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Sample records for activated porcine embryos

  1. Effect of zona pellucida on porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Li, Juan;

    2011-01-01

    The need for zona pellucida (ZP) during pre-implantation embryo development is still debated. In porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos, we have previously shown a different distribution in cell numbers on Day 6 blastocysts cultured with or without ZP (Li et al. 2010 Reprod. Fertil. Dev...... porcine PA embryos, especially at the timing of embryonic genome activation (5-cell stage). Furthermore, the zona pellucida can benefit the blastocyst formation and cryo-tolerance for PA embryos, perhaps by creating a more stable microenvironement....

  2. Optimal developmental stage for vitrification of parthenogenetically activated porcine embryos

    Li, Rong; Li, Juan; Kragh, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the optimal developmental stage to vitrify in-vitro cultured porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos. Embryos were vitrified by Cryotop on Day 4, 5 or 6 after oocyte activation (Day 0), and immediately after warming they were either time......>0.05), no matter if tehy were morulae or blastocysts. These results demonstrate that porcine PA embryos can survive successfully after vitrification/warming that the optimal time for vitrification was Day 4 for both morulae and blastocysts, and that 8 h after warming was the time needed to make an...

  3. Effect of ambient light exposure of media and embryos on development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    tested in two experiments: (1) ambient light on medium subsequently used for embryo in vitro development; and (2) ambient light exposure on activated oocytes before in vitro development. The results from Experiment 1 showed that exposure of culture medium to both types of ambient light decreased the....... In conclusion, exposure to ambient light can be harmful to embryo development, both when medium is exposed for a long period of time and, to a greater extent, when the embryo itself is exposed for >1 h. In practice, it is therefore recommended to protect both culture medium and porcine embryos......Light exposure is a common stress factor during in vitro handling of oocytes and embryos that originates from both microscope and ambient light. In the current study, the effect of two types of ambient light (daylight and laboratory light) on porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos was...

  4. Activation of ribosomal RNA genes in porcine embryos produced in vitro or by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; Jakobsen, Anne Sørig;

    2007-01-01

    The onset of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis occurs during the second half of the third cell cycle, that is, at the four-cell stage, in porcine embryos developed in vivo. In the present study the onset of rRNA synthesis was investigated in porcine embryos produced in vitro (IVP) or by somatic cell...... were equal proportions of transcriptionally active and inactive embryos and essentially all embryos that developed to the 16-cell stage (n = 21) and further to the blastocyst stage (n = 19) contained only transcriptionally active cells. In conclusion, porcine embryos produced in vitro had an......-cell stage (n = 45), 38% of the embryos contained 1-3 nuclei with signs of rRNA transcription, indicating an asynchronous transcription initiation. This pattern continued in the following stages, as 78% (n = 47), 47% (n = 42) and 83% (n = 37) of the embryos revealed a mixture of transcriptionally inactive...

  5. Development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos after removal of zona pellucida

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard;

    2013-01-01

    The need of the zona pellucida (ZP) for in vitro development is controversial because it might be an obstacle to hatching of the blastocyst. This study investigated the development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos by observation of the developmental kinetics, the...... developmental percentages and occurrence of apoptosis on Day 6 and Day 7 (Time of PA, Day 0); and (3) investigation of the robustness of embryos using vitrification on Day 4. The developmental kinetics showed that there was a general trend for zona-free PA embryos to develop faster than zona intact PA embryos...... at all developmental stages, but the difference was only significant at the five-cell stage. When compared with development of zona-intact embryos, ZP removal decreased the overall blastocyst percentage (83.9 ± 2.0 vs. 72.5 ± 2.9, respectively) and especially the percentage of good morphology (grades...

  6. Studies on Electrical Activation of Porcine Oocytes Matured in vitro and Embryo Culture Systems

    WU Zhong-hong; XING Feng-ying; LIU Guo-shi; ZENG Shen-ming; ZHU Shi-en; ZHANG Zhong-cheng; FU Peng-hui

    2002-01-01

    Conditions for electrical parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes matured in vitro and in vitro culture systems of porcine embryo were studied. The best results were achieved under the conditions of electrical field strength and the pulse duration at 130Vmm-1/80 μs, with a blastocyst development rate of (20.12 ± 8.18)% (P > 0.05). No significant difference was found between treatments of multiple pulses and a single pulse ( P > 0.05). Parthenogenetic embryos were cultured with different methods and air conditions for 7 days in vitro, blastocyst development rate of embryos with changed culture media [ (26.44 ± 8.35)% ] or changed media with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) [ (17.68 ± 5.39)% ] on the fifth day showing no significant difference from that of embryos without change of culture media [ (25.30 ± 7.55) %, P > 0.05 ], while cell numbers of blastocysts from embryos with changed culture media (15.78 ± 5.46 and 14.55 ± 4.81) were significantly lower than number of blastocysts from embryos without change of culture media (18.01 ± 6.79,P < 0.01 ). Blastocyst development rate and blastocyst cell number of embryos cultured in lower O2 (5 % CO2:7%O2:88%N2) also showed no significant difference from those in high O2 (5% CO2 in air) [ (20.78 ± 8.80) % and 17.00 ± 6.12 vs. (25.30 ± 7.55) % and 18.01 ± 6.79, P > 0.05 ]. It is concluded that change of culture media with the same new one or changing over to media with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) on the fifth day and low O2 environment are not necessary for porcine embryos development.

  7. Activation of the ribosomal RNA genes late in the third cell cycle of porcine embryos

    Viuff, Dorthe; Greve, Torben; Holm, Peter; Callesen, Henrik; Hyttel, Poul; Thomsen, Preben D

    2002-01-01

    In porcine embryos, nucleoli are first observed during the third postfertilization cell cycle, i.e., at the 4-cell stage. However, direct studies of the initiation of rRNA transcription have not been reported. This transcription was investigated in the present study by simultaneous visualization of...... electron microscopy. In general, the 2-cell and 4-cell embryos fixed at 10 and 20 h postcleavage (hpc) showed no signs of rRNA transcription. Four small clusters of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) labeling were visible in interphase nuclei, consistent with hybridization to the rRNA gene clusters only...... phase during the third cell cycle....

  8. Developmental competence of porcine chimeric embryos produced by aggregation

    Li, Juan; Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Xiong, Qiang;

    2015-01-01

    either by parthenogenetic activation (PA) or handmade cloning (HMC). Results showed that the developmental competence of chimeric embryos, evaluated based on their blastocyst rate and total cell number per blastocyst, was increased when two whole 2-cell stage embryos (PA or HMC) were aggregated. In...... comparison, when two blastomeres were aggregated, the developmental competence of the chimeric embryos decreased if the blastomeres were either from PA or from HMC embryos, but not if they were from different sources, i.e. one PA and one HMC blastomere. To evaluate the cell contribution in embryo formation......The purpose of our study was to compare the developmental competence and blastomere allocation of porcine chimeric embryos formed by micro-well aggregation. Chimeras were created by aggregating either two blastomeres originating from 2-cell embryos or two whole embryos, where embryos were produced...

  9. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo or produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben;

    2011-01-01

    vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  10. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in-vivo or produced by in-vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben;

    2011-01-01

    vitro fertilized (IVF), somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos were evaluated for DNA methylation quantification at different developmental stages. Fertilized (IV and IVF) one-cell stages lacked a substantial active demethylation of the paternal genome....... Embryos produced under in vitro conditions had higher levels of DNA methylation than IV. A lineage-specific DNA methylation (hypermethylation of the inner cell mass and hypomethylation of the trophectoderm) was observed in porcine IV late blastocysts, but was absent in PA- and SCNT-derived blastocysts...

  11. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure on genomic expression profiling of porcine parthenogenetic activated and cloned embryos

    Lin, Lin; Luo, Yonglun; Sørensen, Peter;

    2014-01-01

    mechanism underlying the effects of HHP treatment on embryonic development is poorly understood and so was investigated in the present study. Thus, in the present study, we undertook genome-wide gene expression analysis in HHP-treated and untreated oocytes, as well as in 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos...... derived by PA or HMC. Hierarchical clustering depicted stage-specific genomic expression profiling. At the 4-cell and blastocyst stages, 103 and 163 transcripts were differentially expressed between the HMC and PA embryos, respectively (P < 0.05). These transcripts are predominantly involved in regulating...... cellular differentiation, gene expression and cell-to-cell signalling. We found that 44 transcripts were altered by HHP treatment, with most exhibiting lower expression in HHP-treated oocytes. Genes involved in embryonic development were prominent among the transcripts affected by HHP. Two of these genes...

  12. RNA profiles of porcine embryos during genome activation reveal complex metabolic switch sensitive to in vitro conditions

    Østrup, Olga; Olbricht, Gayla; Østrup, Esben;

    2013-01-01

    a handful of reports characterize changing transcriptome profiles and resulting metabolic changes in cleavage stage embryos. The aims of the current study were to investigate RNA profiles of in vivo developed (ivv) and in vitro produced (ivt) porcine embryos before (2-cell stage) and after (late 4...... they originate from oocyte and are imposed either before oocyte aspiration or during in vitro maturation. IVT embryos have altered content of apoptotic factors, cell cycle regulation factors and spindle components, and transcription factors, which all may contribute to reduced developmental competence...... of embryos produced in vitro. Overall, our data are in good accordance with previously published, genome-wide profiling data in other species. Moreover, comparison with mouse and human embryos showed striking overlap in functional annotation of transcripts during the EGA, suggesting conserved basic...

  13. PXD101 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming and the in vitro developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos

    Highlights: • First explored that the effects of PXD101 on the development of SCNT embryos in vitro. • 0.5 μM PXD101 treated for 24 h improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos. • Level of AcH3K9 was significantly higher than control group at early stages. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 (belinostat) on the preimplantation development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and their expression of the epigenetic markers histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (AcH3K9). We compared the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with various concentrations of PXD101 for 24 h. Treatment with 0.5 μM PXD101 significantly increased the proportion of SCNT embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, in comparison to the control group (23.3% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.05). We tested the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM PXD101 for various amounts of times following activation. Treatment for 24 h significantly improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos, with a significantly higher proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage in comparison to the control group (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.05). PXD101-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and four fetuses developed. PXD101 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of immunostaining for AcH3K9 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear and 2-cell stages. At these stages, the fluorescence intensities of immunostaining for AcH3K9 were significantly higher in PXD101-treated embryos than in control untreated embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PXD101 can significantly improve the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos and can enhance their nuclear reprogramming

  14. PXD101 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming and the in vitro developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First explored that the effects of PXD101 on the development of SCNT embryos in vitro. • 0.5 μM PXD101 treated for 24 h improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos. • Level of AcH3K9 was significantly higher than control group at early stages. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 (belinostat) on the preimplantation development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and their expression of the epigenetic markers histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (AcH3K9). We compared the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with various concentrations of PXD101 for 24 h. Treatment with 0.5 μM PXD101 significantly increased the proportion of SCNT embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, in comparison to the control group (23.3% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.05). We tested the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM PXD101 for various amounts of times following activation. Treatment for 24 h significantly improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos, with a significantly higher proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage in comparison to the control group (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.05). PXD101-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and four fetuses developed. PXD101 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of immunostaining for AcH3K9 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear and 2-cell stages. At these stages, the fluorescence intensities of immunostaining for AcH3K9 were significantly higher in PXD101-treated embryos than in control untreated embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PXD101 can significantly improve the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos and can enhance their nuclear reprogramming.

  15. Effects of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Oxamflatin on In Vitro Porcine Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos

    Hou, Liming; Ma, Fanhua; Yang, Jinzeng; Riaz, Hasan; Wang, Yongliang; Wu, Wangjun; Xia, Xiaoliang; Ma, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Ying; Zhang, Lin; Ying, Wenqin; Xu, Dequan; Zuo, Bo; Ren, Zhuqing

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Low cloning efficiency is considered to be caused by the incomplete or aberrant epigenetic reprogramming of differentiated donor cells in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. Oxamflatin, a novel class of histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), has been found to improve the in vitro and full-term developmental potential of SCNT embryos. In the present study, we studied the effects of oxamflatin treatment on in vitro porcine SCNT embryos. Our results indicated that the rate of in vitro blastocyst formation of SCNT embryos treated with 1 μM oxamflatin for 15 h postactivation was significantly higher than all other treatments. Treatment of oxamflatin decreased the relative histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in cloned embryos and resulted in hyperacetylation levels of histone H3 at lysine 9 (AcH3K9) and histone H4 at lysine 5 (AcH4K5) at pronuclear, two-cell, and four-cell stages partly through downregulating HDAC1. The suppression of HDAC6 through oxamflatin increased the nonhistone acetylation level of α-tubulin during the mitotic cell cycle of early SCNT embryos. In addition, we demonstrated that oxamflatin downregulated DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) expression and global DNA methylation level (5-methylcytosine) in two-cell-stage porcine SCNT embryos. The pluripotency-related gene POU5F1 was found to be upregulated in the oxamflatin-treated group with a decreased DNA methylation tendency in its promoter regions. Treatment of oxamflatin did not change the locus-specific DNA methylation levels of Sus scrofa heterochromatic satellite DNA sequences at the blastocyst stage. Meanwhile, our findings suggest that treatment with HDACi may contribute to maintaining the stable status of cytoskeleton-associated elements, such as acetylated α-tubulin, which may be the crucial determinants of donor nuclear reprogramming in early SCNT embryos. In summary, oxamflatin treatment improves the developmental potential of porcine SCNT embryos in vitro. PMID

  16. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Yuan, Ting; Lai, Liangxue [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Pang, Daxin, E-mail: pdx@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China); Ouyang, Hongsheng, E-mail: ouyh@jlu.edu.cn [Jilin Province Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo Engineering, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Jilin University, 5333 Xi An DaLu, Changchun 130062 (China)

    2011-07-29

    Highlights: {yields} Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. {yields} The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. {yields} A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 {mu}g/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  17. Vitamin C enhances in vitro and in vivo development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    Highlights: → Report for the first time that vitamin C has a beneficial effect on the development of porcine SCNT embryos. → The level of acH4K5 and Oct4 expression at blastocyst-stage was up-regulated after treatment. → A higher rate of gestation and increased number of piglets born were harvested in the treated group. -- Abstract: The reprogramming of differentiated cells into a totipotent embryonic state through somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is still an inefficient process. Previous studies revealed that the generation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts could be significantly enhanced with vitamin C treatment. Here, we investigated the effects of vitamin C, to our knowledge for the first time, on the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos. The rate of blastocyst development in SCNT embryos treated with 50 μg/mL vitamin C 15 h after activation (36.0%) was significantly higher than that of untreated SCNT embryos (11.5%). The enhanced in vitro development rate of vitamin C-treated embryos was associated with an increased acetylation level of histone H4 lysine 5 and higher Oct4, Sox2 and Klf4 expression levels in blastocysts, as determined by real-time PCR. In addition, treatment with vitamin C resulted in an increased pregnancy rate in pigs. These findings suggest that treatment with vitamin C is beneficial for enhancement of the in vitro and in vivo development of porcine SCNT embryos.

  18. Expression of nucleolar-related proteins in porcine preimplantation embryos produced in vivo and in vitro

    Bjerregaard, Bolette; Wrenzycki, Christine; Strejcek, Frantisek;

    2004-01-01

    The expression of nucleolar-related proteins was studied as an indirect marker of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene activation in porcine embryos up to the blastocyst stage produced in vivo and in vitro. A group of the in vivo-developed embryos were cultured with alpha-amanitin to block the de novo...... pocket proteins pRb and p130, which are involved in cell-cycle regulation, was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR up to the blastocyst stage. Toward the end of third cell cycle, the nuclei in non-alpha-amanitin-treated, in vivo-produced embryos displayed different stages of transformation of the nuclear...... was delayed in porcine embryos produced in vitro compared to the in vivo-derived counterparts with respect to mRNAs encoding PAF53 and UBF. Moreover, differences existed in the mRNA expression patterns of pRb between in vivo- and in vitro-developed embryos. These findings show, to our knowledge for...

  19. Effects of EGF or bFGF on the development of porcine parthenogenetic embryos in vitro

    Ji LIU; Shutang FENG; Dengke PAN; Liguo GONG; Li ZHANG; Yulian MU; Zirong WANG

    2008-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were added into the cul-ture medium in different culturing stages. The effects of EGF or bFGF on the development of porcine partheno-genetic embryos were studied in vitro. The results were as follows: The addition of EGF significantly enhanced the cleavage rate of porcine parthenogenetic embryos (P<0.05). The addition of EGF or bFGF also signifi-cantly enhanced the rate of blastocysts formation of 2-4-cell porcine parthenogenetic embryos (P<0.05). Additionally, the group of bFGF had more numbers of blastocysts and higher rates of blastocysts formation than the groups of EGF and the control. In conclusion, EGF and bFGF were found propitious to the development of porcine parthenogenetic embryos in vitro, and bFGF increased the quality of blastocysts by increasing the total cell number in porcine parthenogenetic embryos.

  20. Nuclear transfer of porcine embryos using cryopreserved delipated blastomeres as donor nuclei.

    Nagashima, H; Ashman, R J; Nottle, M B

    1997-11-01

    Nuclear transfer protocol for the pig using cryopreserved delipated four- to eight-cell and morula stage embryos as nucleus donors was developed. Donor embryos, which had been delipated by micromanipulation following centrifugation for polarizing cytoplasmic lipid droplets, were cryopreserved with 1.5 M 1,2-propanediol and 0.1 M sucrose. Recipient cytoplasts were prepared from ovulated oocytes. Activation of oocytes could be induced more efficiently when electric stimulation was given 53 hr after the hCG injection or later (66-83%), compared with 52 hr or earlier (11-16%, P Membrane fusion rates between donor blastomeres and enucleated oocytes were 88% (127/144) and 97% (56/58, P > 0.05) for the four- to eight-cell and morula stage embryos, respectively. In vitro developmental rates to the two-cell (53/100 vs. 35/65), four-cell (34/100 vs. 26/65), and morula stage (17/100 vs. 18/65) were the same between the nuclear transfer embryos with four- to eight-cell and morula nuclei. However, more embryos reconstituted with morula nuclei developed to blastocysts (15% vs. 6%, P < 0.05). These data demonstrated that blastomeres of cryopreserved, delipated porcine embryos can be used as donor nuclei for nuclear transfer. Frozen-thawed, delipated blastomeres can be efficiently isolated and fused, and therefore provide a useful source of donor nuclei. PMID:9322245

  1. THE EFFICACY OF PORCINE GONADOTROPINS FOR REPEATED STIMULATION OF OVARIAN ACTIVITY FOR OOCYTE RETRIEVAL AND IN VITRO EMBRYO PRODUCTION AND CRYOPRESERVATION IN SIBERIAN TIGERS (PANTHERA TIGRIS ALTAICA)

    Initial studies suggested that Siberian tiger gonadotropins are more homologous with those of porcine than any other commercially available preparation. Therefore the present study measured the efficacy of repeated ovarian stimulation with purified porcine gonadotropins on the follicular, hormonal a...

  2. Expression of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) during porcine gametogenesis and preimplantation embryo development.

    Antelman, J; Manandhar, G; Yi, Y-J; Li, R; Whitworth, K M; Sutovsky, M; Agca, C; Prather, R S; Sutovsky, P

    2008-11-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) is responsible for stability, maintenance, and transcriptional control of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). We have studied the expression and distribution of TFAM in the gametes and preimplantation embryos of the domestic pig (Sus scrofa). We hypothesized that TFAM is not present in the boar sperm mitochondria to reduce the possibility of paternal mtDNA propagation in the progeny. In contrast, we anticipated that Tfam gene is expressed in a developmental stage-dependent manner in porcine oocytes and embryos. The appropriate TFAM band of 25 kDa was detected by Western blotting in ejaculated boar spermatozoa, as well as in porcine oocytes and zygotes. Boar sperm extracts also displayed several bands >25 kDa suggestive of post-translational modification by ubiquitination, confirmed by affinity purification of ubiquitinated proteins. TFAM immunoreactivity was relegated to the sperm tail principal piece and sperm head in fully differentiated spermatozoa. The content of Tfam mRNA increased considerably from the germinal vesicle to blastocyst stage and also between in vitro fertilized and cultured blastocysts compared to in vivo-derived blastocysts. TFAM protein accumulated in the oocytes during maturation and was reduced by proteolysis after fertilization. This pattern was not mirrored in parthenogenetically activated oocytes and zygotes reconstructed by SCNT, suggesting deviant processing of TFAM protein and transcript after oocyte/embryo manipulation. Thus, TFAM may exert a critical role in porcine gametogenesis and preimplantation embryo development. Altogether, our data on the role of TFAM in mitochondrial function and inheritance have broad implications for cell physiology and evolutionary biology. PMID:18636550

  3. Derivation of Porcine Embryonic Stem-Like Cells from In Vitro-Produced Blastocyst-Stage Embryos

    Hou, Dao-Rong; Jin, Yong; Nie, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Ling; Ta, Na; Zhao, Li-Hua; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Zhao-Qiang; Jiang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yan-Ru; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Fan; Li, Rong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from pre-implantation porcine embryos has remained a challenge. Here, we describe the derivation of porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) by seeding the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) from in vitro-produced porcine blastocyst into α-MEM with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The pESL cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed flatten clones, similar in phenotype to human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) and rodent epiblast stem cells. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 as determined by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Additionally, these cells formed embryoid body (EB), teratomas and also differentiated into 3 germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed the expression of the pluripotency markers, PODXL, REX1, SOX2, KLF5 and NR6A1, was significantly higher compared with porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF), but expression of OCT4, TBX3, REX1, LIN28A and DPPA5, was lower compared to the whole blastocysts or ICM of blastocyst. Our results showed that porcine embryonic stem-like cells can be established from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos, which promote porcine naive ES cells to be established. PMID:27173828

  4. Derivation of Porcine Embryonic Stem-Like Cells from In Vitro-Produced Blastocyst-Stage Embryos.

    Hou, Dao-Rong; Jin, Yong; Nie, Xiao-Wei; Zhang, Man-Ling; Ta, Na; Zhao, Li-Hua; Yang, Ning; Chen, Yuan; Wu, Zhao-Qiang; Jiang, Hai-Bin; Li, Yan-Ru; Sun, Qing-Yuan; Dai, Yi-Fan; Li, Rong-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Efficient isolation of embryonic stem (ES) cells from pre-implantation porcine embryos has remained a challenge. Here, we describe the derivation of porcine embryonic stem-like cells (pESLCs) by seeding the isolated inner cell mass (ICM) from in vitro-produced porcine blastocyst into α-MEM with basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). The pESL cells kept the normal karyotype and displayed flatten clones, similar in phenotype to human embryonic stem cells (hES cells) and rodent epiblast stem cells. These cells exhibited alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and expressed pluripotency markers such as OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81 as determined by both immunofluorescence and RT-PCR. Additionally, these cells formed embryoid body (EB), teratomas and also differentiated into 3 germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Microarray analysis showed the expression of the pluripotency markers, PODXL, REX1, SOX2, KLF5 and NR6A1, was significantly higher compared with porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEF), but expression of OCT4, TBX3, REX1, LIN28A and DPPA5, was lower compared to the whole blastocysts or ICM of blastocyst. Our results showed that porcine embryonic stem-like cells can be established from in vitro-produced blastocyst-stage embryos, which promote porcine naive ES cells to be established. PMID:27173828

  5. DNA methylation in porcine preimplantation embryos developed in vivo and produced by in vitro fertilization, parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Østrup, Esben;

    2011-01-01

    DNA demethylation and remethylation are crucial for reprogramming of the differentiated parental/somatic genome in the recipient ooplasm upon somatic cell nuclear transfer. Here, we analyzed the DNA methylation dynamics during porcine preimplantation development. Porcine in vivo developed (IV), i...

  6. Birth of piglets from in vitro-produced, zona-intact porcine embryos vitrified in a closed system.

    Men, H; Zhao, C; Si, W; Murphy, C N; Spate, L; Liu, Y; Walters, E M; Samuel, M S; Prather, R S; Critser, J K

    2011-07-15

    As the importance of swine models in biomedical research increases, it is essential to develop low-cost, high-throughput systems to cryopreserve swine germplasm for maintenance of these models. However, porcine embryos are exceedingly sensitive to low temperature and successful cryopreservation is generally limited to the use of vitrification in open systems that allow direct contact of the embryos with liquid nitrogen (LN(2)). This creates a high risk of pathogen transmission. Therefore, cryopreservation of porcine embryos in a "closed" system is of very high importance. In this study, in vitro-produced (IVP) porcine embryos were used to investigate cryosurvival and developmental potential of embryos cryopreserved in a closed system. Optimal centrifugal forces to completely disassociate intracellular lipids from blastomeres were investigated using Day-4 embryos. Cryosurvival of delipidated embryos was investigated by vitrifying the embryos immediately after centrifugation, or after development to blastocysts. In this study, centrifugation for 30 min at 13,000 g was adequate to completely delipidate the embryos; furthermore, these embryos were able to survive cryopreservation at a rate comparable to those centrifuged for only 12 min. When delipidated embryos were vitrified at the blastocyst stage, there was no difference in survival between embryos vitrified using OPS and 0.25 mL straws. Some embryos vitrified by each method developed to term. These experiments demonstrated that porcine embryos can be cryopreserved in a closed system after externalizing their intracellular lipids. This has important implications for banking swine models of human health and disease. PMID:21458047

  7. High in vitro development after somatic cell nuclear transfer and trichostatin A treatment of reconstructed porcine embryos

    Li, J.; Østrup, Olga; Villemoes, Klaus;

    2008-01-01

    of our present study was to establish the optimal TSA treatment in order to improve the development of handmade cloned (HMC) porcine embryos and examine the effect of TSA on their development. The blastocyst percentage of HMC embryos treated with 37.5 nM TSA for 22-24 h after activation increased up...... transferred to 2 recipients resulting in one pregnancy and birth of one live and five dead piglets. Our data demonstrate that TSA treatment after HMC in pigs may affect reprogramming of the somatic genome resulting in higher in vitro embryo development, and enable full-term in vivo development....

  8. Cell Synchronization by Rapamycin Improves the Developmental Competence of Porcine SCNT Embryos.

    Hyun, Hyuk; Lee, Seung-Eun; Son, Yeo-Jin; Shin, Min-Young; Park, Yun-Gwi; Kim, Eun-Young; Park, Se-Pill

    2016-06-01

    The cell cycle stage of donor cells influences the success of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study investigated the effects of rapamycin treatment on synchronization of porcine fibroblasts in comparison with control and serum-starved cells, SCNT donor cell viability, and SCNT-derived embryo development. Porcine fibroblasts were treated with 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 μM rapamycin for 1 or 3 days. The proportion of cells in G0/G1 phase was significantly higher among cells treated with 1 μM rapamycin for 3 days (D3-1R) than among control and serum-starved cells (p fusion rate, their cleavage and blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher than those of control embryos (p < 0.05). Regarding embryo quality, the numbers of total and apoptotic cells per blastocyst were increased and decreased, respectively, in SCNT(D3-1R) blastocysts. The mRNA levels of developmental (CDX2 and CDH1) and proapoptotic (FAS and CASP3) genes were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in SCNT(D3-1R) blastocysts than in control blastocysts (p < 0.05). These results demonstrate that rapamycin treatment affects the cell cycle synchronization of donor cells and enhances the developmental potential of porcine SCNT embryos. PMID:27253629

  9. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo

    Xue, Binghua; Li, Yan; He, Yilong; Wei, Renyue; Sun, Ruizhen; Yin, Zhi; Bou, Gerelchimeg; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-01-01

    Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC) line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP) positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs) could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs. PMID:26991423

  10. Porcine Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from IVF Embryos Contribute to Chimeric Development In Vivo.

    Binghua Xue

    Full Text Available Although the pig is considered an important model of human disease and an ideal animal for the preclinical testing of cell transplantation, the utility of this model has been hampered by a lack of genuine porcine embryonic stem cells. Here, we derived a porcine pluripotent stem cell (pPSC line from day 5.5 blastocysts in a newly developed culture system based on MXV medium and a 5% oxygen atmosphere. The pPSCs had been passaged more than 75 times over two years, and the morphology of the colony was similar to that of human embryonic stem cells. Characterization and assessment showed that the pPSCs were alkaline phosphatase (AKP positive, possessed normal karyotypes and expressed classic pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2 and NANOG. In vitro differentiation through embryonic body formation and in vivo differentiation via teratoma formation in nude mice demonstrated that the pPSCs could differentiate into cells of the three germ layers. The pPSCs transfected with fuw-DsRed (pPSC-FDs could be passaged with a stable expression of both DsRed and pluripotent markers. Notably, when pPSC-FDs were used as donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer, 11.52% of the reconstructed embryos developed into blastocysts, which was not significantly different from that of the reconstructed embryos derived from porcine embryonic fibroblasts. When pPSC-FDs were injected into day 4.5 blastocysts, they became involved in the in vitro embryonic development and contributed to the viscera of foetuses at day 50 of pregnancy as well as the developed placenta after the chimeric blastocysts were transferred into recipients. These findings indicated that the pPSCs were porcine pluripotent cells; that this would be a useful cell line for porcine genetic engineering and a valuable cell line for clarifying the molecular mechanism of pluripotency regulation in pigs.

  11. An Improved System for Generation of Diploid Cloned Porcine Embryos Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Synchronized to Metaphase

    Jeon, Yubyeol; Jin, Yong-Xun; Hwang, Seon-Ung; Cai, Lian; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Hyun, Sang-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Pigs provide outstanding models of human genetic diseases due to their striking similarities with human anatomy, physiology and genetics. Although transgenic pigs have been produced using genetically modified somatic cells and nuclear transfer (SCNT), the cloning efficiency was extremely low. Here, we report an improved method to produce diploid cloned embryos from porcine induced pluripotent stem cells (piPSCs), which were synchronized to the G2/M stage using a double blocking method with aphidicolin and nocodazole. The efficiency of this synchronization method on our piPSC lines was first tested. Then, we modified our traditional SCNT protocol to find a workable protocol. In particular, the removal of a 6DMAP treatment post-activation enhanced the extrusion rate of pseudo-second-polar bodies (p2PB) (81.3% vs. 15.8%, based on peak time, 4hpa). Moreover, an immediate activation method yielded significantly more blastocysts than delayed activation (31.3% vs. 16.0%, based on fused embryos). The immunofluorescent results confirmed the effect of the 6DMAP treatment removal, showing remarkable p2PB extrusion during a series of nuclear transfer procedures. The reconstructed embryos from metaphase piPSCs with our modified protocol demonstrated normal morphology at 2-cell, 4-cell and blastocyst stages and a high rate of normal karyotype. This study demonstrated a new and efficient way to produce viable cloned embryos from piPSCs when synchronized to the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, which may lead to opportunities to produce cloned pigs from piPSCs more efficiently. PMID:27472781

  12. Porcine embryos produced after intracytoplasmic sperm injection using xenogeneic pig sperm from neonatal testis tissue grafted in mice

    Honaramooz, Ali; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-01-01

    Embryo development after homologous intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with sperm from testis tissue xenografts from pigs or any other farm animal species has not been evaluated critically. Here, we report development of porcine embryos in vitro following ICSI with sperm retrieved from xenografted neonatal pig testis. Small pieces of testis tissue from newborn piglets were grafted under the back skin of castrated immunodeficient mice (n = 4) and the xenografts were collected 8 months aft...

  13. Co-expression network analysis to identify pluripotency biomarkers in bovine and porcine embryos

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Freude, Karla Kristine; Hall, Vanessa Jane;

    stable culture of pluripotent cells in pig and cattle. Methods After quality control reads were pre-processed and mapped with STAR aligner. Post-mapping quality was checked with Qualimap. Finally the expression levels were estimated using HTSeq. Gene co-expression will be analyzed using a weighted...... network based method to identify highly co-expressed genes (module) and hub genes. Modules with a potential role in pluripotency will be identified with enrichment procedure and regulator genes identified with LemonTree algorithm. Differential wiring of modules among species will be evaluated. Expected...... results We expect to find out candidate pluripotency factors in porcine and bovine embryo. Acknowledgements We thank for the financial support from the EU project PluriSys, HEALTH-2007-B-223485....

  14. Pretreating porcine sperm with lipase enhances developmental competence of embryos produced by intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    Wei, Yinghui; Fan, Junhua; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Kui

    2016-08-01

    Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been widely applied in humans, mice, and some domestic animals to cure human infertility, or produce genetically superior or genetically engineered animals. However, the production efficiency of ICSI in pigs remains quite low. In this study, we developed a new sperm pretreatment method to improve production efficiency of ICSI in pigs. Experiment 1 revealed that pretreating porcine sperm with 2.5 mg/ml lipase before ICSI operation, not only can reduce the adhesion between sperm and the injection pipette without adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) in the operating medium, but also significantly improve male pronuclei (MPN) formation rate (55.56% vs. 40.00% (0 mg/ml), 42.59% (5.0 mg/ml), 40.00% (10.0 mg/ml), P competence of ICSI embryos (26.03% vs. 10.87% (0 mg/ml), 10.00% (5.0 mg/ml), 10.13% (10.0 mg/ml), P formation rate (50.47% vs. 30.78%, P < 0.05) and blastocyst rate (18.81% vs. 7.41%, P < 0.05) than the PVP method, and was better than the Triton X-100 treatment method (50.47% vs. 46.23%, 18.81% vs. 12.75%). Therefore, pretreating porcine sperm with 2.5 mg/ml lipase before ICSI operation is highly recommended, instead of adding PVP in the operating medium. PMID:26443110

  15. Porcine embryos produced after intracytoplasmic sperm injection using xenogeneic pig sperm from neonatal testis tissue grafted in mice.

    Honaramooz, Ali; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Dobrinski, Ina

    2008-01-01

    Embryo development after homologous intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) with sperm from testis tissue xenografts from pigs or any other farm animal species has not been evaluated critically. Here, we report development of porcine embryos in vitro following ICSI with sperm retrieved from xenografted neonatal pig testis. Small pieces of testis tissue from newborn piglets were grafted under the back skin of castrated immunodeficient mice (n = 4) and the xenografts were collected 8 months after grafting. Spermatozoa were recovered by mincing of the grafted tissue. For comparison, testicular, epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa were also collected from mature boars. Oocytes injected with xenogeneic spermatozoa were either fixed to determine fertilisation processes (n = 89 in five replicates) or allowed to develop in vitro (n = 143 in four replicates). Xenogeneic porcine spermatozoa were fertilisation competent (24% v. 58%, 68%, 62% or 0% for xenogeneic v. control testicular, epididymal and ejaculated spermatozoa or no spermatozoa, respectively) and embryos developed to the blastocyst stage (8% v. 22%, 27%, 25% or 0%, respectively). These results demonstrate that porcine spermatozoa derived from immature testis tissue xenografted into mice are fertilisation competent, albeit at a lower rate than testicular, epididymal or ejaculated spermatozoa from control boars, and support embryo development after ICSI. PMID:18842182

  16. In vitro effects of relaxin on gene expression in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes and developing embryos

    Willard Scott T; Greene Jonathan M; Feugang Jean M; Ryan Peter L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Relaxin hormone peptide is found in porcine follicular and utero-tubal fluids, but its possible actions during early embryo development are still undetermined. Here, we investigated the effects of porcine relaxin during oocyte maturation and embryo development, and gene expression in the pig. Methods Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were obtained from ovarian follicles of sows. In experiment 1, COCs were matured in the presence of 0, 20, or 40 ng relaxin/ml, or 10%...

  17. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    Yoneda, Akihiro, E-mail: ayoneda@sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan); Division of Molecular Therapeutics, Center for Food & Medical Innovation, Hokkaido University (Japan); Watanabe, Tomomasa [Laboratory of Animal Breeding and Reproduction, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University (Japan)

    2015-05-01

    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca{sup 2+} oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca{sup 2+} oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts.

  18. Involvement of mouse and porcine PLCζ-induced calcium oscillations in preimplantation development of mouse embryos

    In mammals, phospholipase Cζ (PLCζ) has the ability to trigger calcium (Ca2+) oscillations in oocytes, leading to oocyte activation. Although there is a species-specific difference in the PLCζ-induced Ca2+ oscillatory pattern, whether PLCζ-induced Ca2+ oscillations affect preimplantation embryonic development remains unclear. Here, we show that Ca2+ oscillations in mouse PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes stopped just before pronuclear formation, while that in porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes continued for several hours after pronuclei had been formed. This difference of Ca2+ oscillations in oocytes after pronuclear formation was dependent on the difference in the nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence of PLCζ between the mouse and pig. However, mouse and porcine PLCζ cRNA-injected oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts regardless of the absence or presence of Ca2+ oscillations after pronuclear formation. Furthermore, the developmental rate of mouse or porcine PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids to the blastocyst stage was not significantly different from that of strontium-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids. These results suggest that the PLCζ-induced Ca2+ oscillatory pattern in mouse oocytes is dependent on the NLS sequence of PLCζ and injection of PLCζ may be a useful method for activation of round spermatid-injected and somatic nuclear transferred oocytes. - Highlights: • Porcine PLCζ-induced Ca2+ oscillations continued after pronuclear formation. • The Ca2+ oscillatory pattern was dependent on the difference in the NLS sequence of PLCζ. • PLCζ-activated oocytes parthenogenetically developed to blastocysts. • PLCζ-activated oocytes injected with round spermatids developed to blastocysts

  19. Three-dimensional localisation of NANOG, OCT4, and E-CADHERIN in porcine pre- and peri-implantation embryos

    Wolf, Xenia Asbæk; Serup, Palle; Hyttel, Poul

    2011-01-01

    The expression patterns of NANOG and OCT4 have previously been reported to differ markedly between mammalian species indicating distinct species-specific roles during development. We investigate the three-dimensional expression pattern of NANOG and OCT4 in porcine pre- and peri-implantation embryos......-gastrulating, filamentous embryos NANOG was localised to nuclei in a minor portion of the epiblast cells in which E-CADHERIN seemed to be up-regulated and OCT4 down-regulated. Later NANOG was restricted to the potential PGCs. OCT4 was detected in inner cell mass, epiblast, and mesoderm, and we found that OCT4 expression...

  20. Studies on porcine pancreatic elastase activity, 1

    An improved method of radioimmunoassay was devised to offer a successful formula for determining blood concentration of elastase. With porcine pancreatic elastase as the antigen, rabbits were immunized to obtain antiserum. Iodinated elastase labeled by the chloramine-T procedure using 131I (or 125I) had a specific activity of 200 - 300 mCi/mg. The double antibody method was used for BF separation. While the usual method of radioimmunoassay was not always successful in obtaining accurate serum concentration of elastase, the use of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) was able to eliminate the disturbing influence of intra-serous inhibitors, α1-AT and α2-M, eventually producing satisfactory results. With the use of DFP, the elastase standard curve and the porcine serum dilution curve had a statistically significant correlation; precision and recovery were both satisfactory; cross-reactivity of the antiserum with trypsin and chymotrypsin was less than 0.001%. The minimal detectable concentration of elastase was 5 ng/ml, and the range of normal fasting porcine serum level was 70 - 100 ng/ml. (author)

  1. In vitro effects of relaxin on gene expression in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes and developing embryos

    Willard Scott T

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relaxin hormone peptide is found in porcine follicular and utero-tubal fluids, but its possible actions during early embryo development are still undetermined. Here, we investigated the effects of porcine relaxin during oocyte maturation and embryo development, and gene expression in the pig. Methods Immature cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were obtained from ovarian follicles of sows. In experiment 1, COCs were matured in the presence of 0, 20, or 40 ng relaxin/ml, or 10% (v/v porcine follicular fluid. In experiment 2, COCs were in vitro matured, fertilized and resulting embryos were cultured in the presence of 0, 20, or 40 ng relaxin/ml. In experiment 3, COCs were matured in the presence of 40 ng relaxin/ml, fertilized and zygotes were cultured as indicated in experiment 2. We evaluated the proportions of matured oocytes in experiment 1, cleaved and blastocysts on Day 2 and Day 7 post insemination in all experiments. The total cell number of blastocysts was also evaluated. In parallel, transcription levels of both relaxin and its receptors (RXFP1 and RXFP2, as well as a pro- (Bax and anti- (Bcl2-like 1 apoptotic-related genes were determined. All data were analyzed by ANOVA and significant differences were fixed for P Results In experiment 1, relaxin significantly increased the proportions of matured oocytes and cleaved embryos, as well as the expression level of RXFP2 mRNA compared to RXFP1 (P Conclusions Exogenous relaxin influences its own receptors expression, improves oocyte nuclear maturation. Its beneficial effect on total cell number of blastocysts appears to be through a Bcl2-like1/Bax-independent mechanism.

  2. Development of porcine embryos reconstituted with somatic cells and enucleated metaphase I and II oocytes matured in a protein-free medium

    Gibbons John R

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cloned animals have been created by transfer of differentiated cells at G0/G1 or M phase of the cell cycle into enucleated M II oocytes having high maturation/meiosis/mitosis-promoting factor activity. Because maturation/meiosis/mitosis-promoting factor activity during oocyte maturation is maximal at both M I and M II, M I oocytes may reprogram differentiated cell nuclei as well. The present study was conducted to examine the developmental ability in vitro of porcine embryos reconstructed by transferring somatic cells (ear fibroblasts into enucleated M I or M II oocytes. Results Analysis of the cell cycle stages revealed that 91.2 ± 0.2% of confluent cells were at the G0/G1 phase and 54.1 ± 4.4% of nocodazole-treated cells were at the G2/M phase, respectively. At 6 h after activation, nuclear swelling was observed in 50.0-88.9% and 34.4-39.5% of embryos reconstituted with confluent cells and nocodazole-treated cells regardless of the recipient oocytes, respectively. The incidence of both a swollen nucleus and polar body was low (6.3-10.5% for all nocodazole-treated donor cell regardless of the recipient oocyte. When embryos reconstituted with confluent cells and M I oocytes were cultured, 2 (1.5% blastocysts were obtained and this was significantly (P Conclusions Porcine M I oocytes have a potential to develop into blastocysts after nuclear transfer of somatic cells.

  3. Changes in enzyme activities of porcine erythrocytes exposed to radiation

    Changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and acetylcholinesterase were observed in porcine erythrocytes for doses of 5 - 30 kGy. These enzymes are capable of performing their functions also in irradiated porcine erythrocytes, which seem to be more radioresistant in this respect than bovine erythrocytes investigated previously. (author)

  4. How Active Are Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs?

    Joachim Denner

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs represent a risk factor if porcine cells, tissues, or organs were to be transplanted into human recipients to alleviate the shortage of human transplants; a procedure called xenotransplantation. In contrast to human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs, which are mostly defective and not replication-competent, PERVs are released from normal pig cells and are infectious. PERV-A and PERV-B are polytropic viruses infecting cells of several species, among them humans; whereas PERV-C is an ecotropic virus infecting only pig cells. Virus infection was shown in co-culture experiments, but also in vivo, in the pig, leading to de novo integration of proviruses in certain organs. This was shown by measurement of the copy number per cell, finding different numbers in different organs. In addition, recombinations between PERV-A and PERV-C were observed and the recombinant PERV-A/C were found to be integrated in cells of different organs, but not in the germ line of the animals. Here, the evidence for such in vivo activities of PERVs, including expression as mRNA, protein and virus particles, de novo infection and recombination, will be summarised. These activities make screening of pigs for provirus number and PERV expression level difficult, especially when only blood or ear biopsies are available for analysis. Highly sensitive methods to measure the copy number and the expression level will be required when selecting pigs with low copy number and low expression of PERV as well as when inactivating PERVs using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas technology.

  5. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos: a meta-analysis related to transfers, pregnancies and piglets.

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter; Schmidt, Mette; Larsen, Knud; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-03-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used to analyse data collected from all published articles with a focus on zygotes and embryos for transfer, pregnancy, full-term development and piglets born. It was generally concluded that an increasing level of in vitro manipulation of porcine embryos decreased the overall efficiency for production of piglets. The techniques of nuclear transfer have been developed markedly through the increasing number of studies performed, and the results have become more stable. Prolonged in vitro culture period did not lead to any negative effect on nuclear transfer embryos after their transfer and it resulted in a similar or even higher litter size. More complete information is needed in future scientific articles about these in vitro manipulation techniques to establish a more solid basis for the evaluation of their status and to reveal and further investigate any eventual problems. PMID:25482653

  6. Distribution of endogenous retinoids, retinoid binding proteins (RBP, CRABPI) and nuclear retinoid X receptor $\\beta$ (RXR$\\beta$) in the porcine embryo

    Schweigert, Florian; Siegling, Christiane; Tzimas, Georg; Seeger, Johannes; Nau, Heinz

    2002-01-01

    International audience Retinoids are important signalling molecules in the development of limbs and in the determination of the anterior-posterior orientation of the embryo. The present study examined the content and distribution of retinoic acid, retinol and retinyl esters in porcine embryos during early gestation (gestation days 22-30) macroscopically and microscopically by its autofluorescence and by HPLC. Macroscopically, the yellowish-greenish autofluorescence characteristic of vitami...

  7. Production of human lysozyme-transgenic cloned porcine embryos by somatic nuclear transfer

    Qiuyan Li; Hengxi Wei; Ying Guo; Yan Li; Rui Zhao; Yufang Ma; Zhengquan Yu; Bo Tang; Lei Zhang; Yunping Dai; Ning Li

    2009-01-01

    Due to their physiology and organ size, pigs have significant potential as human disease models and as organ transplantation donors. Genetic modification of pigs could provide benefits for both agriculture and human medicine. In this study, five fetal pig fibroblast cell lines from two species (Wuzhishan and Landrace pigs) were transfected using double-marked human lysozyme (HLY) plasmids (pBC1-HLY-GFP-NEO) by a liposome-mediated method. The ratio of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing cells was >95% in sw7, sw8, s1w3 and s1w6 cell lines, but only 49.3% in slw9 cells. Cells from the four highly transgenic lines were used as nuclear donors to construct embryos, which were then cultured after fusion and activation by electric stimulation. The rate of cleavage was 76.7%, 48 h after acti-vation. After 7 days, 18.5% of cleaved eggs had developed to the blastocyst stage and 93.3% of blastocysts were GFP-positive. These results indicate that transgenic fetal pig fibroblast cell lines could be obtained by a liposome-mediated method, though the transfection efficiency varied between cell lines. Reconstructed embryos derived from transgenic cells could successfully develop into blastocysts, most of which were GFP-positive.

  8. Effects of protein source, vitamin E and phenazine ethosulfate on developmental competence and quality of porcine embryos cultured in vitro.

    Gajda, Barbara; Bryła, Magdalena; Smorag, Zdzisław

    2008-01-01

    Effects of fetal calf serum (FCS) or bovine serum albumin (BSA), with or without vitamin E (vit. E) or phenazine ethosulfate (PES) supplementation on developmental competence and quality of cultured porcine embryos were examined. The experiment was done on zygotes and 2-cell embryos obtained from superovulated gilts. Morphologically normal zygotes were cultured in vitro in NCSU-23 medium supplemented with: experiment 1-0.004 g/ml BSA, 10% FCS, protein-free (control); experiment 2-0 (control), 25, 50 or 100 microM vit. E; experiment 3-0 (control), 0.025, 0.05 or 0.075 microM PES. Embryo quality criteria were developmental competence (cleavage, morula and blastocyst rates), total cell number per blastocyst and degree of apoptosis as assessed by TUNEL staining. Presence of BSA in culture medium increased significantly morula and blastocysts production as compared to FCS (P DNA fragmented nucleus index as compared to the BSA (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) and FCS (P < 0.5) group. Supplementation in culture medium of 100 microM vit. E increased blastocyst production as compared to control and 50 microM vit-E (P < 0.05). Both the number of cells per and percentage of TUNEL positive nuclei per blastocyst were slightly lower in PES treated than control groups. PMID:19055026

  9. Establishment of pregnancies with handmade cloning porcine embryos reconstructed with fibroblasts containing an Alzheimer's disease gene

    Kragh, P; Li, J; Du, Y;

    2008-01-01

    and another cytoplast were fused and activated simultaneously in the presence of Ca2+, incubated in cytochalasin B and cycloheximide for 4 h, and then cultured in PZM-3 medium. The development of reconstructed embryos to the blastocysts stage was determined after 5, 6, or 7 days of in vitro culture...... blastocyst development of 36 ± 7% (36/102). In 4 recipients that received an average of 54 Day 5, 6, and 7 PDGF-APPsw-transgenic blastocysts, 2 ongoing pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography, 1 pregnancy was lost, and 1 returned to estrus. The results show a high in vivo developmental competence of......Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) offers the possibility of pig transgenesis. Importantly, specific genetic manipulations can be performed in donor cells before SCNT to derive pig models for specific human genetic diseases, including the neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD). In...

  10. Effect of Culture Medium Supplementation with b-mercaptoethanol and Amino Acid on Canine Intergeneric Embryo Development with Porcine Oocyte Cytoplasm Recipient

    Yuda Heru Fibrianto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of culture medium supplementation with mercaptoethanol ( MEand amino acid (AA on canine intergeneric embryo development with porcine oocyte cytoplasm. Porcine cumulusoocyte complexes (COCs were collected from slaughterhouse and matured in TCM-199 supplemented with 26.2mM NaHCO, 3.05 mM glucose, 0.91 mM sodium pyruvate, 0.57 mM L-cysteine, 75 mg/l kanamycin, 10 ng/ml 3epidermal growth factor, equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG, 10 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG,and 10% (v/v porcine follicular fluid (pFF at 39 °C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO for 42-44 h and donor cell 2collected from ear skin afghanhound male dog. After somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, embryo developmentwere examined for cleavage rate and 144 hr for final development after cultured in media. The result shows that,amino acid and mercapoethanol addition in culture medium (NCSU-23 have no effect on embryo development.The development rate of embryo until 16 cell stage in NCSU and NCSU supplement are 4.67% and morula stage are3.73% and 4.67%.Key words : intergeneric clone embryo, canine, ( amino acid (AA

  11. Efficiency of two enucleation methods connected to handmade cloning to produce transgenic porcine embryos

    Li, J; Villemoes, K; Zhang, Y;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of our work was to establish an efficient-oriented enucleation method to produce transgenic embryos with handmade cloning (HMC). After 41â€"42 h oocytes maturation, the oocytes were further cultured with or without 0.4 μg/ml demecolcine for 45 min [chemically assisted handmade......%) of cloned embryos with GFP transgenic fibroblast cells after CAHE vs OHE. With adjusted time-lapse for zonae-free cloned embryos cultured in WOWs with PZM-3, it was obvious that in vitro developmental competence after CAHE was compromised when compared with the OHE method. OHE enucleation method...

  12. Biological and binding activities of ovine and porcine prolactins in porcine mammary tissue

    The concentration of prolactin receptors may play a critical role in regulating growth and development of the mammary gland during gestation and tumor development; however, the discrepancy between specific binding of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and porcine prolactin (pPRL) in porcine mammary tissue was disturbing. It was possible that 125I-oPRL may be an unsuitable ligand for the procine prolactin receptor. The validate the use of oPRL in binding assays, the biological and binding activities of oPRL and pPRL were compared. A lactogenic bioassay of pPRL was developed using porcine mammary explants cultured in Medium 199 containing insulin, cortisol, and pPRL. The potencies of oPRL and pPRL were compared using this bioassay. Oxidation of glucose and incorporation of glucose into lipids were similarly enhanced by physiological concentrations of both oPRL and pPRL. However, specific binding of 125I-oPRL was 20%, while less than 1% of 125I-pPRL was bound. 125I-oPRL bound to high affinity sites

  13. PROTEOMICS STUDY OF THE TROPHOBLAST ELONGATION PHASE OF THE PORCINE EMBRYO

    In pigs, about 20% embryonic loss is observed after artificial insemination or natural mating during peri-implantation and is coincident with rapid embryo elongation. The objective of the present study was to establish a comprehensive profile of abundant proteins and identify the expression pattern...

  14. Cell cycle synchronization of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF)-dependent porcine-induced pluripotent stem cells and the generation of cloned embryos.

    Yuan, Ye; Lee, Kiho; Park, Kwang-Wook; Spate, Lee D; Prather, Randall S; Wells, Kevin D; Roberts, R Michael

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear transfer (NT) from porcine iPSC to create cloned piglets is unusually inefficient. Here we examined whether such failure might be related to the cell cycle stage of donor nuclei. Porcine iPSC, derived here from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, have a prolonged S phase and are highly sensitive to drugs normally used for synchronization. However, a double-blocking procedure with 0.3 μM aphidicolin for 10 h followed by 20 ng/ml nocodazole for 4 h arrested 94.3% of the cells at G2/M and, after release from the block, provided 70.1% cells in the subsequent G1 phase without causing any significant loss of cell viability or pluripotent phenotype. Nuclei from different cell cycle stages were used as donors for NT to in vitro-matured metaphase II oocytes. G2/M nuclei were more efficient than either G1 and S stage nuclei in undergoing first cleavage and in producing blastocysts, but all groups had a high incidence of chromosomal/nuclear abnormalities at 2 h and 6 h compared with non-synchronized NT controls from fetal fibroblasts. Many G2 embryos extruded a pseudo-second polar body soon after NT and, at blastocyst, tended to be either polyploid or diploid. By contrast, the few G1 blastocysts that developed were usually mosaic or aneuploid. The poor developmental potential of G1 nuclei may relate to lack of a G1/S check point, as the cells become active in DNA synthesis shortly after exit from mitosis. Together, these data provide at least a partial explanation for the almost complete failure to produce cloned piglets from piPSC. PMID:24621508

  15. TERATOGENICITY OF CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE IN A COUPLED MICROSOMAL ACTIVATING/EMBRYO CULTURE SYSTEM

    Using the coupled microsomal activating/embryo culture system, in vitro experiments were performed to establish the role of metabolism in the embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide in the coupled microsomal activating/embryo culture system produc...

  16. Calciumreleasing activity induced by nuclei of mouse fertilized early embryos

    2003-01-01

    At fertilization, repetitive transient rises of intracellular calcium concentration occur in all mammals studied so far. It has been shown that calcium rises could be induced when mouse fertilized 1-, 2-cell nuclei were transplanted into unfertilized eggs and that the reconstituted embryo could be activated. However, whether the capability of inducing calcium rises occurs in all stages of mammalian embryos remains unknown. In this study, by using the nuclear transplantation technique and measurement of intracellular calcium rises in living cells, we showed that only the nuclei from mouse fertilized 1-cell and 2-cell embryos, neither the nuclei from 4-, 8-cell and ethanol activated parthenogenetic embryos nor 2 or 3 nuclei of electrofused 4-cell stage syncytium, have calcium-releasing activity when they were transferred into unfertilized mature oocytes. Our results indicate that the calcium-releasing activity in nuclei of 1-, 2-cell embryos is produced during fertilization and exists at the special stage of fertilized early embryos. These suggested that the capacity of inducing calcium release activity in fertilized early embryos is important for normal embryonic development.

  17. Vesicles Cytoplasmic Injection: An Efficient Technique to Produce Porcine Transgene-Expressing Embryos.

    Luchetti, C G; Bevacqua, R J; Lorenzo, M S; Tello, M F; Willis, M; Buemo, C P; Lombardo, D M; Salamone, D F

    2016-08-01

    The use of vesicles co-incubated with plasmids showed to improve the efficiency of cytoplasmic injection of transgenes in cattle. Here, this technique was tested as a simplified alternative for transgenes delivery in porcine zygotes. To this aim, cytoplasmic injection of the plasmid alone was compared to the injection with plasmids co-incubated with vesicles both in diploid parthenogenic and IVF zygotes. The plasmid pcx-egfp was injected circular (CP) at 3, 30 and 300 ng/μl and linear (LP) at 30 ng/μl. The experimental groups using parthenogenetic zygotes were as follows: CP naked at 3 ng/μl (N = 105), 30 ng/μl (N = 95) and 300 ng/μl (N = 65); Sham (N = 105); control not injected (N = 223); LP naked at 30 ng/μl (N = 78); LP vesicles (N = 115) and Sham vesicles (N = 59). For IVF zygotes: LP naked (N = 44) LP vesicles (N = 94), Sham (N = 59) and control (N = 79). Cleavage, blastocyst and GFP+ rates were analysed by Fisher's test (p plasmids to allow development to blastocyst stage was 30 ng/μl. There were no differences in DNA fragmentation between groups. The parthenogenic LP naked group resulted in high GFP rates (46%) and also allowed the production of GFP blastocysts (33%). The cytoplasmic injection with LP vesicles into parthenogenic zygotes allowed 100% GFP blastocysts. Injected IVF showed higher cleavage rates than control (p GFP blastocysts. The use of vesicles co-incubated with plasmids improves the transgene expression efficiency for cytoplasmic injection in porcine zygotes and constitutes a simple technique for easy delivery of plasmids. PMID:27260090

  18. Studies on Methods and Influencing Factors of Porcine Oocyte Activation

    SUN Xing-shen; YUE Kui-zhong; LUO Ming-jiu; TAN Jing-he

    2003-01-01

    The effects of ionomycin, electrical pulses, dithiothreitol (DTT), 6-DMAP and thimersal,used either alone or in combinations, on the activation rate, pronuclear type and cleavage of porcine oocyte were studied in this paper. The results are as follows: (1) The activation rates of oocytes treated with ionomycin (88.9%) or pulsed (80.0%) alone did not differ significantly from each other and from those in oocytes treated in combination with 6-DMAP (84.3 and 79.1%, respectively). While 6-DMAP improved electrical activation (increased the proportion of oocyteswith 1 PN), it had no effect on oocyte activation by ionomycin;(2) Post-treatment with DTT significantly enhanced the thimersal activation of porcine oocytes with activation rates increased from 4.6 to 82.6%; (3) When pulsed, the activation rates of oocytes with crimped (85.4%)or fragmented first polar bodies (86. 2%) were significantly higher than those of oocytes with intact polar bodies (58.8%); the ratio of 1 PN activated oocytes (78.8%) was significantly higher, but that of 2 PN oocytes (18.2%) was significantly lower in oocytes with intact polar bodies; (4) The cleavage rate of oocytes activated by electrical stimulus (52.4 %) was significantly higher than that in oocytes activated by ionomycin (23.0%) when combined with 6-DMAP, but it was not significantly different from that in oocytes activated by electrical stimulus alone (46.1%).

  19. Autophagy and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis may not be involved in the degradation of spermatozoon mitochondria in mouse and porcine early embryos.

    Jin, Yong-Xun; Zheng, Zhong; Yu, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Namgoong, Suk; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Hyun, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited in animals, despite the fact that paternal mitochondria enter oocytes during fertilization. Autophagy and ubiquitin-mediated degradation are responsible for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans; however, the involvement of these two processes in the degradation of paternal mitochondria in mammals is not well understood. We investigated the localization patterns of light chain 3 (LC3) and ubiquitin in mouse and porcine embryos during preimplantation development. We found that LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece at 3 h post-fertilization, and that both proteins were colocalized with paternal mitochondria and removed upon fertilization during the 4-cell stage in mouse and the zygote stage in porcine embryos. Sporadic paternal mitochondria were present beyond the morula stage in the mouse, and paternal mitochondria were restricted to one blastomere of 4-cell embryos. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), did not affect the distribution of paternal mitochondria compared with the positive control, while an autophagy inducer, rapamycin, accelerated the removal of paternal mitochondria compared with the control. After the intracytoplasmic injection of intact spermatozoon into mouse oocytes, LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece, but remnants of undegraded paternal mitochondria were retained until the blastocyst stage. Our results show that paternal mitochondria colocalize with autophagy receptors and ubiquitin and are removed after in vitro fertilization, but some remnants of sperm mitochondrial sheath may persist up to morula stage after intracytoplasmic spermatozoon injection (ICSI). PMID:25513816

  20. Increased blastocyst formation of cloned porcine embryos produced with donor cells pre-treated with digitonin and Xenopus egg extract

    Liu, Ying; Østrup, Olga; Li, Juan;

    2011-01-01

    Pre-treating donor cells before somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT, ‘cloning’) may improve the efficiency of the technology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early development of cloned embryos produced with porcine fibroblasts pre-treated with a permeabilizing agent and extract from...... Xenopus laevis eggs. In Experiment 1, fetal fibroblasts were permeabilized by digitonin, incubated in egg extract and, after re-sealing of cell membranes, cultured for 3 or 5 days before use as donor cells in handmade cloning (HMC). Controls were produced by HMC with non-treated donor cells. The...... blastocyst rate for reconstructed embryos increased significantly when digitonin-permeabilized, extract-treated cells were used after 5 days of culture after re-sealing. In Experiment 2, fetal and adult fibroblasts were treated with digitonin alone before re-sealing the cell membranes, then cultured for 3 or...

  1. In vitro culture and characterization of putative porcine embryonic germ cells derived from domestic breeds and yucatan mini pig embryos at days 20-24 of gestation

    Petkov, Stoyan Gueorguiev; Marks, Hendrik; Klein, Tino;

    2011-01-01

    Embryonic germ cells (EGC) are cultured pluripotent cells derived from primordial germ cells (PGC). This study explored the possibility of establishing porcine EGC from domestic breeds and Yucatan mini pigs using embryos at Days 17-24 of gestation. In vitro culture of PGC from both pooled and...... individual embryos resulted in the successful derivation of putative EGC lines from Days 20 to 24 with high efficiency. RT-PCR showed that gene expression among all 31 obtained cell lines was very similar, and only minor changes were detected during in vitro passaging of the cells. Genome-wide RNA...... annotation clustering of the gene expression pattern of the putative EGC suggests partial differentiation toward endo/mesodermal lineages. The putative EGC were able to form embryoid bodies in suspension culture and to differentiate into epithelial-like, mesenchymal-like, and neuronal-like cells. However...

  2. In vitro antiviral activity of germacrone against porcine parvovirus.

    Chen, Ye; Dong, Yunxia; Jiao, Yiren; Hou, Lianjie; Shi, Yuzhen; Gu, Ting; Zhou, Pei; Shi, Zhongyuan; Xu, Lulu; Wang, Chong

    2015-06-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infections can lead to significant losses to the swine industry by causing reproductive failure in pigs. Germacrone has been reported to efficiently suppress the replication of influenza virus. In this report, the antiviral activity of germacrone on PPV in swine testis (ST) cells was investigated. Here, we show for the first time that germacrone protects cells from PPV infection and suppresses the synthesis of viral mRNA and protein. Furthermore, we show that germacrone inhibits PPV replication at an early stage in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that germacrone is a potential candidate for anti-PPV therapy. PMID:25813663

  3. Phospholipid transfer activities in toad oocytes and developing embryos

    The role of lipid transfer proteins during plasma membrane biogenesis was explored. Developing amphibia embryos were used because during their growth an active plasma membrane biosynthesis occurs together with negligible mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum proliferation. Sonicated vesicles, containing 14C-labeled phospholipids and 3H-labeled triolein, as donor particles and cross-linked erythrocyte ghosts as acceptor particles were used to measure phospholipid transfer activities in unfertilized oocytes and in developing embryos of the toad Bufo arenarum. Phosphatidylcholine transfer activity in pH 5.1 supernatant of unfertilized oocytes was 8-fold higher than the activity found in female toad liver supernatant, but dropped steadily after fertilization. After 20 hr of development, at the stage of late blastula, the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity had dropped 4-fold. Unfertilized oocyte supernatant exhibited phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activity also, but at the late blastula stage the former had dropped 18-fold and the latter was no longer detectable under our assay conditions. Our results show that fertilization does not trigger a phospholipid transport process catalyzed by lipid transfer proteins. Moreover, they imply that 75% of the phosphatidylcholine transfer activity and more than 95% of the phosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylethanolamine transfer activities present in pH 5.1 supernatants of unfertilized oocytes may not be essential for toad embryo development. Our findings do not rule out, however, that a phosphatidylcholine-specific lipid transfer protein could be required for embryo early growth

  4. The effect of oxygen tension on porcine embryonic development is dependent on embryo type

    Booth, Paul J; Holm, Peter; Callesen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    at the 2-8 cell stage. Cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) destined for IVF or parthenogenetic activation were derived from 2 to 6 mm, post-pubertal ovarian follicles and matured for 48 h in TCM-199. Parthenogenones were generated by activating denuded oocytes (n=573) with 10 mM calcium ionophore, followed...

  5. Dioxin exposure and porcine reproductive hormonal activity

    Gregoraszczuk Ewa L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the action of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD during both the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, the direct effect of TCDD was investigated in vitro using a system of primary monolayer cell culture. Granulosa and theca cells were collected from the preovulatory follicles and cultured as a co-culture, thus resembling follicles in vivo. Luteal cells were isolated from the corpora lutea collected during the midluteal phase. In both cases cells were isolated from the ovaries of animals exhibiting natural estrus cycle. Results of these experiments suggest that TCDD decreases estradiol secretion by follicular cells and progesterone secretion by luteal cells in a dose-dependent manner. It was also shown that TCDD disrupts steroidogenesis through its influence on the activity of enzymes involved in the steroid biosynthesis cascade. In luteal cells, its action is mediated via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR and is probably independent of estrogen receptor (ER stimulation. Endocrine disruptors that interfere with estradiol production in the follicles can act as ovulatory disruptors, and while interfering with progesterone production by luteal cells they can act as abortifacients.

  6. Development of pre-implantation porcine embryos cultured within a three-dimensional alginate hydrogel system either conjugated with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide or supplemented with secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1)

    Many uterine specific factors have been shown to be increased within the uterine milieu as the porcine embryo initiates elongation. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1) is increased during this time and contains an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) peptide sequence that has been shown to bind to cell surface integrins ...

  7. High hydrostatic pressure treatment of porcine oocytes induces parthenogenetic activation

    Lin, Lin; Pribenszky, Csaba; Molnár, Miklós; Kragh, Peter M; Du, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Macháty, Zoltán; Vajta, Gábor

    2010-01-01

    An innovative technique called high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment has recently been reported to improve the cryosurvival of gametes and embryos in certain mammalian species, including the mouse, pig, and cattle. In the present study the parthenogenetic activation (PA) of pig oocytes caused...... by HHP treatment was investigated in different holding media with or without Ca(2+). The efficiency of activation was tested at different pressure levels and media including T2 (HEPES-buffered TCM-199 containing 2% cattle serum), and mannitol-PVA fusion medium with (MPVA + Ca(2+)) or without Ca(2...

  8. Embryo aggregation does not improve the development of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in the horse.

    Gambini, Andrés; De Stéfano, Adrián; Jarazo, Javier; Buemo, Carla; Karlanian, Florencia; Salamone, Daniel Felipe

    2016-09-01

    The low efficiency of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) makes it necessary to investigate new strategies to improve embryonic developmental competence. Embryo aggregation has been successfully applied to improve cloning efficiency in mammals, but it remains unclear whether it could also be beneficial for iSCNT. In this study, we first compared the effect of embryo aggregation over in vitro development and blastocyst quality of porcine, bovine, and feline zona-free (ZF) parthenogenetic (PA) embryos to test the effects of embryo aggregation on species that were later used as enucleated oocytes donors in our iSCNT study. We then assessed whether embryo aggregation could improve the in vitro development of ZF equine iSCNT embryos after reconstruction with porcine, bovine, and feline ooplasm. Bovine- and porcine-aggregated PA blastocysts had significantly larger diameters compared with nonaggregated embryos. On the other hand, feline- and bovine-aggregated PA embryos had higher blastocyst cell number. Embryo aggregation of equine-equine SCNT was found to be beneficial for embryo development as we have previously reported, but the aggregation of three ZF reconstructed embryos did not improve embryo developmental rates on iSCNT. In vitro embryo development of nonaggregated iSCNT was predominantly arrested around the stage when transcriptional activation of the embryonic genome is reported to start on the embryo of the donor species. Nevertheless, independent of embryo aggregation, equine blastocyst-like structures could be obtained in our study using domestic feline-enucleated oocytes. Taken together, these results reported that embryo aggregation enhance in vitro PA embryo development and embryo quality but effects vary depending on the species. Embryo aggregation also improves, as expected, the in vitro embryo development of equine-equine SCNT embryos; however, we did not observe positive effects on equine iSCNT embryo development. Among oocytes

  9. Synthesis of biologically active porcine secretin and [ITyr10] porcine secretin

    Kofod, Hans

    1991-01-01

    Porcine secretin, [Tyr10] secretin, and [Tyr13] secretin were synthesized by solid phase methodology and purified by stepwise gradient elution from a short reversed-phase column with ethanol and acetic acid as organic modifiers. [Tyr10] secretin and [Tyr13] secretin were iodinated by the chloramine...

  10. Somatic embryogenesis and peroxidase activity of desiccation toler-ant mature somatic embryos of loblolly pine

    2001-01-01

    White, translucent, glossy mucilaginous callus was initiated from the mature zygotic embryos explants on callus induction medium with 2,4-D, BA, and kinetin in the 3-9th week of culture. This type of callus induction occurred at a lower frequency with either a-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or IBA (both 8 mg/L). White, translucent, glossy mucilaginous callus was embryogenic and mainly developed from the cotyledons of the mature zygotic embryo. Somatic embryos were formed on differentiation medium. Desiccation tolerance can be induced by culturing somatic embryos of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) on medium supplemented with 50 mm abscisic acid (ABA) and/or 8.5% polyethylene glycol (PEG6000). Scanning electron microscopy of desiccated somatic embryos showed that the size and external morphology of the desiccation tolerant somatic embryos recov-ered to the pre-desiccation state within 24-36 h, whereas the sensitive somatic embryos did not recover and remained shriveled, after the desiccated somatic embryos had been rehydrated. Peroxidase activity of desiccated somatic embryos increased shar-ply after 3 days of desiccation treatment, and desiccation tolerant somatic embryos had higher peroxidase activity compared to sensitive somatic embryos. Higher peroxidase activity of desiccation tolerant somatic embryos was possibly advantage of cata-lyzing the reduction of H2O2 which was produced by drought stress, and protecting somatic embryos from oxidative damage.

  11. Comparable constitutive expression and activity of cytochrome P450 between the lobes of the porcine liver.

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Zamaratskaia, Galia; Ekstrand, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Due to limited availability of human liver tissue for the study of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), porcine liver tissue has been suggested as an alternative source to prepare microsomes and hepatocytes. The porcine liver is made by four different lobes. The present study investigated the expression and activity of specific CYP450 isoforms in the four lobes, with the purpose to examine if one lobe of the porcine liver resembles the human more than others. Samples from the four major lobes were taken from female pigs and mRNA expression and activity of CYP1A, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2E and 3A determined. The results showed no differences in specific mRNA expression and activity of any of the investigated CYP450 isoforms. In conclusion, the study shows that all parts of the porcine liver are equally useful as model tissue. PMID:24952075

  12. Nucleolar re-activation is delayed in mouse embryos cloned from two different cell lines

    Svarcova, Olga; Dinnyes, A.; Polgar, Z.; Bodo, S.; Adorjan, M.; Meng, Q.; Maddox-Hyttel, Poul

    2009-01-01

    . Ultrastructurally, the latter were developing into functional nucleoli. NT-MEF and NT-HM1 embryos displayed transcription over nucleoplasm, but not over NPBs. Development of NPBs into nucleoli was lacking. UBF was in both groups localized to nucleoplasm or distinctly to presumptive NPBs. B23 was distinctly...... localized to NPBs. All 4-cell embryos presented nucleoplasmic transcription and developing fibrillo-granular nucleoli. UBF and B23 were distinctly localized to nucleoli. However, whereas fully transformed reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleoli were found in IVF and PG embryos, NT-MEF and -HM1 embryos...... displayed early NPBs transformation. In conclusion, despite normal onset of EGA in cloned embryos, activation of functional nucleoli was one cell cycle delayed in NT embryos. NT-MEF embryos displayed normal targeting but delayed activation of nucleolar proteins. Contrary, in NT-HM1 embryos, both of these...

  13. Comparative analysis of signature genes in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells, e.g. monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these cell...

  14. Porcine pluripotency cell signaling develops from the inner cell mass to the epiblast during early development

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Christensen, Josef; Gao, Yu;

    2009-01-01

    (LIF, LIFR, GP130), FGF pathway (bFGF, FGFR1, FGFR2), BMP pathway (BMP4), and downstream-activated genes (STAT3, c-Myc, c-Fos, and SMAD4). We discovered two different expression profiles exist in the developing porcine embryo. The D6 porcine blastocyst (inner cell mass stage) is devoid in the......  The signaling mechanisms regulating pluripotency in porcine embryonic stem cells and embryos are unknown. In this study, we characterize cell signaling in the in-vivo porcine inner cell mass and later-stage epiblast. We evaluate expression of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, genes within the JAK/STAT pathway...... pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells is detectable in the porcine epiblast, but not in the inner cell mass. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  15. Antiviral activity of recombinant porcine surfactant protein A against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in vitro.

    Li, Lan; Zheng, Qisheng; Zhang, Yuanpeng; Li, Pengcheng; Fu, Yanfeng; Hou, Jibo; Xiao, Xilong

    2016-07-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) has caused significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. However, there is not an ideal vaccine to provide complete protection against PRRSV. Thus, the need for new antiviral strategies to control PRRSV still remains. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) belongs to the family of C-type lectins, which can exert antiviral activities. In this present study, we assessed the antiviral properties of recombinant porcine SP-A (RpSP-A) on PRRSV infection in Marc 145 cells and revealed its antiviral mechanism using a plaque assay, real-time qPCR, western blotting analysis and an attachment and penetration assay. Our results showed that RpSP-A could inhibit the infectivity of PRRSV in Marc 145 cells and could reduce the total RNA and protein level. The attachment assay indicated that RpSP-A in the presence of Ca(2+) could largely inhibit Marc 145 cell attachment; however, in the penetration assay, it was relatively inactive. Furthermore, our study suggested that virus progeny released from infected Marc145 cells were blocked by RpSP-A from infecting other cells. We conclude that RpSP-A has antiviral activity against PRRSV, most probably by blocking viral attachment and the cell-to-cell transmission pathway, and therefore, RpSP-A holds promise as a novel antiviral agent against PRRSV. PMID:27101074

  16. INHIBITING MAP KINASE ACTIVITY PREVENTS CALCIUM TRANSIENTS AND MITOSIS ENTRY IN EARLY SEA URCHIN EMBRYOS

    Philipova, Rada; Larman, Mark G.; Leckie, Calum P.; Harrison, Patrick K.; Groigno, Laurence; Whitaker, Michael

    2005-01-01

    A transient calcium increase triggers nuclear envelope breakdown (mitosis entry) in sea urchin embryos. Cdk1/cyclin B kinase activation is also known to be required for mitosis entry. More recently MAP kinase activity has also been shown to increase during mitosis. In sea urchin embryos both kinases show a similar activation profile, peaking at the time of mitosis entry.

  17. Fluorescence-based visualization of autophagic activity predicts mouse embryo viability

    Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Hara, Taichi; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Kito, Seiji; Minami, Naojiro; Kubota, Toshiro; Sato, Ken; Kokubo, Toshiaki

    2014-03-01

    Embryo quality is a critical parameter in assisted reproductive technologies. Although embryo quality can be evaluated morphologically, embryo morphology does not correlate perfectly with embryo viability. To improve this, it is important to understand which molecular mechanisms are involved in embryo quality control. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process in which cytoplasmic materials sequestered by autophagosomes are degraded in lysosomes. We previously demonstrated that autophagy is highly activated after fertilization and is essential for further embryonic development. Here, we developed a simple fluorescence-based method for visualizing autophagic activity in live mouse embryos. Our method is based on imaging of the fluorescence intensity of GFP-LC3, a versatile marker for autophagy, which is microinjected into the embryos. Using this method, we show that embryonic autophagic activity declines with advancing maternal age, probably due to a decline in the activity of lysosomal hydrolases. We also demonstrate that embryonic autophagic activity is associated with the developmental viability of the embryo. Our results suggest that embryonic autophagic activity can be utilized as a novel indicator of embryo quality.

  18. In vitro manipulation techniques of porcine embryos: a meta-analysis related to transfers, pregnancies and piglets

    Liu, Ying; Li, Juan; Løvendahl, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    During the last 17 years, considerable advancements have been achieved in the production of pigs, transgenic and non-transgenic, by methods of somatic cell nuclear transfer, in vitro fertilisation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, microinjection and sperm-mediated gene transfer by artificial...... insemination. Therefore, a review of the overall efficiency for the developmental competence of embryos produced by these in vitro methods would be useful in order to obtain a more thorough overview of this growing area with respect to its development and present status. In this review a meta-analysis was used...

  19. Early aberrations in chromatin dynamics in embryos produced under In vitro conditions

    Deshmukh, Rahul Shahaji; Østrup, Olga; Strejcek, Frantisek;

    2012-01-01

    standard to that of embryos produced by IVF, parthenogenetic activation (PA), or SCNT. In contrast to IV embryos, chromatin spatial and temporal dynamics in PA, IVF, and SCNT embryos were altered; starting with aberrant chromatin-nuclear envelope interactions at the two-cell stage, delayed chromatin...... decondensation and nucleolar development at the four-cell stage, and ultimately culminating in failure of proper first lineage segregation at the blastocyst stage, demonstrated by poorly defined inner cell mass. Interestingly, in vitro produced (IVP) embryos also lacked a heterochromatin halo around nucleolar...... precursors, indicating imperfections in global chromatin remodeling after fertilization/activation. Porcine IV-produced zygotes and embryos display a well-synchronized pattern of chromatin dynamics compatible with genome activation and regular nucleolar formation at the four-cell stage. Production of porcine...

  20. Distinct developmental defense activations in barley embryos identified by transcriptome profiling

    Nielsen, ME; Lok, F; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    analyses of > 22,000 genes, which together with measurements of jasmonic acid and salicylic acid during embryo development provide new information on the initiation in the developing barley embryo of at least two distinct types of developmental defense activation (DDA). Early DDA is characterized by the up......-regulation of several PR genes is notable. Throughout barley embryo development, there are no indications of an increased biosynthesis of either jasmonic acid or salicylic acid. Collectively, the results help explain how the proposed DDA enables protection of the developing barley embryo and grain for purposes...

  1. Immortalization of porcine placental trophoblast cells through reconstitution of telomerase activity.

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Wang, Lili; Yu, Tingting; Wang, Zengguo; Chang, Lingling; Zhao, Xiaomin; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Tong, Dewen

    2016-05-01

    Placental trophoblast cells (PTCs) play a critical role in histotrophic nutrient absorption, gaseous exchange, endocrine activities, and barrier function between the maternal and fetal systems. Establishment of immortalized porcine PTCs will help us to investigate the potential effects of different viruses on porcine trophoblast. In the present study, primary porcine PTCs were isolated from healthy gilts at Day 30 to Day 50 of gestation through collagenase digestion, percoll gradient centrifugation, and anti-CD9 immunomagnetic negative selection. To provide stable and long lifespan cells, primary PTCs were transfected with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. One porcine placental trophoblast cell line, named as hTERT-PTCs, was chosen for characterization. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase-PTCs achieved an extended replicative lifespan without exhibiting any neoplastic transformation signs in vivo or in vitro. The morphologic and key physiological characteristics of the immortalized PTCs were similar to primary PTCs. The immortalized PTCs retained original cell polarity and normal karyotype, expressed trophoblast-specific marker cytokeratin 7 and E-cadherin but did not express vimentin and major histocompatibility complex class I antigens as well as primary PTCs. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase-PTCs secreted low levels of chorionic gonadotrophin β-subunit and placental lactogen that were coincident with primary PTCs. Taken together, our results demonstrated that the porcine PTCs could be immortalized through reconstitution of telomerase activity. The immortalized PTCs maintained its original characteristics and can be used as a model cells line to study the pathologic changes of porcine placental trophoblast in viruses infectious diseases. PMID:26850465

  2. Proteolytic Activation of the Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Coronavirus Spike Fusion Protein by Trypsin in Cell Culture.

    Wicht, Oliver; Li, Wentao; Willems, Lione; Meuleman, Tom J; Wubbolts, Richard W; van Kuppeveld, Frank J M; Rottier, Peter J M; Bosch, Berend Jan

    2014-01-01

    Isolation of porcine epidemic diarrhea coronavirus (PEDV) from clinical material in cell culture requires supplementation of trypsin. This may relate to the confinement of PEDV natural infection to the protease-rich small intestine of pigs. Our study focused on the role of protease activity on infec

  3. Activation of embryo during rape (Brassica napus L. seed germination. I. Structure of embryo and organization of root apical meristem

    Miezcysław Kuraś

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Structure of the mature rape embryo was examined on longitudirna microtome sections, and1, its developmental interpretation is given, based on the author's own studies and literature data. The boundaries between the epicotyl, hypocotyl and radicle are recognized and identified with the limits between the proembryo segments. The radicle Structure and root apical meristem organization are described. In the dermatogen and periblem cell patterns four segments are distinguished, separated successively from the initial cells. Their position is recognized as almost the same on both sides of the root axis and in different embryos. The easily discernible limits between the dermatogen sectors are to be utilized as reference points in studies on the root apical meristem activation and growth during rape seed germination.

  4. Genetic Association of the Porcine C9 Complement Component with Hemolytic Complement Activity.

    Khoa, D V A; Wimmers, K

    2015-09-01

    The complement system is a part of the natural immune regulation mechanism against invading pathogens. Complement activation from three different pathways (classical, lectin, and alternative) leads to the formation of C5-convertase, an enzyme for cleavage of C5 into C5a and C5b, followed by C6, C7, C8, and C9 in membrane attack complex. The C9 is the last complement component of the terminal lytic pathway, which plays an important role in lysis of the target cells depending on its self-polymerization to form transmembrane channels. To address the association of C9 with traits related to disease resistance, the complete porcine C9 cDNA was comparatively sequenced to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pigs of the breeds Hampshire (HS), Duroc (DU), Berlin miniature pig (BMP), German Landrace (LR), Pietrain (PIE), and Muong Khuong (Vietnamese potbelly pig). Genotyping was performed in 417 F2 animals of a resource population (DUMI: DU×BMP) that were vaccinated with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Aujeszky diseases virus and porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus at 6, 14 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. Two SNPs were detected within the third exon. One of them has an amino acid substitution. The European porcine breeds (LR and PIE) show higher allele frequency of these SNPs than Vietnamese porcine breed (MK). Association of the substitution SNP with hemolytic complement activity indicated statistically significant differences between genotypes in the classical pathway but not in the alternative pathway. The interactions between eight time points of measurement of complement activity before and after vaccinations and genotypes were significantly different. The difference in hemolytic complement activity in the both pathways depends on genotype, kind of vaccine, age and the interaction to the other complement components. These results promote the porcine C9 (pC9) as a candidate gene to improve general animal health in the future. PMID:26194222

  5. Using giant scarlet runner bean embryos to uncover regulatory networks controlling suspensor gene activity

    Kelli F. Henry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major unsolved issues in plant development is understanding the regulatory networks that control the differential gene activity that is required for the specification and development of the two major embryonic regions, the embryo proper and suspensor. Historically, the giant embryo of scarlet runner bean (SRB, Phaseolus coccineus, has been used as a model system to investigate the physiological events that occur early in embryogenesis – focusing on the question of what role the suspensor region plays. A major feature distinguishing SRB embryos from those of other plants is a highly enlarged suspensor containing at least 200 cells that synthesize growth regulators required for subsequent embryonic development. Recent studies have exploited the giant size of the SRB embryo to micro-dissect the embryo proper and suspensor regions in order to use genomics-based approaches to identify regulatory genes that may be involved in controlling suspensor and embryo proper differentiation, as well as the cellular processes that may be unique to each embryonic region. Here we review the current genomics resources that make SRB embryos a compelling model system for studying the early events required to program embryo development.

  6. Comparative analysis of signature genes in PRRSV-infected porcine monocyte-derived dendritic cells at differential activation statuses

    Activation statuses of monocytic cells including monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) are critically important for antiviral immunity. In particular, some devastating viruses, including porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), are capable of directly infecting these c...

  7. Development of basal and induced testosterone hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo

    Paolini, Moreno; Pozzetti, Laura; Sapone, Andrea; Luigi Biagi, Gian; Cantelli-Forti, Giorgio

    1997-01-01

    The sensitivity of the developing embryo to xenobiotics is highly dependent on the expression of metabolizing enzymes including cytochromes P450 (CYP). In the present study, therefore, the ontogeny of the CYP-dependent system in the chick was investigated with testosterone hydroxylase activity as a marker of CYP expression.Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and phenobarbitone (PB)-induced regio- and stereo-selective testosterone hydroxylase activity, from the first appearance of the...

  8. Association of the porcine C3 gene with haemolytic complement activity in the pig

    Mekchay Supamit

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complement component C3 plays an essential role in the activated complement system, which is involved in phagocytosis, inflammation and immunoregulation to destroy infectious microorganisms. The C3 molecule has more implications in the general defence mechanisms. In this study, the porcine C3 cDNA sequences including 5'- and 3'- flanking regions were determined and the polymorphisms in this gene were identified to carry out an association analysis between C3 and complement activity traits. Porcine C3 gene has high homology with human C3. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and one microsatellite were detected in the porcine C3 gene. Haemolytic complement activity of alternative and classical pathways (ACH, CCP was measured in 416 F2 animals of a crossbred of Duroc × Berlin Miniature Pig, which were immunized with Mycoplasma, Aujeszky and PRRS vaccines. C3 markers were found to be significantly associated (P C3 with complement activity reinforces the importance of C3 as a candidate gene for natural resistance to microorganisms.

  9. Association of the porcine C3 gene with haemolytic complement activity in the pig

    Mekchay Supamit; Ponsuksili Siriluck; Schellander Karl; Wimmers Klaus

    2003-01-01

    Abstract The complement component C3 plays an essential role in the activated complement system, which is involved in phagocytosis, inflammation and immunoregulation to destroy infectious microorganisms. The C3 molecule has more implications in the general defence mechanisms. In this study, the porcine C3 cDNA sequences including 5'- and 3'- flanking regions were determined and the polymorphisms in this gene were identified to carry out an association analysis between C3 and complement activi...

  10. Association of the porcine C3 gene with haemolytic complement activity in the pig

    Mekchay, Supamit; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Schellander, Karl; Wimmers, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    International audience The complement component C3 plays an essential role in the activated complement system, which is involved in phagocytosis, inflammation and immunoregulation to destroy infectious microorganisms. The C3 molecule has more implications in the general defence mechanisms. In this study, the porcine C3 cDNA sequences including $5'$- and $3'$- flanking regions were determined and the polymorphisms in this gene were identified to carry out an association analysis between C3 ...

  11. Beneficial of activated charcoal on embryo culture of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)

    Kamnoon Kanchanapoom; Boonsanong Chourkaew; Wisut Patcharapisutsin

    2001-01-01

    Mature embryos of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)variety Tenera were cultured on Eeuwens(1976) or Y3 medium without plant growth regulators and supplemented with 0.05% activated charcoal (AC).Shoots with well-developed roots were produced on the medium. It was found that AC improved growth of seedlings. The effect of AC containing media is discussed. The embryos were fixed, sectioned, stained and examined microscopically. Anatomical study revealed that the morphological organization of oil...

  12. Using giant scarlet runner bean embryos to uncover regulatory networks controlling suspensor gene activity

    Henry, Kelli F.; Goldberg, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    One of the major unsolved issues in plant development is understanding the regulatory networks that control the differential gene activity that is required for the specification and development of the two major embryonic regions, the embryo proper and suspensor. Historically, the giant embryo of scarlet runner bean (SRB), Phaseolus coccineus, has been used as a model system to investigate the physiological events that occur early in embryogenesis—focusing on the question of what role the susp...

  13. The Anti-Porcine Parvovirus Activity of Nanometer Propolis Flavone and Propolis Flavone In Vitro and In Vivo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was conducted to evaluate the activity of nanometer propolis flavone (NPF) on inhibiting porcine parvovirus (PPV) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effect of NPF on cellular infectivity of PPV was carried out before and after adding drug and simultaneous adding and PPV after being mixed. In vivo, the anti-PPV effect of NPF in guinea pigs was performed. Results. The results showed that NPF could significantly inhibit PPV infecting porcine kidney- (PK-) ...

  14. Effects of fluoridation of porcine hydroxyapatite on osteoblastic activity of human MG63 cells

    Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Baoxin; Mai, Sui; Wu, Xiayi; Zhang, Hanqing; Qiao, Wei; Luo, Xin; Chen, Zhuofan

    2015-06-01

    Biological hydroxyapatite, derived from animal bones, is the most widely used bone substitute in orthopedic and dental treatments. Fluorine is the trace element involved in bone remodeling and has been confirmed to promote osteogenesis when administered at the appropriate dose. To take advantage of this knowledge, fluorinated porcine hydroxyapatite (FPHA) incorporating increasing levels of fluoride was derived from cancellous porcine bone through straightforward chemical and thermal treatments. Physiochemical characteristics, including crystalline phases, functional groups and dissolution behavior, were investigated on this novel FPHA. Human osteoblast-like MG63 cells were cultured on the FPHA to examine cell attachment, cytoskeleton, proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation for in vitro cellular evaluation. Results suggest that fluoride ions released from the FPHA play a significant role in stimulating osteoblastic activity in vitro, and appropriate level of fluoridation (1.5 to 3.1 atomic percents of fluorine) for the FPHA could be selected with high potential for use as a bone substitute.

  15. EGF increases expression and activity of PAs in preimplantation rat embryos and their implantation rate

    Har-Vardi Iris

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Embryo implantation plays a major role in embryogenesis and the outcome of pregnancy. Plasminogen activators (PAs have been implicated in mammalian fertilization, early stages of development and embryo implantation. As in-vitro developing embryos resulted in lower implantation rate than those developed in-vivo we assume that a reduced PAs activity may be involved. In the present work we studied the effect of EGF on PAs activity, quantity and embryo implantation. Methods Zygotes were flushed from rat oviducts on day one of pregnancy and grown in-vitro in R1ECM supplemented with EGF (10 ng/ml and were grown up to the blastocyst stage. The control groups were grown in the same medium without EGF. The distribution and quantity of the PAs were examined using fluorescence immunohistochemistry followed by measurement of PAs activity using the chromogenic assay. Implantation rate was studied using the embryo donation model. Results PAs distribution in the embryos was the same in EGF treated and untreated embryos. Both PAs were localized in the blastocysts' trophectoderm, supporting the assumption that PAs play a role in the implantation process in rats. EGF increased the quantity of uPA at all stages studied but the 8-cell stage as compared with controls. The tissue type PA (tPA content was unaffected except the 8-cell stage, which was increased. The activity of uPA increased gradually towards the blastocyst stage and more so due to the presence of EGF. The activity of tPA did not vary with the advancing developmental stages although it was also increased by EGF. The presence of EGF during the preimplantation development doubled the rate of implantation of the treated group as compared with controls.

  16. CFTR mediates bicarbonate-dependent activation of miR-125b in preimplantation embryo development

    Yong Chao Lu; Alvin Chun Hang Ma; Anskar Yu Hung Leung; He Feng Huang; Hsiao Chang Chan; Hui Chen; Kin Lam Fok; Lai Ling Tsang; Mei Kuen Yu; Xiao Hu Zhang; Jing Chen; Xiaohua Jiang; Yiu Wa Chung

    2012-01-01

    Although HCO3-is known to be required for early embryo development,its exact role remains elusive.Here we report that HCO3-acts as an environmental cue in regulating miR-125b expression through CFTR-mediated influx during preimplantation embryo development.The results show that the effect of HCO3-on preimplantation embryo development can be suppressed by interfering the function of a HCO3--conducting channel,CFTR,by a specific inhibitor or gene knockout.Removal of extracellular HCO3-or inhibition of CFTR reduces miR-125b expression in 2 cell-stage mouse embryos.Knockdown of miR-125b mimics the effect of HCO3-removal and CFTR inhibition,while injection of miR-125b precursor reverses it.Downregulation of miR-125b upregulates p53 cascade in both human and mouse embryos.The activation of miR-125b is shown to be mediated by sAC/PKA-dependent nuclear shuttling of NF-KB.These results have revealed a critical role of CFTR in signal transduction linking the environmental HCO3-to activation of miR-125b during preimplantation embryo development and indicated the importance of ion channels in regulation of miRNAs.

  17. Effects of Chemical Activation on the Parthenogenetic Development of Porcine in vitro Maturation Oocytes

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of ionomycin combined with cytochalasin B (CB), cycloheximide (CHX), or 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) on the activation of porcine oocytes. In Experiment 1, in vitro matured oocytes were activated with 15,20,25 or 30 mmol L-1 ionomycin separately. Activation rates of 20,25 mmol L-1 and 30 mmol L-1 treatments were higher (P0.05) thanthose of the other treatments. In Experiment 3, matured oocytes were activated with ionomycin and then incubated with 7.5 mgmL-1 CB, 10 mg mL-1 CHX, 2 mmol L-16-DMAP, 7.5 mg mL-1 CB + 10 mg mL-1 CHX or 7.5 mg mL-1 CB + 2 mmol L-1 6-DMAP for6 h. The rates of activation, cleavage and blastocyst of 2 mmol L-1 6-DMAP treatment [(86.05±4.29)%, (61.77±8.10)% and(21.62±3.31)%] were higher (P0.05) than those of other treatments. In conclusion, activation of porcine oocytes appears to be most successful using the combination of ionomycin (20 mmol L-1,40 min) followed by 6-DMAP (2 mmol L-1, 5.5 h).

  18. Efficient activation of reconstructed rat embryos by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors.

    Robin L Webb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade a number of species, from farm animals to rodents, have been cloned using somatic cell nuclear transfer technology (SCNT. This technique has the potential to revolutionize the way that genetically modified animals are made. In its current state, the process of SCNT is very inefficient (<5% success rate, with several technical and biological hurdles hindering development. Yet, SCNT provides investigators with powerful advantages over other approaches, such as allowing for prescreening for the desired level of transgene expression and eliminating the excess production of undesirable wild-type animals. The rat plays a significant role in biomedical research, but SCNT has been problematic for this species. In this study, we address one aspect of the problem by evaluating methods of activation in artificially constructed rat embryos. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate that treatment with a calcium ionophore (ionomycin combined with a variety of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors is an effective way to activate rat embryos. This is in contrast to methods developed for the mouse embryo, which tolerates much less specific chemical treatments. Methods developed to activate mouse embryos do not translate well to rat embryos. CONCLUSIONS: Activation methods developed for one species will not necessarily translate to another species, even if it is closely related. Further, the parthenogenic response to chemical activators is not always a reliable indicator of how reconstructed embryos will react to the same activation method. A better understanding of rat oocyte physiology, although essential for developing better models of disease, may also provide insights that will be useful for making the SCNT process more efficient.

  19. Proteomic and activity profiles of ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in germinating barley embryo

    Bønsager, Birgit Christine; Shahpiri, Azar; Finnie, Christine;

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes involved in redox control are important during seed germination and seedling growth. Ascorbate-glutathione cycle enzymes in barley embryo extracts were monitored both by 2D-gel electrophoresis and activity measurements from 4 to 144 h post imbibition (PI). Strikingly different activity...

  20. Vaproic acid improved the in vitro developmental competency of porcine recloned embryos%丙戊酸钠促进猪再克隆胚胎体外发育

    孙羽; 王安峰; 韩杨; 陈仙菊; 张明军

    2013-01-01

    In the present study,to promote the developmental competency of porcine recloned embryos through vaproic acid (VPA) treatment, the treated time and concentration for VPA was firstly exploited. The results showed that the highest blastocyst formation rate could be harvested when treated with 1 mmol/L VPA for 16 h. Through immunostaining,it showed that the fluorescent intensity of acH3K9 was higher in the VPA treated group at blastocyst stage,compared with control. There were no significantly differences between the treated and non-treated group in the gene expression level of Oct4,Nanog,Sox2 and Klf4,as was revealed by Real-time PCR analysis. These results provide evidences that the in vitro developmental competency of porcine recloned embryos could be improved with VPA treatment.%对VPA处理的最佳处理时间和处理浓度进行探索,希望通过VPA处理来改善再克隆胚胎的发育能力.结果表明,使用1 mmol/L VPA处理16 h,可以获得较高的囊胚形成率.然后通过免疫荧光检测发现,囊胚时期acH3K9的乙酰化水平在处理组中高于非处理组.多能性因子Oct4、Nanog、Sox2和Klf4的实时定量检测结果则显示,它们之间的表达水平同样差异不显著.结果表明VPA能够显著提高猪再克隆胚胎体内发育能力.

  1. Effect of Cerium on Activity of α-Amylase from Porcine Pancreas

    王雪峰; 洪法水; 沈颂东; 苏国兴; 潘兴法

    2002-01-01

    The activity of α-amylase from porcine pancreas was enhanced under the treatment by Ce3+ of low concentration (0.5~10 μmol*L-1), but was inhibited by Ce3+ of high concentration (>10 μmol*L-1). Ce3+ at high concentration displaced Ca2+ from α-amylase competitively. The equilibrium dialysis demonstrates that α-amylase has five Ca2+-binding sites with different affinities. The fluorescence titration shows that Ce3+ can bind to Ca2+-binding sites.

  2. Lipid oxidation degree and antioxidant activity of several polyphenolic extracts in porcine meat during storage

    ILIR LLOHA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of vegetable origin are used widely nowdays in the food industry in the role of antioxidants, especially in the meat processing industry and in the industry of its byproducts. Subject of this study have been porcine meat samples, which have been subjected to polyphenolic extracts, such as those from: tea, rosemary and oregano conserved in a timeframe of 1, 4, 7 and 10 days. TBA (thiobarbituric acid assay show that polyphenolic extracts tend to increase oxidative endurance of meat sample, while DPPH assay shows an increased level of antioxidant activity. Lipids oxidation degree and antioxidant activity of the samples of porcine meat treated with rosemary, oregano and tea polyphenolic extracts is lower than the control samples either in treated or not treated in 85°C samples. The samples which have been subjected to tea polyphenolic extract show a lower lipid oxidation degree and a higher antioxidant activity compared not only to control samples, but also to the samples treated with other polyphenolic extracts. Lipid oxidation degree and antioxidant activity result are greater in temperature treated samples compared to those in raw state.

  3. Polymerization-dependent activation of porcine γδ T-cells by proanthocyanidins

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Reichwald, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived proanthocyanidins (PAC) have been promoted as a natural method of improving health and immune function in livestock. It has previously been shown that PAC are effective agonists for activating ruminant γδ T-cells in vitro, however effects on other livestock species are not yet clear....... Moreover, the fine structural characteristics of the PAC which contribute to this stimulatory effect have not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrate activation of porcine γδ T-cells by PAC via up-regulation of CD25 (IL-2Rα) and show that 1) activation is dependent on degree of polymerization (DP), with PAC...... this effect of PAC is restricted to the γδ T-cell population within porcine peripheral mononuclear cells as significant CD25 up-regulation was not observed in non γδ T-cells, and no activation (via CD80/86 up-regulation) was evident in monocytes. Our results show that dietary PAC may contribute to...

  4. A Method of Permeabilization of Drosophila Embryos for Assays of Small Molecule Activity

    Rand, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The Drosophila embryo has long been a powerful laboratory model for elucidating molecular and genetic mechanisms that control development. The ease of genetic manipulations with this model has supplanted pharmacological approaches that are commonplace in other animal models and cell-based assays. Here we describe recent advances in a protocol that enables application of small molecules to the developing fruit fly embryo. The method details steps to overcome the impermeability of the eggshell while maintaining embryo viability. Eggshell permeabilization across a broad range of developmental stages is achieved by application of a previously described d-limonene embryo permeabilization solvent (EPS1) and by aging embryos at reduced temperature (18 °C) prior to treatments. In addition, use of a far-red dye (CY5) as a permeabilization indicator is described, which is compatible with downstream applications involving standard red and green fluorescent dyes in live and fixed preparations. This protocol is applicable to studies using bioactive compounds to probe developmental mechanisms as well as for studies aimed at evaluating teratogenic or pharmacologic activity of uncharacterized small molecules. PMID:25046169

  5. Post-hatching development of the porcine and bovine embryo-defining criteria for expected development in vivo and in vitro

    Vejlsted, Morten; Du, Yutao; Vajta, Gábor;

    2006-01-01

    following stages: (1)Expanded hatched blastocyst stage where the embryo presents an inner cell mass (ICM) covered by trophoblast. (2) Pre-streak stage 1 where the embryonic disc is formed. (3) Pre-streak stage 2 where a crescent-shaped thickening of the caudal portion of the embryonic disk appears. (4......) Somite stage(s) where paraxial mesoderm gradually condensates to form somites. Post-hatching development of bovine embryos in vitro is compromised and although hatching occurs and elongation can be physically provoked by culture in agarose tunnels, the embryonic disk characterizing the pre-streak stage 1......Particular attention has been paid to the pre-hatching period of embryonic development although blastocyst development is a poor indicator of embryo viability. Post-hatching embryonic dev elopment in vitro would allow for establishment of more accurate tools for evaluating developmental potential...

  6. Inactivation of a MAPK-like protein kinase and activation of a MBP kinase in germinating barley embryos

    Testerink, C.; Vennik, M.; Kijne, J.W.; Wang, M.; Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.

    2000-01-01

    We provide evidence for involvement of two different 45 kDa protein kinases in rehydration and germination of barley embryos. In dry embryos, a myelin basic protein (MBP) phosphorylating kinase was detected, which could be immunoprecipitated with an anti-MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) antib

  7. Effect of oocyte quality and activation protocols on bovine embryo development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    KORKMAZ, Ömer; KÜPLÜLÜ, Şükrü; AĞCA, Yüksel; POLAT, İbrahim Mert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of oocyte quality and activation protocols on the in vitro developmental competence of bovine embryos after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Bovine oocytes were grouped as being of excellent, good, and poor quality. All of the oocytes were activated using a calcium ionophore only, ethanol only, and 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) following calcium ionophore. For the excellent quality oocytes, cleavage rates after ICSI were 70% in...

  8. Hyperpolarization-activated cation and T-type calcium ion channel expression in porcine and human renal pacemaker tissues.

    Hurtado, Romulo; Smith, Carl S

    2016-05-01

    Renal pacemaker activity triggers peristaltic upper urinary tract contractions that propel waste from the kidney to the bladder, a process prone to congenital defects that are the leading cause of pediatric kidney failure. Recently, studies have discovered that hyperpolarization-activated cation (HCN) and T-type calcium (TTC) channel conductances underlie murine renal pacemaker activity, setting the origin and frequency and coordinating upper urinary tract peristalsis. Here, we determined whether this ion channel expression is conserved in the porcine and human urinary tracts, which share a distinct multicalyceal anatomy with multiple pacemaker sites. Double chromagenic immunohistochemistry revealed that HCN isoform 3 is highly expressed at the porcine minor calyces, the renal pacemaker tissues, whereas the kidney and urinary tract smooth muscle lacked this HCN expression. Immunofluorescent staining demonstrated that HCN(+) cells are integrated within the porcine calyx smooth muscle, and that they co-express TTC channel isoform Cav3.2. In humans, the anatomic structure of the minor calyx pacemaker was assayed via hematoxylin and eosin analyses, and enabled the visualization of the calyx smooth muscle surrounding adjacent papillae. Strikingly, immunofluorescence revealed that HCN3(+) /Cav3.2(+) cells are also localized to the human minor calyx smooth muscle. Collectively, these data have elucidated a conserved molecular signature of HCN and TTC channel expression in porcine and human calyx pacemaker tissues. These findings provide evidence for the mechanisms that can drive renal pacemaker activity in the multi-calyceal urinary tract, and potential causes of obstructive uropathies. PMID:26805464

  9. Effects of different nuclear transfer and activation methods on the development of mouse somatic cell cloned embryos

    Wang ErYao; YU Yang; Li XueMei; JIAO LiHong; Wang Liu

    2007-01-01

    A group of adult somatic cell cloned mice were obtained by using cumulus cells as nuclei donor cells. To study the effect of different nuclear transfer (NT) and activation methods on the development of mouse cloned embryos, embryos were reconstructed using two traditional NT methods (electrofusion and direct injection) and four activation treatments (electric pulse, ethanol, SrCl2 and electric pulse combined with SrCl2). The data showed that the efficiency of reconstruction using the direct injection method is significantly higher (90.7%) than that of the electrofusion method (49.7%). Parthenogenetic embryos can develop to blastocyst stage with three activation conditions, including ethanol, electric pulse and SrCl2; however, the rates of development to blastocyst after ethanol and electric pulse activation (52.4%, 54.2%) are significantly lower than after SrCl2 activation (76.9%). Treatment of embryos for 6 h with 10 mmol/L SrCl2 was found to be the best condition for activation of parthenogenetic as well as reconstructed embryos. By contrast, reconstructed embryos failed to develop to blastocyst stage after being activated by ethanol. The use of either injection or electrofusion for embryo reconstruction affected the pre-implantation development. However, after transfer in pseudopregnant mice, cloned mice were obtained from both methods.

  10. P34^ Kinase and MAP Kinase Activities and Parthenogenetic Activation in Porcine Oocytes after Injection of Miniature Pig Sperm Extracts

    Matsuura, Daizou; Maeda, Teruo

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of activation and time-dependent changes in p34cdc2 kinase and MAP kinase activities in porcine oocytes after injection of sperm extracts (SE) or treatment with Ca2+ ionophore to clarify whether SE injection is useful for porcine oocyte activation. SE was prepared from miniature pig sperm by non-ionic surfactant. Oocytes that were treated with Ca2+ ionophore and injected with SE were activated at rates of 41% and 46%, respectively. The acti...

  11. Simplified cryopreservation of porcine cloned blastocysts

    Du, Yutao; Zhang, Yunhai; Li, Juan;

    2007-01-01

    )â€"handmade cloning (HMC)â€"to establish a simplified and efficient cryopreservation system for porcine cloned embryos. In Experiment 1, zonae pellucidae of oocytes were partially digested with pronase, followed by centrifugation to polarize lipid particles. Ninety percent (173/192) oocytes were successfully......). Our results prove that porcine embryos produced from delipated oocytes by PA or HMC can be cryopreserved effectively by ultrarapid vitrification. Further experiments are required to assess the in vivo developmental competence of the cloned-vitrified embryos  ...

  12. Lactobacillus isolates from weaned piglets' mucosa with inhibitory activity against common porcine pathogens.

    Hacin, B; Rogelj, I; Matijasić, B B

    2008-01-01

    Twelve lactobacilli isolates from mucosa of 3-5-week-old weaned pigs were found to exert good antimicrobial activity against common porcine pathogens (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, C. perfringens). Two of them produced in addition to lactic acid also considerable amounts of acetic acid, and 6 of them produced hydrogen peroxide and metabolites other than organic acids. Isolates 4/26 and 2/25 (identified as L. crispatus or L. amylovorus) were inhibitory against most strains of S. aureus, B. cereus and E. coli, and especially the strain 4/26 survived well in simulated gastric and intestinal juice. Diarrhea-causing E. coli O8K88H9 Ent(+) was successfully inhibited by the growing culture as well as by the catalase-treated and neutralized supernatant of L. reuteri 12/26. Mucin degradation and multiple resistance to antibiotics were not observed. PMID:19381487

  13. Gene expression profiling of porcine skeletal muscle in the early recovery phase following acute physical activity

    Hansen, Jeanette; Conley, Lene; Hedegaard, Jakob; Nielsen, Mathilde; Young, Jette F; Oksbjerg, Niels; Hornshøj, Henrik; Bendixen, Christian; Thomsen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Acute physical activity elicits changes in gene expression in skeletal muscles to promote metabolic changes and to repair exercise-induced muscle injuries. In the present time-course study, pigs were submitted to an acute bout of treadmill running until near exhaustion to determine the impact of...... associated with proteolytic events, such as the muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase atrogin-1, were significantly upregulated, suggesting that protein breakdown, prevention of protein aggregation and stabilization of unfolded proteins are important processes for restoration of cellular homeostasis. We also...... unaccustomed exercise on global transcriptional profiles in porcine skeletal muscles. Using a combined microarray and candidate gene approach, we identified a suite of genes that are differentially expressed in muscles during postexercise recovery. Several members of the heat shock protein family and proteins...

  14. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  15. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  16. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Anna Mattsson

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic

  17. Effect of two activation treatments and age of blastomere karyoplasts on in vitro development of bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    Booth, P J; Holm, P; Vajta, G;

    2001-01-01

    , or 5 in vitro produced donor embryos, were examined in order to define an optimal nuclear transfer protocol. The two activation protocols comprised calcium ionophore followed by either CHX or DMAP. Parthenogenetic blastocyst yields were greater (P

  18. In vitro gender-dependent inhibition of porcine cytochrome p450 activity by selected flavonoids and phenolic acids.

    Ekstrand, Bo; Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Woll, Felicia; Zlabek, Vladimir; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2015-01-01

    We investigated gender-related differences in the ability of selected flavonoids and phenolic compounds to modify porcine hepatic CYP450-dependent activity. Using pools of microsomes from male and female pigs, the inhibition of the CYP families 1A, 2A, 2E1, and 3A was determined. The specific CYP activities were measured in the presence of the following selected compounds: rutin, myricetin, quercetin, isorhamnetin, p-coumaric acid, gallic acid, and caffeic acid. We determined that myricetin and isorhamnetin competitively inhibited porcine CYP1A activity in the microsomes from both male and female pigs but did not affect the CYP2A and CYP2E1. Additionally, isorhamnetin competitively inhibited CYP3A in both genders. Noncompetitive inhibition of CYP3A activity by myricetin was observed only in the microsomes from male pigs, whereas CYP3A in female pigs was not affected. Quercetin competitively inhibited CYP2E1 and CYP1A activity in the microsomes from male pigs and irreversibly CY3A in female pigs. No effect of quercetin on CYP2E1 was observed in the microsomes from female pigs. Neither phenolic acids nor rutin affected CYP450 activities. Taken together, our results suggest that the flavonoids myricetin, isorhamnetin, and quercetin may affect the activities of porcine CYP1A, CYP3A, and CYP2E1 in a gender-dependent manner. PMID:25685784

  19. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Activates CaMMKβ to Initiate Autophagy in PK-15 Cells by Increasing Cytosolic Calcium

    Yuanxing Gu; Baozhu Qi; Yingshan Zhou; Xiaowu Jiang; Xian Zhang; Xiaoliang Li; Weihuan Fang

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) induces autophagy via the 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in pig kidney PK-15 cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation in autophagy induction remain unknown. With specific inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi), we show that PCV2 infection upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kin...

  20. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway.

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2015-01-01

    Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection. PMID:25499817

  1. Chick embryos have the same pattern of hypoxic lower-brain activation as fetal mammals.

    Landry, Jeremy P; Hawkins, Connor; Lee, Aaron; Coté, Alexandra; Balaban, Evan; Pompeiano, Maria

    2016-01-01

    cFos expression (indicating a particular kind of neuronal activation) was examined in embryonic day (E) 18 chick embryos after exposure to 4 h of either normoxia (21% O2), modest hypoxia (15% O2), or medium hypoxia (10% O2). Eight regions of the brainstem and hypothalamus were surveyed, including seven previously shown to respond to hypoxia in late-gestation mammalian fetuses (Breen et al., 1997; Nitsos and Walker, 1999b). Hypoxia-related changes in chick embryo brain activation mirrored those found in fetal mammals with the exception of the medullary Raphe, which showed decreased hypoxic activation, compared with no change in mammals. This difference may be explained by the greater anapyrexic responses of chick embryos relative to mammalian fetuses. Activation in the A1/C1 region was examined in more detail to ascertain whether an O2-sensitive subpopulation of these cells containing heme oxygenase 2 (HMOX2) may drive hypoxic brain responses before the maturation of peripheral O2-sensing. HMOX2-positive and -negative catecholaminergic cells and interdigitating noncatecholaminergic HMOX2-positive cells all showed significant changes in cFos expression to hypoxia, with larger population responses seen in the catecholaminergic cells. Hypoxia-induced activation of lower-brain regions studied here was significantly better correlated with activation of the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) than with that of HMOX2-containing A1/C1 neurons. Together, these observations suggest that (1) the functional circuitry controlling prenatal brain responses to hypoxia is strongly conserved between birds and mammals, and (2) NTS neurons are a more dominant driving force for prenatal hypoxic cFos brain responses than O2-sensing A1/C1 neurons. PMID:25964066

  2. Porcine arterivirus activates the NF-κB pathway through IκB degradation

    Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) is a critical regulator of innate and adaptive immune function as well as cell proliferation and survival. The present study demonstrated for the first time that a virus belonging to the Arteriviridae family activates NF-κB in MARC-145 cells and alveolar macrophages. In porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV)-infected cells, NF-κB activation was characterized by translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, increased DNA binding activity, and NF-κB-regulated gene expression. NF-κB activation was increased as PRRSV infection progressed and in a viral dose-dependent manner. UV-inactivation of PRRSV significantly reduced the level of NF-κB activation. Degradation of IκB protein was detected late in PRRSV infection, and overexpression of the dominant negative form of IκBα (IκBαDN) significantly suppressed NF-κB activation induced by PRRSV. However, IκBαDN did not affect viral replication and viral cytopathic effect. PRRSV infection induced oxidative stress in cells by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidants inhibited NF-κB DNA binding activity in PRRSV-infected cells, suggesting ROS as a mechanism by which NF-κB was activated by PRRSV infection. Moreover, NF-κB-dependent expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 was observed in PRRSV-infected cells, an observation which implies that NF-κB activation is a biologically significant aspect of PRRSV pathogenesis. The results presented here provide a basis for understanding molecular pathways of pathology and immune evasion associated with disease caused by PRRSV

  3. CDK2 Is Required for the DNA Damage Response During Porcine Early Embryonic Development.

    Wang, HaiYang; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-08-01

    Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 2 inhibition plays a central role in DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. However, whether CDK2 also influences early porcine embryo development is unknown. In this study, we examined whether CDK2 is involved in the regulation of oocyte meiosis and early embryonic development of porcine embryos. We found that disrupting CDK2 activity with RNAi or an inhibitor did not affect meiotic resumption or meiosis II arrest. However, CDK2 inhibitor-treated embryos showed delayed cleavage and ceased development before the blastocyst stage. Disrupting CDK2 activity is able to induce sustained DNA damage, as demonstrated by the formation of distinct gammaH2AX foci in nuclei of Day-3 and Day-5 embryos. Inhibiting CDK2 triggers a DNA damage checkpoint by activation of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-P53-P21 pathway. However, the mRNA expression of genes involved in nonhomologous end joining or homologous recombination pathways for double-strand break repair were reduced after administering CDK2 inhibitor to 5-day-old embryos. Furthermore, CDK2 inhibition caused apoptosis in Day-7 blastocysts. Thus, our results indicate that an ATM-P53-P21 DNA damage checkpoint is intact in the absence of CDK2; however, CDK2 is important for proper repair of the damaged DNA by either directly or indirectly influencing DNA repair-related gene expression. PMID:27307074

  4. Measuring the electric activity of chick embryos heart through 16 bit audio card monitored by the Goldwavetm software

    Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2015-12-01

    In the present work we used a high-resolution, low-cost apparatus capable of detecting waves fit inside the sound bandwidth, and the software package GoldwaveTM for graphical display, processing and monitoring the signals, to study aspects of the electric heart activity of early avian embryos, specifically at the 18th Hamburger & Hamilton stage of the embryo development. The species used was the domestic chick (Gallus gallus), and we carried out 23 experiments in which cardiographic spectra of QRS complex waves representing the propagation of depolarization waves through ventricles was recorded using microprobes and reference electrodes directly on the embryos. The results show that technique using 16 bit audio card monitored by the GoldwaveTM software was efficient to study signal aspects of heart electric activity of early avian embryos.

  5. Colostrum factor effect on the structure and functional activity of liver nuclei of irradiated pregnant rats and their embryos

    γ-radiation causes morphological and biochemical alterations in liver cell nuclei of pregnant rats and their embryos. Preventive 4-day injection of the colostrum factor to the animals before and after irradiation with the dose 2 Gy leads to the less pronounced alteration in nuclei structure, partial depression of activity of membrane - binding enzymes as well as decrease in accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in liver cell nuclei of pregnant rats and their embryos. (author)

  6. Inhibition of Porcine Pancreatic Amylase Activity by Sulfamethoxazole: Structural and Functional Aspect.

    Maity, Sujan; Mukherjee, Koel; Banerjee, Amrita; Mukherjee, Suman; Dasgupta, Dipak; Gupta, Suvroma

    2016-06-01

    Combating Type-2 diabetes mellitus is a pivotal challenge in front of the present world. Several lines of therapy are in practice for resisting this deadly disease which often culminates with cardiovascular complexities, neuropathy and retinopathy. Among various therapies, administration of alpha glucosidase inhibitors is common and widely practiced. Sulfonylurea category of anti diabetic drug often suffers from cross reactivity with sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a common drug in use to treat a handful of microbial infections. However the specific cellular target generating postprandial hypoglycemia on SMX administration is till date unraveled. The present work has been initiated to elucidate the effects of a group of sulfonamide drugs inclusive of SMX for their amylase inhibitory role. SMX inhibits porcine pancreatic amylase (PPA) in a noncompetitive mode with an average IC50 value 0.94 mM respectively. Interaction of SMX with PPA is manifested with gradual quenching of tryptophan fluorescence with concomitant shift in lambda max value (λmax). Binding is governed by entropy driven factor (24.8 cal mol(-1) K(-1)) with unfavorable contribution from enthalpy change. SMX interferes with the activity of acarbose in a synergistic mode to reduce the effective dose of acarbose as evident from the in vitro PPA inhibition study. In summary, loss of PPA activity in presence of SMX is indicative of structural changes of PPA which is further augmented in the presence of acarbose as explained in the schematic model and docking study. PMID:27272220

  7. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Glyphosate (Roundup® Active) to Embryos of Colombian Anurans

    Teófila María Triana Velásquez; Claudia Montes Rojas; Manuel Hernando Bernal Bautista

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture, which may affect non-target species. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal (Median lethal concentration - LC50) and sublethal effects (changes on body size and development) of glyphosate (Roundup® Active) to embryos of four anuran species, exposed during 96 hours under laboratory and microcosm tests. Under laboratory conditions, Engystomops pustulosus was the most tolerant species (LC50 = 3033,18 μg a.e./L) and Rhinella marina...

  8. The antiviral activity of arctigenin in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2.

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wentao; Jin, Erguang; He, Qigai; Yan, Weidong; Yang, Hanchun; Gong, Shiyu; Guo, Yi; Fu, Shulin; Chen, Xiabing; Ye, Shengqiang; Qian, Yunguo

    2016-06-01

    Arctigenin (ACT) is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan extracted from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) with anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects. Here, we investigated the antiviral activity of ACT found in traditional Chinese medicine on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that dosing of 15.6-62.5μg/mL ACT could significantly inhibit the PCV2 proliferation in PK-15 cells (P<0.01). Dosing of 62.5μg/mL ACT 0, 4 or 8h after challenge inoculation significantly inhibited the proliferation of 1MOI and 10MOI in PK-15 cells (P<0.01), and the inhibitory effect of ACT dosing 4h or 8h post-inoculation was greater than 0h after dosing (P<0.01). In vivo test with mice challenge against PCV2 infection demonstrated that intraperitoneal injection of 200μg/kg ACT significantly inhibited PCV2 proliferation in the lungs, spleens and inguinal lymph nodes, with an effect similar to ribavirin, demonstrating the effectiveness of ACT as an antiviral agent against PCV2 in vitro and in vivo. This compound, therefore, may have the potential to serve as a drug for protection of pigs against the infection of PCV2. PMID:27234554

  9. Waves of Cdk1 Activity in S Phase Synchronize the Cell Cycle in Drosophila Embryos.

    Deneke, Victoria E; Melbinger, Anna; Vergassola, Massimo; Di Talia, Stefano

    2016-08-22

    Embryos of most metazoans undergo rapid and synchronous cell cycles following fertilization. While diffusion is too slow for synchronization of mitosis across large spatial scales, waves of Cdk1 activity represent a possible process of synchronization. However, the mechanisms regulating Cdk1 waves during embryonic development remain poorly understood. Using biosensors of Cdk1 and Chk1 activities, we dissect the regulation of Cdk1 waves in the Drosophila syncytial blastoderm. We show that Cdk1 waves are not controlled by the mitotic switch but by a double-negative feedback between Cdk1 and Chk1. Using mathematical modeling and surgical ligations, we demonstrate a fundamental distinction between S phase Cdk1 waves, which propagate as active trigger waves in an excitable medium, and mitotic Cdk1 waves, which propagate as passive phase waves. Our findings show that in Drosophila embryos, Cdk1 positive feedback serves primarily to ensure the rapid onset of mitosis, while wave propagation is regulated by S phase events. PMID:27554859

  10. The sialic acid binding activity of the S protein facilitates infection by porcine transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus

    Enjuanes Luis

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV has a sialic acid binding activity that is believed to be important for enteropathogenicity, but that has so far appeared to be dispensable for infection of cultured cells. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of sialic acid binding for the infection of cultured cells under unfavorable conditions, and comparison of TGEV strains and mutants, as well as the avian coronavirus IBV concerning their dependence on the sialic acid binding activity. Methods The infectivity of different viruses was analyzed by a plaque assay after adsorption times of 5, 20, and 60 min. Prior to infection, cultured cells were either treated with neuraminidase to deplete sialic acids from the cell surface, or mock-treated. In a second approach, pre-treatment of the virus with porcine intestinal mucin was performed, followed by the plaque assay after a 5 min adsorption time. A student's t-test was used to verify the significance of the results. Results Desialylation of cells only had a minor effect on the infection by TGEV strain Purdue 46 when an adsorption period of 60 min was allowed for initiation of infection. However, when the adsorption time was reduced to 5 min the infectivity on desialylated cells decreased by more than 60%. A TGEV PUR46 mutant (HAD3 deficient in sialic acid binding showed a 77% lower titer than the parental virus after a 5 min adsorption time. After an adsorption time of 60 min the titer of HAD3 was 58% lower than that of TGEV PUR46. Another TGEV strain, TGEV Miller, and IBV Beaudette showed a reduction in infectivity after neuraminidase treatment of the cultured cells irrespective of the virion adsorption time. Conclusions Our results suggest that the sialic acid binding activity facilitates the infection by TGEV under unfavorable environmental conditions. The dependence on the sialic acid binding activity for an efficient infection differs in the analyzed TGEV strains.

  11. Development of basal and induced testosterone hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    Paolini, M; Pozzetti, L; Sapone, A; Biagi, G L; Cantelli-Forti, G

    1997-09-01

    1. The sensitivity of the developing embryo to xenobiotics is highly dependent on the expression of metabolizing enzymes including cytochromes P450 (CYP). In the present study, therefore, the ontogeny of the CYP-dependent system in the chick was investigated with testosterone hydroxylase activity as a marker of CYP expression. 2. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and phenobarbitone (PB)-induced regio- and stereo-selective testosterone hydroxylase activity, from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation through day 10 posthatching. In addition, whole embryo preparations were assayed at 3 and 4 days of incubation. 3. Whereas testosterone 16 beta-hydroxylase and androst-4-ene-3, 17-dione-linked activities were expressed during all stages of embryonic development, testosterone 6 alpha-, 6 beta-, 7 alpha- and 16 alpha-hydroxylase activities were observed only in basal embryos from 8 days of incubation. Furthermore, testosterone 2 alpha- and 2 beta-hydroxylase activities were detected exclusively from 10 days of incubation onward. All activities increased steadily throughout development as did the responsiveness of the embryonic liver to PB induction. 4. A typical pattern of development with a higher activity from 10 to 14 days of incubation (testosterone 16 alpha-, 7 alpha-, 6 alpha- and 2 beta-hydroxylase activities; up to 4.1 +/- 0.3 pmol mg-1 protein min-1 at 13 days of incubation for testosterone 7 alpha-hydroxylase) or shifted to 14 to 18 days of incubation (testosterone 6 beta-, 2 alpha- and 16 beta-hydroxylase activities: up to 56.6 +/- 1.4 pmol mg-1 protein min-1 at 16 days of incubation for testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase) was observed. There was a tendency towards an increased activity for all activities around hatching, specifically from 19 days of incubation to 4 days posthatching (up to 1,759.3 +/- 179.4 pmol mg-1 protein min-1 at 1 day posthatching for androst-4-ene-3,17-dione-linked activity). 5. The highest

  12. The Well of the Well (WOW) system: an efficient approach to improve embryo development

    Vajta, G; Korösi, T; Du, Y;

    2008-01-01

    (WOW) system consisting of microwells formed on the bottom of the culture dish was tested in three mammalian species including humans. The WOW system has resulted in significant improvement compared the drops for culture of in vitro matured and parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes or in vivo......Transfer of human embryos at the blastocyst stage may offer considerable benefits including the increased implantation rates and decreased risks of multiple pregnancies, however, it requires an efficient and reliable in vitro embryo culture system. In our study, the effect of the Well of the Well......-derived mouse zygotes. In human, using sibling oocyte design, embryos cultured in WOW have developed in a significantly higher proportion to the blastocyst stage than embryos cultured traditionally (55% in WOW and 37% in conventional culture; P<0.05). In an independent study, also in human, a total of 48...

  13. Effects of transferrin on aromatase activity in porcine granulosa cells in vitro.

    Małgorzata Duda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Proliferating cells have an absolute requirement for iron, which is delivered by transferrin with subsequent intracellular transport via the transferrin receptor. Recent studies have reported that transferrin plays a crucial role in the local regulation of ovarian function, apart from its iron-binding characteristic. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to explore the possible role of transferrin in porcine granulosa cells function by examining its influence on aromatase activity, the most important indicator of follicular cell differentiation. In the first series of studies, pig granulosa cells isolated from small, immature follicles were cultured in the presence of transferrin alone (10 microg/ml or 100 microg/ml or with the addition of FSH (100ng/ml. The second series of studies was undertaken to determine transferrin-stimulated granulosa cells ability to aromatize exogenous testosterone (1x10(-7M. One hour after the establishment of cultures an aromatase inhibitor CGS16949A was added to test its influence on estradiol production. After 48 hours, cultures were terminated and cells were processed for immunocytochemical staining of aromatase. Media were frozen for further estradiol level analysis. Positive immunostaining for aromatase was found in all granulosa cell cultures. The intensity of immunostaining was always stronger in cultures supplemented with FSH whereas the addition of transferrin had no effect. Granulosa cells in vitro synthesized the highest amount of estradiol after the addition of FSH and exogenous testosterone as measured radioimmunologically. Concomitant treatment with FSH and transferrin caused an inhibition of FSH-stimulated aromatase activity. The production of estradiol also declined in the presence of FSH, testosterone and transferrin. This study demonstrates that transferrin had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on FSH-stimulated aromatase activity, which was confirmed by radioimmunoassay. Our results indicate

  14. Triphenylphosphonium Cations of the Diterpenoid Isosteviol: Synthesis and Antimitotic Activity in a Sea Urchin Embryo Model.

    Strobykina, Irina Yu; Belenok, Mayya G; Semenova, Marina N; Semenov, Victor V; Babaev, Vasiliy M; Rizvanov, Ildar Kh; Mironov, Vladimir F; Kataev, Vladimir E

    2015-06-26

    A series of novel triphenylphosphonium (TPP) cations of the diterpenoid isosteviol (1, 16-oxo-ent-beyeran-19-oic acid) have been synthesized and evaluated in an in vivo phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic activity. The TPP moiety was applied as a carrier to provide selective accumulation of a connected compound into mitochondria. When applied to fertilized eggs, the targeted isosteviol TPP conjugates induced mitotic arrest with the formation of aberrant multipolar mitotic spindles, whereas both isosteviol and the methyltriphenylphosphonium cation were inactive. The structure-activity relationship study revealed the essential role of the TPP group for the realization of the isosteviol effect, while the chemical structure and the length of the linker only slightly influenced the antimitotic potency. The results obtained using the sea urchin embryo model suggested that TPP conjugates of isosteviol induced mitotic spindle defects and mitotic arrest presumably by affecting mitochondrial DNA. Since targeting mitochondria is considered as an encouraging strategy for cancer therapy, TPP-isosteviol conjugates may represent promising candidates for further design as anticancer agents. PMID:26042548

  15. Nucleologenesis and embryonic genome activation are defective in interspecies cloned embryos between bovine ooplasm and rhesus monkey somatic cells

    Han Yong-Mahn

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT has been proposed as a tool to address basic developmental questions and to improve the feasibility of cell therapy. However, the low efficiency of iSCNT embryonic development is a crucial problem when compared to in vitro fertilization (IVF and intraspecies SCNT. Thus, we examined the effect of donor cell species on the early development of SCNT embryos after reconstruction with bovine ooplasm. Results No apparent difference in cleavage rate was found among IVF, monkey-bovine (MB-iSCNT, and bovine-bovine (BB-SCNT embryos. However, MB-iSCNT embryos failed to develop beyond the 8- or 16-cell stages and lacked expression of the genes involved in embryonic genome activation (EGA at the 8-cell stage. From ultrastructural observations made during the peri-EGA period using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, we found that the nucleoli of MB-iSCNT embryos were morphologically abnormal or arrested at the primary stage of nucleologenesis. Consistent with the TEM analysis, nucleolar component proteins, such as upstream binding transcription factor, fibrillarin, nucleolin, and nucleophosmin, showed decreased expression and were structurally disorganized in MB-iSCNT embryos compared to IVF and BB-SCNT embryos, as revealed by real-time PCR and immunofluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, respectively. Conclusion The down-regulation of housekeeping and imprinting genes, abnormal nucleolar morphology, and aberrant patterns of nucleolar proteins during EGA resulted in developmental failure in MB-iSCNT embryos. These results provide insight into the unresolved problems of early embryonic development in iSCNT embryos.

  16. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection.

  17. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection

  18. Mouse preimplantation embryo responses to culture medium osmolarity include increased expression of CCM2 and p38 MAPK activation

    Watson Andrew J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanisms that confer an ability to respond positively to environmental osmolarity are fundamental to ensuring embryo survival during the preimplantation period. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK occurs following exposure to hyperosmotic treatment. Recently, a novel scaffolding protein called Osmosensing Scaffold for MEKK3 (OSM was linked to p38 MAPK activation in response to sorbitol-induced hypertonicity. The human ortholog of OSM is cerebral cavernous malformation 2 (CCM2. The present study was conducted to investigate whether CCM2 is expressed during mouse preimplantation development and to determine whether this scaffolding protein is associated with p38 MAPK activation following exposure of preimplantation embryos to hyperosmotic environments. Results Our results indicate that Ccm2 along with upstream p38 MAPK pathway constituents (Map3k3, Map2k3, Map2k6, and Map2k4 are expressed throughout mouse preimplantation development. CCM2, MAP3K3 and the phosphorylated forms of MAP2K3/MAP2K6 and MAP2K4 were also detected throughout preimplantation development. Embryo culture in hyperosmotic media increased p38 MAPK activity in conjunction with elevated CCM2 levels. Conclusion These results define the expression of upstream activators of p38 MAPK during preimplantation development and indicate that embryo responses to hyperosmotic environments include elevation of CCM2 and activation of p38 MAPK.

  19. Rosiglitazone stimulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and directly affects in vitro steroidogenesis in porcine ovarian follicles.

    Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Karpeta, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Rosiglitazone is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) synthetic activator from the group of thiazolidinediones often used in the treatment of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and other forms of insulin resistance. The present in vitro study assessed the direct effects of rosiglitazone at 25 and 50 μM doses on PPARγ gene expression, steroid secretion (progesterone [P4], androstenedione [A4], testosterone [T], and estradiol), and protein expression of PPARγ, 3βHSD, CYP17, 17βHSD, CYP19 by porcine ovarian follicles from prepubertal and cycling animals. We analyzed also steroid enzymatic activity by conversion of pregnen-3β-ol-20-one to P4, P4 to A4, and A4 to T. Our results indicated that rosiglitazone increased significantly PPARγ expression, P4 secretion, 3βHSD activity, and protein expression. Rosiglitazone decreased A4 and T secretion by reducing the expression and activity of CYP17 and 17βHSD and did not change estradiol secretion and CYP19. Similarly results was observed both in prepubertal and cycling pigs. Our results indicate that these direct effects of rosiglitazone on ovarian steroidogenesis provide a framework for testing several potential new mechanisms of PPAR-γ actions on porcine ovarian function. PMID:24681211

  20. The anti-porcine parvovirus activity of nanometer propolis flavone and propolis flavone in vitro and in vivo.

    Ma, Xia; Guo, Zhenhuan; Shen, Zhiqiang; Liu, Yonglu; Wang, Jinliang; Fan, Yunpeng

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was conducted to evaluate the activity of nanometer propolis flavone (NPF) on inhibiting porcine parvovirus (PPV) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effect of NPF on cellular infectivity of PPV was carried out before and after adding drug and simultaneous adding and PPV after being mixed. In vivo, the anti-PPV effect of NPF in guinea pigs was performed. Results. The results showed that NPF could significantly inhibit PPV infecting porcine kidney- (PK-) 15 cells compared with propolis flavone (PF), and the activity of NPF was the best in preadding drug pattern. NPF at high and medium doses was able to observably restrain PPV copying in lung, gonad, blood, and spleen, decrease the impact of PPV on weight of guinea pigs, and improve hemagglutination inhibition (HI) of PPV in serum. In addition, it could also increase the contents of IL-2 and IL-6 in serum after PPV challenge. Conclusion. These results indicated that NPF could significantly improve the anti-PPV activity of PF, and its high concentration possessed the best efficacy. Therefore, NPF would be expected to be exploited into a new-style antiviral drug. PMID:25815034

  1. The Anti-Porcine Parvovirus Activity of Nanometer Propolis Flavone and Propolis Flavone In Vitro and In Vivo

    Xia Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was conducted to evaluate the activity of nanometer propolis flavone (NPF on inhibiting porcine parvovirus (PPV in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effect of NPF on cellular infectivity of PPV was carried out before and after adding drug and simultaneous adding and PPV after being mixed. In vivo, the anti-PPV effect of NPF in guinea pigs was performed. Results. The results showed that NPF could significantly inhibit PPV infecting porcine kidney- (PK- 15 cells compared with propolis flavone (PF, and the activity of NPF was the best in preadding drug pattern. NPF at high and medium doses was able to observably restrain PPV copying in lung, gonad, blood, and spleen, decrease the impact of PPV on weight of guinea pigs, and improve hemagglutination inhibition (HI of PPV in serum. In addition, it could also increase the contents of IL-2 and IL-6 in serum after PPV challenge. Conclusion. These results indicated that NPF could significantly improve the anti-PPV activity of PF, and its high concentration possessed the best efficacy. Therefore, NPF would be expected to be exploited into a new-style antiviral drug.

  2. COMBINED USE OF A WATER-INSOLUBLE CHEMICAL DELIVERY SYSTEM AND A METABOLIC ACTIVATION SYSTEM IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    An integrated water insoluble chemical delivery/metabolic activation/rat embryo culture system is described. In initial studies corn oil was used as the solvent and diallate as the substrate. Increasing concentrations of diallate dissolved in corn oil caused embryonic growth reta...

  3. The role of RNA polymerase I transcription and embryonic genome activation in nucleolar development in bovine preimplantation embryos

    Østrup, Olga; Strejcek, F.; Petrovicova, I.;

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of RNA polymerase I (RPI) transcription in nucleolar development during major transcriptional activation (MTA) in cattle. Late eight-cell embryos were cultured in the absence (control group) or presence of actinomycin D (AD) (RPI inhibition...

  4. bFGF signaling-mediated reprogramming of porcine primordial germ cells.

    Zhang, Yu; Ma, Jing; Li, Hai; Lv, Jiawei; Wei, Renyue; Cong, Yimei; Liu, Zhonghua

    2016-05-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) have the ability to be reprogrammed into embryonic germ cells (EGCs) in vitro and are an alternative source of embryonic stem cells. Other than for the mouse, the systematic characterization of mammalian PGCs is still lacking, especially the process by which PGCs convert to pluripotency. This hampers the understanding of germ cell development and the derivation of authenticated EGCs from other species. We observed the morphological development of the genital ridge from Bama miniature pigs and found primary sexual differentiation in the E28 porcine embryo, coinciding with Blimp1 nuclear exclusion in PGCs. To explore molecular events involved in porcine PGC reprogramming, transcriptome data of porcine EGCs and fetal fibroblasts (FFs) were assembled and 1169 differentially expressed genes were used for Gene Ontology analysis. These genes were significantly enriched in cell-surface receptor-linked signal transduction, in agreement with the activation of LIF/Stat3 signaling and FGF signaling during the derivation of porcine EG-like cells. Using a growth-factor-defined culture system, we explored the effects of bFGF on the process and found that bFGF not only functioned at the very beginning of PGC dedifferentiation by impeding Blimp1 nuclear expression via a PI3K/AKT-dependent pathway but also maintained the viability of cultured PGCs thereafter. These results provide further insights into the development of germ cells from livestock and the mechanism of porcine PGC reprogramming. PMID:26613602

  5. Porcine parvovirus infection activates mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway by inducing ROS accumulation

    Zhao, Xiaomin; Xiang, Hailing; Bai, Xiaoyuan; Fei, Naijiao; Huang, Yong; Song, Xiangjun; Zhang, Hongling; Zhang, Liang; Tong, Dewen

    2016-01-01

    Background Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection primarily causes reproductive failure of pregnant swine and results in host cell death. Boars, as an important disseminator, shed PPV to sows via semen. PPV infects and numerously replicates in boar testicle, which results in damage of swine testicle in vivo. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), a mediator of cell apoptosis, play a crucial role in the mitochondria apoptotic pathway. However, whether PPV infection induces ST cells apoptosis and ROS accum...

  6. Lipid oxidation degree and antioxidant activity of several polyphenolic extracts in porcine meat during storage

    ILIR LLOHA; VLASH MARA

    2014-01-01

    Extracts of vegetable origin are used widely nowdays in the food industry in the role of antioxidants, especially in the meat processing industry and in the industry of its byproducts. Subject of this study have been porcine meat samples, which have been subjected to polyphenolic extracts, such as those from: tea, rosemary and oregano conserved in a timeframe of 1, 4, 7 and 10 days. TBA (thiobarbituric acid) assay show that polyphenolic extracts tend to increase oxidative endurance of meat sa...

  7. Mechanisms Underlying Adaptation of Respiratory Network Activity to Modulatory Stimuli in the Mouse Embryo

    Chevalier, Marc; De Sa, Rafaël; Cardoit, Laura; Thoby-Brisson, Muriel

    2016-01-01

    Breathing is a rhythmic behavior that requires organized contractions of respiratory effector muscles. This behavior must adapt to constantly changing conditions in order to ensure homeostasis, proper body oxygenation, and CO2/pH regulation. Respiratory rhythmogenesis is controlled by neural networks located in the brainstem. One area considered to be essential for generating the inspiratory phase of the respiratory rhythm is the preBötzinger complex (preBötC). Rhythmogenesis emerges from this network through the interplay between the activation of intrinsic cellular properties (pacemaker properties) and intercellular synaptic connections. Respiratory activity continuously changes under the impact of numerous modulatory substances depending on organismal needs and environmental conditions. The preBötC network has been shown to become active during the last third of gestation. But only little is known regarding the modulation of inspiratory rhythmicity at embryonic stages and even less on a possible role of pacemaker neurons in this functional flexibility during the prenatal period. By combining electrophysiology and calcium imaging performed on embryonic brainstem slice preparations, we provide evidence showing that embryonic inspiratory pacemaker neurons are already intrinsically sensitive to neuromodulation and external conditions (i.e., temperature) affecting respiratory network activity, suggesting a potential role of pacemaker neurons in mediating rhythm adaptation to modulatory stimuli in the embryo.

  8. Epimedium koreanum Nakai Water Extract Exhibits Antiviral Activity against Porcine Epidermic Diarrhea Virus In Vitro and In Vivo

    Won-Kyung Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV causes diarrhea of pigs age-independently and death of young piglets, resulting in economic loss of porcine industry. We have screened 333 natural oriental herbal medicines to search for new antiviral candidates against PEDV. We found that two herbal extracts, KIOM 198 and KIOM 124, contain significant anti-PED viral effect. KIOM 198 and KIOM 124 were identified as Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Lonicera japonica Thunberg, respectively. The further plaque and CPE inhibition assay in vitro showed that KIOM 198 has much stronger antiviral activity than KIOM 124. Additionally, KIOM 198 exhibited a similar extent of antiviral effect against other subtypes of Corona virus such as sm98 and TGE viruses. Cytotoxicity results showed that KIOM 198 is nontoxic on the cells and suggest that it can be delivered safely for therapy. Furthermore, when we orally administered KIOM 198 to piglets and then infected them with PEDV, the piglets did not show any disease symptoms like diarrhea and biopsy results showed clean intestine, whereas control pigs without KIOM 198 treatment exhibited PED-related severe symptoms. These results imply that KIOM 198 contains strong antiviral activity and has a potential to be developed as an antiviral phytomedicine to treat PEDV-related diseases in pigs.

  9. Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    Hamilton, J W; Denison, M S; Bloom, S E

    1983-06-01

    The development of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system was studied to determine the basal level of embryonic enzyme activity and the inducibility of this system throughout growth and differentiation. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and inducible hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase; designated elsewhere as AHH) activity from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation (DI) through day 10 after hatching. In addition, whole-embryo and viscera preparations were assayed at 3 and 4 DI. Basal AHHase activity was equal to or greater than adult levels from 3 DI through hatching in all preparations (approximately 0.3-0.5 nmol/min per mg). A 3-fold increase in basal activity above adult values occurred at hatching. The onset of inducibility in chicken embryo liver between 5 and 6 DI was concomitant with hepatocyte differentiation. A developmental profile of 24-hr 3,4,3', 4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-induced AHHase activity showed 15- to 30-fold induction over controls from 7 DI through day 10 after hatching, with a maximum of 15 nmol/min per mg at 14 DI and day 1 after hatching, a specific activity greater than 50% greater than maximal induction in the adult. Embryonic AHHase activity was also induced by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 3-methylcholanthrene, beta-naphthoflavone, and sodium phenobarbital. Induction kinetics throughout embryonic development were similar to those reported for the adult chicken and other animals. These findings demonstrate development of a mixed-function oxidase system in very early embryogenesis and then in the liver as it differentiates. Liver AHHase activity is inducible throughout development and perinatally but such activity is under strict developmental regulation. The chicken embryo has adult levels of AHHase activity which would be sufficient to achieve metabolic activation of promutagens/carcinogens before and after hepatocyte differentiation. PMID:6407011

  10. The Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in the Development and Physiology of Gametes and Preimplantation Embryos

    Jaou-Chen Huang

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In several species, a family of nuclear receptors, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs composed of three isotypes, is expressed in somatic cells and germ cells of the ovary as well as the testis. Invalidation of these receptors in mice or stimulation of these receptors in vivo or in vitro showed that each receptor has physiological roles in the gamete maturation or the embryo development. In addition, synthetic PPARγ ligands are recently used to induce ovulation in women with polycystic ovary disease. These results reveal the positive actions of PPAR in reproduction. On the other hand, xenobiotics molecules (in herbicides, plasticizers, or components of personal care products, capable of activating PPAR, may disrupt normal PPAR functions in the ovary or the testis and have consequences on the quality of the gametes and the embryos. Despite the recent data obtained on the biological actions of PPARs in reproduction, relatively little is known about PPARs in gametes and embryos. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the expression and the function of PPARs as well as their partners, retinoid X receptors (RXRs, in germ cells and preimplantation embryos. The effects of natural and synthetic PPAR ligands will also be discussed from the perspectives of reproductive toxicology and assisted reproductive technology.

  11. Porcine E. coli: virulence-associated genes, resistance genes and adhesion and probiotic activity tested by a new screening method.

    Peter Schierack

    Full Text Available We established an automated screening method to characterize adhesion of Escherichia coli to intestinal porcine epithelial cells (IPEC-J2 and their probiotic activity against infection by enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC. 104 intestinal E. coli isolates from domestic pigs were tested by PCR for the occurrence of virulence-associated genes, genes coding for resistances to antimicrobial agents and metals, and for phylogenetic origin by PCR. Adhesion rates and probiotic activity were examined for correlation with the presence of these genes. Finally, data were compared with those from 93 E. coli isolates from wild boars. Isolates from domestic pigs carried a broad variety of all tested genes and showed great diversity in gene patterns. Adhesions varied with a maximum of 18.3 or 24.2 mean bacteria adherence per epithelial cell after 2 or 6 hours respectively. Most isolates from domestic pigs and wild boars showed low adherence, with no correlation between adhesion/probiotic activity and E. coli genes or gene clusters. The gene sfa/foc, encoding for a subunit of F1C fimbriae did show a positive correlative association with adherence and probiotic activity; however E. coli isolates from wild boars with the sfa/foc gene showed less adhesion and probiotic activity than E. coli with the sfa/foc gene isolated from domestic pigs after 6 hour incubation. In conclusion, screening porcine E. coli for virulence associated genes genes, adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells, and probiotic activity revealed a single important adhesion factor, several probiotic candidates, and showed important differences between E. coli of domestic pigs and wild boars.

  12. Development of basal and induced aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase activity in the chicken embryo in ovo.

    Hamilton, J. W.; Denison, M. S.; Bloom, S E

    1983-01-01

    The development of the hepatic microsomal mixed-function oxidase system was studied to determine the basal level of embryonic enzyme activity and the inducibility of this system throughout growth and differentiation. Chicken embryo livers were assayed for basal and inducible hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHHase; designated elsewhere as AHH) activity from the first appearance of the liver as a discrete organ at 5 days of incubation (DI) through day 10 after hatching. In addition, whole...

  13. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Glyphosate (Roundup® Active to Embryos of Colombian Anurans

    Teófila María Triana Velásquez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is an herbicide widely used in agriculture, which may affect non-target species. The aim of this study was to determine the lethal (Median lethal concentration - LC50 and sublethal effects (changes on body size and development of glyphosate (Roundup® Active to embryos of four anuran species, exposed during 96 hours under laboratory and microcosm tests. Under laboratory conditions, Engystomops pustulosus was the most tolerant species (LC50 = 3033,18 μg a.e./L and Rhinella marina was the most sensitive (LC50 = 1421,46 μg a.e./L, which also showed a delayed development and significantly reduced body size. The other species had an intermediate LC50 (Rhinella humboldti = 2899,54 μg a.e./L; Hypsiboas crepitans = 2151,88 μg a.e./L. In all cases, the laboratory LC50 was lower than the concentration used in field (5392,92 μg a.e./L, indicating a high toxic effect. In the microcosm tests, embryos of E. pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 19,41 kg a.e./ha, while R. humboldti were the most sensitive (LC50 = 10,61 kg a.e./ha. In this case, all four study species had a higher LC50 than the concentration sprayed in field (3,69 kg a.e./ ha, so a lower lethal effect, and there were no significant differences in body size and development. This result shows that the glyphosate, as the commercial presentation Roundup® Active, produce a moderate mortality on anuran embryos.EFECTOS LETALES Y SUBLETALES DEL GLIFOSATO (ROUNDUP® ACTIVO EN EMBRIONES DE ANUROS COLOMBIANOS.El glifosato es un herbicida usado en la agricultura que puede afectar especies no blanco. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los efectos letales (concentración letal media - CL50 y subletales (cambios en el tamaño corporal y desarrollo del glifosato (Roundup® Activo sobre embriones de cuatro especies de anuros expuestos durante 96 horas en pruebas de laboratorio y microcosmos. En laboratorio, la especie más tolerante fue Engystomops pustulosus (CL50 = 3033,18 μg a

  14. Covalent immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase on carboxyl-activated magnetic nanoparticles: Characterization and application for enzymatic inhibition assays

    Using carboxyl functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carrier, a novel immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was prepared through the 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling reaction. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the synthesized nanoparticles (Fe3O4–SiO2) possessed three dimensional core–shell structures with an average diameter of ∼ 20 nm. The effective enzyme immobilization onto the nanocomposite was confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. Results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Bradford protein assay, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PPL was covalently attached to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with a PPL immobilization yield of 50 mg enzyme/g MNPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis revealed that the MNPs-PPL nanocomposite had a high saturation magnetization of 42.25 emu·g−1. The properties of the immobilized PPL were investigated in comparison with the free enzyme counterpart. Enzymatic activity, reusability, thermo-stability, and storage stability of the immobilized PPL were found significantly superior to those of the free one. The Km and the Vmax values (0.02 mM, 6.40 U·mg−1 enzyme) indicated the enhanced activity of the immobilized PPL compared to those of the free enzyme (0.29 mM, 3.16 U·mg−1 enzyme). Furthermore, at an elevated temperature of 70 °C, immobilized PPL retained 60% of its initial activity. The PPL-MNPs nanocomposite was applied in the enzyme inhibition assays using orlistat, and two natural products isolated from oolong tea (i.e., EGCG and EGC) as the test compounds. - Highlights: • Porcine pancreatic lipase was firstly covalently immobilized onto carboxylated MNPs. • Immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was characterized by various techniques. • MNPs-PPL showed higher activity, reusability, and thermo-stability than the free PPL

  15. Covalent immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase on carboxyl-activated magnetic nanoparticles: Characterization and application for enzymatic inhibition assays

    Zhu, Yuan-Ting [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Ren, Xiao-Yun [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Yi-Ming [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Jackson State University, 1400 Lynch St., Jackson, MS 39217 (United States); Wei, Ying [Changzhi Medical College, Changzhi 046000 (China); Qing, Lin-Sen [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liao, Xun, E-mail: liaoxun@cib.ac.cn [Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Using carboxyl functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carrier, a novel immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was prepared through the 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling reaction. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the synthesized nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}–SiO{sub 2}) possessed three dimensional core–shell structures with an average diameter of ∼ 20 nm. The effective enzyme immobilization onto the nanocomposite was confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. Results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Bradford protein assay, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PPL was covalently attached to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with a PPL immobilization yield of 50 mg enzyme/g MNPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis revealed that the MNPs-PPL nanocomposite had a high saturation magnetization of 42.25 emu·g{sup −1}. The properties of the immobilized PPL were investigated in comparison with the free enzyme counterpart. Enzymatic activity, reusability, thermo-stability, and storage stability of the immobilized PPL were found significantly superior to those of the free one. The K{sub m} and the V{sub max} values (0.02 mM, 6.40 U·mg{sup −1} enzyme) indicated the enhanced activity of the immobilized PPL compared to those of the free enzyme (0.29 mM, 3.16 U·mg{sup −1} enzyme). Furthermore, at an elevated temperature of 70 °C, immobilized PPL retained 60% of its initial activity. The PPL-MNPs nanocomposite was applied in the enzyme inhibition assays using orlistat, and two natural products isolated from oolong tea (i.e., EGCG and EGC) as the test compounds. - Highlights: • Porcine pancreatic lipase was firstly covalently immobilized onto carboxylated MNPs. • Immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was characterized by various techniques. • MNPs-PPL showed higher activity

  16. Toxicity of petroleum crude oils and their effect on xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in the chicken embryo in ovo

    Lee, Y.Z.; O' Brien, P.J.; Payne, J.F.; Rahimtula, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    Microliter quantities of a Prudhoe Bay crude oil (PBCO) applied to the shell of fertile chick eggs during various stages of development induced cytochrome P-450 levels and mixed-function oxidase activities within the liver of the embryo. PBCO (5 ..mu..l) applied on Day 11 of incubation was found to maximally induce within 24 hr embryo hepatic cytochrome P-450 levels (fourfold), naphthalene hydroxylase (sixfold), benzo(a)pyrene 3-hyroxylase (14-fold), and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (24-fold). Glutathione S-transferase was not induced. Crude oils are known to be highly toxic to avian embryos, especially during the early stages of development. The LD/sub 50/ of PBCO and Hibernia crude oil applied to the egg shell on Day 8 of incubation was found to be 1.3 and 2.2 ..mu..l, respectively. Mixed-function oxidase-dependent metabolism of crude oil components may be required for toxicity since administration of 20 ..mu..g of disulfiram in dioxane 1 hr prior to application of 1.3 ..mu..l of PBCO reduced embryo mortality from 60 to 20%.

  17. Assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity of compounds by measuring locomotor activity in zebrafish embryos and larvae

    Selderslaghs, Ingrid W. T.; Hooyberghs, Jef; Blust, Ronny; Witters, Hilda E.

    2013-01-01

    The developmental neurotoxic potential of the majority of environmental chemicals and drugs is currently undetermined. Specific in vivo studies provide useful data for hazard assessment but are not amenable to screen thousands of untested compounds. In this study, methods which use zebrafish embryos, eleutheroembryos and larvae as model organisms, were proposed as alternatives for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) testing. The evaluation of spontaneous tail coilings in zebrafish embryos aged ...

  18. Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is active in pancreatic development of rat embryo

    Qi-Ming Wang; Ye Zhang; Kai-Ming Yang; Hong-Ying Zhou; Hui-Jun Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in pancreatic development of rat embryo.METHODS: The mRNAs of β-catenin, APC, cyclin D1 genes were amplified by means of semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) from embryonic pancreas in different periods and normal pancreas of rat, respectively. Protein expression of these genes in embryonic pancreas of E14.5-E18.5was examined by immunohistochemical method.RESULTS: In embryonic pancreas of E14.5, the transcript amplification of β-catenin and cyclinD1 genes was detected. In embryonic pancreas of E18.5, the transcription levels of β-catenin and cyclinD1 genes became much higher than in other periods. But in adult rat pancreas the transcription of cyclinD1 gene could not be observed. Only until E18.5, the transcript amplification of mRNA of APC gene could be detected.Surprisingly, the transcription level of APC gene became much higher in adult rat pancreas than in embryonic pancreas. By means of immunohistochemical staining,identical results were obtained to the above by RP-PCR,except for β-catenin protein in adult rat pancreas.CONCLUSION: Active Wnt/β-catenin signaling occursin rat embryonic pancreas and is probably important for pancreatic development and organ formation.

  19. Diatom-derived oxylipins induce cell death in sea urchin embryos activating caspase-8 and caspase 3/7.

    Ruocco, Nadia; Varrella, Stefano; Romano, Giovanna; Ianora, Adrianna; Bentley, Matt G; Somma, Domenico; Leonardi, Antonio; Mellone, Stefano; Zuppa, Antonio; Costantini, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms are an important class of unicellular algae that produce bioactive secondary metabolites with cytotoxic activity collectively termed oxylipins, including polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs), hydroxyacids (HEPEs), oxo-acids and epoxyalcohols. Previous results showed that at higher concentrations, the PUA decadienal induced apoptosis on copepods and sea urchin embryos via caspase-3 activation; at lower concentrations decadienal affected the expression levels of the caspase-8 gene in embryos of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. In the present work, we studied the effects of other common oxylipins produced by diatoms: two PUAs (heptadienal and octadienal) and four hydroxyacids (5-, 9- 11- and 15-HEPE) on P. lividus cell death and caspase activities. Our results showed that (i) at higher concentrations PUAs and HEPEs induced apoptosis in sea urchin embryos, detected by microscopic observation and through the activation of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8 measured by luminescent assays; (ii) at low concentrations, PUAs and HEPEs affected the expression levels of caspase-8 and caspase-3/7 (isolated for the first time here in P. lividus) genes, detected by Real Time qPCR. These findings have interesting implications from the ecological point of view, given the importance of diatom blooms in nutrient-rich aquatic environments. PMID:27130972

  20. Role of calcium-activated potassium channels with small conductance in bradykinin-induced vasodilation of porcine retinal arterioles

    Dalsgaard, Thomas; Kroigaard, Christel; Bek, Toke;

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinal vascular diseases. In the present study, the mechanisms underlying bradykinin vasodilation were examined and whether calcium-activated potassium channels of small (SK(Ca)) and intermediate (IK......(Ca)) conductance are involved in regulation of endothelium-dependent vasodilation in retinal arterioles was investigated. METHODS: Porcine retinal arterioles (diameter approximately 112 microm, N = 119) were mounted in microvascular myographs for isometric tension recordings. The arterioles were contracted with...... the thromboxane analogue, U46619, and concentration-response curves were constructed for bradykinin and a novel opener of SK(Ca) and IK(Ca) channels, NS309. RESULTS: In U46619-contracted arterioles, bradykinin and NS309 induced concentration-dependent relaxations. In vessels without endothelium...

  1. In vitro embryo culture and antimicrobial activity of Clitoria ternatea L.

    Madhu Kumari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clitoria ternatea L. is an important rare medicinal plant species with memory-enhancing ability used as crude drugs in many ayurvedic medicines. Objective: The objectives were as follows: A. To develop a protocol for rapid clonal propagation of the important medicinal climber, C. ternatea L., through in vitro tissue culture of embryo explants through callogenesis and organogenesis, and B. Antibacterial study of ethanolic extract of in vitro raised plant and callus mass against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC189, Bacillus subtilis (MTCC8, Escherichia coli (MTCC1, and Klebsiella pneumonia (MTCC3883, respectively. Materials and Methods: Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog′s (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of 6-benzylamino purine (BAP, (2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D, and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA for shoot and root induction. The disc diffusion method was adopted for antimicrobial study of the plant extract. Results: The sub-cultured of callus on MS basal medium supplemented with BAP (2.5 mg/l and NAA (0.5 mg/l showed highest rate of shoot multiplication. In vitro shoots were rooted on to the MS basal medium supplemented with NAA (0.5 mg/l. The sub-culture of callus on MS basal medium supplemented with BAP (1 mg/l and NAA (0.5 mg/l showed highest rate of root multiplication from callus. The antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of in vitro grown products of C. ternatea L. was found to have antimicrobial activity against all tested microorganisms. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, carbohydrates, and steroids in the in vitro grown products of C. ternatea L. Conclusion: An efficient protocol was developed for successful micropropagation and multiple plant regeneration of an important medicinal plant C. ternatea L. It is a widely used in ayurvedic medicine because of its multi-potent bioactive molecules and

  2. Structure of an Engineered Porcine Phospholipase A2 with Enhanced Activity at 2.1 Å Resolution. Comparison with the Wild-type Porcine and Crotalus atrox Phospholipase A2

    Thunnissen, Marjolein M. G. M.; Kalk, Kor H.; Drenth, Jan; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1990-01-01

    The crystal structure of an engineered phospholipase A2 with enhanced activity has been refined to an R-factor of 18.6% at 2.1 Å resolution using a combination of molecular dynamics refinement by the GROMOS package and least-squares refinement by TNT. This mutant phospholipase was obtained previously by deleting residues 62 to 66 in porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2, and changing Asp59 to Ser, Ser60 to Gly and Asn67 to Tyr. The refined structure allowed a detailed comparison with wild-type ...

  3. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice

    Yunpeng Fan; Liwei Guo; Weifeng Hou; Chao Guo; Weimin Zhang; Xia Ma; Lin Ma; Xiaoping Song

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymph...

  4. Morphogenetic Activities of Bendiocarb as Cholinesterase Inhibitor on Development of the Chick Embryo

    Petrovová, E.; Luptáková, L.; Mazenský, D.; Danko, J.; Sedmera, David

    Rijeka: InTech, 2011 - (Stoytcheva, M.), s. 469-494 ISBN 978-953-307-457-3 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : bendiocarb * chick embryo * toxicity * development * pesticides * central nervous system * cell death Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  5. Transcriptional activation of Arabidopsis axis patterning genes WOX8/9 links zygote polarity to embryo development.

    Ueda, Minako; Zhang, Zhongjuan; Laux, Thomas

    2011-02-15

    In most flowering plants, the apical-basal body axis is established by an asymmetric division of the polarized zygote. In Arabidopsis, early embryo patterning is regulated by WOX homeobox genes, which are coexpressed in the zygote but become restricted to apical (WOX2) and basal (WOX8/9) cells. How the asymmetry of zygote division is regulated and connected to the daughter cell fates is largely unknown. Here, we show that expression of WOX8 is independent of the axis patterning signal auxin, but, together with the redundant gene WOX9, is activated in the zygote, its basal daughter cell, and the hypophysis by the zinc-finger transcription factor WRKY2. In wrky2 mutants, egg cells polarize normally but zygotes fail to reestablish polar organelle positioning from a transient symmetric state, resulting in equal cell division and distorted embryo development. Both defects are rescued by overexpressing WOX8, indicating that WRKY2-dependent WOX8 transcription links zygote polarization with embryo patterning. PMID:21316593

  6. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Activates CaMMKβ to Initiate Autophagy in PK-15 Cells by Increasing Cytosolic Calcium

    Gu, Yuanxing; Qi, Baozhu; Zhou, Yingshan; Jiang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Xian; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) induces autophagy via the 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in pig kidney PK-15 cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation in autophagy induction remain unknown. With specific inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi), we show that PCV2 infection upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta (CaMKKβ) by increasing cytosolic Ca2+ via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R). Elevation of cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+) did not seem to involve inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by phosphoinositide phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-γ). CaMKKβ then activated both AMPK and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI). PCV2 employed CaMKI and Trp-Asp (WD) repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1 (WIPI1) as another pathway additional to AMPK signaling in autophagy initiation. Our findings could help better understanding of the signaling pathways of autophagy induction as part of PCV2 pathogenesis. Further research is warranted to study if PCV2 interacts directly with IP3R or indirectly with the molecules that antagonize IP3R activity responsible for increased cytosolic Ca2+ both in PK-15 cells and PCV2-targeted primary cells from pigs. PMID:27213427

  7. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Activates CaMMKβ to Initiate Autophagy in PK-15 Cells by Increasing Cytosolic Calcium

    Yuanxing Gu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 induces autophagy via the 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathway in pig kidney PK-15 cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation in autophagy induction remain unknown. With specific inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi, we show that PCV2 infection upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta (CaMKKβ by increasing cytosolic Ca2+ via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R. Elevation of cytosolic calcium ion (Ca2+ did not seem to involve inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2 by phosphoinositide phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-γ. CaMKKβ then activated both AMPK and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI. PCV2 employed CaMKI and Trp-Asp (WD repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1 (WIPI1 as another pathway additional to AMPK signaling in autophagy initiation. Our findings could help better understanding of the signaling pathways of autophagy induction as part of PCV2 pathogenesis. Further research is warranted to study if PCV2 interacts directly with IP3R or indirectly with the molecules that antagonize IP3R activity responsible for increased cytosolic Ca2+ both in PK-15 cells and PCV2-targeted primary cells from pigs.

  8. Porcine Circovirus Type 2 Activates CaMMKβ to Initiate Autophagy in PK-15 Cells by Increasing Cytosolic Calcium.

    Gu, Yuanxing; Qi, Baozhu; Zhou, Yingshan; Jiang, Xiaowu; Zhang, Xian; Li, Xiaoliang; Fang, Weihuan

    2016-01-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) induces autophagy via the 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in pig kidney PK-15 cells. However, the underlying mechanisms of AMPK activation in autophagy induction remain unknown. With specific inhibitors and RNA interference (RNAi), we show that PCV2 infection upregulated calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta (CaMKKβ) by increasing cytosolic Ca(2+) via inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R). Elevation of cytosolic calcium ion (Ca(2+)) did not seem to involve inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) by phosphoinositide phospholipase C-gamma (PLC-γ). CaMKKβ then activated both AMPK and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI). PCV2 employed CaMKI and Trp-Asp (WD) repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1 (WIPI1) as another pathway additional to AMPK signaling in autophagy initiation. Our findings could help better understanding of the signaling pathways of autophagy induction as part of PCV2 pathogenesis. Further research is warranted to study if PCV2 interacts directly with IP3R or indirectly with the molecules that antagonize IP3R activity responsible for increased cytosolic Ca(2+) both in PK-15 cells and PCV2-targeted primary cells from pigs. PMID:27213427

  9. Effects of Ages of Donors and Conditions of Preserving Ovaries on Porcine Oocytes Maturation in vitro and Efficiency of Parthenogenetic Activation

    XING Feng-ying; WU Zhong-hong; ZENG Shen-ming; LIU Guo-shi; ZHU Shi-en; ZHANG Zhong-cheng; CHEN Xue-jin

    2004-01-01

    Effects of different ages of donors and different conditions of preserving ovaries on porcine oocytes maturation in vitro and efficiency of parthenogenetic activation were studied. The experiments included: 1) effects of different temperatures (22, 30, 37, 38.5and 40℃) of preserving ovaries on porcine oocytes maturation in vitro and developmental potential; 2) effects of periods of preserving ovaries on porcine oocytes maturation in vitro and development in vitro; 3) effects of different ages of donors on porcine oocytes maturation in vitro and developmental potential. The results of the experiment showed:1) There were no statistical differences (p>0.05) of the parthenogenetic cleavage rate (79.64% vs 76.18%) and blastocyst rate (18.11% vs 33.82%) between oocytes from ovaries preserved at 38.5℃ and those preserved at 37℃. When the preserving temperature was increased to 40℃, the cleavage rate (21.68%) and the blastocyst rate (0) were great significantly lower than those at 37℃(p<0.01). The cleavage rate (80.79% vs 76.18%) and blastocyst rate (29.61% vs 33.82%) were not different between 30 and 37℃(p> 0.05). When the preserving temperature was decreased to 22℃, the rate of cleavage was not different,but the rate of blastocyst was significantly lower, compared with that at 37℃; 2) The cleavage and blastocyst rates of the porcine oocytes collected after slaughter 2 or 6h were not different (p>0.05); 3) The cleavage rate of oocytes from gilts and sows after maturation was not different, but the blastocyst rate of the sow group was significantly higher than that of gilt group (p< 0.05). The blastocyst cell number of sows and gilt showed no difference (p>0.05).

  10. JNK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways contribute to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection.

    Lee, Changhee; Kim, Youngnam; Jeon, Ji Hyun

    2016-08-15

    The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, which are central building blocks in the intracellular signaling network, are often manipulated by viruses of diverse families to favor their replication. Among the MAPK family, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is known to be modulated during the infection with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV); however, involvement of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs) comprising p38 MAPK and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) remains to be determined. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated whether activation of p38 MAPK and JNK cascades is required for PEDV replication. Our results showed that PEDV activates p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 up to 24h post-infection, whereas, thereafter their phosphorylation levels recede to baseline levels or even fall below them. Notably, UV-irradiated inactivated PEDV, which can enter cells but cannot replicate inside them, failed to induce phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK1/2 suggesting that viral biosynthesis is essential for activation of these kinases. Treatment of cells with selective p38 or JNK inhibitors markedly impaired PEDV replication in a dose-dependent manner and these antiviral effects were found to be maximal during the early times of the infection. Furthermore, direct pharmacological inhibition of p38 MAPK or JNK1/2 activation resulted in a significant reduction of viral RNA synthesis, viral protein expression, and progeny release. However, independent treatments with either SAPK inhibitor did not inhibit PEDV-induced apoptotic cell death mediated by activation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) suggesting that SAPKs are irrelevant to the apoptosis pathway during PEDV infection. In summary, our data demonstrated critical roles of the p38 and JNK1/2 signaling pathways in facilitating successful viral infection during the post-entry steps of the PEDV life cycle. PMID:27215486

  11. Isolation of porcine pancreatic islets: low trypsin activity during the isolation procedure guarantees reproducible high islet yields

    Heiser, Axel; Ulrichs, Karin; Müller-Buchholtz, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    During the past few years, interest in xenotransplantation of porcine islets of Langerhans for the future therapy of type I diabetes has Increased markedly. Therefore, we established a semiautomated digestion method for isolating islets from the porcine pancreas. However, although the isolation technique was standardized and collagenase of controlled quality was used, we were unable to attain high islet yields with a satisfactory degree of reproducibility. One hypothesis was that varying degr...

  12. Serum amine oxidase activity contributes to crisis in mouse embryo cell lines.

    Parchment, R E; Lewellyn, A; Swartzendruber, D; Pierce, G B

    1990-06-01

    This paper reports the results of experiments to test the hypothesis that crisis of spontaneous transformation is caused by the hydrogen peroxide and/or aldehydes generated from endogenous polyamines by serum amine oxidase [amine: oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating), EC 1.4.3.6]. After 4-5 weeks of culture, crisis occurred in 16 of 29 cell lines derived from limb buds of embryos from SJL/J, C3H, and CD-1 mice. In contrast, after the same time in culture but in medium supplemented with aminoguanidine, which inhibits serum amine oxidase, crisis occurred in only 1 of 41 cell lines. Protection against crisis was maximal in cell lines of SJL/J embryos, in which the incidence of crisis fell from 7 of 9 in untreated controls of 0 to 12 in the presence of 2 mM aminoguanidine. 2-Mercaptoethanol at 150-300 microM, which protects cells from serum amine oxidase-dependent polyamine toxicity, also protected the cell lines against crisis. These protected cell lines retained proliferative potential, diploid DNA content, and the mixture of cell types found in the primary cultures. These results indicate that cytotoxic catabolites generated by serum amine oxidase caused at least a large portion, but perhaps not all, of the cellular damage that leads to crisis in mouse embryo cell lines. PMID:2349241

  13. Role of ooplasm in nuclear and nucleolar remodeling of intergeneric somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos during the first cell cycle

    Østrup, Olga; Strejcek, Frantisek; Petrovicova, Ida;

    2011-01-01

    intergeneric SCNT embryos were compared to their parthenogenetic counterparts to assess the effects of the introduced somatic cell. Despite the absence of morphological remodeling (premature chromatin condensation, nuclear envelope breakdown), reconstructed embryos showed nuclear and nucleolar precursor body......Initially, development of the zygote is under control of the oocyte ooplasm. However, it is presently unknown if and to what extent is the ooplasm able to interact with a transferred somatic cell from another species in the context of interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Here, one......-cell stage embryos were processed at different points in time post activation (2 hpa, 4 hpa, 8 hpa, and 12 hpa) for detailed nuclear and nucleolar analysis by TEM, and immunofluorescence for visualization of nucleolar proteins related to transcription (UBF) and processing (fibrillarin). Bovine and porcine...

  14. Inhibition of Cleavage of a Plant Viral Polyprotein by an Inhibitor Activity Present in Wheat Germ and Cowpea Embryos

    Shih, Ding S.; Bu, Ming; Price, Mary A.; Shih, Chao-Yun T.

    1987-01-01

    In rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the bottom component RNA of cowpea mosaic virus directs the synthesis of a 200,000-molecular-weight precursor protein (200K protein) that is cleaved during synthesis by a reticulocyte enzyme to form a 32K protein and a 170K protein. Cleavage of the 200K protein was found to be effectively inhibited by inhibitor activity in wheat germ and cowpea embryo extracts. The inhibitor was nondialyzable, precipitatable by ammonium sulfate, and partially stable at high temp...

  15. Transcriptional response of zebrafish embryos exposed to neurotoxic compounds reveals a muscle activity dependent hspb11 expression.

    Nils Klüver

    Full Text Available Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibitors are widely used as pesticides and drugs. Their primary effect is the overstimulation of cholinergic receptors which results in an improper muscular function. During vertebrate embryonic development nerve activity and intracellular downstream events are critical for the regulation of muscle fiber formation. Whether AChE inhibitors and related neurotoxic compounds also provoke specific changes in gene transcription patterns during vertebrate development that allow them to establish a mechanistic link useful for identification of developmental toxicity pathways has, however, yet not been investigated. Therefore we examined the transcriptomic response of a known AChE inhibitor, the organophosphate azinphos-methyl (APM, in zebrafish embryos and compared the response with two non-AChE inhibiting unspecific control compounds, 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DMB and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP. A highly specific cluster of APM induced gene transcripts was identified and a subset of strongly regulated genes was analyzed in more detail. The small heat shock protein hspb11 was found to be the most sensitive induced gene in response to AChE inhibitors. Comparison of expression in wildtype, ache and sop(fixe mutant embryos revealed that hspb11 expression was dependent on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR activity. Furthermore, modulators of intracellular calcium levels within the whole embryo led to a transcriptional up-regulation of hspb11 which suggests that elevated intracellular calcium levels may regulate the expression of this gene. During early zebrafish development, hspb11 was specifically expressed in muscle pioneer cells and Hspb11 morpholino-knockdown resulted in effects on slow muscle myosin organization. Our findings imply that a comparative toxicogenomic approach and functional analysis can lead to the identification of molecular mechanisms and specific marker genes for potential neurotoxic compounds.

  16. Activity and isoenzyme spectrum of alkaline phosphatase in liver and blood plasma of gamma-irradiated hen and chick embryos

    Twelve day and 20 day-old embryos and one-day old chicks were gamma-irradiated with a single dose of 100 rad. On the 1st, 2nd and 72nd hours after treatment the alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity and isozyme spectrum in liver homogenates and blood plasma were determined. AP in the liver was demonstrated histochemically as well. The results show that the initial damage of the liver parenchyma by irradiation treatment is characterized by a slight decrease of liver AP activity and a marked increase in total plasma enzyme activity. The isozyme spectrum changes (increase of AP1 in the early period and increase of AP1 and AP5 in the later period) show that the initial liver parenchymal damage is followed by bile duct damage as well. Comparison of the results of biochemical and histochemical studies indicate the presence of direct correlation between serum and liver alkaline phosphatase activities. (A.B.)

  17. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    Su, Yao; Wang, Yue-Hu; Tan, Ying; Yang, Jun; Liu, Hong-Xin; Gu, Wei; Long, Chun-Lin, E-mail: long@mail.kib.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Bi, Jun-Long; Yin, Ge-Fen, E-mail: yingefen383@sohu.com [College of Animal Science and Technology, Yunnan Agricultural University (China)

    2012-10-15

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-{alpha}-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC{sub 50} value of 80.5 {+-} 16.9 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 {+-} 7.4 {mu}mol L{sup -1} (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  18. Chemical constituents from Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao with inhibitory activity against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus

    Two new quinonoids chiritalone A and B, and a new neolignan 7'E-4,9-dihydroxy- 3,3',5'-trimethoxy-8,4'-oxyneolign-7'-en-9'-al, along with known (-)-8-hydroxy-α-dunnione, digiferruginol, 2,5-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and hederagenin, were isolated from the stems of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis from NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data, and the absolute configuration of chiritalone A was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using the Flack parameter. The inhibitory activity of compounds against porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus (PRRSV) was measured by the cytopathic effect (CPE) method. Digiferruginol and hederagenin showed weak effect on PRRSV with an IC50 value of 80.5 ± 16.9 μmol L-1 (SI = 19.9) and 43.2 ± 7.4 μmol L-1 (SI = 13.1), respectively. (author)

  19. Rolling-circle amplification for the detection of active porcine circovirus type 2 DNA replication in vitro.

    Navidad, Paolo Dominic; Li, Hao; Mankertz, Annette; Meehan, Brian

    2008-09-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections in pigs have diverse clinical presentations and are considered economically important diseases worldwide. However, despite intensive research, the early pathogenesis of PCV2 and the primary target cells for PCV2 infections and replication are still unknown. Rolling-circle amplification (RCA) is an amplification technique for small, circular DNA templates that essentially mimics rolling-circle replication in vitro. In this study, the amplification of PCV2-specific DNAs using randomly primed RCA has been demonstrated. This novel approach has circumvented the normal requirement for conventional virus isolation procedures for the characterization of PCV2 DNAs from clinical samples. In addition, the potential utility of a strand-specific derivative of RCA was further investigated. Specifically, strand-specific RCA for the detection of active virus replication following the amplification of complementary sense PCV2 DNAs, which occur as double-stranded replicative intermediates that are present only during de novo viral DNA replication both in vitro and in vivo has been demonstrated. PMID:18606463

  20. Seasonal influence on the development of parthenotes and cloned embryos in pigs

    2007-01-01

    Seasonal influence on the developmental ability of porcine embryos was studied by comparisons of the number of cumulus-oocytes-complexes (COCs) per ovary pair and meiotic maturation ability of oocytes in different seasons; and by the observations on developmental competence of the parthenogenetic oocytes and ckoned embryos collected from different seasons. We found that the number of COCs per ovary pairs was significantly higher in spring compared to the other seasons ( P<0.05). However, no significant difference was found in the rate of oocytes progressing to M Ⅱ in four seasons ( P<0.05 ). In addition, the rate of blastocyst formation of parthenogenetic embryos in summer was obviously declined compared to the other seasons (P<0.05), and an increased blastocyst rate of cloned porcine embryos was found in spring compared to autumn and winter (P<0.05). The results suggest that there should be a seasonal influence on the developmental competence of porcine embryos.

  1. Serum amine oxidase activity contributes to crisis in mouse embryo cell lines.

    Parchment, R E; Lewellyn, A; Swartzendruber, D.; Pierce, G. B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the results of experiments to test the hypothesis that crisis of spontaneous transformation is caused by the hydrogen peroxide and/or aldehydes generated from endogenous polyamines by serum amine oxidase [amine: oxygen oxidoreductase (deaminating), EC 1.4.3.6]. After 4-5 weeks of culture, crisis occurred in 16 of 29 cell lines derived from limb buds of embryos from SJL/J, C3H, and CD-1 mice. In contrast, after the same time in culture but in medium supplemented with aminogu...

  2. Site-specific expression of gelatinolytic activity during morphogenesis of the secondary palate in the mouse embryo.

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Blumer, Susan; Katsaros, Christos; Graf, Daniel; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Morphogenesis of the secondary palate in mammalian embryos involves two major events: first, reorientation of the two vertically oriented palatal shelves into a horizontal position above the tongue, and second, fusion of the two shelves at the midline. Genetic evidence in humans and mice indicates the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). As MMP expression patterns might differ from sites of activity, we used a recently developed highly sensitive in situ zymography technique to map gelatinolytic MMP activity in the developing mouse palate. At embryonic day 14.5 (E14.5), we detected strong gelatinolytic activity around the lateral epithelial folds of the nasopharyngeal cavity, which is generated as a consequence of palatal shelf elevation. Activity was concentrated in the basement membrane of the epithelial fold but extended into the adjacent mesenchyme, and increased in intensity with lateral outgrowth of the cavity at E15.5. Gelatinolytic activity at this site was not the consequence of epithelial fold formation, as it was also observed in Bmp7-deficient embryos where shelf elevation is delayed. In this case, gelatinolytic activity appeared in vertical shelves at the exact position where the epithelial fold will form during elevation. Mmp2 and Mmp14 (MT1-MMP), but not Mmp9 and Mmp13, mRNAs were expressed in the mesenchyme around the epithelial folds of the elevated palatal shelves; this was confirmed by immunostaining for MMP-2 and MT1-MMP. Weak gelatinolytic activity was also found at the midline of E14.5 palatal shelves, which increased during fusion at E15.5. Whereas MMPs have been implicated in palatal fusion before, this is the first report showing that gelatinases might contribute to tissue remodeling during early stages of palatal shelf elevation and formation of the nasopharynx. PMID:23091646

  3. Effects of nitric oxide modulating activities on development of enteric nervous system mediated gut motility in chick embryo model

    Hossein-Ali Arab; Samad Muhammadnejad; Seyed-Muhammad Faghihi; Hossein Hassanpour; Ahad Muhammadnejad

    2014-12-01

    The enteric nervous system (ENS) arises from the enteric neural crest-derived cells (ENCCs), and many molecules and biochemical processes may be involved in its development. This study examined the effects of modulating embryonic nitric oxide (NO) activity on the intestinal motility induced by ENS. One-hundred-and-twenty fertilized chicken eggs were assigned to three main groups and incubated at 37°C and 60% humidity. The eggs were treated with -nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), L-arginine (L-Arg) or vehicle from days 3 (1st group), 7 (2nd group) and 10 (3rd group) of incubation and continued up to day 18. On day 19, the embryos were sacrificed, the jejunal and colorectal segments were taken and the intestinal motility was assessed using isolated organ system. The intestinal motility was recorded normally and following cholinergic, adrenergic and non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) stimulations. The ENS structure was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Rhythmic intestinal contractions were seen in all treatment groups, but inhibition of NO in the L-NAME-treated embryos caused significant decrease ( < 0.01) in the frequency and amplitude of the contraction. The responsiveness to adrenergic, cholinergic and NANC stimulations was also significantly decreased ( <0.05). The GFAP expression was significantly ( < 0.05) reduced in the L-NAME-treated embryos. This study showed that the inhibition of NO caused a deficient development of the ENS, leading to a decrease in the frequency and amplitude of the intestinal contractions and reduced the responsiveness to adrenergic, cholinergic and NANC signalling.

  4. Covalent immobilization of porcine pancreatic lipase on carboxyl-activated magnetic nanoparticles: characterization and application for enzymatic inhibition assays.

    Zhu, Yuan-Ting; Ren, Xiao-Yun; Liu, Yi-Ming; Wei, Ying; Qing, Lin-Sen; Liao, Xun

    2014-05-01

    Using carboxyl functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as carrier, a novel immobilized porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) was prepared through the 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylaminopropyl] carbodiimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) coupling reaction. Transmission electron microscopic images showed that the synthesized nanoparticles (Fe3O4-SiO2) possessed three dimensional core-shell structures with an average diameter of ~20 nm. The effective enzyme immobilization onto the nanocomposite was confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) analysis. Results from Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Bradford protein assay, and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that PPL was covalently attached to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles with a PPL immobilization yield of 50mg enzyme/g MNPs. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) analysis revealed that the MNPs-PPL nanocomposite had a high saturation magnetization of 42.25 emu·g(-1). The properties of the immobilized PPL were investigated in comparison with the free enzyme counterpart. Enzymatic activity, reusability, thermo-stability, and storage stability of the immobilized PPL were found significantly superior to those of the free one. The Km and the Vmax values (0.02 mM, 6.40 U·mg(-1) enzyme) indicated the enhanced activity of the immobilized PPL compared to those of the free enzyme (0.29 mM, 3.16 U·mg(-1) enzyme). Furthermore, at an elevated temperature of 70 °C, immobilized PPL retained 60% of its initial activity. The PPL-MNPs nanocomposite was applied in the enzyme inhibition assays using orlistat, and two natural products isolated from oolong tea (i.e., EGCG and EGC) as the test compounds. PMID:24656379

  5. Artificial Induction of Twinning by an Active Immunization of Beef Cows Against Inhibin Partially Purified from Porcine Seminal Plasma

    YANG Li-guo; ZHANG Ju-nong; WANG Jin-rong; YE Rong; SANG Run-zi; NIU Shu-li; LIU Cheng-hai

    2002-01-01

    Two hundred and seventy multiparous Chinese Yellow cattle (beef) were selected at 1 to 3months postpartum and divided into three groups (90 cows for each). Animals were given both a primary and booster immunizations with a total dose of 3 mg (Group Th) or 1.5 mg (Group Tl) of seminal preparation containing inhibin activity, emulsified with Freund's complete adjuvant and incomplete adjuvant (for booster), at 3 or 4-week intervals. Other cows were treated with the same volume of seminal preparation without inhibin activity as procedures mentioned above to serve as a control (Group C). Artificial inseminations were given twice at 8 - 12 h intervals when the cow was in heat. Jugular venous blood samples were collected from each cow and used to assay the presence of antibody against seminal preparation by double-diffusion in agar precipitation test and to detect the titer of inhibin antibody by an ELISA method. Data from 247 cows showed that 83.9% (73/87) of cows were in estrus and ovulated 89 ova altogether, of which 19 cows ovulated twin ova and 15 cows produced twins in Group Th (n = 87). However, only 61.1% (44/72) of cows in Group Tl (n=72) and 62.5% (55/88) of cows in Group C were in estrus and ovulated 46 and 52 ova altogether respectively.The ovulation rate (1.27 + 0.03), calving rate ( 126.3% ) and twinning rate (26.3%) in Group Th were greater than those in Groups Tl or C (P<0.01). Furthermore, the ovulation rate was associated with antibody titer in sera of immunized animals (r = 0.7507, P <0.01). These results indicate that active immunization of postpartum cows against inhibin purified from porcine seminal plasma may increase the ovulation rate and induce twinning, suggesting the potential to develop a method to improve fertility in cows.

  6. Affinity-based enrichment strategies to assay methyl-CpG binding activity and DNA methylation in early Xenopus embryos

    Bogdanović Ozren

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation is a widespread epigenetic modification in vertebrate genomes. Genomic sites of DNA methylation can be bound by methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins (MBDs and specific zinc finger proteins, which can recruit co-repressor complexes to silence transcription on targeted loci. The binding to methylated DNA may be regulated by post-translational MBD modifications. Findings A methylated DNA affinity precipitation method was implemented to assay binding of proteins to methylated DNA. Endogenous MeCP2 and MBD3 were precipitated from Xenopus oocyte extracts and conditions for methylation-specific binding were optimized. For a reverse experiment, DNA methylation in early Xenopus embryos was assessed by MBD affinity capture. Conclusions A methylated DNA affinity resin can be applied to probe for MBD activity in extracts. This assay has a broad application potential as it can be coupled to downstream procedures such as western blotting, fluorimetric HDAC assays and quantitative mass spectrometry. Methylated DNA affinity capture by methyl-CpG binding proteins produces fractions highly enriched for methylated DNA, suitable for coupling to next generation sequencing technologies. The two enrichment strategies allow probing of methyl-CpG protein interactions in early vertebrate oocytes and embryos.

  7. Porcine retrovirus: hybridization studies

    Tritium-labeled porcine retrovirus (PoRV) was isolated and purified, and kinetics of hybridization of this RNA with DNA from various sources was determined. Results indicate that PoRV is an endogenous porcine virus

  8. Efficient biallelic mutation in porcine parthenotes using a CRISPR-Cas9 system.

    Tao, Li; Yang, Mingyao; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhenni; Wu, Zhonghong; Tian, Jianhui; An, Lei; Wang, Shumin

    2016-08-01

    The parthenotes represent ideal models mimicking the embryonic development and characterizing the function of maternal genomes as well as an alternative source of pluripotent cell lines. Besides, parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos serve as a rapid assay system to maximize the efficiency of generating genetically modified pig CRISPR/Cas9 system, an efficient and multiplex gene editing tool, has been utilized to modify the genome of porcine parthenotes. However, lower biallelic mutation rate and high mosaicism frequency were observed. Here, we aimed to enhance the biallelic mutation rate with reduced mosaicism by optimization of the concentration and injection time of the Cas9/sgRNA mixture in porcine parthenotes. The results showed that the efficient biallelic mutation (93%) and low mosaicism (33%) could be achieved in porcine parthenotes by cytoplasmic injection of Cas9 mRNA/sgRNA (125/12.5 ng/μl) after 8 h of parthenogenetical activation. Thus, our study provides an effective strategy for increasing the biallelic mutation rate and population homogeneity of genetically modified parthenotes, which will strengthen the role of parthenotes in uncovering early embryonic development and assessing the mutation efficiency due to the simplicity and adaptability of CRISPR/Cas9. PMID:27221047

  9. Influence of early pH decline on calpain activity in porcine muscle.

    Pomponio, Luigi; Ertbjerg, Per; Karlsson, Anders H; Costa, Leonardo Nanni; Lametsch, René

    2010-05-01

    This study investigated the influence of post-mortem pH decline on calpain activity and myofibrillar degradation. From 80 pigs, 30 Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were selected on the basis of pH values at 3h post-mortem and classified into groups of 10 as fast, intermediate and slow pH decline. The rate of pH decline early post-mortem differed between the three groups, but the ultimate pH values were similar at 24h. Calpain activity and autolysis from 1 to 72h post-mortem were determined using casein zymography and studied in relation to myofibrillar fragmentation. Colour and drip loss were measured. A faster decrease in pH resulted in reduced level of mu-calpain activity and increased autolysis of the enzyme, and hence an earlier loss of activity due to activation of mu-calpain in muscles with a fast pH decline. Paralleling the mu-calpain activation in muscles with a fast pH decline a higher myofibril fragmentation at 24h post-mortem was observed, which was no longer evident in the later phase of the tenderization process. In conclusion, the rate of early pH decline influenced mu-calpain activity and the rate but not the extent of myofibrillar degradation, suggesting an early effect of proteolysis on myofibril fragmentation that is reduced during ageing due to an earlier exhaustion of mu-calpain activity. PMID:20374873

  10. Enhanced Antiviral Activity against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by a Combination of Type 1 and 2 Porcine Interfereons

    Previously, we showed that type I interferon (IFN alpha/beta) can inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in cell culture and swine inoculated with 109 pfu human adenovirus type 5 expressing porcine IFN-alpha (Ad5-pIFN alpha) were protected when challenged one day later. In this stud...

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by ex...

  12. High glucose environment inhibits cranial neural crest survival by activating excessive autophagy in the chick embryo

    Wang, Xiao-Yu; Li, Shuai; Wang, Guang; Ma, Zheng-Lai; Chuai, Manli; Cao, Liu; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    High glucose levels induced by maternal diabetes could lead to defects in neural crest development during embryogenesis, but the cellular mechanism is still not understood. In this study, we observed a defect in chick cranial skeleton, especially parietal bone development in the presence of high glucose levels, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (CNCC). In early chick embryo, we found that inducing high glucose levels could inhibit the development of CNCC, however, cell proliferation was not significantly involved. Nevertheless, apoptotic CNCC increased in the presence of high levels of glucose. In addition, the expression of apoptosis and autophagy relevant genes were elevated by high glucose treatment. Next, the application of beads soaked in either an autophagy stimulator (Tunicamycin) or inhibitor (Hydroxychloroquine) functionally proved that autophagy was involved in regulating the production of CNCC in the presence of high glucose levels. Our observations suggest that the ERK pathway, rather than the mTOR pathway, most likely participates in mediating the autophagy induced by high glucose. Taken together, our observations indicated that exposure to high levels of glucose could inhibit the survival of CNCC by affecting cell apoptosis, which might result from the dysregulation of the autophagic process. PMID:26671447

  13. Mini Review: Basic Physiology and Factors Influencing Exogenous Enzymes Activity in the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Meyer, Anne S.; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    activity during intestinal transit are few, it is known that the enzymes, being protein molecules, can be negatively affected by the gastrointestinal proteolytic enzymes and the low pH in the stomach ventricle. In this review, the pH-values, endogenous proteases and other factors native to the digestive...

  14. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  15. Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitory Activity and ACE Inhibitory Peptides of Salmon (Salmo salar Protein Hydrolysates Obtained by Human and Porcine Gastrointestinal Enzymes

    Małgorzata Darewicz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were two-fold: first, to detect whether salmon protein fractions possess angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitory properties and whether salmon proteins can release ACE inhibitory peptides during a sequential in vitro hydrolysis (with commercial porcine enzymes and ex vivo digestion (with human gastrointestinal enzymes. Secondly, to evaluate the ACE inhibitory activity of generated hydrolysates. A two-step ex vivo and in vitro model digestion was performed to simulate the human digestion process. Salmon proteins were degraded more efficiently by porcine enzymes than by human gastrointestinal juices and sarcoplasmic proteins were digested/hydrolyzed more easily than myofibrillar proteins. The ex vivo digested myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic duodenal samples showed IC50 values (concentration required to decrease the ACE activity by 50% of 1.06 and 2.16 mg/mL, respectively. The in vitro hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic samples showed IC50 values of 0.91 and 1.04 mg/mL, respectively. Based on the results of in silico studies, it was possible to identify 9 peptides of the ex vivo hydrolysates and 7 peptides of the in vitro hydrolysates of salmon proteins of 11 selected peptides. In both types of salmon hydrolysates, ACE-inhibitory peptides IW, IY, TVY and VW were identified. In the in vitro salmon protein hydrolysates an ACE-inhibitory peptides VPW and VY were also detected, while ACE-inhibitory peptides ALPHA, IVY and IWHHT were identified in the hydrolysates generated with ex vivo digestion. In our studies, we documented ACE inhibitory in vitro effects of salmon protein hydrolysates obtained by human and as well as porcine gastrointestinal enzymes.

  16. Mini Review: Basic Physiology and Factors Influencing Exogenous Enzymes Activity in the Porcine Gastrointestinal Tract

    Strube, Mikael Lenz; Meyer, Anne S.; Boye, Mette

    2013-01-01

    activity during intestinal transit are few, it is known that the enzymes, being protein molecules, can be negatively affected by the gastrointestinal proteolytic enzymes and the low pH in the stomach ventricle. In this review, the pH-values, endogenous proteases and other factors native to the digestive......The addition of exogenous enzymes to pig feed is used to enhance general nutrient availability and thus increase daily weight gain per feed unit. The enzymes used are mainly beta-glucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) and xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) and phytase (EC 3.1.3.8). Although in vivo data assessing feed enzyme...... tract of the adult pig and the piglet are discussed in relation to the stability of exogenous feed enzymes. Development of more consistent assessment methods which acknowledge such factors is warranted both in vitro and in vivo for proper evaluation and prediction of the efficiency of exogenous enzymes...

  17. Inhibitory activity of chlorogenic acids in decaffeinated green coffee beans against porcine pancreas lipase and effect of a decaffeinated green coffee bean extract on an emulsion of olive oil.

    Narita, Yusaku; Iwai, Kazuya; Fukunaga, Taiji; Nakagiri, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    A decaffeinated green coffee bean extract (DGCBE) inhibited porcine pancreas lipase (PPL) activity with an IC50 value of 1.98 mg/mL. Six different chlorogenic acids in DGCBE contributed to this PPL inhibition, accounting for 91.8% of the inhibitory activity. DGCBE increased the droplet size and decreased the specific surface area of an olive oil emulsion. PMID:23221697

  18. Cloned pigs derived from somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos cultured in vitro at low oxygen tension

    2006-01-01

    Pig cloning has great potential to human xenotransplantation. The present study was designed to establish a more efficient system for producing cloned pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Our approach was as follows: SCNT embryos were reconstructed by using fetal fibroblasts of Chinese miniature pig as donors and in vitro matured oocytes of prepubertal gilts as recipients. Reconstructed embryos were induced by electrical fusion/activation and cultured in BSA-containing North Carolina State University 23 medium (NCSU-23) or Porcine Zygote Medium (PZM-3) at the gas condition of 5% CO2, 7% O2, 88% N2. A total of 230 cloned embryos were transferred to three surrogate sows, producing three piglets. One of them is apparently healthy. The clonal provenance of the piglet was indicated by its coat color and confirmed by DNA microsatellite analysis. These results indicate that the use of in vitro matured oocytes from prepubertal gilts as recipient, combined with cloned embryos cultured at low oxygen tension is an effective way to produce cloned pigs.

  19. Identification of a β-galactosidase transgene that provides a live-cell marker of transcriptional activity in growing oocytes and embryos.

    Edwards, Nicole; Farookhi, Riaz; Clarke, Hugh J

    2015-07-01

    Identifying the events and molecular mechanisms that regulate oocyte growth has emerged as a key objective of research in human fertility, fuelled by evidence from human and animal studies indicating that disease and environmental factors can act on oocytes to affect the health of the resulting individual and by efforts to grow oocytes in vitro to enable fertility preservation of cancer survivors. Techniques that monitor the development of growing oocytes would be valuable tools to assess the progression of growth under different conditions. Most methods used to assess oocytes grown in vitro are indirect, however, relying on characteristics of the somatic compartment of the follicle, or compromise the oocyte, preventing its subsequent culture or fertilization. We investigated the utility of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer-binding factor (TCF/Lef)-LacZ transgene expression as a predictor of global transcriptional activity in oocytes and early embryos. Using a fluorescent β-galactosidase substrate combined with live-cell imaging, we show that TCF/Lef-LacZ transgene expression is detectable in growing oocytes, lost in fully grown oocytes and resumes in late two-cell embryos. Transgene expression is likely regulated by a Wnt-independent mechanism. Using chromatin analysis, LacZ expression and methods to monitor and inhibit transcription, we show that TCF/Lef-LacZ expression mirrors transcriptional activity in oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Oocytes and preimplantation embryos that undergo live-cell imaging for TCF/Lef-LacZ expression are able to continue development in vitro. TCF/Lef-LacZ reporter expression in living oocytes and early embryos is thus a sensitive and faithful marker of transcriptional activity that can be used to monitor and optimize conditions for oocyte growth. PMID:25882542

  20. Investigation on CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 porcine gene polymorphisms and expression in relation to post-mortem calpain activity in muscle and meat quality.

    Gandolfi, G; Pomponio, L; Ertbjerg, P; Karlsson, A H; Nanni Costa, L; Lametsch, R; Russo, V; Davoli, R

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to detect variability in CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 porcine genes and to investigate the effect of CAST and CAPN1 polymorphisms on the activity of native and autolyzed μ-calpain and m-calpain, measured from 1 to 72 h post-mortem in Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle of 30 pigs. Effects of polymorphisms on meat quality parameter such as pH, color and drip loss were also evaluated. Samples carrying CAST EU137105:g.76,872AA genotype showed higher autolyzed μ-calpain activity 24 and 72 h post-mortem, as well as lower drip loss values. Expression of CAST, CAPN1 and CAPN3 was assessed in LD muscles divergent for shear force. Higher CAST and CAPN3 expression was found in LD with high shear force (Ptenderization. In conclusion, CAST gene affected post-mortem activation time of calpain and drip loss. PMID:21450414

  1. Polyalkoxybenzenes from plants. 5. Parsley seed extract in synthesis of azapodophyllotoxins featuring strong tubulin destabilizing activity in the sea urchin embryo and cell culture assays.

    Semenova, Marina N; Kiselyov, Alex S; Tsyganov, Dmitry V; Konyushkin, Leonid D; Firgang, Sergei I; Semenov, Roman V; Malyshev, Oleg R; Raihstat, Mikhail M; Fuchs, Fabian; Stielow, Anne; Lantow, Margareta; Philchenkov, Alex A; Zavelevich, Michael P; Zefirov, Nikolay S; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Semenov, Victor V

    2011-10-27

    A series of 4-azapodophyllotoxin derivatives with modified rings B and E have been synthesized using allylpolyalkoxybenzenes from parsley seed oil. The targeted molecules were evaluated in vivo in a phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay for antimitotic and tubulin destabilizing activity. The most active compounds identified by the in vivo sea urchin embryo assay featured myristicin-derived ring E. These molecules were determined to be more potent than podophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic effects of selected molecules were further confirmed and evaluated by conventional assays with A549 and Jurkat human leukemic T-cell lines including cell growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, cellular microtubule disruption, and induction of apoptosis. The ring B modification yielded 6-OMe substituted molecule as the most active compound. Finally, in Jurkat cells, compound induced caspase-dependent apoptosis mediated by the apical caspases-2 and -9 and not caspase-8, implying the involvement of the intrinsic caspase-9-dependent apoptotic pathway. PMID:21916509

  2. [Influence of the activator of transcription GAL4 on growth and development of embryos and embryonic cells in primary cultures of sand dollar].

    Odintsova, N A; Kiselev, K V; Bulgakov, V P; Kol'tsova, E A; Iakovlev, K V

    2003-01-01

    In order to solve many tasks of biotechnology, constant lines of the cells of marine invertebrates with a high growth potential are required, which are absent at present. We used the universal activator of transcription gal4 to change the degree of expression of genes of growth factors in embryonic sea urchin cells and, thereby, increase their proliferative activity. The fertilized sea urchin eggs and dissociated embryonic cells at the blastula stage were treated with plasmids containing both the functional gene gal4 and the gene devoid of the regions encoding the activator domain. The transfection of embryonic sea urchin eggs with the functional gene led to cell dedifferentiation and formation of tumor-like structures in the embryos or increased number of embryonic cells in culture. In the cells obtained from the transfected embryos, the pigments were found within two months of cultivation, whose absorption spectrum coincided with that of echinochrome. PMID:12942737

  3. The embryonic nucleologenesis during inhibition of major transcriptional activity in bovine preimplantation embryos

    Kovalská, M.; Hruška-Plocháň, Marian; Ostrup, O.; Adamkov, M.; Lehotský, J.; Strejček, F.; Statelová, M.; Mikušková, K.; Varga, I.; Petrovičová, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2012), s. 818-825. ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : embryonic genome activation * nucleous * gene expression Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.506, year: 2012

  4. High hydrostatic pressure: a new way to improve in vitro developmental competence of porcine matured oocytes after vitrification

    Du, Y; Pribenszky, C S; Molnár, M;

    2008-01-01

    (11.4±2.4%) or 130 (13.1±3.2%) min recovery, when compared with the vitrification control group without HHP treatment where no blastocysts were obtained. The influence of temperature at HHP treatment on further embryo development was also investigated. Treatments of 20 MPa with 70 min recovery were......) oocytes. The HHP pretreatment will be tested as a means to improve survival and developmental competence at different developmental stages in different species including humans......The purpose of the present study was to improve cryotolerance using high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pretreatment of porcine in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes, to facilitate their further developmental competence after parthenogenetic activation. A total of 1668 porcine IVM oocytes were used in our...

  5. Active caspase-3 and ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis in spontaneous and induced cell death in bovine in vitro produced pre-implantation embryos

    Gjørret, Jakob O.; Fabian, Dusan; Avery, Birthe;

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated chronological onset and involvement of active caspase-3, apoptotic nuclear morphology, and TUNEL-labeling, as well as ultrastructural evidence of apoptosis, in both spontaneous and induced cell death during pre-implantation development of bovine in vitro produced...... staining for detection of apoptotic nuclear morphology, and subjected to fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, treated and untreated blastocysts were fixed and processed for ultrastructural identification of apoptosis. Untreated embryos revealed no apoptotic features at 2- and 4-cell stages. However......, active caspase-3 and apoptotic nuclear morphology were observed in an untreated 8-cell stage, and TUNEL-labeling was observed from the 16-cell stage. Blastomeres concurrently displaying all apoptotic features were present in a few embryos at 16-cell and morula stages and in all blastocysts. All three...

  6. Quantitative perturbation-based analysis of gene expression predicts enhancer activity in early Drosophila embryo.

    Sayal, Rupinder; Dresch, Jacqueline M; Pushel, Irina; Taylor, Benjamin R; Arnosti, David N

    2016-01-01

    Enhancers constitute one of the major components of regulatory machinery of metazoans. Although several genome-wide studies have focused on finding and locating enhancers in the genomes, the fundamental principles governing their internal architecture and cis-regulatory grammar remain elusive. Here, we describe an extensive, quantitative perturbation analysis targeting the dorsal-ventral patterning gene regulatory network (GRN) controlled by Drosophila NF-κB homolog Dorsal. To understand transcription factor interactions on enhancers, we employed an ensemble of mathematical models, testing effects of cooperativity, repression, and factor potency. Models trained on the dataset correctly predict activity of evolutionarily divergent regulatory regions, providing insights into spatial relationships between repressor and activator binding sites. Importantly, the collective predictions of sets of models were effective at novel enhancer identification and characterization. Our study demonstrates how experimental dataset and modeling can be effectively combined to provide quantitative insights into cis-regulatory information on a genome-wide scale. PMID:27152947

  7. Porcine gamma-synuclein: molecular cloning, expression analysis, chromosomal localization and functional expression

    Frandsen, Pernille Munk; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Bendixen, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    human SNCG gene. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed the presence of SNCG transcripts in all examined organs and tissues. Differential expression was observed, with very high levels of SNCG mRNA in fat tissue and high expression levels in spleen, cerebellum, frontal cortex and...... pituitary gland. Expression analysis also showed that porcine SNCG transcripts could be detected in different brain regions during early stages of embryo development. The porcine SNCG orthologue was mapped to chromosome 14q25-q29. The distribution of recombinant porcine γ-synuclein was studied in three...

  8. Quantitative perturbation-based analysis of gene expression predicts enhancer activity in early Drosophila embryo

    Sayal, Rupinder; Dresch, Jacqueline M; Pushel, Irina; Taylor, Benjamin R; Arnosti, David N

    2016-01-01

    Enhancers constitute one of the major components of regulatory machinery of metazoans. Although several genome-wide studies have focused on finding and locating enhancers in the genomes, the fundamental principles governing their internal architecture and cis-regulatory grammar remain elusive. Here, we describe an extensive, quantitative perturbation analysis targeting the dorsal-ventral patterning gene regulatory network (GRN) controlled by Drosophila NF-κB homolog Dorsal. To understand transcription factor interactions on enhancers, we employed an ensemble of mathematical models, testing effects of cooperativity, repression, and factor potency. Models trained on the dataset correctly predict activity of evolutionarily divergent regulatory regions, providing insights into spatial relationships between repressor and activator binding sites. Importantly, the collective predictions of sets of models were effective at novel enhancer identification and characterization. Our study demonstrates how experimental dataset and modeling can be effectively combined to provide quantitative insights into cis-regulatory information on a genome-wide scale. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08445.001 PMID:27152947

  9. Effects of chemical activation and season on birth efficiency of cloned pigs

    2009-01-01

    The effects of chemical activation on birth efficiency of cloned pigs were studied by investigating the developmental process from porcine oocyte activation to birth of cloned pigs.Three different activation methods were used:(i) Electroporation(Ele);(ii) Ele followed by incubation with 6-dimethylaminopurine(6-DMAP);and(iii) Ele followed by a treatment with cycloheximide(CHX).In experiment 1,the rates of cleavage,developmental rates and cell number of porcine parthenogenetic(PA) embryos were investigated in the three treatment groups.In experiment 2,NT embryos produced by the three different activation treatments were compared for the rates of cleavage,development and cell number.Finally,the effects of Ele and Ele+CHX activation methods on birth efficiency of cloned pigs were compared.The activated oocytes treated by combination activation generally showed a higher(P<0.05) blastocyst rate and produced more expanded blastocysts than oocytes activated with Ele.The rates of cleavage and total cell number of parthenotes were not significantly different.Parthenogenetic embryos activated with 6-DMAP developed into blastocyst and expanded blastocyst stages at a significantly(P<0.05) higher rate than those treated with Ele,but the developmental capability was dramatically decreased in NT embryos.With the CHX activation method,the NT embryo blastocyst rate was substantially(P<0.05) increased although the production of expanded blastocysts was not significantly different from that by the other two methods.The birth rate of cloned pigs increased in the CHX group,though the rate was not significantly different from Ele.The effects of season on developmental rate of the porcine PA embryos and birth rate of cloned pigs were also examined in our study.Porcine oocytes collected in the spring had higher developmental capabilities than those collected in the winter.However,no difference in birth rate of the cloned pigs was found between the oocytes collected in the two seasons

  10. Effects of chemical activation and season on birth efficiency of cloned pigs

    MA YuFang; LI Yan; WEI HengXi; LI QiuYan; FANG Rui; ZHAO Rui; ZHANG Kun; XUE Kai; LOU YanKun; DAI YunPing; LIAN LinSheng; LI Ning

    2009-01-01

    The effects of chemical activation on birth efficiency of cloned pigs were studied by investigating the developmental process from porcine oocyte activation to birth of cloned pigs. Three different activation methods were used: (i) Electroporation (Ele); (ii) Ele followed by incubation with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP); and (iii) Ele followed by a treatment with cycloheximide (CHX). In experiment 1, the rates of cleavage, developmental rates and cell number of porcine parthenogenetic (PA) embryos were investigated in the three treatment groups. In experiment 2, NT embryos produced by the three different activation treatments were compared for the rates of cleavage, development and cell number. Finally, the effects of Eie and Ele+CHX activation methods on birth efficiency of cloned pigs were compared. The activated oocytes treated by combination activation generally showed a higher (P<0.05) blastocyst rate and produced more expanded blastocysts than oocytes activated with Ele. The rates of cleavage and total cell number of parthenotes were not significantly different. Parthenogenetic embryos activated with 6-DMAP developed into blastocyst and expanded blsstocyst stages at a significantly (P<0.05) higher rate than those treated with Ele, but the developmental capability was dramatically decreased In NT embryos. With the CHX activation method, the NT embryo blastocyst rate was substantially (P<0.05) increased although the production of expanded blastocysts was not significantly different from that by the other two methods. The birth rate of cloned pigs increased in the CHX group, though the rate was not significantly different from Ele. The effects of season on developmental rate of the porcine PA embryos and birth rate of cloned pigs were also examined in our study. Porcine oocytes collected in the spring had higher developmental capabilities than those collected in the winter. However, no difference in birth rate of the cloned pigs was found between the oocytes

  11. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in developing basement membranes of the mouse embryo head by combining sensitive in situ zymography with immunolabeling.

    Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos; Chiquet, Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Genetic evidence indicates that the major gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 are involved in mammalian craniofacial development. Since these matrix metalloproteinases are secreted as proenzymes that require activation, their tissue distribution does not necessarily reflect the sites of enzymatic activity. Information regarding the spatial and temporal expression of gelatinolytic activity in the head of the mammalian embryo is sparse. Sensitive in situ zymography with dye-quenched gelatin (DQ-gelatin) has been introduced recently; gelatinolytic activity results in a local increase in fluorescence. Using frontal sections of wild-type mouse embryo heads from embryonic day 14.5-15.5, we optimized and validated a simple double-labeling in situ technique for combining DQ-gelatin zymography with immunofluorescence staining. MMP inhibitors were tested to confirm the specificity of the reaction in situ, and results were compared to standard SDS-gel zymography of tissue extracts. Double-labeling was used to show the spatial relationship in situ between gelatinolytic activity and immunostaining for gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9, collagenase 3 (MMP-13) and MT1-MMP (MMP-14), a major activator of pro-gelatinases. Strong gelatinolytic activity, which partially overlapped with MMP proteins, was confirmed for Meckel's cartilage and developing mandibular bone. In addition, we combined in situ zymography with immunostaining for extracellular matrix proteins that are potential gelatinase substrates. Interestingly, gelatinolytic activity colocalized precisely with laminin-positive basement membranes at specific sites around growing epithelia in the developing mouse head, such as the ducts of salivary glands or the epithelial fold between tongue and lower jaw region. Thus, this sensitive method allows to associate, with high spatial resolution, gelatinolytic activity with epithelial morphogenesis in the embryo. PMID:22688677

  12. Analysis of the molecular and regulatory properties of active porcine endogenous retrovirus gamma-1 long terminal repeats in kidney tissues of the NIH-Miniature pig.

    Park, Sang-Je; Huh, Jae-Won; Kim, Dae-Soo; Ha, Hong-Seok; Jung, Yi-Deun; Ahn, Kung; Oh, Keon Bong; Park, Eung-Woo; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2010-10-01

    The pig genome contains the gamma 1 family of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are a major obstacle to the development of successful xenotransplantation from pig to human. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) found in PERVs are known to be essential elements for the control of the transcriptional activity of single virus by different transcription factors (TFs). To identify transcribed PERV LTR elements, RT-PCR and DNA sequencing analyses were performed. Twenty-nine actively transcribed LTR elements were identified in the kidney tissues of the NIH-Miniature pig. These elements were divided into two major groups (I and II), and four minor groups (I-1, I-2, I-3, and II-1), by the presence of insertion and deletion (INDEL) sequences. Group I elements showed strong transcriptional activity compared to group II elements. Four different LTR elements (PL1, PL2, PL3, and PL4) as representative of the groups were analyzed by using a transient transfection assay. The regulation of their promoter activity was investigated by treatment with M.SssI (CpG DNA methyltransferase) and garcinol (histone acetyltransferase inhibitor). The transcriptional activity of PERV LTR elements was significantly reduced by treatment with M.SssI. These data indicate that transcribed PERV LTR elements harbor sufficient promoter activity to regulate the transcription of a single virus, and the transcriptional activity of PERV LTRs may be controlled by DNA methylation events. PMID:20811814

  13. Induction of autophagy improves embryo viability in cloned mouse embryos

    Shen, XingHui; Zhang, Na; Wang, ZhenDong; Bai, GuangYu; Zheng, Zhong; Gu, YanLi; Wu, YanShuang; Liu, Hui; Zhou, DongJie; Lei, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is an essential cellular mechanism that degrades cytoplasmic proteins and organelles to recycle their components. Moreover, autophagy is essential for preimplantation development in mammals. Here we show that autophagy is also important for reprogramming in somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Our data indicate that unlike fertilized oocytes, autophagy is not triggered in SCNT embryos during 6 hours of activation. Mechanistically, the inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation is due to the cytochalasin B (CB) caused depolymerization of actin filaments. In this study, we induced autophagy during SCNT activation by rapamycin and pp242, which could restore the expected level of autophagy and significantly enhance the development of SCNT embryos to the blastocyst stage when compared with the control (68.5% and 68.7% vs. 41.5%, P autophagy is important for development of SCNT embryos and inhibited autophagic induction during SCNT activation might be one of the serious causes of low efficiency of SCNT. PMID:26643778

  14. Anti-mitotic activity towards sea urchin embryos in extracts from the marine haptophycean Phaeocystis pouchetii (Hariot) Lagerheim collected along the coast of northern Norway.

    Hansen, Espen; Eilertsen, Hans Chr; Ernstsen, Arild; Genevière, Anne-Marie

    2003-06-01

    The marine bloom-forming alga Phaeocystis pouchetii is suspected to produce some toxic compound responsible for reduced growth, fecundity and survival of other marine organisms. Sea urchin early development was used as a model to investigate the degree and nature of toxicity. Colonial cells of P. pouchetii were collected during its spring-bloom along the coast of northern Norway and maintained in culture for a short period of time in order to evaluate the concentration of toxic compounds present inside the cells or excreted to the surrounding seawater medium. Cells were harvested by filtration and toxins were extracted separately from the collected cells and the filtrate using organic solvents. We found that extracts from the filtered seawater at a concentration corresponding to 9.0 x 10(5) cells ml(-1) completely blocked cell divisions in embryos of the sea urchin Sphaerechinus granularis, whereas extracts from intact algal cells were only mildly cytotoxic. When the extracts from seawater culture medium were purified by RP-HPLC, cytotoxic activity towards S. granularis embryos was recovered in three consecutive fractions. Moreover, unfertilised eggs incubated in the active HPLC fractions became unproductive, whereas incubation of sperm gave a reduced fertilisation rate. This anti-proliferative effect was further characterized by immunofluorescence staining of sea urchin embryos. DNA labelling revealed that incubating sea urchin embryos in the purified algal extracts inhibited both pronuclei migration and fusion. Incorporation and detection of the DNA-base analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine showed that DNA-replication was blocked. Furthermore, staining of alpha-tubulin subunits demonstrated that embryonic tubulin organisation was altered. We conclude that P. pouchetii produce some anti-mitotic compound, and that senescent colonial cells to a great extent excrete this compound to their surroundings. PMID:12782080

  15. Radiofrequency ablation using a new type of internally cooled electrode with an adjustable active tip: An experimental study in ex vivo bovine and in vivo porcine livers

    Cha, Jihoon [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young-sun, E-mail: youngskim@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Rhim, Hyunchul; Lim, Hyo K.; Choi, Dongil; Lee, Min Woo [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50, Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of radiofrequency (RF) ablation using a new type of internally cooled RF electrode with an adjustable active tip in an ex vivo bovine liver model and to determine if adjustment of the active tip length makes a significant difference in the size of ablation zone in an in vivo porcine liver model. Materials and methods: We performed ex vivo experiments by producing 100 RF ablation zones in 40 extracted bovine livers using a new type of RF electrode that had an adjustable active tip (adjustable electrode) (n = 50) and a conventional internally cooled electrode (conventional electrode) (n = 50). We also performed an in vivo study with the induction of 30 RF ablation zones in ten living porcine livers using the adjustable electrode with 2 cm (n = 15) and 3 cm (n = 15) active tip adjustments. The size (three perpendicular diameters), volume and ratio of the two axes of the ablation zone were macroscopically evaluated and were compared. Results: For the ex vivo study using a 2 cm and 3 cm active tip, there was no significant difference in ablation performance between the use of conventional and adjustable electrodes. For the use of the conventional and adjustable electrodes with 2 cm active tip, respectively, the volume was 10.75 {+-} 3.43 cm{sup 3} versus 10.64 {+-} 3.25 cm{sup 3} and the ratio of the two axes was 1.24 {+-} 0.16 versus 1.30 {+-} 0.17; p > 0.05. For the use of the conventional and adjustable electrodes with 3 cm active tip, respectively, the volume was 21.17 {+-} 4.09 cm{sup 3} versus 21.48 {+-} 3.51 cm{sup 3} and the ratio of the two axes was 1.28 {+-} 0.12 versus 1.28 {+-} 0.07; p > 0.05. For the in vivo study using the adjustable electrode, the ablation volume with the 2 cm adjustment was significantly smaller as compared to the 3 cm adjustment (5.29 {+-} 2.22 cm{sup 3} versus 13.44 {+-} 4.25 cm{sup 3}; p < 0.05) with no statistical difference for the ratio of the two axes (1.44 {+-} 0

  16. Radiofrequency ablation using a new type of internally cooled electrode with an adjustable active tip: An experimental study in ex vivo bovine and in vivo porcine livers

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of radiofrequency (RF) ablation using a new type of internally cooled RF electrode with an adjustable active tip in an ex vivo bovine liver model and to determine if adjustment of the active tip length makes a significant difference in the size of ablation zone in an in vivo porcine liver model. Materials and methods: We performed ex vivo experiments by producing 100 RF ablation zones in 40 extracted bovine livers using a new type of RF electrode that had an adjustable active tip (adjustable electrode) (n = 50) and a conventional internally cooled electrode (conventional electrode) (n = 50). We also performed an in vivo study with the induction of 30 RF ablation zones in ten living porcine livers using the adjustable electrode with 2 cm (n = 15) and 3 cm (n = 15) active tip adjustments. The size (three perpendicular diameters), volume and ratio of the two axes of the ablation zone were macroscopically evaluated and were compared. Results: For the ex vivo study using a 2 cm and 3 cm active tip, there was no significant difference in ablation performance between the use of conventional and adjustable electrodes. For the use of the conventional and adjustable electrodes with 2 cm active tip, respectively, the volume was 10.75 ± 3.43 cm3 versus 10.64 ± 3.25 cm3 and the ratio of the two axes was 1.24 ± 0.16 versus 1.30 ± 0.17; p > 0.05. For the use of the conventional and adjustable electrodes with 3 cm active tip, respectively, the volume was 21.17 ± 4.09 cm3 versus 21.48 ± 3.51 cm3 and the ratio of the two axes was 1.28 ± 0.12 versus 1.28 ± 0.07; p > 0.05. For the in vivo study using the adjustable electrode, the ablation volume with the 2 cm adjustment was significantly smaller as compared to the 3 cm adjustment (5.29 ± 2.22 cm3 versus 13.44 ± 4.25 cm3; p 0.05). Conclusion: Using a new type of internally cooled RF electrode, we could induce different volumes of the RF ablation zone by means of

  17. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of the mixture glyphosate (Roundup Active) and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species.

    Henao Muñoz, Liliana Marcela; Montes Rojas, Claudia Marsela; Bernal Bautista, Manuel Hernando

    2015-03-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world with application in agriculture, forestry, industrial weed control, garden and aquatic environments. However, its use is highly controversial for the possible impact on not-target organisms, such as amphibians, which are vanishing at an alarming and rapid rate. Due to the high solubility in water and ionic nature, the glyphosate requires of surfactants to increase activity. In addition, for the control of coca (Erythroxylum coca) and agricultural weeds in Colombia, formulated glyphosate is mixed and sprayed with the adjuvant Cosmo-Flux 411F to increase the penetration and activity of the herbicide. This study evaluates the acute toxic and sublethal effects (embryonic development, tadpole body size, tadpole swimming performance) of the mixture of the formulated glyphosate Roundup Active and Cosmo-Flux 411F to anuran embryos and tadpoles of four Colombian species under 96h laboratory standard tests and microcosms, which are more similar to field conditions as they include soil, sand and macrophytes. In the laboratory, embryos and tadpoles of Engystomops pustulosus were the most tolerant (LC50 = 3904 microg a.e./L; LC50=2 799 pg a.e./L, respectively), while embryos and tadpoles of Hypsiboas crepitans (LC50=2 203 microg a.e./L; LC50=1424 microgg a.e./L, respectively) were the most sensitive. R. humboldti and R. marina presented an intermediate toxicity. Embryos were significantly more tolerant to the mixture than tadpoles, which could be likely attributed to the exclusion of chemicals by the embryonic membranes and the lack of organs, such as gills, which are sensitive to surfactants. Sublethal effects were observed for the tadpole body size, but not for the embryonic development and tadpole swimming performance. In microcosms, no toxicity (LC50 could not be estimated), or sublethal responses were observed at concentrations up to fourfold (14.76 kg glyphosate a.e./ha) the highest field application rate of 3

  18. Characterization and Potential Utility of Porcine Trophoblast-Derived Stem-Like Cells

    Suasnavas, Edison A

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, the trophoblast lineage of the embryo is specified before implantation. It is restricted to become the fetal portion of the placenta. We have isolated and cultured trophoblast-derived cells from day 10 and day 13 porcine embryos. These cells demonstrate morphological and biological characteristics that make them unique. We have demonstrated that these cells can grow in vitro in a defined, serum-replacement medium for over a year without showing any signs of senescence. Trophoblast...

  19. Immunohistochemistry of porcine skin.

    Wollina, U; Berger, U; Mahrle, G

    1991-01-01

    The present paper reports immunohistological findings in porcine skin, which were obtained by use of mono- and polyclonal antihuman antibodies and either alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP) or peroxidase (POX) technique. Epidermal staining was observed with antibodies to keratins (K 8.12, RSKE 60), filaggrin, and calmodulin (ACAM). Staining of connective tissue and vessels was achieved using antibodies to vimentin (V9(1)), collagen type IV, and fibronectin. In general, these antibodies gave a staining pattern similar to that of normal human skin. The similarities of immunoreactivity to poly- and monoclonal antihuman antibodies in porcine and human skin render porcine skin a reliable model in biomedical research. PMID:1710864

  20. Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein tyrosine kinase is expressed and active in sarcoma-free avian embryos microinjected with Rous sarcoma virus

    Early embryonic avian tissue is resistant to transformation by Rous sarcoma virus. To determine the nature of this resistance, the authors examined the expression and properties of the Rous sarcoma virus transforming protein pp60v-src, in infected embryonic chicken limbs in ovo. Lysates from Rous sarcoma virus-infected limbs contained the viral structural protein p19gag, as detected by immunoblot analysis and showed pp60v-src kinase activity in vitro. Immunoblot analysis of lysates with anti-phosphotyrosine antibodies revealed a number of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins present in lysates of Rous sarcoma virus-infected embryos but not in lysates of control, uninfected embryos. These studies demonstrate that pp60v-src is co-expressed with viral structural determinants in infected embryonic avian tissue. The localization pattern of the major src gene substrate p36 (calpactin I) was compared with that of p19gag by double-label immunofluorescence and found to be generally nonoverlapping. These observations are consistent with the concept that the induction of tumors in ovo requires complementation between viral determinants and host factors. These host factors, which may be critical substrates of pp60src, are subject to developmental regulation in the avian embryo

  1. Morphological transformation and effect on gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells as screening tests for carcinogens devoid of mutagenic activity.

    Rivedal, E; Mikalsen, S O; Sanner, T

    2000-04-01

    A large fraction of chemicals observed to cause cancer in experimental animals is devoid of mutagenic activity. It is therefore of importance to develop methods that can be used to detect and study environmental carcinogenic agents that do not interact directly with DNA. Previous studies have indicated that induction of in vitro cell transformation and inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication are endpoints that could be useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. In the present work, 13 compounds [chlordane, Arochlor 1260, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, limonene, sodium fluoride, ethionine, o-anisidine, benzoyl peroxide, o-vanadate, phenobarbital, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and clofibrate] have been tested for their ability to induce morphological transformation and affect intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells. The substances were selected on the basis of being proven or suspected non-genotoxic carcinogens, and thus difficult to detect in short-term tests. The data show that nine of the 13 compounds induced morphological transformation, and seven of the 13 inhibited intercellular communication in hamster embryo cells. Taken together, 12 of the 13 substances either induced transformation or caused inhibition of communication. The data suggest that the combined use of morphological transformation and gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells may be beneficial when screening for non-genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:10793297

  2. In situ autoradiography and ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity reveal insulin receptors and insulin-like growth factor I receptors in prepancreatic chicken embryos

    We previously reported specific cross-linking of 125I-labeled insulin and 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) to the alpha subunit of their respective receptors in chicken embryos of 20 somites and older. To achieve adequate sensitivity and localize spatially the receptors in younger embryos, we adapted an autoradiographic technique using whole-mounted chicken blastoderms. Insulin receptors and IGF-I receptors were expressed and could be localized as early as gastrulation, before the first somite is formed. Relative density was analyzed by a computer-assisted image system, revealing overall slightly higher binding of IGF-I than of insulin. Structures rich in both types of receptors were predominantly of ectodermal origin: Hensen's node in gastrulating embryos and neural folds, neural tube and optic vesicles during neurulation. The signal transduction capability of the receptors in early organogenesis was assessed by their ability to phosphorylate the exogenous substrate poly(Glu80Tyr20). Ligand-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation was demonstrable with both insulin and IGF-I in glycoprotein-enriched preparations from embryos at days 2 through 6 of embryogenesis. There was a developmentally regulated change in ligand-dependent tyrosine kinase activity, with a sharp increase from day 2 to day 4, in contrast with a small increase in the ligand binding. Binding of 125I-labeled IGF-I was, with the solubilized receptors, severalfold higher than binding of 125I-labeled insulin. However, the insulin-dependent phosphorylation was as high as the IGF-I-dependent phosphorylation at each developmental stage

  3. Maternal immune activation evoked by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid does not evoke microglial cell activation in the embryo.

    Silke eSmolders

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that inflammation during pregnancy increases the risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Morphological brain abnormalities combined with deviations in the inflammatory status of the brain can be observed in patients of both autism and schizophrenia. It was shown that acute infection can induce changes in maternal cytokine levels which in turn are suggested to affect fetal brain development and increase the risk on the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in the offspring. Animal models of maternal immune activation reproduce the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. In this study the poly (I:C model was used to mimic viral immune activation in pregnant mice in order to assess the activation status of fetal microglia in these developmental disorders. Because microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain they were expected to be activated due to the inflammatory stimulus.Microglial cell density and activation level in the fetal cortex and hippocampus were determined. Despite the presence of a systemic inflammation in the pregnant mice, there was no significant difference in fetal microglial cell density or immunohistochemically determined activation level between the control and inflammation group. These data indicate that activation of the fetal microglial cells is not likely to be responsible for the inflammation induced deficits in the offspring in this model.

  4. The Adjuvant Activity of Epimedium Polysaccharide-Propolis Flavone Liposome on Enhancing Immune Responses to Inactivated Porcine Circovirus Vaccine in Mice.

    Fan, Yunpeng; Guo, Liwei; Hou, Weifeng; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Xia; Ma, Lin; Song, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The adjuvant activity of Epimedium polysaccharide-propolis flavone liposome (EPL) was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods. In vitro, the effects of EPL at different concentrations on splenic lymphocytes proliferation and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6 were determined. In vivo, the adjuvant activities of EPL, EP, and mineral oil were compared in BALB/c mice through vaccination with inactivated porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) vaccine. Results. In vitro, EPL promoted lymphocytes proliferation and increased the mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-6, and the effect was significantly better than EP at all concentrations. In vivo, EPL significantly promoted the lymphocytes proliferation and the secretion of cytokines and improved the killing activity of NK cells, PCV2-specific antibody titers, and the proportion of T-cell subgroups. The effects of EPL were significantly better than EP and oil adjuvant at most time points. Conclusion. EPL could significantly improve both PCV2-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, and its medium dose had the best efficacy. Therefore, EPL would be exploited in an effective immune adjuvant for inactivated PCV2 vaccine. PMID:26612996

  5. Inhibition of Porcine Small Intestinal Sucrase by Validamine

    郑裕国; 申屠旭萍; 沈寅初

    2005-01-01

    As an important medicinal intermediate with broad uses, validamine, an aminocyclitol, isolated from the enzymolysis broth of validamycins, has gained more and more attention. The absolute configuration of validamine is similar to that of α-D-glucose, and it demonstrates powerful inhibition activity on glycosidase. In this paper, the inhibitory effect of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was investigated. Validamine was found to be a potent, competitive inhibitor to porcine small intestinal sucrase in vitro with an IC50 value of 6.85 × 10-4 mol·L-1. Validamine exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition effect on porcine small intestinal sucrase, whereby the inhibition interaction of validamine and porcine small intestinal sucrase was a fast binding process. The inhibition of validamine on porcine small intestinal sucrase was pH-dependent.

  6. Highly sensitive sequencing reveals dynamic modifications and activities of small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos.

    Yang, Qiyuan; Lin, Jimin; Liu, Miao; Li, Ronghong; Tian, Bin; Zhang, Xue; Xu, Beiying; Liu, Mofang; Zhang, Xuan; Li, Yiping; Shi, Huijuan; Wu, Ligang

    2016-06-01

    Small RNAs play important roles in early embryonic development. However, their expression dynamics and modifications are poorly understood because of the scarcity of RNA that is obtainable for sequencing analysis. Using an improved deep sequencing method that requires as little as 10 ng of total RNA or 50 oocytes, we profile small RNAs in mouse oocytes and early embryos. We find that microRNA (miRNA) expression starts soon after fertilization, and the mature miRNAs carried into the zygote by sperm during fertilization are relatively rare compared to the oocyte miRNAs. Intriguingly, the zygotic miRNAs display a marked increase in 3' mono- and oligoadenylation in one- to two-cell embryos, which may protect the miRNAs from the massive degradation taking place during that time. Moreover, bioinformatics analyses show that the function of miRNA is suppressed from the oocyte to the two-cell stage and appears to be reactivated after the two-cell stage to regulate genes important in embryonic development. Our study thus provides a highly sensitive profiling method and valuable data sets for further examination of small RNAs in early embryos. PMID:27500274

  7. Embryos, microscopes, and society.

    Maienschein, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Embryos have different meanings for different people and in different contexts. Seen under the microscope, the biological embryo starts out as one cell and then becomes a bunch of cells. Gradually these divide and differentiate to make up the embryo, which in humans becomes a fetus at eight weeks, and then eventually a baby. At least, that happens in those cases that carry through normally and successfully. Yet a popular public perception imagines the embryo as already a little person in the very earliest stages of development, as if it were predictably to become an adult. In actuality, cells can combine, pull apart, and recombine in a variety of ways and still produce embryos, whereas most embryos never develop into adults at all. Biological embryos and popular imaginations of embryos diverge. This paper looks at some of the historical reasons for and social implications of that divergence. PMID:26996410

  8. In Vitro Evaluation of the Antiviral Activity of the Synthetic Epigallocatechin Gallate Analog-Epigallocatechin Gallate (EGCG Palmitate against Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    Chunjian Zhao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG palmitate was synthesized and its anti-porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV activity was studied. Specifically, EGCG palmitate was evaluated for its ability to inhibit PRRSV infection in MARC-145 cells when administered as pre-, post-, or co-treatment. EGCG and ribavirin were used as controls. The results showed that a 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 of EGCG, EGCG palmitate, and ribavirin was achieved at 2,359.71, 431.42, and 94.06 μM, respectively. All three drugs inhibited PRRSV in a dose-dependent manner regardless of the treatment protocol. EGCG palmitate exhibited higher cytotoxicity than EGCG, but lower cytotoxicity than ribavirin. EGCG palmitate anti-PRRSV activity was significantly higher than that of EGCG and ribavirin, both as pre-treatment and post-treatment. Under the former conditions and a tissue culture infectious dose of 10 and 100, the selectivity index (SI of EGCG palmitate in the inhibition of PRRSV was 3.8 and 2.9 times higher than that of ribavirin when administered as a pre-treatment, while the SI of EGCG palmitate in the inhibition of PRRSV was 3.0 and 1.9 times higher than ribavirin when administered as a post-treatment. Therefore, EGCG palmitate is potentially effective as an anti-PRRSV agent and thus of interest to the pharmaceutical industry.

  9. Direct Injection of CRISPR/Cas9-Related mRNA into Cytoplasm of Parthenogenetically Activated Porcine Oocytes Causes Frequent Mosaicism for Indel Mutations

    Masahiro Sato

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Some reports demonstrated successful genome editing in pigs by one-step zygote microinjection of mRNA of CRISPR/Cas9-related components. Given the relatively long gestation periods and the high cost of housing, the establishment of a single blastocyst-based assay for rapid optimization of the above system is required. As a proof-of-concept, we attempted to disrupt a gene (GGTA1 encoding the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase that synthesizes the α-Gal epitope using parthenogenetically activated porcine oocytes. The lack of α-Gal epitope expression can be monitored by staining with fluorescently labeled isolectin BS-I-B4 (IB4, which binds specifically to the α-Gal epitope. When oocytes were injected with guide RNA specific to GGTA1 together with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP and human Cas9 mRNAs, 65% (24/37 of the developing blastocysts exhibited green fluorescence, although almost all (96%, 23/24 showed a mosaic fluorescent pattern. Staining with IB4 revealed that the green fluorescent area often had a reduced binding activity to IB4. Of the 16 samples tested, six (five fluorescent and one non-fluorescent blastocysts had indel mutations, suggesting a correlation between EGFP expression and mutation induction. Furthermore, it is suggested that zygote microinjection of mRNAs might lead to the production of piglets with cells harboring various mutation types.

  10. BFCOD activity in fish cell lines and zebrafish embryos and its modulation by chemical ligands of human aryl hydrocarbon and nuclear receptors.

    Creusot, N; Brion, F; Piccini, B; Budzinski, H; Porcher, J M; Aït-Aïssa, S

    2015-11-01

    Assessment of exposure and effect of fish to pharmaceuticals that contaminate aquatic environment is a current major issue in ecotoxicology and there is a need to develop specific biological marker to achieve this goal. Benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin-O-debenzyloxylase (BFCOD) enzymatic activity has been commonly used to monitor CYP3A activity in fish. In this study, we assessed the capacity of a panel of toxicologically relevant chemicals to modulate BFCOD activity in fish, by using in vitro and in vivo bioassays based on fish liver cell lines (PLHC-1, ZFL, RTL-W1) and zebrafish embryos, respectively. Basal BFCOD activity was detectable in all biological models and was differently modulated by chemicals. Ligands of human androgens, glucocorticoids, or pregnanes X receptors (i.e., dexamethasone, RU486, rifampicin, SR12813, T0901317, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone) moderately increased or inhibited BFCOD activity, with some variations between the models. No common feature could be drawn by regards to their capacity to bind to these receptors, which contrasts with their known effect on mammalian CYP3A. In contrast, dioxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) strongly induced BFCOD activity (up to 30-fold) in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, both in vitro in all cell lines and in vivo in zebrafish embryos. These effects were AhR dependent as indicated by suppression of induced BFCOD by the AhR pathway inhibitors 8-methoxypsoralen and α-naphthoflavone. Altogether our result further question the relevance of using liver BFCOD activity as a biomarker of fish exposure to CYP3A-active compounds such as pharmaceuticals. PMID:25471715

  11. DNA repair in mammalian embryos.

    Jaroudi, Souraya; SenGupta, Sioban

    2007-01-01

    Mammalian cells have developed complex mechanisms to identify DNA damage and activate the required response to maintain genome integrity. Those mechanisms include DNA damage detection, DNA repair, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis which operate together to protect the conceptus from DNA damage originating either in parental gametes or in the embryo's somatic cells. DNA repair in the newly fertilized preimplantation embryo is believed to rely entirely on the oocyte's machinery (mRNAs and proteins deposited and stored prior to ovulation). DNA repair genes have been shown to be expressed in the early stages of mammalian development. The survival of the embryo necessitates that the oocyte be sufficiently equipped with maternal stored products and that embryonic gene expression commences at the correct time. A Medline based literature search was performed using the keywords 'DNA repair' and 'embryo development' or 'gametogenesis' (publication dates between 1995 and 2006). Mammalian studies which investigated gene expression were selected. Further articles were acquired from the citations in the articles obtained from the preliminary Medline search. This paper reviews mammalian DNA repair from gametogenesis to preimplantation embryos to late gestational stages. PMID:17141556

  12. Telomere reprogramming and maintenance in porcine iPS cells.

    Guangzhen Ji

    Full Text Available Telomere reprogramming and silencing of exogenous genes have been demonstrated in mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells. Pigs have the potential to provide xenotransplant for humans, and to model and test human diseases. We investigated the telomere length and maintenance in porcine iPS cells generated and cultured under various conditions. Telomere lengths vary among different porcine iPS cell lines, some with telomere elongation and maintenance, and others telomere shortening. Porcine iPS cells with sufficient telomere length maintenance show the ability to differentiate in vivo by teratoma formation test. IPS cells with short or dysfunctional telomeres exhibit reduced ability to form teratomas. Moreover, insufficient telomerase and incomplete telomere reprogramming and/or maintenance link to sustained activation of exogenous genes in porcine iPS cells. In contrast, porcine iPS cells with reduced expression of exogenous genes or partial exogene silencing exhibit insufficient activation of endogenous pluripotent genes and telomerase genes, accompanied by telomere shortening with increasing passages. Moreover, telomere doublets, telomere sister chromatid exchanges and t-circles that presumably are involved in telomere lengthening by recombination also are found in porcine iPS cells. These data suggest that both telomerase-dependent and telomerase-independent mechanisms are involved in telomere reprogramming during induction and passages of porcine iPS cells, but these are insufficient, resulting in increased telomere damage and shortening, and chromosomal instability. Active exogenes might compensate for insufficient activation of endogenous genes and incomplete telomere reprogramming and maintenance of porcine iPS cells. Further understanding of telomere reprogramming and maintenance may help improve the quality of porcine iPS cells.

  13. Isolation of a small molecule with anti-MRSA activity from a mangrove symbiont Streptomyces sp. PVRK-1 and its biomedical studies inZebrafish embryos

    Rajaretinam Rajesh Kannan; Appadurai Muthamil Iniyan; Vincent Samuel Gnana Prakash

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to isolate the anti-MRSA (Methicillin ResistantStaphylococcus aureus ) molecule from the Mangrove symbiont Streptomyces and its biomedical studies in Zebrafish embryos. Methods: MRSA was isolated from the pus samples of Colachal hospitals and confirmed by amplification of mecA gene. Anti-MRSA molecule producing strain was identified by 16s rRNA gene sequencing. Anti-MRSA compound production was optimized by Solid State Fermentation (SSF) and the purification of the active molecule was carried out by TLC and RP-HPLC. The inhibitory concentration and LC50 were calculated using Statistical software SPSS. The Biomedical studies including the cardiac assay and organ toxicity assessment were carried out in Zebrafish. Results: The bioactive anti-MRSA small molecule A2 was purified by TLC with Rf value of 0.37 with 1.389 retention time at RP-HPLC. The Inhibitory Concentration of the purified molecule A2 was 30 μg/mL but, the inhibitory concentration of the MRSA in the infected embryo was 32-34 μg/mL for TLC purified molecule A2 with LC50 mean value was 61.504 μg/mL. Zebrafish toxicity was assessed in 48-60 μg/mL by observing the physiological deformities and the heart beat rates (HBR) of embryos for anti MRSA molecule showed the mean of 41.33-41.67 HBR/15 seconds for 40 μg/mL and control was 42.33-42.67 for 15 seconds which significantly showed that the anti-MRSA molecule A2 did not affected the HBR. Conclusions:Anti-MRSA molecule from Streptomyces sp PVRK-1 was isolated and biomedical studies in Zebrafish model assessed that the molecule was non toxic at the minimal inhibitory concentration of MRSA.

  14. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further

  15. Production of rhesus monkey cloned embryos expressing monomeric red fluorescent protein by interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Zhu, Hai-Ying; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Jun-Xue; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2014-02-21

    Highlights: • Rhesus monkey cells were electroporated with a plasmid containing mRFP1, and an mRFP1-expressing cell line was generated. • For the first time, mRFP1-expressing rhesus monkey cells were used as donor cells for iSCNT. • The effect of VPA on the development of embryos cloned using iSCNT was determined. - Abstract: Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a promising method to clone endangered animals from which oocytes are difficult to obtain. Monomeric red fluorescent protein 1 (mRFP1) is an excellent selection marker for transgenically modified cloned embryos during somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). In this study, mRFP-expressing rhesus monkey cells or porcine cells were transferred into enucleated porcine oocytes to generate iSCNT and SCNT embryos, respectively. The development of these embryos was studied in vitro. The percentage of embryos that underwent cleavage did not significantly differ between iSCNT and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05; 71.53% vs. 80.30%). However, significantly fewer iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reached the blastocyst stage (2.04% vs. 10.19%, P < 0.05). Valproic acid was used in an attempt to increase the percentage of iSCNT embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage. However, the percentages of embryos that underwent cleavage and reached the blastocyst stage were similar between untreated iSCNT embryos and iSCNT embryos treated with 2 mM valproic acid for 24 h (72.12% vs. 70.83% and 2.67% vs. 2.35%, respectively). These data suggest that porcine-rhesus monkey interspecies embryos can be generated that efficiently express mRFP1. However, a significantly lower proportion of iSCNT embryos than SCNT embryos reach the blastocyst stage. Valproic acid does not increase the percentage of porcine-rhesus monkey iSCNT embryos that reach the blastocyst stage. The mechanisms underling nuclear reprogramming and epigenetic modifications in iSCNT need to be investigated further.

  16. Aktivasi dan Tingkat Perkembangan Embrio Partenogenetik Mencit Setelah Dipapar Calcimycin dan Ionomicyn (ACTIVATION AND DEVELOPMENT RATE OF MICE PARTHENOGENETIC EMBRYOS EXPOSURED IN CALCIMYCIN AND IONOMICYN

    Wilmientje Marlene Nalley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to find out the best concentration and exposure time of calcimycin andionomycin in order to produce parthenogenetic embryos. Female Swiss Webster mice were fisrtlyprimed with Pregnant Mare’s Serum Gonadotropin (PMSG and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCGwith an interval of 48 hours. Sixteen hours after injection of hCG oocyte was collected by Dulbecco’sPhosphate Buffer Saline (dPBS as a flushing medium. To separate the eggs from cumulus cells wereused hyaluronidase enzyme. The good quality oocytes were incubated in activation medium that isionomycin or calcimycin with a concentration of 3, 6, or 9 ìM and exposure time 1, 4, or 7 minutes. Toyield diploid embryos were used 5 ?g/ml cytochlasin B for four hours at 37°C, 5% CO2. Activatedoocytes characterized by the formation of pronuclei washed three times in Potassium SimplexOptimization Medium (KSOM and subsequently cultured in the same medium until blastocyst stage.The results showed that oocytes activated at calcimycin, the best results was presented at concentration6 ?M and exposure time four minutes, i.e. activation rate reached 96%, cleavage rate 82% and blastocystrate 28%. On the other hand, oocytes activated in ionomycin, the best results was presented atconcentration 3 ?M and exposure time four minutes, i.e. activation rate reached 82%, cleavage rate64% and blastocyst rate of 4%. It was concluded that the best concentration and exposure timecalcimycin on mice oocytes were 6 ?M for four minutes, whereas ionomycin were 3 ?M for four minutes.

  17. Nucleolar ultrastructure in bovine nuclear transfer embryos

    Kaňka, Jiří; Smith, Steven Dale; Soloy, Eva;

    1999-01-01

    (nonactivated) or S phase (activated) cytoplasts. Control embryos were fixed at the two-, four-, early eight- and late eight-cell stages; nuclear transfer embryos were fixed at 1 and 3 hr post fusion and at the two-, four-, and eight-cell stages. Control embryos possessed a nucleolar precursor body throughout...... at 1 hr after fusion and, by 3 hr after fusion, it was restored again. At this time, the reticulated fibrillo-granular nucleolus had an almost round shape. The nucleolar precursor body seen in the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryos consisted of intermingled filamentous components and secondary...... time intervals after fusion. In the two-cell stage nuclear transfer embryo, the originally reticulated nucleolus of the donor blastomere had changed into a typical nucleolar precursor body consisting of a homogeneous fibrillar structure. A primary vacuole appeared in the four-cell stage nuclear...

  18. Relationship between colour flow Doppler sonographic assessment of corpus luteum activity and progesterone concentrations in mares after embryo transfer.

    Brogan, P T; Henning, H; Stout, T A E; de Ruijter-Villani, M

    2016-03-01

    Colour-flow Doppler sonography has been described as a means of assessing corpus luteum (CL) function rapidly, because area of luteal blood vessels correlates well with circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations [P4] in oestrous cycling mares. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between CL size and vascularity, and circulating [P4] during early pregnancy in mares, and to determine whether luteal blood flow was a useful aid for selecting an embryo transfer recipient. Equine embryos (n=48) were recovered 8 days after ovulation and were transferred to available recipient mares as part of a commercial program with the degree of synchrony in timing of recipient ovulation ranging from 1 day before to 4 days after the donor. Immediately prior to embryo transfer (ET), maximum CL cross-section and blood vessel areas were assessed sonographically, and jugular blood was collected to measure plasma [P4]. Sonographic measurements and jugular blood collection were repeated at day 4 after ET for all mares, and again at days 11, 18 and 25 after ET in mares that were pregnant. The number of grey-scale and colour pixels within the CL was subsequently quantified using ImageJ software. The CL blood flow correlated significantly but weakly with plasma [P4] on the day of transfer and on day 4 after ET in all mares, and on days 11 and 25 after ET in pregnant mares (r=0.30-0.36). The CL area and plasma [P4] were also correlated on each day until day 11 after ET (r=0.49-0.60). The CL colour pixel area decreased significantly after day 18, whereas CL area was already decreasing by day 4 after ET. The CL area, area of blood flow, or [P4] was predictive of pregnancy. Findings in the present study suggest that both CL area and blood flow are correlated with circulating [P4] at the time of transfer and in early pregnancy. Evaluation of the CL using B-mode or CF sonography, although practical, provides no improvement in the selection of recipients or prediction of pregnancy

  19. Porcine SLITRK1

    Larsen, Knud Erik; Momeni, Jamal; Farajzadeh, Leila;

    2014-01-01

    The membrane protein SLITRK1 functions as a developmentally regulated stimulator of neurite outgrowth and variants in this gene have been implicated in Tourette syndrome. In the current study we have cloned and characterized the porcine SLITRK1 gene. The genomic organization of SLITRK1 lacks intr...

  20. Porcine embryonic stem cells

    Hall, Vanessa Jane

    2008-01-01

    The development of porcine embryonic stem cell lines (pESC) has received renewed interest given the advances being made in the production of immunocompatible transgenic pigs. However, difficulties are evident in the production of pESCs in-vitro. This may largely be attributable to differences in...

  1. Protein phosphorylation during coconut zygotic embryo development

    Evidence was obtained on the occurrence of protein threonine, serine, and tyrosine (Tyr) kinases in developing coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) zygotic embryos, based on in vitro phosphorylation of proteins in the presence of [gamma-32P]ATP, alkaline treatment, and thin-layer chromatography analysis, which showed the presence of [32P]phosphoserine, [32P]phosphothreonine, and [32P]phosphotyrosine in [32P]-labeled protein hydrolyzates. Tyr kinase activity was further confirmed in extracts of embryos at different stages of development using antiphosphotyrosine monoclonal antibodies and the synthetic peptide derived from the amino acid sequence surrounding the phosphorylation site in pp60src (RR-SRC), which is specific for Tyr kinases. Anti-phosphotyrosine western blotting revealed a changing profile of Tyr-phosphorylated proteins during embryo development. Tyr kinase activity, as assayed using RR-SRC, also changed during embryo development, showing two peaks of activity, one during early and another during late embryo development. In addition, the use of genistein, a Tyr kinase inhibitor, diminished the ability of extracts to phosphorylate RR-SRC. Results presented here show the occurrence of threonine, serine, and Tyr kinases in developing coconut zygotic embryos, and suggest that protein phosphorylation, and the possible inference of Tyr phosphorylation in particular, may play a role in the coordination of the development of embryos in this species

  2. Metabolomic Assessment of Embryo Viability

    Uyar, Asli; Seli, Emre

    2014-01-01

    Preimplantation embryo metabolism demonstrates distinctive characteristics associated with the developmental potential of embryos. On this basis, metabolite content of culture media was hypothesized to reflect the implantation potential of individual embryos. This hypothesis was tested in consecutive studies reporting a significant association between culture media metabolites and embryo development or clinical pregnancy. The need for a noninvasive, reliable, and rapid embryo assessment strat...

  3. Effect of catanospermine, 1-deoxynojirimycin or 1-deoxymannojirimycin on biological and functional activities of Japanese encephalitis virus in porcine stable kidney cells

    Vaibhavi Jawahar Lad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, effect of catanospermine (CST, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ or 1-deoxymannojirimycin (DMJ was studied on porcine stable kidney (PS cells infected with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV. As both CST and DNJ are potent inhibitors of ER alpha-glucosidases 1 and II, while DMJ is an inhibitor of Golgi mannosidase which removes alpha (1, 2 Man residues from the N-glycan precursor. Treatment of infected cells with CST (200 uM/mL, DNJ (100 uM/mL or DMJ (200 uM/mL did not produce much effect on viral gpE epitope presentation within the cells as well as on the cell surface as detected in the immunofluorescence employing monoclonal (MAbs and polyclonal (PAbs antibodies. As well the treated (infected cells showed only a marginal decrease in infectious virus yield along with a slight decrease in haemagglutination activity of the virus that was recorded in comparison to the untreated infected (control cells and the cells infected with Dengue virus. Immuno-blotting of the separated proteins from infected lysed cells and probed with anti-gpE MAbs also revealed a band corresponding to JEV gpE (MW 53kDa both with inhibitor treated and the untreated cells; the reactivity with the former however, was somewhat less intense and prominent in comparison to latter (control untreated indicating some effect on JEV. The present results indicate that these inhibitors by in large, do not affect maturation and the release of infective JE virions in PS cells.

  4. Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the porcine retinal arteries and neuroretina following retinal ischemia-reperfusion

    Gesslein, Bodil; Håkansson, Gisela; Carpio, Ronald;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine changes in the expression of intracellular signal-transduction pathways, specifically mitogen-activated protein kinases, following retinal ischemia-reperfusion.......The aim of the present study was to examine changes in the expression of intracellular signal-transduction pathways, specifically mitogen-activated protein kinases, following retinal ischemia-reperfusion....

  5. Activation of embryo during rape (Brassica napus L. seed germination II. Transversal organisation of radicle apical meristem

    Mieczysław Kuraś

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Series of microtome cross sections of the root apical meristem were investigated in the mature embryo and young seedling of rape. The cell patterns are described in 3 layers of promeristem. Radial sectors of the root cap and protoderm, formed by common dermatocalyptrogen initials, and radial sectors of the cortex, produced by periblem initials were identified on all cross sections of the root. Between these sectors 4 segmentation boundaries of proembryo quadrants were distinguished, running across the whole root proper. The boundaries between the 4 sectors of connecting cells arising from the upper hypophysis derivative and the boundaries between the 4 sectors of the columella originating from the lower hypophysis derivative do not follow the same course and are not identical with the boundaries of the proembryo quadrants. Therefore during the whole embryogenesis, the central connecting cells, considered generally as cortex initials (iec, take no part in the development of the cortex but they form the quiescent centre of the radicle. Neither do the columella initial cells participate in the development of the lateral parts of the root cap.

  6. Loss of DDB1 Leads to Transcriptional p53 Pathway Activation in Proliferating Cells, Cell Cycle Deregulation, and Apoptosis in Zebrafish Embryos

    Hu, Zhilian; Holzschuh, Jochen; Driever, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage-binding protein 1 (DDB1) is a large subunit of the heterodimeric DDB complex that recognizes DNA lesions and initiates the nucleotide excision repair process. DDB1 is also a component of the CUL4 E3 ligase complex involved in a broad spectrum of cellular processes by targeted ubiquitination of key regulators. Functions of DDB1 in development have been addressed in several model organisms, however, are not fully understood so far. Here we report an ENU induced mutant ddb1 allele (ddb1m863) identified in zebrafish (Danio rerio), and analyze its effects on development. Zebrafish ddb1 is expressed broadly, both maternally and zygotically, with enhanced expression in proliferation zones. The (ddb1m863 mutant allele affects the splice acceptor site of exon 20, causing a splicing defect that results in truncation of the 1140 amino acid protein after residue 800, lacking part of the β-propeller domain BPC and the C-terminal helical domain CTD. ddb1m863 zygotic mutant embryos have a pleiotropic phenotype, including smaller and abnormally shaped brain, head skeleton, eyes, jaw, and branchial arches, as well as reduced dopaminergic neuron groups. However, early forming tissues develop normally in zygotic ddb1m863 mutant embryos, which may be due to maternal rescue. In ddb1m863 mutant embryos, pcna-expressing proliferating cell populations were reduced, concurrent with increased apoptosis. We also observed a concomitant strong up-regulation of transcripts of the tumor suppressor p53 (tp53) and the cell cycle inhibitor cdkn1a (p21a/bCIP1/WAF1) in proliferating tissues. In addition, transcription of cyclin genes ccna2 and ccnd1 was deregulated in ddb1m863 mutants. Reduction of p53 activity by anti-sense morpholinos alleviated the apoptotic phenotype in ddb1m863 mutants. These results imply that Ddb1 may be involved in maintaining proper cell cycle progression and viability of dividing cells during development through transcriptional mechanisms regulating genes

  7. Porcine UCHL1: genomic organization, chromosome localization and expression analysis

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn; Bendixen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The human UCHL1 gene encodes the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase UCHL1, which comprises more than 2% of total brain protein. UCHL1 is a component of the ubiquitin–proteasome system, which degrades overexpressed and damaged proteins. Mutations in the UCHL1 gene are associated with susceptibility...... in developing porcine embryos. UCHL1 transcript was detected as early as 40 days of gestation. A significant decrease in UCHL1 transcript was detected in basal ganglia from day 60 to day 115 of gestation...

  8. Quantitative structure–activity relationships for chronic toxicity of alkyl-chrysenes and alkyl-benz[a]anthracenes to Japanese medaka embryos (Oryzias latipes)

    Highlights: • Medaka embryos were exposed to alkyl chrysenes and benzo[a]anthracenes (BAA). • Concentrations were kept constant by partition controlled delivery. • Chrysene was not toxic within solubility limits, in contrast to BAA. • Alkylation increased the toxicity of chrysene and BAA. • Toxicity was related to hydrophobicity and to specific modes of action. - Abstract: Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) are a class of compounds found at significant concentrations in crude oils, and likely the main constituents responsible for the chronic toxicity of oil to fish. Alkyl substituents at different locations on the aromatic rings change the size and shape of PAH molecules, which results in different interactions with tissue receptors and different severities of toxicity. The present study is the first to report the toxicity of several alkylated derivatives of chrysene and benz[a]anthracene to the embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) using the partition controlled delivery (PCD) method of exposure. The PCD method maintained the desired exposure concentrations by equilibrium partitioning of hydrophobic test compounds from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films. Test concentrations declined by only 13% over a period of 17 days. Based on the prevalence of signs of blue sac disease (BSD), as expressed by median effective concentrations (EC50s), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A) was more toxic than chrysene. Alkylation generally increased toxicity, except at position 2 of B[a]A. Alkyl-PAHs substituted in the middle region had a lower EC50 than those substituted at the distal region. Except for B[a]A and 7-methylbenz[a]anthracene (7-MB), estimated EC50 values were higher than their solubility limits, which resulted in limited toxicity within the range of test concentrations. The regression between log EC50s and log Kow values provided a rough estimation of structure–activity relationships for alkyl-PAHs, but Kow alone did not provide a complete

  9. Novel derivatives of 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are potent mitostatic agents featuring strong microtubule depolymerizing activity in the sea urchin embryo and cell culture assays.

    Kiselyov, Alex S; Semenova, Marina N; Chernyshova, Natalya B; Leitao, Andrei; Samet, Alexandr V; Kislyi, Konstantine A; Raihstat, Mikhail M; Oprea, Tudor; Lemcke, Heiko; Lantow, Margaréta; Weiss, Dieter G; Ikizalp, Nazli N; Kuznetsov, Sergei A; Semenov, Victor V

    2010-05-01

    A series of novel 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives based on structural and electronic overlap with combretastatins have been designed and synthesized. Initially, we tested all new compounds in vivo using the phenotypic sea urchin embryo assay to yield a number of agents with anti-proliferative, anti-mitotic, and microtubule destabilizing activities. The experimental data led to identification of 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with isothiazole (5-8) and phenyl (9-12) pharmacophores featuring activity profiles comparable to that of combretastatins, podophyllotoxin and nocodazole. Cytotoxic effects of the two lead molecules, namely 6 and 12, were further confirmed and evaluated by conventional assays with the A549 human cancer cell line including cell proliferation, cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, cellular microtubule distribution, and finally in vitro microtubule assembly with purified tubulin. The modeling results using 3D similarity (ROCS) and docking (FRED) correlated well with the observed activity of the molecules. Docking data suggested that the most potent molecules are likely to target the colchicine binding site. PMID:20110137

  10. In vivo studies on angiogenic activity of two designer self-assembling peptide scaffold hydrogels in the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane

    Liu, Xi; Wang, Xiumei; Horii, Akihiro; Wang, Xiujuan; Qiao, Lin; Zhang, Shuguang; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    The rapid promotion of angiogenesis is critical for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The angiogenic activity of tissue-engineered scaffolds has already been the major criterion for choosing and designing ideal biological materials. We here report systematic in vivo studies on the angiogenic activity of two functionalized self-assembling peptides PRG (Ac-(RADA)4GPRGDSGYRGDS-CONH2) and KLT (Ac-(RADA)4G4KLTWQELYQLKYKGI-CONH2) using the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. 3D migration/sprouting bead assays showed that the two functional motifs PRGDSGYRGDS and KLTWQELYQLKYKGI improved the bioactivities of the self-assembling peptide RADA16-I (Ac-(RADA)4-CONH2) dramatically and provided ideal synthetic microenvironments for endothelial cell migration and cordlike structure sprout formation. A CAM assay was carried out to assess the efficiency of various peptide scaffolds in inducing capillary invasion in vivo. Among these three peptide scaffolds, the functionalized peptide scaffold RAD/KLT presented a significantly better angiogenic activity inducing CAM tissue invasion and new capillary vessel formation within the scaffolds in the absence of VEGF. With the addition of VEGF, more newly formed vessel lumen could be observed in all peptide scaffolds. Our results suggested that the functionalized peptide scaffolds had satisfactory angiogenic properties, and may also have wide potential applications in tissue regeneration.