regulator involved in overgrowth and malignant progression of the lung cancer cells through ROS production due to 9,10-PQ redox-cycling. - Highlights: • 9,10-PQ promotes invasion, metastasis and tumorigenicity in lung cancer cells. • The 9,10-PQ-elicited promotion is possibly due to AKR1B10 up-regulation

  5. Exposure to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone accelerates malignant progression of lung cancer cells through up-regulation of aldo-keto reductase 1B10

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki, E-mail: matsunagat@gifu-pu.ac.jp [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan); Morikawa, Yoshifumi; Haga, Mariko; Endo, Satoshi [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan); Soda, Midori; Yamamura, Keiko [Laboratory of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Aichi Gakuin University, Nagoya 464-8650 (Japan); El-Kabbani, Ossama [Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University, Victoria 3052 (Australia); Tajima, Kazuo [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokuriku University, Kanazawa 920-1181 (Japan); Ikari, Akira [Laboratory of Biochemistry, Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Gifu 501-1196 (Japan); Hara, Akira [Faculty of Engineering, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)

    2014-07-15

    Inhalation of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone in diesel exhaust, exerts fatal damage against a variety of cells involved in respiratory function. Here, we show that treatment with high concentrations of 9,10-PQ evokes apoptosis of lung cancer A549 cells through production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, 9,10-PQ at its concentrations of 2 and 5 μM elevated the potentials for proliferation, invasion, metastasis and tumorigenesis, all of which were almost completely inhibited by addition of an antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine, inferring a crucial role of ROS in the overgrowth and malignant progression of lung cancer cells. Comparison of mRNA expression levels of six aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells advocated up-regulation of AKR1B10 as a major cause contributing to the lung cancer malignancy. In support of this, the elevation of invasive, metastatic and tumorigenic activities in the 9,10-PQ-treated cells was significantly abolished by the addition of a selective AKR1B10 inhibitor oleanolic acid. Intriguingly, zymographic and real-time PCR analyses revealed remarkable increases in secretion and expression, respectively, of matrix metalloproteinase 2 during the 9,10-PQ treatment, and suggested that the AKR1B10 up-regulation and resultant activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade are predominant mechanisms underlying the metalloproteinase induction. In addition, HPLC analysis and cytochrome c reduction assay in in vitro 9,10-PQ reduction by AKR1B10 demonstrated that the enzyme catalyzes redox-cycling of this quinone, by which ROS are produced. Collectively, these results suggest that AKR1B10 is a key regulator involved in overgrowth and malignant progression of the lung cancer cells through ROS production due to 9,10-PQ redox-cycling. - Highlights: • 9,10-PQ promotes invasion, metastasis and tumorigenicity in lung cancer cells. • The 9,10-PQ-elicited promotion is possibly due to AKR1B10 up-regulation

  6. Vascular endothelial growth factor up-regulates the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 in retinal endothelial cells via reactive oxygen species, but not nitric oxide

    ZHANG Xiao-ling; WEN Liang; CHEN Yan-jiong; ZHU Yi

    2009-01-01

    Background The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is involved in the initiation of retinal vascular leakage and nonperfusion in diabetes. The intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) is the key mediator of the effect of VEGFs on retinal leukostasis. Although the VEGF is expressed in an early-stage diabetic retina, whether it directly up-regulates ICAM-1 in retinal endothelial cells (ECs) is unknown. In this study, we provided a new mechanism to explain that VEGF does up-regulate the expression of ICAM-1 in retinal ECs.Methods Bovine retinal ECs (BRECs) were isolated and cultured. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to identify BRECs. The cultured cells were divided into corresponding groups. Then, VEGF (100 ng/ml) and other inhibitors were used to treat the cells. Cell lysate and the cultured supernatant were collected, and then, the protein level of ICAM-1 and phosphorylation of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were detected using Western blotting. Griess reaction was used to detect nitric oxide (NO).Results Western blotting showed that the VEGF up-regulated the expression of ICAM-1 protein and increased phosphorylation of the eNOS in retinal ECs. Neither the block of NO nor protein kinase C (PKC) altered the expression of ICAM-1 or the phosphorylation of eNOS. The result of the Western blotting also showed that inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or reactive oxygen species (ROS) significantly reduced the expression of ICAM-1. Inhibition of PI3K also reduced phosphorylation of eNOS. Griess reaction showed that VEGF significantly increased during NO production. When eNOS was blocked by L-NAME or PI3K was blocked by LY294002, the basal level of NO production and the increment of NO caused by VEGF could be significantly decreased.Conclusion ROS-NO coupling in the retinal endothelium may be a new mechanism that could help to explain why VEGF induces ICAM-1 expression and the resulting leukostasis in diabetic retinopathy.

  7. Effect of up-regulated expression of tumor suppressor gene p14ARF on apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia cells

    白元松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of up-regulated expression of tumor suppressor gene p14ARFon apoptosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and its interaction with imatinib.Methods Tumor suppressor gene p14ARFwas transduced into K562 (K562-p14ARF) and 4blast crisis primary CML cells (CML-BC 1-4) using vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV-G)

  8. Isolation and characterization of a novel gene sfig in rat skeletal muscle up-regulated by spaceflight (STS-90)

    Kano, Mihoko; Kitano, Takako; Ikemoto, Madoka; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Asanoma, Yuki; Ogawa, Takayuki; Takeda, Shinichi; Nonaka, Ikuya; Adams, Gregory R.; Baldwin, Kenneth M.; Oarada, Motoko; Kishi, Kyoichi; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2003-01-01

    We obtained the skeletal muscle of rats exposed to weightless conditions during a 16-day-spaceflight (STS-90). By using a differential display technique, we identified 6 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of the spaceflight rats, as compared to the ground control. The up-regulated genes included those coding Casitas B-lineage lymphoma-b, insulin growth factor binding protein-1, titin and mitochondrial gene 16 S rRNA and two novel genes (function unknown). The down-regulated genes included those encoding RNA polymerase II elongation factor-like protein, NADH dehydrogenase and one novel gene (function unknown). In the present study, we isolated and characterized one of two novel muscle genes that were remarkably up-regulated by spaceflight. The deduced amino acid sequence of the spaceflight-induced gene (sfig) comprises 86 amino acid residues and is well conserved from Drosophila to Homo sapiens. A putative leucine-zipper structure located at the N-terminal region of sfig suggests that this gene may encode a transcription factor. The up-regulated expression of this gene, confirmed by Northern blot analysis, was observed not only in the muscles of spaceflight rats but also in the muscles of tail-suspended rats, especially in the early stage of tail-suspension when gastrocnemius muscle atrophy initiated. The gene was predominantly expressed in the kidney, liver, small intestine and heart. When rat myoblastic L6 cells were grown to 100% confluence in the cell culture system, the expression of sfig was detected regardless of the cell differentiation state. These results suggest that spaceflight has many genetic effects on rat skeletal muscle.

  9. Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostaglandin E2 in colon cancer cells resistant to 5-fluorouracil

    Choi, Cheol Hee; Lee, Tae Bum; Lee, Yeon Ah; Choi, Suk; Kim, Kyung Jong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose It has been suggested that constitutive up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 is associated with resistance to apoptosis, increased angiogenesis, and increased tumor invasiveness in various cancers including colon cancer. There are many factors involved in the resistance to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in colon cancer. However, little is known about the role of COX-2 in acquired resistance to 5-FU in colon cancer. Methods Hence we investigated whether COX-2 contribute to acquired resistanc...

  10. Discovering up-regulated VEGF–C expression in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells by classical swine fever virus Shimen

    Ning, Pengbo; Zhang, Yanming; Guo, Kangkang; Chen, Ru; Liang, Wulong; Lin, Zhi; Li, Helin

    2014-01-01

    International audience Infection of domestic swine with the highly virulent Shimen strain of classical swine fever virus causes hemorrhagic lymphadenitis and diffuse hemorrhaging in infected swine. We analyzed patterns of gene expression for CSFV Shimen in swine umbilical vein endothelial cells (SUVECs). Transcription of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) C gene (VEGF-C) and translation of the corresponding protein were significantly up-regulated in SUVECs. Our findings suggest ...

  11. Up-regulated uridine kinase gene identified by RLCS in the ventral horn after crush injury to rat sciatic nerves.

    Yuh, I; Yaoi, T; Watanabe, S; Okajima, S; Hirasawa, Y; Fushiki, S

    1999-12-01

    Rat sciatic nerve crush injury is one of the models commonly employed for studying the mechanisms of nerve regeneration. In this study, we analyzed the temporal change of gene expression after injury in this model, to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in nerve regeneration. First, a cDNA analysis method, Restriction Landmark cDNA Scanning (RLCS), was applied to cells in the ventral horn of the spinal cord during a 7-day period after the crush injury. A total of 1991 cDNA species were detected as spots on gels, and 37 of these were shown to change after the injury. Temporally changed patterns were classified into three categories: the continuously up-regulated type (10 species), the transiently up-regulated type (22 species), and the down-regulated type (5 species). These complex patterns of gene expression demonstrated after the injury suggest that precise regulation in molecular pathways is required for accomplishing nerve regeneration. Secondly, the rat homologue of uridine kinase gene was identified as one of the up-regulated genes. Northern blot analysis on rat ventral horn tissue and brain revealed that the UK gene had three transcripts with different sizes (4.3, 1. 4, and 1.35 kb, respectively). All of the transcripts, especially the 4.3 kb one, were up-regulated mainly in a bimodal fashion during the 28-day period after the injury. The RLCS method that we employed in the present study shows promise as a means to fully analyze molecular changes in nerve regeneration in detail. PMID:10581173

  12. Up-regulation and subcellular localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the world's leading causes of death among cancer patients. It is important to find a new biomarker that diagnoses HCC and monitors its treatment. In our previous work, we screened a single-chain antibody (scFv) N14, which could specifically recognize human HepG2 HCC cells but not human non-cancerous liver LO2 cells. However, the antigen it recognized in the cells remained unknown. Recombinant scFv N14 antibody was expressed as an active antibody. Using this antibody with a combination of immunological and proteomic approaches, we identified the antigen of scFv N14 antibody as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP A2/B1). The expression of hnRNP A2/B1 in HCC cells was then investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that the up-regulation of hnRNP A2/B1 was measured at both transcriptional and translational levels in rat HCC cells but not in rat hepatic cells. We also found that in various human hepatic tissues, hnRNP A2/B1 was highly expressed in both human hepatitis virus positive liver tissues and human HCC tissues but not in normal liver tissues. Interestingly, we observed that the localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in HCC cells was altered during the development of HCC. In human hepatitis virus infected tissues hnRNP A2/B1 resides exclusively in the nuclei of hepatocytes. However, when the HCC progressed from a well differentiated to a poorly differentiated stage, hnRNP A2/B1 was increasingly localized in the cytoplasm. In contrast, the HCC tissues with hnRNP A2/B1 highly expressed in the nucleus decreased. This work is the first to show that hnRNP A2/B1 is the antigen specifically recognized by the scFv N14 antibody in HCC cells. The over-expression of hnRNP A2/B1 was confirmed in cultured human and rat HCC cell lines, human virus related hepatitis liver tissues and human HCC tissues. The increased localization of hnRNP A2/B1 in the cytoplasm of HCC cells was revealed

  13. Up-regulation of COX-2/PGE2 by endothelin-1 via MAPK-dependent NF-κB pathway in mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells

    Lin Chih-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a proinflammatory mediator and elevated in the regions of several brain injury and inflammatory diseases. The deleterious effects of ET-1 on endothelial cells may aggravate brain inflammation mediated through the regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 system in various cell types. However, the signaling mechanisms underlying ET-1-induced COX-2 expression in brain microvascular endothelial cells remain unclear. Herein we investigated the effects of ET-1 in COX-2 regulation in mouse brain microvascular endothelial (bEnd.3 cells. Results The data obtained with Western blotting, RT-PCR, and immunofluorescent staining analyses showed that ET-1-induced COX-2 expression was mediated through an ETB-dependent transcriptional activation. Engagement of Gi- and Gq-protein-coupled ETB receptors by ET-1 led to phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK1/2 and then activated transcription factor NF-κB. Moreover, the data of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and promoter reporter assay demonstrated that the activated NF-κB was translocated into nucleus and bound to its corresponding binding sites in COX-2 promoter, thereby turning on COX-2 gene transcription. Finally, up-regulation of COX-2 by ET-1 promoted PGE2 release in these cells. Conclusions These results suggested that in mouse bEnd.3 cells, activation of NF-κB by ETB-dependent MAPK cascades is essential for ET-1-induced up-regulation of COX-2/PGE2 system. Understanding the mechanisms of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release regulated by ET-1/ETB system on brain microvascular endothelial cells may provide rationally therapeutic interventions for brain injury or inflammatory diseases.

  14. Up-regulation of the embryonic self-renewal network through reversible polyploidy in irradiated p53-mutant tumour cells

    We have previously documented that transient polyploidy is a potential cell survival strategy underlying the clonogenic re-growth of tumour cells after genotoxic treatment. In an attempt to better define this mechanism, we recently documented the key role of meiotic genes in regulating the DNA repair and return of the endopolyploid tumour cells (ETC) to diploidy through reduction divisions after irradiation. Here, we studied the role of the pluripotency and self-renewal stem cell genes NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 in this polyploidy-dependent survival mechanism. In irradiation-resistant p53-mutated lymphoma cell-lines (Namalwa and WI-L2-NS) but not sensitive p53 wild-type counterparts (TK6), low background expression of OCT4 and NANOG was up-regulated by ionising radiation with protein accumulation evident in ETC as detected by OCT4/DNA flow cytometry and immunofluorescence (IF). IF analysis also showed that the ETC generate PML bodies that appear to concentrate OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 proteins, which extend into complex nuclear networks. These polyploid tumour cells resist apoptosis, overcome cellular senescence and undergo bi- and multi-polar divisions transmitting the up-regulated OCT4, NANOG and SOX2 self-renewal cassette to their descendents. Altogether, our observations indicate that irradiation-induced ETC up-regulate key components of germ-line cells, which potentially facilitate survival and propagation of the tumour cell population.

  15. Saponin Inhibits Hepatitis C Virus Propagation by Up-regulating Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 2

    Lee, Jihye; Lim, Seri; Kang, Sang-Min; Min, Saehong; Son, Kidong; Lee, Han Sol; Park, Eun Mee; Ngo, Huong T. T.; Tran, Huong T. L.; Lim, Yun-Sook; Hwang, Soon B.

    2012-01-01

    Saponins are a group of naturally occurring plant glycosides which possess a wide range of pharmacological properties, including anti-tumorigenic and antiviral activities. To investigate whether saponin has anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) activity, we examined the effect of saponin on HCV replication. HCV replication was efficiently inhibited at a concentration of 10 µg/ml of saponin in cell culture grown HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells. Inhibitory effect of saponin on HCV replication was verified by...

  16. Up-regulation of the transient A-type K+ current (IA) in the differentiation of neural stem cells of the early postnatal rat hippocampus

    GUO Hong-bo; HUANG Lian-yan; ZOU Yu-xi; ZOU Fei

    2010-01-01

    Background Neural stem cells (NSCs) not only are essential to cell replacement therapy and transplantation in clinical settings, but also provide a unique model for the research into neurogenesis and epigenesis. However, little attention has been paid to the electrophysiological characterization of NSC development. This work aimed to identify whether the morphological neuronal differentiation process in NSCs included changes in the electrophysiological properties of transient A-type K+ currents (IA).Methods NSCs were isolated from early postnatal rat hippocampus and were multiplied in basic serum-free medium containing basic fibroblast growth factor. Potassium currents were investigated and compared using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), respectively.Results Compared with NSC-derived neurons, cloned NSCs (cNSCs) had a more positive resting membrane potential, a higher input resistance, and a lower membrane capacitance. Part of cNSCs and NSC-derived neurons possessed both delayed-rectifier K+ currents (IDR) and IA, steady-state activation of IA in cNSCs (half-maximal activation at (21.34±4.37) mV) occurred at a more positive voltage than in NSC-derived neurons at 1-6 days in vitro (half-maximal activation at (12.85±4.19) mV).Conclusions Our research revealed a developmental up-regulation of the IA component during differentiation of postnatal NSCs. Together with the marked developmental up-regulation of IDR in vitro neuronal differentiation we have previously found, the voltage-gated potassium channels may participate in neuronal maturation process.

  17. Ellagic acid facilitates indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer healing via COX-2 up-regulation

    Ananya Chatterjee; Sirshendu Chatterjee; Smita Das; Arpita Saha; Subrata Chattopadhyay; Sandip K. Bandyopadhyay

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer healing by ellagic acid (EA) in experimental mice model is described in our study.Ulcer index (UI) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity of the stomach tissues showed maximum ulceration on the third day after indomethacin (18 mg/kg,single dose) administration.Preliminary observation of UI and MPO activity suggests that EA possesses ulcer-healing activity.Other anti-ulcer parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin E2,cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 enzymes,anti-inflammatory cytokines [interleukin (IL)-4 and -5J,pro-angiogenic factors,e.g.vascular endothelial growth factor,hepatocyte growth factor (HGF),and endothelial growth factor (EGF) were down-regulated by indomethacin.EA (7 mg/kg/day) treatment for 3 days shifted the indomethacin-induced pro-inflammatory biochemical parameters to the healing side.These activities were correlated with the ability of EA to alter the COX-2-dependent healing pathways.The ulcer-healing activity of EA was,however,compromised by pre-administration of the specific COX-2 inhibitor,celecoxib,and NS-398.Taken together,these results suggested that the EA treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing IL-4,EGF/HGF levds and enhances COX-2 expression.

  18. Arterial chemoreceptor activation reduces the activity of parapyramidal serotonergic neurons in rats.

    Takakura, A C; Moreira, T S

    2013-05-01

    The parapyramidal (ppy) region targets primarily the intermediolateral cell column and is probably involved in breathing and thermoregulation. In the present study, we tested whether ppy serotonergic neurons respond to activation of central and peripheral chemoreceptors. Bulbospinal ppy neurons (n=30) were recorded extracellularly along with the phrenic nerve activity in urethane/α-chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed, intact (n=7) or carotid body denervated (n=6) male Wistar rats. In intact animals, most of the ppy neurons were inhibited by hypoxia (n=14 of 19) (8% O2, 30s) (1.5 ± 0.03 vs. control: 2.4 ± 0.2 Hz) or hypercapnia (n=15 of 19) (10% CO2) (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. control: 2.2 ± 0.2 Hz), although some neurons were insensitive to hypoxia (n=3 of 19) or hypercapnia (n=4 of 19). Very few neurons (n=2 of 19) were activated after hypoxia, but not after hypercapnia. In carotid body denervated rats, all the 5HT-ppy neurons (n=11) were insensitive to hypercapnia (2.1 ± 0.1 vs. control: 2.3 ± 0.09 Hz). Biotinamide-labeled cells that were recovered after histochemistry were located in the ppy region. Most labeled cells (90%) showed strong tryptophan hydroxylase immunocytochemical reactivity, indicating that they were serotonergic. The present data reveal that peripheral chemoreceptors reduce the activity of the serotonergic premotor neurons located in the ppy region. It is plausible that the serotonergic neurons of the ppy region could conceivably regulate breathing automaticity and be involved in autonomic regulation. PMID:23403178

  19. UP-REGULATION OF HEPATIC RECEPTOR FOR GROWTH HORMONE IN THE FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS) AFTER ORAL ADMINISTRATION WITH EXOGENOUS GH

    刘宗柱; 王金宝; 徐永立; 王勇; 张培军

    2001-01-01

    The iodination efficiency of salmon GH (sGH) was 38.82%,using a modification of the chloramine-T method. The specific activity of the 125I-sGH was about 40 μCi/μg protein. The results of binding assay showed a single class of high affinity and low-capacity binding site in flounder liver. Long-term administration with exogenous GH can induce the up-regulation of hepatic GH receptor in total binding capacity though there was no significant difference of association constant among any groups. Con-sidering that there was no significant difference in capacity of free binding sites of livers from control and experimental fish, this result also indicated that the liver from experimental fish, compared to that from control fish, had more occupied binding sites.

  20. Fibroblast growth factor 2 inhibits up-regulation of bone morphogenic proteins and their receptors during osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Highlights: ► FGF modulates BMPs pathway in HMSCs by down-regulating BMP/BMPR expression. ► This effect is mediated by ERK and JNK MAPKs pathways. ► Crosstalk between FGF and BMPs must be taken into account in skeletal bioengineering. ► It must also be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in orthopedic and spine surgeries. -- Abstract: Understanding the interactions between growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) signaling remains a crucial issue to optimize the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) and BMPs in therapeutic perspectives and bone tissue engineering. BMPs are potent inducers of osteoblastic differentiation. They exert their actions via BMP receptors (BMPR), including BMPR1A, BMPR1B and BMPR2. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed by cells of the osteoblastic lineage, increases their proliferation and is secreted during the healing process of fractures or in surgery bone sites. We hypothesized that FGF2 might influence HMSC osteoblastic differentiation by modulating expressions of BMPs and their receptors. BMP2, BMP4, BMPR1A and mainly BMPR1B expressions were up-regulated during this differentiation. FGF2 inhibited HMSCs osteoblastic differentiation and the up-regulation of BMPs and BMPR. This effect was prevented by inhibiting the ERK or JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases which are known to be activated by FGF2. These data provide a mechanism explaining the inhibitory effect of FGF2 on osteoblastic differentiation of HMSCs. These crosstalks between growth and osteogenic factors should be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in therapeutic purpose of fracture repair or skeletal bioengineering.

  1. Corticotropin releasing factor up-regulates the expression and function of norepinephrine transporter in SK-N-BE (2) M17 cells.

    Huang, Jingjing; Tufan, Turan; Deng, Maoxian; Wright, Gary; Zhu, Meng-Yang

    2015-10-01

    Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) has been implicated to act as a neurotransmitter or modulator in central nervous activation during stress. In this study, we examined the regulatory effect of CRF on the expression and function of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) in vitro. SK-N-BE (2) M17 cells were exposed to different concentrations of CRF for different periods. Results showed that exposure of cells to CRF significantly increased mRNA and protein levels of NET in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The CRF-induced increase in NET expression was mimicked by agonists of either CRF receptor 1 or 2. Furthermore, similar CRF treatments induced a parallel increase in the uptake of [(3) H] norepinephrine. Both increased expression and function of NET caused by CRF were abolished by simultaneous administration of CRF receptor antagonists, indicating a mediation by CRF receptors. However, there was no additive effect for the combination of both receptor antagonists. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirm an increased acetylation of histone H3 on the NET promoter following treatment with CRF. Taken together, this study demonstrates that CRF up-regulates the expression and function of NET in vitro. This regulation is mediated through CRF receptors and an epigenetic mechanism related to histone acetylation may be involved. This CRF-induced regulation on NET expression and function may play a role in development of stress-related depression and anxiety. This study demonstrated that corticotropin release factor (CRF) up-regulated the expression and function of norepinephrine transporter (NET) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, through activation of CRF receptors and possible histone acetylation in NET promoter. The results indicate that their interaction may play an important role in stress-related physiological and pathological status. PMID:26212818

  2. Interleukin-2 enhances the response of natural killer cells to interleukin-12 through up-regulation of the interleukin-12 receptor and STAT4.

    Wang, K S; Frank, D A; Ritz, J

    2000-05-15

    Interleukin (IL)-12 plays a critical role in modulating the activities of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes. In animal models, IL-12 has potent antitumor effects that are likely mediated by its ability to enhance the cytotoxic activity of NK cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes, and to induce the production of interferon (IFN)-gamma by NK and T cells. In addition to IL-12, NK cells are responsive to IL-2, and may mediate some of the antitumor effects of IL-2. In this study, we examine the interaction between IL-2 and the signaling events induced by IL-12 in NK cells. We find that IL-2 not only up-regulates the expression of IL-12Rbeta1 and IL-12Rbeta2, it also plays an important role in up-regulating and maintaining the expression of STAT4, a critical STAT protein involved in IL-12 signaling in NK cells. In contrast to the effects of IL-2 alone, expression of IL-12 receptors and STAT4 are unaffected or decreased by IL-12 or the combination of IL-2 and IL-12. Through expression of high levels of IL-12 receptors and STAT4, IL-2-primed NK cells show enhanced functional responses to IL-12 as measured by IFN-gamma production and the killing of target cells. NK cells from cancer patients who received low-dose IL-2 treatment also exhibited increased expression of IL-12 receptor chains, suggesting that IL-2 may enhance the response to IL-12 in vivo. These findings provide a molecular framework to understand the interaction between IL-2 and IL-12 in NK cells, and suggest strategies for improving the effectiveness of these cytokines in the immunotherapy of cancer. PMID:10807786

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 2 inhibits up-regulation of bone morphogenic proteins and their receptors during osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Biver, Emmanuel, E-mail: ebiver@yahoo.fr [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Department of Rheumatology, Lille University Hospital, Roger Salengro Hospital, 59037 Lille cedex (France); Service of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Soubrier, Anne-Sophie [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Department of Rheumatology, Lille University Hospital, Roger Salengro Hospital, 59037 Lille cedex (France); Thouverey, Cyril [Service of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Cortet, Bernard [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Department of Rheumatology, Lille University Hospital, Roger Salengro Hospital, 59037 Lille cedex (France); Broux, Odile [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France); Caverzasio, Joseph [Service of Bone Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine Specialties, University Hospital of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva 14 (Switzerland); Hardouin, Pierre [Physiopathology of Inflammatory Bone Diseases, EA 4490, University Lille North of France, Quai Masset, Bassin Napoleon, BP120, 62327 Boulogne sur Mer (France)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FGF modulates BMPs pathway in HMSCs by down-regulating BMP/BMPR expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This effect is mediated by ERK and JNK MAPKs pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crosstalk between FGF and BMPs must be taken into account in skeletal bioengineering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It must also be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in orthopedic and spine surgeries. -- Abstract: Understanding the interactions between growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) signaling remains a crucial issue to optimize the use of human mesenchymal stem cells (HMSCs) and BMPs in therapeutic perspectives and bone tissue engineering. BMPs are potent inducers of osteoblastic differentiation. They exert their actions via BMP receptors (BMPR), including BMPR1A, BMPR1B and BMPR2. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is expressed by cells of the osteoblastic lineage, increases their proliferation and is secreted during the healing process of fractures or in surgery bone sites. We hypothesized that FGF2 might influence HMSC osteoblastic differentiation by modulating expressions of BMPs and their receptors. BMP2, BMP4, BMPR1A and mainly BMPR1B expressions were up-regulated during this differentiation. FGF2 inhibited HMSCs osteoblastic differentiation and the up-regulation of BMPs and BMPR. This effect was prevented by inhibiting the ERK or JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases which are known to be activated by FGF2. These data provide a mechanism explaining the inhibitory effect of FGF2 on osteoblastic differentiation of HMSCs. These crosstalks between growth and osteogenic factors should be considered in the use of recombinant BMPs in therapeutic purpose of fracture repair or skeletal bioengineering.

  4. PSG Gene Expression Is Up-Regulated by Lysine Acetylation Involving Histone and Nonhistone Proteins

    Camolotto, Soledad A.; Racca, Ana C.; Ridano, Magali E.; Genti-Raimondi, Susana; Panzetta-Dutari, Graciela M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lysine acetylation is an important post-translational modification that plays a central role in eukaryotic transcriptional activation by modifying chromatin and transcription-related factors. Human pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSG) are the major secreted placental proteins expressed by the syncytiotrophoblast at the end of pregnancy and represent early markers of cytotrophoblast differentiation. Low PSG levels are associated with complicated pregnancies, thus highlighting the ...

  5. Mechanism of collagen biosynthesis up-regulation in cultured leiomyoma cells.

    Wojciech Miltyk

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Uterine leiomyoma is the most common tumour in women with a reported incidence of 25-30%. The tumors are benign, composed of smooth muscle cells with variable amount of collagen - rich fibrous tissue. It is well established that accumulation of extracellular matrix in leiomyoma is key feature of tissue fibrosis. However, the pathogenesis of leiomyoma is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolism of collagen in cultured leiomyoma cells and in control myometrium cells. The effect of estradiol, selective modulators of estrogen receptors (raloxifene, tamoxifen and estrogen receptor down regulator (ICI 182.780 on collagen biosynthesis (measured by 5-[3H]-proline incorporation assay and measurement of prolidase activity and collagen degradation (measured by metalloproteinase activity assay was studied. It was found that collagen biosynthesis is strongly stimulated by low doses of estradiol (5 nM in leiomyoma cells while it is not changed in control myometrium cells. An increase in estradiol concentration to 10 nM results in drastic decrease of this process both in leiomyoma as well as control cells. Although raloxifene and tamoxifen only slightly affected collagen biosynthesis in control myometrium cells, they significantly inhibited the process in leiomyoma cells. There was no coordinate correlation between collagen biosysignificantly inhibited the process in leiomyoma cells. There was no coordinate correlation between collagen biosynthesis and prolidase activity suggesting that regulation of this process may take place at transcriptional level. Both estrogen and SERMs were found to inhibit MMP-2 in leiomyoma as well as in control myometrium cells. The data suggest that stimulatory action of estrogen on collagen biosynthesis and inhibitory effect on MMP-2 activity in uterine leiomyoma may contribute to accumulation of this protein in ECM of this tissue.

  6. Attenuation of progressive hearing loss in DBA/2J mice by reagents that affect epigenetic modifications is associated with up-regulation of the zinc importer Zip4.

    Hideki Mutai

    Full Text Available Various factors that are important for proper hearing have been identified, including serum levels of zinc. Here we investigated whether epigenetic regulatory pathways, which can be modified by environmental factors, could modulate hearing. RT-PCR detected expression of genes encoding DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase (Hdac in the postnatal as well as adult mouse auditory epithelium. DBA/2J mice, which are a model for progressive hearing loss, were injected subcutaneously with one or a combination of the following reagents: L-methionine as a methyl donor, valproic acid as a pan-Hdac inhibitor, and folic acid and vitamin B12 as putative factors involved in age-related hearing loss. The mice were treated from ages 4 to 12 weeks (N ≥ 5, and auditory brainstem response (ABR thresholds were measured at 8, 16, and 32 kHz. Treatment of the mice with a combination of L-methionine and valproic acid (M+V significantly reduced the increase in the ABR threshold at 32 kHz. Treatment with any of these reagents individually produced no such effect. Microarray analyses detected 299 gene probes that were significantly up- or down-regulated in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V compared with the control vehicle-treated mice. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed significant up-regulation of a zinc importer gene, Zip4, in the cochleae of mice treated with M+V. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an intense Zip4 signal in cochlear tissues such as the lateral wall, organ of Corti, and spiral ganglion. Finally, mice treated with the Zip4 inducer (--epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate showed a significant reduction in the increase of the ABR threshold at 32 kHz and up-regulation of Zip4 expression in the cochlea. This study suggests that epigenetic regulatory pathways can modify auditory function and that zinc intake in the cochlea via Zip4 mediates maintenance of mammalian hearing.

  7. Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through Sp1-mediated DR5 up-regulation: Involvement of Ca{sup 2+} influx

    Moon, Dong-Oh [Department of Biology Education, Daegu University, Gyungsan, Gyeongbuk 712–714 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Hyuck [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690–756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yung-Hyun [Department of Biochemistry, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongeui University, Busan 614–054 (Korea, Republic of); Hyun, Jin-Won; Chang, Weon-Young; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Koh, Young-Sang; Maeng, Young-Hee; Kim, Young-Ree [School of Medicine, Jeju National University, Jeju-si 690–756 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gi-Young, E-mail: immunkim@jejunu.ac.kr [Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 690–756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Although tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in various malignant cells, several cancers including human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) exhibit potent resistance to TRAIL-induced cell death. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-cancer potential of capsaicin in TRAIL-induced cancer cell death. As indicated by assays that measure phosphatidylserine exposure, mitochondrial activity and activation of caspases, capsaicin potentiated TRAIL-resistant cells to lead to cell death. In addition, we found that capsaicin induces the cell surface expression of TRAIL receptor DR5, but not DR4 through the activation Sp1 on its promoter region. Furthermore, we investigated that capsaicin-induced DR5 expression and apoptosis are inhibited by calcium chelator or inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent protein kinase. Taken together, our data suggest that capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-mediated HCC cell apoptosis by DR5 up-regulation via calcium influx-dependent Sp1 activation. Highlights: ► Capsaicin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of caspases. ► Capsaicin induces expression of DR5 through Sp1 activation. ► Capsaicin activates calcium signaling pathway.

  8. The effects of natural antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin reducing activity in beef patties

    Bekhit, A.E.D.; Geesink, G.H.; Ilian, M.A.; Morton, J.D.; Bickerstaffe, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of antioxidants on oxidative processes and metmyoglobin-reducing activity in beef patties were investigated in two experiments. In the first experiment colour, colour stability, TBA values and MetMb-reducing activity were measured during storage, at 2 oC, of raw beef patties treated with

  9. Up-regulated MicroRNA-181a induces carcinogenesis in Hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting E2F5

    Accumulating evidence showed that microRNAs are involved in development and progression of multiple tumors. Recent studies have found that miR-181a were dysregulated in several types of cancers, however, the function of miR-181a in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In this study we assessed the potential association between miR-181a, HBV and HCC. The expression of miR-181a in HBV-expressing cells was determined by using qRT-PCR. Dual-Luciferase reporter Assay, qRT-PCR and western blot were performed to investigate the target genes of miR-181a. The effects of miR-181a on HCC proliferation were analyzed by MTS and colony formation assay. Tumor growth assay was used to analyze the effect of miR-181a on tumor formation. HBV up-regulated miR-181a expression by enhancing its promoter activity. Overexpression of miR-181a in hepatoma cells promoted cell growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Conversely, inhibition of miR-181a suppressed the proliferation of HBV-expressing cells. Mechanism investigation revealed that miR-181a inhibited the expression of transcription factor E2F5 by specifically targeting its mRNA 3′UTR. Moreover, E2F5 inhibition induced cell growth and rescued the suppressive effect of miR-181a inhibitor on the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells. Interestingly, we also discovered that HBV could down-regulate E2F5 expression. Those results strongly suggested that HBV down-regulated E2F5 expression, in part, by up-regulating the expression of miR-181a. Up-regulation of miR-181a by HBV in hepatoma cells may contribute to the progression of HCC possibly by targeting E2F5, suggesting miR-181a plays important role in HCC development

  10. Glutamate Receptor Stimulation Up-Regulates Glutamate Uptake in Human Müller Glia Cells.

    López-Colomé, Ana María; López, Edith; Mendez-Flores, Orquidia G; Ortega, Arturo

    2016-07-01

    Glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid in the vertebrate retina, is a well know activator of numerous signal transduction pathways, and has been critically involved in long-term synaptic changes acting through ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors. However, recent findings underlining the importance of intensity and duration of glutamate stimuli for specific neuronal responses, including excitotoxicity, suggest a crucial role for Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters, responsible for the removal of this neurotransmitter from the synaptic cleft, in the regulation of glutamate-induced signaling. Transporter proteins are expressed in neurons and glia cells, albeit most of glutamate uptake occurs in the glial compartment. Within the retina, Müller glia cells are in close proximity to glutamatergic synapses and participate in the recycling of glutamate through the glutamate/glutamine shuttle. In this context, we decided to investigate a plausible role of glutamate as a regulatory signal for its own transport in human retinal glia cells. To this end, we determined [(3)H]-D-aspartate uptake in cultures of spontaneously immortalized human Müller cells (MIO-M1) exposed to distinct glutamatergic ligands. A time and dose-dependent increase in the transporter activity was detected. This effect was dependent on the activation of the N-methyl D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptors, due to a dual effect: an increase in affinity and an augmented expression of the transporter at the plasma membrane, as established via biotinylation experiments. Furthermore, a NMDA-dependent association of glutamate transporters with the cystoskeletal proteins ezrin and glial fibrillary acidic protein was also found. These results add a novel mediator of the glutamate transporter modulation and further strengthen the notion of the critical involvement of glia cells in synaptic function. PMID:27017513

  11. Chitosan oligosaccharide and salicylic acid up-regulate gene expression differently in relation to the biosynthesis of artemisinin in Artemisia annua L

    Yin, Heng; Kjær, Anders; Fretté, Xavier;

    2012-01-01

    oligosaccharide (COS) and salicylic acid (SA) on both artemisinin production and gene expression related to the biosynthetic pathway of artemisinin. COS up-regulated the transcriptional levels of the genes ADS and TTG1 2.5 fold and 1.8 fold after 48 h individually, whereas SA only up-regulated ADS 2.0 fold after...

  12. Simulated hypogravity impairs the angiogenic response of endothelium by up-regulating apoptotic signals

    Health hazards in astronauts are represented by cardiovascular problems and impaired bone healing. These disturbances are characterized by a common event, the loss of function by vascular endothelium, leading to impaired angiogenesis. We investigated whether the exposure of cultured endothelial cells to hypogravity condition could affect their behaviour in terms of functional activity, biochemical responses, morphology, and gene expression. Simulated hypogravity conditions for 72 h produced a reduction of cell number. Genomic analysis of endothelial cells exposed to hypogravity revealed that proapoptotic signals increased, while antiapoptotic and proliferation/survival genes were down-regulated by modelled low gravity. Activation of apoptosis was accompanied by morphological changes with mitochondrial disassembly and organelles/cytoplasmic NAD(P)H redistribution, as evidenced by autofluorescence analysis. In this condition cells were not able to respond to angiogenic stimuli in terms of migration and proliferation. Our study documents functional, morphological, and transcription alterations in vascular endothelium exposed to simulated low gravity conditions, thus providing insights on the occurrence of vascular tissue dysregulation in crewmen during prolonged space flights. Moreover, the alteration of vascular endothelium can intervene as a concause in other systemic effects, like bone remodelling, observed in weightlessness

  13. Up-regulation of hexokinaseII in myeloma cells: targeting myeloma cells with 3-bromopyruvate.

    Nakano, Ayako; Miki, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Shingen; Harada, Takeshi; Oda, Asuka; Amou, Hiroe; Fujii, Shiro; Kagawa, Kumiko; Takeuchi, Kyoko; Ozaki, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshio; Abe, Masahiro

    2012-02-01

    Hexokinase II (HKII), a key enzyme of glycolysis, is widely over-expressed in cancer cells. However, HKII levels and its roles in ATP production and ATP-dependent cellular process have not been well studied in hematopoietic malignant cells including multiple myeloma (MM) cells.We demonstrate herein that HKII is constitutively over-expressed in MM cells. 3-bromopyruvate (3BrPA), an inhibitor of HKII, promptly and substantially suppresses ATP production and induces cell death in MM cells. Interestingly, cocultures with osteoclasts (OCs) but not bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt along with an increase in HKII levels and lactate production in MM cells. The enhancement of HKII levels and lactate production in MM cells by OCs were mostly abrogated by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, suggesting activation of glycolysis in MM cells by OCs via the PI3K-Akt-HKII pathway. Although BMSCs and OCs stimulate MM cell growth and survival, 3BrPA induces cell death in MM cells even in cocultures with OCs as well as BMSCs. Furthermore, 3BrPA was able to diminish ATP-dependent ABC transporter activity to restore drug retention in MM cells in the presence of OCs. These results may underpin possible clinical application of 3BrPA in patients with MM. PMID:22298254

  14. STMN1 Promotes Progesterone Production Via StAR Up-regulation in Mouse Granulosa Cells

    Dou, Yun-De; Zhao, Han; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Shi-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Man; Yu, Xiao-Chen; Ma, Zeng-Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Chao; Liu, Tao; Gao, Xuan; Li, Lei; Lu, Gang; Chan, Wai-Yee; Gao, Fei; Liu, Hong-Bin; Chen, Zi-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is a biomarker in several types of neoplasms. It plays an important role in cell cycle progression, mitosis, signal transduction and cell migration. In ovaries, STMN1 is predominantly expressed in granulosa cells (GCs). However, little is known about the role of STMN1 in ovary. In this study, we demonstrated that STMN1 is overexpressed in GCs in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In mouse primary GCs, the overexpression of STMN1 stimulated progesterone production, whereas knockdown of STMN1 decreased progesterone production. We also found that STMN1 positively regulates the expression of Star (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein) and Cyp11a1 (cytochrome P450 family 11 subfamily A member 1). Promoter and ChIP assays indicated that STMN1 increased the transcriptional activity of Star and Cyp11a1 by binding to their promoter regions. The data suggest that STMN1 mediates the progesterone production by modulating the promoter activity of Star and Cyp11a1. Together, our findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms of STMN1 in ovary GC steroidogenesis. A better understanding of this potential interaction between STMN1 and Star in progesterone biosynthesis in GCs will facilitate the discovery of new therapeutic targets in PCOS. PMID:27270953

  15. Regular physical activity has differential association with reduced obesity among diverse youth in the United States.

    Fradkin, C; Wallander, JL; Elliott, MN; Cuccaro, P; Schuster, MA

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether daily or almost daily lower-intensity physical activity was associated with reduced obesity, among 4824 African American, Hispanic, and White youth assessed in fifth and seventh grades. Regular lower-intensity physical activity was associated with reduced obesity only among Hispanic and White males and only in seventh grade, and not among youth in fifth grade, females, or African American males or females. Findings from this study suggest that the reduced obesity r...

  16. Methamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine interact with central nicotinic receptors and induce their up-regulation

    Previous work from our group indicated that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7 nAChR) potentially play a role in methamphetamine (METH) and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) neurotoxicity. The aims of the present study were two-fold: (1) to demonstrate the interaction of METH and MDMA with homomeric α7 nAChR ([3H]methyllycaconitine binding) and other heteromeric subtypes ([3H]epibatidine binding); and (2) to show the effects of amphetamine derivative pretreatment on the density of binding sites. METH and MDMA displaced [3H]methyllycaconitine and [3H]epibatidine binding in membranes from NGF-differentiated PC 12 cells and mouse brain, with Ki values in the micromolar range, MDMA revealing a greater affinity than METH. In addition, METH and MDMA induced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in [3H]methyllycaconitine and [3H]epibatidine binding; which had already been apparent after 6 h of pretreatment, and which peaked in differentiated PC 12 cells after 48 h. The highest increases were found in [3H]epibatidine binding, with MDMA inducing higher increases than METH. Treatment with METH and MDMA increased Bmax of high-affinity sites for both radioligands without affecting Kd. The heightened binding was inhibited by pretreatment with cycloheximide, suggesting the participation of newly synthesised proteins while inhibition of protein trafficking to plasma membrane did not block up-regulation. The effects of protein kinase and cyclophilin inhibitors on such up-regulation were explored, revealing a rapid, differential and complex regulation, similar to that described for nicotinic ligands. All of these results demonstrate that METH and MDMA have affinity for, and can interact with, nAChR, inducing their up-regulation, specially when higher doses are used. Such effects may have a role in METH- and MDMA-induced neurotoxicity, cholinergic neurotransmission, and in processes related to addiction and dependence

  17. Up-regulation of hepatoma-derived growth factor facilitates tumor progression in malignant melanoma [corrected].

    Han-En Tsai

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the fastest increasing malignancy in humans. Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF is a novel growth factor identified from human hepatoma cell line. HDGF overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis in various types of cancer including melanoma. However, the underlying mechanism of HDGF overexpression in developing melanoma remains unclear. In this study, human melanoma cell lines (A375, A2058, MEL-RM and MM200 showed higher levels of HDGF gene expression, whereas human epidermal melanocytes (HEMn expressed less. Exogenous application of HDGF stimulated colony formation and invasion of human melanoma cells. Moreover, HDGF overexpression stimulated the degree of invasion and colony formation of B16-F10 melanoma cells whereas HDGF knockdown exerted opposite effects in vitro. To evaluate the effects of HDGF on tumour growth and metastasis in vivo, syngeneic mouse melanoma and metastatic melanoma models were performed by manipulating the gene expression of HDGF in melanoma cells. It was found that mice injected with HDGF-overexpressing melanoma cells had greater tumour growth and higher metastatic capability. In contrast, mice implanted with HDGF-depleted melanoma cells exhibited reduced tumor burden and lung metastasis. Histological analysis of excised tumors revealed higher degree of cell proliferation and neovascularization in HDGF-overexpressing melanoma. The present study provides evidence that HDGF promotes tumor progression of melanoma and targeting HDGF may constitute a novel strategy for the treatment of melanoma.

  18. SIRT1 inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, by suppression of {beta}-catenin

    Cho, Il-Rae [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Sang Seok [Immunotherapy Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Functional Genomics, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Malilas, Waraporn; Srisuttee, Ratakorn; Moon, Jeong [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young-Whan [Department of Horticultural Bioscience, Pusan National University, Miryang 627-706 (Korea, Republic of); Horio, Yoshiyuki [Department of Pharmacology, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan); Oh, Sangtaek [Department of Advanced Fermentation Fusion Science and Technology, Kookmin University, Seoul 136-702 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young-Hwa, E-mail: younghc@pusan.ac.kr [WCU, Department of Cogno-Mechatronics Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 inhibits protein levels of {beta}-catenin and its transcriptional activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for the decrease of {beta}-catenin expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1-mediated degradation of {beta}-catenin is not required for GSK-3{beta} and Siah-1 but for proteosome. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 activation inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing PAUF. -- Abstract: Because we found in a recent study that pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, induces a rapid proliferation of pancreatic cells by up-regulation of {beta}-catenin, we postulated that {beta}-catenin might be a target molecule for pancreatic cancer treatment. We thus speculated whether SIRT1, known to target {beta}-catenin in a colon cancer model, suppresses {beta}-catenin in those pancreatic cancer cells that express PAUF (Panc-PAUF). We further evaluated whether such suppression would lead to inhibition of the proliferation of these cells. The ectopic expression of either SIRT1 or resveratrol (an activator of SIRT1) suppressed levels of {beta}-catenin protein and its transcriptional activity in Panc-PAUF cells. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 expression by siRNA enhanced {beta}-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for reduction of {beta}-catenin. Treatment with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, restored {beta}-catenin protein levels, suggesting that SIRT1-mediated degradation of {beta}-catenin requires proteasomal activity. It was reported that inhibition of GSK-3{beta} or Siah-1 stabilizes {beta}-catenin in colon cancer cells, but suppression of GSK-3{beta} or Siah-1 using siRNA in the presence of resveratrol instead diminished {beta}-catenin protein levels in Panc-PAUF cells. This suggests that GSK-3{beta} and Siah-1 are not involved in SIRT1

  19. SIRT1 inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, by suppression of β-catenin

    Highlights: ► SIRT1 inhibits protein levels of β-catenin and its transcriptional activity. ► Nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for the decrease of β-catenin expression. ► SIRT1-mediated degradation of β-catenin is not required for GSK-3β and Siah-1 but for proteosome. ► SIRT1 activation inhibits proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells expressing PAUF. -- Abstract: Because we found in a recent study that pancreatic adenocarcinoma up-regulated factor (PAUF), a novel oncogene, induces a rapid proliferation of pancreatic cells by up-regulation of β-catenin, we postulated that β-catenin might be a target molecule for pancreatic cancer treatment. We thus speculated whether SIRT1, known to target β-catenin in a colon cancer model, suppresses β-catenin in those pancreatic cancer cells that express PAUF (Panc-PAUF). We further evaluated whether such suppression would lead to inhibition of the proliferation of these cells. The ectopic expression of either SIRT1 or resveratrol (an activator of SIRT1) suppressed levels of β-catenin protein and its transcriptional activity in Panc-PAUF cells. Conversely, suppression of SIRT1 expression by siRNA enhanced β-catenin expression and transcriptional activity. SIRT1 mutant analysis showed that nuclear localization of SIRT1 is not required for reduction of β-catenin. Treatment with MG132, a proteasomal inhibitor, restored β-catenin protein levels, suggesting that SIRT1-mediated degradation of β-catenin requires proteasomal activity. It was reported that inhibition of GSK-3β or Siah-1 stabilizes β-catenin in colon cancer cells, but suppression of GSK-3β or Siah-1 using siRNA in the presence of resveratrol instead diminished β-catenin protein levels in Panc-PAUF cells. This suggests that GSK-3β and Siah-1 are not involved in SIRT1-mediated degradation of β-catenin in the cells. Finally, activation of SIRT1 inhibited the proliferation of Panc-PAUF cells by down-regulation of cyclin-D1, a target

  20. Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation Up-Regulates Apoptosis Genes in Primary Cultures of Neurons and Astrocytes

    Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Knapp, Pamela E.

    2006-01-01

    The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900 MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2 hrs. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 an...

  1. Differentiation of mouse erythroleukemia cells is blocked by late up-regulation of a c-myb transgene.

    McClinton, D; Stafford, J; Brents, L; Bender, T. P.; Kuehl, W M

    1990-01-01

    During chemically induced differentiation of Friend virus-infected mouse erythroleukemia (MEL) cell lines, there is a biphasic down-regulation of the c-myb proto-oncogene. A plasmid containing a murine c-myb cDNA controlled by a mouse metallothionein I promoter was transfected into the C19 MEL cell line. For six transfected clones, it was found that expression of the exogenous c-myb mRNA could be up-regulated by the addition of 120 microM ZnCl2 and that the N,N'-hexamethylenebisacetamide-indu...

  2. PPARα agonists up-regulate organic cation transporters in rat liver cells

    It has been shown that clofibrate treatment increases the carnitine concentration in the liver of rats. However, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we observed for the first time that treatment of rats with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α agonist clofibrate increases hepatic mRNA concentrations of organic cation transporters (OCTNs)-1 and -2 which act as transporters of carnitine into the cell. In rat hepatoma (Fao) cells, treatment with WY-14,643 also increased the mRNA concentration of OCTN-2. mRNA concentrations of enzymes involved in carnitine biosynthesis were not altered by treatment with the PPARα agonists in livers of rats and in Fao cells. We conclude that PPARα agonists increase carnitine concentrations in livers of rats and cells by an increased uptake of carnitine into the cell but not by an increased carnitine biosynthesis

  3. Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE 5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74 Promote Cholesterol Excretion Through the Up-Regulation of ABCG5/8 in Caco-2 Cells.

    Yoon, Hong-Sup; Ju, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Hannah; Lee, Jieun; Park, Hyun-Joon; Ji, Yosep; Shin, Hyeun-Kil; Do, Myoung-Sool; Lee, Jung-Min; Holzapfel, Wilhelm

    2011-12-01

    The effect of two putative probiotic strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus BFE5264 and Lactobacillus plantarum NR74, on the control of cholesterol efflux in enterocytes was assessed by focusing on the promotion of ATP-binding cassette sub-family G members 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8). Differentiated Caco-2 enterocytes were treated with live bacteria, heat-killed bacteria, a bacterial cell wall fraction, and metabolites and were subjected to cholesterol uptake assay, mRNA analysis, and protein analyses. Following LXR-transfection by incubation with CHO-K1 cells in DNA-lipofectin added media, the luciferase assay was conducted for LXR analysis. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with L. rhamnosus BFE5264 (isolated from traditional fermented Maasai milk) and L. plantarum NR74 (isolated from Korean kimchi) resulted in the up-regulation of LXR, concomitantly with the elevated expression of ABCG5 and ABCG8. This was associated with the promotion of cholesterol efflux at significantly higher levels compared to the positive control strain L. rhamnosus GG (LGG). The experiment with CHO-K1 cells confirmed up-regulation of LXR-beta by the test strains, and treatment with the live L. rhamnosus BFE5264 and L. plantarum NR74 strains significantly increased cholesterol efflux. Heat-killed cells and cell wall fractions of both LAB strains induced the upregulation of ABCG5/8 through LXR activation. By contrast, LAB metabolites did not show any effect on ABCG5/8 and LXR expression. Data from this study suggest that LAB strains, such as L. rhamnosus BFE5264 and L. plantarum NR74, may promote cholesterol efflux in enterocytes, and thus potentially contribute to the prevention of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:26781680

  4. Painful, degenerating intervertebral discs up-regulate neurite sprouting and CGRP through nociceptive factors

    Krock, Emerson; Rosenzweig, Derek H; Chabot-Doré, Anne-Julie; Jarzem, Peter; Weber, Michael H; Ouellet, Jean A; Stone, Laura S; Haglund, Lisbet

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc degeneration (IVD) can result in chronic low back pain, a common cause of morbidity and disability. Inflammation has been associated with IVD degeneration, however the relationship between inflammatory factors and chronic low back pain remains unclear. Furthermore, increased levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are both associated with inflammation and chronic low back pain, but whether degenerating discs release sufficient concentrations of factors that induce nociceptor plasticity remains unclear. Degenerating IVDs from low back pain patients and healthy, painless IVDs from human organ donors were cultured ex vivo. Inflammatory and nociceptive factors released by IVDs into culture media were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and protein arrays. The ability of factors released to induce neurite growth and nociceptive neuropeptide production was investigated. Degenerating discs release increased levels of tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, NGF and BDNF. Factors released by degenerating IVDs increased neurite growth and calcitonin gene-related peptide expression, both of which were blocked by anti-NGF treatment. Furthermore, protein arrays found increased levels of 20 inflammatory factors, many of which have nociceptive effects. Our results demonstrate that degenerating and painful human IVDs release increased levels of NGF, inflammatory and nociceptive factors ex vivo that induce neuronal plasticity and may actively diffuse to induce neo-innervation and pain in vivo. PMID:24650225

  5. Quercetin inhibits AMPK/TXNIP activation and reduces inflammatory lesions to improve insulin signaling defect in the hypothalamus of high fructose-fed rats.

    Zhang, Qing-Yu; Pan, Ying; Wang, Rong; Kang, Lin-Lin; Xue, Qiao-Chu; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Dong

    2014-04-01

    Fructose is a nutritional composition of fruits and honey. Its excess consumption induces insulin resistance-associated metabolic diseases. Hypothalamic insulin signaling plays a pivotal role in controlling whole-body insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. Quercetin, a natural flavonoid, has been reported to ameliorate high fructose-induced rat insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. In this study, we investigated its regulatory effects on the hypothalamus of high fructose-fed rats. Rats were fed 10% fructose in drinking water for 10 weeks. After 4 weeks, these animals were orally treated with quercetin (50 and 100 mg/kg), allopurinol (5 mg/kg) and water daily for the next 6 weeks, respectively. Quercetin effectively restored high fructose-induced hypothalamic insulin signaling defect by up-regulating the phosphorylation of insulin receptor and protein kinase B. Furthermore, quercetin was found to reduce metabolic nutrient sensors adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) overexpression, as well as the glutamine-glutamate cycle dysfunction in the hypothalamus of high fructose-fed rats. Subsequently, it ameliorated high fructose-caused hypothalamic inflammatory lesions in rats by suppressing the activation of hypothalamic nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway and NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome with interleukin 1β maturation. Allopurinol had similar effects. These results provide in vivo evidence that quercetin-mediated down-regulation of AMPK/TXNIP and subsequent inhibition of NF-κB pathway/NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the hypothalamus of rats may be associated with the reduction of hypothalamic inflammatory lesions, contributing to the improvement of hypothalamic insulin signaling defect in this model. Thus, quercetin with the central activity may be a therapeutic for high fructose-induced insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in humans. PMID:24491314

  6. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l-1 Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability

  7. Putative midkine family protein up-regulation in Patella caerulea (Mollusca, Gastropoda) exposed to sublethal concentrations of cadmium

    Vanucci, Silvana [Department of Animal Biology and Marine Ecology, University of Messina, Salita Sperone 31, 98166 S Agata, Messina (Italy)]. E-mail: silvana.vanucci@unime.it; Minerdi, Daniela [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy); Kadomatsu, Kenji [Department of Biochemistry, University of Nagoya Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Mengoni, Alessio [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy); Bazzicalupo, Marco [Department of Animal Biology and Genetics, University of Florence, via Romana 19, 50125 Florence (Italy)

    2005-11-30

    A cDNA sequence of a putative midkine (MK) family protein was identified and characterised in the mollusc Patella caerulea. The midkine family consists of two members, midkine and pleiotrophin (PTN), and it is one of the recently discovered cytokines. Our results show that this putative midkine protein is up-regulated in specimens of P. caerulea exposed to sublethal cadmium concentrations (i.e. 0.5 and 1 mg l{sup -1} Cd) over a 10-day exposure period. Semiquantitative RT-PCR and quantitative Real time RT-PCR estimations indicate elevated expression of midkine mRNA in exposed specimens compared to controls. Moreover, RT-PCR Real time values were higher in the viscera (here defined as the part of the soft tissue including digestive gland plus gills) than in the foot (i.e. foot plus head plus heart) of the limpets. At present, information on the functional signalling significance of the midkine family proteins suggests that the up-regulation of P. caerulea putative midkine family protein is a distress signal likely with informative value on health status of the organism and with potential prognostic capability.

  8. Estrogen up-regulates MMP2/9 expression in endometrial epithelial cell via VEGF-ERK1/2 pathway

    Bao Shan; Wang Li; Shu-Ying Yang; Zhuo-Ri Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of estrogen on anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding (ADUB).Methods:Primary endometrial epithelial cells ofHainanLizu female was cultured and hydrolytic activity of gelatinase was determined by gelatin zymography analysis.Cellular mRNA and protein synthesis was blocked respectively to determine whether the increased expression ofMMP-2/9 was induced by estrogen.The expression ofVEGF was blocked by siRNA.After treatment with various factors,MMP-9,VEGF, totalErk and phosphorylatedErk expression in primary uterine epithelial cells was detected byWestern blotting analysis.CellMMP-2/9mRNA levels was measured by real-timeRT-PCR.Results:The activity and expression ofMMP2/9 was increased in the endometrium of patients withADUB.Estrogen could up-regulate the expression ofVEGF and activateErk1/2-Elk1 signal path.After interference by siRNA,ERK1/2 pathway was blocked in cells, and the expression ofMMP-2/9 was down-regulated.ERK1/2 specific blocker U0126 blockedERK phosphorylation, and it could down-regulate the expression ofMMP-2/9. Conclusions:The results showed that the estrogen can increase the expression ofVEGF, and thus activateERK1/2 pathway to induceMMP-2/9 expression.

  9. Mycobacterium tuberculosis EIS gene inhibits macrophage autophagy through up-regulation of IL-10 by increasing the acetylation of histone H3.

    Duan, Liang; Yi, Min; Chen, Juan; Li, Shengjin; Chen, Weixian

    2016-05-13

    Autophagy plays a crucial role in the progress of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. Recently, MTB enhanced intracellular survival (EIS) protein was reported to be secreted from MTB cells and linked to the inhibition of autophagy and the intracellular persistence of the pathogen. Here, we investigated the mechanism of EIS-mediated inhibition of autophagy in a human phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-treated THP-1 cell line as well as in murine macrophages. We confirmed that the presence of EIS led to the inhibition of rapamycin (Rapa)-induced autophagy, while IL-10 gene expression was increased and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway was activated during the process. IL-10 gene silencing led to a significant recovery of EIS-mediated autophagy suppression and decreased activity of the Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway. IL-10 promoter activity was unaffected by EIS. Remarkably, EIS increased the acetylation level of histone H3 (Ac-H3), which binds to the SP1 and STAT3 region of the human IL-10 gene promoter sequence. Thus, EIS protein possibly increased IL-10 expression through the regulation of Ac-H3 of its promoter. Our data demonstrated that one possible mechanism of the MTB evasion of autophagy is that the EIS protein up-regulates IL-10 via Ac-H3 and thus activates Akt/mTOR/p70S6K pathway. PMID:27079235

  10. Reduced Photoinhibition under Low Irradiance Enhanced Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth Secondary Metabolites, Phenyl Alanine Lyase and Antioxidant Activity

    Hawa Z.E. Jaafar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A randomized complete block design experiment was designed to characterize the relationship between production of total flavonoids and phenolics, anthocyanin, photosynthesis, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm, electron transfer rate (Fm/Fo, phenyl alanine lyase activity (PAL and antioxidant (DPPH in Labisia pumila var. alata, under four levels of irradiance (225, 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s for 16 weeks. As irradiance levels increased from 225 to 900 µmol/m2/s, the production of plant secondary metabolites (total flavonoids, phenolics and antocyanin was found to decrease steadily. Production of total flavonoids and phenolics reached their peaks under 225 followed by 500, 625 and 900 µmol/m2/s irradiances. Significant positive correlation of production of total phenolics, flavonoids and antocyanin content with Fv/Fm, Fm/Fo and photosynthesis indicated up-regulation of carbon-based secondary metabolites (CBSM under reduced photoinhibition on the under low light levels condition. At the lowest irradiance levels, Labisia pumila extracts also exhibited a significantly higher antioxidant activity (DPPH than under high irradiance. The improved antioxidative activity under low light levels might be due to high availability of total flavonoids, phenolics and anthocyanin content in the plant extract. It was also found that an increase in the production of CBSM was due to high PAL activity under low light, probably signifying more availability of phenylalanine (Phe under this condition.

  11. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type 1 Up-Regulation Is Associated with Skeletal Muscle Atrophy and Associated Fibrosis

    Naderi, Jasmin; Bernreuther, Christian; Grabinski, Nicole; Charles T. Putman; Henkel, Birgit; Bell, Gordon; Glatzel, Markus; Sultan, Karim R.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle wasting remains a feature of many diseases and is counteracted by anabolic supplementation or exercise. Persisting atrophy-inducing conditions can be complicated by skeletal muscle fibrosis, which leads to functional impairment. Identification of early mechanisms that initiate atrophy-induced fibrosis may reveal novel targets for therapy or diagnosis. Therefore, we investigated changes in the expression of genes involved in extracellular matrix homeostasis during glucocorticoid-induced...

  12. A Rapid Up-Regulation in UCP3 Transcriptional Activity in Response to Moderate Intensity Exercise in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    Keiko Kusuhara; Takashi Tobe; Takaharu Negoro; Takashi Abe

    2005-01-01

    Uncoupling protein 3 (UPC3) is a candidate protein transporter that uncouples oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle. A number of studies on UCP3 functions under various physiological conditions have suggested that the function of UCP3 is not limited only to regulation of whole-body energy metabolism but is also involved in regulation of substrate (lipids and glucose) metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to clarify the time course of UCP3 mRNA ex...

  13. Chronic alcohol intake up-regulates hepatic expressions of carotenoid cleavage enzymes and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptors in rats

    Excessive and chronic alcohol intake leads to a lower hepatic vitamin A status by interfering with vitamin A metabolism.Dietary provitamin A carotenoids can be converted into vitamin A mainly by carotenoid 15,15’-monooxygenase 1 (CMO1) and, to a lesser degree, carotenoid 9910’-monooxygenase 2 (CMO2)...

  14. Exosomes from hypoxic endothelial cells have increased collagen crosslinking activity through up-regulation of lysyl oxidase-like 2

    de Jong, Olivier G.; van Balkom, Bas W M; Gremmels, Hendrik; Verhaar, Marianne C.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are important mediators of intercellular communication. Additionally, they contain a variety of components capable of interacting with the extracellular matrix (ECM), including integrins, matrix metalloproteinases and members of the immunoglobin superfamily. Despite these observations, rese

  15. Up-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor-A is responsible for the failure of re-initiated interferon alpha treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Postoperative interferon-α(IFN-α) treatment delays hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) recurrence and prolongs patient survival, and may thus be an effective form of adjuvant therapy. However, clinical observations found that HCC recurs in some patients within 8 months of IFN-α treatment being discontinued. We investigated whether HCC regrowth appears after IFN-α is discontinued, whether re-initiated IFN-α is effective, and the underlying mechanisms of IFN-α treatment. The human HCC nude mouse model LCI-D20 was used to study the effects of IFN-α treatment, discontinued IFN-α treatment, and re-initiated IFN-α treatment on tumor growth. Tumor weight, microvessel density(MVD), serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor cell apoptosis were analyzed. Angiogenesis-related factors were studied using cDNA microarray in different tumor samples and confirmed using reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) and Western blotting assays. Finally, imatinib was added with re-initiated IFN-α treatment to improve efficacy. IFN-α (1.5×107 U/kg/day for 20 days) suppressed HCC growth by 60.3% and decreased MVD by 52.2% compared with the control. However, tumor regrowth occurred after IFN-α was discontinued, and re-initiated IFN-α treatment was not effective for inhibiting tumor growth or reducing MVD compared with a saline-treated group. cDNA microarray showed VEGF was down-regulated while platelet-derived growth factor-A (PDGF-A) was up-regulated when IFN-α treatment was re-initiated. These findings were further confirmed with RT-PCR and Western blotting assay. The combination of imatinib with re-initiated IFN-α reduced HCC weight by 30.7% and decreased MVD by 31.1% compared with IFN-α treatment only (P=0.003 and 0.015, respectively). Tumor regrowth occurred after IFN-α treatment was discontinued. Re-initiated IFN-α treatment was not effective and was associated with up-regulation of PDGF-A, while the VEGF remained suppressed. The

  16. 76 FR 40755 - Impact of Reduced Dose Limits on NRC Licensed Activities; Solicitation of Public Comment

    2011-07-11

    ... COMMISSION Impact of Reduced Dose Limits on NRC Licensed Activities; Solicitation of Public Comment AGENCY... Regulatory Commission (NRC or Commission) is seeking public comment on NUREG/CR-6112, ``Impact of Reduced... radiation protection regulations, as appropriate and where scientifically justified, to achieve...

  17. Active Lubrication for Reducing Wear and Vibration: A combination of Fluid Power Control and Tribology

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2002-01-01

    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...

  18. Up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in primary afferent pathway regulates colon-to-bladder cross-sensitization in rat

    Xia Chun-Mei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In humans, inflammation of either the urinary bladder or the distal colon often results in sensory cross-sensitization between these organs. Limited information is known about the mechanisms underlying this clinical syndrome. Studies with animal models have demonstrated that activation of primary afferent pathways may have a role in mediating viscero-visceral cross-organ sensitization. Methods Colonic inflammation was induced by a single dose of tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS instilled intracolonically. The histology of the colon and the urinary bladder was examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stain. The protein expression of transient receptor potential (TRP ion channel of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF were examined by immunohistochemistry and/or western blot. The inter-micturition intervals and the quantity of urine voided were obtained from analysis of cystometrograms. Results At 3 days post TNBS treatment, the protein level of TRPV1 was increased by 2-fold (p Conclusion Acute colonic inflammation increases bladder activity without affecting bladder morphology. Primary afferent-mediated BDNF up-regulation in the sensory neurons regulates, at least in part, the bladder activity during colonic inflammation.

  19. Antioxidant Activity, Reducing Power and Total Phenolic Content of Iranian Olive Cultivar

    M. Hajimahmoodi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant activity of methanolic (50% extracts of olive pulp (Olea europaea L. was investigated. Total antioxidant activity, phenolic contents and reducing power in six Iranian olive cultivars were determined. The highest antioxidant activity (28.699 mmol FeII/100 g dry plant, total phenolic contents (2997 mg gallic acid/100 g dry plant and reducing power (8.331 g Vitamin E/100 g dry plant were detected in Mishen and the lowest in Conservalina. A linear positive relationship existed between the antioxidant activity, total phenolic compounds (r2 = 0.976 and reducing power of the tested olive pulp (r2 = 0.848. Iranian olives possess relatively high antioxidant activity due to contribution of phenolic compounds. The present study shows that Iranian olive cultivars are strong radical scavengers and can be considered as good sources of natural antioxidants for medicinal and commercial uses.

  20. Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is up-regulated in bacterial endocarditis and binds to components of vegetations

    Müller, Hanna; Renner, Marcus; Helmke, Burkhard M;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Bacterial endocarditis is a frequent infectious cardiac disease, especially in patients with congenital or acquired heart defects. It is characterized by bacterial colonization of the heart valves and the appearance of vegetations consisting of fibrin, blood cells, and bacteria. The...... glycoprotein Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 is a scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein with functions in innate immunity and epithelial differentiation. Because of the aggregating capacity of Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1, we hypothesized that an up-regulation in bacterial endocarditis may be...... linked to the development of vegetations. METHODS: Heart tissue of 19 patients with bacterial endocarditis and 10 controls without bacterial endocarditis was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. The effect of human recombinant Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumors 1 on erythrocyte aggregation was measured using...

  1. Differences in the time course of haloperidol-induced up-regulation of rat striatal and mesolimbic dopamine receptors

    Regional differences in the onset and persistence of increased dopamine D2 receptor density in rat brain were studied following daily injections of haloperidol for 3, 7, 14, or 28 days. Striatal [3H]-spiroperidol Bmax values were significantly increased following 3 - 28 days of haloperidol treatment, as compared to saline controls. Olfactory tubercle Bmax values were significantly increased only after 14 or 28 days of haloperidol treatment. Nucleus accumbens Bmax values were significantly increased only in the 14-day drug treatment group, suggesting that dopamine D2 receptor up-regulation in nucleus accumbens may reverse during ongoing neuroleptic treatment. These findings suggest that important differences in adaptive responses to chronic dopamine blockade may exist between dopaminergic synapses located in various rat brain regions

  2. Vitamin D supplementation up-regulates IL-6 and IL-17A gene expression in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Naghavi Gargari, Bahar; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Shirvani Farsani, Zeinab; Pahlevan Kakhki, Majid; Azimi, Amir Reza

    2015-09-01

    Vitamin D regulates gene expression and affects target cell functions. IL-6 and IL-17A are pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with MS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D effects on the expression level of IL-6 and IL-17A in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Also, we performed a correlation analysis between the gene expression and some clinical features such as serum level of vitamin D and the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Significant up-regulation of IL-6 and IL-17A gene expression was shown under vitamin D treatment. Also, some gender specific correlations between the gene expression with vitamin D levels were detected in female RR-MS patients. PMID:26188623

  3. An early ethylene up-regulated gene encoding a calmodulin-binding protein involved in plant senescence and death

    Yang, T.; Poovaiah, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    35S-Labeled calmodulin (CaM) was used to screen a tobacco anther cDNA library. A positive clone (NtER1) with high homology to an early ethylene-up-regulated gene (ER66) in tomato, and an Arabidopsis homolog was isolated and characterized. Based on the helical wheel projection, a 25-mer peptide corresponding to the predicted CaM-binding region of NtER1 (amino acids 796-820) was synthesized. The gel-mobility shift assay showed that the peptide formed a stable complex with CaM only in the presence of Ca(2+). CaM binds to NtER1 with high affinity (K(d) approximately 12 nm) in a calcium-dependent manner. Tobacco flowers at different stages of development were treated with ethylene or with 1-methylcyclopropene for 2 h before treating with ethylene. Northern analysis showed that the NtER1 was rapidly induced after 15 min of exposure to ethylene. However, the 2-h 1-methylcyclopropene treatment totally blocked NtER1 expression in flowers at all stages of development, suggesting that NtER1 is an early ethylene-up-regulated gene. The senescing leaves and petals had significantly increased NtER1 induction as compared with young leaves and petals, implying that NtER1 is developmentally regulated and acts as a trigger for senescence and death. This is the first documented evidence for the involvement of Ca(2+)/CaM-mediated signaling in ethylene action.

  4. Up-regulation of ROS by mitochondria-dependent bystander signaling contributes to genotoxicity of bystander effects

    Genomic instability can be observed in bystander cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) is still relatively unclear. In a previous study, we found that irradiated cells released mitochondria-dependent intracellular factor(s) which could lead to bystander γ-H2AX induction. In this paper, we used normal (ρ+) and mtDNA-depleted (ρ0) human-hamster hybrid cells to investigate mitochondrial effects on the genotoxicity in bystander effect through medium transfer experiments. Through the detection of DNA double-strand breaks with γ-H2AX, we found that the fraction of γ-H2AX positive cells changed with time when irradiation conditioned cell medium (ICCM) were harvested. ICCM harvested from irradiated ρ+ cells at 10 min post-irradiation (ρ+ ICCM10min) caused larger increases of bystander γ-H2AX induction comparing to ρ0 ICCM10min, which only caused a slight increase of bystander γ-H2AX induction. The ρ+ ICCM10min could also result in the up-regulation of ROS production (increased by 35% at 10 min), while there was no significant increase in cells treated with ρ0 ICCM10min. We treated cells with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the scavenger of ROS, and quenched γ-H2AX induction by ρ+ ICCM. Furthermore, after the medium had been transferred and the cells were continuously cultured for 7 days, we found significantly increased CD59- gene loci mutation (increased by 45.9%) and delayed cell death in the progeny of ρ+ ICCM-treated bystander cells. In conclusion, the work presented here suggested that up-regulation of the mitochondria-dependent ROS might be very important in mediating genotoxicity of bystander effects.

  5. Up-regulation of ROS by mitochondria-dependent bystander signaling contributes to genotoxicity of bystander effects

    Chen Shaopeng [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Zhao Ye; Zhao Guoping [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han Wei [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Bao Lingzhi [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N., E-mail: peter.yu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Wu Lijun, E-mail: ljw@ipp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bioengineering, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2009-06-18

    Genomic instability can be observed in bystander cells. However, the underlying mechanism(s) is still relatively unclear. In a previous study, we found that irradiated cells released mitochondria-dependent intracellular factor(s) which could lead to bystander {gamma}-H2AX induction. In this paper, we used normal ({rho}{sup +}) and mtDNA-depleted ({rho}{sup 0}) human-hamster hybrid cells to investigate mitochondrial effects on the genotoxicity in bystander effect through medium transfer experiments. Through the detection of DNA double-strand breaks with {gamma}-H2AX, we found that the fraction of {gamma}-H2AX positive cells changed with time when irradiation conditioned cell medium (ICCM) were harvested. ICCM harvested from irradiated {rho}{sup +} cells at 10 min post-irradiation ({rho}{sup +} ICCM{sub 10min}) caused larger increases of bystander {gamma}-H2AX induction comparing to {rho}{sup 0} ICCM{sub 10min}, which only caused a slight increase of bystander {gamma}-H2AX induction. The {rho}{sup +} ICCM{sub 10min} could also result in the up-regulation of ROS production (increased by 35% at 10 min), while there was no significant increase in cells treated with {rho}{sup 0} ICCM{sub 10min}. We treated cells with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the scavenger of ROS, and quenched {gamma}-H2AX induction by {rho}{sup +} ICCM. Furthermore, after the medium had been transferred and the cells were continuously cultured for 7 days, we found significantly increased CD59{sup -} gene loci mutation (increased by 45.9%) and delayed cell death in the progeny of {rho}{sup +} ICCM-treated bystander cells. In conclusion, the work presented here suggested that up-regulation of the mitochondria-dependent ROS might be very important in mediating genotoxicity of bystander effects.

  6. Herpes simplex virus induces the marked up-regulation of the zinc finger transcriptional factor INSM1, which modulates the expression and localization of the immediate early protein ICP0

    Kimura Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs rapidly shut off macromolecular synthesis in host cells. In contrast, global microarray analyses have shown that HSV infection markedly up-regulates a number of host cell genes that may play important roles in HSV-host cell interactions. To understand the regulatory mechanisms involved, we initiated studies focusing on the zinc finger transcription factor insulinoma-associated 1 (INSM1, a host cell protein markedly up-regulated by HSV infection. Results INSM1 gene expression in HSV-1-infected normal human epidermal keratinocytes increased at least 400-fold 9 h after infection; INSM1 promoter activity was also markedly stimulated. Expression and subcellular localization of the immediate early HSV protein ICP0 was affected by INSM1 expression, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assays revealed binding of INSM1 to the ICP0 promoter. Moreover, the role of INSM1 in HSV-1 infection was further clarified by inhibition of HSV-1 replication by INSM1-specific siRNA. Conclusions The results suggest that INSM1 up-regulation plays a positive role in HSV-1 replication, probably by binding to the ICP0 promoter.

  7. Solid Waste Educational Resources and Activities: Let's Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. [CD-ROM].

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    This contains games, activities, publications, and resources for students and teachers on how to reduce, reuse, recycle, and properly manage waste. It also contains a screen saver featuring runners-up from the Earth Day 2000 art contest. Activities and games include titles such as "Planet Protectors,""Recycle City,""Trash and Climate Change," and…

  8. Exceptionally strong sorption of infochemicals to activated carbon reduces their bioavailability to fish

    Jonker, Michiel T O; van Mourik, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The addition of activated carbon (AC) to sediments is a relatively new approach to remediate contaminated sites. Activated carbon strongly sorbs hydrophobic organic contaminants, thereby reducing their bioavailability and uptake in organisms. Because of its high sorption capacity, AC might, however,

  9. Diversity, activity, and abundance of sulfate-reducing bacteria in saline nad hypersaline soda lakes

    Foti, M.; Sorokin, D.Y.; Lomans, B.P.; Mussman, M.; Zacharova, E.E.; Pimenov, N.V.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muyzer, G.

    2007-01-01

    Soda lakes are naturally occurring highly alkaline and saline environments. Although the sulfur cycle is one of the most active element cycles in these lakes, little is known about the sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In this study we investigated the diversity, activity, and abundance of SRB in sed

  10. Reduced serum inhibition of platelet-activating factor activity in preeclampsia.

    Benedetto, C; Massobrio, M; Bertini, E; Abbondanza, M; Enrieu, N; Tetta, C

    1989-01-01

    We determined in normal nonpregnant (group 1) women, normal pregnant (group 2) women, and patients with preeclampsia (group 3) the serum inhibition of platelet-activating factor activity, the presence of detectable amounts of platelet-activating factor in the blood, and platelet responsiveness in vitro to platelet-activating factor, and to other agonists (adenosine diphosphate, collagen, and ristocetin), and prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2). In patients with preeclampsia (group 3) the serum inhibition of platelet-activating factor activity was significantly lower than that in groups 1 and 2. However, no detectable amounts of platelet-activating factor were observed. The mean values of platelet aggregation induced by platelet-activating factor, adenosine diphosphate, collagen and ristocetin, and the prostaglandin I2-inhibitory concentration of 50% which is inversely correlated with platelet sensitivity to prostaglandin I2, were not significantly different between groups 2 and 3. It is suggested that in preeclampsia the defect in serum inhibitory potential of platelet-activating factor--induced platelet aggregation may contribute to the disturbance in the homeostatic balance between proaggregant and antiaggregant substances. PMID:2912073

  11. Bone marrow mononuclear cells up-regulate toll-like receptor expression and produce inflammatory mediators in response to cigarette smoke extract.

    Junmin Zhou

    Full Text Available Several reports link cigarette smoking with leukemia. However, the effects of cigarette smoke extract (CSE on bone marrow hematopoiesis remain unknown. The objective of this study was to elucidate the direct effects of cigarette smoke on human bone marrow hematopoiesis and characterize the inflammatory process known to result from cigarette smoking. Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMCs from healthy individuals when exposed to CSE had significantly diminished CFU-E, BFU-E and CFU-GM. We found increased nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit and, independently, enhanced activation of AKT and ERK1/2. Exposure of BMCs to CSE induced IL-8 and TGF-β1 production, which was dependent on NF-κB and ERK1/2, but not on AKT. CSE treatment had no effect on the release of TNF-α, IL-10, or VEGF. Finally, CSE also had a significant induction of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4, out of which, the up-regulation of TLR2 and TLR3 was found to be dependent on ERK1/2 and NF-κB activation, but not AKT. These results indicate that CSE profoundly inhibits the growth of erythroid and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in the bone marrow. Further, CSE modulates NF-κB- and ERK1/2-dependent responses, suggesting that cigarette smoking may impair bone marrow hematopoiesis in vivo as well as induce inflammation, two processes that proceed malignant transformation.

  12. Up-regulation of SRPK1 in non-small cell lung cancer promotes the growth and migration of cancer cells.

    Liu, Hongcheng; Hu, Xuefei; Zhu, Yuming; Jiang, Gening; Chen, Sheng

    2016-06-01

    Dys-regulation of serine-arginine protein kinase 1 (SRPK1) has been reported in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, its functions in the progression of NSCLC remain poorly understood. In this study, the expression of SRPK1 in NSCLC tissues was determined using real-time PCR, and the roles of SRPK1 in the progression of NSCLC were investigated. It was found that both the mRNA level and the protein level of SRPK1 were up-regulated in NSCLC tissues. Forced expression of SRPK1 promoted the growth and migration of NSCLC cells, while knocking down the expression of SRPK1 inhibited the growth, migration, and tumorigenicity of NSCLC cells. Mechanism studies showed that SRPK1 activated the transcriptional activity of beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex, and knocking down the expression of SRPK1 attenuated the expression of target genes of beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) complex. In addition, silencing the expression of SRPK1 down-regulated the phosphorylation of GSK3beta. Taken together, SRPK1 might play an oncogenic role in NSCLC, and SRPK1 might be a therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:26666824

  13. Activated charcoal and baking soda to reduce odor associated with extensive blistering disorders

    Chakravarthi Arun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin disease leading to extensive blistering and loss of skin is associated with a characteristic smell. Odor can cause physiologic disturbances such as increase in heart rate and respiratory rate. It can also cause nausea and vomiting and is disturbing to bystanders. Aims: To test odor reducing capability of activated charcoal. Methods: In this blinded experimental study we used putrefied amniotic membrane to produce odor and studied the effectiveness of activated charcoal and soda-bi-carbonate to reduce odor. Results: Statistical analysis with Kruskal Wall′s Chi Square Test and Man Whitney U test showed significant reduction of odor using activated charcoal by itself or along with soda-bi-carbonate. Conclusion: We recommend the usage of activated charcoal with/without soda bicarbonate as an inexpensive practical measure to reduce foul odor associated with extensive skin loss.

  14. SIRT1 activating compounds reduce oxidative stress and prevent cell death in neuronal cells

    Khan, Reas S.; Fonseca-Kelly, Zoe; Callinan, Catherine; Zuo, Ling; Sachdeva, Mira M.; Shindler, Kenneth S

    2012-01-01

    Activation of SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, prevents retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve disease. While SIRT1 deacetylates numerous protein targets, downstream mechanisms of SIRT1 activation mediating this neuroprotective effect are unknown. SIRT1 increases mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress in muscle and other cells, and oxidative stress occurs in neuronal degeneration. We examined whether SIRT1 activators red...

  15. Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract inhibits LDL oxidation and foam cell formation involving up-regulation of LXRα/ABCA1 pathway.

    Chen, Jing-Hsien; Wang, Chau-Jong; Wang, Chi-Ping; Sheu, Jenn-Yuan; Lin, Chia-Liang; Lin, Hui-Hsuan

    2013-11-01

    The oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic lesions through the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-atherosclerotic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf polyphenolic extract (HLP), which is rich in flavonoid. The inhibitory effect of HLP on oxidation and lipid peroxidation of LDL was defined in vitro. HLP showed potential in reducing foam cell formation and intracellular lipid accumulation in oxidised-LDL (ox-LDL)-induced macrophage J774A.1 cells under non-cytotoxic concentrations. Molecular data showed these influences of HLP might be mediated via liver-X receptor α (LXRα)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway, as demonstrated by the transfection of LXRα siRNA. Our data implied that HLP up-regulated the LXRα/ABCA1 pathway, which in turn led to stimulation of cholesterol removal from macrophages and delay atherosclerosis. These results suggested that HLP potentially could be developed as an anti-atherosclerotic agent. PMID:23768373

  16. Accumulated SET protein up-regulates and interacts with hnRNPK, increasing its binding to nucleic acids, the Bcl-xS repression, and cellular proliferation

    Almeida, Luciana O.; Garcia, Cristiana B.; Matos-Silva, Flavia A. [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Curti, Carlos [Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leopoldino, Andréia M., E-mail: andreiaml@usp.br [Department of Clinical Analyses, Toxicology and Food Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • hnRNPK is a new target of SET. • SET regulates hnRNPK. • SET and hnRNPK accumulation promotes tumorigenesis. • SET accumulation is a potential model to study genes regulated by SET-hnRNPK. - Abstract: SET and hnRNPK are proteins involved in gene expression and regulation of cellular signaling. We previously demonstrated that SET accumulates in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC); hnRNPK is a prognostic marker in cancer. Here, we postulate that SET and hnRNPK proteins interact to promote tumorigenesis. We performed studies in HEK293 and HNSCC (HN6, HN12, and HN13) cell lines with SET/hnRNPK overexpression and knockdown, respectively. We found that SET and/or hnRNPK protein accumulation increased cellular proliferation. SET accumulation up-regulated hnRNPK mRNA and total/phosphorylated protein, promoted hnRNPK nuclear location, and reduced Bcl-x mRNA levels. SET protein directly interacted with hnRNPK, increasing both its binding to nucleic acids and Bcl-xS repression. We propose that hnRNPK should be a new target of SET and that SET–hnRNPK interaction, in turn, has potential implications in cell survival and malignant transformation.

  17. Polarizability of the active site of cytochrome c reduces the activation barrier for electron transfer

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-06-01

    Enzymes in biology’s energy chains operate with low energy input distributed through multiple electron transfer steps between protein active sites. The general challenge of biological design is how to lower the activation barrier without sacrificing a large negative reaction free energy. We show that this goal is achieved through a large polarizability of the active site. It is polarized by allowing a large number of excited states, which are populated quantum mechanically by electrostatic fluctuations of the protein and hydration water shells. This perspective is achieved by extensive mixed quantum mechanical/molecular dynamics simulations of the half reaction of reduction of cytochrome c. The barrier for electron transfer is consistently lowered by increasing the number of excited states included in the Hamiltonian of the active site diagonalized along the classical trajectory. We suggest that molecular polarizability, in addition to much studied electrostatics of permanent charges, is a key parameter to consider in order to understand how enzymes work.

  18. Polarizability of the active site of cytochrome c reduces the activation barrier for electron transfer

    Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Martin, Daniel R.; Matyushov, Dmitry V.

    2016-01-01

    Enzymes in biology’s energy chains operate with low energy input distributed through multiple electron transfer steps between protein active sites. The general challenge of biological design is how to lower the activation barrier without sacrificing a large negative reaction free energy. We show that this goal is achieved through a large polarizability of the active site. It is polarized by allowing a large number of excited states, which are populated quantum mechanically by electrostatic fluctuations of the protein and hydration water shells. This perspective is achieved by extensive mixed quantum mechanical/molecular dynamics simulations of the half reaction of reduction of cytochrome c. The barrier for electron transfer is consistently lowered by increasing the number of excited states included in the Hamiltonian of the active site diagonalized along the classical trajectory. We suggest that molecular polarizability, in addition to much studied electrostatics of permanent charges, is a key parameter to consider in order to understand how enzymes work. PMID:27306204

  19. Fish polar lipids retard atherosclerosis in rabbits by down-regulating PAF biosynthesis and up-regulating PAF catabolism

    Nasopoulou Constantina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activating factor (PAF has been proposed as a key factor and initial trigger in atherosclerosis. Recently, a modulation of PAF metabolism by bioactive food constituents has been suggested. In this study we investigated the effect of fish polar lipid consumption on PAF metabolism. Results The specific activities of four PAF metabolic enzymes; in leukocytes, platelets and plasma, and PAF concentration; either in blood cells or plasma were determined. Samples were acquired at the beginning and at the end of a previously conducted study in male New Zealand white rabbits that were fed for 45 days with atherogenic diet supplemented (group-B, n = 6 or not (group-A, n = 6 with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata polar lipids. The specific activity of PAF-Acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH; a catabolic enzyme of PAF, was decreased in rabbits' platelets of both A and B groups and in rabbits' leukocytes of group A (p 0.05. Free and bound PAF levels increased in group A while decreased in group B (p Conclusions Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata polar lipids modulate PAF metabolism upon atherosclerotic conditions in rabbits leading to lower PAF levels and activity in blood of rabbits with reduced early atherosclerotic lesions compared to control group.

  20. Up-regulation of expression and lack of 5' CpG island hypermethylation of p16 INK4a in HPV-positive cervical carcinomas

    of cancer cells with up-regulated expression of p16ink4a. Our data confirm other previous studies claiming specific p16INK4a up-regulation in the majority of cervical carcinomas at both the protein and mRNA levels. Cytoplasmic accumulation of p16ink4a is a feature of cervical carcinomas

  1. Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer

    Sun, Yue [Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou (China); Du, Chengli [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Xiaoyan [Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou (China); Ren, Guoping, E-mail: renguoping12345@163.com [Department of Pathology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University Medical College, Hangzhou (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • The expression of eEF1A2 is up-regulated in prostate cancer tissues. • Suppression of eEF1A2 inhibits the proliferation and promotes apoptosis. • Inhibition of eEF1A2 enhances the expression of apoptotic relevant proteins. • The expressions of eEF1A2 and cleavage-caspase3 are inversely correlated. - Abstract: Background: eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development. Methods: We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis. Results: Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues. Conclusion: Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer.

  2. Up-regulation of eEF1A2 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in prostate cancer

    Highlights: • The expression of eEF1A2 is up-regulated in prostate cancer tissues. • Suppression of eEF1A2 inhibits the proliferation and promotes apoptosis. • Inhibition of eEF1A2 enhances the expression of apoptotic relevant proteins. • The expressions of eEF1A2 and cleavage-caspase3 are inversely correlated. - Abstract: Background: eEF1A2 is a protein translation factor involved in protein synthesis, which possesses important function roles in cancer development. This study aims at investigating the expression pattern of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer and its potential role in prostate cancer development. Methods: We examined the expression level of eEF1A2 in 30 pairs of prostate cancer tissues by using RT-PCR and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). Then we applied siRNA specifically targeting eEF1A2 to down-regulate its expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells. Flow cytometer was used to explore apoptosis and Western-blot was used to detect the pathway proteins of apoptosis. Results: Our results showed that the expression level of eEF1A2 in prostate cancer tissues was significantly higher compared to their corresponding normal tissues. Reduction of eEF1A2 expression in DU-145 and PC-3 cells led to a dramatic inhibition of proliferation accompanied with enhanced apoptosis rate. Western blot revealed that apoptosis pathway proteins (caspase3, BAD, BAX, PUMA) were significantly up-regulated after suppression of eEF1A2. More importantly, the levels of eEF1A2 and caspase3 were inversely correlated in prostate cancer tissues. Conclusion: Our data suggests that eEF1A2 plays an important role in prostate cancer development, especially in inhibiting apoptosis. So eEF1A2 might serve as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer

  3. Involvement of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Up-Regulation in Bradykinin Promotes Cell Motility in Human Prostate Cancers

    Chih-Hsin Tang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in men and shows a predilection for metastasis to distant organs. Bradykinin (BK is an inflammatory mediator and has recently been shown to mediate tumor growth and metastasis. The adhesion molecule intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 plays a critical role during tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine whether BK promotes prostate cancer cell migration via ICAM-1 expression. The motility of cancer cells was increased following BK treatment. Stimulation of prostate cancer cells with BK induced mRNA and protein expression of ICAM-1. Transfection of cells with ICAM-1 small interfering RNA reduced BK-increased cell migration. Pretreatment of prostate cancer cells with B2 receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, Akt, and activator protein 1 (AP-1 inhibitors or mutants abolished BK-promoted migration and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, treatment with a B2 receptor, PI3K, or Akt inhibitor also reduced BK-mediated AP-1 activation. Our results indicate that BK enhances the migration of prostate cancer cells by increasing ICAM-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the B2 receptor, PI3K, Akt, and AP-1. Thus, BK represents a promising new target for treating prostate cancer metastasis.

  4. A plasma membrane zinc transporter from ¤Medicago truncatula¤ is up-regulated in roots by Zn fertilization, yet down-regulated by arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization

    Burleigh, S.H.; Kristensen, B.K.; Bechmann, I.E.

    2003-01-01

    , but not in leaves of M. truncatula and, in contrast to all other plant Zn transporters characterized thus far, MtZIP2 was up-regulated in roots by Zn fertilization. Expression was highest in roots exposed to a toxic level of Zn. MtZIP2 expression was also examined in the roots of M. truncatula when...... colonized by the obligate plant symbiont, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, since AM fungi are renowned for their ability to supply plants with mineral nutrients, including Zn. Expression was downregulated in the roots of the mycorrhizal plants and was associated with a reduced level of Zn within the host...

  5. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Byckalo-Khan, F.; Wallace, C.L. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  6. Effect of Powdered Activated Carbon to Reduce Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors: A Sustainable Solution. Case Study

    Giuseppe Mancini; Antonella Luciano; Paolo Viotti; Sabrina Copelli; Massimo Raboni; Giordano Urbini; Vincenzo Torretta

    2013-01-01

    Membrane Bio Reactors (MBRs) are mainly used for industrial wastewaters applications where their costs can be more easily afforded. High costs are basically due to energy consumption and membrane cleaning or replacement. Membrane fouling is responsible for reducing treated water production and increasing maintenance as well as operation costs. According to previous researches, the addition of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) in high dosages could reduce membrane fouling; but such concentration...

  7. Polyphenols from Chilean Propolis and Pinocembrin Reduce MMP-9 Gene Expression and Activity in Activated Macrophages.

    Saavedra, Nicolás; Cuevas, Alejandro; Cavalcante, Marcela F; Dörr, Felipe A; Saavedra, Kathleen; Zambrano, Tomás; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Salazar, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Polyphenols from diverse sources have shown anti-inflammatory activity. In the context of atherosclerosis, macrophages play important roles including matrix metalloproteinases synthesis involved in degradation of matrix extracellular components affecting the atherosclerotic plaque stability. We prepared a propolis extract and pinocembrin in ethanol solution. Propolis extract was chemically characterized using LC-MS. The effect of treatments on gene expression and proteolytic activity was measured in vitro using murine macrophages activated with LPS. Cellular toxicity associated with both treatments and the vehicle was determined using MTT and apoptosis/necrosis detection assays. MMP-9 gene expression and proteolytic activity were measured using qPCR and zymography, respectively. Thirty-two compounds were identified in the propolis extract, including pinocembrin among its major components. Treatment with either ethanolic extract of propolis or pinocembrin inhibits MMP-9 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, an inhibitory effect was observed in proteolytic activity. However, the effect showed by ethanolic extract of propolis was higher than the effect of pinocembrin, suggesting that MMP-9 inhibition results from a joint contribution between the components of the extract. These data suggest a potential role of polyphenols from Chilean propolis in the control of extracellular matrix degradation in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:27119082

  8. Experimental investigation of activities and tolerance of denitrifying bacteria under alkaline and reducing condition

    In the geological disposal system of TRU wastes, nitrogen generation by denitrifying bacteria could provide significant impact on the assessment of this system, because nitrate contained in process concentrated liquid waste might be electron acceptor for denitrifying bacteria. In this study, the activities and tolerance of denitrifying under disposal condition were investigated. Pseudomonas denitrificans as denitrifying bacteria was used. The results showed that Pseudomonas denitrificans had activity under reducing condition, but under high pH condition (pH>9.5), the activity of Pseudomonas denitrificans was not detected. It is possible that the activity of Pseudomonas denitrificans would be low under disposal condition. (author)

  9. Marked MMP-2 transcriptional up-regulation in mononuclear leukocytes invading the subarachnoidal space in aseptic suppurative steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis in dogs.

    Schwartz, M; Puff, C; Stein, V M; Baumgärtner, W; Tipold, A

    2010-02-15

    Canine Steroid-Responsive Meningitis-Arteritis (SRMA) is a suitable animal model for studies on the development of neutrophilic pleocytosis in aseptic meningitis. Samples of dogs in the acute phase of SRMA (n=16) were examined for gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and -2. Results were compared to those of dogs under glucocorticosteroid treatment for SRMA (n=16) and dogs with other inflammatory and neoplastic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) (n=19). Samples included mononuclear (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear cells (PBPMNs) of peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid white blood cells (CSF WBCs). In the acute phase of SRMA CSF WBCs showed mRNA expression for MMP-2 and -9 and TIMP-1 and -2, highlighting a contribution of these cells to the overall content of MMPs and TIMPs in CSF. MMP-2 mRNA levels in CSF WBCs were significantly up-regulated in comparison to PBMC expression levels, suggesting that MMP-2 is relevant for PBMC invasion into the subarachnoidal space and that the expression is influenced by migratory activity through the blood-CSF-barrier. PMID:19733404

  10. Quantification of uncoupling protein 2 reveals its main expression in immune cells and selective up-regulation during T-cell proliferation.

    Anne Rupprecht

    Full Text Available Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is an inner mitochondrial membrane protein. Although the protein was discovered in 1997, its function and even its tissue distribution are still under debate. Here we present a quantitative analysis of mRNA and protein expression in various mice tissues, revealing that UCP2 is mainly expressed in organs and cells associated with the immune system. Although the UCP2 gene is present in the brain, as demonstrated using quantitative RT-PCR, the protein was not detectable in neurons under physiological conditions. Instead, we could detect UCP2 in microglia, which act in the immune defense of the central nervous system. In lymphocytes, activation led to a ten-fold increase of UCP2 protein expression simultaneously to the increase in levels of other mitochondrial proteins, whereas lymphocyte re-stimulation resulted in the selective increase of UCP2. The highest detected level of UCP2 expression in stimulated T-cells (0.54 ng/(µg total cellular protein was approximately 200 times lower than the level of UCP1 in brown adipose tissue from room temperature acclimated mice. Both the UCP2 expression pattern and the time course of up-regulation in stimulated T-cells imply UCP2's involvement in the immune response, probably by controlling the metabolism during cell proliferation.

  11. Increasing of temperature induces pathogenicity of Streptococcus agalactiae and the up-regulation of inflammatory related genes in infected Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Kayansamruaj, Pattanapon; Pirarat, Nopadon; Hirono, Ikuo; Rodkhum, Channarong

    2014-08-01

    Temperature strongly affects the health of aquatic poikilotherms. In Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), elevated water temperatures increase the severity of streptococcosis. Here we investigated the effects of temperature on the vulnerability and inflammatory response of Nile tilapia to Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococci; GBS). At 35 and 28 °C, GBS took 4 and 7h, respectively to reach the log-phase and, when incubated with tilapia whole blood, experienced survival rates of 97% and 2%, respectively. The hemolysis activity of GBS grown at 35 °C was five times higher than that of GBS grown at 28 °C. GBS expressed cylE (β-hemolysin/cytolysin), cfb (CAMP factor) and PI-2b (pili-backbone) much more strongly at 35 °C than at 28 °C. Challenging Nile tilapia reared at 35 and 28 °C with GBS resulted in accumulated mortalities of about 85% and 45%, respectively. At 35 °C, infected tilapia exhibited tremendous inflammatory responses due to a dramatic up-regulation (30-40-fold) of inflammatory-related genes (cyclooxygenase-2, IL-1β and TNF-α) between 6 and 96 h-post infection. These results suggest that the increase of GBS pathogenicity to Nile tilapia induced by elevated temperature is associated with massive inflammatory responses, which may lead to acute mortality. PMID:24856132

  12. Curcumin suppresses NTHi-induced CXCL5 expression via inhibition of positive IKKβ pathway and up-regulation of negative MKP-1 pathway.

    Konduru, Anuhya S; Lee, Byung-Cheol; Li, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection, and leading cause of conductive hearing loss. Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a major bacterial pathogen for OM. OM characterized by the presence of overactive inflammatory responses is due to the aberrant production of inflammatory mediators including C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 5 (CXCL5). The molecular mechanism underlying induction of CXCL5 by NTHi is unknown. Here we show that NTHi up-regulates CXCL5 expression by activating IKKβ-IκBα and p38 MAPK pathways via NF-κB nuclear translocation-dependent and -independent mechanism in middle ear epithelial cells. Current therapies for OM are ineffective due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant NTHi strains and risk of side effects with prolonged use of immunosuppressant drugs. In this study, we show that curcumin, derived from Curcuma longa plant, long known for its medicinal properties, inhibited NTHi-induced CXCL5 expression in vitro and in vivo. Curcumin suppressed CXCL5 expression by direct inhibition of IKKβ phosphorylation, and inhibition of p38 MAPK via induction of negative regulator MKP-1. Thus, identification of curcumin as a potential therapeutic for treating OM is of particular translational significance due to the attractiveness of targeting overactive inflammation without significant adverse effects. PMID:27538525

  13. Nitric oxide preferentially induces type 1 T cell differentiation by selectively up-regulating IL-12 receptor β2 expression via cGMP

    Niedbala, Wanda; Wei, Xiao-qing; Campbell, Carol; Thomson, Duncan; Komai-Koma, Mousa; Liew, Foo Y.

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide plays an important role in immune regulation. We have shown that although high concentrations of NO generally were immune-suppressive, low concentrations of NO selectively enhanced the differentiation of T helper (Th)1 cells but not Th2 cells. This finding provided an explanation for the crucial role of NO in defense against intracellular pathogens. However, the mechanism for the selective induction of Th1 cells was unknown. We report here that at low concentrations, NO activates soluble guanylyl cyclase, leading to the up-regulation of cGMP, which selectively induces the expression of IL-12 receptor β2 but has no effect on IL-4 receptor. Because IL-12 and IL-4 are the key cytokines for induction of Th1 and Th2 cells, respectively, these results, therefore, provide the mechanism for the selective action of NO on T cell subset differentiation. Furthermore, this selectivity also applies to CD8+ cytotoxic and human T cells and, thus, demonstrates the general implication of this observation in immune regulation. Our results also provide an example of the regulation of cytokine receptor expression by NO. The selectivity of such action via cGMP suggests that it is amenable to therapeutic intervention. PMID:12451176

  14. Taurine and pioglitazone attenuate diabetes-induced testicular damage by abrogation of oxidative stress and up-regulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Mohamed, Hanaa M; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impairment of testicular function. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of taurine and pioglitazone against diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Both normal and diabetic rats received taurine (100 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally and daily for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed a significant (P diabetic rats. Taurine and pioglitazone alleviated hyperglycemia, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased circulating levels of insulin, testosterone, LH, and FSH. Gene and protein expression of LH and FSH receptors and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17) was significantly (P diabetic rats, an effect which was significantly increased after administration of taurine and pioglitazone. In addition, taurine and pioglitazone significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and enhanced activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes of diabetic rats. In conclusion, taurine and pioglitazone exerted protective effects against diabetes-induced testicular damage through attenuation of hyperglycemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and up-regulation of the pituitary/gonadal axis. PMID:27089006

  15. 5-alpha-reductase type I (SRD5A1 is up-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer but does not impact proliferation, cell cycle distribution or apoptosis

    Kapp Friedrich G

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is one of the most frequent malignancies and has a high mortality rate due to late detection and lack of efficient treatments. Identifying novel drug targets for this indication may open the way for new treatment strategies. Comparison of gene expression profiles of NSCLC and normal adjacent tissue (NAT allowed to determine that 5-alpha-reductase type I (SRD5A1 was up-regulated in NSCLC compared to NAT. This raised the question whether SRD5A1 was involved in sustained proliferation and survival of NSCLC. Methods siRNA-mediated silencing of SRD5A1 was performed in A549 and NCI-H460 lung cancer cell lines in order to determine the impact on proliferation, on distribution during the different phases of the cell cycle, and on apoptosis/necrosis. In addition, lung cancer cell lines were treated with 4-azasteroids, which specifically inhibit SRD5A1 activity, and the effects on proliferation were measured. Statistical analyses using ANOVA and post-hoc Tamhane-T2-test were performed. In the case of non-parametric data, the Kruskal-Wallis test and the post-hoc Mann-Whitney-U-test were used. Results The knock-down of SRDA51 expression was very efficient with the SRD5A1 transcripts being reduced to 10% of control levels. Knock-down efficiency was furthermore confirmed at the protein level. However, no effect of SRD5A1 silencing was observed in the proliferation assay, the cell cycle analysis, and the apoptosis/necrosis assay. Treatment of lung cancer cell lines with 4-azasteroids did not significantly inhibit proliferation. Conclusions In summary, the results suggest that SRD5A1 is not a crucial enzyme for the sustained proliferation of NSCLC cell lines.

  16. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser.

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Liu, Hanli

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT. PMID:27484673

  17. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation

  18. IL-11 could up-regulating Tie-2 expression during the healing of gastric ulcers in rats

    Chun-Yang Wen; Ichiro Sekine; Masahiro Ito; Hui Wang; Long-Dian Chen; Zhao-Min Xu; Mutsumi Matsuu; Kazuko Shichijo; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Masahiro Nakashima

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate Tie-2 expression during the repair of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcers in rats treated with recombinant human IL-11 (rhIL-11) and in untreated control animals.METHODS: Gastric ulcers were induced in male Wistar rats by applying acetic acid to the fundus of the stomach. RhIL11 (100 μg/kg twice daily, subcutaneously) was administered from two days before ulcer induction and continued for five days after the induction. Control rats received bovine serum albumin. Gastric specimens were collected at 3 and 5 days after the induction of ulcer for immunohistochemical observation, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).RESULTS: Tmmunohistochemical and Western blot analysis demonstrated that Tie-2 expression was enhanced in the rhIL-11-treated rats compared with the control animals at both intervals.CONCLUSION: These findings suggested that IL-11 could accelerate ulcer healing, in part, by up-regulating Tie-2expression and promoting angiogenesis.

  19. Up-regulation of CHAF1A, a poor prognostic factor, facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer

    Wu, Zehua; Cui, Feifei; Yu, Fudong; Peng, Xiao; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Dawei [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Lu, Su [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Tang, Huamei, E-mail: tanghuamei@gmail.com [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China); Peng, Zhihai, E-mail: zhihai.peng@hotmail.com [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Jiaotong University Affiliated First People’s Hospital, 85 Wujin Road, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2014-06-27

    Highlights: • We identified that CHAF1A was up-regulated in colon tumor mucosa in TMA. • The expression pattern of CHAF1A was validated with qPCR and western-blot. • CHAF1A overexpression is an independent indicator for poor colon cancer survival. • CHAF1A facilitates cell proliferation of colon cancer both in vitro and in vivo. - Abstract: Deregulation of chromatin assembly factor 1, p150 subunit A (CHAF1A) has recently been reported to be involved in the development of some cancer types. In this study, we identified that the frequency of positive CHAF1A staining in primary tumor mucosa (45.8%, 93 of 203 samples) was significantly elevated compared to that in paired normal mucosa (18.7%, 38 of 203 samples). The increased expression was strongly associated with cancer stage, tumor invasion, and histological grade. The five-year survival rate of patients with CHAF1A-positive tumors was remarkably lower than that of patients with CHAF1A-negative tumors. Colon cancer cells with CHAF1A knockdown exhibited decreased cell growth index, reduction in colony formation ability, elevated cell apoptosis rate as well as impaired colon tumorigenicity in nude mice. Hence, CHAF1A upregulation functions as a poor prognostic indicator of colon cancer, potentially contributing to its progression by mediating cancer cell proliferation.

  20. Interplay between up-regulation of cytochrome-c-oxidase and hemoglobin oxygenation induced by near-infrared laser

    Wang, Xinlong; Tian, Fenghua; Soni, Sagar S.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.; Liu, Hanli

    2016-01-01

    Photobiomodulation, also known as low-level laser/light therapy (LLLT), refers to the use of red-to-near-infrared light to stimulate cellular functions for physiological or clinical benefits. The mechanism of LLLT is assumed to rely on photon absorption by cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen for energy metabolism. In this study, we used broadband near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure the LLLT-induced changes in CCO and hemoglobin concentrations in human forearms in vivo. Eleven healthy participants were administered with 1064-nm laser and placebo treatments on their right forearms. The spectroscopic data were analyzed and fitted with wavelength-dependent, modified Beer-Lambert Law. We found that LLLT induced significant increases of CCO concentration (Δ[CCO]) and oxygenated hemoglobin concentration (Δ[HbO]) on the treated site as the laser energy dose accumulated over time. A strong linear interplay between Δ[CCO] and Δ[HbO] was observed for the first time during LLLT, indicating a hemodynamic response of oxygen supply and blood volume closely coupled to the up-regulation of CCO induced by photobiomodulation. These results demonstrate the tremendous potential of broadband NIRS as a non-invasive, in vivo means to study mechanisms of photobiomodulation and perform treatment evaluations of LLLT. PMID:27484673

  1. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    Hamm, Rebecca; Zeino, Maen [Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Frewert, Simon [Helmholtz Institute for Pharmaceutical Research Saarland, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research and Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Saarland University, Saarbrücken (Germany); Efferth, Thomas, E-mail: efferth@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Johannes Gutenberg University, Staudinger Weg 5, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H{sup +}-ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation.

  2. Up-regulation of integrin β3 in radioresistant pancreatic cancer impairs adenovirus-mediated gene therapy

    Adenovirus-mediated gene therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. We previously reported that radiation enhanced adenovirus-mediated gene expression in pancreatic cancer, suggesting that adenoviral gene therapy might be more effective in radioresistant pancreatic cancer cells. In the present study, we compared the transduction efficiency of adenovirus-delivered genes in radiosensitive and radioresistant cells, and investigated the underlying mechanisms. We used an adenovirus expressing the hepatocyte growth factor antagonist, NK4 (Ad-NK4), as a representative gene therapy. We established two radioresistant human pancreatic cancer cell lines using fractionated irradiation. Radiosensitive and radioresistant pancreatic cancer cells were infected with Ad-NK4, and NK4 levels in the cells were measured. In order to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the differences in the transduction efficiency between these cells, we measured expression of the genes mediating adenovirus infection and endocytosis. The results revealed that NK4 levels in radioresistant cells were significantly lower (P<0.01) than those in radiosensitive cells, although there were no significant differences in adenovirus uptake between radiosensitive cells and radioresistant cells. Integrin β3 was up-regulated and the Coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor was down-regulated in radioresistant cells, and inhibition of integrin β3 promoted adenovirus gene transfer. These results suggest that inhibition of integrin β3 in radioresistant pancreatic cancer cells could enhance adenovirus-mediated gene therapy. (author)

  3. Up-regulation of cholesterol associated genes as novel resistance mechanism in glioblastoma cells in response to archazolid B

    Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive lethal brain tumor, represents a great challenge. Despite decades of research, the survival prognosis of GBM patients is unfavorable and more effective therapeutics are sorely required. Archazolid B, a potent vacuolar H+-ATPase inhibitor influencing cellular pH values, is a promising new compound exerting cytotoxicity in the nanomolar range on wild-type U87MG glioblastoma cells and U87MG.∆EGFR cells transfected with a mutant epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Gene expression profiling using microarray technology showed that archazolid B caused drastic disturbances in cholesterol homeostasis. Cholesterol, a main component of cellular membranes, is known to be essential for GBM growth and cells bearing EGFRvIII mutation are highly dependent on exogenous cholesterol. Archazolid B caused excessive accumulation of free cholesterol within intracellular compartments thus depleting cellular cholesterol and leading to up-regulation of SREBP targeted genes, including LDLR and HMGCR, the key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. This cholesterol response is considered to be a novel resistance mechanism induced by archazolid B. We surmise that re-elevation of cholesterol levels in archazolid B treated cells may be mediated by newly synthesized cholesterol, since the drug leads to endosomal/lysosomal malfunction and cholesterol accumulation

  4. Stop and revive? The effectiveness of nap and active rest breaks for reducing driver sleepiness.

    Watling, Christopher N; Smith, Simon S; Horswill, Mark S

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two commonly utilized sleepiness countermeasures: a nap break and an active rest break. The effects of the countermeasures were evaluated by physiological (EEG), subjective, and driving performance measures. Participants completed 2 h of simulated driving, followed by a 15-min nap break or a 15-min active rest break, then completed the final hour of simulated driving. The nap break reduced EEG and subjective sleepiness. The active rest break did not reduce EEG sleepiness, with sleepiness levels eventually increasing, and resulted in an immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness. No difference was found between the two breaks for the driving performance measure. The immediate reduction of subjective sleepiness after the active rest break could leave drivers with erroneous perceptions of their sleepiness, particularly with increases of physiological sleepiness after the break. PMID:24961384

  5. Lead reduces tension development and the myosin ATPase activity of the rat right ventricular myocardium

    D.V. Vassallo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb2+ poisoning causes hypertension, but little is known regarding its acute effects on cardiac contractility. To evaluate these effects, force was measured in right ventricular strips that were contracting isometrically in 45 male Wistar rats (250-300 g before and after the addition of increasing concentrations of lead acetate (3, 7, 10, 30, 70, 100, and 300 µM to the bath. Changes in rate of stimulation (0.1-1.5 Hz, relative potentiation after pauses of 15, 30, and 60 s, effect of Ca2+ concentration (0.62, 1.25, and 2.5 mM, and the effect of isoproterenol (20 ng/mL were determined before and after the addition of 100 µM Pb2+. Effects on contractile proteins were evaluated after caffeine treatment using tetanic stimulation (10 Hz and measuring the activity of the myosin ATPase. Pb2+ produced concentration-dependent force reduction, significant at concentrations greater than 30 µM. The force developed in response to increasing rates of stimulation became smaller at 0.5 and 0.8 Hz. Relative potentiation increased after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment. Extracellular Ca2+ increment and isoproterenol administration increased force development but after 100 µM Pb2+ treatment the force was significantly reduced suggesting an effect of the metal on the sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. Concentration of 100 µM Pb2+ also reduced the peak and plateau force of tetanic contractions and reduced the activity of the myosin ATPase. Results showed that acute Pb2+ administration, although not affecting the sarcoplasmic reticulum activity, produces a concentration-dependent negative inotropic effect and reduces myosin ATPase activity. Results suggest that acute lead administration reduced myocardial contractility by reducing sarcolemmal calcium influx and the myosin ATPase activity. These results also suggest that lead exposure is hazardous and has toxicological consequences affecting cardiac muscle.

  6. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity is markedly reduced in dominantly-inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy.

    Kish, S J; Schut, L; Simmons, J.; Gilbert, J.; Chang, L. J.; Rebbetoy, M

    1988-01-01

    The activity was measured of the acetylcholine catabolising enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain after necropsy of seven patients from one established pedigree with dominantly-inherited olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA), a cerebellar ataxia disorder in which neuropathological changes are assumed to be primarily restricted to cerebellum, lower brain stem and spinal cord. Mean AChE activity was significantly reduced in cerebral (-51% to 65%) and cerebellar (-47%) cortex with a less sev...

  7. Fasudil inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-induced human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell proliferation by up-regulation of p27kip1 via the ERK signal pathway

    LIU Ai-jun; LING Feng; WANG Dong; WANG Qiang; L(U) Xiao-dong; LIU Ying-long

    2011-01-01

    Background RhoA/ Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway is involved in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation. Inhibition of ROCK has been proposed as a treatment for PAH. But the mechanism of RhoA/ROCK pathway and its downstream signaling in proliferation of human PASMCs is unclear. We investigated the effect of fasudil, a selective ROCK inhibitor, on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) induced human PASMC proliferation, and the possible association between RhoA/ROCK and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK),p27KiP1.Methods Human PASMCs were cultured with the stimulation of 10 ng/ml PDGF, and different concentrations of fasudil were added before the addition of mitogen. Cell viability and cell cycle were determined with MTT and flow cytometry respectively. ROCK activity, ERK activity and protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear angigen (PCNA) and p27Kip1 were measured by immunoblotting.Results By MTT assay, PDGF significantly increased the OD value that represented human PASMC proliferation, and pretreatment with fasudil significantly reversed this effect in a dose-dependent manner. After PDGF stimulation, the percentage of cells in S phase increased dramatically from 15.6% to 24.3%, while the percentage in G0/G1 phase was reduced from 80.6% to 59%. And pretreatment with fasudil reversed the cell cycle effect of PDGF significantly in a dose-dependent manner. PDGF markedly induced ROCK activity and ERK activity with a peak at 15 minutes, which were significantly inhibited by fasudil. In addition, fasudil significantly inhibited PDGF-induced PCNA expression and fasudil also upregulated p27Kip1 expression in human PASMCs, which decreased after PDGF stimulation.Conclusion RhoA/ROCK is vital for PDFG-induced human PASMC proliferation, and fasudil effectively inhibited PDGF-induced human PASMC proliferation by up-regulation of p27Kip1, which may be associated with inhibition of ERK activity.

  8. Up-regulation of Hsp27 by ERα/Sp1 facilitates proliferation and confers resistance to apoptosis in human papillary thyroid cancer cells.

    Mo, Xiao-Mei; Li, Li; Zhu, Ping; Dai, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Liao, Ling-Yao; Chen, George G; Liu, Zhi-Min

    2016-08-15

    17β-estradiol (E2) has been suggested to play a role in the development and progression of papillary thyroid cancer. Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a member of the Hsp family that is responsible for cell survival under stressful conditions. Previous studies have shown that the 5'-promoter region of Hsp27 gene contains a specificity protein-1 (Spl) and estrogen response element half-site (ERE-half), which contributes to Hsp27 induction by E2 in breast cancer cells. However, it is unclear whether Hsp27 can be up-regulated by E2 and which estrogen receptor (ER) isoform and tethered transcription factor are involved in this regulation in papillary thyroid cancer cells. In the present study, we demonstrated that Hsp27 can be effectively up-regulated by E2 at mRNA and protein levels in human K1 and BCPAP papillary thyroid cancer cells which have more than two times higher level of ERα than that of ERβ. The up-regulation of Hsp27 by E2 is mediated by ERα/Sp1 and ERβ has repressive effect on this ERα/Sp1-mediated up-regulation of Hsp27. Moreover, we showed that the up-regulation of Hsp27 by ERα/Sp1 facilitates proliferation and confers resistance to apoptosis through interaction with procaspase-3. Targeting this pathway may be a potential strategy for therapy of papillary thyroid cancer. PMID:27179757

  9. Reduced In-Plane, Low Frequency Helicopter Noise of an Active Flap Rotor

    Sim, Ben W.; Janakiram, Ram D.; Barbely, Natasha L.; Solis, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Results from a recent joint DARPA/Boeing/NASA/Army wind tunnel test demonstrated the ability to reduce in-plane, low frequency noise of the full-scale Boeing-SMART rotor using active flaps. Test data reported in this paper illustrated that acoustic energy in the first six blade-passing harmonics could be reduced by up to 6 decibels at a moderate airspeed, level flight condition corresponding to advance ratio of 0.30. Reduced noise levels were attributed to selective active flap schedules that modified in-plane blade airloads on the advancing side of the rotor, in a manner, which generated counteracting acoustic pulses that partially offset the negative pressure peaks associated with in-plane, steady thickness noise. These favorable reduced-noise operating states are a strong function of the active flap actuation amplitude, frequency and phase. The associated noise reductions resulted in reduced aural detection distance by up to 18%, but incurred significant vibratory load penalties due to increased hub shear forces. Small reductions in rotor lift-to-drag ratios, of no more than 3%, were also measured

  10. Fluoxetine up-regulates expression of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein and inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis in hippocampus-derived neural stem cell

    Fluoxetine is a widely used antidepressant compound which inhibits the reuptake of serotonin in the central nervous system. Recent studies have shown that fluoxetine can promote neurogenesis and improve the survival rate of neurons. However, whether fluoxetine modulates the proliferation or neuroprotection effects of neural stem cells (NSCs) needs to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that 20 μM fluoxetine can increase the cell proliferation of NSCs derived from the hippocampus of adult rats by MTT test. The up-regulated expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) in fluoxetine-treated NSCs was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Our results further showed that fluoxetine protects the lipopolysaccharide-induced apoptosis in NSCs, in part, by activating the expression of c-FLIP. Moreover, c-FLIP induction by fluoxetine requires the activation of the c-FLIP promoter region spanning nucleotides -414 to -133, including CREB and SP1 sites. This effect appeared to involve the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-dependent pathway. Furthermore, fluoxetine treatment significantly inhibited the induction of proinflammatory factor IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in the culture medium of LPS-treated NSCs (p < 0.01). The results of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection further confirmed that fluoxentine increased the functional production of serotonin in NSCs. Together, these data demonstrate the specific activation of c-FLIP by fluoxetine and indicate the novel role of fluoxetine for neuroprotection in the treatment of depression

  11. Alleviation of hepatic fat accumulation by betaine involves reduction of homocysteine via up-regulation of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT).

    Ahn, Chul Won; Jun, Doo Sung; Na, Jong Deok; Choi, Yeo Jin; Kim, Young Chul

    2016-08-26

    We investigated the anti-lipogenic effect of betaine in rats fed methionine and choline-deficient diet (MCD). Intake of MCD for 3 wk resulted in a significant accumulation of hepatic lipids, which was prevented by betaine supplementation in drinking water (1%). Phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and liver kinase B1 (LKB1) was inhibited by MCD intake, and these changes were all inhibited by betaine feeding. Meanwhile, betaine supplementation reversed the reduction of methionine and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), and the elevation of homocysteine levels in the liver, which could be attributable to the induction of betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) and methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). Different cell lines were used to clarify the role of homocysteine on activation of the AMPK pathway. Homocysteine treatment decreased pAMPK, pACC, pSREBP-1c and pLKB1 in HepG2 cells. Metformin-induced activation of AMPK was also inhibited by homocysteine. Treatment with hydroxylamine, a cystathionine β-synthase inhibitor, resulted in a reduction of pAMPK, pACC and pSREBP-1c, accompanied by an elevation of intracellular homocysteine. Betaine treatment prevented the homocysteine-induced reduction of pAMPK, pACC, pSREBP-1c and pLKB1 in H4IIE cells, but not in HepG2 cells. Also the elevation of cellular homocysteine and inhibition of protein expression of BHMT were prevented by betaine only in H4IIE cells which express BHMT. The results suggest that the beneficial effect of betaine against hepatic lipid accumulation may be attributed, at least in part, to the depletion of homocysteine via up-regulation of BHMT in hepatocytes. PMID:27320863

  12. Viewing ageing eyes: diverse sites of amyloid Beta accumulation in the ageing mouse retina and the up-regulation of macrophages.

    Jaimie Hoh Kam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyloid beta (Aβ accumulates in the ageing central nervous system and is associated with a number of age-related diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD in the eye. AMD is characterised by accumulation of extracellular deposits called drusen in which Aβ is a key constituent. Aβ activates the complement cascade and its deposition is associated with activated macrophages. So far, little is known about the quantitative measurements of Aβ accumulation and definitions of its relative sites of ocular deposition in the normal ageing mouse. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have traced Aβ accumulation quantitatively in the ageing mouse retina using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. We reveal that it is not only deposited at Bruch's membrane and along blood vessels, but unexpectedly, it also coats photoreceptor outer segments. While Aβ is present at all sites of deposition from 3 months of age, it increases markedly from 6 months onward. Progressive accumulation of deposits on outer segments was confirmed with scanning electron microscopy, revealing age-related changes in their morphology. Such progress of accumulation of Aβ on photoreceptor outer segments with age was also confirmed in human retinae using immunohistochemistry. We also chart the macrophage response to increases in Aβ showing up-regulation in their numbers using both confocal laser imaging of the eye in vivo followed by in vitro immunostaining. With age macrophages become bloated with cellular debris including Aβ, however, their increasing numbers fail to stop Aβ accumulation. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing Aβ deposition in blood vessels and Bruch's membrane will impact upon retinal perfusion and clearance of cellular waste products from the outer retina, a region of very high metabolic activity. This accumulation of Aβ may contribute to the 30% reduction of photoreceptors found throughout life and the shortening of those that remain. The

  13. Altered biomarkers of mucosal immunity and reduced vaginal Lactobacillus concentrations in sexually active female adolescents.

    Rebecca Pellett Madan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genital secretions collected from adult women exhibit in vitro activity against herpes simplex virus (HSV and Escherichia coli (E. coli, but prior studies have not investigated this endogenous antimicrobial activity or its mediators in adolescent females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Anti-HSV and anti-E.coli activity were quantified from cervicovaginal lavage (CVL specimens collected from 20 sexually active adolescent females (15-18 years. Soluble immune mediators that may influence this activity were measured in CVL, and concentrations of Lactobacillus jensenii and crispatus were quantified by PCR from vaginal swabs. Results for adolescents were compared to those obtained from 54 healthy, premenopausal adult women. Relative to specimens collected from adults, CVL collected from adolescent subjects had significantly reduced activity against E. coli and diminished concentrations of protein, IgG, and IgA but significantly increased anti-HSV activity and concentrations of interleukin (IL-1α, IL-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonist. Vaginal swabs collected from adolescent subjects had comparable concentrations of L. crispatus but significantly reduced concentrations of L. jensenii, relative to adult swabs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Biomarkers of genital mucosal innate immunity may differ substantially between sexually active adolescents and adult women. These findings warrant further study and may have significant implications for prevention of sexually transmitted infections in adolescent females.

  14. Active Lubrication: Feasibility and Limitations on Reducing Vibration in Rotating Machinery

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, experimental results show the feasibility of reducing the amplitude of resonance peaks in rotor-bearing test rig, in the frequency domain, by using active lubricated bearings. The most important consequence of this vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility o...

  15. Active Lubrication: Feasibility and Limitations on Reducing Vibration in Rotating Machinery

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, experimental results show the feasibility of reducing the amplitude of resonance peaks in rotor-bearing test rig, in the frequency domain, by using active lubricated bearings. The most important consequence of this vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility o...

  16. Why low powdered activated carbon addition reduces membrane fouling in MBRs

    Remy, M.J.J.; Potier, V.; Temmink, B.G.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research had demonstrated that powdered activated carbon (PAC), when applied at very low dosages and long SRTs, reduces membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBRs). In this contribution several mechanisms to explain this beneficial effect of PAC were investigated, including enhanced scou

  17. Tensile and impact behaviour of BATMAN II steels, Ti-bearing reduced activation martensitic alloys

    Filacchioni, G.; Casagrande, E.; De Angelis, U.; De Santis, G.; Ferrara, D.; Pilloni, L.

    Two series of Reduced Activation Ferrous alloys (RAF) have been produced and studied by Casaccia's Laboratories. These martensitic alloys are named BATMAN steels. They are among the few presently developed RAF materials to exploit Ti as a carbide forming and grain size stabilizing element instead of Ta. In this work their mechanical properties are illustrated.

  18. Initial Evaluation of Active Minds: A Student Organization Dedicated to Reducing the Stigma of Mental Illness

    McKinney, Kathleen G.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether a new student organization, Active Minds, aimed at increasing awareness of "mental illness" and reducing stigma had an impact on students' stigma and willingness to seek psychological help. Three classes were recruited to become involved in the organization. In a pretest/posttest design, stigma and willingness to seek…

  19. Reducing GBA2 activity ameliorates neuropathology in niemann-pick type C mice

    A.R.A. Marques (André); J. Aten (Jan); R. Ottenhoff (Roelof); C.P.A.A. van Roomen (Cindy); D. Herrera Moro (Daniela); N. Claessen (Nike); M.F. Vinueza Veloz (Maria); K. Zhou (Kuikui); Z. Lin (Zhanmin); M. Mirzaian (Mina); R.G. Boot (Rolf); C.I. de Zeeuw (Chris); H.S. Overkleeft (Herman); Y. Yildiz (Yildiz); J.M.F.G. Aerts (Johannes)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA) hydrolyses glucosylceramide (GlcCer) in lysosomes. Markedly reduced GBA activity is associated with severe manifestations of Gaucher disease including neurological involvement. Mutations in the GBA gene have recently also been identified as major genet

  20. Reducing GBA2 Activity Ameliorates Neuropathology in Niemann-Pick Type C Mice

    Marques, André R A; Aten, Jan; Ottenhoff, Roelof; van Roomen, Cindy P A A; Herrera Moro, Daniela; Claessen, Nike; Vinueza Veloz, María Fernanda; Zhou, Kuikui; Lin, Zhanmin; Mirzaian, Mina; Boot, Rolf G; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Overkleeft, Herman S; Yildiz, Yildiz; Aerts, Johannes M F G

    2015-01-01

    The enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GBA) hydrolyses glucosylceramide (GlcCer) in lysosomes. Markedly reduced GBA activity is associated with severe manifestations of Gaucher disease including neurological involvement. Mutations in the GBA gene have recently also been identified as major genetic risk fact

  1. Triphlorethol-A from Ecklonia cava Up-Regulates the Oxidant Sensitive 8-Oxoguanine DNA Glycosylase 1

    Ki Cheon Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the protective mechanisms of triphlorethol-A, isolated from Ecklonia cava, against oxidative stress-induced DNA base damage, especially 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG, in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast V79-4 cells. 8-Oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1 plays an important role in the removal of 8-oxoG during the cellular response to DNA base damage. Triphlorethol-A significantly decreased the levels of 8-oxoG induced by H2O2, and this correlated with increases in OGG1 mRNA and OGG1 protein levels. Furthermore, siOGG1-transfected cell attenuated the protective effect of triphlorethol-A against H2O2 treatment. Nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 (Nrf2 is a transcription factor for OGG1, and Nrf2 combines with small Maf proteins in the nucleus to bind to antioxidant response elements (ARE in the upstream promoter region of the OGG1 gene. Triphlorethol-A restored the expression of nuclear Nrf2, small Maf protein, and the Nrf2-Maf complex, all of which were reduced by oxidative stress. Furthermore, triphlorethol-A increased Nrf2 binding to ARE sequences and the resulting OGG1 promoter activity, both of which were also reduced by oxidative stress. The levels of the phosphorylated forms of Akt kinase, downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K, and Erk, which are regulators of OGG1, were sharply decreased by oxidative stress, but these decreases were prevented by triphlorethol-A. Specific PI3K, Akt, and Erk inhibitors abolished the cytoprotective effects of triphlorethol-A, suggesting that OGG1 induction by triphlorethol-A involves the PI3K/Akt and Erk pathways. Taken together, these data indicate that by activating the DNA repair system, triphlorethol-A exerts protective effects against DNA base damage induced by oxidative stress.

  2. Activation of aluminum as an effective reducing agent by pitting corrosion for wet-chemical synthesis.

    Li, Wei; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Metallic aluminum (Al) is of interest as a reducing agent because of its low standard reduction potential. However, its surface is invariably covered with a dense aluminum oxide film, which prevents its effective use as a reducing agent in wet-chemical synthesis. Pitting corrosion, known as an undesired reaction destroying Al and is enhanced by anions such as F⁻, Cl⁻, and Br⁻ in aqueous solutions, is applied here for the first time to activate Al as a reducing agent for wet-chemical synthesis of a diverse array of metals and alloys. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles on carbon black with stabilizers and the intermetallic Cu₂Sb/C, which are promising candidates, respectively, for fuel cell catalysts and lithium-ion battery anodes. Atomic hydrogen, an intermediate during the pitting corrosion of Al in protonic solvents (e.g., water and ethylene glycol), is validated as the actual reducing agent. PMID:23390579

  3. Reduced striatal ecto-nucleotidase activity in schizophrenia patients supports the "adenosine hypothesis".

    Aliagas, Elisabet; Villar-Menéndez, Izaskun; Sévigny, Jean; Roca, Mercedes; Romeu, Miriam; Ferrer, Isidre; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Barrachina, Marta

    2013-12-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a major chronic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a hyperdopaminergic state. The hypoadenosinergic hypothesis proposes that reduced extracellular adenosine levels contribute to dopamine D2 receptor hyperactivity. ATP, through the action of ecto-nucleotidases, constitutes a main source of extracellular adenosine. In the present study, we examined the activity of ecto-nucleotidases (NTPDases, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and alkaline phosphatase) in the postmortem putamen of SZ patients (n = 13) compared with aged-matched controls (n = 10). We firstly demonstrated, by means of artificial postmortem delay experiments, that ecto-nucleotidase activity in human brains was stable up to 24 h, indicating the reliability of this tissue for these enzyme determinations. Remarkably, NTPDase-attributable activity (both ATPase and ADPase) was found to be reduced in SZ patients, while ecto-5'-nucleotidase and alkaline phosphatase activity remained unchanged. In the present study, we also describe the localization of these ecto-enzymes in human putamen control samples, showing differential expression in blood vessels, neurons, and glial cells. In conclusion, reduced striatal NTPDase activity may contribute to the pathophysiology of SZ, and it represents a potential mechanism of adenosine signalling impairment in this illness. PMID:23771238

  4. Reduced mitochondria cytochrome oxidase activity in adult children of mothers with Alzheimer's disease.

    Mosconi, Lisa; de Leon, Mony; Murray, John; E, Lezi; Lu, Jianghua; Javier, Elizabeth; McHugh, Pauline; Swerdlow, Russell H

    2011-01-01

    Biomarker studies demonstrate inheritance of glucose hypometabolism and increased amyloid-β deposition in adult offspring of mothers, but not fathers, affected by late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). The underlying genetic mechanisms are unknown. We investigated whether cognitively normal (NL) individuals with a maternal history of LOAD (MH) have reduced platelet mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase activity (COX, electron transport chain complex IV) compared to those with paternal (PH) or negative family history (NH). Thirty-six consecutive NL individuals (age 55 ± 15 y, range 27-71 y, 56% female, CDR = 0, MMSE ≥28, 28% APOE-4 carriers), including 12 NH, 12 PH, and 12 MH, received a blood draw to measure platelet mitochondrial COX activity. Citrate synthase activity (CS) was measured as a reference. Groups were comparable for clinical and neuropsychological measures. We found that after correcting for CS, COX activity was reduced by 29% in MH compared to NH, and by 30% in MH compared to PH (p ≤ 0.006). Results remained significant controlling for age, gender, education, and APOE. No differences were found between PH and NH. COX measures discriminated MH from the other groups with accuracy ≥75%, and relative risk ≥3 (p ≤ 0.005). Among NL with LOAD-parents, only those with MH showed reduced COX activity in platelet mitochondria compared to PH and NH. The association between maternal history of LOAD and systemic COX reductions suggests transmission via mitochondrial DNA, which is exclusively maternally inherited in humans. PMID:21841246

  5. Suppressing emotions impairs subsequent stroop performance and reduces prefrontal brain activation.

    Malte Friese

    Full Text Available Abundant behavioral evidence suggests that the ability to self-control is limited, and that any exertion of self-control will increase the likelihood of subsequent self-control failures. Here we investigated the neural correlates underlying the aftereffects of self-control on future control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. An initial act of self-control (suppressing emotions impaired subsequent performance in a second task requiring control (Stroop task. On the neural level, increased activity during emotion suppression was followed by a relative decrease in activity during the Stroop task in a cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, an area engaged in the effortful implementation of control. There was no reliable evidence for reduced activity in the medial frontal cortex (MFC including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, which is involved in conflict detection processes and has previously also been implicated in self-control. Follow-up analyses showed that the detected cluster in the right lateral PFC and an area in the MFC were involved in both the emotion suppression task and the Stroop task, but only the cluster in the right lateral PFC showed reduced activation after emotion suppression during the Stroop task. Reduced activity in lateral prefrontal areas relevant for the implementation of control may be a critical consequence of prior self-control exertion if the respective areas are involved in both self-control tasks.

  6. Experimental investigation on the active range of sulfate-reducing bacteria for geological disposal

    The active range of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a species of sulfate-reducing bacteria, was examined in terms of pH and Eh using a fermenter at controlled pH and Eh. Such research is important because sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are thought to exist underground at depths equal to those of supposed repositories for high-level radioactive wastes and to be capable of inducing corrosion of the metals used in containment vessels. SRB activity was estimated at 35 C, with lactate as an electron donor, at a pH range from 7 to 11 and Eh range from 0 to -380 mV. Activity increased as pH approached neutral and Eh declined. The upper pH limit for activity was between 9.9 and 10.3, at Eh of -360 to -384 mV. The upper Eh limit for activity was between -68 and -3 mV, at pH 7.1. These results show that SRB can be made active at higher pH by decreasing Eh, and that the higher pH levels of 8 to 10 produced by use of the buffer material bentonite does not suppress SRB completely. A chart was obtained showing the active range of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in terms of pH and Eh. Such charts can be used to estimate the viability of SRB and other microorganisms when the environmental conditions of a repository are specified

  7. Neurodegeneration in Autoimmune Optic Neuritis Is Associated with Altered APP Cleavage in Neurons and Up-Regulation of p53.

    Sabine Herold

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS. Histopathological and radiological analysis revealed that neurodegeneration occurs early in the disease course. However, the pathological mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE in Brown Norway rats (BN-rats is a well-established animal model, especially of the neurodegenerative aspects of MS. Previous studies in this animal model indicated that loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, the neurons that form the axons of the optic nerve, occurs in the preclinical phase of the disease and is in part independent of overt histopathological changes of the optic nerve. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify genes which are involved in neuronal cell loss at different disease stages of EAE. Furthermore, genes that are highly specific for autoimmune-driven neurodegeneration were compared to those regulated in RGCs after optic nerve axotomy at corresponding time points. Using laser capture micro dissection we isolated RNA from unfixed RGCs and performed global transcriptome analysis of retinal neurons. In total, we detected 582 genes sequentially expressed in the preclinical phase and 1150 genes in the clinical manifest EAE (P 1.5. Furthermore, using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA, we identified amyloid precursor protein (APP as a potential upstream regulator of changes in gene expression in the preclinical EAE but neither in clinical EAE, nor at any time point after optic nerve transection. Therefore, the gene pathway analysis lead to the hypothesis that altered cleavage of APP in neurons in the preclinical phase of EAE leads to the enhanced production of APP intracellular domain (AICD, which in turn acts as a transcriptional regulator and thereby initiates an apoptotic signaling cascade via up-regulation of the target gene p

  8. Transcriptome Profiling Revealed Stress-Induced and Disease Resistance Genes Up-Regulated in PRSV Resistant Transgenic Papaya.

    Fang, Jingping; Lin, Aiting; Qiu, Weijing; Cai, Hanyang; Umar, Muhammad; Chen, Rukai; Ming, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Papaya is a productive and nutritious tropical fruit. Papaya Ringspot Virus (PRSV) is the most devastating pathogen threatening papaya production worldwide. Development of transgenic resistant varieties is the most effective strategy to control this disease. However, little is known about the genome-wide functional changes induced by particle bombardment transformation. We conducted transcriptome sequencing of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya SunUp and its PRSV susceptible progenitor Sunset to compare the transcriptional changes in young healthy leaves prior to infection with PRSV. In total, 20,700 transcripts were identified, and 842 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) randomly distributed among papaya chromosomes. Gene ontology (GO) category analysis revealed that microtubule-related categories were highly enriched among these DEGs. Numerous DEGs related to various transcription factors, transporters and hormone biosynthesis showed clear differences between the two cultivars, and most were up-regulated in transgenic papaya. Many known and novel stress-induced and disease-resistance genes were most highly expressed in SunUp, including MYB, WRKY, ERF, NAC, nitrate and zinc transporters, and genes involved in the abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and ethylene signaling pathways. We also identified 67,686 alternative splicing (AS) events in Sunset and 68,455 AS events in SunUp, mapping to 10,994 and 10,995 papaya annotated genes, respectively. GO enrichment for the genes displaying AS events exclusively in Sunset was significantly different from those in SunUp. Transcriptomes in Sunset and transgenic SunUp are very similar with noteworthy differences, which increased PRSV-resistance in transgenic papaya. No detrimental pathways and allergenic or toxic proteins were induced on a genome-wide scale in transgenic SunUp. Our results provide a foundation for unraveling the mechanism of PRSV resistance in transgenic papaya. PMID:27379138

  9. Progesterone receptor up-regulation: a diagnostic tool for the illicit use of oestrogens in adult beef cattle.

    Divari, S; Mulasso, C; Uslenghi, F; Cannizzo, F T; Spada, F; De Maria, R; Brina, N; Biolatti, B

    2011-12-01

    The monitoring of gene regulation via mRNA levels to detect anabolic sex steroid administration in cattle is a novel approach to detecting the illicit treatment of livestock in meat production. A previous study revealed that progesterone receptor (PR) gene expression levels were increased in the bulbourethral glands and prostates of 17β-oestradiol-treated prepubertal calves, suggesting that the PR can be used as a specific molecular biomarker for oestrogen treatment. The aim of this study was to verify the specificity and applicability of the PR to detect the illegal use of 17β-oestradiol in sexually mature beef cattle. Accessory sex glands were sampled from 42 male beef cattle that were divided into six experimental groups, including two control groups, K1 and K2. Group A cattle were treated with 17β-oestradiol (five weekly intramuscular doses of 20 mg), and group B cattle were treated with dexamethasone (40 daily doses of 0.7 mg per os). Group C cattle received an implant of Revalor-200 (200 mg of trenbolone acetate and 20 mg of 17β-oestradiol), and group D cattle received Revalor-200 plus dexamethasone (0.7 mg daily per os). 17β-Oestradiol, either alone or in combination with other steroids, up-regulated the PR gene and protein expression, even in the absence of detectable histological changes in the accessory sex glands, confirming the high sensitivity of PR gene expression as an indirect diagnostic screening tool to detect illicit oestrogen treatment in sexually mature male bovine. PMID:22014147

  10. IL-5 Up-regulates the Expression of TGF-β1 in Human Blood Eosinophils in Vitro

    HUANG Yabing; LIU Bin; WANG Lu; LI Rong; ZHU Min; CHEN Dong; CHEN Shi

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of IL-5 on the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, eosinophils were incubated in the presence of the same concentrations of IL-4, IL-5 and IFNγ, different concentrations of IL-5 in vitro and changes of eosinophil viability were assessed by trypan blue exclusion. Non-cytokine was employed as a negative control. 16 h after the cultivation, supernatants and cells were assayed by using TGF-β1 specific ELISA and RT-PCR. The mRNA expression and protein expresssion of TGF-β1 in eosinophils stimulated with different cytokines was observed.The expression of TGF-β1 protein in eosinophils was increased significantly by IL-4 (433.67±9.86vs 228.9±2.87) and IL-5 (403. 72±7.60 vs 228.9±2.87, P<0.05), while decreased by IFNγ (178.47±2.60 vs 228.9±2.87). At the same time, the results demonstrated that the basal level of TGF expression was enhanced by IL5 in all samples (P<0.05). The expression of TGF β1 mRNA was 1.42, 1. 70, 1. 76-folds higher than that of the non-stimulated controls. It is concluded that IL-5 can up-regulate the expression of TGF-β1 in eosinophils in vitro, which might have effect in eosinophil-associated chronic rejection.

  11. Olfactory discrimination training up-regulates and reorganizes expression of microRNAs in adult mouse hippocampus

    Neil R Smalheiser

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Adult male mice (strain C57Bl/6J were trained to execute nose-poke responses for water reinforcement; then they were randomly assigned to either of two groups: olfactory discrimination training (exposed to two odours with reward contingent upon correctly responding to one odour or pseudo-training (exposed to two odours with reward not contingent upon response. These were run in yoked fashion and killed when the discrimination-trained mouse reached a learning criterion of 70% correct responses in 20 trials, occurring after three sessions (a total of ∼40 min of training. The hippocampus was dissected bilaterally from each mouse (N = 7 in each group and profiling of 585 miRNAs (microRNAs was carried out using multiplex RT–PCR (reverse transcription–PCR plates. A significant global up-regulation of miRNA expression was observed in the discrimination training versus pseudo-training comparison; when tested individually, 29 miRNAs achieved significance at P = 0.05. miR-10a showed a 2.7-fold increase with training, and is predicted to target several learning-related mRNAs including BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, CAMK2b (calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIβ, CREB1 (cAMP-response-element-binding protein 1 and ELAVL2 [ELAV (embryonic lethal, abnormal vision, Drosophila-like; Hu B]. Analysis of miRNA pairwise correlations revealed the existence of several miRNA co-expression modules that were specific to the training group. These in vivo results indicate that significant, dynamic and co-ordinated changes in miRNA expression accompany early stages of learning.

  12. Up- regulation of miR-328-3p sensitizes non-small cell lung cancer to radiotherapy.

    Ma, Wei; Ma, Chao-Nan; Zhou, Nan-Nan; Li, Xian-Dong; Zhang, Yi-Jie

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are believed to be resistant against radiotherapy in certain types of cancers. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical application of miRNAs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Sixty NSCLC tissue samples and adjacent histologically normal tissues were obtained for miRNAs microarray analysis and validated by RT-qPCR. Correlation between miRNA expression level and clinicopathological features was evaluated. Our study examined the influence of changed miRNA expression on the damaged DNA and its associated radio sensitivity. Luciferase assay was performed to determine potential effects on the targeted gene. Our study identified fifteen altered miRNAs in which miR-328-3p was down regulated in NSCLC tumour tissue as compared to normal tissues. Down-expression of miR-328-3p was positively associated with an enhanced lymph node metastasis, advanced clinical stage and a shortened survival rate. miR-328-3p expression was decreased in A549 cells compared to other NSCLC cell lines. Up-regulation of miR-328-3p demonstrated a survival inhibition effect in A549 and restored NSCLC cells' sensitivity to radio therapy. An increased miR-328-3p expression promoted irradiation-induced DNA damage in cells. γ-H2AX was identified as the direct target of miR-328-3p. Over-expressed miR-328-3p can improve the radiosensitvity of cells by altering the DNA damage/repair signalling pathways in NSCLC. PMID:27530148

  13. Natriuretic Peptide Receptor-C is Up-Regulated in the Intima of Advanced Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis

    Zayed, Mohamed A; Harring, Scott D; Abendschein, Dana R; Vemuri, Chandu; Lu, Dongsi; Detering, Lisa; Liu, Yongjian; Woodard, Pamela K

    2016-01-01

    Objective Natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C/NPR-3) is a cell surface protein involved in vascular remodelling that is up-regulated in atherosclerosis. NPR-C expression has not been well characterized in human carotid artery occlusive lesions. We hypothesized that NPR-C expression correlates with intimal features of vulnerable atherosclerotic carotid artery plaque. Methods To test this hypothesis, we evaluated NPR-C expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in carotid endarterectomy (CEA) specimens isolated from 18 patients. The grade, location, and co-localization of NPR-C in CEA specimens were evaluated using two tissue analysis techniques. Results Relative to minimally diseased CEA specimens, we observed avid NPR-C tissue staining in the intima of maximally diseased CEA specimens (65%; p=0.06). Specifically, maximally diseased CEA specimens demonstrated increased NPR-C expression in the superficial intima (61%, p=0.17), and deep intima (138% increase; p=0.05). In the superficial intima, NPR-C expression significantly co-localized with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and macrophages. The intensity of NPR-C expression was also higher in the superficial intima plaque shoulder and cap regions, and significantly correlated with atheroma and fibroatheroma vulnerable plaque regions (β=1.04, 95% CI=0.46, 1.64). Conclusion These findings demonstrate significant NPR-C expression in the intima of advanced carotid artery plaques. Furthermore, NPR-C expression was higher in vulnerable carotid plaque intimal regions, and correlate with features of advanced disease. Our findings suggest that NPR-C may serve as a potential biomarker for carotid plaque vulnerability and progression, in patients with advanced carotid artery occlusive disease.

  14. IGF-II is up-regulated and myofibres are hypertrophied in regenerating soleus of mice lacking FGF6

    Important functions in myogenesis have been proposed for FGF6, a member of the fibroblast growth factor family accumulating almost exclusively in the myogenic lineage. However, the use of FGF6(-/-) mutant mice gave contradictory results and the role of FGF6 during myogenesis remains largely unclear. Using FGF6(-/-) mice, we first analysed the morphology of the regenerated soleus following cardiotoxin injection and showed hypertrophied myofibres in soleus of the mutant mice as compared to wild-type mice. Secondly, to examine the function of the IGF family in the hypertrophy process, we used semiquantitative and real-time RT-PCR assays and Western blots to monitor the expression of the insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), their receptors [type I IGF receptor (IGF1R) and IGF-II receptor (IGF2R)], and of a binding protein IGFBP-5 in regenerating soleus muscles of FGF6(-/-) knockout mice vs. wild-type mice. In the mutant, both IGF-II and IGF2R, but not IGF-I and IGF1R, were strongly up-regulated, whereas IGFBP5 was down-regulated, strongly suggesting that, in the absence of FGF6, the mechanisms leading to myofibre hypertrophy were mediated specifically by an IGF-II/IGF2R signalling pathway distinct from the classic mechanism involving IGF-I and IGF1R previously described for skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The potential regulating role of IGFBP5 on IGF-II expression is also discussed. This report shows for the first time a specific role for FGF6 in the regulation of myofibre size during a process of in vivo myogenesis

  15. New recombinant bacterium comprises a heterologous gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase and/or an up-regulated native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase, useful for producing ethanol

    2010-01-01

    TECHNOLOGY FOCUS - BIOTECHNOLOGY - Preparation (claimed): Producing recombinant bacterium having enhanced ethanol production characteristics when cultivated in growth medium comprising glycerol comprises: (a) transforming a parental bacterium by (i) the insertion of a heterologous gene encoding...... glycerol dehydrogenase; and/or (ii) up-regulating a native gene encoding glycerol dehydrogenase; and (b) obtaining the recombinant bacterium. Preferred Bacterium: In the recombinant bacterium above, the inserted heterologous gene and/or the up-regulated native gene is encoding a glycerol dehydrogenase...... dehydrogenase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into a phosphotransacetylase encoding region of the bacterium, or is inserted into an acetate kinase encoding region of the bacterium. It is operably linked to an inducible, a regulated or a constitutive promoter. The up-regulated glycerol...

  16. Up-regulation of ERG11 gene among fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans generated in vitro: is there any clinical implication?

    Ribeiro, Mariceli Araujo; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    A well-characterized matched pair of fluconazole (FLU)-susceptible and FLU-resistant isolates, in addition to a clinical resistant isolate, was analyzed. It was found a differential expression of genes: the resistant strains experimentally induced after fluconazole exposure in vitro were associated mainly with up-regulation of ERG11 gene and a clear trailing growth in broth microdilution tests, whereas the isolate with clinically acquired resistance expressed constitutively high level of CDR gene and fluconazole MIC >64 mg mL(-1) within 24 h of incubation. The phenotype of resistant cells generated in vitro was reversible, implying that an induced transcriptional up-regulation of ERG genes would be one adaptive mechanism allowing the cells to grow in the presence of azole drugs. These drugs could have a potential role in modulating genes whose up-regulation would allow cells to remain in the hosts, providing a source for further development of resistance. PMID:16839736

  17. Reduced hippocampal and amygdala activity predicts memory distortions for trauma reminders in combat-related PTSD.

    Hayes, Jasmeet Pannu; LaBar, Kevin S; McCarthy, Gregory; Selgrade, Elizabeth; Nasser, Jessica; Dolcos, Florin; Morey, Rajendra A

    2011-05-01

    Neurobiological models of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that altered activity in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during encoding of traumatic memories contribute to the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, there is little direct evidence in the PTSD literature to support these models. The goal of the present study was to examine MTL activity during trauma encoding in combat veterans using the subsequent memory paradigm. Fifteen combat veterans diagnosed with PTSD and 14 trauma-exposed control participants viewed trauma-related and neutral pictures while undergoing event-related fMRI. Participants returned one week after scanning for a recognition memory test. Region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel-wise whole brain analyses were conducted to examine the neural correlates of successful memory encoding. Patients with PTSD showed greater false alarm rates for novel lures than the trauma-exposed control group, suggesting reliance on gist-based representations in lieu of encoding contextual details. Imaging analyses revealed reduced activity in the amygdala and hippocampus in PTSD patients during successful encoding of trauma-related stimuli. Reduction in left hippocampal activity was associated with high arousal symptoms on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). The behavioral false alarm rate for traumatic stimuli co-varied with activity in the bilateral precuneus. These results support neurobiological theories positing reduced hippocampal activity under conditions of high stress and arousal. Reduction in MTL activity for successfully encoded stimuli and increased precuneus activity may underlie reduced stimulus-specific encoding and greater gist memory in patients with PTSD, leading to maintenance of the disorder. PMID:21047644

  18. Deletion of Caveolin-1 Protects against Oxidative Lung Injury via Up-Regulation of Heme Oxygenase-1

    Jin, Yang; Kim, Hong Pyo; Chi, Minli; Ifedigbo, Emeka; Ryter, Stefan W.; Choi, Augustine M. K.

    2008-01-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Hyperoxia causes lung injury in animals and humans, and is an established model of ALI. Caveolin-1, a major constituent of caveolae, regulates numerous biological processes, including cell death and proliferation. Here we demonstrate that caveolin-1–null mice (cav-1−/−) were resistant to hyperoxia-induced death and lung injury. Cav-1−/− mice sustained reduced lung injury after hyperoxia as determined by protein levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and histologic analysis. Furthermore, cav-1−/− fibroblasts and endothelial cells and cav-1 knockdown epithelial cells resisted hyperoxia-induced cell death in vitro. Basal and inducible expression of the stress protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were markedly elevated in lung tissue or fibroblasts from cav-1−/− mice. Hyperoxia induced the physical interaction between cav-1 and HO-1 in fibroblasts assessed by co-immunoprecipitation studies, which resulted in attenuation of HO activity. Inhibition of HO activity with tin protoporphyrin-IX abolished the survival benefits of cav-1−/− cells and cav-1−/− mice exposed to hyperoxia. The cav-1−/− mice displayed elevated phospho-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38β expression in lung tissue/cells under basal conditions and during hyperoxia. Treatment with SB202190, an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, decreased hyperoxia-inducible HO-1 expression in wild-type and cav-1−/− fibroblasts. Taken together, our data demonstrated that cav-1 deletion protects against hyperoxia-induced lung injury, involving in part the modulation of the HO-1–cav-1 interaction, and the enhanced induction of HO-1 through a p38 MAPK–mediated pathway. These studies identify caveolin-1 as a novel component involved in hyperoxia-induced lung injury. PMID:18323531

  19. Interplay of ribosomal DNA loci in nucleolar dominance: dominant NORs are up-regulated by chromatin dynamics in the wheat-rye system.

    Manuela Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromatin organizational and topological plasticity, and its functions in gene expression regulation, have been strongly revealed by the analysis of nucleolar dominance in hybrids and polyploids where one parental set of ribosomal RNA (rDNA genes that are clustered in nucleolar organizing regions (NORs, is rendered silent by epigenetic pathways and heterochromatization. However, information on the behaviour of dominant NORs is very sparse and needed for an integrative knowledge of differential gene transcription levels and chromatin specific domain interactions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using molecular and cytological approaches in a wheat-rye addition line (wheat genome plus the rye nucleolar chromosome pair 1R, we investigated transcriptional activity and chromatin topology of the wheat dominant NORs in a nucleolar dominance situation. Herein we report dominant NORs up-regulation in the addition line through quantitative real-time PCR and silver-staining technique. Accompanying this modification in wheat rDNA trascription level, we also disclose that perinucleolar knobs of ribosomal chromatin are almost transcriptionally silent due to the residual detection of BrUTP incorporation in these domains, contrary to the marked labelling of intranucleolar condensed rDNA. Further, by comparative confocal analysis of nuclei probed to wheat and rye NORs, we found that in the wheat-rye addition line there is a significant decrease in the number of wheat-origin perinucleolar rDNA knobs, corresponding to a diminution of the rDNA heterochromatic fraction of the dominant (wheat NORs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that inter-specific interactions leading to wheat-origin NOR dominance results not only on the silencing of rye origin NOR loci, but dominant NORs are also modified in their transcriptional activity and interphase organization. The results show a cross-talk between wheat and rye NORs, mediated by ribosomal chromatin

  20. Up-regulation of p21 and TNF-α is mediated in lycorine-induced death of HL-60 cells

    He Yan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukemia is one of the most life-threatening cancers today, and acute promyelogenous leukemia (APL is a common type of leukemia. Many natural compounds have already been found to exhibit significant anti-tumor effects. Lycorine, a natural alkaloid extracted from Amaryllidaceae, exhibited anti-leukemia effects in vitro and in vivo. The survival rate of HL-60 cells exposed to lycorine was decreased, cell growth was slowed down, and cell regeneration potential was inhibited. HL-60 cells exhibited typical apoptotic characteristic. Lycorine can suppress leukemia growth and reduce cell survival and inducing apoptosis of tumor cells. The purpose of this work is to elucidate the mechanism by which lycorine induces APL cells. Results When HL-60 cells were treated with different concentration of lycorine, the expression of p21 and TNF-α was up-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner as shown by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Lycorine also down-regulated p21-related gene expression, including Cdc2, Cyclin B, Cdk2 and Cyclin E, promoted Bid truncation, decreased IκB phosphorylation and blocked NF-κB nuclear import. Cytochrome c was released from mitochondria as observed with confocal laser microscopy. Conclusions The TNF-α signal transduction pathway and p21-mediated cell-cycle inhibition were involved in the apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by lycorine. These results contribute to the development of new lycorine-based anti-leukemia drugs.

  1. Up-regulation of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling in the spinal cord impairs neural cell migration, neurogenesis, synapse formation, and dendritic spine development

    CAO Fu-jiang; ZHANG Xu; LIU Tao; LI Xia-wen; Mazar Malik; FENG Shi-qing

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway controls many cellular responses such as cell proliferation,migration,differentiation,and death.In the nervous system,emerging evidence also points to a death-promoting role for ERK1/2 in both in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal death.To further investigate how Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 up-regulation may lead to the development of spinal cord injury,we developed a cellular model of Raf/ERK up-regulation by overexpressing c-Raf in cultured spinal cord neurons (SCNs) and dorsal root ganglions (DRGs).Methods DRGs and SCNs were prepared from C57BL/6J mouse pups.DRGs or SCNs were infected with Ad-Raf-1 or Ad-Null adenovirus alone.Cell adhesion assay and cell migration assay were investigated,Dil labeling was employed to examine the effect of the up-regulation of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling on the dendritic formation of spinal neurons.We used the TO-PRO-3 staining to examine the apoptotic effect of c-Raf on DRGs or SCNs.The effect on the synapse formation of neurons was measured by using immunofluorescence.Results We found that Raf/ERK up-regulation stimulates the migration of both SCNs and DRGs,and impairs the formation of excitatory synapses in SCNs.In addition,we found that Raf/ERK up-regulation inhibits the development of mature dendritic spines in SCNs.Investigating the possible mechanisms through which Raf/ERK up-regulation affects the excitatory synapse formation and dendritic spine development,we discovered that Raf/ERK up-regulation suppresses the development and maturation of SCNs.Conclusion The up-regulation of the Raf/ERK signaling pathway may contribute to the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury through both its impairment of the SCN development and causing neural circuit imbalances.

  2. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) Up-regulates Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) Production in Human Tumor Cells: Exploring the Functional Significance in Tumor Cell Invasion

    John, Anitha S.; Hu, Xioulong; Rothman, Vicki L.; Tuszynski, George P.

    2009-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a matrix-bound adhesive glycoprotein, has been shown to modulate tumor progression. We previously demonstrated that TSP-1 up-regulates matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our studies suggested that the balance between MMPs and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) is a key determinant in tumor cell invasion. We now report that TSP-1 up-regulates TIMP-1 expression in both human breast and prostate cancer cell lines. The effect of TSP-1 on TIMP-1 expre...

  3. Pertussis toxin analog with reduced enzymatic and biological activities is a protective immunogen.

    Kimura, A; Mountzouros, K T; Schad, P A; Cieplak, W; Cowell, J L

    1990-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis TOX3201 has a 12-base-pair insertion in the S1 subunit gene of pertussis toxin (PTX), which encodes for a 4-amino-acid insertion between residues 107 and 108 of the mature S1 subunit (Black et al., Science 240:656-659, 1988). This mutant strain has been shown to secrete a holotoxin analog of PTX, designated CRM3201, with reduced ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. In the present study, we evaluated the biochemical, biological, and immunoprotective activities of purified CRM3201. Assay of enzymatic activities showed that CRM3201 had 20 to 30% of the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and 55 to 60% of the NAD glycohydrolase activity of native PTX. CRM3201, however, had only 2 to 6% of the activity of PTX in clustering CHO cells, promoting leukocytosis, inducing histamine sensitization, and potentiating an anaphylactic response to bovine serum albumin. In contrast, activities associated with the B oligomer (binding to fetuin, hemagglutination of goose erythrocytes, and lymphocyte mitogen activity) were comparable to those of native PTX. Injection of BALB/c mice with CRM3201 mixed with Al(OH)3 elicited high titers of antibody to PTX (as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), which neutralized a leukocytosis-promoting dose of PTX in these mice and neutralized PTX in a CHO cell assay. Passive transfer of the anti-CRM3201 antibody protected 20-day-old Swiss-Webster mice against a lethal aerosol challenge with B. pertussis 18323. Active immunization with CRM3201 significantly reduced lung colonization in adult BALB/c mice with a B. pertussis respiratory infection. These results demonstrate (i) that the reduced ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of CRM3201 is associated with reductions in certain biological and toxic activities of PTX (the enzymatic and biological activities are not, however, totally concordant); (ii) that CRM3201 possesses a functional B oligomer; and (iii) that CRM3201 can induce toxin-neutralizing antibodies which protect mice

  4. Low Amount of Salinomycin Greatly Increases Akt Activation, but Reduces Activated p70S6K Levels

    Sungpil Yoon

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study identified a novel salinomycin (Sal-sensitization mechanism in cancer cells. We analyzed the signal proteins Akt, Jnk, p38, Jak, and Erk1/2 in cancer cell lines that had arrested growth following low amounts of Sal treatment. We also tested the signal molecules PI3K, PDK1, GSK3β, p70S6K, mTOR, and PTEN to analyze the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The results showed that Sal sensitization positively correlates with large reductions in p70S6K activation. Interestingly, Akt was the only signal protein to be significantly activated by Sal treatment. The Akt activation appeared to require the PI3K pathway as its activation was abolished by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and wortmannin. The Akt activation by Sal was conserved in the other cell lines analyzed, which originated from other organs. Both Akt activation and C-PARP production were proportionally increased with increased doses of Sal. In addition, the increased levels of pAkt were not reduced over the time course of the experiment. Co-treatment with Akt inhibitors sensitized the Sal-treated cancer cells. The results thereby suggest that Akt activation is increased in cells that survive Sal treatment and resist the cytotoxic effect of Sal. Taken together; these results indicate that Akt activation may promote the resistance of cancer cells to Sal.

  5. Baroreflex Activation Therapy in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Available Data and Future Perspective.

    Halbach, Marcel; Fritz, Thorsten; Madershahian, Navid; Pfister, Roman; Reuter, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is promoted by sympathovagal imbalance. Baroreflex activation therapy, i.e., electrical stimulation of baroreceptors at the carotid sinus, can restore sympathovagal balance. Large animal studies of baroreflex activation therapy revealed improvements in cardiac function, susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias, and a survival benefit as compared to untreated controls. Recently, the first randomized and controlled trial of optimal medical and device therapy alone or plus baroreflex activation therapy in patients suffering from HFrEF was published. It demonstrated a reasonable safety profile in this severely ill patient population. Moreover, the study found significant improvements in New York Heart Association class, quality of life, 6-min walk distance, and NT-proBNP levels. This review provides an overview on baroreflex activation therapy for the treatment of HFrEF-from the concept and preclinical findings to most recent clinical data and upcoming trials. PMID:26879389

  6. A review of activated carbon technologies for reducing MSW incinerator emissions

    Though activated carbon is, by no means, a newcomer to the pollution control field, having been used as a water purifier and more recently demonstrated as a flue gas cleaner on power plants, it is now attracting considerable attention in Europe as a means to reduce further the quantity of toxic organic and metal emissions from new and existing municipal waste combustors. Since activated carbon is a potentially important future emissions control technology for MWCs in the US, particularly for removal of mercury and dioxin, this paper discusses the impetus which has motivated the experimentation with various activated carbon technologies which is now taking place, will describe how some of the activated carbon systems (e.g., post-emissions control fixed carbon bed and injection of carbon with scrubber reagent) being tested now function and where they fit in existing pollution control trains, and will present available performance data and emissions reductions actually achieved for each system