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Sample records for activate kcl cotransport

  1. ROS activate KCl cotransport in nonadherent Ehrlich ascites cells but K+ and Cl- channels in adherent Ehrlich Lettré and NIH3T3 cells

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Klausen, Thomas Kjær; Bergdahl, Andreas;

    2009-01-01

    Addition of H2O2 (0.5 mM) to Ehrlich ascites tumor cells under isotonic conditions results within 25 min in a substantial (22 +/- 1 %) reduction in cell volume. The cell shrinkage is paralleled by net loss of K(+), which was significant within 8 min, whereas no concomitant increase in the K(+) or...... the electrochemical driving force for K(+). On the other hand, the H2O2-induced cell shrinkage was impaired in the presence of the KCl cotransport inhibitor DIOA, following substitution of NO3(-) for Cl(-), and when the driving force for KCl cotransport was omitted. It is suggested that H2O2 activates...... electro neutral KCl cotransport in Ehrlich ascites tumor cells and not K(+) and Cl(-) channels. Addition of H2O2 to hypotonically exposed cells accelerates the regulatory volume decrease and the concomitant net loss of K(+), whereas no additional increase in the K(+) and Cl(-) conductance was observed...

  2. Current view on the functional regulation of the neuronal K+-Cl- cotransporter KCC2

    Igor Medina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian central nervous system, the inhibitory strength of chloride (Cl--permeable GABAA and glycine receptors (GABAAR and GlyR depends on the intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i. Lowering [Cl-]i enhances inhibition, whereas raising [Cl-]i facilitates neuronal activity. A neuron’s basal level of [Cl-]i, as well as its Cl- extrusion capacity, is critically dependent on the activity of the electroneutral K+-Cl- cotransporter KCC2, a member of the SLC12 cation-Cl- cotransporter (CCC family. KCC2 deficiency compromises neuronal migration, formation and the maturation of GABAergic and glutamatergic synaptic connections, and results in network hyperexcitability and seizure activity. Several neurological disorders including multiple epilepsy subtypes, neuropathic pain, and schizophrenia, as well as various insults such as trauma and ischemia, are associated with significant decreases in the Cl- extrusion capacity of KCC2 that result in increases of [Cl-]i and the subsequent hyperexcitability of neuronal networks. Accordingly, identifying the key upstream molecular mediators governing the functional regulation of KCC2, and modifying these signalling pathways with small molecules, might constitute a novel neurotherapeutic strategy for multiple diseases. Here, we discuss recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms regulating KCC2 activity, and of the role these mechanisms play in neuronal Cl- homeostasis and GABAergic neurotransmission. As KCC2 mediates electroneutral transport, the experimental recording of its activity constitutes an important research challenge; we therefore also, provide an overview of the different methodological approaches utilized to monitor function of KCC2 in both physiological and pathological conditions.

  3. Loss of K-Cl co-transporter KCC3 causes deafness, neurodegeneration and reduced seizure threshold.

    Boettger, Thomas; Rust, Marco B; Maier, Hannes; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Schweizer, Michaela; Keating, Damien J; Faulhaber, Jörg; Ehmke, Heimo; Pfeffer, Carsten; Scheel, Olaf; Lemcke, Beate; Horst, Jürgen; Leuwer, Rudolf; Pape, Hans-Christian; Völkl, Harald; Hübner, Christian A; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2003-10-15

    K-Cl co-transporters are encoded by four homologous genes and may have roles in transepithelial transport and in the regulation of cell volume and cytoplasmic chloride. KCC3, an isoform mutated in the human Anderman syndrome, is expressed in brain, epithelia and other tissues. To investigate the physiological functions of KCC3, we disrupted its gene in mice. This severely impaired cell volume regulation as assessed in renal tubules and neurons, and moderately raised intraneuronal Cl(-) concentration. Kcc3(-/-) mice showed severe motor abnormalities correlating with a progressive neurodegeneration in the peripheral and CNS. Although no spontaneous seizures were observed, Kcc3(-/-) mice displayed reduced seizure threshold and spike-wave complexes on electrocorticograms. These resembled EEG abnormalities in patients with Anderman syndrome. Kcc3(-/-) mice also displayed arterial hypertension and a slowly progressive deafness. KCC3 was expressed in many, but not all cells of the inner ear K(+) recycling pathway. These cells slowly degenerated, as did sensory hair cells. The present mouse model has revealed important cellular and systemic functions of KCC3 and is highly relevant for Anderman syndrome. PMID:14532115

  4. Regulated phosphorylation of the K-Cl cotransporter KCC3 at dual C-terminal threonines is a potent switch of intracellular potassium content and cell volume homeostasis

    Norma C. Adragna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The defense of cell volume against excessive shrinkage or swelling is a requirement for cell function and organismal survival. Cell swelling triggers a coordinated homeostatic response termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD, resulting in K+ and Cl– efflux via the activation of K+ channels, volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs, and the K+-Cl– cotransporters, including KCC3. Here, we show genetic alanine (Ala substitution at threonines (Thr 991 and 1048 in the KCC3a isoform carboxyl-terminus, preventing inhibitory phosphorylation at these sites, not only significantly up-regulates KCC3a activity up to 25-fold in normally inhibitory isotonic conditions, but is also accompanied by reversal of activity of the related bumetanide-sensitive Na+-K+-2Cl– cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1. This results in a rapid (90 % reduction in intracellular K+ content (Ki via both Cl-dependent (KCC3a + NKCC1 and Cl-independent (DCPIB [VRAC inhibitor]-sensitive pathways, which collectively renders cells less prone to acute swelling in hypotonic osmotic stress. Together, these data demonstrate the phosphorylation state of Thr991/Thr1048 in the KCC3a encodes a potent switch of transporter activity, Ki homeostasis, and cell volume regulation, and reveal novel observations into the functional interaction among ion transport molecules involved in RVD.

  5. Absence of Na +/sugar cotransport activity in Barrett's metaplasia

    Lisa J Murray; Owen Tully; David S Rudolph; Marysue Whitby; Mary C Valenzano; Giancarlo Mercogliano; James J Thornton; James M Mullin

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the presence of Na+-dependent,active,sugar transport in Barrett's epithelia as an intestinal biomarker,based on the well-documented,morphological intestinal phenotype of Barrett's esophagus (BE).METHODS:We examined uptake of the nonmeta-bolizable glucose analogue,alpha-methyl-D-glucoside (AMG),a substrate for the entire sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) family of transport proteins.During upper endoscopy,patients with BE or with uncomplicated gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)allowed for duodenal,gastric fundic,and esophageal mucosal biopsies to be taken.Biopsies were incubated in bicarbonate-buffered saline (KRB) containing 0.1 mmol/L 14C-AMG for 60 min at 20℃.Characterized by abundant SGLT,duodenum served as a positive control while gastric fundus and normal esophagus,known to lack SGLT,sewed as negative controls.RESULTS:Duodenal biopsies accumulated 249.84± 35.49 (SEM) picomoles AMG/μg DNA (n = 12),gastric fundus biopsies 36.20 ± 6.62 (n = 12),normal esophagus 12.10 ± 0.59 (n = 3) and Barrett's metaplasia 29.79 ± 5.77 (n = 8).There was a statistical difference (P<0.01) between biopsies from duodenum and each other biopsy site but there was no statistically significant difference between normal esophagus and BE biopsies.0.5 mmol/L phlorizin (PZ) inhibited AMG uptake into duodenal mucosa by over 89%,but had no significant effect on AMG uptake into gastric fundus,normal esophagus,or Barrett's tissue.In the absence of Na+ (all Na+ salts replaced by Li+ salts),AMG uptake in duodenum was decreased by over 90%,while uptake into gastric,esophageal or Barrett's tissue was statistically unaffected.CONCLUSION:Despite the intestinal enterocyte phenotype of BE,Na+-dependent,sugar transport activity is not present in bhese cells.

  6. Glucocorticoids Induce Nondipping Blood Pressure by Activating the Thiazide-Sensitive Cotransporter.

    Ivy, Jessica R; Oosthuyzen, Wilna; Peltz, Theresa S; Howarth, Amelia R; Hunter, Robert W; Dhaun, Neeraj; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S; Webb, David J; Dear, James W; Flatman, Peter W; Bailey, Matthew A

    2016-05-01

    Blood pressure (BP) normally dips during sleep, and nondipping increases cardiovascular risk. Hydrochlorothiazide restores the dipping BP profile in nondipping patients, suggesting that the NaCl cotransporter, NCC, is an important determinant of daily BP variation. NCC activity in cells is regulated by the circadian transcription factor per1. In vivo, circadian genes are entrained via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Here, we test whether abnormalities in the day:night variation of circulating glucocorticoid influence NCC activity and BP control. C57BL6/J mice were culled at the peak (1:00 AM) and trough (1:00 PM) of BP. We found no day:night variation in NCC mRNA or protein but NCC phosphorylation on threonine(53)(pNCC), required for NCC activation, was higher when mice were awake, as was excretion of NCC in urinary exosomes. Peak NCC activity correlated with peak expression of per2 and bmal1 (clock genes) and sgk1 and tsc22d3 (glucocorticoid-responsive kinases). Adrenalectomy reduced NCC abundance and blunted the daily variation in pNCC levels without affecting variation in clock gene transcription. Chronic corticosterone infusion increased bmal1, per1, sgk1, and tsc22d3 expression during the inactive phase. Inactive phase pNCC was also elevated by corticosterone, and a nondipping BP profile was induced. Hydrochlorothiazide restored rhythmicity of BP in corticosterone-treated mice without affecting BP in controls. Glucocorticoids influence the day:night variation in NCC activity via kinases that control phosphorylation. Abnormal glucocorticoid rhythms impair NCC and induce nondipping. Night-time dosing of thiazides may be particularly beneficial in patients with modest glucocorticoid excess. PMID:26953322

  7. Oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme activities of dry-cured bacons as affected by the partial substitution of NaCl with KCl.

    Wu, Haizhou; Yan, Wenjing; Zhuang, Hong; Huang, Mingming; Zhao, Jianying; Zhang, Jianhao

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on protein and lipid oxidation as well as antioxidant enzyme activities in dry-cured bacons during processing. The partial substitution was 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). Compared with 0% KCl (I), the substitution of 40% NaCl with KCl did not significantly influence the protein and lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. The bacons that were treated with 70% KCl treatment (III) showed increased lipid oxidation and antioxidant enzyme GSH-Px activity, whereas samples treated with formulas I and II showed higher protein oxidation and antioxidant enzyme catalase activity. These results demonstrate that the substitution of NaCl with KCl by more than 40% may significantly affect protein and lipid oxidation and that for the substitution of NaCl in further processed meat products with other chloride salts, salt content is very important for control of protein and lipid biochemical changes in finished products. PMID:26868571

  8. Tracers for monitoring the activity of sodium/glucose cotransporters in health and disease

    Wright, Ernest M; Barrio, Jorge R; Hirayama, Bruce A; Kepe, Vladimir

    2014-09-30

    Radiolabeled tracers for sodium/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs), their synthesis, and their use are provided. The tracers are methyl or ethyl pyranosides having an equatorial hydroxyl group at carbon-2 and a C 1 preferred conformation, radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124I, or free hexoses radiolabeled with .sup.18F, .sup.123I, or .sup.124. Also provided are in vivo and in vitro techniques for using these and other tracers as analytical and diagnostic tools to study glucose transport, in health and disease, and to evaluate therapeutic interventions.

  9. The role of activator concentration and precipitate formation on optical and dosimetric properties of KCl:Eu{sup 2+} storage phosphor detectors

    Hansel, Rachael A.; Xiao, Zhiyan; Hu, Yanle; Green, Olga; Yang, Deshan; Harold Li, H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, 4921 Parkview Place, Campus Box 8224, St. Louis, Missouri 63110 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: The activator ion (Eu{sup 2+} in KCl:Eu{sup 2+}) plays an important role in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) mechanism of storage phosphor radiation detectors. In order to design an accurate, effective, and robust detector, it is important to understand how the activator ion concentration affects the structure and, consequently, radiation detection properties of KCl:Eu{sup 2+}.Methods: Potassium chloride pellets were fabricated with various amounts of europium dopant (0.01–5.0 mol.% Eu{sup 2+}). Clinical radiation doses were given with a 6 MV linear accelerator. Radiation doses larger than 100 Gy were given with a {sup 137}Cs irradiator. Dose response curves, radiation hardness, and temporal signal stability were measured using a laboratory PSL readout system. The crystal structure of the material was studied using x ray diffraction and luminescence spectroscopy.Results: The most intense PSL signal was from samples with 1.0 mol.% Eu. However, samples with concentrations higher than 0.05 mol.% Eu exhibited significant degradation in PSL intensity for cumulated doses larger than 3000 Gy. Structural and luminescence spectroscopy showed clear evidence of precipitate phases within the KCl lattice, especially for high activator concentrations. Analysis of PL emission spectra showed that interactions between Eu-V{sub c} dipoles and Eu-V{sub c} trimers could explain trends in PSL sensitivity and radiation hardness observations.Conclusions: The concentration of the activator ion (Eu{sup 2+}) significantly affects radiation detection properties of the storage phosphor KCl:Eu{sup 2+}. An activator concentration between 0.01 and 0.05 mol.% Eu in KCl:Eu{sup 2+} storage phosphor detectors is recommended for linear dose response, good PSL sensitivity, predictable temporal stability, and high reusability for megavoltage radiation detection.

  10. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula.

    Yang, Chengbo; Yang, Xiaojian; Lackeyram, Dale; Rideout, Todd C; Wang, Zirong; Stoll, Barbara; Yin, Yulong; Burrin, Douglas G; Fan, Ming Z

    2016-06-01

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA co-transporter (B(0)AT1, encoded by the SLC6A19 gene) plays a dominant role for apical uptake of large neutral AA including L-Gln, we hypothesized that high apical Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity, and B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) in co-expression with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) were expressed along the entire small intestinal crypt-villus axis in young animals via unique control mechanisms. Kinetics of Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity in the apical membrane vesicles, prepared from epithelial cells sequentially isolated along the jejunal crypt-villus axis from liquid formula-fed young pigs, were measured with the membrane potential being clamped to zero using thiocyanate. Apical maximal Na(+)-Gln co-transport activity was much higher (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus (by 29 %) and the crypt (by 30 %) cells, whereas Na(+)-Gln co-transport affinity was lower (p < 0.05) in the upper villus cells than in the middle villus and the crypt cells. The B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) mRNA abundance was lower (p < 0.05) in the crypt (by 40-47 %) than in the villus cells. There were no significant differences in B(0)AT1 and ACE2 protein abundances on the apical membrane among the upper villus, the middle villus and the crypt cells. Our study suggests that piglet fast growth is associated with very high intestinal apical Na(+)-neutral AA uptake activities via abundantly co-expressing B(0)AT1 and ACE2 proteins in the apical membrane and by transcribing the B(0)AT1 (SLC6A19) gene in the epithelia along the entire crypt-villus axis. PMID:26984322

  11. Cotransporters as molecular water pumps

    Zeuthen, Thomas; MacAulay, Nanna

    2002-01-01

    for such cotransport can be ruled out for both experimental and theoretical reasons. Indeed, substrate fluxes mediated by channels or ionophores generate much smaller water fluxes than those observed with cotransporters. Theoretical models, using reasonable values for the intracellular diffusion coefficient, indicate...

  12. Isopiestic determination of the osmotic and activity coefficients of the {yKCl + (1 - y)K2HPO4}(aq) system at T = 298.15 K

    Highlights: → Isopiestic measurements were made for {yKCl + (1 - y)K2HPO4}(aq) at T = 298.15 K. → The resulting osmotic coefficients were represented by three thermodynamic models. → Activity coefficients from Pitzer model with Scatchard mixing terms are recommended. - Abstract: The osmotic coefficients of aqueous mixtures of KCl and K2HPO4 have been measured at T = (298.15 ± 0.01) K by the isopiestic vapor pressure method over the range of ionic strengths from (2.3700 to 11.250) mol . kg-1 using CaCl2(aq) as the reference solution. Our new experimental results were modeled with an extended form of Pitzer's ion-interaction model equations, both with the usual mixing terms and with Scatchard's neutral-electrolyte mixing terms, and with the Clegg-Pitzer-Brimblecombe equations based on the mole-fraction-composition scale. There is a dearth of previously published isopiestic data for mixtures containing salts of HPO42-(aq) and, consequently, no previous measurements are available for comparison with the present results. The present study yields Cl-HPO42- mixing parameters for these three models that are needed for modeling the thermodynamic activities of solute components of natural waters and other complex aqueous electrolyte mixtures.

  13. Peripheral motor neuropathy is associated with defective kinase regulation of the KCC3 cotransporter.

    Kahle, Kristopher T; Flores, Bianca; Bharucha-Goebel, Diana; Zhang, Jinwei; Donkervoort, Sandra; Hegde, Madhuri; Hussain, Gulnaz; Duran, Daniel; Liang, Bo; Sun, Dandan; Bönnemann, Carsten G; Delpire, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Using exome sequencing, we identified a de novo mutation (c.2971A>G; T991A) in SLC12A6, the gene encoding the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter KCC3, in a patient with an early-onset, progressive, and severe peripheral neuropathy primarily affecting motor neurons. Normally, the WNK kinase-dependent phosphorylation of T(991) tonically inhibits KCC3; however, cell swelling triggers Thr(991) dephosphorylation to activate the transporter and restore cell volume. KCC3 T991A mutation in patient cells abolished Thr(991) phosphorylation, resulted in constitutive KCC3 activity, and compromised cell volume homeostasis. KCC3(T991A/T991A) mutant mice exhibited constitutive KCC3 activity and recapitulated aspects of the clinical, electrophysiological, and histopathological findings of the patient. These results suggest that the function of the peripheral nervous system depends on finely tuned, kinase-regulated KCC3 activity and implicate abnormal cell volume homeostasis as a previously unreported mechanism of axonal degeneration. PMID:27485015

  14. Functional Role of Glucose Metabolism, Osmotic Stress, and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter Isoform-Mediated Transport on Na+/H+ Exchanger Isoform 3 Activity in the Renal Proximal Tubule

    Pessoa, Thaissa Dantas; Campos, Luciene Cristina Gastalho; Carraro-Lacroix, Luciene; Girardi, Adriana C. C.; Malnic, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Na+-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated glucose uptake leads to activation of Na+-H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3) in the intestine by a process that is not dependent on glucose metabolism. This coactivation may be important for postprandial nutrient uptake. However, it remains to be determined whether SGLT-mediated glucose uptake regulates NHE3-mediated NaHCO3 reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. Considering that this nephron segment also expresses SGLT2 and that the kidneys and intestine sh...

  15. Modeling glial contributions to seizures and epileptogenesis: cation-chloride cotransporters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Zeid M Rusan

    Full Text Available Flies carrying a kcc loss-of-function mutation are more seizure-susceptible than wild-type flies. The kcc gene is the highly conserved Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of K+/Cl- cotransporter genes thought to be expressed in all animal cell types. Here, we examined the spatial and temporal requirements for kcc loss-of-function to modify seizure-susceptibility in flies. Targeted RNA interference (RNAi of kcc in various sets of neurons was sufficient to induce severe seizure-sensitivity. Interestingly, kcc RNAi in glia was particularly effective in causing seizure-sensitivity. Knockdown of kcc in glia or neurons during development caused a reduction in seizure induction threshold, cell swelling, and brain volume increase in 24-48 hour old adult flies. Third instar larval peripheral nerves were enlarged when kcc RNAi was expressed in neurons or glia. Results suggest that a threshold of K+/Cl- cotransport dysfunction in the nervous system during development is an important determinant of seizure-susceptibility in Drosophila. The findings presented are the first attributing a causative role for glial cation-chloride cotransporters in seizures and epileptogenesis. The importance of elucidating glial cell contributions to seizure disorders and the utility of Drosophila models is discussed.

  16. Differentiation-dependent expression of the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) in LLC-PK1 cells: role of protein kinase C activation and ongoing transcription.

    Shioda, T; Ohta, T.(Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047, Japan); Isselbacher, K J; Rhoads, D B

    1994-01-01

    We examined changes in the mRNA level of SGLT1, a Na+/glucose cotransporter, by the differentiation status of LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells. Proliferating (undifferentiated) cells revealed no detectable SGLT1 mRNA by Northern blot analysis. However, when cells became confluent and differentiated into polarized monolayers, there was an abrupt appearance of the SGLT1 mRNA. When confluent (differentiated) cells were dedifferentiated by reseeding at a subconfluent density, SGLT1 mRNA levels decr...

  17. Water permeability of Na+-K+-2C1- cotransporters in mammalian epithelial cells

    Hammann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, J.J.; Bundgaard, Magnus;

    2005-01-01

    Water transport properties of the Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) were studied in cultures of pigmented epithelial cells (PE) from the ciliary body of the eye. Here, the membrane that faces upwards contains NKCCs and can be subjected to rapid changes in bathing solution composition and osmolarity....... The anatomy of the cultured cell layer was investigated by light and electron microscopy. The transport rate of the cotransporter was determined from the bumetanide-sensitive component of 86Rb+ uptake, and volume changes were derived from quenching of the fluorescent dye calcein. The water...... permeability (Lp) of the membrane was halved by the specific inhibitor bumetanide. The bumetanide-sensitive component of the water transport exhibited apparent saturation at osmotic gradients higher than 200 mosmol l-1. Cell shrinkages produced by NaCl or KCl were smaller than those elicited by equi...

  18. Regulation of the sodium/potassium/chloride cotransporter by calcium and cyclic AMP in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells

    Higgins, B.L.; Smith, L.; Smith, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    The activity of the Na/K/Cl cotransporter in smooth muscle cells cultured from rat aorta was assayed by measuring the initial rate of furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx or efflux. Five uM furosemide or 0.2 uM bumetanide inhibited influx by 50%. Furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb influx depended on the presence of all 3 ions in the external medium. The dependence on Na and K was hyperbolic with apparent Km values of 45 and 5 mM, respectively. The dependence on Cl was sigmoidal. Assuming a stoichiometry of 1:1:2 for Na:K:Cl, a Km for Cl of 60 mM was obtained from a Hofstee plot of the data. Rapidly growing cells had 3 fold higher cotransport activity than quiescent cells. Angiotensin II (ANG) stimulated furosemide-inhibitable /sup 86/Rb efflux by 2 fold. An ANG receptor antagonist prevented ANG from increasing cotransport activity. Two calcium ionophores, A23187 and ionomycin, increased cotransport activity by 2 fold. Phorbol myristate acetate had no effect on cotransport activity. Isoproterenol, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, cholera toxin, or methylisobutylxanthine inhibited furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by 35 to 50%. From these findings they conclude that increasing cytoplasmic free calcium stimulates cotransport activity, whereas increasing cellular cyclic AMP inhibits the cotransporter.

  19. K-Cl transport systems in rabbit renal basolateral membrane vesicles

    The transport pathways for chloride in basolateral membrane vesicles from the rabbit renal cortex were investigated. 36Cl uptake was stimulated by the presence of potassium in the uptake media compared with sodium of N-methyl-D-glucamine. In addition, potassium (86Rb) uptake was stimulated more by chloride than by nitrate or gluconate. Neither of these processes was further stimulated by potassium gradients plus valinomycin, suggesting the presence of an electrically neutral K-Cl cotransport system. A magnesium-induced chloride conductance was also found in the basolateral membrane vesicles. In the absence of magnesium, the chloride conductance was low; valinomycin and an inwardly directed potassium gradient did not stimulated 36Cl uptake, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid did not inhibit 36Cl uptake, and valinomycin did not stimulated chloride-dependent 86Rb uptake. However, in the presence of 1 mM magnesium, opposite results were obtained; valinomycin and an inwardly directed potassium gradient stimulated 36Cl uptake, anthracene-9-carboxylic acid inhibited 36Cl uptake, and valinomycin stimulated chloride-dependent 86Rb uptake. Therefore, an electrically neutral K-Cl cotransport and magnesium-induced chloride conductance were found in renal cortial basolateral membrane vesicles prepared from the rabbit renal cortex

  20. Ionic conductivity in irradiated KCL; Conductiviad ionica de KCL irradiado

    Vignolo Rubio, J.

    1979-07-01

    The ionic conductivity of X and gamma irradiated KCL single crystals has been studied between room temperature and 600 degree centigree. the radiation induced damage resulting in a decrease of the conductivity heals by thermal annealing in two steps which are at about 350 and 550 degree centigree respectively. It has been found that the radiation induced colour centres are not involved in the observed decrease of the ionic conductivity. However. It has been observed that the effects of quenching and plastic deformation on the conductivity of the samples are very similar to the effect induced by irradiation. It is suggested that, samples radiation induced dislocation loops might cause the ionic conductivity decrease observed in irradiated samples. (Author)

  1. Ionic conductivity in irradiated KCL

    The ionic conductivity of X and gamma irradiated KCL single crystals has been studied between room temperature and 600 degree centigree. the radiation induced damage resulting in a decrease of the conductivity heals by thermal annealing in two steps which are at about 350 and 550 degree centigree respectively. It has been found that the radiation induced colour centres are not involved in the observed decrease of the ionic conductivity. However. It has been observed that the effects of quenching and plastic deformation on the conductivity of the samples are very similar to the effect induced by irradiation. It is suggested that, samples radiation induced dislocation loops might cause the ionic conductivity decrease observed in irradiated samples. (Author)

  2. Passive water and ion transport by cotransporters

    Loo, D D; Hirayama, B A; Meinild, A K;

    1999-01-01

    1. The rabbit Na+-glucose (SGLT1) and the human Na+-Cl--GABA (GAT1) cotransporters were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, and passive Na+ and water transport were studied using electrical and optical techniques. Passive water permeabilities (Lp) of the cotransporters were determined from...... the low Ea for water transport is similar to that of water channels (aquaporins). 4. GAT1 also behaved as an SKF89976A-sensitive water channel. We did not observe passive Na+ transport through GAT1. 5. We conclude that passive water and Na+ transport through cotransporters depend on different mechanisms...... the Lp of control oocytes. Passive Na+ transport (Na+ leak) was obtained from the blocker-sensitive Na+ currents in the absence of substrates (glucose and GABA). 2. Passive Na+ and water transport through SGLT1 were blocked by phlorizin with the same sensitivity (inhibitory constant (Ki), 3-5 micro...

  3. Ischemia-induced stimulation of Na-K-Cl cotransport in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells involves AMP kinase.

    Wallace, Breanna K; Foroutan, Shahin; O'Donnell, Martha E

    2011-08-01

    Increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity appears to contribute to cerebral edema formation during ischemic stroke. We have shown previously that inhibition of BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity reduces edema and infarct in the rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke. We have also shown that the BBB cotransporter is stimulated by the ischemic factors hypoxia, aglycemia, and arginine vasopressin (AVP), although the mechanisms responsible are not well understood. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key mediator of cell responses to stress, can be activated by a variety of stresses, including ischemia, hypoxia, and aglycemia. Previous studies have shown that the AMPK inhibitor Compound C significantly reduces infarct in mouse MCAO. The present study was conducted to evaluate the possibility that AMPK participates in ischemic factor-induced stimulation of the BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter. Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMEC) were assessed for Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity as bumetanide-sensitive (86)Rb influx. AMPK activity was assessed by Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence methods using antibodies that detect total versus phosphorylated (activated) AMPK. We found that hypoxia (7% and 2% O(2)), aglycemia, AVP, and oxygen-glucose deprivation (5- to 120-min exposures) increase activation of AMPK. We also found that Compound C inhibition of AMPK reduces hypoxia-, aglycemia-, and AVP-induced stimulation of CMEC Na-K-Cl cotransporter activity. Confocal immunofluorescence of perfusion-fixed rat brain slices revealed the presence of AMPK, both total and phosphorylated kinase, in BBB in situ of both control and ischemic brain. These findings suggest that ischemic factor stimulation of the BBB Na-K-Cl cotransporter involves activation of AMPK. PMID:21562306

  4. Exploring the intricate regulatory network controlling the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC)

    Dimke, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    for a WNK4 PHAII mutation to increase NCC phosphorylation and blood pressure in mice. The mouse protein 25α is a novel regulator of the SPAK/OSR1 kinase family, which greatly increases their activity. The phosphorylation status of NCC and the WNK is regulated by the serum- and glucocorticoid...... effect is dependent on the phosphorylation status of the cotransporter. γ-Adducin only binds the dephosphorylated cotransporter, suggesting that phosphorylation of NCC causes the dissociation of γ-adducin. Since γ-adducin is not a kinase, it is tempting to speculate that the protein exerts its function...

  5. Activation of ion transport systems during cell volume regulation

    This review discusses the activation of transport pathways during volume regulation, including their characteristics, the possible biochemical pathways that may mediate the activation of transport pathways, and the relations between volume regulation and transepithelial transport in renal cells. Many cells regulate their volume when exposed to an anisotonic medium. The changes in cell volume are caused by activation of ion transport pathways, plus the accompanying osmotically driven water movement such that cell volume returns toward normal levels. The swelling of hypertonically shrunken cells is termed regulatory volume increase (RVI) and involves an influx of NaCl into the cell via either activation of Na-Cl, Na-K-2Cl cotransport systems, or Na+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchangers. The reshrinking of hypotonically swollen cells is termed regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and involves an efflux of KCl and water from the cell by activation of either separate K+ and Cl- conductances, a K-Cl cotransport system, or parallel K+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchangers. The biochemical mechanisms involved in the activation of transport systems are largely unknown, however, the phosphoinositide pathway may be implicated in RVI; phorbol esters, cGMP, and Ca2+ affect the process of volume regulation. Renal tubular cells, as well as the blood cells that transverse the medulla, are subjected to increasing osmotic gradients from the corticomedullary junction to the papillary tip, as well as changing interstitial and tubule fluid osmolarity, depending on the diuretic state of the animal. Medullary cells from the loop of Henle and the papilla can volume regulate by activating Na-K-2Cl cotransport or Na+-H+ and Cl--HCO3- exchange systems

  6. Swelling-Activated Anion Channels Are Essential for Volume Regulation of Mouse Thymocytes

    Ravshan Z. Sabirov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Channel-mediated trans-membrane chloride movement is a key process in the active cell volume regulation under osmotic stress in most cells. However, thymocytes were hypothesized to regulate their volume by activating a coupled K-Cl cotransport mechanism. Under the patch-clamp, we found that osmotic swelling activates two types of macroscopic anion conductance with different voltage-dependence and pharmacology. At the single-channel level, we identified two types of events: one corresponded to the maxi-anion channel, and the other one had characteristics of the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying (VSOR chloride channel of intermediate conductance. A VSOR inhibitor, phloretin, significantly suppressed both macroscopic VSOR-type conductance and single-channel activity of intermediate amplitude. The maxi-anion channel activity was largely suppressed by Gd3+ ions but not by phloretin. Surprisingly, [(dihydroindenyloxy] alkanoic acid (DIOA, a known antagonist of K-Cl cotransporter, was found to significantly suppress the activity of the VSOR-type single-channel events with no effect on the maxi-anion channels at 10 μM. The regulatory volume decrease (RVD phase of cellular response to hypotonicity was mildly suppressed by Gd3+ ions and was completely abolished by phloretin suggesting a major impact of the VSOR chloride channel and modulatory role of the maxi-anion channel. The inhibitory effect of DIOA was also strong, and, most likely, it occurred via blocking the VSOR Cl− channels.

  7. Calculation of NaCl, KCl and LiCl Salts Activity Coefficients in Polyethylene Glycol (PEG4000)-Water System Using Modified PHSC Equation of State, Extended Debye-Hückel Model and Pitzer Model

    Marjani, Azam

    2016-07-01

    For biomolecules and cell particles purification and separation in biological engineering, besides the chromatography as mostly applied process, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are of the most favorable separation processes that are worth to be investigated in thermodynamic theoretically. In recent years, thermodynamic calculation of ATPS properties has attracted much attention due to their great applications in chemical industries such as separation processes. These phase calculations of ATPS have inherent complexity due to the presence of ions and polymers in aqueous solution. In this work, for target ternary systems of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000)-salt-water, thermodynamic investigation for constituent systems with three salts (NaCl, KCl and LiCl) has been carried out as PEG is the most favorable polymer in ATPS. The modified perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state (EOS), extended Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models were employed for calculation of activity coefficients for the considered systems. Four additional statistical parameters were considered to ensure the consistency of correlations and introduced as objective functions in the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results showed desirable agreement to the available experimental data, and the order of recommendation of studied models is PHSC EOS > extended Debye-Hückel > Pitzer. The concluding remark is that the all the employed models are reliable in such calculations and can be used for thermodynamic correlation/predictions; however, by using an ion-based parameter calculation method, the PHSC EOS reveals both reliability and universality of applications.

  8. Cotransport of water by Na¿-K¿-2Cl¿ cotransporters expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Macaulay, Nanna

    2012-01-01

    The NKCC1 and NKCC2 isoforms of the mammalian Na¿–K¿–2Cl¿ cotransporter were expressed in Xenopus oocytes and the relation between external ion concentration and water fluxes determined.Water fluxes were determined from changes in the oocytes volume and ion fluxes from 86Rb+ uptake. Isotonic...... increases in external K¿ concentration elicited abrupt inward water fluxes in NKCC1; the K¿ dependence obeyed one-site kinetics with a K0.5 of 7.5 mM. The water fluxes were blocked by bumetanide, had steep temperature dependence and could proceed uphill against an osmotic gradient of 20 mosmol l¿¹. A...... comparison between ion and water fluxes indicates that 460 water molecules are cotransported for each turnover of the protein. In contrast, NKCC2 did not support water fluxes.Water transport in NKCC1 induced by increases in the external osmolarity had high activation energy and was blocked by bumetanide. The...

  9. Vasopressin alters the mechanism of apical Cl- entry from Na+:Cl- to Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb

    Experiments were performed using in vitro perfused medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle (MTAL) and in suspensions of MTAL tubules isolated from mouse kidney to evaluate the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on the K+ dependence of the apical, furosemide-sensitive Na+:Cl- cotransporter and on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO2). In isolated perfused MTAL segments, the rate of cell swelling induced by removing K+ from, and adding one mM ouabain to, the basolateral solution [ouabain(zero-K+)] provided an index to apical cotransporter activity and was used to evaluate the ionic requirements of the apical cotransporter in the presence and absence of AVP. In the absence of AVP cotransporter activity required Na+ and Cl-, but not K+, while the presence of AVP the apical cotransporter required all three ions. 86Rb+ uptake into MTAL tubules in suspension was significant only after exposure of tubules to AVP. Moreover, 22Na+ uptake was unaffected by extracellular K+ in the absence of AVP while after AVP exposure 22Na+ uptake was strictly K+-dependent. The AVP-induced coupling of K+ to the Na+:Cl- cotransporter resulted in a doubling in the rate of NaCl absorption without a parallel increase in the rate of cellular 22Na+ uptake or transport-related oxygen consumption. These results indicate that arginine vasopressin alters the mode of a loop diuretic-sensitive transporter from Na+:Cl- cotransport to Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransport in the mouse MTAL with the latter providing a distinct metabolic advantage for sodium transport. A model for AVP action on NaCl absorption by the MTAL is presented and the physiological significance of the coupling of K+ to the apical Na+:Cl- cotransporter in the MTAL and of the enhanced metabolic efficiency are discussed

  10. Isotonic transport by the Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 from humans and rabbit

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A K; Loo, D D;

    2001-01-01

    water transport was divided about equally between cotransport, osmosis across the SGLT1 and osmosis across the native oocyte membrane. 6. Coexpression of AQP1 with the SGLT1 increased the water permeability more than 10-fold and steady state isotonic transport was achieved after less than 2 s of sugar......1. In order to study its role in steady state water transport, the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes; both the human and the rabbit clones were tested. The transport activity was monitored as a clamp current and the flux of water followed optically...... as the change in oocyte volume. 2. SGLT1 has two modes of water transport. First, it acts as a molecular water pump: for each 2 Na+ and 1 sugar molecule 264 water molecules were cotransported in the human SGLT1 (hSGLT1), 424 for the rabbit SGLT1 (rSGLT1). Second, it acts as a water channel. 3. The cotransport...

  11. Evidence for an apical Na-Cl cotransporter involved in ion uptake in a teleost fish

    Hiroi, J.; Yasumasu, S.; McCormick, S.D.; Hwang, P.-P.; Kaneko, T.

    2008-01-01

    Cation-chloride cotransporters, such as the Na+/K +/2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and Na+/Cl - cotransporter (NCC), are localized to the apical or basolateral plasma membranes of epithelial cells and are involved in active ion absorption or secretion. The objectives of this study were to clone and identify 'freshwater-type' and 'seawater-type' cation-chloride cotransporters of euryhaline Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and to determine their intracellular localization patterns within mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs). From tilapia gills, we cloned four full-length cDNAs homologous to human cation-chloride cotransporters and designated them as tilapia NKCC1a, NKCC1b, NKCC2 and NCC. Out of the four candidates, the mRNA encoding NKCC1a was highly expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills (sites of the MRC localization) of seawater-acclimatized fish, whereas the mRNA encoding NCC was exclusively expressed in the yolk-sac membrane and gills of freshwater-acclimatized fish. We then generated antibodies specific for tilapia NKCC1a and NCC and conducted whole-mount immunofluorescence staining for NKCC1a and NCC, together with Na+/K+-ATPase, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and Na+/H+ exchanger 3 (NHE3), on the yolk-sac membrane of tilapia embryos acclimatized to freshwater or seawater. The simultaneous quintuple-color immunofluorescence staining allowed us to classify MRCs clearly into four types: types I, II, III and IV. The NKCC1a immunoreactivity was localized to the basolateral membrane of seawater-specific type-IV MRCs, whereas the NCC immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical membrane of freshwater-specific type-II MRCs. Taking account of these data at the level of both mRNA and protein, we deduce that NKCC1a is the seawater-type cotransporter involved in ion secretion by type-IV MRCs and that NCC is the freshwater-type cotransporter involved in ion absorption by type-II MRCs. We propose a novel ion-uptake model by MRCs in

  12. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1) Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop

    Sasseville, Louis J.; Michael Morin; Coady, Michael J.; Rikard Blunck; Jean-Yves Lapointe

    2016-01-01

    Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1) were labelled on ...

  13. [Electrophysiology principles of Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporters].

    Chen, Li-Ming; Liu, Mei; Liu, Ying

    2016-06-25

    Ion channels and transporters represent two major types of pathways of transmembrane transport for ions. Distinct from ion channels which conduct passive ionic diffusion, ion transporters mediate active transport of ions. In the perspective of biochemistry, ion transporters are enzymes that catalyze the movement of ions across the plasma membrane. In the present review, we selected the Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter (NBC) as an example to analyze the key biochemical and biophysical properties of ion transporters, including stoichiometry, turnover number and transport capacity. Moreover, we provided an analysis of the electrophysiological principles of NBC based on the laws of thermodynamics. Based on the thermodynamical analysis, we showed how the stoichiometry of an NBC determines the direction of its ion transport. Finally, we reviewed the methodology for experimental determination of the stoichiometry of NBC, as well as the physiological significance of the stoichiometry of NBCs in specific tissues. PMID:27350205

  14. γ-Adducin stimulates the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter

    Dimke, Henrik Anthony; San-Cristobal, Pedro; de Graaf, Mark;

    2011-01-01

    The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) plays a key role in renal salt reabsorption and the determination of systemic BP, but the molecular mechanisms governing the regulation of NCC are not completely understood. Here, through pull-down experiments coupled to mass spectrometry, we found...... state, and consequently the activity, of the transporter. These data suggest that γ-adducin may influence BP homeostasis by modulating renal NaCl transport....

  15. The Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1, but not the Na+, HCO3- cotransporter NBCn1, regulates motility of MCF7 breast cancer cells expressing constitutively active ErbB2

    Lauritzen, Gitte; Stock, Christian-Martin; Lemaire, Justine; Lund, Stine F.; Jensen, Mie Frid; Damsgaard, Britt; Petersen, Katrine Seide; Wiwel, Maria; Rønnov-Jessen, Lone; Schwab, Albrecht; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2012-01-01

    We and others have shown central roles of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger NHE1 in cell motility. The aim of this study was to determine the roles of NHE1 and of the Na(+), HCO(3)(-) cotransporter NBCn1 in motility of serum-starved MCF-7 breast cancer cells expressing constitutively active ErbB2 (¿NErbB2...... diameter of which was increased by ¿NErbB2. Adhesion and migration on collagen-I were augmented by ¿NErbB2, unaffected by the NBC inhibitor S0859, and further stimulated by EIPA in a manner potentiated by PI3K-Akt-inhibition. These findings demonstrate that NHE1 inhibition can enhance cancer cell motility...

  16. Molecular Physiology of the Thiazide-sensitive Sodium Chloride Cotransporter

    Ko, Benjamin; Hoover, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the molecular physiology and regulation of the thiazide-sensitive cotransporter (NCC). Recent findings Mutations of With-No-Lysine (WNK) Kinases 1 and 4 result in hyperactivity of NCC and FHHt (Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension), a genetic syndrome of hypertension. Recent studies have shown that WNK1 and WNK4 activate the STE20 family protein kinases SPAK and OSR1, resulting in phosphorylation and activation of NCC. Additionally, a mouse knock-in model for a WNK4 FHHt mutant demonstrated increased SPAK/OSR1 and NCC phosphorylation. It is unclear how these studies fit with the data indicating that WNK4 inhibits NCC and the FHHt mutations of WNK4 are loss-of-function mutations. Another WNK kinase, WNK3, regulates NCC, activating NCC and antagonizing WNK4's effect. Recent studies examining the hormonal regulation of NCC have implicated angiotensin II and aldosterone in regulation of the WNK4-SPAK-NCC pathway. Angiotensin II may also play a role in pressure natriuresis via actions on NCC. Summary NCC is subject to a complex regulatory network of kinases which appear sensitive to alterations of the hormonal and physiologic milieu. PMID:19636250

  17. Vasopressin alters the mechanism of apical Cl- entry from Na+:Cl- to Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransport in mouse medullary thick ascending limb

    Sun, A.; Grossman, E.B.; Lombardi, M.; Hebert, S.C. (Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Experiments were performed using in vitro perfused medullary thick ascending limbs of Henle (MTAL) and in suspensions of MTAL tubules isolated from mouse kidney to evaluate the effects of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on the K+ dependence of the apical, furosemide-sensitive Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter and on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO{sub 2}). In isolated perfused MTAL segments, the rate of cell swelling induced by removing K+ from, and adding one mM ouabain to, the basolateral solution (ouabain(zero-K+)) provided an index to apical cotransporter activity and was used to evaluate the ionic requirements of the apical cotransporter in the presence and absence of AVP. In the absence of AVP cotransporter activity required Na{sup +} and Cl{sup {minus}}, but not K{sup +}, while the presence of AVP the apical cotransporter required all three ions. {sup 86}Rb{sup +} uptake into MTAL tubules in suspension was significant only after exposure of tubules to AVP. Moreover, {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake was unaffected by extracellular K+ in the absence of AVP while after AVP exposure {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake was strictly K{sup +}-dependent. The AVP-induced coupling of K{sup +} to the Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter resulted in a doubling in the rate of NaCl absorption without a parallel increase in the rate of cellular {sup 22}Na{sup +} uptake or transport-related oxygen consumption. These results indicate that arginine vasopressin alters the mode of a loop diuretic-sensitive transporter from Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport to Na{sup +}:K{sup +}:2Cl{sup {minus}} cotransport in the mouse MTAL with the latter providing a distinct metabolic advantage for sodium transport. A model for AVP action on NaCl absorption by the MTAL is presented and the physiological significance of the coupling of K{sup +} to the apical Na{sup +}:Cl{sup {minus}} cotransporter in the MTAL and of the enhanced metabolic efficiency are discussed.

  18. Thermodynamics of the NaCl–KCl system

    Highlights: • The complementary methods of DSC, DTA, DROP and XRD analyses were used. • The heat capacity of solid phase of the NaCl–KCl mixtures was measured. • The heat capacity of liquid phase of the 50NaCl–50KCl mixture was obtained. • The enthalpy of fusion and solid solution formation were determined. • The thermodynamic functions of the 50NaCl–50KCl mixture were calculated. - Abstract: The heat capacity of the solid phase of the NaCl–KCl mixtures was measured by the differential scanning calorimetry. These results and X-ray diffraction data were used for the explanation of the solid solution formation. The heat capacity of the liquid phase of the eutectic 50NaCl–50KCl mixture has been obtained in a closed glass container. The enthalpy increment (H°T − H°298.15) and the fusion enthalpy of the 50NaCl–50KCl mixture have been measured by a drop calorimeter. The joint analysis of these values with the heat capacity data allowed the calculation of the enthalpy of the solid solution. As the final result, the thermodynamic functions of the eutectic 50NaCl–50KCl mixture have been obtained

  19. Regulation of the human Na+-dependent glucose cotransporter hSGLT2

    Ghezzi, Chiara; Wright, Ernest M.

    2012-01-01

    The human Na+-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 is expressed mainly in the kidney proximal convoluted tubule where it is considered to be responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption. Phosphorylation profiling has revealed that SGLT2 exists in a phosphorylated state in the rat renal proximal tubule cortex, so we decided to investigate the regulation of human SGLT2 (hSGLT2) by protein kinases. hSGLT2 was expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, and the activity of the protein was me...

  20. Expression of apical Na(+)-L-glutamine co-transport activity, B(0)-system neutral amino acid co-transporter (B(0)AT1) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 along the jejunal crypt-villus axis in young pigs fed a liquid formula

    Gut apical amino acid (AA) transport activity is high at birth and during suckling, thus being essential to maintain luminal nutrient-dependent mucosal growth through providing AA as essential metabolic fuel, substrates and nutrient stimuli for cellular growth. Because system-B(0) Na(+)-neutral AA c...

  1. Na+/HCO3- Cotransport in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Intestine

    Seidler U

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available In a search for the HCO(3(- supply mechanisms to the enterocyte we cloned and sequenced an intestinal subtype of the Na(+HCO(3(- cotransporter isoform I (dNBC1, which turned out to be identical to the pancreatic NBC1 subtype (pNBC1. Within the intestine, we found particularly high NBC1 expression levels in the duodenum and proximal colon. Experiments with stripped rabbit duodenum in Ussing-chambers revealed that Na(+HCO(3(- cotransport (NBC and CO(2 hydration/Na(+/H(+ exchange were equally important duodenal HCO(3(- supply pathways and were both upregulated during cAMP-mediated secretion. In the proximal colon, however, HCO(3(- secretion was low but NBC1 expression even higher than in the duodenum. Ussing-chamber experiments with an NBC-specific inhibitor revealed that NBC, coupled to basolateral Cl(-/HCO(3(- exchange, was an important alternative Cl(- supply pathway to Na(+K(+2Cl(- cotransport (NKCC during cAMP-stimulated colonic Cl(- secretion. To investigate the functional integrity of anion uptake pathways in the absence of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, we fluorometrically assessed NBC and NKCC transport rates and cell volume before and during forskolin-stimulation in isolated colonic crypts from normal and CFTR (-/- mice. Although forskolin stimulation decreased cell volume only in normal, not in CFTR (-/- crypts, it activated NBC and NKCC to a similar degree in both normal and CFTR (-/- crypts. We conclude that, depending on the intestinal segment, NBC1 plays an important role in basolateral HCO(3(- or Cl(- uptake. Expression and activation by cAMP is preserved in CFTR (-/- intestine.

  2. Electroplating of erbium on steel surface in ErCl3 doped LiCl-KCl

    The electroplating of Er metal on the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel, JLF-1 (Fe-9Cr-2W-0.1C), in a molten salt was studied. The specimen was immersed in the molten ErCl3 doped LiCl-KCl electrolyte. The electroplating was carried out by a constant potential electrolysis method and a pulsed current electrolysis method. It was found that the Er metal was deposited on the specimen surface due to the electrochemical reaction. (author)

  3. Characterization of Fe/KClO4 heat powders and pellets.

    Reinhardt, Frederick William; Guidotti, Ronald Armand; Odinek, Judy Gail

    2005-04-01

    Pellets of Fe/KClO{sub 4} mixtures are used as a heat source for thermally activated ('thermal') batteries. They provide the energy necessary for melting the electrolyte and bringing the battery stack to operating temperature. The effects of morphology of the Fe and the heat-pellet density and composition on both the physical properties (flowability, pelletization, and pellet strength) and the pyrotechnic performance (burn rate and ignition sensitivity) were examined using several commercial sources of Fe.

  4. Optical properties of KCl:Sn2+ phosphors synthesized from aqueous KCl/SnCl2 solutions

    Nara, Jun-ichi; Adachi, Sadao

    2011-12-01

    KCl:Sn2+ phosphors were synthesized from aqueous KCl/SnCl2 solutions. Solvents with a molar ratio of KCl : SnCl2 = 1 : M (M = 0 - 5) were dissolved in de-ionized water. The optical properties of the synthesized phosphors were investigated by photoluminescence (PL) analysis, PL excitation spectroscopy (PLE), and PL lifetime measurements. KCl:Sn2+ phosphor synthesized with M = 0.1 exhibited the strongest PL emission in the green (AT band) and red spectral regions (R band). The phosphors synthesized with M ≥ 1 were composites of various potassium chlorostannates and emitted light in the red spectral region (R band). Annealing the M = 0.1 phosphor in dry N2 resulted in a PL spectrum that was the same as those usually observed in melt-grown KCl:Sn2+ phosphors (i.e., exhibiting only the AT emission band). Annealing also led to a change in the PL decay characteristic from a double exponential curve to a single exponential curve. The AT and R emission bands had nearly the same PLE spectra and were related to the deexcitation of the Sn2+ (5s5p) ions in KCl.

  5. Electrochemical study of uranium cations in LiCl-KCl melt using a rotating disk electrode

    Bae, Sang-Eun; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yoon; Park, Tae-Hong; Cho, Young Hwan; Yeon, Jei-Won; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute,989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    A rotating disk electrode (RDE) measurement technique was employed to investigate the electrochemical REDOX reactions of actinide (An) and lanthanide (Ln) ions in LiCl-KCl molten salt. By using RDE, it is possible to access more exact values of the diffusion coefficient, Tafel slope, and exchange current density. In this work, we constructed RDE setup and electrodes for RDE measurements in high temperature molten salt and measured the electrochemical parameters of the An and Ln ions. The RDE setup is composed of a Pine model MSRX rotator equipped with a rod type of W electrode. The active electrode area was confined to the planar part of the W rod by making meniscus at the LiCl-KCl melt surface.

  6. Electrochemical behaviour of plutonium ion in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    This work presents a study on the electrochemical properties of PuCl3 in a molten LiCl-KCl eutectic, at a temperature range of 733-833 K. Transient electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry and chrono-potentiometry, on inert metallic tungsten and molybdenum working electrodes have been used in order to investigate the reduction mechanism and transport parameters. The results show that Pu3+ is reduced to Pu metal by a single step mechanism and that the diffusion coefficient of Pu3+ ion is DPu3+ ∼2.10-5 cm2/s at 733 K. In addition the standard potential (-2796 V at 733 and vs. Cl2/Cl- reference electrode) and free enthalpy of formation for the Pu(III)/Pu(0) system have been measured and compared to thermodynamic data in order to estimate the activity coefficient of Pu3+ in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic. (author)

  7. Molecular and evolutionary insights into the structural organization of cation chloride cotransporters

    Anna-Maria Hartmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cation chloride cotransporters (CCC play an essential role for neuronal chloride homeostasis. KCC2 is the principal Cl--extruder, whereas NKCC1 is the major Cl--uptake mechanism in many neurons. As a consequence, the action of the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine strongly depend on the activity of these two transporters. Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in ion transport and regulation is thus of great importance to better understand normal and disturbed brain function. Although no overall 3-dimensional crystal structures are yet available, recent molecular and phylogenetic studies and modeling have provided new and exciting insights into structure-function relationships of cation chloride cotransporters. Here, we will summarize our current knowledge of the gross structural organization of the proteins, their functional domains, ion binding and translocation sites, and the established role of individual amino acids. A major focus will be laid on the delineation of shared and distinct organizational principles between KCC2 and NKCC1. Exploiting the richness of recently generated genome data across the tree of life, we will also explore the molecular evolution of these features.

  8. Nanomaterials-Based Approaches for the Modulation of Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporters

    Jeong Hee Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available HCO3- and fluid secretion are major functions of all epithelia, and alterations in HCO3- secretion by sodium bicarbonate cotransporters are associated with many epithelial diseases, such as renal, ocular, and dental abnormalities. Electrolyte and fluid exits are synergistically mediated by the intracellular second messengers, cAMP and Ca2+, and this raises the possibility that ion transporters are involved in simple secretion and more complicated forms of regulation. Evidence indicates that HCO3- transport is regulated by the assemblage of Na+-HCO3- cotransporters (NBCs into complexes by multiple regulatory factors. Recently the specific regulatory functions of factors that interact with NBCe1, especially NBCe1-B, have been elucidated. In this review, I focus on the structural characteristics of electrogenic NBCe1, pathophysiology of NBCe1, and molecular mechanisms responsible for transporter regulation. Moreover I propose the possibility to apply nanomaterials combined with regulatory factors for modulating the activity of NBC transporters as a potential development of therapeutic drug.

  9. The Na+/glucose cotransporters: from genes to therapy

    R. Sabino-Silva; R.C. Mori; A. David-Silva; M.M. Okamoto; H.S. Freitas; U.F. Machado

    2010-01-01

    Glucose enters eukaryotic cells via two types of membrane-associated carrier proteins, the Na+/glucose cotransporters (SGLT) and the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT). The SGLT family consists of six members. Among them, the SGLT1 and SGLT2 proteins, encoded by the solute carrier genes SLC5A1 and SLC5A2, respectively, are believed to be the most important ones and have been extensively explored in studies focusing on glucose fluxes under both physiological and pathological conditions. ...

  10. Phase relations in the hydrous CMAS pyrolite in presence of KCl at 2 GPa

    Safonov, O.

    2012-04-01

    In the upper mantle, chlorides are constituents of concentrated aqueous solutions (brines), as well as chloride-carbonate and carbonatite melts. Mineral assemblages coming from diverse depth levels show that mobile (K, Na)Cl-bearing fluids are able to provoke intensive metasomatism of the peridotitic mantle accompanied by melting. Scarce experimental studies on influence of brines on mineral equilibria in the peridotitic mantle (Stalder et al., 2008; Chu et al., 2011) indicate that influence of chlorides on water activity in a fluid equilibrated with forsterite enstatite at pressures above 2 GPa is very similar to their effect at lower "crustal" pressures (e.g. Aranovich, Newton, 1997): decrease of the H2O activity with an increase of the salt content results in an increase of the melting temperature of silicates. Nevertheless, these experiments were performed in the Al-free systems. Presence of Al would provoke an active interaction of alkali chlorides, namely KCl, with silicates with formation of new K-Al-bearing phases, such as phlogopite (in presence of H2O), which would influence on the melting of complex assemblages. In order to investigate an effect of KCl on phase relations in the Al2O3, CaO, Na2O-rich hydrous peridotite and on stability of garnet, pyroxenes, and amphiboles, in particular, experiments on interaction of the model CMAS pyrolite Fo57En17Prp14Di12 (+0.3 wt. % of Na2O) with the H2O-KCl fluid were performed at 2 GPa in the temperature interval 900-1200. Mixtures of synthetic forsterite, diopside, enstatite and pyrope in the above weight ratio were mixed with 14 wt. % of Mg(OH)2 corresponding to 4.4 wt. % of H2O in the system. 2.4, 3.7, 5 and 10 wt. % of KCl were added to silicate-H2O mixture. Experiments were performed using a piston-cylinder apparatus with ½-inch talc high-pressure cells calibrated via brucite = periclase + H2O and albite = jadeite + quartz equilibria curves. Temperature was controlled with accuracy ?1 with the W95Re5/W80Re20

  11. Oscillatory rule in the energy spectrum of traps in KCl and NaI crystals

    Gumenyuk, A F; Stanovyi, O P; Pashchenko, V G; Tomylko, S V

    2010-01-01

    The thermoluminescence (TL) method is used for the investigation of the energy spectrum of traps in KCl and NaI crystals in the temperature range 80-500 K. It is shown that the thermal activation energies of traps in KCl and NaI form one oscillatory series E=hwn with vibrational quantum energies of 0.121 eV in KCl and 0.061 eV in NaI. In this case, the quantum number n assumes half-integer and integer values. Based on the generalized data on the investigated alkali-halide crystals (AHC), we confirmed the earlier proposed model of TL in AHCs. It is assumed that, in addition to the nonradiative H-F recombination, there exists the two-stage recombination of H-centers at anion vacancies resulting in the radiative recombination of a hole at an F-center. The energy of a quantum in the oscillatory rule corresponds to a local vibrational mode of an X2 halide molecule.

  12. Study of effect of quenching and deformation on KCl: Gd3+ crystals by using conductivity measurements

    G Saibabu; A Ramachandra Reddy; D Srikanth

    2004-10-01

    The study of ionic conductivity vs reciprocal temperature of pure KCl and KCl crystal doped with 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mole% gadolinium has been carried out in as grown, quenched from elevated temperatures (100, 350 and 500°C) and annealed at various timings i.e. 2–3 h and deformed by different percentages. The plots exhibit three well-known regions, II, III and IV (extrinsic regions). The intrinsic region I was not observed in the plots as the conductivity measurements were taken up to 575°C. From the analysis of these plots, activation energies for the migration of cation vacancy and the association of gadolinium ion with cation vacancy in the lattice of KCl crystals are calculated. These values are compared with previously reported values. Further, an attempt is made to explain the existence of oxidation state of gadolinium ion in + 3 state rather than in + 2 state as reported earlier. The variation in conductivity with effect of concentration of impurity ion, quenching and annealing and deformation with various percentages are explained on the basis of formation of impurity vacancy dipoles, vacancy – vacancy pairs (which appear in the form of precipitation), storage of cation vacancies in the form of defects, introduction of fresh dislocations, etc.

  13. KCl Crystal Growth and High Energy X Ray Expose of Properties

    X ray irradiates material for dose distribution confirmation through material color variation to evaluate about possibility. That is rare earth material to pure KCl and KCl impurity Eu adding 0.5 mol% by Czochralski method each single crystal grow and observed color variation of KCl X ray irradiation use of linear accelerator. High energy X ray irradiation KCl:Eu show the blue fluorescence with purple color that pure KCl single crystal can confirm by show was not observed, but was colored violet. Colors variation of KCl founds stable color center from radiation and this color variation will be used usefully to X ray measurement material and phantom.

  14. Fluorescence studies of ligand-induced conformational changes of the Na(+)/glucose cotransporter

    Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Hirayama, Bruce A; Wright, Ernest M;

    2002-01-01

    Conformational changes in the human Na(+)/glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) were examined using hSGLT1 Q457C expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and tagged with tetramethylrhodamine-6-maleimide (TMR6M). Na(+)/glucose cotransport is abolished in the TMR6M-labeled mutant, but the protein binds Na(+) and...

  15. Entrained Flow Reactor Study of KCl Capture by Solid Additives

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao;

    An option for abating deposition and corrosion caused byalkali species during biomass combustion, is the introduction of additivesinto boilers for transforming harmful gaseous alkali compounds (e.g. KCl,KOH) into less corrosive ash species with a higher melting point. Kaolin andcoal fly ash have...

  16. ESR of an O3- centre in KCl

    By means of ESR an ozonide molecular O3- ion was detected in x-irradiated KCl. The principal values of the G-tensor (2.0032, 2.0182, 2.0118) are in excellent agreement with the values found in other host lattices and with CNDO calculations performed earlier. All measurements were carried out at liquid-helium temperatures. (author)

  17. Water transport between CNS compartments: contributions of aquaporins and cotransporters

    MacAulay, N; Zeuthen, T

    2010-01-01

    hydrocephalus. The molecular pathways by which water molecules cross the cell membranes of the brain are not well-understood, although the discovery of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in the brain improved our understanding of some of these transport processes, particularly under pathological conditions. In the present...... review we introduce another family of transport proteins as water transporters, namely the cotransporters and the glucose uniport GLUT1. In direct contrast to the aquaporins, these proteins have an inherent ability to transport water against an osmotic gradient. Some of them may also function as water...

  18. K+-Cl− cotransporter-2 KCC2 in chicken cardiomyocytes

    Antrobus, Shane P.; Lytle, Christian; Payne, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Using antibodies prepared against a unique region (exon 22–24) of rat K+-Cl− cotransporter-2 (KCC2), we confirmed that the ∼140-kDa KCC2 protein is exclusively expressed in rat brain, but in chicken, we observed strong reactivity not only with the ∼140-kDa KCC2 protein in brain but also a slightly larger ∼145-kDa protein in heart. In silico analysis showed that while exon 22 of KCC2 is unique to this isoform in therian mammals, it is retained in KCC2's closest paralog, KCC4, of lower vertebra...

  19. Mutations in the gene of human type IIb sodium-phosphate cotransporter SLC34A2

    Kiyamova R. G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Type IIb sodium-phosphate cotransporter (NaPi2b provides phosphate intake in the cells of some epithelial tissues, osteoblasts and odontoblasts. Abnormal expression of NaPi2b has been detected in some types of epithelial tumors. An alteration in NaPi2b activity, caused by mutations in transporter gene SLC34A2, has been recently revealed in patients with pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis, an autosomal recessively inherited disease, characterized by deposition of calcium-phosphate precipitates in the lungs. In the present study we have combined the information about all mutations found to date in the coding sequence of SLC34A2 and its transcript, compiled their map, and analysed their relevance to the function of NaPi2b.

  20. Characterization of Niobium Platings Obtained from NaCl-KCl Melts

    Gillesberg, Bo; Barner, Jens H. Von; Bjerrum, Niels

    1998-01-01

    oxidation of metallic niobium with NiCl2. The initial valency of niobium was found to 3 when a NaCl-KCl melt was applied as solvent. The deposits were characterised by X-ray analy-sis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) combined with EDX analysis. From both NaCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl melts dense and coherent...

  1. Cotransport of water by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter NKCC1 in mammalian epithelial cells

    Hamann, Steffen; Herrera-Perez, José J; Zeuthen, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    Water transport by the Na+-K+-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) was studied in confluent cultures of pigmented epithelial (PE) cells from the ciliary body of the fetal human eye. Interdependence among water, Na+ and Cl(-) fluxes mediated by NKCC1 was inferred from changes in cell water volume, monitored...... by intracellular self-quenching of the fluorescent dye calcein. Isosmotic removal of external Cl(-) or Na+ caused a rapid efflux of water from the cells, which was inhibited by bumetanide (10 µm). When returned to the control solution there was a rapid water influx that required the simultaneous...

  2. Studies on multiphased mixed crystals grown from NaBr and KCl

    Padma, C.M. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002, Tamilnadu (India); Mahadevan, C.K. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail: mahadevan58@yahoo.co.in

    2008-05-01

    We have grown multiphased binary and ternary mixed crystals by the melt method using the miscible alkali halides, viz. NaBr and KCl and physically characterized. Thermal parameters like Debye-Waller factor, Debye temperature, Debye frequency and mean square amplitude of vibration were determined using the X-ray powder diffraction intensity data. DC and AC electrical measurements were carried out by using the parallel plate capacitor method at various temperatures. Activation energies (DC and AC), mean jump frequency, compressibility and mean sound velocity were also determined. The results obtained are reported here.

  3. Electroreduction of Ho3+ on Nickel Cathode in Molten KCl-HoCl3

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic voltammetry, open current potential-time curve after potentiostatic electrolysis, the current-time curve at potential step, XRD, EDAX and EPMA were used to study the electrode process of Ho3+ reduction on nickel electrode in molten KCl-HoCl3 and the phases of surface alloy layer. The Ho-Ni alloys were deposited when Ho3+ was reduced on the nickel electrode. The free energies of formation for the intermetallic compounds between Ho and Ni, the diffusion coefficients and diffusion activation energy of Ho atom in the alloy phase were determined.

  4. Acidity constants in different media (I=0 and I=0.1 M KCl) from the uncertainty perspective.

    Koort, Eve; Gans, Peter; Herodes, Koit; Pihl, Viljar; Leito, Ivo

    2006-07-01

    Procedures for estimating the measurement uncertainty for the acidity constant Ka (or the pKa value) in different media (I=0 and I=0.1 mol L(-1) KCl), as determined by potentiometric titration, are presented. The uncertainty budgets (the relative contributions of the different input quantities to the uncertainty in the result) of the pKa (I=0) and pKa (I=0.1 mol L(-1) KCl) values are compared. Unlike the values themselves, the uncertainties and uncertainty budgets of the values are comparable. The uncertainty estimation procedures are based on mathematical models of pKa measurement and involve the identification and quantification of individual uncertainty sources according to the ISO GUM approach. The mathematical model involves 52 and 48 input parameters for pKa (I=0) and pKa (I=0.1 mol L(-1) KCl), respectively. The relative importance of each source of uncertainty is discussed. In both cases, the main contributors to the uncertainty budget are the uncertainty components due to the hydrogen ion concentration/activity measurement, which provide 63.7% (for pKa (I=0)) and 89.3% (for pKa (I=0.1 mol L(-1) KCl)) of the uncertainty. The remaining uncertainty contributions arise mostly from the limited purity of the acid. From this work, it is clear that the uncertainties of the pKa (I=0.1 mol L(-1) KCl) values tend to be lower than those of the pKa (I=0) values. The main reasons for this are that: (1) the uncertainty due to the residual liquid junction potential is nominally absent in the case of pKa (I=0.1 mol L(-1) KCl) due to the similarly high concentrations of background electrolyte in the calibration solutions and measured solution; (2) the electrode system is more stable in solutions containing the 0.1 mol L(-1) KCl background electrolyte and so the readings obtained in these solutions are more stable. PMID:16791552

  5. Thermal Properties of LiCl-KCl Molten Salt for Nuclear Waste Separation

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Allen, Todd [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Anderson, Mark [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Simpson, Mike [Idaho National Lab., (United States)

    2012-11-30

    This project addresses both practical and fundamental scientific issues of direct relevance to operational challenges of the molten LiCl-KCl salt pyrochemical process, while providing avenues for improvements in the process. In order to understand the effects of the continually changing composition of the molten salt bath during the process, the project team will systematically vary the concentrations of rare earth surrogate elements, lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, and neodymium, which will be added to the molten LiCl-KCl salt. They will also perform a limited number of focused experiments by the dissolution of depleted uranium. All experiments will be performed at 500 deg C. The project consists of the following tasks. Researchers will measure density of the molten salts using an instrument specifically designed for this purpose, and will determine the melting points with a differential scanning calorimeter. Knowledge of these properties is essential for salt mass accounting and taking the necessary steps to prevent melt freezing. The team will use cyclic voltammetry studies to determine redox potentials of the rare earth cations, as well as their diffusion coefficients and activities in the molten LiCl-KCl salt. In addition, the team will perform anodic stripping voltammetry to determine the concentration of the rare earth elements and their solubilities, and to develop the scientific basis for an on-line diagnostic system for in situ monitoring of the cation species concentration (rare earths in this case). Solubility and activity of the cation species are critically important for the prediction of the salt's useful lifetime and disposal.

  6. Protein induced morphological transitions in KCl crystal growth

    Szabó, B; Szabo, Balint; Vicsek, Tamas

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the formation of KCl crystals on glass surface by phase contrast, fluorescent, and atomic force microscopy on the micrometer scale, and observed interesting morphological transitions as a function of the experimental conditions. The presence of proteins in the solution from which the salt crystals grow during the drying up leads to complex microscopic patterns of crystals some of which are analogous to those commonly observed on the macroscopic scale. We tested the effect of tubulin, FITC-labeled albumin and IgG on the morphology of crystals grown either slowly or fast. A rich variety of protein specific and concentration dependent morphologies was found and described by a morphological diagram. We give a phenomenological interpretation, which can explain the growth of complex patterns. Fluorescent images prove that a protein layer covers the surface of the KCl structures. We propose that this layer reduces the anisotropy of the effective surface tension during growth. The tip splitting fracta...

  7. Entrained Flow Reactor Study of KCl Capture by Solid Additives

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Bøjer, M.; Glarborg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    An option for abating deposition and corrosion caused byalkali species during biomass combustion, is the introduction of additivesinto boilers for transforming harmful gaseous alkali compounds (e.g. KCl,KOH) into less corrosive ash species with a higher melting point. Kaolin andcoal fly ash have been proved to be very promising additives and havereceived extensive studies during the past decades. However, mostprevious studies were carried out in fixed-bed reactors where the reaction condition...

  8. Electrochemistry of thorium in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    Cassayre, Laurent; Serp, Jérôme; Soucek, Pavel; Malmbeck, Rikard; Rebizant, Jean; Glatz, Jean-Paul

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a study of the electrochemical properties of Th chloride ions dissolved in a molten LiCl-KCl eutectic, in a temperature range of 693-823 K. Transient electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiommetry have been used in order to investigate the reduction mechanism on a tungsten electrode and the diffusion coefficient of dissolved Th ions. All techniques showed that only one valence state was stable in the melt. The reduction into Th metal was foun...

  9. Water transport by the Na+/glucose cotransporter under isotonic conditions

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A K; Klaerke, D A;

    1997-01-01

    Solute cotransport in the Na+/glucose cotransporter is directly coupled to significant water fluxes. The water fluxes are energized by the downhill fluxes of the other substrates by a mechanism within the protein itself. In the present paper we investigate the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed ...... of water molecules and the number of Na+ ions transported, equivalent to 390 water molecules per glucose molecule. Unstirred layer effects are ruled out on the basis of experiments on native oocytes incubated with the ionophores gramicidin D or nystatin....

  10. Further studies on the partial double Donnan. Is isosmotic KCl solution isotonic with cells of respiratory trees of the holothurian Isostichopus badionotus Selenka?

    Herrera; Herrera; López

    2000-05-01

    As potassium, chloride and water traverse cell membranes, the cells of stenohaline marine invertebrates should swell if exposed to sea water mixed with an isosmotic KCl solution as they do when exposed to sea water diluted with water. To test this hypothesis respiratory tree fragments of the holothurian Isostichopus badionotus were exposed to five isosmotic media prepared by mixing artificial sodium sea water with isosmotic (611 mmol/l) KCl solution to obtain 100, 83, 71, 60 and 50% sea water, with and without 2 mmol/l ouabain. For comparison, respiratory tree fragments were incubated in sea water diluted to the same concentrations with distilled water, with and without ouabain. Cell water contents and potassium and sodium concentrations were unaffected by KCl-dilution or ouabain in isosmotic KCl-sea water mixtures. In tissues exposed to H(2)O-diluted sea water, cell water increased osmometrically and potassium, sodium and chloride concentrations decreased with dilution; ouabain caused a decrease in potasium and an increase in sodium but no effect on chloride concentrations. The isotonicity of the isosmotic KCl solution cannot be adscribed to impermeability of the cell membrane to KCl as both ions easily traverse the cell membrane. Rather, operationally immobilized extracellular sodium ions, which electrostatically hold back anions and consequently water, together with the lack of a cellward electrochemical gradient for potassium, resulting from membrane depolarization caused by high external potassium concentration, would explain the isotonicity of isosmotic KCl solution. The high external potassium concentration also antagonizes the inhibitory effect of ouabain on the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase responsible for sodium and potassium active transport. PMID:10742500

  11. Potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 interacts with Vav2 to synchronize the cell volume decrease response with cell protrusion dynamics.

    Adèle Salin-Cantegrel

    Full Text Available Loss-of-function of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3 causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC, a severe neurodegenerative disease associated with defective midline crossing of commissural axons in the brain. Conversely, KCC3 over-expression in breast, ovarian and cervical cancer is associated with enhanced tumor cell malignancy and invasiveness. We identified a highly conserved proline-rich sequence within the C-terminus of the cotransporter which when mutated leads to loss of the KCC3-dependent regulatory volume decrease (RVD response in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Using SH3 domain arrays, we found that this poly-proline motif is a binding site for SH3-domain containing proteins in vitro. This approach identified the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF Vav2 as a candidate partner for KCC3. KCC3/Vav2 physical interaction was confirmed using GST-pull down assays and immuno-based experiments. In cultured cervical cancer cells, KCC3 co-localized with the active form of Vav2 in swelling-induced actin-rich protruding sites and within lamellipodia of spreading and migrating cells. These data provide evidence of a molecular and functional link between the potassium-chloride co-transporters and the Rho GTPase-dependent actin remodeling machinery in RVD, cell spreading and cell protrusion dynamics, thus providing new insights into KCC3's involvement in cancer cell malignancy and in corpus callosum agenesis in HMSN/ACC.

  12. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO4/Carbon Mixture

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-31

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and activated carbon—KClO4/C mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solids. The mixture was found to be insensitive to impact, friction, and thermal stimulus, and somewhat sensitive to spark discharge. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO4/carbon mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand how to compare results when these testing variables cannot be made consistent.

  13. An Electrochemical Study of Lanthanide Elements in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Molten Salt to Convert All The Spent Nuclear Fuel into Low and Intermediate Level Waste

    An additional unit step for the residual actinide recovery, designated as 'Pyro-Reisodex', was proposed to convert all the spent nuclear waste into low and intermediated level water by achieving high decontamination factor for TRH elements. The measurement of basic material properties of lanthanide elements in LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt is necessary to evaluate the performance of the step. Thus, standard potential, activity coefficient, and diffusion coefficient of lanthanide elements is being tried to determine using conventional electrochemical methods. The cycle voltammetry was measured for LiCl-KCl-SmCl3 mixture and the standard potential, activity coefficient, and diffusion coefficient of this system was determined from the voltammogram data. The calculated data was well-agreed with reference. Based on this results, another techniques for other lanthanide elements will be applied for better understanding of LiCl-KCl-LnCln system

  14. Robert K. Crane - Na+-Glucose Cotransporter to Cure?

    KirkLHamilton

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Robert K. Crane made major contributions to our understanding of carbohydrate metabolism and transport of the intestine over a very long and productive career. This Perspective examines, briefly, his early life and academic positions, but more importantly, this Perspective highlights his contributions to the understanding of coupled Na+-glucose absorption by the small intestine. I discuss how his early hypothesis of a ‘cotransport’ of sodium and glucose ushered in and provided the physiological explanation for the clinical treatment of acute diarrhea and cholera when using oral rehydration therapy (ORT. ORT saves millions of lives each year. Certainly, humankind is better off because of Crane’s hypothesis of the Na+-glucose cotransporter which he put forth over 50 years ago?

  15. Water transport by the Na+/glucose cotransporter under isotonic conditions

    Zeuthen, T; Meinild, A K; Klaerke, D A;

    1997-01-01

    Solute cotransport in the Na+/glucose cotransporter is directly coupled to significant water fluxes. The water fluxes are energized by the downhill fluxes of the other substrates by a mechanism within the protein itself. In the present paper we investigate the Na+/glucose cotransporter expressed in...... Xenopus oocytes. We present a method which allows short-term exposures to sugar under voltage clamp conditions. We demonstrate that water is cotransported with the solutes despite no osmotic differences between the external and intracellular solutions. There is a fixed ratio of 195:1 between the number of...... water molecules and the number of Na+ ions transported, equivalent to 390 water molecules per glucose molecule. Unstirred layer effects are ruled out on the basis of experiments on native oocytes incubated with the ionophores gramicidin D or nystatin....

  16. Hydro-chemical conversion of galena in FeCl_3-KCl solution

    LONG Huai-zhong; CHAI Li-yuan; LIU Hui; QIN Wen-qing

    2009-01-01

    The behaviours of complexation and dissolution of PbCl_2 on the surface of galena were investigated to explore the process of hydro-chemical conversion of galena (PbS) in chloride media. By means of solution chemistry calculation, the production and dissolution of the products PbCl_2 were studied. And the passivation of the galena was studied by Tafel curve. The results show that PbCl_4~(2-) is the main form of PbCl_2 presented in the saturated potassium chloride (KCl) solution. The PbCl_2 crystal is easy to precipitate when the total concentration of chloride ion ([Cl-]T) is equal to 0.92 mol/L, and it is inclined to dissolve when [Cl-]T is more than 0.92 mol/L. The chloride complexing reaction rate strongly depends on the Fe~(3+) ion concentration when it is less than 6×10~(-4)mol/L, while passivation occurs on the surface of the electrode when Fe~(3+) concentration is larger than 6×10~(-4)mol/L. The reaction rate increases obviously when KCl is added, since the activity of Cl- increases; thus accelerates the dissolution of PbCl2.

  17. Prediction of Solid-Liquid Equilibrium for KCl in Mixed Water-Ethanol Solutions Using the LIQUAC Model

    LIN Yangzheng; LI Jiding; ZENG Chuyi; CHEN Cuixian

    2005-01-01

    The LIQUAC model is often used to predict vapor-liquid equilibria, osmotic coefficients, and mean ion activity coefficients for electrolyte systems. This paper describes a thermodynamic method to analyze solid-liquid equilibrium for electrolytes in mixed solvents solutions using the LIQUAC model. The KCl solubilities in mixed water-ethanol solutions are predicted with the LIQUAC model and its original interaction parameters. This method is also used to obtain new K+-ethanol interaction parameters in the LIQUAC model from the solubility data. The new interaction parameters accurately predict the vapor-liquid equilibrium data of K+ salts (including KCl, KBr, and KCOOCH3) in mixed water-ethanol solutions. The results illustrate the flexibility of the LIQUAC model which can predict not only vapor-liquid equilibrium but also solid-liquid equilibrium in mixed solvent systems.

  18. Specific heat measurements in KCN:KCL mixed crystals

    An adiabatic calorimeter to perform specific heat measurements of small samples (approximatelly 150 mg) was built. The measurements were taken from 6 to 120 K, iN KCN:KCL mixed crystals, in order to observe the evolution of the antiferroelectric phase transition - that occurs at 83 K in KCN pure. From the experimental results the values of the phase transition critical temperature are found, for some particular concentrations of the mixture, and it was detected that this phase transition disappears with only 10% of Cl-. This result is explained in terms of a change of the potential wells in the crystal. (Author)

  19. Elaboration and Characterization of AuCl Semiconductor Nanocrystals Embedded in KCL Single Crystals

    Hanane Zaioune; Miloud Sebais; Fouzia Zehani

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the structural and the optical properties of AuCl semiconductor nanocrystals embedded in KCl single crystals. The AuCl nanocrystals were obtained by doping the KCl crystalline matrix with gold using the Czochralski method. The X-ray diffraction showed the formation of the AuCl nanocrystals in KCl with a tetragonal structure. The average radius of the AuCl nanocrystals is estimated using the Scherrer formula. The photoluminescence spectra presented a band emission...

  20. Circular magnetic dichroism of the Fa center adsorption in KCl doped with Li and Na

    The spin-orbit structure of FA in KCl:Li and KCl:Na have been studied by means of the magnetic circular dichroism. Due to their C4V, symmetry the FA centers have two different spin-orbit parameters, Δ* and Δ*, which only in the KCl:Li case follow the relation: Δ* F A centers have been determined using the method of moment

  1. Growth and time dependent alignment of KCl crystals in Hemoglobin LB monolayer

    Nature and organism often use the biomineralization technique to build up various highly regular structures such as bone, teeth, kidney stone etc., and recently this becomes the strategy to design and synthesis of novel biocomposite materials. We report here the controlled crystallization of KCl in Langmuir and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) monolayer of Hemoglobin (Hb) at ambient condition. The nucleation and growth of KCl crystals in Hb monolayer has temporal and KCl concentration dependency. The growth of KCl crystals in LB film of Hb has distinct behavior in the alignment of crystals from linear to fractal like structures depending on growth time. The crystallographic identity of the biomineralized KCl crystal is confirmed from HR-TEM, XRD, and from powder diffraction simulation. Our results substantiated that the template of Langmuir monolayer of proteins plays a crucial role in biomineralization as well as in designing and synthesizing of novel biocomposite materials. Highlights: ► Biomineralization of KCl crystal has been studied in Hemoglobin LB film. ► KCl crystal growth is time and concentration of KCl dependent. ► The alignment of KCl crystal growth is fractal nature with time. ► The unfolding of Hb and evaporation factor has some role in crystallization and fractal growth.

  2. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and euglycemic ketoacidosis: Wisdom of hindsight.

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are newly approved class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which reduces blood glucose through glucouresis via the kidney, independent, and irrespective of available pancreatic beta-cells. Studies conducted across their clinical development program found, a modest reduction in glycated hemoglobin ranging from -0.5 to -0.8%, without any significant hypoglycemia. Moreover, head-to-head studies versus active comparators yielded comparable efficacy. Interestingly, weight and blood pressure reduction were additionally observed, which was not only consistent but significantly superior to active comparators, including metformin, sulfonylureas, and dipeptydylpeptide-4 inhibitors. Indeed, these additional properties makes this class a promising oral anti-diabetic drug. Surprisingly, a potentially fatal unwanted side effect of diabetic ketoacidosis has been noted with its widespread use, albeit rarely. Nevertheless, this has created a passé among the clinicians. This review is an attempt to pool those ketosis data emerging with SGLT-2i, and put a perspective on its implicated mechanism. PMID:26693421

  3. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and euglycemic ketoacidosis: Wisdom of hindsight

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i are newly approved class of oral anti-diabetic drugs, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which reduces blood glucose through glucouresis via the kidney, independent, and irrespective of available pancreatic beta-cells. Studies conducted across their clinical development program found, a modest reduction in glycated hemoglobin ranging from −0.5 to −0.8%, without any significant hypoglycemia. Moreover, head-to-head studies versus active comparators yielded comparable efficacy. Interestingly, weight and blood pressure reduction were additionally observed, which was not only consistent but significantly superior to active comparators, including metformin, sulfonylureas, and dipeptydylpeptide-4 inhibitors. Indeed, these additional properties makes this class a promising oral anti-diabetic drug. Surprisingly, a potentially fatal unwanted side effect of diabetic ketoacidosis has been noted with its widespread use, albeit rarely. Nevertheless, this has created a passé among the clinicians. This review is an attempt to pool those ketosis data emerging with SGLT-2i, and put a perspective on its implicated mechanism.

  4. Hepatocyte cotransport of taurocholate and bilirubin glucuronides: Role of microtubules

    Modulation of bile pigment excretion by bile salts has been attributed to modification of canalicular membrane transport or a physical interaction in bile. Based on the observation that a microtubule-dependent pathway is involved in the hepatocellular transport of bile salts, the authors investigated the possibility that bilirubin glucuronides are associated with bile salts during intracellular transport. Experiments were conducted in intact rats (basal) or after overnight biliary diversion and intravenous reinfusion of taurocholate (depleted/reinfused). All rats were pretreated with intravenous low-dose colchicine or its inactive isomer lumicolchicine. Biliary excretion of radiolabeled bilirubin glucuronides derived from tracer [14C]bilirubin-[3H]bilirubin monoglucuronide (coinjected iv) was unchanged in basal rats but was consistently delayed in depleted/reinfused rats. This was accompanied by a significant shift toward bilirubin diglucuronide formation from both substrates. In basal Gunn rats, with deficient bilirubin glucuronidation, biliary excretion of intravenous [14C]bilirubin monoglucuronide-[3H]bilirubin diglucuronide was unaffected by colchicine but was retarded in depleted/reinfused Gunn rats. Colchicine had no effect on the rate of bilirubin glucuronidation in vitro in rat liver microsomes. They conclude that a portion of the bilirubin glucuronides generated endogenously in hepatocytes or taken up directly from plasma may be cotransported with bile salts to the bile canalicular membrane via a microtubule-dependent mechanism

  5. The Na+/glucose cotransporters: from genes to therapy

    R. Sabino-Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Glucose enters eukaryotic cells via two types of membrane-associated carrier proteins, the Na+/glucose cotransporters (SGLT and the facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT. The SGLT family consists of six members. Among them, the SGLT1 and SGLT2 proteins, encoded by the solute carrier genes SLC5A1 and SLC5A2, respectively, are believed to be the most important ones and have been extensively explored in studies focusing on glucose fluxes under both physiological and pathological conditions. This review considers the regulation of the expression of the SGLT promoted by protein kinases and transcription factors, as well as the alterations determined by diets of different compositions and by pathologies such as diabetes. It also considers congenital defects of sugar metabolism caused by aberrant expression of the SGLT1 in glucose-galactose malabsorption and the SGLT2 in familial renal glycosuria. Finally, it covers some pharmacological compounds that are being currently studied focusing on the interest of controlling glycemia by antagonizing SGLT in renal and intestinal tissues.

  6. Thermoluminiscence and thermal annealing of F centres in KCL gamma irradiated

    The thermoluminiscence spectrum and phosphorescence decays of Harshaw KCl samples gamma irradiated at room temperature have been studied up to 4000C. For the six peaks found, the order of recombination kinetics, the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy have been obtained. It has been observed that the area under the thermoluminiscence curve is always proportional to the F centre concentration in the sample before heating. It was also found that there is an annealing step of F centres corresponding to each thermoluminiscence peak, when the temperature of the sample is raised at a constant rate. It is concluded that the F centres play the role of recombination centres in the annealing process, the interstitials being the mobile entities moving towards there combination centre. At some stage in the process light is emitted. (author)

  7. Thermoluminescence studies in lead doped KCl and KBr crystals

    Lead is known to enter substitutionally in divalent state when doped in alkali halides. When irradiated at room temperature these lead centers (Pb++) act as traps for electrons knocked off from the halogen ions and become Pb+ and Pb0 (for large doses of irradiation). These changes could be followed in the optical absorption studies. These lead-doped crystals after X-ray irradiation yield a thermoluminescence output smaller than that observed in 'pure' crystals. However, two new glow peaks are observed in additions to those due to F-centers. In KCl : Pb and Kbr : Pb crystals part of the F-center glow preceds the new glow peaks. The new peaks are attributed to the Pb+ and Pb0 centers. The glow peak temperatures and trap depths for these peaks an obtained by total-curve fitting method are reported. (author)

  8. Basic study of TLD-grade KCl:Ba

    The present work involves an in depth study of the thermoluminescent (TL) behaviour of KCl:Ba containing 10-2m.f. Ba concentration. The specimens examined were subjected to different pretreatments. They were obtained by crystallisation from aqueous solution; by air-quenching after annealing at 400oC; and by quenching the melt in open air. It is found that the luminescence efficiency of the melt and quenched specimen is higher than the other two types. The irradiation of the specimens were carried out using radiation from 90Sr beta source (dose 700 rads). The TL-characteristics observed from the above stated variously pretreated specimens are discussed with respect to the defect pattern available in the specimens. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  9. Radiational creation of Frenkel defects in KCl-Tl

    Lushchik, C.; Lushchik, N.; Kolk, J.; Lushchik, A.

    1984-11-16

    The process of the formation and thermal annealing of H centers created by X-irradiation at 20 K or by the recombination of electrons optically released from Tl/sup 0/ centers with V/sub K/ centers are studied in KCl-Tl crystals by ESR and optical methods. The yield of the latter process is <= 0.005. Long-lived F, H and ..cap alpha.., I pairs are found to be formed by the creation of near-thallium-localized D excitations by 7.2 to 7.6 eV photons. The differences between the excitonic and the recombination mechanisms of Frenkel defect creation and the role of local vibrations in the production of these defects are considered.

  10. High concentrations of KCl release noradrenaline from noradrenergic neurons in the rat anococcygeus muscle

    C.B.L. Araujo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of high concentrations of KCl in releasing noradrenaline from sympathetic nerves and its actions on postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors. We measured the isotonic contractions induced by KCl in the isolated rat anococcygeus muscle under different experimental conditions. The contractile responses induced by KCl were inhibited by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists in 2.5 mM Ca2+ solution. Prazosin reduced the maximum effect from 100 to 53.9 ± 10.2% (P<0.05 while the pD2 values were not changed. The contractile responses induced by KCl were abolished by prazosin in Ca2+-free solution (P<0.05. Treatment of the rats with reserpine reduced the maximum effect induced by KCl as compared to the contractile responses induced by acetylcholine from 339.5 ± 157.8 to 167.3 ± 65.5% (P<0.05, and increased the pD2 from 1.57 ± 0.01 to 1.65 ± 0.006 (P<0.05, but abolished the inhibitory effect of prazosin (P<0.05. In contrast, L-NAME increased the contractile responses induced by 120 mM KCl by 6.2 ± 2.3% (P<0.05, indicating that KCl could stimulate the neurons that release nitric oxide, an inhibitory component of the contractile response induced by KCl. Our results indicate that high concentrations of KCl induce the release of noradrenaline from noradrenergic neurons, which interacts with alpha1-adrenoceptors in smooth muscle cells, producing a contractile response in 2.5 mM Ca2+ (100% and in Ca2+-free solution, part of which is due to a direct effect of KCl on the rat anococcygeus muscle.

  11. Conformational Dynamics of hSGLT1 during Na+/Glucose Cotransport

    Loo, D. D.; Hirayama, B. A.; Karakossian, M. H.;

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the conformations of the Na+/glucose cotransporter (SGLT1) during sugar transport using charge and fluorescence measurements on the human SGLT1 mutant G507C expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The mutant exhibited similar steady-state and presteady-state kinetics as wild-type SGLT1...... membrane voltage elicited presteady-state currents (charge movements) that decay to the steady state with time constants med (3-20 ms, medium) and slow (15-70 ms, slow). Concurrently, SGLT1 rhodamine fluorescence intensity increased with depolarizing and decreased with hyperpolarizing voltages ( F). The...... previously described. This rate-limiting step at maximal inward Na+/sugar cotransport (saturating voltage and external Na+ and sugar concentrations) is the slow release of Na+ from the internal surface of SGLT1. The high affinity blocker phlorizin locks the cotransporter in an inactive conformation....

  12. Cotransport of bismerthiazol and montmorillonite colloids in saturated porous media

    Shen, Chongyang; Wang, Hong; Lazouskaya, Volha; Du, Yichun; Lu, Weilan; Wu, Junxue; Zhang, Hongyan; Huang, Yuanfang

    2015-06-01

    While bismerthiazol [N,N‧-methylene-bis-(2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole)] is one of the most widely used bactericides, the transport of bismerthiazol in subsurface environments is unclear to date. Moreover, natural colloids are ubiquitous in the subsurface environments. The cotransport of bismerthiazol and natural colloids has not been investigated. This study conducted laboratory column experiments to examine the transport of bismerthiazol in saturated sand porous media both in the absence and presence of montmorillonite colloids. Results show that a fraction of bismerthiazol was retained in sand and the retention was higher at pH 7 than at pH 4 and 10. The retention did not change with ionic strength. The retention was attributed to the complex of bismerthiazol with metals/metal oxides on sand surfaces through ligand exchange. The transport of bismerthiazol was enhanced with montmorillonite colloids copresent in the solutions and, concurrently, the transport of montmorillonite colloids was facilitated by the bismerthiazol. The transport of montmorillonite colloids was enhanced likely because the bismerthiazol and the colloids competed for the attachment/adsorption sites on collector surfaces and the presence of bismerthiazol changed the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies between colloids and collectors. The transport of bismerthiazol was inhibited if montmorillonite colloids were pre-deposited in sand because bismerthiazol could adsorb onto the colloid surfaces. The adsorbed bismerthiazol could be co-remobilized with the colloids from primary minima by decreasing ionic strength. Whereas colloid-facilitated transport of pesticides has been emphasized, our study implies that transport of colloids could also be facilitated by the presence of pesticides.

  13. SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE COTRANSPORT IN THE REGULATION OF VASCULAR MYOGENIC TONE

    S. N. Orlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the data on the functioning of Na+,K+,2Cl– cotransport – the carrier providing electroneutral symport of sodium, potassium and chloride, as well as molecular mechanisms of the regulation and physiological significance of this carrier. We analyzed the novel data on involvement of ubiquitous isoform of Na+,K+,2Cl–cotransporter (NKCC1 in regulation of vascular smooth muscle contraction, and role of this carrier in the regulation of cell volume and intracellular chloride concentration.

  14. Molecular cloning and functional expression of the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-Cl cotransporter.

    Xu, J. C.; Lytle, C; Zhu, T. T.; Payne, J A; Benz, E; Forbush, B

    1994-01-01

    By mediating the coupled movement of Na, K, and Cl ions across the plasma membrane of most animal cells, the bumetanide-sensitive Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) plays a vital role in the regulation of ionic balance and cell volume. The transporter is a central element in the process of vectorial salt transport in secretory and absorptive epithelia. A cDNA encoding a Na-K-Cl cotransport protein was isolated from a shark rectal gland library by screening with monoclonal antibodies to the native s...

  15. Na+/HCO3- Cotransport in Normal and Cystic Fibrosis Intestine

    Seidler U; Bachmann O.; Jacob P; Christiani S; Blumenstein I; Rossmann H

    2001-01-01

    In a search for the HCO(3)(-) supply mechanisms to the enterocyte we cloned and sequenced an intestinal subtype of the Na(+)HCO(3)(-) cotransporter isoform I (dNBC1), which turned out to be identical to the pancreatic NBC1 subtype (pNBC1). Within the intestine, we found particularly high NBC1 expression levels in the duodenum and proximal colon. Experiments with stripped rabbit duodenum in Ussing-chambers revealed that Na(+)HCO(3)(-) cotransport (NBC) and CO(2) hydration/Na(+)/H(+) exchange w...

  16. ¬Immunolocalization of cation-chloride cotransporters in the developing and mature spinal cord of opossums, Monodelphis domestica

    Jean-François Pflieger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal inhibition is required to generate coordinated outputs between antagonistic muscles during locomotion. It relies on low neuronal chloride concentration set by two cation-chloride cotransporters, NKCC1 and KCC2 which, respectively, pumps Cl- in or out of neurons. It is generally accepted that NKCC1 is gradually inactivated during development, while KCC2 is upregulated and activated, resulting in low intracellular [Cl-]. Newborn opossums are very immature but perform rhythmic and alternate movements of the forelimbs to crawl on the mother’s belly and attach to a teat. Their hindlimbs are immobile. The alternation of the forelimbs suggests that mechanisms allowing spinal inhibition are present at birth. We studied the anatomical basis of inhibition in the spinal enlargements of postnatal opossums by immunolocalizing NKCC1 and KCC2. In some specimens, motoneurons and sensory afferents were labeled with TRDA prior to immunolabeling. At birth, both NKCC1 and KCC2 are detected in the presumptive grey and white matter of the ventral and the intermediolateral cord of both enlargements, but are sparse in the dorsal horn, where KCC2 is mostly seen on a small bundle of dendrites along primary afferents. KCC2 labeling is bright and has a mesh-like appearance in the grey matter and a radial appearance in the white matter, whereas NKCC1 is pale and diffuse. The subsequent expression of the cotransporters follows general ventrodorsal and mediolateral gradients, with the lumbar segments slightly lagging the cervical segments, until the mature pattern is observed around the 5th week. At all ages studied, KCC2 labeling is strong in the periphery of neurons. NKCC1 labeling decreases and becomes more uniformly distributed in the cells with age. Despite the significant anatomical and motor differences between the forelimbs and the hindlimbs of neonatal opossums, the maturation of KCC2 and NKCC1 is quite similar in both enlargements.

  17. Differential expression patterns of K(+) /Cl(-) cotransporter 2 in neurons within the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats.

    Javdani, Fariba; Holló, Krisztina; Hegedűs, Krisztina; Kis, Gréta; Hegyi, Zoltán; Dócs, Klaudia; Kasugai, Yu; Fukazawa, Yugo; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Antal, Miklós

    2015-09-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)- and glycine-mediated hyperpolarizing inhibition is associated with a chloride influx that depends on the inwardly directed chloride electrochemical gradient. In neurons, the extrusion of chloride from the cytosol primarily depends on the expression of an isoform of potassium-chloride cotransporters (KCC2s). KCC2 is crucial in the regulation of the inhibitory tone of neural circuits, including pain processing neural assemblies. Thus we investigated the cellular distribution of KCC2 in neurons underlying pain processing in the superficial spinal dorsal horn of rats by using high-resolution immunocytochemical methods. We demonstrated that perikarya and dendrites widely expressed KCC2, but axon terminals proved to be negative for KCC2. In single ultrathin sections, silver deposits labeling KCC2 molecules showed different densities on the surface of dendritic profiles, some of which were negative for KCC2. In freeze fracture replicas and tissue sections double stained for the β3-subunit of GABAA receptors and KCC2, GABAA receptors were revealed on dendritic segments with high and also with low KCC2 densities. By measuring the distances between spots immunoreactive for gephyrin (a scaffolding protein of GABAA and glycine receptors) and KCC2 on the surface of neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor-immunoreactive dendrites, we found that gephyrin-immunoreactive spots were located at various distances from KCC2 cotransporters; 5.7 % of them were recovered in the middle of 4-10-µm-long dendritic segments that were free of KCC2 immunostaining. The variable local densities of KCC2 may result in variable postsynaptic potentials evoked by the activation of GABAA and glycine receptors along the dendrites of spinal neurons. PMID:25764511

  18. Phosphorylation decreases ubiquitylation of the thiazide-sensitive cotransporter NCC and subsequent clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Aroankins, Takwa S; Fenton, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, is the major NaCl transport protein in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). The transport activity of NCC can be regulated by phosphorylation, but knowledge of modulation of NCC trafficking by phosphorylation is limited. In this study, we generated novel tetracycline-inducible Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) cell lines expressing NCC to examine the role of NCC phosphorylation and ubiquitylation on NCC endocytosis. In MDCKI-NCC cells, NCC was highly glycosylated at molecular weights consistent with NCC monomers and dimers. NCC constitutively cycles to the apical plasma membrane of MDCKI-NCC cells, with 20-30% of the membrane pool of NCC internalized within 30 min. The use of dynasore, PitStop2, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, nystatin, and filipin (specific inhibitors of either clathrin-dependent or -independent endocytosis) demonstrated that NCC is internalized via a clathrin-mediated pathway. Reduction of endocytosis resulted in greater levels of NCC in the plasma membrane. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the association of NCC with the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway in rat DCT cells. Compared with controls, inducing phosphorylation of NCC via low chloride treatment or mimicking phosphorylation by replacing Thr-53, Thr-58, and Ser-71 residues with Asp resulted in increased membrane abundance and reduced rates of NCC internalization. NCC ubiquitylation was lowest in the conditions with greatest NCC phosphorylation, thus providing a mechanism for the reduced endocytosis. In conclusion, our data support a model where NCC is constitutively cycled to the plasma membrane, and upon stimulation, it can be phosphorylated to both increase NCC activity and decrease NCC endocytosis, together increasing NaCl transport in the DCT. PMID:24668812

  19. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods: Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

  20. A novel strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus - sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors

    Asfandyar Khan Niazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases, affecting almost 3 million in Canada alone and is characterized by increased blood glucose levels. Treatment varies from lifestyle changes to oral anti-diabetics and/or insulin. Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may offer promising treatment for patients suffering from diabetes. The inhibitors act by increasing the loss of glucose in urine by decreasing the reabsorption of glucose from the proximal tubules of nephrons. Aims: The aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in the treatment of diabetes as well as any adverse effects. Materials and Methods : Databases such as MEDLINE, COCHRANE and EMBASE were systematically searched for literature on the efficacy of sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors in improving the glycemic control of patients with diabetes. Results: Research showed that sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors significantly decreased blood glucose levels by increasing glucosuria. Due to the diuretic effects of these inhibitors, diabetic patients who were suffering from hypertension showed a decrease in blood pressure. The caloric loss associated with these inhibitors resulted in weight loss as well. The most common adverse effect seen in patients on these medications was mycotic infection of the urinary or genital tract. Conclusion: Sodium glucose co-transport inhibitors may be an effective line of treatment for diabetes. Although short-term research has shown these drugs to be safe and well-tolerated, studies should be conducted to assess the long-term effects of these drugs.

  1. Template-Directed Directionally Solidified 3D Mesostructured AgCl-KCl Eutectic Photonic Crystals.

    Kim, Jinwoo; Aagesen, Larry K; Choi, Jun Hee; Choi, Jaewon; Kim, Ha Seong; Liu, Jinyun; Cho, Chae-Ryong; Kang, Jin Gu; Ramazani, Ali; Thornton, Katsuyo; Braun, Paul V

    2015-08-19

    3D mesostructured AgCl-KCl photonic crystals emerge from colloidal templating of eutectic solidification. Solvent removal of the KCl phase results in a mesostructured AgCl inverse opal. The 3D-template-induced confinement leads to the emergence of a complex microstructure. The 3D mesostructured eutectic photonic crystals have a large stop band ranging from the near-infrared to the visible tuned by the processing. PMID:26177830

  2. Solubility polytherms of NaCl(KCl)-GdCl3-H2O system

    The isothermal method in the temperature range from 25 up to 100 deg C has been used to study the solubility in the NaCl-GdCl3-H2O and KCl-GdCl3-H2O systems. The limits of the NaCl, KCl and GdCl3x6H2O crystallization are discriminated. Solubility polytherms of the systems are plotted

  3. Electrochemical formation of Sc-Al intermetallic compounds in the eutectic LiCl-KCl. Determination of thermodynamic properties

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The formation mechanism of AlxScy intermetallic compounds was studied in the eutectic LiCl-KCl • The formation energy, global and consecutive formation constants of AlxScy were estimated from OCP. • XRD after potentiostatic electrolysis, allowed the identification of Al3Sc and Al2Sc • XRD after intermittent galvanostatic electrolysis allowed the identification of Al3Sc, Al2Sc and AlSc2 • SEM with EDX, allowed the identification of Al3Sc, Al2Sc, AlSc and AlSc2. - Abstract: The electrochemical formation of Sc-Al alloys was investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl by cyclic voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. On reactive Al electrode the electrochemical reduction of Sc(III) was observed at less cathodic potential values than at the surface of an inert W electrode, the potential shift is caused by the decrease of Sc activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sc-Al intermetallic compounds at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sc(III) and Al(III) ions, using a W electrode, and ii) Sc(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after electrolysis runs by X-ray diffraction allowed the identification of Al3Sc and Al2Sc, whereas analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al3Sc, Al2Sc, AlSc and AlSc2. The formation energy of each AlxScy intermetallic compound, and the global and stepwise formation constant were estimated from open circuit chronopotentiometry measurements in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at 723 and 773 K using Al as working electrode

  4. Thermodynamics of HfCl4-KCl molten mixtures containing HfCl4 up to 33.3 mol. per cent

    Based on measurements of saturated vapour pressure in components of melted mixtures of HfCl4-KCl, depending on temperature and concentration, calculated are the results of changes in activity coefficients of hafnium tetrachloride and potassium chloride on transition from diluted solutions, where the Henry law is met, to those concentrated where the law is disobeyed. Growth in the activity coefficient of HfCl4 is due to dissociation of complex groups of HfCl62- into complexes with a lesser number of ligands and decreasing relative binding energy of Hf4+-Cl- there. In this case, marked changes take place in partial enthalpy and entropy of hafnium tetrachloride mixing. Similar dependences are observed for potassium chloride, but they are expressed considerably weaker. Evaporation enthalpy and entropy are calculated for HfCl4 and KCl monomers from their melted mixtures of various concentrations

  5. Thermodynamics of separation of uranium from neodymium between the gallium-indium liquid alloy and the LiCl-KCl molten salt phases

    Highlights: • The behavior of neodymium and uranium on liquid gallium-indium eutectic alloy was carried out. • The experiments were done in fused LiCl-KCl eutectic vs. Cl-/Cl2 reference electrode at the temperature range 723-823 K. • Thermodynamic properties of Nd-Ga-In alloy and the separation factor U/Nd were calculated. - Abstract: This work presents the electrochemical study of neodymium and uranium compounds in fused LiCl-KCl eutectic vs. Cl-/Cl2 reference electrode in the temperature range 723-823 K on liquid gallium-indium eutectic alloy. The activity, solubility and the activity coefficients of neodymium were calculated. The separation factor of uranium from neodymium on gallium-indium eutectic alloy was determined. The obtained data show the perspective of used this system in future innovation method for recovery of nuclear waste

  6. Determination of mendelevium (1+) ionic radius and MdCl solubility on the basis of its isomorphous cocrystallization with NaCl and KCl

    On the basis of previously obtained exlperimental data on coefficients of cocrystallization of microamounts of MdCl with NaCl and KCl in water-ethanol solutions the calculation of ionic radius of mendelevium (1+) are made. It turned out that for coordination number 6 value Rsub(Mdsup(+))=0.117 nm, which agrees with theoretically calculated value. Solubility and product of MdCl activity in water-ethanol solutions of different compositions at 25 deg are calculated

  7. General anaesthetics do not impair developmental expression of the KCC2 potassium-chloride cotransporter in neonatal rats during the brain growth spurt

    Lacoh, Claudia Marvine

    2013-03-26

    BackgroundThe developmental transition from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing γ-aminobutyric acid-mediated neurotransmission is primarily mediated by an increase in the amount of the potassium-chloride cotransporter KCC2 during early postnatal life. However, it is not known whether early neuronal activity plays a modulatory role in the expression of total KCC2 mRNA and protein in the immature brain. As general anaesthetics are powerful modulators of neuronal activity, the purpose of this study was to explore how these drugs affect KCC2 expression during the brain growth spurt.MethodsWistar rat pups were exposed to either a single dose or 6 h of midazolam, propofol, or ketamine anaesthesia at postnatal days 0, 5, 10, or 15. KCC2 expression was assessed using immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, or quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis up to 3 days post-exposure in the medial prefrontal cortex.ResultsThere was a progressive and steep increase in the expression of KCC2 between birth and 2 weeks of age. Exposure to midazolam, propofol, or ketamine up to 6 h at any investigated stages of the brain growth spurt did not influence the expression of this cotransporter protein.ConclusionI.V. general anaesthetics do not seem to influence developmental expression of KCC2 during the brain growth spurt. © 2013 © The Author [2013].

  8. Electrochemical behavior of actinides and actinide nitrides in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    The redox potentials of the U3+/U, Np3+/Np and Pu3+/Pu couples at Mo, Cd and Bi electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing UCl3, NpCl3 and PuCl3, respectively, were evaluated by electrochemical measurements at the temperature range between 723 and 823K. The standard potentials of the U3+/U, Np3+/Np and Pu3+/Pu couples versus the Ag+/Ag (1wt.% AgCl) reference electrode were given by the following equations: EU3+/U0=-1.8647+0.000798xT, ENp3+/Np0=-2.0298+0.000706xT and EPu3+/Pu0=-2.232+0.00094xT, where E values are in volts, T in kelvin. The differences between the redox potentials at Mo electrode and those at liquid metal electrodes were attributable to the lowering in the activities of U, Pu and Np in liquid metal phases according to the alloy formation. Similarly, the anodic dissolutions of UN, NpN and PuN were observed at about 0.7V more positive potential than those of U, Np and Pu, respectively, since the stabilization of U, Np and Pu by nitriding lowered the activities of U, Np and Pu, respectively, in the solid phase

  9. Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

    Mizerski Grzegorz; Kicinski Pawel; Jaroszynski Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1), and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2) - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the a...

  10. Voltage and cosubstrate dependence of the Na-HCO3 cotransporter kinetics in renal proximal tubule cells.

    Gross, E.; Hopfer, U

    1998-01-01

    The voltage dependence of the kinetics of the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter was studied in proximal tubule cells. This electrogenic cotransporter transports one Na+, three HCO3-, and two negative charges. Cells were grown to confluence on a permeable support, mounted on a Ussing-type chamber, and permeabilized apically to small monovalent ions with amphotericin B. The steady-state, di-nitro-stilbene-di-sulfonate-sensitive current was shown to be sodium and bicarbonate dependent and therefo...

  11. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition and cardiovascular risk reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes: the emerging role of natriuresis.

    Rajasekeran, Harindra; Lytvyn, Yuliya; Cherney, David Z I

    2016-03-01

    Inhibition of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 causes both glycosuria and natriuresis, leading to reductions in hyperglycemia, body weight, blood pressure, and proteinuria. The recently published EMPA-REG OUTCOME study demonstrated significant cardiovascular and mortality benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes and established cardiovascular disease, and may suggest a broader role for sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition in patients with heart failure. PMID:26880444

  12. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: a growing class of antidiabetic agents

    Vivian, Eva M

    2014-01-01

    Although several treatment options are available to reduce hyperglycemia, only about half of individuals with diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM) achieve recommended glycemic targets. New agents that reduce blood glucose concentrations by novel mechanisms and have acceptable safety profiles are needed to improve glycemic control and reduce the complications associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) is responsible for reabsorption of most o...

  13. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors with insulin in type 2 diabetes: Clinical perspectives

    Mathew John; Deepa Gopinath; Rejitha Jagesh

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of type 2 diabetes is a challenging problem. Most subjects with type 2 diabetes have progression of beta cell failure necessitating the addition of multiple antidiabetic agents and eventually use of insulin. Intensification of insulin leads to weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycemia. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of antihyperglycemic agents which act by blocking the SGLT2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney. They have potential benefits in...

  14. Abnormal Expression of Cerebrospinal Fluid Cation Chloride Cotransporters in Patients with Rett Syndrome

    Sofia Temudo Duarte; Judith Armstrong; Ana Roche; Carlos Ortez; Ana Pérez; Maria del Mar O'Callaghan; Antonina Pereira; Francesc Sanmartí; Aida Ormazábal; Rafael Artuch; Mercedes Pineda; Angels García-Cazorla

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rett Syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder caused mainly by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. The relevance of MeCP2 for GABAergic function was previously documented in animal models. In these models, animals show deficits in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Neuronal Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) play a key role in GABAergic neuronal maturation, and brain-derived...

  15. The Structural Pathway for Water Permeation through Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters

    Sasseville, Louis J.; Cuervo, Javier E.; Lapointe, Jean-Yves; Noskov, Sergei Y.

    2011-01-01

    Although water permeation across cell membranes occurs through several types of membrane proteins, the only permeation mechanism resolved at atomic scale is that through aquaporins. Crystallization of the Vibrio parahaemolyticus sodium-galactose transporter (vSGLT) allows investigation of putative water permeation pathways through both vSGLT and the homologous human Na-glucose cotransporter (hSGLT1) using computational methods. Grand canonical Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations we...

  16. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Possible Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects Beyond Glucose Lowering

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Adachi, Hiroki; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Sako, Akahito

    2015-01-01

    The new drug for type 2 diabetes, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, is reversible inhibitor of SGLT-2, leading to reduction of renal glucose reabsorption and decrease of plasma glucose, in an insulin-independent manner. In addition to glucose control, the management of coronary risk factors is very important for patients with diabetes. Here we reviewed published articles about the possible anti-atherosclerotic effects beyond glucose lowering of the SGLT-2 inhibitors. We s...

  17. Ipragliflozin: A novel sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor developed in Japan

    Ohkura, Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition induces glucosuria and decreases blood glucose levels in diabetic patients and lowers hypoglycemic risk. SGLT1 is expressed in the kidney and intestine; SGLT1 inhibition causes abdominal symptoms such as diarrhea and reduces incretin secretion. Therefore, SGLT2 selectivity is important. Ipragliflozin is highly selective for SGLT2. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), urinary glucose excretion increased to 90 g/24 h after 28 d of treatment with ...

  18. The role of phosphorylation in the regulation of the Sodium/D-Glucose cotransporter SGLT1

    Subramanian, Supriya

    2006-01-01

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde der Effekt von Proteinphosphorylierung auf die Funktion und Konformation des Natrium/D- Glucose Cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) untersucht. Mögliche Auswirkungen auf die Funktion von SGLT1 wurden in intakten Zellen anhand der Effekte von Kinaseaktivatoren und -inhibitoren auf die Transportaktivität, die Lokalisation und die Präsenz des Transporters an der Zelloberfläche studiert. Durch Phosphorylierung induzierte Konformationsänderungen wurden an gereinigt...

  19. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin

    2016-01-01

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03-13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  20. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Park, Changyong; Kono, Yoshio; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Rod, Eric; Shen, Guoyin, E-mail: gshen@ciw.edu [HPCAT, Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Q{sub eff}) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Q{sub eff} is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Q{sub eff} with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed.

  1. Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl under rapid compression

    Kinetics of the B1-B2 phase transition in KCl has been investigated under various compression rates (0.03–13.5 GPa/s) in a dynamic diamond anvil cell using time-resolved x-ray diffraction and fast imaging. Our experimental data show that the volume fraction across the transition generally gives sigmoidal curves as a function of pressure during rapid compression. Based upon classical nucleation and growth theories (Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov theories), we propose a model that is applicable for studying kinetics for the compression rates studied. The fit of the experimental volume fraction as a function of pressure provides information on effective activation energy and average activation volume at a given compression rate. The resulting parameters are successfully used for interpreting several experimental observables that are compression-rate dependent, such as the transition time, grain size, and over-pressurization. The effective activation energy (Qeff) is found to decrease linearly with the logarithm of compression rate. When Qeff is applied to the Arrhenius equation, this relationship can be used to interpret the experimentally observed linear relationship between the logarithm of the transition time and logarithm of the compression rates. The decrease of Qeff with increasing compression rate results in the decrease of the nucleation rate, which is qualitatively in agreement with the observed change of the grain size with compression rate. The observed over-pressurization is also well explained by the model when an exponential relationship between the average activation volume and the compression rate is assumed

  2. Electrochemical studies on the reduction behaviour of Th4+ in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic

    The electrochemistry of Th4+ ions was studied in LiCl-KCl eutectic in the temperature range 698–803 K and compared with literature data. Various transient electrochemical techniques like cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, square-wave voltammetry were used to determine diffusion co-efficient of Th4+ and apparent standard electrode potential for Th4+/Th electrode process. The electrode kinetics of Th4+/Th couple was also investigated by convolution voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Based on the above studies, the reversibility of Th4+/Th couple was addressed. The feasibility of electrochemical separation of uranium and thorium in LiCl-KCl eutectic is also discussed in this paper. It was seen that the separation of U from Th matrix was difficult in molten LiCl-KCl using a solid rod cathode and suitable reactive electrodes need to be used for efficient separation

  3. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO4/Aluminum Mixture

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates (ARA), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-01-17

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a Proficiency Test for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and aluminum—KClO4/Al mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of two solids. The mixture was found to be: 1) much less sensitive to impact than RDX, (LLNL being the exception) and PETN, 2) more sensitive to friction than RDX and PETN, and 3) extremely sensitive to spark. The thermal analysis showed little or no exothermic character. One prominent endothermic feature was observed in the temperature range studied and identified as a phase transition of KClO4.

  4. Preparation and Humidity Sensing Properties of KCl/MCM-41 Composite

    KCl/mobil composition of matter-41 (MCM-41) composite has been synthesized via a heat-treating process and characterized by x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms. In contrast with pure MCM-41, KCl/MCM-41 composite exhibits improved humidity sensing properties within the relative humidity range of 11–95%. The impedance of KCl/MCM-41 composite changes by about four orders of magnitude over the whole humidity range with the response time and the recovery times are about 30 s and 35 s, respectively. Small humidity hysteresis and good stability are also observed based on our product. These results make our product a good candidate in fabricating humidity sensors with high performances and low synthetic complexity

  5. Assignment of the human Na[sup +]/glucose cotransporter gene SGLT1 to chromosome 22q13. 1

    Turk, E.; Klisak, I.; Bacallao, R.; Sparkes, R.S.; Wright, E.M. (UCLA School Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    The Na[sup +]/glucose cotransporter gene SGLT1 encodes the primary carrier protein responsible for the uptake of the dietary sugars glucose and galactose from the intestinal lumen. SGLT1 transport activity is currently exploited in oral rehydration therapy. The 75-kDa glycoprotein is localized in the brush border of the intestinal epithelium and is predicted to comprise 12 membrane spans. In two patients with the autosomal recessive disease glucose/galactose malabsorption, the underlying cause was found to be a missense mutation in SGLT1, and the Asp28 [yields] Asn change was demonstrated in vitro to eliminate SGLT1 transport activity. The SGLT1 gene was previously shown to reside on the distal q arm of chromosome 22(11.2 [yields] qter). The authors have used a cosmid probe for fluorescence in situ hybridization, which refines the localization to 22q13.1, and provide an example of the utility of the SGLT1 probe as a diagnostic for genetic diseases associated with trans-locations of chromosome 22. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Electrode processes in KCl-KF melt of eutectic composition, containing Gd2O3

    Electric reduction of gadolinium ions from eutectic melt KCl-KF with gadolinium oxide additions (0.210-1.233 wt. %) at a temperature of 1008 K on molybdenum and glass carbon electrodes was studied. Solubility of gadolinium oxide in the range of temperatures 610-922 deg C was determined. It is shown that reduction of gadolinium oxofluoride complex takes place reversibly with subsequent reversible chemical reaction. Gadolinium reduction on iron electrode in eutectic solution KCl-KF treated for unwanted oxide-ion impurities involves formation of iron-gadolinium alloy

  7. Charging and defect formation in the KCl-Si(111) thin layers under slow electron irradiation

    The processes of defect formation and charge accumulation in thin KCl-Si(111) films irradiated with electron beam of energies 4-300 e V was studied by total current spectroscopy methods. It was shown that by irradiated electron beam energies Ep ≥ 8 eV in low energies regions of spectrum the peak characteristic for F-, M- and R-centers appeared. Defects formation threshold in KCl was equal to forbidden band energies. The growth of concentration F-, M- and R-centers with increasing irradiated dose and energies was observed. Electron bombardment is accompanied by accumulation of surface charges are connected with captured electrons and hole traps

  8. Emission of thermally stimulated luminescence in mixed monocrystals KCl-KBr: Pb2+, KCl: Pb2+ and KBr: Pb2+ exposed at low doses

    It is reported the behavior of solid solutions of mixed crystals KCl1-x KBrx doped with divalent lead which were exposed to gamma radiation. The mixtures of KCl-KBr were varied, with x equivalents at 2, 50, 65, and 85 % including the extremes KCl: Pb2+ and KBr: Pb2+. It was maintained a concentration of divalent lead between 20 and 40 ppm in the crystalline lattice. The production of the generated defects by radiation have been correlated with the increase in the brilliance curves depending on the received dose by the mixed doped crystal. It has been used the thermal stimulation (Tl) for obtaining the crystal luminescence depending on the dose until 130 Gy with gammas of cobalt 60. The results shows that this mixed crystalline material of varied composition responds adequately to low doses which indicates that this would be a good detector of ionizing radiation. The results have been correlated with the optical properties of this mixed doped crystal, however it has been found that exists an important loss of luminescence depending on the halogen quantity presents in the mixed crystal. (Author)

  9. Activation of the TASK-2 channel after cell swelling is dependent on tyrosine phosphorylation

    Kirkegaard, Signe Skyum; Lambert, Ian Henry; Gammeltoft, Steen; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2010-01-01

    (K,vol) indicating that inhibition of RVD reflects inhibition of TASK-2. We find that in EATC the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein inhibits RVD by 90%, and that the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor monoperoxo(picolinato)-oxo-vanadate(V) [mpV(pic)] shifted the volume set point for inactivation of the channel to a...... lower cell volume. Swelling-activated K(+) efflux was impaired by genistein and the Src kinase family inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-chloro-phenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine (PP2) and enhanced by the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor mpV(pic). With the use of the TASK-2 inhibitor clofilium, it is...... demonstrated that mpV(pic) increased the volume-sensitive part of the K(+) efflux 1.3 times. To exclude K(+) efflux via a KCl cotransporter, cellular Cl(-) was substituted with NO(3)(-). Also under these conditions K(+) efflux was completely blocked by genistein. Thus tyrosine kinases seem to be involved in...

  10. Furosemide-induced airway relaxation in guinea pigs: relation to Na-K-2Cl cotransporter function.

    Lavallee, S L; Iwamoto, L M; Claybaugh, J R; Dressel, M V; Sato, A K; Nakamura, K T

    1997-07-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that airway relaxation to furosemide is mediated via the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter. If this mechanism exists in airway smooth muscle like in vascular smooth muscle, changes in airway relaxation should be associated with changes in Na-K-2Cl cotransporter function, and both should be substrate dependent. Tracheal rings from newborn guinea pigs were bathed in standard (STD) or varying low Cl- concentration ([Cl-]) N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES). Isometric relaxation to 300 microM furosemide or 10(-8) to 10(-5) M salbutamol was measured. Airway segments were incubated with rubidium-86 (86Rb) in STD or varying low [Cl-] HEPES, with and without 300 microM furosemide or 25 microM salbutamol. Furosemide was unable to reduce 86Rb uptake at 10 mM [Cl-], although relaxation was still observed in 10 mM [Cl-]. Salbutamol did not affect 86Rb uptake. This study demonstrated that there is a furosemide-sensitive Na-K-2Cl cotransporter in newborn guinea pig trachea. However, the effect of furosemide on cotransporter function did not always directly correspond to differences in relaxation, suggesting that the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter may play a major, but not exclusive, role in furosemide-induced airway relaxation. PMID:9252558

  11. Electrochemistry of thorium fluoride in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts and methodology for speciation studies with fluorides ions

    This paper reports the electrochemical behavior of ThF4 in LiCl-KCl molten salt. It proposes a potentiometric method to determine the complexation constants of thorium (IV) with fluorides. The knowledge of these constants leads to calculate the speciation diagram of Th(IV) species as a function of the concentration of fluoride ions in the salt. These results were extrapolate to give an estimation of the activity coefficient of ThF4 in the molten salt LiF-ThF4 (77.5-22.5 mol%). This salt is retained for the molten salt fast reactor system, currently studied as a Generation IV concept in the domain of nuclear energy

  12. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and blood pressure decrease: a valuable effect of a novel antidiabetic class?

    Imprialos, Konstantinos P; Sarafidis, Pantelis A; Karagiannis, Asterios I

    2015-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major issue of public health, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) in the renal proximal tubule are a novel class of agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inhibition of the SGLT-2 results in reduced glucose reabsorption and improvement in glycemic control. Alongside glucose excretion, SGLT-2 inhibitors also have mild natriuretic and diuretic effects, combining actions of a proximal tubule diuretic and an osmotic diuretic; these properties are expected to lead to small blood pressure (BP) reductions. Clinical studies with dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, ipragliflozin, luseogliflozin, and tofogliflozin used either as monotherapy or add-on therapy and compared with placebo or active treatment have also examined the effect of these agents on BP as a secondary endpoint. Although with some differences between individual agents, all of the approved SGLT-2 inhibitors provided a mild but meaningful reduction in office SBP and DBP. Recent studies with the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring suggest that the magnitude of this BP reduction can be even greater. The aim of this review is to systematically summarize and present the studies reporting the effect of approved SGLT-2 inhibitors on BP. PMID:26372321

  13. Heteroepitaxial strain in alkali halide thin films: KCl on NaCl

    Baker, J.; Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1999-01-01

    We have pet-formed Monte Carlo simulations of the properties of a NaCl (001) surface covered by full or partial layers of KCl, for coverages up to 5 monolayers (ML). A wide variety of structures of the film is found. For integer ML coverages we find the continuous, so-called floating mode rumple ...

  14. Electron paramagnetic resonance of K3Rh(CN)6 irradiated with electrons in KCl

    Using a simple theory, it was estimated the electronic density of the diamagnetic complex Rh (CN)3-6 in a KCl lattice. The g// and g1 values were determined by EPR, and the experimental results fit the theoretical calculations. (M.W.O.)

  15. Single PTCDA molecules on planar and stepped KCl and NaCl(100) surfaces

    Aldahhak, H.; Schmidt, W. G.; Rauls, E.

    2015-11-01

    First principles calculations have been employed to investigate the adsorption of single PTCDA molecules on KCl(100) and NaCl(100) surfaces. The lateral and rotational diffusion barriers as well as the electronic and the geometric aspects of single PTCDA molecules adsorbed on planar terraces as well as at defective steps have been studied in detail.

  16. Adsorption of PTCDA on NaCl(100) and KCl(100)

    Aldahhak, H.; Schmidt, W. G.; Rauls, E.

    2013-11-01

    The adsorption of PTCDA on KCl and NaCl(100) surfaces has been investigated by means of first principles calculations. Besides a variety of adsorbate structures for single molecules and a monolayer of flat lying molecules on plain terraces, the influence of monoatomic steps and the different defect site at step edges has been studied in detail.

  17. Electrodeposition of cerium from fused mixture of CeCl sub(3)+NaCl-KCl

    Metallic cerium has been prepared by fused salt electrolysis of 30% CeCl sub(3)+ NaCl-KCl (equimolar) mixture, in the temperature ranged 650-850 sup(0)C, in argon atmosphere. The metal nodules were collected from solidified salts bath. Analysis of these nodules has been done and a 97,3% metallic cerium was obtained. (author)

  18. Life at high salt concentrations, intracellular KCl concentrations, and acidic proteomes

    Aharon eOren

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Extremely halophilic microorganisms that accumulate KCl for osmotic balance (the Halobacteriaceae, Salinibacter have a large excess of acidic amino acids in their proteins. This minireview explores the occurrence of acidic proteomes in halophiles of different physiology and phylogenetic affiliation. For fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales, known to accumulate KCl, an acidic proteome was predicted. However, this is not confirmed by genome analysis. The reported excess of acidic amino acids is due to a high content of Gln and Asn, which yield Glu and Asp upon acid hydrolysis. The closely related Halorhodospira halophila and Halorhodospira halochloris use different strategies to cope with high salt. The first has an acidic proteome and accumulates high KCl concentrations at high salt concentrations; the second does not accumulate KCl and lacks an acidic proteome. Acidic proteomes can be predicted from the genomes of some moderately halophilic aerobes that accumulate organic osmotic solutes (Halomonas elongata, Chromohalobacter salexigens and some marine bacteria. Based on the information on cultured species it is possible to understand the pI profiles predicted from metagenomic data from hypersaline environments.

  19. Development of a specific oxide ion electrode for KCl-LiCl eutectic melts

    The development of a specific oxide ion electrode for use in KCl-LiCl melts at 450 deg C is described. A zirconia tube stabilized with 8 w/o yttria serves as the solid electrolyte membrane for the electrode. In a concentration cell arrangement, the potential of the electrode responds as theoretically expected to changes in oxide ion concentration in the melt

  20. Characterization of a novel phosphorylation site in the sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC

    Rosenbaek, L L; Assentoft, M; Pedersen, N B;

    2012-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, is essential for renal electrolyte balance. NCC function can be modulated by protein phosphorylation. In this study, we characterized the role and physiological regulation of a novel phosphorylation site in NCC at Ser124 (S124). Novel phospho......DAVP significantly increased pS124-NCC abundance, with no changes in total NCC plasma membrane abundance. pS124-NCC levels also increased in abundance in rats after stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system by dietary low sodium intake. In contrast to other NCC phosphorylation sites, the STE20/SPS1...

  1. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition and the insulin: Glucagon ratio: Unexplored dimensions.

    Kalra, Sanjay; Gupta, Yashdeep; Patil, Shiva

    2015-01-01

    The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors are a novel class of glucose-lowering drugs which act by inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose from the kidneys. Their effect on insulin and glucagon levels has recently been studied but is not fully explained. This communication proposes various hypotheses: A direct effect of SGLT-2 inhibition on the alpha cell receptors, a paracrine or intra-islet mediated effect on alpha cell sensitivity to glucose, and a calorie restriction mimetic action, to explain the impact of these drugs on the insulin glucagon ratio. PMID:25932403

  2. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibition and the insulin: Glucagon ratio: Unexplored dimensions

    Sanjay Kalra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2 inhibitors are a novel class of glucose-lowering drugs which act by inhibiting the reabsorption of filtered glucose from the kidneys. Their effect on insulin and glucagon levels has recently been studied but is not fully explained. This communication proposes various hypotheses: A direct effect of SGLT-2 inhibition on the alpha cell receptors, a paracrine or intra-islet mediated effect on alpha cell sensitivity to glucose, and a calorie restriction mimetic action, to explain the impact of these drugs on the insulin glucagon ratio.

  3. Glucose transport by human renal Na+/d-glucose cotransporters SGLT1 and SGLT2

    Hummel, Charles S.; Lu, Chuan; Loo, Donald D. F.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Voss, Andrew A.; Wright, Ernest M.

    2010-01-01

    The human Na+/d-glucose cotransporter 2 (hSGLT2) is believed to be responsible for the bulk of glucose reabsorption in the kidney proximal convoluted tubule. Since blocking reabsorption increases urinary glucose excretion, hSGLT2 has become a novel drug target for Type 2 diabetes treatment. Glucose transport by hSGLT2 was studied at 37°C in human embryonic kidney 293T cells using whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiology. We compared hSGLT2 with hSGLT1, the transporter in the straight proximal...

  4. Regulation of the type Mb sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter expression in the intestine

    Bin WANG; Yulong YIN

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate (Pi) plays important roles in growth, development, bone mineralization, energy metabolism, nucleic acid synthesis, cell signaling, and acid-base regulation. The rate of intestinal absorption of Pi is a major determinant of Pi homeostasis. The type lib sodium- dependent Pi cotransporter (NaPi-Iib) is responsible for intestinal Pi absorption. Many physiological factors regulate the rate of Pi absorption via modulating the expression of NaPi-Iib in the intestine. In this review, we summarize the role of these factors in the regulation of NaPi-Iib expression in the intestine.

  5. Electrochemical deposition of carbon films on titanium in molten LiCl-KCl-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}

    Song, Qiushi; Xu, Qian, E-mail: Qianxu201@mail.neu.edu.cn; Wang, Yang; Shang, Xujing; Li, Zaiyuan

    2012-09-30

    Electrodeposition of carbon films on the oxide-scale-coated titanium has been performed in a LiCl-KCl-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} melt, which are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The electrochemical process of carbon deposition is investigated by cyclic voltammetry on the graphite, titanium and oxide-scale-coated titanium electrodes. The particle-size-gradient carbon films over the oxide-scale-coated titanium can be achieved by electrodeposition under the controlled potentials for avoiding codeposition of lithium carbide. The deposited carbon films are comprised of micron-sized 'quasi-spherical' carbon particles with graphitized and amorphous phases. The cyclic voltammetry behavior on the graphite, titanium and oxide-scale-coated titanium electrodes shows that CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions are reduced most favorably on the graphite for the three electrodes. Lithium ions can discharge under the less negative potential on the electrode containing carbon compared with titanium electrode because of the formation of lithium carbide from the reaction between lithium and carbon. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon films are prepared on oxide-scale-coated titanium in a LiCl-KCl-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} melt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films comprise micron-size 'quasi-spherical' carbon particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The films present particle-size-gradient. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The particles contain graphitized and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prepared carbon films are more electrochemically active than graphite.

  6. Early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise reduces neuropathic pain by preventing nociceptor collateral sprouting and disruption of chloride cotransporters homeostasis after peripheral nerve injury.

    López-Álvarez, Víctor M; Modol, Laura; Navarro, Xavier; Cobianchi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    Activity treatments, such as treadmill exercise, are used to improve functional recovery after nerve injury, parallel to an increase in neurotrophin levels. However, despite their role in neuronal survival and regeneration, neurotrophins may cause neuronal hyperexcitability that triggers neuropathic pain. In this work, we demonstrate that an early increasing-intensity treadmill exercise (iTR), performed during the first week (iTR1) or during the first 2 weeks (iTR2) after section and suture repair of the rat sciatic nerve, significantly reduced the hyperalgesia developing rapidly in the saphenous nerve territory and later in the sciatic nerve territory after regeneration. Nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in sensory neurons and spinal cord was reduced in parallel. iTR prevented the extension of collateral sprouts of saphenous nociceptive calcitonin gene-related peptide fibers within the adjacent denervated skin and reduced NGF expression in the same skin and in the L3 dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Injury also induced Na⁺-K⁺-2Cl⁻ cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) upregulation in DRG, and K⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporter 2 (KCC2) downregulation in lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn. iTR normalized NKCC1 and boosted KCC2 expression, together with a significant reduction of microgliosis in L3-L5 dorsal horn, and a reduction of BDNF expression in microglia at 1 to 2 weeks postinjury. These data demonstrate that specific activity protocols, such as iTR, can modulate neurotrophins expression after peripheral nerve injury and prevent neuropathic pain by blocking early mechanisms of sensitization such as collateral sprouting and NKCC1/KCC2 disregulation. PMID:26090759

  7. Electrical measurements on multiphased (NaCl){sub x}(KCl){sub y-x}(KBr){sub 1-y} single crystals

    Mahadevan, C.K. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: mahad@sancharnet.in; Jayakumari, K. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-30

    Alkali halide mixed crystals were melt grown from NaCl, KCl and KBr starting materials. DC and AC electrical measurements were carried out on the resulting ternary compositions at temperatures ranging from 308 to 423 K. Activation energies and mean jump frequencies were also estimated. The present study indicates an increase of DC and AC electrical conductivities and dielectric constant with the increase of temperature. Also, it indicates a nonlinear variation of all the electrical parameters (both DC and AC) with the bulk composition, which is explained to be due to the enhanced diffusion of charge carriers along dislocations and grain boundaries.

  8. The extraction of nitrogen with a KCl solution and the supply of nitrogen to plants in 40 tropical soils

    The determination of the total nitrogen contents in KCl N extracts obtained from 40 tropical soil samples gave an extremely good indication of the aptitude of such soils to provide nitrogen for a plant in pot culture tests. N 15 isotopes were used to show that the levels of enrichment for the total nitrogen of the KCl extract were the same as those of the plant. This indicates that the soluble mineral and organic forms of nitrogen in KCl are an easily usable source of nitrogen for plants in tropical soils

  9. Regulation of plasma membrane localization of the Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp) by hyperosmolarity and tauroursodeoxycholate.

    Sommerfeld, Annika; Mayer, Patrick G K; Cantore, Miriam; Häussinger, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    In perfused rat liver, hepatocyte shrinkage induces a Fyn-dependent retrieval of the bile salt export pump (Bsep) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) from the canalicular membrane (Cantore, M., Reinehr, R., Sommerfeld, A., Becker, M., and Häussinger, D. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 45014-45029) leading to cholestasis. However little is known about the effects of hyperosmolarity on short term regulation of the Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp), the major bile salt uptake system at the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to analyze hyperosmotic Ntcp regulation and the underlying signaling events. Hyperosmolarity induced a significant retrieval of Ntcp from the basolateral membrane, which was accompanied by an activating phosphorylation of the Src kinases Fyn and Yes but not of c-Src. Hyperosmotic internalization of Ntcp was sensitive to SU6656 and PP-2, suggesting that Fyn mediates Ntcp retrieval from the basolateral membrane. Hyperosmotic internalization of Ntcp was also found in livers from wild-type mice but not in p47(phox) knock-out mice. Tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) and cAMP reversed hyperosmolarity-induced Fyn activation and triggered re-insertion of the hyperosmotically retrieved Ntcp into the membrane. This was associated with dephosphorylation of the Ntcp on serine residues. Insertion of Ntcp by TUDC was sensitive to the integrin inhibitory hexapeptide GRGDSP and inhibition of protein kinase A. TUDC also reversed the hyperosmolarity-induced retrieval of bile salt export pump from the canalicular membrane. These findings suggest a coordinated and oxidative stress- and Fyn-dependent retrieval of sinusoidal and canalicular bile salt transport systems from the corresponding membranes. Ntcp insertion was also identified as a novel target of β1-integrin-dependent TUDC action, which is frequently used in the treatment of cholestatic liver disease. PMID:26306036

  10. Intestinal Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 1 Inhibition Enhances Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Secretion in Normal and Diabetic Rodents.

    Oguma, Takahiro; Nakayama, Keiko; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Matsushita, Yasuaki; Yoshida, Kumiko; Hikida, Kumiko; Obokata, Naoyuki; Tsuda-Tsukimoto, Minoru; Saito, Akira; Arakawa, Kenji; Ueta, Kiichiro; Shiotani, Masaharu

    2015-09-01

    The sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 1 plays a major role in glucose absorption and incretin hormone release in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the impact of SGLT1 inhibition on plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in vivo is controversial. We analyzed the effects of SGLT1 inhibitors on GLP-1 secretion in normoglycemic and hyperglycemic rodents using phloridzin, CGMI [3-(4-cyclopropylphenylmethyl)-1-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-4-methylindole], and canagliflozin. These compounds are SGLT2 inhibitors with moderate SGLT1 inhibitory activity, and their IC50 values against rat SGLT1 and mouse SGLT1 were 609 and 760 nM for phloridzin, 39.4 and 41.5 nM for CGMI, and 555 and 613 nM for canagliflozin, respectively. Oral administration of these inhibitors markedly enhanced and prolonged the glucose-induced plasma active GLP-1 (aGLP-1) increase in combination treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitor, in normoglycemic mice and rats. CGMI, the most potent SGLT1 inhibitor among them, enhanced glucose-induced, but not fat-induced, plasma aGLP-1 increase at a lower dose compared with canagliflozin. Both CGMI and canagliflozin delayed intestinal glucose absorption after oral administration in normoglycemic rats. The combined treatment of canagliflozin and a DPP4 inhibitor increased plasma aGLP-1 levels and improved glucose tolerance compared with single treatment in both 8- and 13-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty rats. These results suggest that transient inhibition of intestinal SGLT1 promotes GLP-1 secretion by delaying glucose absorption and that concomitant inhibition of intestinal SGLT1 and DPP4 is a novel therapeutic option for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26105952

  11. Microstructural investigations of pure nickel exposed to KCl induced high temperature corrosion

    Jonsson, T.; Slomian, A.; Lomholt, Trine Nybo;

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation of 99?99% pure nickel was studied with and without 0?10 mg cm22 KCl(s) in an environment containing 5 vol.-%O2, 40 vol.-%H2O and 55 vol.-%N2 at 600uC for up to 168 h. Oxide microstructure was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), focused ion beam (FIB), broad ion beam (BIB) and SEM....../EDX. Oxidised nickel shows an approximately parabolic oxide growth rate. The oxide scale is dense with some pores at the oxide/metal interface. Adding small amounts of KCl does not result in a faster corrosion rate of nickel. However, the surface morphology changes and small oxide crusts were observed in the...

  12. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  13. Gamma coloration of mixed crystals of KCl-KBr doped with Pb2+

    The influence of impurities of Pb2+ on the coloration curve under gamma irradiation, of five single mixed crystals of KCl1-xBrx, has been investigated. Also the impact of the dose rate, and the mixture proportions of the halides in the single crystals was examined. The appearance of F centers for a dose rate of 12.88 kGy/h, was independent of the quantity of Pb2+ , and varied according to the ratio KCl/KBr. At a proportion of 50% of each halogen the typical stages were observed. Meanwhile, if the dose rate is lower (3.22 kGy/h), the coloration depends of the quantity of Pb2+ . This dependence is maintained through out all halide proportions in the mixture. The behavior observed in these crystals is in agreement with the trap model for complementary defects F-centers. (author)

  14. Preparation and dielectric properties of oxide added NaCl-KCl polycrystals

    Priya, M. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002, Tamilnadu (India); Mahadevan, C.K. [Physics Research Centre, S.T. Hindu College, Nagercoil 629 002, Tamilnadu (India)], E-mail: mahadevan58@yahoo.co.in

    2008-01-01

    Pure and ZnO and CdO added (separately) polycrystals of NaCl, KCl and (NaCl){sub 0.5}(KCl){sub 0.5} were prepared by the melt method. Density, atomic absorption spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that the ZnO and CdO have entered into the lattices of alkali halide crystals. The dielectric measurements indicate that the dielectric parameters increase with the increase in temperature. Also, the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor values decreased whereas the electrical conductivities increased with the increase in frequency of the AC applied. Significant changes have been observed with the dielectric parameters caused by ZnO and CdO additions. Also, the depth profile study was carried out on CdO added crystals which indicates that the dopant addition creates different layers along the crystal with increase of dopant content from top to bottom.

  15. SKELETAL MUSCLE SODIUM GLUCOSE CO-TRANSPORTERS IN OLDER ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES UNDERGOING RESISTANCE TRAINING

    We examined the expression of the sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter system (SGLT3) in skeletal muscle of Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes. Subjects (65+/-8 yr) were randomized to resistance training (3x/wk, n=13) or standard of care (controls, n=5) for 16 weeks. Skeletal muscle SGL...

  16. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - KClO3/Dodecane Mixture

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorenson, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-05-23

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small-Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO3 and dodecane—KClO3/dodecane mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of solid and liquid materials. The mixture was found to: 1) be more sensitive to impact than RDX, and PETN, 2) less sensitive to friction than PETN, and 3) less sensitive to spark than RDX. The thermal analysis showed little or no exothermic features suggesting that the dodecane volatilized at low temperatures. A prominent endothermic feature was observed assigned to melting of KClO3. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO3/dodecane mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some consistency in test protocols, procedures, and experiments and to understand

  17. ESR of an O/sub 3//sup -/ centre in KCl

    Callens, F.; Matthys, P.; Boesman, E.

    1988-06-20

    By means of ESR an ozonide molecular O/sub 3//sup -/ ion was detected in x-irradiated KCl. The principal values of the G-tensor (2.0032, 2.0182, 2.0118) are in excellent agreement with the values found in other host lattices and with CNDO calculations performed earlier. All measurements were carried out at liquid-helium temperatures.

  18. Contribution to knowledge of radiation damage in KCl crystals doped with Sr

    The radiation damages in KCl crystals doped with Sr++ using thermo-ionic technique (ITC) and optical absorption measurements were studied. The variation of the entropy for the dipole jump starting from results reported by several authors was calculated. The irradiation effects with three different exposures were analysed: irradiation with gamma rays; irradiation with fast neutrons added to gamma irradiation; and irradiation with thermal neutrons together with fast neutrons and gamma rays. (Author)

  19. Optical absorption spectra of mercury centres in KCl and NaCl

    Optical absorption spectra of KCl and NaCl monocrystals doped with Hg2Cl2 were recorded at room temperature before and after 60Co #betta#-irradiation and F-light bleaching. It is concluded that gamma irradiation produces all types of Hg centres, that the Hg0 centres grow linearly with time of F-light bleaching, and that F-light bleaching enhances all the bands due to Hg centres

  20. Kinetics of ray bleaching of KCl crystal with Fsub(A)(Li)-centers

    Bleaching kinetics of KCl cubic crystal with Fsub(A) (Li) centers in the two-ray excitation mode was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Possibility for using a similar system as optical lock as well as optical pulse modulator is shown. Different modes of optical system operation were investigated, time characteristics of impurity crystal bleaching were studied in a wide range of exciting ray intensities

  1. Electrode potentials of uranium in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vladykin, E. N.; Vasin, B. D.

    2015-08-01

    The electrode potentials of uranium in the melt of the eutectic mixture of lithium, potassium, and cesium chlorides are measured in the temperature range 573-1073 K. Formal standard potentials E U * (III)/U and the main thermodynamic characteristics of uranium trichloride in the LiCl-KCl-CsCl melt are calculated, and the electronic absorption spectra of UCl 6 3- ions are measured.

  2. High-Temperature Viscosity Measurement of LiCl-KCl Molten Salts Comprising Actinides and Lanthanides

    Kim, Jongyun; Bae, Sangeun; Kim, Daehyun; Choi, Yong Suk; Yeon, Jeiwon; Song, Kyuseok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Physical properties of molten salt such as viscosity, density, solubility, surface tension, solubility, diffusivity, electrical/thermal conductivity, etc., are important for the design and the early fault detection of each unit processes in the pyroprocess. Among them, the viscosities of the high-temperature molten salts should be considered much more carefully when designing the plant as well as handling and transferring the molten fluid containing radioactive actinides and lanthanides from one unit process to the other in the pyroprocess. The viscosity is also related to the electrical properties and the structure of the liquids. However, there are only viscosity data of pure molten LiCl-KCl eutectic in a limited range of temperatures (890-1080 K). Therefore, interpolation and extrapolation are required to determine the viscosity at a specific process condition, for example, at ca. 773 K for the transfer of molten salt in the pyroprocess. In addition, there have been no previous reports on the viscosity of LiCl-KCl eutectic containing a wide concentration range of actinides and lanthanides such as uranium (U), neodymium (Nd), cerium (Ce), and lanthanum (La), which are of major interests regarding the recycling of LiCl-KCl molten salts.

  3. CFD Investigation on Free Surface of Immiscible Molten LiCl-KCl/Cd System

    Kim, Kwangrag; Kim, Sihyung; Shim, Junbo; Park, Seungwoo; Kim, Intae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    LiCl-KCl eutectic serves as an electrolyte, and liquid cadmium serves as a cathode material. Therefore, the electrowinning reactors need to be designed to provide high mass transfer and electrode surface area between the electrode and bulk electrolyte. The efficiency of the electrowinning cell is largely affected by its geometric configuration and electrolyte turbulence. The influence of electrolyte flow on the performance can be evaluated using a CFD model. However, the hydrodynamic behavior in the molten state is not well understood in this system. Therefore, a computational method has been developed to investigate the hydrodynamic behavior of immiscible phases in an electrowinning cell. This paper presents an interface tracking method for modeling the flow of immiscible liquids of LiCl-KCl/Cd in the electrolytic processes. An approach was proposed to provide an insight into the behaviors of free electrode surface in an electrowinning cell. A numerical model has been developed to simulate complex free surface flows in an immiscible molten LiCl-KCl/Cd system. It was found that this method was capable of tracking a contorting free surface as well as interface mass transfer in the multi-phase flow fields. The approach can provide an insight into the behaviors of free electrode surface in an electrowinning cell.

  4. Release of mercury halides from KCl denuders in the presence of ozone

    S. N. Lyman

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available KCl-coated denuders have become a standard method for measurement of gaseous oxidized mercury, but their performance has not been exhaustively evaluated, especially in field conditions. In this study, KCl-coated and uncoated quartz denuders loaded with HgCl2 and HgBr2 lost 29–55% of these compounds, apparently as elemental mercury, when exposed to ozone (range of 6–100 ppb tested. This effect was also observed for denuders loaded with gaseous oxidized mercury at a field site in Nevada (3–37% of oxidized mercury lost. In addition, collection efficiency decreased by 12–30% for denuders exposed to 50 ppb ozone during collection of HgCl2. While data presented were obtained from laboratory tests and as such do not exactly simulate field sampling conditions, these results indicate that the KCl denuder oxidized mercury collection method may not be as robust as previously thought. This work highlights needs for further testing of this method, clear identification of gaseous oxidized mercury compounds in the atmosphere, and development of field calibration methods for these compounds.

  5. Potential Process for the Decontamination of Pyro-electrometallurgical LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt Electrolyte

    Griffith, Christopher S.; Sizgek, Erden; Sizgek, Devlet; Luca, Vittorio [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Institute of Materials Engineering, New Illawarra Road, Lucas Heights, New South Wales, 2234 (Australia)

    2008-07-01

    Presented here is a potential option with experimental validation for the decontamination of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte from a pyro-electrometallurgical process by employing already developed inorganic ion exchange materials. Adsorbent materials considered include titano-silicates and molybdo- and tungstophosphates for Cs extraction, Si-doped antimony pyrochlore for Sr extraction and hexagonal tungsten bronzes for lanthanide (LN) and minor actinide (MA) polishing. Encouraging results from recent investigations on the removal of target elements (Cs, Sr and LN) from aqueous solutions containing varying concentrations of alkali and alkali metal contaminants which would be akin to a solution formed from the dissolution of spent LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte are presented. Further investigations have also shown that the saturated adsorbents can be treated at relatively low temperatures to afford potential waste forms for the adsorbed elements. Efficient evaporation and drying of a solution of dissolved LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte (50 L, 5 L.h{sup -1}) has been demonstrated using a Microwave-Heated Mechanical Fluidized Bed (MWMFB) apparatus. (authors)

  6. Evaporation Behaviors of Rare Earth Chlorides in LiCl-KCl Eutectic salt

    Electrorefining process is one of the important processes of a pyro-process. In the electrorefining process, uranium metal is deposited at the solid cathode as dendritic form. Uranium deposits from an electrorefining process contain about 30 wt% of salts. In order to recover pure metal and convert it into metal ingots, the salt has to be removed. In the salt, there are actinide chlorides and rare earth chlorides in addition to uranium chloride. In order to design the salt evaporation system, it should be investigated the evaporation behaviors of actinide and rare earth chlorides in the salt. In this work, the experiments for a salt evaporation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were carried out with a salt distiller with respect to the vacuum pressure and the hold temperature. The vapor pressure of rare earth chlorides are lower than those of LiCl and KCl. But the rare earth chlorides were co-evaporized with LiCl-KCl salt during the salt evaporation process. A simple model based on the Hertz-Langmuir relation was applied for this evaporation system and the co-evaporation of rare earth chlorides was discussed. (authors)

  7. Supercooling of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions under acoustic levitation.

    Lü, Y J; Wei, B

    2006-10-14

    The supercooling capability of aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions is investigated at containerless state by using acoustic levitation method. The supercooling of water is obviously enhanced by the alkali metal ions and increases linearly with the augmentation of concentrations. Furthermore, the supercooling depends on the nature of ions and is 2-3 K larger for NaCl solution than that for KCl solution in the present concentration range: Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to reveal the intrinsic correlation between supercoolability and microstructure. The translational and orientational order parameters are applied to quantitatively demonstrate the effect of ionic concentration on the hydrogen-bond network and ice melting point. The disrupted hydrogen-bond structure determines essentially the concentration dependence of supercooling. On the other hand, the introduced acoustic pressure suppresses the increase of supercooling by promoting the growth and coalescence of microbubbles, the effective nucleation catalysts, in water. However, the dissolved ions can weaken this effect, and moreover the degree varies with the ion type. This results in the different supercoolability for NaCl and KCl solutions under the acoustic levitation conditions. PMID:17042605

  8. X-ray storage performance of KCl:Eu2+ with high cumulated dose

    Hansel, Rachael A.; Xiao, Zhiyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, H. Harold

    2014-05-01

    The effects of high cumulative radiation dose on the luminescence properties of KCl:Eu2+ are investigated. Pellet samples of KCl:Eu2+ were given doses of up to 200 kGy at the Louisiana State University Synchrotron facility. After synchrotron irradiation, samples were optically bleached and given a clinical dose of 2 Gy from a 6 MV medical linear accelerator. Optical properties were evaluated using photostimulated luminescence (PSL), photoluminescence (PL), and temperature-dependent PSL measurements. For a cumulated dose of up to 5-10 kGy, the PSL emission intensity increased by 15% compared to the PSL signal with no radiation history. For doses higher than 10 kGy, the PSL emission intensity retained at least 70% of the original intensity. Spatial correlation of the charge storage centers increased for doses up to 5 kGy and then decreased for higher cumulative doses. Emission band at 975 nm was attributed to transitions of Eu1+. PL spectra showed an intense peak centered at 420 nm for all cumulative doses. The results of this work show that KCl:Eu2+ storage phosphors are excellent reusable materials for radiation therapy dosimetry.

  9. Potential Process for the Decontamination of Pyro-electrometallurgical LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt Electrolyte

    Presented here is a potential option with experimental validation for the decontamination of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte from a pyro-electrometallurgical process by employing already developed inorganic ion exchange materials. Adsorbent materials considered include titano-silicates and molybdo- and tungstophosphates for Cs extraction, Si-doped antimony pyrochlore for Sr extraction and hexagonal tungsten bronzes for lanthanide (LN) and minor actinide (MA) polishing. Encouraging results from recent investigations on the removal of target elements (Cs, Sr and LN) from aqueous solutions containing varying concentrations of alkali and alkali metal contaminants which would be akin to a solution formed from the dissolution of spent LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte are presented. Further investigations have also shown that the saturated adsorbents can be treated at relatively low temperatures to afford potential waste forms for the adsorbed elements. Efficient evaporation and drying of a solution of dissolved LiCl-KCl eutectic salt electrolyte (50 L, 5 L.h-1) has been demonstrated using a Microwave-Heated Mechanical Fluidized Bed (MWMFB) apparatus. (authors)

  10. Effect of x-ray irradiation on thermal expansion of KCl single crystals

    The apparatus designed and fabricated earlier for accurate measurement of changes in length of solids through changes in capacitance of a condenser has been improved considerably to step up the accuracy of measurement to 10sup(-6) cm. Using this set-up, the thermal expansion of KCl single crystals before and after X-ray irradiation has been studied. It is found that the linear thermal expansion co-efficient (α) of X-ray irradiated KCl crystal increases to 47 x 10sup(-6)/deg C around room temperature, but attains the α value of unirradiated sample (39.8 x 10sup(-6)/deg C) in the temperature range 125deg C to 200deg C. From these data the number of vacancies created in KCl at room temperature by X-ray irradiation is calculated to be 9 x 10sup(17)/c.c. which is in fairly good agreement with the value 6 x 10sup(17)/c.c. calculated from optical absorption measurements taken on the same sample in the laboratory. (auth.)

  11. On the electrochemical formation of Pu-Al alloys in molten LiCl-KCl

    Mendes, E.; Malmbeck, R.; Nourry, C.; Souček, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2012-01-01

    Properties of Pu-Al alloys were investigated in connection with development of pyrochemical methods for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Electroseparation techniques in molten LiCl-KCl are being developed in ITU to group-selectively recover actinides from the mixture with fission products. In the process, actinides are electrochemically reduced on solid aluminium cathodes, forming solid actinide-aluminium alloys. This article is focused on electro-chemical characterisation of Pu-Al alloys in molten LiCl-KCl, on electrodeposition of Pu on solid Al electrodes and on determination of chemical composition and structure of the formed alloys. Cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry were used to study Pu-Al alloys in the temperature range 400-550 °C. Pu is reduced to metal in one reduction step Pu 3+/Pu 0 on an inert W electrode. On a reactive Al electrode, the reduction of Pu 3+ to Pu 0 occurs at a more positive potential due to formation of Pu-Al alloys. The open circuit potential technique was used to identify the alloys formed. Stable deposits were obtained by potentiostatic electrolyses of LiCl-KCl-PuCl 3 melts on Al plates. XRD and SEM-EDX analyses were used to characterise the alloys, which were composed mainly of PuAl 4 with some PuAl 3. In addition, the preparation of PuCl 3 containing salt by carbochlorination of PuO 2 is described.

  12. Water transport by Na+-coupled cotransporters of glucose (SGLT1) and of iodide (NIS). The dependence of substrate size studied at high resolution

    Zeuthen, Thomas; Belhage, Bo; Zeuthen, Emil

    2005-01-01

    previous investigations. The rate of cotransport was monitored as the clamp current obtained from two-electrode voltage clamp. The high resolution data demonstrated a fixed ratio between the turn-over of the cotransporter and the rate of water transport. This applied to experiments in which the rate of...... and osmosis at the membrane with diffusion in the cytoplasm. The combination of high resolution measurements and precise modelling showed that water transport across the membrane can be explained by cotransport of water in the membrane proteins and that intracellular unstirred layers effects are...

  13. Acidity of cations and the solubility of oxides in the eutectic KCl-LiCl melt at 700 Deg C

    Products of MgO, NiO and CoO solubility in KCl-LiCl melt at 700 Deg C were determined by the method of potentiometric titration using Pt(O2)IZrO2(Y2O3) membrane oxygen electrode. It was ascertained that acid properties of Cd2+ and Pb'2+ cations are levelled to Li+ properties, a break in E-pO graduation dependence in KCl-LiCl melt was observed at pO ∼ 2. Increase in oxides solubility in the melt studied compared with KCl-NaCl and CsCl-KCl-NaCl melts stems from the presence of Li+ cations in the melt studied, which possess stronger acid properties than those of Na+ or K+

  14. Strategies to reduce gaseous KCl and chlorine in deposits during combustion of biomass in fluidised bed boilers

    Kassman, Haakan

    2012-11-01

    Combustion of a biomass with an enhanced content of alkali and chlorine (Cl) can result in operational problems including deposit formation and superheater corrosion. The strategies applied to reduce such problems include co-combustion and the use of additives. In this work, measures were investigated in order to decrease the risk of superheater corrosion by reducing gaseous KCl and the content of chlorine in deposits. The strategies applied were sulphation of KCl by sulphur/sulphate containing additives (i.e. elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate (AS)) and co-combustion with peat. Both sulphation of KCl and capture of potassium (K) in ash components can be of importance when peat is used. The experiments were mainly performed in a 12 MW circulation fluidised bed (CFB) boiler equipped for research purposes but also in a full-scale CFB boiler. The results were evaluated by means of IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous KCl), conventional gas analysis, deposit and corrosion probe measurements and ash analysis. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. Thus the presence of SO{sub 3} (i.e. AS) is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} (i.e. S) for sulphation of gaseous KCl and reduction of chlorine in deposits. Only a minor reduction of gaseous KCl was obtained during co-combustion with peat although chlorine in the deposits was greatly reduced. This reduction was supposedly due to capture of K by reactive components from the peat ash in parallel to sulphation of KCl. These compounds remained unidentified. The effect of volatile combustibles on the sulphation of gaseous KCl was investigated. The poorest sulphation was attained during injection of ammonium sulphate in the upper part of the combustion chamber during the lowest air excess ratio. The explanation for this is that SO{sub 3} was partly consumed by side reactions due to the presence of combustibles. These experimental results were supported by modelling, although the

  15. Solubility of NaCl and KCl in aqueous HCl from 20 to 85°C

    Potter, Robert W., II; Clynne, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The solubilities of NaCl and KCl in aqueous HCl solutions were determined from 20 to 85°C at concentrations ranging from 0 to 20 g of HCl/100 g of solution. Equations are given that describe the solubilities over the range of conditions studied. For NaCl and KCl respectively measured solubilities show an average deviation from these equations of ??0.10 and ??0.08 g/100 g of saturated solution.

  16. Solubility polytherms of NaCl(KCl)-GdCl/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O system

    Shevchuk, V.G.; Lazorenko, N.M.; Storozhenko, D.A.; Kisel, N.N. (Poltavskij Inzhenerno-Stroitel' nyj Inst. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1982-04-01

    The isothermal method in the temperature range from 25 up to 100 deg C has been used to study the solubility in the NaCl-GdCl/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O and KCl-GdCl/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O systems. The limits of the NaCl, KCl and GdCl/sub 3/x6H/sub 2/O crystallization are discriminated. Solubility polytherms of the systems are plotted.

  17. Chrono-potentiometry in molten chlorides. Application to the study of the electrochemical properties of uranium and plutonium in the LiCl-KCl eutectic

    Using solutions of cadmium chloride in the eutectic LiCl-KCl, a chrono-potentiometric method has been developed with a view to its application to the study of molten solutions. Particular attention has been paid to the choice of the indicator electrodes. The method makes it possible to analyze molten solutions quantitatively and to determine diffusion coefficients and their activation energies; it yields furthermore information about the nature and the behaviour of ionic species in solution. The method has been applied to the study of solutions of uranium and plutonium chloride in the eutectic LiCl-KCl. Linear chrono-amperometry has been used for studying these solutions quantitatively, but chrono-potentiometry, of which the theory is better developed, is better suited to a quantitative study. The results obtained have made it possible to determine the diffusion coefficients of the ions Cd2+, U3+, U4+ and U(IV) in the presence of F- and Pu3+ ions, as well as the activation energy of the diffusion coefficients. (author)

  18. Ipragliflozin: A novel sodium-glucose cotransporter 2inhibitor developed in Japan

    Tsuyoshi Ohkura

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitioninduces glucosuria and decreases blood glucose levelsin diabetic patients and lowers hypoglycemic risk.SGLT1 is expressed in the kidney and intestine; SGLT1inhibition causes abdominal symptoms such as diarrheaand reduces incretin secretion. Therefore, SGLT2selectivity is important. Ipragliflozin is highly selectivefor SGLT2. In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), urinaryglucose excretion increased to 90 g/24 h after 28 d oftreatment with ipragliflozin 300 mg/d. Twelve weeksof ipragliflozin 50 mg/d vs placebo reduced glycatedhemoglobin and body weight by 0.65% and 0.66kg, respectively, in Western T2DM patients, and by1.3% and 1.89 kg, respectively, in Japanese patients.Ipragliflozin (highly selective SGLT2 inhibitor) improvesglycemic control and reduces body weight andlowers hypoglycemic risk and abdominal symptoms.Ipragliflozin can be a novel anti-diabetic and antiobesityagent.

  19. Compatibility of ZrN and HfN with molten LiCl-KCl-NaCl-UCl3

    The reaction kinetics of ZrN and HfN immersed in a quaternary salt of composition of 28.5% LiCl-36.3% KCl-29.4% NaCl-5.8% UCl3 (in weight percent) were assessed. Coupons of ZrN and HfN were exposed to the quaternary salt at 525-900 oC for 4-485 h. The reaction kinetics of the salt-refractory interactions were assessed through physical and microstructural characterization including scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and mass spectrometry. The results indicated that ZrN and HfN lose weight under all conditions investigated. While multiple mechanisms were evident, it is proposed that dissolution and oxidation were the dominant reactions that influence the weight loss. For the overall reaction, negative apparent activation energy values of -46 and -28 kJ/mol were observed in ZrN and HfN, respectively. These seemingly anomalous activation energies were associated with the simultaneous occurrence of electrochemical dissolution and surface oxide formation.

  20. Chrono-potentiometry in molten chlorides. Application to the study of the electrochemical properties of uranium and plutonium in the LiCl-KCl eutectic; Chronopotentiometrie dans les chlorures fondus. Application a l'etude des proprietes electrochimiques de l'uranium et du plutonium dans l'eutectique LiCl-KCl

    Leseur, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-05-01

    Using solutions of cadmium chloride in the eutectic LiCl-KCl, a chrono-potentiometric method has been developed with a view to its application to the study of molten solutions. Particular attention has been paid to the choice of the indicator electrodes. The method makes it possible to analyze molten solutions quantitatively and to determine diffusion coefficients and their activation energies; it yields furthermore information about the nature and the behaviour of ionic species in solution. The method has been applied to the study of solutions of uranium and plutonium chloride in the eutectic LiCl-KCl. Linear chrono-amperometry has been used for studying these solutions quantitatively, but chrono-potentiometry, of which the theory is better developed, is better suited to a quantitative study. The results obtained have made it possible to determine the diffusion coefficients of the ions Cd{sup 2+}, U{sup 3+}, U{sup 4+} and U(IV) in the presence of F{sup -} and Pu{sup 3+} ions, as well as the activation energy of the diffusion coefficients. (author) [French] La mise au point de la chronopotentiometrie comme moyen d'etude des solutions fondues a ete effectuee avec des solutions de chlorure de cadmium dans l'eutectique LiCl-KCl. Le probleme du choix des electrodes indicatrices a ete particulierement etudie. La methode permet l'analyse quantitative des solutions fondues ainsi que la determination des coefficients de diffusion et de leurs energies d'activation: elle donne en outre des renseignements sur la nature et le comportement des especes ioniques en solution. Elle a ete appliquee a l'etude des solutions des chlorures d'uranium et de plutonium dans l'eutectique LiCl-KCl. La chronoamperometrie lineaire a ete utilisee pour l'etude qualitative de ces solutions, mais la chronopotentiometrie, dont la theorie est plus complete, convient mieux pour l'etude quantitative. Les resultats obtenus ont permis de determiner les

  1. Respon pertumbuhan bibit kakao (Theobroma cacao L.) terhadap pemberian pupuk guano dan KCl

    Rajagukguk, Pispa

    2015-01-01

    Addition of Guano in Cultivation of Cacao Seedling is the one of step to use organic fertilizer that comes from animal feces in the world. For that purpose addition guano aims to increase growth of Cacao in Cultivation of Seedling. This research had been conducted at experimental field of Fakultas Pertanian USU in October 2013 - January 2014 using factorial randomized block design with two factor, i.e. addition dose of Guano (0, 75 , 150 , 225 g/polibag) and dose of KCl (0 , ...

  2. Saturated steams pressure of HfCl4-KCl molten mixtures

    A bellows null pressure gauge and the dynamic method were used to measure the total and partial pressures of saturated vapors of individual components of molten HfCl4-KCl mixtures, as a function of temperature (260 to 1000 deg C) and composition (1.9 to 64.3 mol.% HfCl4). Empirical equations expressing the relationship between pressure and temperature are presented. It is shown that in molten mixtures of hafnium tetrachloride with chlorides of alkaline metals its partial pressure dramatically increases when potassium chloride substitutes for cesium chloride

  3. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program--KClO4/Dodecane Mixture

    Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Geoffrey W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Preston, Daniel N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pollard, Colin J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Indian Head, MD (United States). Indian Head Division; Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Reyes, Jose A. [Applied Research Associates, Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-05-11

    The Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) program is conducting a proficiency study for Small- Scale Safety and Thermal (SSST) testing of homemade explosives (HMEs). Described here are the results for impact, friction, electrostatic discharge, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis of a mixture of KClO4 and dodecane—KClO4/dodecane mixture. This material was selected because of the challenge of performing SSST testing of a mixture of solid and liquid materials. The mixture was found to: 1) be less sensitive to impact than RDX, and PETN, 2) less sensitive to friction than RDX and PETN, and 3) less sensitive to spark than RDX and PETN. The thermal analysis showed little or no exothermic features suggesting that the dodecane volatilized at low temperatures. A prominent endothermic feature was observed and assigned to a phase transition of KClO4. This effort, funded by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), ultimately will put the issues of safe handling of these materials in perspective with standard military explosives. The study is adding SSST testing results for a broad suite of different HMEs to the literature. Ultimately the study has the potential to suggest new guidelines and methods and possibly establish the SSST testing accuracies needed to develop safe handling practices for HMEs. Each participating testing laboratory uses identical test materials and preparation methods wherever possible. Note, however, the test procedures differ among the laboratories. The results are compared among the laboratories and then compared to historical data from various sources. The testing performers involved for the KClO4/dodecane mixture are Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Indian Head Division, Naval Surface Warfare Center, (NSWC IHD), and Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RXQL). These tests are conducted as a proficiency study in order to establish some

  4. Studies on optical bleaching of x-ray irradiated KCL by thermoluminescence

    The optical bleaching characteristics of F-centres in X-ray irradiated KCl crystals have been studied by using thermoluminescence (TL) as the tool. It is found that the bleaching of F-centres takes place in two stages, a rapid stage initially, followed by a slow second age agreeing with reports of earlier workers based on photoconductivity and optical absorption measurements. SUDY OF THE BLEACHING CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDIVIDUAL TL peaks shows that the individual TL peaks also follow a two-stage bleaching process. There is no correlation between the two stages of F-bleaching with those of formation of F-centres. (author)

  5. Oscillator strength of electronic color centers in KCl monocrystals irradiated by electrons and protons

    One studied absorption spectra of KCl single crystals irradiated by 15 and 100 keV energy and 5 x 1012-1015 cm-2 flow electrons and protons. In spectra one separated absorption elementary bands caused by coloring elementary (F-, Fα-, K-) and complex (M-, R2-, R4-, N-) centres. One determined correlation dependence of absorption coefficient of M-, R2-, R4-centres on absorption coefficient of F-centres and correlation dependence of absorption coefficient of R2-, R4-centres on coefficient of absorption of M-centres. One calculates the intensity of oscillators of M-, R2- and R4-centres of coloring

  6. EPR of (LiH)+ and (AgH)+ centers in KCl

    Schwan, L.; Geigle, W.; Nagel, W; Bauer, R.; Stoll, H.

    1980-01-01

    In alkali halides hydrogen atoms can be stabilized near impurity cations, such as Li+ and Ag+, forming new centers which combine off-center substitutional Me+ and interstitial hydrogen H01 by a certain homeopolar binding. The analysis of EPR measurements in KCl yields the atomic configurations and shows that at T < 70 K the off-center tunneling motion of Me+ is quenched, while the high temperature spectra can be interpreted as time average of those at low temperature. The binding properties o...

  7. An electrochemical study of uranium behaviour in LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic melt

    Maltsev, D. S.; Volkovich, V. A.; Vasin, B. D.; Vladykin, E. N.

    2015-12-01

    Electrochemical behaviour of uranium was studied in the low melting ternary LiCl-KCl-CsCl eutectic at 573-1073 K employing potentiometry, cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry. Uranium electrode potentials were measured directly and U(III)/U(IV) red-ox potentials were determined from the results of cyclic voltammetry measurements. Formal standard electrode and red-ox potentials of uranium, and thermodynamic properties of uranium chlorides in the studied melt were calculated. Diffusion coefficients of U(III) and U(IV) ions were determined using cyclic voltammetry and chronopotentiometry.

  8. Electrochemical behavior of actinide ions in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    The electrodeposition and dissolution of uranium and plutonium in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt on tungsten and molybdenum working electrodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry at 723, 773 and 823 K. It is suggested from the voltammograms that the electrodeposition and dissolution of U and Pu, U3+/U and Pu3+/Pu, may be quasi-reversible, while the redox reaction of U4+/U3+ is reversible. The adsorption and desorption peaks of U and Pu on W and Mo working electrodes, respectively, caused by underpotential deposition, were observed. (orig.)

  9. Solubilidade do SrO em NaCl-Kcl fundido a 727ºC

    Combes Richard Louis; Koeller Sérgio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    The solubility product value of SrO has been found to be equal to 10-4,2 (molality scale) in molten equimolar mixture of NaCl and KCl at 727ºC, using a potentiometric method involving a calcia stabilized zirconia membrane electrode. This value, which is in a logical agreement with other alkaline-earth oxide determined solubilities, is compared to those of 10-5,8, 10-3,0 and 10-3,08 (molality scale) found in the litterature 33, 22 and 5 years ago, respectively. Such discrepencies have called t...

  10. Phosphate and Vascular Calcification: Emerging Role of the Sodium-Dependent Phosphate Cotransporter PiT-1

    Lau, Wei Ling; Festing, Maria H; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated serum phosphate is a risk factor for vascular calcification and cardiovascular events in kidney disease as well as in the general population. Elevated phosphate levels drive vascular calcification, in part, by regulating vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) gene expression, function, and fate. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter, PiT-1, is necessary for phosphate-induced VSMC osteochondrogenic phenotype change and calcification, and has recently been shown to have une...

  11. Sodium Glucose Co-transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Targeting the Kidney to Improve Glycemic Control in Diabetes Mellitus

    Bays, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Although hyperglycemia is a key therapeutic focus in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), many patients experience sub-optimal glycemic control. Current glucose-lowering agents involve the targeting of various body organs. Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors target the kidney, reduce renal glucose reabsorption, and increase urinary glucose elimination, thus lowering glucose blood levels. This review examines some of the key efficacy and safety d...

  12. Empagliflozin: a new sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Neumiller, Joshua J.

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and hyperglycemia is often poorly controlled despite a number of therapeutic options. Unlike previously available agents, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors offer an insulin-independent mechanism for improving blood glucose levels, since they promote urinary glucose excretion (UGE) by inhibiting glucose reabsorption in the kidney. In addition to glucose control, SGLT2 inhibitors are associated with weight loss and blood pr...

  13. The sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin does not prolong QT interval in a thorough QT (TQT) study

    Ring, Arne; Brand, Tobias; Macha, Sreeraj; Breithaupt-Groegler, Kerstin; Simons, Gudrun; Walter, Beate; Woerle, Hans J.; Broedl, Uli C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Empagliflozin is a potent, selective sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor in development as an oral antidiabetic treatment. This QT interval study assessed potential effects of empagliflozin on ventricular repolarisation and other electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters. Methods A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-dose, double-blind, five-period crossover study incorporating a novel double-placebo period design to reduce sample size, while maintaining full statistical p...

  14. Expression of keratin 19, Na-K-Cl cotransporter and estrogen receptor alpha in developing mammary glands of ewes

    M. Colitti

    2011-01-01

    Mammary gland remodelling is strictly related to intracellular signals and stem cell biology. Among the best candidates to identify the nature and development of mammary cells are cytokeratin 19 (CK19), the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) and receptor of estrogen alpha (ERα). In this study, we analyzed the expression of these genes in ewe mammary glands from prepubertal stage to involution. Using Real time PCR we showed that NKCC1 transcription was significantly down regulated during lactation ...

  15. Co-Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by Motile Microorganisms Leads to Enhanced Mass Transfer under Diffusive Conditions

    Gilbert, Dorthea; Jakobsen, Hans H.; Winding, Anne; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    with hydrophobicity indicated PAH co-transport with the motile organisms. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed such transport. The effective diffusivity of T. pyriformis, determined by video imaging microscopy, was found to exceed molecular diffusivities of the PAHs up to four-fold. Cell-bound PAH...... fractions were determined to range from 28% (naphthalene) to 92% (pyrene). Motile microorganisms can therefore function as effective carriers for HOCs under diffusive conditions and might significantly enhance mobility and availability of HOCs....

  16. Restricted Feeding Phase Shifts Clock Gene and Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) Expression in Rats1–4

    Balakrishnan, Anita; Stearns, Adam T.; Ashley, Stanley W.; Tavakkolizadeh, Ali; Rhoads, David B.

    2010-01-01

    The intestine exhibits striking diurnal rhythmicity in glucose uptake, mediated by the sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT1); however, regulatory pathways for these rhythms remain incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that SGLT1 rhythmicity is linked to the circadian clock. To investigate this, we examined rhythmicity of Sglt1 and individual clock genes in rats that consumed food ad libitum (AL). We further compared phase shifts of Sglt1 and clock genes in a second group of rats followin...

  17. New potential sodium-glucose co-transporters sugar-based inhibitors for the treatment of diabetes

    Jesus, Ana Rita Xavier de

    2015-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Química (Química Orgânica), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 A small library of C-glucosyl dihydrochalcones and their aglycones, chalcones and dihydrochalcones, were synthesized aiming at preparing new C-glucosyl analogues of phlorizin, a well-known non-selective sodium-glucose co-transporter inhibitor, bearing different substituents on the dihydrochalcone moiety. Chalcones were prepared by conventional aldol condensation methods and also by microwa...

  18. Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Plays as a Physiological Glucose Sensor and Regulates Cellular Contractility in Rat Mesangial Cells

    Masanori Wakisaka; Tetsuhiko Nagao; Mototaka Yoshinari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mesangial cells play an important role in regulating glomerular filtration by altering their cellular tone. We report the presence of a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT) in rat mesangial cells. This study in rat mesangial cells aimed to evaluate the expression and role of SGLT2. Methods The SGLT2 expression in rat mesangial cells was assessed by Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Changes in the mesangial cell surface area at different gluc...

  19. Growth of NaCl on thin epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100) studied by SPA-LEED

    Marquardt, Christian; Paulheim, Alexander; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the growth of NaCl on thin (100)-oriented films of KCl by spot profile analysis of low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The underlying question of this investigation was how the system accommodates to the misfit of - 10% between the NaCl and KCl lattices. The KCl films (3 atomic layers thick) were epitaxially grown on a Ag(100) single crystal. We studied the heteroepitaxial growth of NaCl on KCl at 300 K and at 500 K, respectively. At 300 K, the first NaCl monolayer (ML) grows pseudomorphically on the KCl film. From the second layer onward, the NaCl lattice relaxes. The NaCl multilayers roughen, and a small rotational disorder (± 4°) of the NaCl domains is observed. The roughening results from the formation of multilayer islands of limited lateral size due to the misfit to the pseudomorphic first NaCl layer. At a growth temperature of 500 K, no pseudomorphic NaCl layer forms, instead relaxed multilayer island growth of NaCl is observed from the first layer onward. Similarly to the growth at 300 K, we find NaCl multilayer islands of limited lateral size. For both temperatures, we explain this growth behavior by the misfit that makes the adsorption sites at the island edges of the first relaxed NaCl layer less favorable for larger islands, promoting nucleation of multilayer islands.

  20. Functional interaction between CFTR and the sodium-phosphate co-transport type 2a in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

    Naziha Bakouh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing number of proteins, including ion transporters, have been shown to interact with Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane conductance Regulator (CFTR. CFTR is an epithelial chloride channel that is involved in Cystic Fibrosis (CF when mutated; thus a better knowledge of its functional interactome may help to understand the pathophysiology of this complex disease. In the present study, we investigated if CFTR and the sodium-phosphate co-transporter type 2a (NPT2a functionally interact after heterologous expression of both proteins in Xenopus laevis oocytes. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: NPT2a was expressed alone or in combination with CFTR in X. laevis oocytes. Using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, the inorganic phosphate-induced current (IPi was measured and taken as an index of NPT2a activity. The maximal IPi for NPT2a substrates was reduced when CFTR was co-expressed with NPT2a, suggesting a decrease in its expression at the oolemna. This was consistent with Western blot analysis showing reduced NPT2a plasma membrane expression in oocytes co-expressing both proteins, whereas NPT2a protein level in total cell lysate was the same in NPT2a- and NPT2a+CFTR-oocytes. In NPT2a+CFTR- but not in NPT2a-oocytes, IPi and NPT2a surface expression were increased upon PKA stimulation, whereas stimulation of Exchange Protein directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC had no effect. When NPT2a-oocytes were injected with NEG2, a short amino-acid sequence from the CFTR regulatory domain that regulates PKA-dependent CFTR trafficking to the plasma membrane, IPi values and NPT2a membrane expression were diminished, and could be enhanced by PKA stimulation, thereby mimicking the effects of CFTR co-expression. CONCLUSION/PERSPECTIVES: We conclude that when both CFTR and NPT2a are expressed in X. laevis oocytes, CFTR confers to NPT2a a cAMPi-dependent trafficking to the membrane. This functional interaction raises the hypothesis that CFTR may play a role in

  1. Making a Pellet-type LiCl-KCl-UCl3 salt for Electrorefining

    Woo, M. S.; Jin, H. J.; Kim, I. T.; Kim, J. G. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The role of uranium chloride salt (UCl3) is to stabilize the initial cell voltage between electrodes in the electrorefining reactor. The process to produce a uranium chloride salt includes two steps: a reaction process of gaseous chlorine with liquid cadmium to form the CdCl2 occurring in a Cd layer, followed by a process to produce UCl3 by the reaction of U in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and CdCl2 The apparatus for producing UCl3 consists of a chlorine gas generator, a uranium chlorinator, a Cd distiller, the pelletizer, and a off-gas and a dry scrubber. The temperature of the reactants is maintained at about 600 .deg. C. After the reaction is completed in the uranium chlorinator, The salt products is transferred to the Cd distiller to decrease residual Cd concentration in the salts, and then salt is transferred to the mould of pelletizer by a transfer system to make pellet type salt. Making pellet type LiCl-KCl-UCl3 salt for electrorefining was carried out using the chlorinator, Cd distiller, and pelletizer. Salt transfer carried out by salt transfer equipment heated 500 .deg. C. The Cd concentration of final salt products distillated at 60 torr, 2 hrs, 600 .deg. C was 200 ppm from the ICP, XRD analysis. And pellet type salt products were fabricated by using the mould of pelletizer at 90∼130 .deg. C.

  2. LiCl-KCl Induced Corrosion of Copper at Low Temperature

    Structural materials for PRIDE system are stainless steel and copper mainly. And these are known for maintaining integrity when there is no oxygen and water. But physicochemical behavior of structural materials of PRIDE system when there is some of oxygen and water is lack of research. And when local corrosion is occurred, it can cause crack, so that it will be a big problem of safety and economic efficiency. So evaluation of thermodynamical and mechanical stabilities of structural materials for PRIDE system is necessary to predict lifetime of materials and time to replace the part of the equipment. There is no research of evaluation of long-term structural stability of structural materials for PRIDE system now. The present work investigates how LiCl-KCl molten salts influence the low temperature corrosion of copper. From the corrosion test, we can confirm that LiCl-KCl salt accelerates the corrosion of copper at low temperature. It was observed by surface analysis and gravimetry. The corrosion pattern is general corrosion and corrosion rate is increased as the temperature and time go up

  3. A simplified model of TiH1.65/KClO4 pyrotechnic ignition.

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2009-04-01

    A simplified model was developed and is presented in this report for simulating thermal transport coupled with chemical reactions that lead to the pyrotechnic ignition of TiH1.65/KClO4 powder. The model takes into account Joule heating via a bridgewire, thermal contact resistance at the wire/powder interface, convective heat loss to the surroundings, and heat released from the TiH1.65- and KClO4-decomposition and TiO2-oxidation reactions. Chemical kinetic sub-models were put forth to describe the chemical reaction rate(s) and quantify the resultant heat release. The simplified model predicts pyrotechnic ignition when heat from the pyrotechnic reactions is accounted for. Effects of six key parameters on ignition were examined. It was found that the two reaction-rate parameters and the thermal contact resistance significantly affect the dynamic ignition process whereas the convective heat transfer coefficient essentially has no effect on the ignition time. Effects of the initial/ambient temperature and electrical current load through the wire are as expected. Ignition time increases as the initial/ambient temperature is lowered or the wire current load is reduced. Lastly, critical needs such as experiments to determine reaction-rate and other model-input parameters and to measure temperature profiles, time to ignition and burn-rate data for model validation as well as efforts in incorporating reaction-rate dependency on pressure are pointed out.

  4. Method for making a Pellet-type LiCl-KCl-UCl3 SALT

    A pyrometallurgical partitioning technology to recover uranium from a uranium-TRU mixture which is the product material of electroreduction system is being developed at KAERI since 1997. In the process, the reactor of an electrorefiner consists of the electrodes and the molten chloride salt which is LiCl-KCl-UCl3. The role of uranium chloride salt (UCl3) is to stabilize the initial cell voltage between electrodes in the electrorefining reactor. The process to produce a uranium chloride salt includes two steps: a reaction process of gaseous chlorine with liquid cadmium to form CdCl2 occurring in a Cd layer, followed by a process to produce UCl3 by the reaction of U in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and CdCl2 The apparatus for producing UCl3 consists of a chlorine gas generator, a uranium chlorinator, a Cd distiller, the pelletizer, and a off-gas and a dry scrubber. The temperature of the reactants is maintained at about 600 .deg. C. After the reaction is completed in the uranium chlorinator, The salt products is transferred to the Cd distiller to decrease residual Cd concentration in the salts, and then salt is transferred to the mould of a pelletizer by a transfer system to make a pellet type salt

  5. LiCl-KCl Induced Corrosion of Copper at Low Temperature

    Lee, Jae-Hoon; Sim, Ji-Hyung; Kim, Yong-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Structural materials for PRIDE system are stainless steel and copper mainly. And these are known for maintaining integrity when there is no oxygen and water. But physicochemical behavior of structural materials of PRIDE system when there is some of oxygen and water is lack of research. And when local corrosion is occurred, it can cause crack, so that it will be a big problem of safety and economic efficiency. So evaluation of thermodynamical and mechanical stabilities of structural materials for PRIDE system is necessary to predict lifetime of materials and time to replace the part of the equipment. There is no research of evaluation of long-term structural stability of structural materials for PRIDE system now. The present work investigates how LiCl-KCl molten salts influence the low temperature corrosion of copper. From the corrosion test, we can confirm that LiCl-KCl salt accelerates the corrosion of copper at low temperature. It was observed by surface analysis and gravimetry. The corrosion pattern is general corrosion and corrosion rate is increased as the temperature and time go up.

  6. Thermodynamics of neptunium in LiCl-KCl eutectic/liquid bismuth systems

    Thermodynamic properties of neptunium in LiCl-KCl eutectic/liquid bismuth systems in the temperature range 400--500 C have been studied using a galvanic cell method for the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of nuclear spent fuels. The standard potential of the Np/Np(III) couple vs. the Ag/AgCl (1 wt% AgCl) reference electrode in LiCl-KCl eutectic was measured and given by the equation ENp/Np(III)0 = minus2.0667 + 0.0007892 T (σ = 0.0009), where E is in volts, T is in kelvin, and σ is the standard deviation. The potential of neptunium-bismuth alloy, ENp-Bi, was measured as a function of neptunium concentration, XNpinBi. The curves for EBi-Np vs. log XNpinBi indicated the neptunium solubility in liquid bismuth to be 0.34 ± 0.02, 0.61 ± 0.08, and 1.06 ± 0.09 (±σ) atom % at 400, 450, and 500 C, respectively. The excess partial free energy of neptunium in liquid bismuth was represented by the equation, Δbar GNpxs (kcal/g atom) = minus32.5 (±0.7) + 0.0072 (±0.0010) T. The values of the solubility and excess partial free energy for neptunium were closer to those for plutonium rather than uranium

  7. Clinical potential of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes

    Kim Y

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yoojin Kim, Ambika R BabuDivision of Endocrinology, John Stroger Jr Hospital of Cook County and Rush University, Chicago, IL, USABackground: The kidney plays an important role in glucose metabolism, and has been considered a target for therapeutic intervention. The sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2 mediates most of the glucose reabsorption from the proximal renal tubule. Inhibition of SGLT2 leads to glucosuria and provides a unique mechanism to lower elevated blood glucose levels in diabetes. The purpose of this review is to explore the physiology of SGLT2 and discuss several SGLT2 inhibitors which have clinical data in patients with type 2 diabetes.Methods: We performed a PubMed search using the terms "SGLT2" and "SGLT2 inhibitor" through April 10, 2012. Published articles, press releases, and abstracts presented at national and international meetings were considered.Results: SGLT2 inhibitors correct a novel pathophysiological defect, have an insulin-independent action, are efficacious with glycosylated hemoglobin reduction ranging from 0.5% to 1.5%, promote weight loss, have a low incidence of hypoglycemia, complement the action of other antidiabetic agents, and can be used at any stage of diabetes. They are generally well tolerated. However, due to side effects, such as repeated urinary tract and genital infections, increased hematocrit, and decreased blood pressure, appropriate patient selection for drug initiation and close monitoring after initiation will be important. Results of ongoing clinical studies of the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on diabetic complications and cardiovascular safety are crucial to determine the risk-benefit ratio. A recent decision by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency has recommended approval of dapagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes as an adjunct to diet and exercise, in combination with other glucose-lowering medicinal products, including

  8. Potassium channel and NKCC cotransporter involvement in ocular refractive control mechanisms.

    Sheila G Crewther

    Full Text Available Myopia affects well over 30% of adult humans globally. However, the underlying physiological mechanism is little understood. This study tested the hypothesis that ocular growth and refractive compensation to optical defocus can be controlled by manipulation of potassium and chloride ion-driven transretinal fluid movements to the choroid. Chicks were raised with +/-10D or zero power optical defocus rendering the focal plane of the eye in front of, behind, or at the level of the retinal photoreceptors respectively. Intravitreal injections of barium chloride, a non-specific inhibitor of potassium channels in the retina and RPE or bumetanide, a selective inhibitor of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter were made, targeting fluid control mechanisms. Comparison of refractive compensation to 5 mM Ba(2+ and 10(-5 M bumetanide compared with control saline injected eyes shows significant change for both positive and negative lens defocus for Ba(2+ but significant change only for negative lens defocus with bumetanide (Rx(SAL(-10D = -8.6 +/- .9 D; Rx(Ba2+(-10D = -2.9 +/- .9 D; Rx(Bum(-10D = -2.9 +/- .9 D; Rx(SAL(+10D = +8.2 +/- .9 D; Rx(Ba2+(+10D = +2.8 +/- 1.3 D; Rx(Bum(+10D = +8.0 +/- .7 D. Vitreous chamber depths showed a main effect for drug conditions with less depth change in response to defocus shown for Ba(2+ relative to Saline, while bumetanide injected eyes showed a trend to increased depth without a significant interaction with applied defocus. The results indicate that both K channels and the NKCC cotransporter play a role in refractive compensation with NKCC blockade showing far more specificity for negative, compared with positive, lens defocus. Probable sites of action relevant to refractive control include the apical retinal pigment epithelium membrane and the photoreceptor/ON bipolar synapse. The similarities between the biometric effects of NKCC inhibition and biometric reports of the blockade of the retinal ON response, suggest a

  9. Computer simulation of electron states of the isoelectronic substitutional impurities in quantum wire of KCl with edge dislocation

    The electron states of quantum wires KCl, KCl : Br, and KCl : I with an edge dislocations were investigated. The main problem was in study of dislocation influence on localized electron states connected with substitutional isoelectronic impurities Br− and I− in the neighborhood of edge dislocation line. The tight-binding semi-empirical band approximation, semi-empirical and non-empirical cluster approach were used. Semi-empirical calculations were carried out in framework of model [1,2]. Besides, the algorithms for electronic levels calculations of polar nanosystems with the partial self-consistency [3] were used. The computer simulation results lead to the conclusion that the substitutional isoelectronic impurity anions Br− and I− located near the dislocation line capture the holes more efficiently than in bulk of systems without dislocations

  10. X-ray and optical study on point defect formation and interaction under irradiation adn doping of KCl

    Optical and X-ray diffuse scattering methods have been applied to investigate structural changes, taking place in KCl crystals during irradiation with γ-quanta and doping with barium. It is shown that γ-irradiation of ''pure'' and doped KCl crystals mainly leads to formation of F-centers and spherical vacancy complexes. F-center concentration in irradiated addition crystals (3x10-6) has turned out to be 25% lower, than in irradiated pure ones (4x10-6), which is connected with interaction of radiation and addition defects. The type of defects, causing assymetry in the distribution of diffuse scattering has been determined. Appearance of scattering ability modulation over direction during irradiation of KCl pure crystals has been found. Critical radius of spherical complexes formed during irradiation has been estimated, it appeared to be 2.5 a, where a is a lattice period

  11. KCl-Dependent Release of Mitochondrial Membrane-Bound Arginase Appears to Be a Novel Variant of Arginase-II

    Suman, Mishra; Rajnikant, Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Arginase regulates arginine metabolism, ornithine-urea cycle, and immunological surveillance. Arginase-I is predominant in cytosol, and arginase-II is localised in the mitochondria. A mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase has also been proposed to be adsorbed with outer membrane of mitochondria which gets released by 150 mM potassium chloride (KCl). It is presumed that inclusion of 150 mM KCl in the homogenization medium would not only facilitate release of arginase bound with outer membrane of mitochondria but also affect functional anatomy of mitochondria, mitochondrial enzymes, and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to characterize KCl-dependent release of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase from liver of mice. Results provide advancement in the area of arginase biology and suggest that fraction of mitochondrial membrane-bound arginase contains mitochondrial arginase-II and a variant of arginase-II. PMID:27293971

  12. Molecular cloning of a cDNA for a putative choline co-transporter from Limulus CNS.

    Wang, Y; Cao, Z; Newkirk, R F; Ivy, M T; Townsel, J G

    2001-05-01

    It is well documented that the sodium dependent, hemicholinium-3 sensitive, high affinity choline co-transporter is rate limiting in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine and is essential to cholinergic transmission. Until recently this transporter had eluded cloning. Okuda et al. (2000. Nature Neurosci. 3, 120-125) recently reported the successful cloning of the choline co-transporter in Caenorhabditis elegans (CHO-1) and rat (CHT1). We report herein the cloning of the choline co-transporter in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Through the use of a series of degenerate primers selected from consensus sequences of CHO-1 and CHT1, we generated two probes that were used to search a Limulus cDNA library produced from central nervous system (CNS) tissue. The full length nucleotide sequence of the Limulus homolog consists of 3368 bp which includes an open reading frame (ORF) that predicts a protein of 579 amino acids and two non-translation regions (NTR), one at the 3' end and the other at the 5' end. The amino acid sequence has 46% identity with rat CHT1 and 50% identity with both CHO-1 in C. elegans and the recently cloned human co-transporter (hCHT; Apparsundaram et al., 2000. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 276, 862-867; Okuda and Haga, 2000. FEBS Lett. 484, 92-97). Hydropathy plot analysis predicts the Limulus choline co-transporter (LChCoT) to have thirteen transmembrane domains (TMD), with the N-terminus oriented extracellularly and the C-terminus oriented intracellularly. Northern blot analyses using cDNA probes designed from LChCoT cDNA sequences revealed its distribution specifically in central nervous system structures. On the other hand it was not found in non-nervous tissues. The successful cloning of LChCoT, which was shown to be a member of the sodium-dependent glucose transporter family (SLGT), should prove useful in the determination of its physiological regulation, including its intracellular trafficking. PMID:11368908

  13. Clinical Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacodynamic, and Drug-Drug Interaction Profile of Canagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Co-transporter 2 Inhibitor.

    Devineni, Damayanthi; Polidori, David

    2015-10-01

    The sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent novel therapeutic approaches in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus; they act on kidneys to decrease the renal threshold for glucose (RTG) and increase urinary glucose excretion (UGE). Canagliflozin is an orally active, reversible, selective SGLT2 inhibitor. Orally administered canagliflozin is rapidly absorbed achieving peak plasma concentrations in 1-2 h. Dose-proportional systemic exposure to canagliflozin has been observed over a wide dose range (50-1600 mg) with an oral bioavailability of 65 %. Canagliflozin is glucuronidated into two inactive metabolites, M7 and M5 by uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B4, respectively. Canagliflozin reaches steady state in 4 days, and there is minimal accumulation observed after multiple dosing. Approximately 60 % and 33 % of the administered dose is excreted in the feces and urine, respectively. The half-life of orally administered canagliflozin 100 or 300 mg in healthy participants is 10.6 and 13.1 h, respectively. No clinically relevant differences are observed in canagliflozin exposure with respect to age, race, sex, and body weight. The pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin remains unaffected by mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Systemic exposure to canagliflozin is increased in patients with renal impairment relative to those with normal renal function; however, the efficacy is reduced in patients with renal impairment owing to the reduced filtered glucose load. Canagliflozin did not show clinically relevant drug interactions with metformin, glyburide, simvastatin, warfarin, hydrochlorothiazide, oral contraceptives, probenecid, and cyclosporine, while co-administration with rifampin modestly reduced canagliflozin plasma concentrations and thus may necessitate an appropriate monitoring of glycemic control. Canagliflozin increases UGE and suppresses RTG in a dose-dependent manner, thereby lowering the plasma glucose

  14. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1) Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop

    Sasseville, Louis J.; Morin, Michael; Coady, Michael J.; Blunck, Rikard; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1) were labelled on an externally accessible cysteine residue with a thiol-reactive fluorophore (tetramethylrhodamine-C5-maleimide, TMR). Addition of dipicrylamine (DPA, a negatively-charged amphiphatic fluorescence “quencher”) to the fluorescently-labelled oocytes is used to quench the fluorescence originating from hSGLT1 in a voltage-dependent manner. Using this arrangement with a cysteine residue introduced at position 624 in the loop between transmembrane segments 12 and 13, the voltage-dependent fluorescence signal clearly indicated that this portion of the 12–13 loop is located on the external side of the membrane. As the 12–13 loop begins on the intracellular side of the membrane, this suggests that the 12–13 loop is re-entrant. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we observed that different hSGLT1 molecules are within molecular distances from each other suggesting a multimeric complex arrangement. In agreement with this conclusion, a western blot analysis showed that hSGLT1 migrates as either a monomer or a dimer in reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively. A systematic mutational study of endogenous cysteine residues in hSGLT1 showed that a disulfide bridge is formed between the C355 residues of two neighbouring hSGLT1 molecules. It is concluded that, 1) hSGLT1 is expressed as a disulfide bridged homodimer via C355 and that 2) a portion of the intracellular 12–13 loop is re-entrant and readily accessible from the extracellular milieu. PMID:27137918

  15. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1 Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop.

    Louis J Sasseville

    Full Text Available Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1 constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1 were labelled on an externally accessible cysteine residue with a thiol-reactive fluorophore (tetramethylrhodamine-C5-maleimide, TMR. Addition of dipicrylamine (DPA, a negatively-charged amphiphatic fluorescence "quencher" to the fluorescently-labelled oocytes is used to quench the fluorescence originating from hSGLT1 in a voltage-dependent manner. Using this arrangement with a cysteine residue introduced at position 624 in the loop between transmembrane segments 12 and 13, the voltage-dependent fluorescence signal clearly indicated that this portion of the 12-13 loop is located on the external side of the membrane. As the 12-13 loop begins on the intracellular side of the membrane, this suggests that the 12-13 loop is re-entrant. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET, we observed that different hSGLT1 molecules are within molecular distances from each other suggesting a multimeric complex arrangement. In agreement with this conclusion, a western blot analysis showed that hSGLT1 migrates as either a monomer or a dimer in reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively. A systematic mutational study of endogenous cysteine residues in hSGLT1 showed that a disulfide bridge is formed between the C355 residues of two neighbouring hSGLT1 molecules. It is concluded that, 1 hSGLT1 is expressed as a disulfide bridged homodimer via C355 and that 2 a portion of the intracellular 12-13 loop is re-entrant and readily accessible from the extracellular milieu.

  16. The Human Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter (hSGLT1) Is a Disulfide-Bridged Homodimer with a Re-Entrant C-Terminal Loop.

    Sasseville, Louis J; Morin, Michael; Coady, Michael J; Blunck, Rikard; Lapointe, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Na-coupled cotransporters are proteins that use the trans-membrane electrochemical gradient of Na to activate the transport of a second solute. The sodium-glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) constitutes a well-studied prototype of this transport mechanism but essential molecular characteristics, namely its quaternary structure and the exact arrangement of the C-terminal transmembrane segments, are still debated. After expression in Xenopus oocytes, human SGLT1 molecules (hSGLT1) were labelled on an externally accessible cysteine residue with a thiol-reactive fluorophore (tetramethylrhodamine-C5-maleimide, TMR). Addition of dipicrylamine (DPA, a negatively-charged amphiphatic fluorescence "quencher") to the fluorescently-labelled oocytes is used to quench the fluorescence originating from hSGLT1 in a voltage-dependent manner. Using this arrangement with a cysteine residue introduced at position 624 in the loop between transmembrane segments 12 and 13, the voltage-dependent fluorescence signal clearly indicated that this portion of the 12-13 loop is located on the external side of the membrane. As the 12-13 loop begins on the intracellular side of the membrane, this suggests that the 12-13 loop is re-entrant. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we observed that different hSGLT1 molecules are within molecular distances from each other suggesting a multimeric complex arrangement. In agreement with this conclusion, a western blot analysis showed that hSGLT1 migrates as either a monomer or a dimer in reducing and non-reducing conditions, respectively. A systematic mutational study of endogenous cysteine residues in hSGLT1 showed that a disulfide bridge is formed between the C355 residues of two neighbouring hSGLT1 molecules. It is concluded that, 1) hSGLT1 is expressed as a disulfide bridged homodimer via C355 and that 2) a portion of the intracellular 12-13 loop is re-entrant and readily accessible from the extracellular milieu. PMID:27137918

  17. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors with insulin in type 2 diabetes: Clinical perspectives

    Mathew John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of type 2 diabetes is a challenging problem. Most subjects with type 2 diabetes have progression of beta cell failure necessitating the addition of multiple antidiabetic agents and eventually use of insulin. Intensification of insulin leads to weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycemia. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitors are a class of antihyperglycemic agents which act by blocking the SGLT2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney. They have potential benefits in terms of weight loss and reduction of blood pressure in addition to improvements in glycemic control. Further, one of the SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin has proven benefits in reducing adverse cardiovascular (CV outcomes in a CV outcome trial. Adding SGLT2 inhibitors to insulin in subjects with type 2 diabetes produced favorable effects on glycemic control without the weight gain and hypoglycemic risks associated with insulin therapy. The general risks of increased genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, volume, and osmosis-related adverse effects in these subjects were similar to the pooled data of individual SGLT2 inhibitors. There are subsets of subjects with type 2 diabetes who may have insulin deficiency, beta cell autoimmunity, or is prone to diabetic ketoacidosis. In these subjects, SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution to prevent the rare risks of ketoacidosis.

  18. Abnormal expression of cerebrospinal fluid cation chloride cotransporters in patients with Rett syndrome.

    Sofia Temudo Duarte

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Rett Syndrome is a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder caused mainly by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. The relevance of MeCP2 for GABAergic function was previously documented in animal models. In these models, animals show deficits in brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease. Neuronal Cation Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs play a key role in GABAergic neuronal maturation, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor is implicated in the regulation of CCCs expression during development. Our aim was to analyse the expression of two relevant CCCs, NKCC1 and KCC2, in the cerebrospinal fluid of Rett syndrome patients and compare it with a normal control group. METHODS: The presence of bumetanide sensitive NKCC1 and KCC2 was analysed in cerebrospinal fluid samples from a control pediatric population (1 day to 14 years of life and from Rett syndrome patients (2 to 19 years of life, by immunoblot analysis. RESULTS: Both proteins were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and their levels are higher in the early postnatal period. However, Rett syndrome patients showed significantly reduced levels of KCC2 and KCC2/NKCC1 ratio when compared to the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Reduced KCC2/NKCC1 ratio in the cerebrospinal fluid of Rett Syndrome patients suggests a disturbed process of GABAergic neuronal maturation and open up a new therapeutic perspective.

  19. LLC-PK1 cells express Na+-lactate cotransport in apical membranes after confluency

    L-[3H]lactate uptake was characterized in LLC-PK1 cell apical membrane vesicles obtained by intensive culture on microcarrier beads. The apical membrane preparation technique involved MgCl2 precipitation. Na+-dependent L-[3H]lactate uptake was present only after confluency; its appearance paralleled the subcellular localization of aminopeptidase in apical membranes. L-[3H]lactate uptake was Na+-dependent and electrogenic. Only the Na+-dependent component of L[3H]lactate uptake was saturable with one family of independent carriers. The apparent affinity constant was 1.1 ± 0.25 mM and the apparent maximal velocity was 29 ± 3 nmol·mg-1·min-1. The Na+-lactate cotransport stoichiometry was 2 Na+ for 1 lactate. The specificity of the L-lactate transport system was compatible with that of the monocarboxylic acid pathway described previously brush-border membranes of kidney cortex and discrete from the tricarboxylic acid carrier, the D-glucose transporter, and the general pathway for anions. The LLC-PK1 cell line appears to be a useful tool for study of the regulation of L-lactate uptake and biosynthesis of the renal monocarboxylic acid transporter

  20. Characterization and comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacologic effects.

    Tahara, Atsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Yokono, Masanori; Imamura, Masakazu; Kurosaki, Eiji

    2016-03-01

    The sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 offer a novel approach to treating type 2 diabetes by reducing hyperglycaemia via increased urinary glucose excretion. In the present study, the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacologic properties of all six SGLT2 inhibitors commercially available in Japan were investigated and compared. Based on findings in normal and diabetic mice, the six drugs were classified into two categories, long-acting: ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin, and intermediate-acting: tofogliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin. Long-acting SGLT2 inhibitors exerted an antihyperglycemic effect with lower variability of blood glucose level via a long-lasting increase in urinary glucose excretion. In addition, ipragliflozin and luseogliflozin exhibited superiority over the others with respect to fast onset of pharmacological effect. Duration and onset of the pharmacologic effects seemed to be closely correlated with the pharmacokinetic properties of each SGLT2 inhibitor, particularly with respect to high distribution and long retention in the target organ, the kidney. While all six SGLT2 inhibitors were significantly effective in increasing urinary glucose excretion and reducing hyperglycemia, our findings suggest that variation in the quality of daily blood glucose control associated with duration and onset of pharmacologic effects of each SGLT2 inhibitor might cause slight differences in rates of improvement in type 2 diabetes. PMID:26970780

  1. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Possible Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects Beyond Glucose Lowering.

    Yanai, Hidekatsu; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Adachi, Hiroki; Moriyama, Sumie; Yoshikawa, Reo; Sako, Akahito

    2016-01-01

    The new drug for type 2 diabetes, the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, is reversible inhibitor of SGLT-2, leading to reduction of renal glucose reabsorption and decrease of plasma glucose, in an insulin-independent manner. In addition to glucose control, the management of coronary risk factors is very important for patients with diabetes. Here we reviewed published articles about the possible anti-atherosclerotic effects beyond glucose lowering of the SGLT-2 inhibitors. We searched by using Pubmed, and found 770 published articles about SGLT-2 inhibitors. Among 10 kinds of SGLT-2 inhibitors, the number of published articles about dapagliflozin was the greatest among SGLT-2 inhibitors. Since SGLT-2 inhibitors have similar chemical structures, we concentrated on the published articles about dapagliflozin. SGLT-2 inhibitors are proved to be significantly associated with weight loss and reduction of blood pressure by a relatively large number of studies. The studies investigating effects of dapagliflozin on visceral fat, insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, inflammation and adipocytokines are very limited. An influence of increase in glucagon secretion by SGLT-2 inhibitors on metabolic risk factors remains unknown. PMID:26668677

  2. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors with insulin in type 2 diabetes: Clinical perspectives

    John, Mathew; Gopinath, Deepa; Jagesh, Rejitha

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of type 2 diabetes is a challenging problem. Most subjects with type 2 diabetes have progression of beta cell failure necessitating the addition of multiple antidiabetic agents and eventually use of insulin. Intensification of insulin leads to weight gain and increased risk of hypoglycemia. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a class of antihyperglycemic agents which act by blocking the SGLT2 in the proximal tubule of the kidney. They have potential benefits in terms of weight loss and reduction of blood pressure in addition to improvements in glycemic control. Further, one of the SGLT2 inhibitors, empagliflozin has proven benefits in reducing adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in a CV outcome trial. Adding SGLT2 inhibitors to insulin in subjects with type 2 diabetes produced favorable effects on glycemic control without the weight gain and hypoglycemic risks associated with insulin therapy. The general risks of increased genital mycotic infections, urinary tract infections, volume, and osmosis-related adverse effects in these subjects were similar to the pooled data of individual SGLT2 inhibitors. There are subsets of subjects with type 2 diabetes who may have insulin deficiency, beta cell autoimmunity, or is prone to diabetic ketoacidosis. In these subjects, SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution to prevent the rare risks of ketoacidosis. PMID:26904465

  3. Sodium glucose co-transporter inhibitors - A new class of old drugs.

    Malhotra, Aneeta; Kudyar, Surbhi; Gupta, Anil K; Kudyar, Rattan P; Malhotra, Pavan

    2015-01-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) inhibitors are a new class of drugs which are used in the pharmacotherapy of Type-II diabetes, which happens to be a major risk factor for developing both micro as well as macro-vascular complications. These drugs inhibit the glucose reabsorption by inhibiting SGLT, which exhibits a novel and promising mechanism of action by promoting the urinary glucose excretion hence providing a basis of therapeutic intervention. Results of SGLT-II inhibitors are very encouraging as there is a significant elevation of GLP-1 level, which forms the basis of relevance in treatment of diabetes. It targets the HbA1C and keeps a check on its levels. It also exerts other positive benefits such as weight loss, reduction in blood glucose levels, reduction in blood pressure and improvement in insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction: All contributing to effective glycemic control. SGLT inhibition will develop as effective modality as it has the capability of inhibiting reabsorption of greater percentage of filtered glucose load. PMID:26539362

  4. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and genital and urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetes.

    Arakaki, Richard F

    2016-05-01

    Coincident with the high and increasing worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a growing armamentarium of antidiabetes medications has been introduced to target different organ systems that play a role in the pathophysiology of T2D. Among these, the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors were introduced in the United States in 2013 as a new treatment option to address the hyperglycemia associated with T2D. SGLT-2 inhibitors decrease renal glucose reabsorption, resulting in glucosuria, alleviation of hyperglycemia, and modest weight loss and are associated with a low risk of hypoglycemia. The SGLT-2 inhibitors have been linked to an increased incidence of genital mycotic infections and, to a lesser extent, urinary tract infections, which may limit their utility in some patients. This review examines the prevalence, recurrence rates, treatment options, and responses to treatment of genital and urinary tract infections in patients with T2D receiving SGLT-2 inhibitors, with the aim of guiding clinicians in the most effective use of these agents for the treatment of hyperglycemia. PMID:26982554

  5. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter Inhibitors: Effects on Renal and Intestinal Glucose Transport: From Bench to Bedside.

    Mudaliar, Sunder; Polidori, David; Zambrowicz, Brian; Henry, Robert R

    2015-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease with disabling micro- and macrovascular complications that lead to excessive morbidity and premature mortality. It affects hundreds of millions of people and imposes an undue economic burden on populations across the world. Although insulin resistance and insulin secretory defects play a major role in the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia, several other metabolic defects contribute to the initiation/worsening of the diabetic state. Prominent among these is increased renal glucose reabsorption, which is maladaptive in patients with diabetes. Instead of an increase in renal glucose excretion, which could ameliorate hyperglycemia, there is an increase in renal glucose reabsorption, which helps sustain hyperglycemia in patients with diabetes. The sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors are novel antidiabetes agents that inhibit renal glucose reabsorption and promote glucosuria, thereby leading to reductions in plasma glucose concentrations. In this article, we review the long journey from the discovery of the glucosuric agent phlorizin in the bark of the apple tree through the animal and human studies that led to the development of the current generation of SGLT2 inhibitors. PMID:26604280

  6. Blocking effect of colloids on arsenate adsorption during co-transport through saturated sand columns.

    Ma, Jie; Guo, Huaming; Lei, Mei; Wan, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hanzhi; Feng, Xiaojuan; Wei, Rongfei; Tian, Liyan; Han, Xiaokun

    2016-06-01

    Transport of environmental pollutants through porous media is influenced by colloids. Co-transport of As(V) and soil colloids at different pH were systematically investigated by monitoring breakthrough curves (BTCs) in saturated sand columns. A solute transport model was applied to characterize transport and retention sites of As(V) in saturated sand in the presence of soil colloids. A colloid transport model and the DLVO theory were used to reveal the mechanism and hypothesis of soil colloid-promoted As(V) transport in the columns. Results showed that rapid transport of soil colloids, regulated by pH and ionic strength, promoted As(V) transport by blocking As(V) adsorption onto sand, although soil colloids had low adsorption for As(V). The promoted transport was more significant at higher concentrations of soil colloids (between 25 mg L(-1) and 150 mg L(-1)) due to greater blocking effect on As(V) adsorption onto the sand surfaces. The blocking effect of colloids was explained by the decreases in both instantaneous (equilibrium) As adsorption and first-order kinetic As adsorption on the sand surface sites. The discovery of this blocking effect improves our understanding of colloid-promoted As transport in saturated porous media, which provides new insights into role of colloids, especially colloids with low As adsorption capacity, in As transport and mobilization in soil-groundwater systems. PMID:27017140

  7. The Sodium Glucose Cotransporter SGLT1 Is an Extremely Efficient Facilitator of Passive Water Transport.

    Erokhova, Liudmila; Horner, Andreas; Ollinger, Nicole; Siligan, Christine; Pohl, Peter

    2016-04-29

    The small intestine is void of aquaporins adept at facilitating vectorial water transport, and yet it reabsorbs ∼8 liters of fluid daily. Implications of the sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in either pumping water or passively channeling water contrast with its reported water transporting capacity, which lags behind that of aquaporin-1 by 3 orders of magnitude. Here we overexpressed SGLT1 in MDCK cell monolayers and reconstituted the purified transporter into proteoliposomes. We observed the rate of osmotic proteoliposome deflation by light scattering. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy served to assess (i) SGLT1 abundance in both vesicles and plasma membranes and (ii) flow-mediated dilution of an aqueous dye adjacent to the cell monolayer. Calculation of the unitary water channel permeability, pf, yielded similar values for cell and proteoliposome experiments. Neither the absence of glucose or Na(+), nor the lack of membrane voltage in vesicles, nor the directionality of water flow grossly altered pf Such weak dependence on protein conformation indicates that a water-impermeable occluded state (glucose and Na(+) in their binding pockets) lasts for only a minor fraction of the transport cycle or, alternatively, that occlusion of the substrate does not render the transporter water-impermeable as was suggested by computational studies of the bacterial homologue vSGLT. Although the similarity between the pf values of SGLT1 and aquaporin-1 makes a transcellular pathway plausible, it renders water pumping physiologically negligible because the passive flux would be orders of magnitude larger. PMID:26945065

  8. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as anti-diabetic agents: a review

    Chirag B. Mistry

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence and prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have been increasing worldwide. However, existing therapeutic classes of anti-diabetic drugs are not adequately effective in achieving and maintaining long-term glycemic control in the most patients. The majority of the drugs control blood sugar without addressing the basic pathology of insulin resistance and relative deficiency. Moreover, side effects such as hypoglycemia and weight gain, of both new and established drugs need to be considered prior to treating a patient. An emerging anti-hyperglycemic intervention, the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor acts by a novel mechanism. Under physiological conditions, SGLT2 accounts for 90% of the glucose re-absorption in the kidney, while the SGLT2 inhibitors result in an increase in urinary excretion of glucose and lower plasma glucose levels. Here, the pros and cons of SGLT2 inhibitors are considered, while approaching a patient with T2DM. The basic biochemistry and physiology underlying the mechanisms of SGLT2 inhibitors are discussed alongside its clinical pharmacology, with a focus on metabolic changes associated with urinary glucose loss. Finally, a consideration of Food and Drug Administration safety concerns associated with acidosis due to SGLT2 inhibitor usage is presented, to allow a complete understanding of the utility of these molecules in the light of existing T2DM therapies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(5.000: 815-821

  9. Electrochemical studies and analysis of 1–10 wt% UCl3 concentrations in molten LiCl–KCl eutectic

    Three electrochemical methods – cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) – were applied to solutions of up to 10 wt% UCl3 in the molten LiCl–KCl eutectic salt at 500 °C to determine electrochemical properties and behaviors and to help provide a scientific basis for the development of an in situ electrochemical probe for determining the concentration of uranium in a used nuclear fuel electrorefiner. Diffusion coefficients of UCl4 and UCl3 were calculated to be (6.72 ± 0.360) × 10−6 cm2/s and (1.04 ± 0.17) × 10−5 cm2/s, respectively. Apparent standard reduction potentials were determined to be (−0.381 ± 0.013) V and (−1.502 ± 0.076) V vs. 5 mol% Ag/AgCl or (−1.448 ± 0.013) V and (−2.568 ± 0.076) V vs. Cl2/Cl− for the U(IV)/U(III) and U(III)/U redox couples, respectively. In comparing this data with supercooled thermodynamic data to determine activity coefficients, the thermodynamic database used was important with resulting activity coefficients ranging from 2.34 × 10−3 to 1.08 × 10−2 for UCl4 and 4.94 × 10−5 to 4.50 × 10−4 for UCl3. Of anodic stripping voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry anodic or cathodic peaks, the CV cathodic peak height divided by square root of scan rate was shown to be the most reliable method of determining UCl3 concentration in the molten salt

  10. Labelling by 3H-N-ethylmaleimide of diamide-oxidized thiol groups in sheep red blood cell (SRBC) membranes

    Exposure of SRBC to the thiol oxidant diamide activates K:Cl cotransport, reversed upon metabolic restoration of cellular glutathione suggesting redox control of the K:Cl cotransporter, as well as by subsequent exposure to dithiothreitol (DTT). The thiols crucial for activation may be either on the transporter or on a membrane or cytoplasmic regulator. To test this hypothesis, the authors attempted to label with 3H-N-ethylmaleimide (3H-NEM) the thiols protected by diamide oxidation and reduced subsequently by DTT. SRBC were first treated with a diamide concentration activating K:Cl cotransport, followed by a second exposure to unlabeled (cold) NEM to block any non-oxidized thiol, and then hemolyzed to obtain white ghosts. The ghosts were again treated with cold NEM and after reduction by DTT exposed to 3H-NEM with and without cold NEM. Saturation labelling by 3H-NEM of diamide protected groups occurred in the range of CTT concentrations inactivating the diamide-stimulated K:Cl cotransport. Saturation labelling with 3H-NEM occurred at about 25μM NEM suggesting a Ki of less than 10μM NEM. The number of diamide protected thiols was about 5-10,000/cell membrane. At 100μM 3H-NEM, SRBC not treated with diamide possess at least 100,000 thiols cell and this number is likely to rise by tenfold at higher NEM concentrations. Thus, diamide protected about 1/1,000 of the membrane thiols in both genetically low and high K SRBC, assayed under conditions where K:Cl cotransport is activated in intact cells. Therefore, at least some of the thiols crucial for potential regulation of K:Cl cotransport reside within the plasma membrane

  11. Study of the Eu2+ and Eu3+ coexist in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Melt by Spectrophotometry and Electrochemistry Method

    In order to ensure the pyrochemical process, it is necessary to understand the chemical behavior of lanthanides in the molten salt. Through most of lanthanides in molten salts take trivalent states, Eu, Sm, and Yb are possible to take divalent states under reducing conditions, and Eu(II) is the most stable among them. Those reports suggest the existence of Eu in the chloride systems. In electrochemical analysis with molten salts, yttria stabilized zirconia membrane electrodes (YSZME) are largely used as an activity indicator of oxide anion, O2-. In the present study, the effect of the coexisted Eu2+ on the potentiometric titration of Eu3+ was examined. The spectrophotometry and electrochemistry method could b used to measure the ratio of [Eu2+]/[Eu3+]efficiently. The existence of the europium divalent in the LiCl-KCl-EuCl3 solution has been demonstrated by potentiometric titration method with YSZ electrode and Pt wire as a working electrode

  12. Evaluation of apparent standard potentials of curium in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt

    Electrochemical properties of curium (Cm-244) dissolved in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt were studied in the temperature range of 718 - 823 K. A small electrochemical cell used in the present study was designed to measure electrochemical properties of highly radioactive Cm-244, the maximum handling amount of which is 30 mg in our hot cells, dissolved in molten salts. Apparent standard potentials of Cm3+/Cm couple obtained in the present study, E°* (Cm3+/Cm) = (-3.236 ± 0.011) + (4.86 ± 0.14) × 10-4 T, reasonably agree with Osipenko's data (2011) and are lower than Martinot's data (1975). The validity of the data obtained in the present study was discussed by comparing with the reported data of other transuranic elements. (author)

  13. Electrochemical preparation and spectroelectrochemical study of neptunium chloride complexes in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    We prepared neptunium chloride complexes electrochemically and performed spectroelectrochemical measurements of neptunium ions in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts at 450 deg C, where the neptunium concentrations studied were in the range of 0.1-1 mM. We observed a highly absorbing f-d transition band of Np3+ at 383 nm, which was used to determine an formal potential of the Np4+|Np3+ redox couple (Edeg' = 0.45 V vs. Ag|Ag+) with a solution of concentration as low as ∼0.1 mM. This result agreed well with the value (Edeg' = 0.42 V vs. Ag|Ag+) determined by cyclic voltammetry with a ∼15 mM solution. (author)

  14. Development of high temperature transport technology for LiCl-KCl eutectic salt in pyroprocessing

    Lee, Sung Ho; Lee, Hansoo; Kim, In Tae; Kim, Jeong-Guk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeok-daaro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    The development of high-temperature transport technologies for molten salt is a prerequisite and a key issue in the industrialization of pyro-reprocessing for advanced fuel cycle scenarios. The solution of a molten salt centrifugal pump was discarded because of the high corrosion power of a high temperature molten salt, so the suction pump solution was selected. An apparatus for salt transport experiments by suction was designed and tested using LiC-KCl eutectic salt. The experimental results of lab-scale molten salt transport by suction showed a 99.5% transport rate (ratio of transported salt to total salt) under a vacuum range of 100 mtorr - 10 torr at 500 Celsius degrees. The suction system has been integrated to the PRIDE (pyroprocessing integrated inactive demonstration) facility that is a demonstrator using non-irradiated materials (natural uranium and surrogate materials). The performance of the suction pump for the transport of molten salts has been confirmed.

  15. Electrochemical separation of uranium and cerium in molten LiCl-KCl

    The electrochemical separation of uranium from cerium in LiCl–KCl eutectic and the electrochemical behavior of Ce(III) were studied. According to the cyclic voltammogram of Ce(III) and the former result of U(III), electrodeposition potential was determined at -1.65 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The uranium metal was successfully deposited and separated from cerium. The morphology of deposit and cross section of electrode were investigated by SEM, firstly uranium deposit alloys with stainless steel and forms a thin transition layer, and secondly the uranium metal layer grows from the transition layer. The separation factors of uranium/cerium on different recovery ratios were determined through a series of steps. It was found that the content of cerium in the deposit and separation factors declined with increasing the initial concentration of U3+ in molten salts; the separation factors remained stable at around 20 in different uranium recovery ratios. (author)

  16. Effect of Eu2+ concentration on the lattice parameter and density of KCl crystals

    Precise lattice parameter (a) measurements reveal that with increasing Eu2+ concentration the KCl matrix undergoes a continuous contraction in the whole range examined up to 350 ppm, reaching the value Δa/a = -4.8 x 10-4. The above effect suggests a strong interaction between one impurity dipole and a fragment of the lattice comprizing several unit cells. The density increments obtained from the flotation data are considerably lower from those estimated from the X-ray data. The above difference is explained in terms of high contents of excess (over-equilibrium) vacancy pairs (e.g. 1.3 x 1019 cm-3 in a sample containing 175 ppm Eu2+) existing in the form of aggregates or voids. (author)

  17. Thermoluminescent monitoring of the solar ultraviolet radiation with KCl: Eu2+ crystals

    In this work it has been investigating the Tl properties of KCl: Eu2+ subjected to solar direct radiation. Also it was realized irradiation with the Deuterium and Xenon lamps. It was used a set of filters and a Katos monochromator 0.25 M to determine the spectral response to Tl peaks and a study of them with respect to the duration of the Sun irradiation. After of the Sun irradiation the Tl curves show several peaks between the ambient temperature and 673 K. The relation between peaks depends strongly of the irradiation time and the different solar light wavelength. It is possible to divide the Tl peaks in two groups. The first one (T473 K) is not too sensitive but is more stable under optical whitening. Here the obtained results are discussed with respect to UV dosemeters development for environment which facilitate to obtain direct measurements of the UV index. (Author)

  18. Measurements of pressure for the TiH/sub x//KClO4 system

    An investigation was conducted to measure the pressure obtained when the pyrotechnic mixture TiH/sub x//KClO4 was ignited in a confined variable-volume system. It was possible to derive an expression of the form PV/sup γ/ = k for the pressure-volume relationship obtained. This expression is a polytropic expansion of the ideal gas equation that best fits the data generated. For this particular work, values of γ = 0.53 and k = 69.3 were obtained where P is in megapascals and V is in cubic centimeters. In addition, estimates of the reaction rates were calculated based on the times to achieve maximum pressure for a given volume system. An explicit expression relating rate to pressure was derived by a simplified least-squares fit of the data obtained

  19. Electro separation of an actinide using Al cathodes in LiCl-KCl

    In this work, the reprocessing of a simulated spent fuel (U60Pu20Zr10Am2Nd3.5Y0.5Ce0.5Gd0.5) has been studied by electrolysis in molten chloride salt on a solid Al cathode. The electrorefining was carried out under constant current at 733 K in LiCl-KCl eutectic. The obtained deposits were dissolved in HNO3 (7 M) and analysed by ICP-MS. The deposits were found to be composed mainly of U, Pu and Am. The U/Nd, Pu/Nd and Am/Nd ratios in the deposits were higher than 2000, 990 and 55, respectively. Therefore excellent separation of U and Pu from Ln was obtained and a separation of MA from Ln seems to be possible even with a low initial Am/Nd concentration ratio (0.41) in the salt phase. (authors)

  20. Electrolysis of plutonium nitride in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    Shirai, O.; Iwai, T.; Shiozawa, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamura, Y.; Inoue, T.

    2000-01-01

    The electrolysis of plutonium nitride, PuN, was investigated in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt with 0.54 wt% PuCl 3 at 773 K in order to understand the dissolution of PuN at the anode and the deposition of metal at the cathode from the viewpoint of the application of a pyrochemical process to nitride fuel cycle. It was found from cyclic voltammetry that the electrochemical dissolution of PuN began nearly at the theoretically evaluated potential and this reaction was irreversible. Several grams of plutonium metal were successfully recovered at the molybdenum electrode as a deposit with a current efficiency of about 90%, although some fractions of the deposited plutonium often fell from the molybdenum electrode.

  1. Electrolysis of plutonium nitride in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts

    The electrolysis of plutonium nitride, PuN, was investigated in the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt with 0.54 wt% PuCl3 at 773 K in order to understand the dissolution of PuN at the anode and the deposition of metal at the cathode from the viewpoint of the application of a pyrochemical process to nitride fuel cycle. It was found from cyclic voltammetry that the electrochemical dissolution of PuN began nearly at the theoretically evaluated potential and this reaction was irreversible. Several grams of plutonium metal were successfully recovered at the molybdenum electrode as a deposit with a current efficiency of about 90%, although some fractions of the deposited plutonium often fell from the molybdenum electrode

  2. Selective Reduction of Active Metal Chlorides from Molten LiCl-KCl using Lithium Drawdown

    Michael F. Simpson; Daniel LaBrier; Michael Lineberry; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2012-10-01

    In support of optimizing electrorefining technology for treating spent nuclear fuel, lithium drawdown has been investigated for separating actinides from molten salt electrolyte. Drawdown reaction selectivity is a major issue that needs to be investigated, since the goal is to remove actinides while leaving the fission products in the salt. A series of lithium drawdown tests with surrogate fission product chlorides was run to obtain selectivity data with non-radioactive salts, develop a predictive model, and draw conclusions about the viability of using this process with actinide-loadd salt. Results of tests with CsCl, LaCl3, CeCl3, and NdCl3 are reported here. An equilibrium model has been formulated and fit to the experimental data. Excellent fits to the data were achieved. Based on analysis and results obtained to date, it is concluded that clean separation between minor actinides and lanthanides will be difficult to achieve using lithium drawdown.

  3. 用加速量热仪研究KClO3/CuO/S/MgAl/C6Cl6的热分解%Investigation of Thermal Decomposition of KClO3/CuO/S/Mg-Al/C6Cl6 System by Accelerating Rate Calorimeter

    钱新明; 王耘; 冯长根; 郑娆

    2001-01-01

    The thermal decompositions of two systems(No.1,KClO3(52.2%)/CuO(26.0%)/S(9.6%)/Mg-Al(3.5%)/C6Cl6(4.35%) and No.2,KClO3(52.2%)/CuO(26.0%)/S(9.6%)/Mg-Al(3.5%)/C6Cl6(4.35%) are studied using Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC). Temperature vs time curve and pressure vs time curve of reactions are shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2 respectively. The basic data including reaction time(1.3 and 7.3 min respectively), initial temperature(159 and 150 ℃ respectively),temperature at the maximum rate(272 and 272 ℃ respectively), the maximum pressure(420 and 190 kPa respectively) and the activation energies(175.6 and 135.2 kJ· mol- 1 respectively) of the thermal decomposition are given to evaluate the safety of the two systems. Results indicate that system No.2 is safer than system No.1. Compared with the traditional methods, ARC technique can be used to measure temperature and pressure of exothermic reaction concurrently, to find the tiny exothermicity and to determine the initial temperature of exothermic reaction.

  4. An investigation of ruthenium coating from LiCl–KCl eutectic melt

    Kartal Sireli, G., E-mail: kartalgu@itu.edu.tr

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A white/gray Ru coating was achieved via electrodeposition from LiCl–KCl melt. • Cathodic current efficiency (η) was increased as high as 99.68%. • A dense and 8.5 μm thick Ru coating was possible to be grown after 2 h. • “Faceted structure” was observed on the surface of Ru deposited at 3 and 7 mA/cm{sup 2}. • The thickness of Ru increased with increasing both current density and time. - Abstract: In this study, electrodeposition of ruthenium (Ru) from LiCl–KCl eutectic melt was investigated in a systematic manner and the effects of process parameters namely current density, time and agitation of electrolyte on the thickness and morphology of Ru layer were explored. The presence of Ru on graphite substrates was confirmed by thin film X-ray diffraction method. The Ru coatings formed at all electrodeposition conditions appeared as a white/gray deposit. The typical “faceted structure” was observed on the surface of Ru deposited at 3 and 7 mA/cm{sup 2}. Fracture cross-section examinations revealed the columnar morphology of Ru which was twinned with boundaries. The smooth appearance of Ru coating became uneven and rough with coarse nodules at 12 mA/cm{sup 2}. The thickness of Ru increased with increasing both current density and time at stationary electrodeposition conditions. A dense and 7.5 μm thick Ru coating was possible to grow on graphite without any agitation at 3 mA/cm{sup 2} for 2 h. The highest cathodic current efficiency (η), 99.68%, was achieved at 3 mA/cm{sup 2} after 2 h of electrodeposition time with the rotating cathode speed of 50 rpm. The cross sectional micro-indentation studies indicated that the Ru layer has hardness as high as 450 ± 10 HV.

  5. An investigation of ruthenium coating from LiCl–KCl eutectic melt

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A white/gray Ru coating was achieved via electrodeposition from LiCl–KCl melt. • Cathodic current efficiency (η) was increased as high as 99.68%. • A dense and 8.5 μm thick Ru coating was possible to be grown after 2 h. • “Faceted structure” was observed on the surface of Ru deposited at 3 and 7 mA/cm2. • The thickness of Ru increased with increasing both current density and time. - Abstract: In this study, electrodeposition of ruthenium (Ru) from LiCl–KCl eutectic melt was investigated in a systematic manner and the effects of process parameters namely current density, time and agitation of electrolyte on the thickness and morphology of Ru layer were explored. The presence of Ru on graphite substrates was confirmed by thin film X-ray diffraction method. The Ru coatings formed at all electrodeposition conditions appeared as a white/gray deposit. The typical “faceted structure” was observed on the surface of Ru deposited at 3 and 7 mA/cm2. Fracture cross-section examinations revealed the columnar morphology of Ru which was twinned with boundaries. The smooth appearance of Ru coating became uneven and rough with coarse nodules at 12 mA/cm2. The thickness of Ru increased with increasing both current density and time at stationary electrodeposition conditions. A dense and 7.5 μm thick Ru coating was possible to grow on graphite without any agitation at 3 mA/cm2 for 2 h. The highest cathodic current efficiency (η), 99.68%, was achieved at 3 mA/cm2 after 2 h of electrodeposition time with the rotating cathode speed of 50 rpm. The cross sectional micro-indentation studies indicated that the Ru layer has hardness as high as 450 ± 10 HV

  6. Study of thermodynamic properties of Pu-Al alloys in eutectic LiCl-KCl

    Pyrochemical separation processes are considered as a promising alternative to the hydrometallurgical methods. A technique developed in ITU is based on electrochemical reduction of actinides on an Al cathode in molten salts. This work is focused on chemical characterisation and determination of thermodynamic properties of Pu-Al alloys. The alloys are formed on a solid Al electrode during Pu electrodeposition in molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic. A carbo-chlorination was applied to convert PuO2 added to the molten salt in order to produce a LiCl-KCl-PuCl3 (∼2 wt.%). It was proven, by electrochemical measurements, that the salt contained pure PuCl3 without impurities. Pu-Al alloy properties were studied in the temperature range of 400 - 550 deg. C by electrochemical techniques. Cyclic voltammetry showed one reduction step of Pu3+ on inert W electrode (Pu3+/Pu0). On reactive aluminium electrode, reduction of Pu3+ to Pu0 occurs at more positive potential due to the formation of Pu-Al intermetallic compounds. Open Circuit Potentiometric (OCP) measurements, after depositions of Pu metal onto the Al electrode by short galvanic electrolysis, were used to identify Pu-Al intermetallic compounds. The curves obtained after OCP measurements exhibits 6 plateaus which is in agreement with the Pu-Al phase diagram, containing 5 compounds stable at working temperature range. The thermodynamic properties of the Pu-Al alloys (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS) were deduced from those curves by e.m.f. measurements. Pu-Al deposits were obtained by galvano-static electrolyses on Al plates. XRD and SEM analysis revealed a mixture of PuAl3 and PuAl4 alloys. (authors)

  7. Novel roles of the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 and the Na+,HCO3 - cotransporter NBCn1 in cell survival, proliferation and motility

    Thorup, Gitte Ehrenreich

    cell motility. The molecular mechanisms contributing to altered pHi regulation in cancer cells are incomplete understood. Overexpression of ErbB2 is common in breast cancer and the expression of an N-terminally truncated, constitutively active ErbB2 receptor (ΔNErbB2) is associated with increased...... glycolysis, malignancy and poor prognosis. This thesis focuses on the regulation and roles of two pH regulatory transporters, the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE1 (SLC9A1) and the Na+,HCO3 - cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells expressing ΔNErbB2. Specifically, how these transporters contribute to....... Pharmacological inhibition of NHE1 enhances cisdiamminedichloroplatinum (II) (cisplatin) induced cell death, especially in ΔNErbB2 expressing cells. In Paper III we show that upon cisplatin treatment, expression of ΔNErbB2 results in increased caspase-9 and -7 cleavage, which is further augmented by specific...

  8. Analysis of ileal sodium/bile acid cotransporter and related nuclear receptor genes in a family with multiple cases of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption

    Marco Montagnani; Anna Abrahamsson; Cecilia G(a)lman; G(o)sta Eggertsen; Hanns-Ulrich Marschall; Elisa Ravaioli; Curt Einarsson; Paul A Dawson

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of most cases of idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (TBAM) is unknown. Tn this study, a Swedish family with bile acid malabsorption in three consecutive generations was screened for mutations in the ileal apical sodium-bile acid cotransporter gene (ASBT; gene symbol, SLC10A2) and in the genes for several of the nuclear receptors known to be important for ASBT expression: the farnesoid X receptor (FXR)and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The patients presented with a clinical history of idiopathic chronic watery diarrhea, which was responsive to cholestyramine treatment and consistent with IBAM. Bile acid absorption was determined using 75Se-homocholic acid taurine(SeHCAT); bile acid synthesis was estimated by measuring the plasma levels of 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4). The ASBT,FXR, and PPARα genes in the affected and unaffected family members were analyzed using single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP), denaturing HPLC,and direct sequencing. No ASBT mutations were identified and the ASBT gene did not segregate with the bile acid malabsorption phenotype. Similarly, no mutations or polymorphisms were identified in the FXR or PPARα genes associated with the bile acid malabsorption phenotype. These studies indicate that the intestinal bile acid malabsorption in these patients cannot be attributed to defects in ASBT. In the absence of apparent ileal disease, alternative explanations such as accelerated transit through the small intestine may be responsible for the IBAM.

  9. Thermodynamic description of the AgCl–CoCl2–InCl3–KCl system

    The present investigation is aimed at deriving a set of self-consistent thermodynamic functions for the AgCl–CoCl2–InCl3–KCl quaternary system within the framework of the CALPHAD approach. All the previous reported thermodynamic parameters for the binary subsystems were initially reviewed and adopted, and critical thermodynamic evaluations and optimizations were later performed on the unavailable AgCl–KCl and InCl3–KCl systems in terms of the required phase equilibria and thermochemical data from experimental measurements and theoretical predictions (First-principles method and empirical equation). The Modified Quasi-Chemical model were applied to describing the molten salt phase, while all the intermediate phases were treated as the stoichiometric compounds due to no observation of the homogeneity composition range. Various phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties in the ternary and quaternary systems could be facilely calculated based upon the ultimate thermodynamic database established in this case, which will support beneficial instructions in the related industrial processes. - Highlights: • The modified quasi-chemical model was used to describe the liquid phase. • First principles method was applied to assist model parameters optimization of the intermediate phase. • The complete phase diagram of the InCl3–KCl system was calculated for the first time in the present work

  10. Densities of L-Glutamic Acid HCl Drug in Aqueous NaCl and KCl Solutions at Different Temperatures

    Ryshetti, Suresh; Raghuram, Noothi; Rani, Emmadi Jayanthi; Tangeda, Savitha Jyostna

    2016-04-01

    Densities (ρ ) of (0.01 to 0.07) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} L-Glutamic acid HCl (L-HCl) drug in water, and in aqueous NaCl and KCl (0.5 and 1.0) {mol}{\\cdot } {kg}^{-1} solutions have been reported as a function of temperature at T = (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K and atmospheric pressure. The accurate density (ρ ) values are used to estimate the various parameters such as the apparent molar volume (V_{2,{\\upphi }}), the partial molar volume (V2^{∞}), the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient (α 2), the partial molar expansion (E2^{∞}), and Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)P. The Cosphere overlap model is used to understand the solute-solvent interactions in a ternary mixture (L-HCl drug + NaCl or KCl + water). Hepler's constant (partial 2V2^{∞}/partial T2)_P is utilized to interpret the structure-making or -breaking ability of L-HCl drug in aqueous NaCl and KCl solutions, and the results are inferred that L-HCl drug acts as a structure maker, i.e., kosmotrope in aqueous NaCl solutions and performs as a structure breaker, i.e., chaotrope in aqueous KCl solutions.

  11. Uncertainties of Gaseous Oxidized Mercury Measurements Using KCl-Coated Denuders, Cation-Exchange Membranes, and Nylon Membranes: Humidity Influences.

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-05-19

    Quantifying the concentration of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and identifying the chemical compounds in the atmosphere are important for developing accurate local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles. The major hypothesis driving this work was that relative humidity affects collection of GOM on KCl-coated denuders and nylon membranes, both currently being applied to measure GOM. Using a laboratory manifold system and ambient air, GOM capture efficiency on 3 different collection surfaces, including KCl-coated denuders, nylon membranes, and cation-exchange membranes, was investigated at relative humidity ranging from 25 to 75%. Recovery of permeated HgBr2 on KCl-coated denuders declined by 4-60% during spikes of relative humidity (25 to 75%). When spikes were turned off GOM recoveries returned to 60 ± 19% of permeated levels. In some cases, KCl-coated denuders were gradually passivated over time after additional humidity was applied. In this study, GOM recovery on nylon membranes decreased with high humidity and ozone concentrations. However, additional humidity enhanced GOM recovery on cation-exchange membranes. In addition, reduction and oxidation of elemental mercury during experiments was observed. The findings in this study can help to explain field observations in previous studies. PMID:25877790

  12. The influence of oxide on the electrochemical processes in K2NbF7-NaCl-KCl melts

    Lantelme, F.; Berghoute, Y.; Barner, Jens H. Von;

    1995-01-01

    Transient electrochemical techniques showed that in NaCl-KCl melts the reduction of K2NbF7 occurs through atwo-step reaction Nb(V) --> Nb(IV) --> Nb. When oxide ions were introduced, cyclic voltammetry indicated that the wavescorresponding to reduction of the complex NbF72- progressively disappea...

  13. Thermodiffusive behaviour of NaCl and KCl aqueous solutions a model for the Na-K pump

    In NaCl and KCl aqueous nonisothermal solutions K+ inverts its sense of migration within the physiological concentration range; Na+ behaves similarly at much lower concentrations. These findings are discussed in relation to solute induced modifications of water structure and of their influence on thermal diffusion. A possible evolutionary model of a thermodiffusive mechanism for the sodium potassium pump is also suggested

  14. Spectroscopic analysis of trivalent cerium and holmium ions in LiCl–KCl eutectic melt at high temperature

    The chemical behavior of trivalent cerium (Ce3+) and holmium (Ho3+) dissolved in a LiCl–KCl eutectic melt was investigated through a spectroscopic analysis. The molten LiCl–KCl bath was constructed using an externally controlled high-temperature furnace apparatus. Ultraviolet–visible absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded at 400 °C. We observed heavily broadened and intense fluorescence spectra of Ce3+ attributed to the electric-dipole-allowed 5d–4f transition. The fluorescence signal of Ho3+ separately dissolved in the LiCl–KCl eutectic was difficult to detect in the visible range. The fluorescence emission of Ho3+ containing various intra-f transitions in the visible range was strongly enhanced when Ho3+ and Ce3+ ions were co-dissolved in a LiCl–KCl eutectic melt. - Highlights: ► Fluorescence of Ho3+ and Ce3+ mixtures in a KCl–LiCl melt was examined with pulsed laser excitation. ► Broad fluorescence emission band of Ce3+ appeared in the absence of Ho3+ with 355-nm excitation. ► There appeared no prominent emission peaks from Ho3+ in the absence of Ce3+. ► Fluorescence of Ho3+ ions was strongly enhanced in the presence of Ce3+ by energy transfer.

  15. Electrochemical behavior of La(III) on the zinc-coated W electrode in LiCl-KCl eutectic

    The electrochemical behaviors of La(III) on W and Zn-coated W electrodes was investigated, respectively, in the LiCl-KCl eutectic by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and open circuit chronopotentiometry (OCP). On an inert W electrode, the reduction of La(III) takes place at about −2.11 V in a single soluble-insoluble electrochemical step La(III)/La(0). In contrast, the electrochemical reduction of La(III) on a Zn-coated W electrode was observed at less cathodic potentials than at the inert W electrode. The potential shift was mainly caused by the formation of La-Zn intermetallic compounds, in which the activity of La was largely decreased compared to that in pure La metal. From CV results, six peaks corresponding to the formation of La-Zn intermetallic compounds were observed. By the OCP technique, eight plateaus corresponding to the co-existence of two phases of La-Zn intermetallic compound such as LaZn-LaZn2, LaZn2-LaZn4, LaZn4-LaZn5, LaZn5 -La3Zn22, La3Zn22-La2Zn17, La2Zn17-LaZn11, LaZn11-LaZn13 and LaZn13-Zn were observed. The formation energy of each La-Zn intermetallic compound, and the overall formation constant were estimated from OCP measurements at 723 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were employed to characterize the potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis products. The presences of LaZn, LaZn2, LaZn5 and La2Zn17 in the electrolysis products were identified

  16. Comparison of Reactive Mercury Concentrations Measured Simultaneously Using KCl-coated Denuders, Nylon Membranes, and Cation Exchange Membranes

    Gustin, M. S.; Huang, J.; Miller, M. B.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    There is much debate about the chemistry of reactive gaseous and particle bound mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, and the processes associated with formation. In addition, there are concerns regarding the interferences and calibration of the widely used Tekran® 2537/1130/1135 Hg measurement system. To investigate these we developed simple laboratory and field sampling systems designed to collect and analyze reactive Hg (Hg (II), Hg (I) and/or particle bound). A manifold system was applied in the laboratory, and in the field, in-series and -parallel membranes, flow controllers and pumps were utilized. Both systems actively collected reactive Hg using nylon membranes and cation exchange membranes alongside measurements made using the Tekran® system. The analytical system consisted of step wise 2.5 minute thermo-desorption and Hg quantification by cold vapor atomic fluorescence. In the laboratory, we compared the efficiency of these surfaces for collection of HgO, HgCl2, and HgBr2 when permeated into Hg and oxidant free air, and ambient filtered air. Other tests are ongoing. Thus far, results show concentrations measured by the cation exchange membrane were two-to-three fold greater than that measured by the nylon membranes, and three-to -four fold greater than that measured by the KCl-coated annual denuder. Thermo-desorption profiles obtained using nylon membranes show slightly different patterns associated with the reactive Hg compounds as permeated and tested. Field measurements were made at two locations in Reno, Nevada (a high traffic site and an agricultural area) and at Elkhorn Slough, California (marine site). Desorption profiles from nylon membrane differed by site and by time of year. Although the influence of aerosol on this measurement has not been explored, field results suggest different forms of reactive Hg were present in the atmosphere as a function of season and location.

  17. Spectroscopic analysis of trivalent cerium and holmium ions in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at high temperature

    Oh, Seong Y. [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedukdaero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Yun, E-mail: kjy@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedukdaero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Eun; Cho, Young Hwan; Yeon, Jei-Won; Song, Kyuseok [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daedukdaero 989-111, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The chemical behavior of trivalent cerium (Ce{sup 3+}) and holmium (Ho{sup 3+}) dissolved in a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt was investigated through a spectroscopic analysis. The molten LiCl-KCl bath was constructed using an externally controlled high-temperature furnace apparatus. Ultraviolet-visible absorption and fluorescence spectra were recorded at 400 Degree-Sign C. We observed heavily broadened and intense fluorescence spectra of Ce{sup 3+} attributed to the electric-dipole-allowed 5d-4f transition. The fluorescence signal of Ho{sup 3+} separately dissolved in the LiCl-KCl eutectic was difficult to detect in the visible range. The fluorescence emission of Ho{sup 3+} containing various intra-f transitions in the visible range was strongly enhanced when Ho{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} ions were co-dissolved in a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence of Ho{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} mixtures in a KCl-LiCl melt was examined with pulsed laser excitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Broad fluorescence emission band of Ce{sup 3+} appeared in the absence of Ho{sup 3+} with 355-nm excitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There appeared no prominent emission peaks from Ho{sup 3+} in the absence of Ce{sup 3+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence of Ho{sup 3+} ions was strongly enhanced in the presence of Ce{sup 3+} by energy transfer.

  18. Cotransport of graphene oxide and Cu(II) through saturated porous media.

    Zhou, D D; Jiang, X H; Lu, Y; Fan, W; Huo, M X; Crittenden, J C

    2016-04-15

    This study examines the cotransport of graphene oxide (GO) and Cu in porous media. The impacts of GO concentration and ion strength (IS) on Cu transport in laboratory packed columns were investigated. The results indicated that GO had fairly high mobility at a IS of 1mM, and could serve as an effective carrier of Cu(II). The facilitated transport was found to increase with increasing concentration of GO (CGO). The peak effluent concentration (C/C0)max of Cu was 0.57 at CGO of 120mg/L and IS=1mM and 0.13 at 40mg/L and IS=1mM. The Cu appears to be irreversibly adsorbed by the sand because no Cu appeared in the effluent in the absence of GO. However, the GO-facilitated Cu transport was reduced as the IS increased from 1 to 1000mM. In fact, the facilitated transport was zero percent at an IS of 1000mM. Particle size analysis, Zeta potential measurements and DLVO calculations demonstrated that higher IS values made the GO became unstable and it flocculated and attached to the sand. We also fed GO into the column pre-equilibrated by Cu as sequential elution experiments and found that the later introduced GO can complex the pre-adsorbed Cu from the sand surface because GO has a higher adsorption affinity for Cu. An advection-dispersion-retention numerical model was able to describe the Cu and GO transport in the column. Our work provides useful insights into fate, transport and risk assessment of heavy metal contaminants in the presence of engineered nanoparticles. PMID:26849335

  19. Na(+)-D-glucose cotransporter in the kidney of Squalus acanthias: molecular identification and intrarenal distribution.

    Althoff, Thorsten; Hentschel, Hartmut; Luig, Jutta; Schütz, Hendrike; Kasch, Myriam; Kinne, Rolf K-H

    2006-04-01

    Using primers against conserved regions of mammalian Na(+)-d-glucose cotransporters (SGLT), a cDNA was cloned from the kidney of spiny dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias). On the basis of comparison of amino acid sequence, membrane topology, and putative glycosylation and phosphorylation sites, the cDNA could be shown to belong to the family of sglt genes. Indeed, Na(+)-dependent d-glucose uptake could be demonstrated after expression of the gene in Xenopus laevis oocytes. In a dendrogram, the SGLT from shark kidney has a high homology to the mammalian SGLT2. Computer analysis revealed that the elasmobranch protein is most similar to the mammalian proteins in the transmembrane regions and contains already all the amino acids identified to be functionally important, suggesting early conservation during evolution. Extramembraneous loops show larger variations. This holds especially for loop 13, which has been implied as a phlorizin-binding domain. Antibodies were generated and the intrarenal distribution of the SGLT was studied in cryosections. In parallel, the nephron segments were identified by lectins. Positive immunoreactions were found in the proximal tubule in the early parts PIa and PIb and the late segment PIIb. The large PIIa segment of the proximal tubule showed no reaction. In contrast to the mammalian kidney also the late distal tubule, the collecting tubule, and the collecting duct showed immunoreactivity. The molecular information confirms previous vesicle studies in which a low affinity SGLT with a low stoichiometry has been observed and supports the notion of a similarity of the shark kidney SGLT to the mammalian SGLT2. Despite its presence in the late parts of the nephron, the absence of SGLT in the major part of the proximal tubule, the relatively low affinity, and in particular the low stoichiometry might explain the lack of a T(m) for d-glucose in the shark kidney. PMID:16306165

  20. Glucose affects monocarboxylate cotransporter (MCT) 1 expression during mouse preimplantation development.

    Jansen, Sarah; Esmaeilpour, Tahereh; Pantaleon, Marie; Kaye, Peter L

    2006-03-01

    Cleavage-stage embryos have an absolute requirement for pyruvate and lactate, but as the morula compacts, it switches to glucose as the preferred energy source to fuel glycolysis. Substrates such as glucose, amino acids, and lactate are moved into and out of cells by facilitated diffusion. In the case of lactate and pyruvate, this occurs via H+-monocarboxylate cotransporter (MCT) proteins. To clarify the role of MCT in development, transport characteristics for DL-lactate were examined, as were mRNA expression and protein localisation for MCT1 and MCT3, using confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence in freshly collected and cultured embryos. Blastocysts demonstrated significantly higher affinity for DL-lactate than zygotes (Km 20 +/- 10 vs 87 +/- 35 mmol lactate/l; P = 0.03 by linear regression) but was similar for all stages. For embryos derived in vivo and those cultured with glucose, MCT1 mRNA was present throughout preimplantation development, protein immunoreactivity appearing diffuse throughout the cytoplasm with brightest intensity in the outer cortical region of blastomeres. In expanding blastocysts, MCT1 became more prominent in the cytoplasmic cortex of blastomeres, with brightest intensity in the polar trophectoderm. Without glucose, MCT1 mRNA was not expressed, and immunoreactivity dramatically reduced in intensity as morulae died. MCT3 mRNA and immunoreactivity were not detected in early embryos. The differential expression of MCT1 in the presence or absence of glucose demonstrates that it is important in the critical regulation of pH and monocarboxylate transport during preimplantation development, and implies a role for glucose in the control of MCT1, but not MCT3, expression. PMID:16514190

  1. Age-dependent susceptibility to phenobarbital-resistant neonatal seizures: role of chloride co-transporters

    Seok Kyu Kang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia in the immature brain is an important cause of neonatal seizures. Temporal evolution of acquired neonatal seizures and their response to anticonvulsants are of great interest, given the unreliability of the clinical correlates and poor efficacy of first-line anti-seizure drugs. The expression and function of the electroneutral chloride co-transporters KCC2 and NKCC1 influence the anti-seizure efficacy of GABAA-agonists. To investigate ischemia-induced seizure susceptibility and efficacy of the GABAA-agonist phenobarbital (PB, with NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide (BTN as an adjunct treatment, we utilized permanent unilateral carotid-ligation to produce acute ischemic-seizures in postnatal day 7, 10 and 12 CD1 mice. Immediate post-ligation video-electroencephalograms (EEGs quantitatively evaluated baseline and post-treatment seizure burdens. Brains were examined for stroke-injury and western blot analyses to evaluate the expression of KCC2 and NKCC1. Severity of acute ischemic seizures post-ligation was highest at P7. PB was an efficacious anti-seizure agent at P10 and P12, but not at P7. BTN failed as an adjunct, at all ages tested and significantly blunted PB-efficacy at P10. Significant acute post-ischemic downregulation of KCC2 was detected at all ages. At P7, males displayed higher age-dependent seizure susceptibility, associated with a significant developmental lag in their KCC2 expression. This study established a novel neonatal mouse model of PB-resistant seizures that demonstrates age/sex-dependent susceptibility. The age-dependent profile of KCC2 expression and its post-insult downregulation may underlie the PB-resistance reported in this model. Blocking NKCC1 with low-dose BTN following PB treatment failed to improve PB-efficacy.

  2. 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake in parotid acinar cells by the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transport system.

    Helman, J; Turner, R J; Fox, P C; Baum, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    99mTc-Pertechnetate (99mTcO4-) has widespread clinical use in the diagnosis and evaluation of dysfunctions in many different tissues. However, despite the broad clinical application of this radionuclide, very little is known about the mechanism by which 99mTcO4- enters a cell. We report evidence here that 99mTcO4- shares the Na+/K+/Cl- co-transport system localized to the basolateral membrane of rat parotid acinar cells. 99mTcO4- uptake by these cells was quite rapid (t1/2 approximately 30 s)...

  3. Skeletal muscle sodium glucose co-transporters in older adults with type 2 diabetes undergoing resistance training

    Castaneda, Francisco; Layne, Jennifer E.; Castaneda, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    We examined the expression of the sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter system (hSGLT3) in skeletal muscle of Hispanic older adults with type 2 diabetes. Subjects (65±8 yr) were randomized to resistance training (3x/wk, n=13) or standard of care (controls, n=5) for 16 weeks. Skeletal muscle hSGLT3 and GLUT4 mRNA transcript levels were determined by real time RT-PCR. hSGLT3 transcripts increased by a factor of ten following resistance training compared to control subjects (0.10, P=0.03). The...

  4. Sugar Binding Residue Affects Apparent Na+ Affinity and Transport Stoichiometry in Mouse Sodium/Glucose Cotransporter Type 3B*

    Díez-Sampedro, Ana; Barcelona, Stephanie

    2010-01-01

    SGLT1 is a sodium/glucose cotransporter that moves two Na+ ions with each glucose molecule per cycle. SGLT3 proteins belong to the same family and are described as glucose sensors rather than glucose transporters. Thus, human SGLT3 (hSGLT3) does not transport sugar, but extracellular glucose depolarizes the cell in which it is expressed. Mouse SGLT3b (mSGLT3b), although it transports sugar, has low apparent sugar affinity and partially uncoupled stoichiometry compared with SGLT1, suggesting t...

  5. Na+-d-glucose Cotransporter SGLT1 is Pivotal for Intestinal Glucose Absorption and Glucose-Dependent Incretin Secretion

    Gorboulev, Valentin; Schürmann, Annette; Vallon, Volker; Kipp, Helmut; Jaschke, Alexander; Klessen, Dirk; Friedrich, Alexandra; Scherneck, Stephan; Rieg, Timo; Cunard, Robyn; Veyhl-Wichmann, Maike; Srinivasan, Aruna; Balen, Daniela; Breljak, Davorka; Rexhepaj, Rexhep

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the physiological role of Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in small intestine and kidney, Sglt1−/− mice were generated and characterized phenotypically. After gavage of d-glucose, small intestinal glucose absorption across the brush-border membrane (BBM) via SGLT1 and GLUT2 were analyzed. Glucose-induced secretion of insulinotropic hormone (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in wild-type and Sglt1−/− mice were compared. The impact of SGLT1 on renal glucose handling was inves...

  6. Inhibition of Sodium-GlucoseCotransporter 2 with dapagliflozin in Han: SPRD rats with polycystic kidney disease

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Kapoor, Sarika; Edenhofer, Ilka; Segerer, Stephan; Riwanto, Meliana; Kipar, Anja; Yang, Ming; Mei, Changlin; Wüthrich, Rudolf P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS Dapagliflozin (DAPA) is a selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) which induces glucosuria and osmotic diuresis. The therapeutic effect of DAPA in progressing stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) has not been studied. METHODS We examined the effect of DAPA in the Han: SPRD rat model of PKD. DAPA (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (VEH) was administered orally via gavage to 5 week old male Han: SPRD (Cy/+) or control (+/+) rats (n = 8-9 per group) for 5...

  7. Common mechanisms of inhibition for the Na+/glucose (hSGLT1) and Na+/Cl−/GABA (hGAT1) cotransporters

    Hirayama, Bruce A.; Díez-Sampedro, Ana; Wright, Ernest M.

    2001-01-01

    Electrophysiological methods were used to investigate the interaction of inhibitors with the human Na+/glucose (hSGLT1) and Na+/Cl−/GABA (hGAT1) cotransporters. Inhibitor constants were estimated from both inhibition of substrate-dependent current and inhibitor-induced changes in cotransporter conformation.The competitive, non-transported inhibitors are substrate derivatives with inhibition constants from 200 nM (phlorizin) to 17 mM (esculin) for hSGLT1, and 300 nM (SKF89976A) to 10 mM (baclo...

  8. Cotransport of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and hematite colloids in saturated porous media: Mechanistic insights from mathematical modeling and phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation

    Wang, Dengjun; Jin, Yan; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-11-01

    The fate and transport of individual type of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in porous media have been studied intensively and the corresponding mechanisms controlling ENPs transport and deposition are well-documented. However, investigations regarding the mobility of ENPs in the concurrent presence of another mobile colloidal phase such as naturally occurring colloids (colloid-mediated transport of ENPs) are largely lacking. Here, we investigated the cotransport and retention of engineered hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) with naturally occurring hematite colloids in water-saturated sand columns under environmentally relevant transport conditions, i.e., pH, ionic strength (IS), and flow rate. Particularly, phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation of HANPs during cotransport was explored at various ISs and flow rates to examine the mechanisms controlling the isotope fractionation of HANPs in abiotic transport processes (physical transport). During cotransport, greater mobility of both HANPs and hematite occurred at higher pHs and flow rates, but at lower ISs. Intriguingly, the mobility of both HANPs and hematite was substantially lower during cotransport than the individual transport of either, attributed primarily to greater homo- and hetero-aggregation when both particles are copresent in the suspension. The shapes of breakthrough curves (BTCs) and retention profiles (RPs) during cotransport for both particles evolved from blocking to ripening with time and from flat to hyperexponential with depth, respectively, in response to decreases in pH and flow rate, and increases in IS. The blocking BTCs and RPs that are flat or hyperexponential can be well-approximated by a one-site kinetic attachment model. Conversely, a ripening model that incorporates attractive particle-particle interaction has to be employed to capture the ripening BTCs that are impacted by particle aggregation during cotransport. A small phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation (≤ 1.8

  9. Expression of Na+/HCO3- co-transporter proteins (NBCs) in rat and human skeletal muscle

    Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Kristensen, Michael; Juel, Carsten

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Sodium/bicarbonate co-transport (NBC) has been suggested to have a role in muscle pH regulation. We investigated the presence of NBC proteins in rat and human muscle samples and the fibre type distribution of the identified NBCs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Western blotting of muscle homogenates and...... T-tubules. The two NBCs localized in muscle have distinct fibre type distributions. CONCLUSIONS: Skeletal muscle possesses two variants of the sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter (NBC) isoforms, which have been called NBCe1 and NBCe2....

  10. Electrochemical preparation of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whisker in LiCl–KCl Eutectic Melts

    Highlights: • The reduction process of Sm(III) was investigated in LiCl–KCl melt on an aluminum electrode at 773 K. • Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al2Sm and Al3Sm) was prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis on an aluminum electrode with the change of electrolytic potentials and time in LiCl–KCl–SmCl3 melts. • Al − Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al4Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The results from micro–hardness test and potentiodynamic polarization test show the micro hardness and corrosion property are remarkably improved with the help of Al–Sm intermetallic compound whiskers. - Abstract: This work presents the electrochemical study of Sm(III) on an aluminum electrode in LiCl–KCl melts at 773 K by different electrochemical methods. Three electrochemical signals in cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry, open circuit chronopotentiometry, and cathode polarization curve are attributed to different kinds of Al–Sm intermetallic compounds, Al2Sm, Al3Sm, and Al4Sm, respectively. Al–Sm alloy with different phase structure (Al2Sm and Al3Sm) could be obtained by the potentiostatic electrolysis with the change of electrolytic potentials and time. Al–Sm alloy containing whiskers (Al4Sm) was obtained by potentiostatic electrolysis (−2.10 V) on an aluminum electrode for 7 hours with the change of electrolytic temperature and cooling rate in LiCl–KCl–SmCl3 (16.5 wt. %) melts. The XRD and SEM&EDS were employed to investigate the phase composition and microstructure of Al–Sm alloy. SEM analysis shows that lots of needle−like precipitates formed in Al–Sm alloy, and their ratios of length to diameter are found to be greater than 10 to 1. The TEM and electron diffraction pattern were performed to investigate the crystal structure of the needle

  11. Identification of phlorizin binding domains in sodium-glucose cotransporter family: SGLT1 as a unique model system.

    Raja, Mobeen; Kinne, Rolf K H

    2015-08-01

    The sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 expressed mainly in the intestine and kidney has been explored extensively for understanding the mechanism of sugar cotransport and its inhibition by a classical competitive inhibitor, phlorizin (Pz). It has been shown that inhibition of SGLT1 by Pz involves its interaction followed by major conformational changes in the Pz binding domain (PBD) in C-terminal loop 13. However, the mechanism of Pz inhibition and its interaction with other members of SGLT is not known. In this hypothesis, we performed molecular modeling of SGLT1-loop 13 with Pz and carried out primary sequence analyses and secondary structure predictions to determine qualitatively similar PBDs in C-termini of human SGLT2-4, except for vSGLT, which contains an unstructured short C-terminus. The ranking of predictions of Pz interaction strongly agrees with the following ranking of previously reported Pz inhibition: SGLT2>SGLT1>SGLT4>SGLT3>vSGLT. In addition, the sugar binding residues were found to be quite conserved among all SGLT members investigated here. Based on these preliminary analyses, we propose that other Pz-sensitive SGLTs are also inhibited via mechanism similar to SGLT1 where an aglucone of Pz, phloretin, interacts with PBD and glucoside moiety with sugar binding residues. Our hypothesis sets the stage for future analyses on investigation of Pz interaction with SGLT family and further suggests that Pz modeling may be explored to design novel inhibitors targeting several SGLT members. PMID:26086341

  12. Local structures and the dissolving behavior of aqueous ammonia and its KCl and NH4Cl solutions: A Raman spectroscopy and X-ray scattering study.

    Li, Shenyu; Yuan, Junsheng; Li, Fei; Liu, Ziyu

    2016-06-01

    The aqueous ammonia (5%-15%) and its KCl and NH4Cl solutions have been studied by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. The microscopic structures in these solutions were proposed. The addition of KCl reinforced the hydrogen bond between NH3 and H2O. On contrary, NH4Cl destroyed this interaction by forming hydrogen bond NH4(+)-NH3. This study gave an interpretation of the different dissolving behavior of KCl and NH4Cl in aqueous ammonia, which may have important implications in the separation of potassium and ammonium salt during the industrial production. PMID:26974475

  13. H2O+KCl(饱和)+NaCl+NH4Cl的等压研究%Isopiestic Studies on H2O+KCl(sat)+NaCl+NH4Cl

    王军; 赵立芬; 杨冬梅; 王之昌

    2005-01-01

    在298.15 K 条件下采用等压实验方法对KCl饱和的四元水溶液体系H2O+KCl(饱和)+NaCl+NH4Cl及其两个三元亚系H2O+KCl(饱和)+NaCl和H2O+KCl(饱和)+NH4Cl进行了研究.以NaCl或CaCl2水溶液为参考溶液,测定了不同水活度条件下该四元水溶液的渗透系数及水活度.实验结果表明,该四元系与其两个三元亚系之间存在着简单的共性,在实验误差允许范围之内,该四元系的等压行为符合类理想溶液模型.

  14. Electrochemical behavior of the Lanthanide at Cd, Bi electrodes in LiCl-KCl molten salt

    Kim, Beomkyu; Lee, Aeri; Kim, Yongil; Park, Byung Gi [Soonchunhyang Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Electochemical behavior of PrCl{sub 3} and NdCl{sub 3} it the liquid metal electrode studied using cyclic-voltammetry. The electro-reduction of Pr, Nd on electrodes proceeds via the formation of distinct non-homogeneous phases. The measurement for various intermetallic compounds in two-phase coexisting states was carried out in the high temperature. Gibbs free energies of formation Pr-Cd, Pr-Bi, Nd-Cd and Nd-Bi intermetallic compounds was with data of cyclic-voltammetry 4 session. Liquid metal cathode is used to recover actinides from molten salt in an electrowinning among the pyroprocess. Reductive or oxidative extraction between molten salt and liquid metal has been also considered for group partitioning of lanthanide and actinide. Cadmium or bismuth as liquid metal has been extensively studied to investigate the effects of liquid metals on the process. However, there is sparse information about the electrode reaction of lanthanide and actinide at the liquid metal electrodes. The purpose of the present study is to investigate the electrochemical behavior of praseodymium and neodymium among lanthanides(Ln) in molten LiCl-KCl salt at liquid metal electrode such as cadmium and bismuth using cyclic voltammetry and derive the thermochemical properties.

  15. Electrochemical behaviour of ThF4 in LiCl-KCl eutectic

    Pyrochemical processing of nuclear fuels is an integral part of molten salt reactor technology. Thorium containing molten salt reactors are relevant for transmutation of minor actinides and utilizations of vast thorium resources. Understanding chemical and electrochemical behavior of actinide and lanthanide ions in chloride melts is an important task in this process. A eutectic of lithium and potassium chloride is found to be the most suitable salt for this study due to its low melting, high reduction potential and significant solubility of most of the actinide and lanthanide salts. However, electrochemistry of thorium in chloride melt is inconsistent due to dispute over the presence of Th(II) cation along with Th(IV). In the present experiments, cyclic-voltammograms of ThF4 in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were measured using three electrodes cell, where all the electrodes were 1 mm molybdenum wires and counter electrode wire was twisted into a spiral shape to increase surface area and was used for mixing the salts in molten state. Cyclic-voltammograms of pure eutectic melt and with ThF4 were measured at scanning rates 50-300 mV/s, at 648 K and 723 K. Diffusion coefficient of Th4+ was calculated using Delahay equation

  16. Co-reduction behaviors of lanthanum and aluminium ions in LiCl-KCl eutectic

    In this work, the co-reduction of La(III) and Al(III) ions on the Mo electrode was investigated in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 723-806 K. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV), and open-circuit chronopotentiometry (OCP) techniques were employed to investigate the electrochemical behaviors of the co-reduction. From the CV and SWV results, the formation signals of five kinds of Al-La intermetallic compounds, which could be attributed to AlLa3, AlLa, Al2La, Al3La and Al11La3, were observed. The thermodynamic properties of La-Al intermetallic compounds in the temperature range of 723-806 K were estimated by the OCP results. The changes of Gibbs energies, enthalpies and entropies of formation and the apparent standard potentials of La-Al intermetallic compounds were evaluated. Finally, potentiostatic electrolyses at 723 K and galvanostatic electrolyses at 806 K were carried out to confirm the co-reduction process, and the products obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. It was found that the co-reduction products of Al11La3, Al3La and Al2La were obtained

  17. Spectroscopy of isolated PTCDA molecules on the KCl(100) surface: Vibrational spectra and azimuthal orientation

    Müller, Mathias; Paulheim, Alexander; Marquardt, Christian; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2013-02-01

    Small amounts of the model molecule perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) were vacuum deposited on epitaxial KCl films on Ag(100). The use of a low substrate temperature (20 K) during deposition hampered molecular diffusion resulting in isolated monomers on the surface. Fluorescence and fluorescence excitation spectroscopy performed on these monomers yielded highly resolved spectra with narrow lines corresponding to individual vibronic modes. This high resolution in our spectra is caused by a very small inhomogeneous broadening due to well-defined adsorption sites of the molecule on the substrate. Indeed, by polarization dependent fluorescence spectroscopy we show that the flat-lying molecules exhibit a preferred azimuthal orientation on the surface, the long molecular axis being oriented along the [011] or the equivalent [0bar{1}1] direction of the substrate. Furthermore, the high resolution in the spectra allowed a detailed analysis of the vibronic modes. The vibrational modes of the adsorbed molecule are very similar to those of the free PTCDA molecule, but due to the presence of the substrate additional low energy modes which are relevant for the full understanding of the spectra couple to the transition.

  18. Adsorption-induced changes of intramolecular optical transitions: PTCDA/NaCl and PTCDA/KCl.

    Hochheim, Manuel; Bredow, Thomas

    2015-09-15

    Structural and optical properties of isolated perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride molecules adsorbed on (100) oriented NaCl and KCl surfaces were studied theoretically to analyze the recently observed red-shift of the optical excitation spectrum after adsorption (Müller et al., Phys. Rev. B, 2011, 83, 241203; Paulheim et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2013, 15, 4906). The ground-state structures were obtained by periodic dispersion-corrected density functional theory (DFT) calculations. For the excited-state calculations, nonperiodic time-dependent DFT methods were applied for a cluster model embedded in point charges. The range-separated hybrid functional CAM-B3LYP was used. Correlation-consistent basis sets were used and the calculated excitation energies were extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The shift of the first optical excitation energy was analyzed in terms of electronic and geometric contributions. It was found that both the distortion of the molecule due to the interaction with the surface and the electrostatic potential of the surface play an important role. PMID:26152591

  19. Ultraviolet thermoluminescent dosimetry using high temperature peaks in KCl:Eu2+ crystals

    The thermoluminescence (TL) characteristics of KCl:Eu2+ irradiated with solar and monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) light have been investigated. The glow curves exhibit at least five TL peaks between room temperature and 673 K. The low temperature peaks (<500K) are very sensitive to the UV radiation, but their intensities practically do not depend on the duration of solar irradiation and are determined by the ratio between the creation rate by UV and the bleaching rate by visible light. The high temperature 650 K peak is not so sensitive, but it is more stable under optical bleaching and intensity increases supralinearly as exposure time increases. The creation spectrum of the 650 K peak presents a broad band with a maximum at 230 nm that extends in the long wavelength range at least up to 360 nm. The results obtained are discussed in relation to the development of a UV dosemeter with wavelength sensitivity dependence close to the action spectra of UV-related biological effects. (author)

  20. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence correlated processes in X-ray irradiated KCl:Eu2+

    The effect of optical bleaching on thermoluminescence (TL) and thermal bleaching on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) outputs in X-ray irradiated KCl : Eu2+ have been investigated. The X-ray induced glow curves reveal three main peaks located at 370, 410 and 470 K. Illumination with 560 nm light leads to a drastic change of the TL glow curve. The 470 K peak is destroyed during bleaching. The other peaks initially increase in intensity and only after sufficiently long bleaching begin to decrease. After long-time bleaching, the TL peaks in X-ray irradiated crystals look like the TL peaks found in UV irradiated crystals. The effect of thermal bleaching on OSL is also very pronounced. The temperature dependencies show a step-by-step decrease of the OSL intensity correlated with the positions of the TL peaks. The result obtained shows that centers responsible for the TL peaks participate in OSL, but this participation seems not to be direct and is complicated by processes accompanying the F center bleaching

  1. Methanol extracts of Hamelia patens containing oxindole alkaloids relax KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium.

    Reyes-Chilpa, Ricardo; Rivera, Jesús; Oropeza, Martha; Mendoza, Pilar; Amekraz, Badia; Jankowski, Christopher; Campos, Maria

    2004-10-01

    Hamelia patens JAQC. (Rubiaceae) is a medicinal bush widely distributed in tropical areas of the American continent. It is used in Mexican Traditional Medicine for the treatment of menstrual disorders, therefore suggesting that its chemical constituents may have some effect on myometrium contractility. Physiological effects might differ due to quantitative variations in the content of alkaloids arising from its wide geographical distribution. To test this hypothesis, the content of oxindole alkaloids in methanol extracts of five different samples collected in Mexico was quantified by GC-MS. Each extract was assayed on contractility of estrogen-primed rat myometrium. Variations in the content of alkaloids were observed among the different samples. All samples relaxed in a concentration-dependent manner the high KCl-induced contraction in rat myometrium. Those which lack rumberine and/or maruquine displayed a higher relaxant effect than samples containing them, suggesting that these alkaloids might counteract the effects of isopteropodine. However, in contrast with verapamil, Hamelia patens metanol extracts are poor relaxants. PMID:15467206

  2. Separation of plutonium from lanthanum by electrolysis in LiCl KCl onto molten bismuth electrode

    Serp, J.; Lefebvre, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Rebizant, J.; Vallet, P.; Glatz, J.-P.

    2005-04-01

    This work presents a study on the electroseparation of plutonium from lanthanum using molten bismuth electrodes in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 733 K. The reduction potentials of Pu3+ and La3+ ions were measured on a Bi thin film electrode using cyclic voltammetry (CV). A difference between the peak potentials for the formation of PuBi2 and LaBi2 of approximately 100 mV was found. Separation tests were then carried out using different current densities and salt phase compositions between a plutonium rod anode and an unstirred molten Bi cathode in order to evaluate the efficiency of an electrolytic separation process. At a current density of 12 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), only Pu3+ ions are reduced into the molten Bi electrode, leaving La3+ ions in the salt melt. Similar results were found at two different Pu/La concentration ratios ([Pu]/[La] = 4 and 10). At a current density of 26 mA/cm2/wt% (Pu3+), co-reduction of Pu and La was observed as expected by the large negative potential of the Bi cathode during the separation test.

  3. Structured A{sub T}-emission of KCl:Tl

    Mugnai, D., E-mail: d.mugnai@ifac.cnr.it; Pazzi, G.P.; Fabeni, P.; Ranfagni, A.

    2014-12-15

    The experimental evidence of an anomalous behavior in the decay times of Tl{sup +}-like impurity centers in alkali-halide crystals has generated a revival of interest with respect to these materials. We discuss here about the possibility that the A{sub T} emission of KCl:Tl can be considered as a double emission, namely as a superposition of the A{sub T} and A{sub X} emission bands. The plausibility of this hypothesis is discussed in the light of the available, old and recent, experimental features. A quantitative test of this assumption is performed in the framework of a model which demonstrates to be suitable for interpreting other similar cases. - Highlights: • Anomalous behaviors in the decay time of thallium impurity, in alkali-halides, are analyzed. • We propose a model in which a single emission can be considered as a double emission. • The proposed model is successfully tested in the light of experimental results.

  4. Gain-of-function missense variant in SLC12A2, encoding the bumetanide-sensitive NKCC1 cotransporter, identified in human schizophrenia.

    Merner, Nancy D; Mercado, Adriana; Khanna, Arjun R; Hodgkinson, Alan; Bruat, Vanessa; Awadalla, Philip; Gamba, Gerardo; Rouleau, Guy A; Kahle, Kristopher T

    2016-06-01

    Perturbations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in the human prefrontal cortex have been implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ), but the mechanisms are unclear. NKCC1 (SLC12A2) is a Cl(-)-importing cation-Cl(-) cotransporter that contributes to the maintenance of depolarizing GABA activity in immature neurons, and variation in SLC12A2 has been shown to increase the risk for schizophrenia via alterations of NKCC1 mRNA expression. However, no disease-causing mutations or functional variants in NKCC1 have been identified in human patients with SCZ. Here, by sequencing three large French-Canadian (FC) patient cohorts of SCZ, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), and intellectual disability (ID), we identified a novel heterozygous NKCC1 missense variant (p.Y199C) in SCZ. This variant is located in an evolutionarily conserved residue in the critical N-terminal regulatory domain and exhibits high predicted pathogenicity. No NKCC1 variants were detected in ASD or ID, and no KCC3 variants were identified in any of the three neurodevelopmental disorder cohorts. Functional experiments show Y199C is a gain-of-function variant, increasing Cl(-)-dependent and bumetanide-sensitive NKCC1 activity even in conditions in which the transporter is normally functionally silent (hypotonicity). These data are the first to describe a functional missense variant in SLC12A2 in human SCZ, and suggest that genetically encoded dysregulation of NKCC1 may be a risk factor for, or contribute to the pathogenesis of, human SCZ. PMID:26955005

  5. Effect of vasopressin on Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and the signaling mechanisms on the murine late distal colon.

    Xue, Hong; Tang, Xudong

    2016-01-15

    It has been demonstrated that the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is able to regulate the expression of Na-K-Cl cotransporters (NKCC1 and NKCC2) in the kidney. The present study investigated the effects of long- and short-term administration of vasopressin on NKCC and the possible signaling mechanism of vasopressin in the mouse distal colon using the siRNA, real-time PCR, western blotting and Ussing chambers method. The results showed the presence of NKCC2 expression in the colon, which was verified with a siRNA technique. The mRNA and protein expression level of NKCC2 significantly increased by about 40% and 90% respectively in response to restricting water intake to 1ml/day/20g for 7 days. In contrast, the NKCC1 expression level was unchanged in the colon. To determine the short-term activation of NKCC2 by vasopressin in vitro, we found that the administration of vasopressin caused a 3-fold increase in mouse colon NKCC2 phosphorylation, which was detected with phosphospecific antibody R5. In addition, the Ussing chamber results showed that NKCC2, cAMP and Ca(2+) signaling pathway may be involved in the vasopressin-induced response. Further, adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL-12330A and PKA inhibitor H89 and Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM reversed the vasopressin induced NKCC2 phosphorylation level increase by about 35%, 28% and 42% respectively suggesting vasopressin stimulate NKCC2 phosphorylation increase mediated by cAMP-PKA and Ca(2+) signaling in the colon. Collectively, these data suggest that the expression and phosphorylation of NKCC2 are increased in the colon by vasopressin stimulation, in association with enhanced activity of the vasopressin/cAMP and Ca(2+) pathways. PMID:26656758

  6. Mutations in the Na(+)/citrate cotransporter NaCT (SLC13A5) in pediatric patients with epilepsy and developmental delay.

    Klotz, Jenna; Porter, Brenda E; Colas, Claire; Schlessinger, Avner; Pajor, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the SLC13A5 gene that codes for the Na(+)/citrate cotransporter, NaCT, are associated with early onset epilepsy, developmental delay and tooth dysplasia in children. In the present study we identify additional SLC13A5 mutations in nine epilepsy patients from six families. To better characterize the syndrome, families with affected children answered questions about the scope of illness and treatment strategies. There are currently no effective treatments, but some anti-epileptic drugs targeting the GABA system reduce seizure frequency. Acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and atypical anti-seizure medication decreases seizures in 4 patients. In contrast to previous reports, the ketogenic diet and fasting produce worsening of symptoms. The effects of the mutations on NaCT transport function and protein expression were examined by transient transfections of COS-7 cells. There was no transport activity from any of the mutant transporters, although some of the mutant transporter proteins were present on the plasma membrane. The structural model of NaCT suggests that these mutations can affect helix packing or substrate binding. We tested various treatments, including chemical chaperones and low temperatures, but none improve transport function in the NaCT mutants. Interestingly, coexpression of NaCT and the mutants results in decreased protein expression and activity of the wild-type transporter, indicating functional interaction. In conclusion, our study has identified additional SLC13A5 mutations in patients with chronic epilepsy starting in the neonatal period, with the mutations producing inactive Na(+)/citrate transporters. PMID:27261973

  7. First-principles calculation of principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra for warm dense KCl

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. It is shown that approximate description of ionization in FPMD has small influence on Hugoniot pressure due to mutual compensation of electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the 3p electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter

  8. KCl:Eu2+ as a solar UV-C radiation dosimeter.Optically stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence analyses

    I.Aguirre de Cáarcer; H.L.D'Antoni; M.Barboza-Flores; V.Correcher; F.Jaque

    2009-01-01

    The KCl:Eu2+ system response to UV-C was investigated by analyzing the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and thertoo-luminescence (TL) signal produced by ultraviolet light exposure at room temperature.It was found that after UV-C irradiation,OSL was produced on a wide band of visible wavelengths with decay time that varied by several orders of magnitude depending on the Eu2+ aggregation state.In spite of the low intensity of solar UV-C reaching the Earth's surface in Madrid (40° N,700 m a.s.l.),it was possible to measure the UV-C radiation dose at 6:48 solar time by using the TL response of the KCl:Eu2+ system and differentiate it from the ambient beta radiation dose.

  9. First-Principles Calculation of Principal Hugoniot and K-Shell X-ray Absorption Spectra for Warm Dense KCl

    Zhao, Shijun; Kang, Wei; Li, Zi; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2015-01-01

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. Pressure ionization and thermal smearing are shown as the major factors to prevent the deviation of pressure from global accumulation along the Hugoniot. In addition, cancellation between electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure further reduces the deviation. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the $3p$ electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter.

  10. First-principles calculation of principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra for warm dense KCl

    Zhao, Shijun; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei, E-mail: weikang@pku.edu.cn [HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Li, Zi [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhang, Ping [HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China); He, Xian-Tu, E-mail: xthe@iapcm.ac.cn [HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. It is shown that approximate description of ionization in FPMD has small influence on Hugoniot pressure due to mutual compensation of electronic kinetic pressure and virial pressure. The calculation of X-ray absorption spectra shows that the band gap of KCl persists after the pressure ionization of the 3p electrons of Cl and K taking place at lower energy, which provides a detailed understanding to the evolution of electronic structures of warm dense matter.

  11. Solubility of bivalent metal oxides in eutectic melt CsCl-KCl-NaCl at 700 degC

    Solubility of MgO, CaO, BaO, CoO, NiO, ZnO, CdO, Cu2O, PbO in eutectic melt CsCl-KCl-NaCl at 700 degC was studied. The method of potentiometric titration using oxygen electrode Pt(O2)/ZrO2 as an indicator one was employed for its determination. For certain oxides the solubility is determined making allowances for the incomplete dissociation. It is shown that solubility of the oxides in eutectic melt CsCl-KCl-NaCl is similar to the one (in molar part) in other melts of alkali chlorides and increases with the temperature increase. The melting point and cation radius effect on the oxides solubility in the melt is considered

  12. Genetic analysis of inheritance of rates of Na+, K+-cotransport, calcium concentration in erythrocytes, and blood pressure of F2 hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    Inheritance of the rates of Na+, K+-cotransport, measured as the furosemide-sensitive component of the 86Rb inflow, the 45Ca concentration in the erythrocytes in the presence of orthovanadate, and BP were analyzed in second generation hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive Kyoto-Wistar rats and normotensive Kyoto-Wistar rats of the control line

  13. Comparing the antimicrobial effectiveness of NaCl and KCl with a view to salt/sodium replacement.

    Bidlas, Eva; Lambert, Ronald J.W.

    2008-01-01

    A study using a small range of pathogenic bacterial species (Aeromonas hydrophila, Enterobacter sakazakii, Shigella flexneri, Yersinia enterocolitica and 3 strains of Staphylococcus aureus) has shown that potassium chloride has an equivalent antimicrobial effect on these organisms when calculated on a molar basis. Combined NaCl and KCl experiments were carried out and data was analysed using a modification to the Lambert and Lambert [Lambert, R.J.W., and Lambert, R., 2003. A model for the eff...

  14. Direct measurement of translingual epithelial NaCl and KCl currents during the chorda tympani taste response.

    van Heck, G.L.; Persaud, K. C.; DeSimone, J A

    1989-01-01

    We have measured the NaCl or KCl currents under voltage clamp across the dorsal lingual epithelium of the rat and simultaneously the response of the taste nerves. Under short-circuit conditions a NaCl stimulus evoked an inward current (first current) that coincided with excitation of the chorda tympani. This was followed by a slower inward current (second current) that matched the kinetics of taste nerve adaptation. The peak first current and the coincident neural response satisfied the same ...

  15. Generation of KCL035 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in HBB gene

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL035 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a mutation in the HBB gene, which is linked to the β-thalassemia syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  16. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  17. Electrochemical investigation on the redox chemistry of niobium in LiCl-KCl-KF-Na2O melts

    Gillesberg, Bo; Bjerrum, Niels; Barner, Jens H. Von;

    1997-01-01

    The system LiCl-KCl-KF-1 mole percent K2NbF7 (molar ration F-/Nb = 8) has been investigated in-the temperature range 370 to 725 degrees C by cyclic and square wave voltammetry. In the temperature range from 370 to 520 degrees C Nb(V) was reduced to Nb(III) in two reversible steps: Nb(V) --> Nb(IV...

  18. First-Principles Calculation of Principal Hugoniot and K-Shell X-ray Absorption Spectra for Warm Dense KCl

    Zhao, Shijun; Zhang, Shen; Kang, Wei; Li, Zi; Zhang, Ping; He, Xian-Tu

    2015-01-01

    Principal Hugoniot and K-shell X-ray absorption spectra of warm dense KCl are calculated using the first-principles molecular dynamics method. Evolution of electronic structures as well as the influence of the approximate description of ionization on pressure (caused by the underestimation of the energy gap between conduction bands and valence bands) in the first-principles method are illustrated by the calculation. Pressure ionization and thermal smearing are shown as the major factors to pr...

  19. Vacuum distillation for the separation of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and cadmium in pyro process

    Electrorefining is a key step in pyro processing. Electrorefining process is generally composed of two recovery steps- a deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode (electrorefining) and then the recovery of the remaining uranium and Tru (Transuranic) elements simultaneously by a liquid cadmium cathode (electrowinning). In this study, distillation experiments of a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and cadmium metal were carried out to examine the distillation behaviors for the development of the electrorefining and the electrowinning processes. The experimental set-up was composed of a distillation tower with an evaporator and a condenser, vacuum pump, control unit, and an off gas treatment system. The solid-liquid separation prior to distillation of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was proposed and found to be feasible for the reduction of the burden of the distillation process. The LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was successfully distilled after the liquid salt separation. Distillation experiments for cadmium metal were also carried out. The apparent evaporation rates of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and cadmium increased with an increasing temperature. The evaporation behaviors of cadmium metal and cadmium-cerium alloy were compared. Cadmium in the alloy was successfully distilled and separated from cerium. The evaporation rate of cadmium in the alloy was lower than that of cadmium metal. The low evaporation rate of the alloy was probably caused by the formation of an intermetallic compound and the residual salt during the preparation of the alloy. Therefore, the distillation temperature for the distillation of the liquid cathode should be higher than the distillation of cadmium metal. The measured evaporation rates of the eutectic salt and cadmium were compared with the values calculated by a relation based on the kinetics of gases. The theoretical values of the evaporation rate calculated by the Hertz-Langmuir relation were higher than the experimental values. The deviations were compensated for

  20. An optimal method for phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl–KCl eutectic based waste salt

    Eun, H.C., E-mail: ehc2004@kaeri.re.kr; Kim, J.H.; Cho, Y.Z.; Choi, J.H.; Lee, T.K.; Park, H.S.; Park, G.I.

    2013-11-15

    A study on an optimal method for the phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl–KCl eutectic waste salt generated the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel was performed. A reactor with a pitched four blade impeller was designed to create a homogeneous mixing zone in LiCl–KCl eutectic salt. A phosphorylation test of NdCl{sub 3} in the salt was carried out by changing the operation conditions (operation temperature, stirring rate, agent injection amount). Based on the results of the test, a proper operation condition (450 °C, 300 rpm, 1 eq. of phosphorylation agent) for over a 0.99 conversion ratio of NdCl{sub 3} to NdPO{sub 4} was determined. Under this condition, multi-component rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y) chlorides were effectively converted into phosphate forms. It was confirmed that the existing regeneration process of LiCl–KCl eutectic waste salt can be greatly improved and simplified through these phosphorylation test results.

  1. An optimal method for phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl–KCl eutectic based waste salt

    A study on an optimal method for the phosphorylation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl–KCl eutectic waste salt generated the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel was performed. A reactor with a pitched four blade impeller was designed to create a homogeneous mixing zone in LiCl–KCl eutectic salt. A phosphorylation test of NdCl3 in the salt was carried out by changing the operation conditions (operation temperature, stirring rate, agent injection amount). Based on the results of the test, a proper operation condition (450 °C, 300 rpm, 1 eq. of phosphorylation agent) for over a 0.99 conversion ratio of NdCl3 to NdPO4 was determined. Under this condition, multi-component rare earth (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Y) chlorides were effectively converted into phosphate forms. It was confirmed that the existing regeneration process of LiCl–KCl eutectic waste salt can be greatly improved and simplified through these phosphorylation test results

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of terbium in the eutectic LiCl-KCl in Cd liquid electrodes.- Evaluation of the thermochemical properties of the TbCdx intermetallic compounds

    Highlights: • The activity coefficient of Tb in liquid Cd has been estimated by cyclic voltammetry using a Cd pool electrode. • The formation mechanism of TbCdx intermetallic compounds was studied in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at 673–823 K. • The formation energy of each TbCdx intermetallic compound, and the global and consecutive formation constants were estimated from open circuit chronopotentiometry measurements. • SEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), allowed the identification of TbCd6, TbCd3, TbCd2 and TbCd. - Abstract: The electrode reaction of Tb(III)/Tb couple in the eutectic LiCl-KCl, at Cd liquid electrodes (i.e a Cd pool and a Cd coated W electrodes) was investigated in the temperature range of 673–823 K. In both electrodes, the electrochemical reduction of Tb(III) was observed at less cathodic potential values than at the surface of an inert W electrode, due to the decrease of Tb activity in the metal phase. Cyclic voltammetry, using a Cd bulk electrode, suggest a quasi-reversible behaviour of the system Tb(III)/Tb(dissolvedinliquid Cd), and the values of the kinetic parameters, k0 and α, as well as the reversible half wave potential, Er1/2, have been obtained. The differences between the equilibrium potential adopted by a Tb electrode and the Er1/2 observed with the same Tb(III) solution at the Cd pool electrode, were used to calculate approximate values of the excess Gibbs energy change of Tb in liquid metal, and hence the activity coefficient of Tb in Cd. The formation of intermetallic compounds was also studied. Electromotive force, emf, measurements for five intermetallic compounds in two-phase coexisting states were carried out using a Cd coated tungsten electrode. The activities and relative partial molar Gibbs energies of Tb were obtained for TbCd6, TbCd45/11, TbCd3, TbCd2 and TbCd. The formation energy of each intermetallic compound, and the global formation constants were also calculated. The linear dependence of the

  3. Electrochemical behavior of lanthanum and yttrium ions in two molten chlorides with different oxoacidic properties: The eutectic LiCl-KCl and the equimolar mixture CaCl2-NaCl

    Castrillejo Y.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of LaCl3 and YCl3 was studied in two molten chloride mixtures with different oxoacidic properties, the eutectic LiCl-KCl and the equimolar CaCl2-NaCl melt at different temperatures. The stable oxidation states of both elements have been found to be (III and (0 in both melts, and it was found that both La(III and Y(III cations were less solvated by the chloride ions in the calcium-based melt, which was explained by the stability of CaCl4 2- ions in that melt. Transient electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and chronoamperometry were used in order to study the reaction mechanism and the transport parameters of electro active species at a tungsten electrode. The results showed that in the eutectic LiCl-KCl, the electro crystallization of lanthanum and yttrium seems to be the controlling electrochemical step while in CaCl2-NaCl this phenomenon has not been observed. That was explained in terms of the differences in the physicochemical properties of the systems, especially interfacial tensions. In the eutectic LiCl-KCl chronoamperometric studies indicated instantaneous and three dimensional nucleation and crystal growth of lanthanum and yttrium whatever the applied over potential of the rare earth metal is, whereas in the equimolar mixture CaCl2-NaCl, the corresponding electrochemical exchanges were found to be quasi-reversible, and the values of the kinetic parameters, K0 and α,were obtained for both reactions. Mass transport towards the electrode is a simple diffusion process, and the diffusion coefficients have been calculated. The validity of the Arrhenius law was also verified by plotting the variation of the logarithm of the diffusion coefficient versus 1/T.

  4. Bradykinin and vasopressin stimulate Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransport in cultured endothelial cells

    Brock, T.A.; Brugnara, C.; Canessa, M.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have characterized a Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter in vascular endothelial cells (EC) cultured from different blood vessels and species that is inhibited by the diuretics furosemide and bumentanide. Inward /sup 86/Rb influx transported by the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump in cultured EC from bovine and pig aorta, bovine vena cava, and baboon cephalic vein but not in human umbilical or saphenous vein EC. External Na/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb influx is equal to furosemide or bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx. Ouabain-insensitive /sup 22/Na influx is also partially inhibited by these drugs and stimulated by increasing external K/sup +/ or Cl/sup -/. Net Na/sup +/ extrusion occurs via the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter in the absence of external K/sup +/, whereas net Na/sup +/ influx occurs at higher external K/sup +/. Maximal concentrations (100 nM) of bradykinin and vasopressin increase the initial rate of bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx by approx.60 and 70%. Addition of either ethyleneglycol-bis(..beta..-aminotethylether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid or LaCl/sub 3/ (to block calcium influx) prevents bradykinin-stimulated /sup 86/Rb influx. When intracellular calcium is elevated using ionomycin (100 nM), a Ca/sup 2 +/ionophore, bumetanide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx increases approx.twofold. In contrast, isoproterenol (100 ..mu..M) and forskolin (50 /sup +/M), adenylate cyclase stimulators, decrease furosemide-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx. Thus in certain types of cultured EC, a Na/sup +/-K/sup +/-Cl/sup -/ cotransporter mediates a fraction of K/sup +/ influx quantitatively as important as the Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump (ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb influx) and appears to be modulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ and cyclic nucleotides.

  5. Dapagliflozin, a Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter 2 Inhibitor, Acutely Reduces Energy Expenditure in BAT via Neural Signals in Mice.

    Chiba, Yumiko; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsukita, Sohei; Takahashi, Kei; Munakata, Yuichiro; Shirai, Yuta; Kodama, Shinjiro; Asai, Yoichiro; Sugisawa, Takashi; Uno, Kenji; Sawada, Shojiro; Imai, Junta; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Katagiri, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Selective sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor (SGLT2i) treatment promotes urinary glucose excretion, thereby reducing blood glucose as well as body weight. However, only limited body weight reductions are achieved with SGLT2i treatment. Hyperphagia is reportedly one of the causes of this limited weight loss. However, the effects of SGLT2i treatment on systemic energy expenditure have not been fully elucidated. Herein, we investigated the acute effects of dapagliflozin, a SGLT2i, on systemic energy expenditure in mice. Eighteen hours after dapagliflozin treatment oxygen consumption and brown adipose tissue (BAT) expression of ucp1, a thermogenesis-related gene, were significantly decreased as compared to those after vehicle treatment. In addition, dapagliflozin significantly suppressed norepinephrine (NE) turnover in BAT and c-fos expression in the rostral raphe pallidus nucleus (rRPa) which contains the sympathetic premotor neurons responsible for thermogenesis. These findings indicate that the dapagliflozin-mediated acute decrease in energy expenditure involves a reduction in BAT thermogenesis via decreased sympathetic nerve activity from the rRPa. Furthermore, common hepatic branch vagotomy abolished the reductions in ucp1 expression and NE contents in BAT and c-fos expression in the rRPa. In addition, alterations in hepatic carbohydrate metabolism, such as decreases in glycogen contents and upregulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, manifested prior to the suppression of BAT thermogenesis, e.g. 6 hours after dapagliflozin treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that SGLT2i treatment acutely suppresses energy expenditure in BAT via regulation of an inter-organ neural network consisting of the common hepatic vagal branch and sympathetic nerves. PMID:26963613

  6. Measurements and Analysis of Oxygen Bubble Distributions in LiCl-KCl Molten Salt

    Ryan W. Bezzant; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael F. Simpson

    2013-03-01

    Transparent system experimental studies have been performed to provide measurement and analysis of oxygen bubble distributions and mass transfer coefficients at different sparging rates ranging from 0.05 to 0.20 L/min in LiCl-KCl molten salt at 500 degrees C using a high-speed digital camera and an oxygen sensor. The results reveal that bubble sizes and rise velocities increased with an increase in oxygen sparging rate. The bubbles observed were ellipsoidal in shape, and an equivalent diameter based on the ellipsoid volume was calculated. The average equivalent bubble diameters at 500 degrees C and these oxygen sparging rates range from 2.63 to 4.07 mm. Results show that the bubble equivalent diameters at each respective sparging rate are normally distributed. A Fanning friction factor correlation was produced to predict a bubble’s rise velocity based on its equivalent diameter. The oxygen mass transfer coefficients for four sparging rates were calculated using the oxygenation model. These calculated values were within the order of magnitude of 10-2 cm/sec and followed a decreasing trend corresponding to an increasing bubble size and sparging rate. The diffusivities were calculated based on two different types of mechanisms, one based on physics of the bubbles and the other on systematic properties. The results reveal that diffusivity values calculated from bubble physics are 1.65 to 8.40 x 10-5 cm2/sec, which are within the range suggested by literature for gases in liquids of a similar viscosity.

  7. Flozins, inhibitors of type 2 renal sodium-glucose co-transporter – not only antihyperglycemic drugs

    Mizerski Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The kidneys play a crucial role in the regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism. In normal physiological conditions, the glucose that filters through the renal glomeruli is subsequently nearly totally reabsorbed in the proximal renal tubules. Two transporters are engaged in this process: sodium-glucose co-transporter type 1 (SGLT1, and sodium-glucose co-transporter type type 2 (SGLT2 - this being located in the luminal membrane of the renal tubular epithelial cells. It was found that the administration of dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, in patients with type 2 diabetes, is associated with the reduction of HbA1c concentration by 0.45-1.11%. Additional benefits from the treatment with dapagliflozin are the reduction of arterial blood pressure and a permanent reduction of body weight. This outcome is related to the effect of osmotic diuresis and to the considerable loss of the glucose load by way of urine excretion. Dapagliflozin may be successfully applied in type 2 diabetes monotherapy, as well as in combined therapy (including insulin, where it is equally effective as other oral anti-diabetic drugs. Of note: serious adverse effects of dapagliflozin administration are rarely observed. What is more, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia related with the treatment occur only sporadically, most often in the course of diabetes polytherapy. The most frequent effects of the SGLT2 inhibitors are inseparably associated with the mechanism of their action (the glucuretic effect, and cover urogenital infections with a mild clinical course. At present, clinical trials are being continued of the administration of several subsequent drugs from this group, the most advanced of these being the use of canagliflozin and empagliflozin.

  8. Iron content of ferritin modulates its uptake by intestinal epithelium: implications for co-transport of prions

    Sunkesula Solomon RB

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD in the deer and elk population has caused serious public health concerns due to its potential to infect farm animals and humans. Like other prion disorders such a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease of humans and Mad Cow Disease of cattle, CWD is caused by PrP-scrapie (PrPSc, a β-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC. Since PrPSc is sufficient to cause infection and neurotoxicity if ingested by a susceptible host, it is important to understand the mechanism by which it crosses the stringent epithelial cell barrier of the small intestine. Possible mechanisms include co-transport with ferritin in ingested food and uptake by dendritic cells. Since ferritin is ubiquitously expressed and shares considerable homology among species, co-transport of PrPSc with ferritin can result in cross-species spread with deleterious consequences. We have used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models of intestinal epithelial cell barrier to understand the role of ferritin in mediating PrPSc uptake and transport. In this report, we demonstrate that PrPSc and ferritin from CWD affected deer and elk brains and scrapie from sheep resist degradation by digestive enzymes, and are transcytosed across a tight monolayer of human epithelial cells with significant efficiency. Likewise, ferritin from hamster brains is taken up by mouse intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, indicating that uptake of ferritin is not limited by species differences as described for prions. More importantly, the iron content of ferritin determines its efficiency of uptake and transport by Caco-2 cells and mouse models, providing insight into the mechanism(s of ferritin and PrPSc uptake by intestinal epithelial cells.

  9. Iron content of ferritin modulates its uptake by intestinal epithelium: implications for co-transport of prions.

    Bhupanapadu Sunkesula, Solomon Raju; Luo, Xiu; Das, Dola; Singh, Ajay; Singh, Neena

    2010-01-01

    The spread of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) in the deer and elk population has caused serious public health concerns due to its potential to infect farm animals and humans. Like other prion disorders such a sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease of humans and Mad Cow Disease of cattle, CWD is caused by PrP-scrapie (PrPSc), a beta-sheet rich isoform of a normal cell surface glycoprotein, the prion protein (PrPC). Since PrPSc is sufficient to cause infection and neurotoxicity if ingested by a susceptible host, it is important to understand the mechanism by which it crosses the stringent epithelial cell barrier of the small intestine. Possible mechanisms include co-transport with ferritin in ingested food and uptake by dendritic cells. Since ferritin is ubiquitously expressed and shares considerable homology among species, co-transport of PrPSc with ferritin can result in cross-species spread with deleterious consequences. We have used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models of intestinal epithelial cell barrier to understand the role of ferritin in mediating PrPSc uptake and transport. In this report, we demonstrate that PrPSc and ferritin from CWD affected deer and elk brains and scrapie from sheep resist degradation by digestive enzymes, and are transcytosed across a tight monolayer of human epithelial cells with significant efficiency. Likewise, ferritin from hamster brains is taken up by mouse intestinal epithelial cells in vivo, indicating that uptake of ferritin is not limited by species differences as described for prions. More importantly, the iron content of ferritin determines its efficiency of uptake and transport by Caco-2 cells and mouse models, providing insight into the mechanism(s) of ferritin and PrPSc uptake by intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:20429907

  10. Cotransport of clay colloids and viruses through water-saturated vertically oriented columns packed with glass beads: Gravity effects.

    Syngouna, Vasiliki I; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2016-03-01

    The cotransport of clay colloids and viruses in vertically oriented laboratory columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX174 were used as model viruses, and kaolinite (ΚGa-1b) and montmorillonite (STx-1b) as model clay colloids. A steady flow rate of Q=1.5 mL/min was applied in both vertical up (VU) and vertical down (VD) flow directions. In the presence of KGa-1b, estimated mass recovery values for both viruses were higher for VD than VU flow direction, while in the presence of STx-1b the opposite was observed. However, for all cases examined, the produced mass of viruses attached onto suspended clay particles were higher for VD than VU flow direction, suggesting that the flow direction significantly influences virus attachment onto clays, as well as packed column retention of viruses attached onto suspended clays. KGa-1b hindered the transport of ΦX174 under VD flow, while STx-1b facilitated the transport of ΦX174 under both VU and VD flow directions. Moreover, KGa-1b and STx-1b facilitated the transport of MS2 in most of the cases examined except of the case where KGa-1b was present under VD flow. Also, the experimental data were used for the estimation of virus surface-coverages and virus surface concentrations generated by virus diffusion-limited attachment, as well as virus attachment due to sedimentation. Both sedimentation and diffusion limited virus attachment were higher for VD than VU flow, except the case of MS2 and STx-1b cotransport. The diffusion-limited attachment was higher for MS2 than ΦΧ174 for all cases examined. PMID:26747984

  11. Thermodynamics properties of plutonium in NaCl-KCl and CaCl2 at 1073 K and in liquid gallium

    Cadmium and bismuth metal are mostly used as solvent in nuclear pyrochemical processes and especially in actinides/lanthanides separations. Gallium metal has been chosen because no literature values are available with plutonium and its regeneration by refining at low temperature is possible. Electrochemical window of gallium metal and activity coefficient of plutonium in gallium have been determined by using potentiometric method. Secondly, the electrochemical properties of plutonium have been studied in molten equimolar NaCl/KCl and CaCl2 at 1073 K by cyclic voltammetry. The standard potentials of Pu(III)/Pu redox couple, respectively, -2,54 V and -2,51 V, led to the calculation of the activity coefficients of Pu(III). In CaCl2 the complexation of Pu(III) ions is lower and the voltage gap between Pu(III)/Pu couple and the solvent limit is higher. The new data on plutonium electrochemistry in molten chlorides and liquid gallium media combined with literature data on lanthanides suggest that gallium can be a good solvent metal for pyro-chemistry separation. (authors)

  12. Solubilidade do SrO em NaCl-Kcl fundido a 727ºC Strontium oxide solubility in mol ten NaCl-KCl at 727°C

    Richard Louis Combes; Sérgio Luiz Koeller

    2000-01-01

    The solubility product value of SrO has been found to be equal to 10-4,2 (molality scale) in molten equimolar mixture of NaCl and KCl at 727ºC, using a potentiometric method involving a calcia stabilized zirconia membrane electrode. This value, which is in a logical agreement with other alkaline-earth oxide determined solubilities, is compared to those of 10-5,8, 10-3,0 and 10-3,08 (molality scale) found in the litterature 33, 22 and 5 years ago, respectively. Such discrepencies have called t...

  13. Purification of used eutectic (LiCl–KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing

    Cho, Yung-Zun, E-mail: choyj@kaeri.re.kr [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Waste Treatment Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl–KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and 0.592 molar ratio-Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4} can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4–8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700–750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt

  14. Purification of used eutectic (LiCl-KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing

    Cho, Yung-Zun; Lee, Tae-Kyo; Eun, Hee-Chul; Choi, Jung-Hoon; Kim, In-Tae; Park, Geun-Il

    2013-06-01

    The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl-KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4-8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700-750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized.

  15. Purification of used eutectic (LiCl–KCl) salt electrolyte from pyroprocessing

    The separation characteristics of surrogate rare-earth fission products in a eutectic (LiCl–KCl) molten salt were investigated. This system is based on the eutectic salt used for the pyroprocessing treatment of used nuclear fuel (UNF). The investigation was performed using an integrated rare-earth separation apparatus comprising a precipitation reactor, a solid detachment device, and a layer separation device. To separate rare-earth fission products, a phosphate precipitation method using both Li3PO4 and K3PO4 as a precipitant was performed. The use of an equivalent phosphate precipitant composed of 0.408 molar ratio-K3PO4 and 0.592 molar ratio-Li3PO4 can preserve the original eutectic ratio, LiCl-0.592 molar ratio (or 45.2 wt%), as well as provide a high separation efficiency of over 99.5% under conditions of 550 °C and Ar sparging when using La, Nd, Ce, and Pr chlorides. The mixture of La, Nd, Ce, and Pr phosphate had a typical monoclinic (or monazite) structure, which has been proposed as a reliable host matrix for the permanent disposal of a high-level waste form. To maximize the reusability of purified eutectic waste salt after rare-earth separation, the successive rare-earth separation process, which uses both phosphate precipitation and an oxygen sparging method, were introduced and tested with eight rare-earth (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu and Gd) chlorides. In the successive rare-earth separation process, the phosphate reaction was terminated within 1 h at 550 °C, and a 4–8 h oxygen sparging time were required to obtain over a 99% separation efficiency at 700–750 °C. The mixture of rare-earth precipitates separated by the successive rare-earth separation process was found to be phosphate, oxychloride, and oxide. Through the successive rare-earth separation process, the eutectic ratio of purified salt maintained its original value, and impurity content including the residual precipitant of purified salt can be minimized

  16. Electrode reaction of Pu3+/Pu couple in LiCl-KCl eutectic melts: comparison of the electrode reaction at the surface of liquid Bi with that at a solid Mo electrode

    The electrode reaction of Pu3+/Pu couple at the interface between LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing PuCl3 and liquid Bi phase was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at 723, 773 and 823 K. For comparison, the system was also studied using a solid Mo electrode in place of the liquid Bi electrode. It was found that the electrode reaction of Pu3+/Pu couple at the Bi electrode was almost reversible. The redox potentials of Pu3+/Pu couple at the liquid Bi electrode in the LiCl-KCl eutectic melt containing 0.87 wt% PuCl3 (0.0014 mole fraction) at 723, 773 and 823 K were observed to be more positive by 0.575, 0.572 and 0.566 V, respectively, than those at the Mo electrode. These differences in potential were thermodynamically analyzed by assuming a lowering of the activity of Pu in Bi phase according to the alloy formation of PuBi2. (author)

  17. Study on a regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic based waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process

    A regeneration process of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt generated from the pyrochemical process of spent nuclear fuel has been studied. This regeneration process is composed of a chemical conversion process and a vacuum distillation process. Through the regeneration process, a high efficiency of renewable salt recovery can be obtained from the waste salt and rare earth nuclides in the waste salt can be separated as oxide or phosphate forms. Thus, the regeneration process can contribute greatly to a reduction of the waste volume and a creation of durable final waste forms. (authors)

  18. An upper limit on hypertriton production in collisions of Ar(1.76 A GeV) + KCl

    Agakishiev, G.; Chernenko, S.; Fateev, O.; Zanevsky, Y. [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Belver, D.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Garzon, J.A. [Univ. de Santiago de Compostela, LabCAF. F. Fisica, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Blanco, A.; Fonte, P.; Lopes, L.; Mangiarotti, A. [LIP-Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Coimbra (Portugal); Boehmer, M.; Friese, J.; Gernhaeuser, R.; Jurkovic, M.; Kruecken, R.; Maier, L.; Weber, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik Department E12, Garching (Germany); Boyard, J.L.; Hennino, T.; Liu, T.; Moriniere, E.; Ramstein, B. [Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Destefanis, M.; Gilardi, C.; Kuehn, W.; Lange, J.S.; Metag, V.; Spruck, B. [Justus Liebig Universitaet Giessen, II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen (Germany); Dohrmann, F.; Kaempfer, B.; Kotte, R.; Naumann, L.; Wendisch, C.; Wuestenfeld, J. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institut fuer Strahlenphysik, Dresden (Germany); Dybczak, A.; Michalska, B.; Palka, M.; Przygoda, W.; Salabura, P.; Trebacz, R.; Wisniowski, M. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Lapidus, K.; Siebenson, J. [Excellence Cluster ' ' Origin and Structure of the Universe' ' , Garching (Germany); Finocchiaro, P.; Schmah, A.; Spataro, S. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Froehlich, I.; Lorenz, M.; Markert, J.; Michel, J.; Muentz, C.; Pachmayer, Y.C.; Pechenova, O.; Rehnisch, L.; Rustamov, A.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Stroebele, H.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K. [Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Galatyuk, T.; Gonzalez-Diaz, D. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Ivashkin, A.; Karavicheva, T.; Kurepin, A.; Reshetin, A.; Sadovsky, A. [Russian Academy of Science, Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gumberidze, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Heinz, T.; Holzmann, R.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B.W.; Lang, S.; Pechenov, V.; Pietraszko, J.; Schwab, E.; Sturm, C.; Traxler, M.; Yurevich, S. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Iori, I. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Milano, Milano (Italy); Krasa, A.; Krizek, F.; Kugler, A.; Sobolev, Yu.G.; Tlusty, P.; Wagner, V. [Academy of Sciences of Czech Republic, Nuclear Physics Institute, Rez (Czech Republic); Kuc, H. [Jagiellonian University of Cracow, Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Universite Paris Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire (UMR 8608), CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay Cedex (France); Mousa, J.; Tsertos, H. [University of Cyprus, Department of Physics, Nicosia (Cyprus); Stroth, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: HADES Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    A high-statistic data sample of Ar(1.76 AGeV)+KCl events recorded with HADES is used to search for a hypertriton signal. An upper production limit per centrality-triggered event of 1.04 x 10{sup -3} on the 3 {sigma} level is derived. Comparing this value with the number of successfully reconstructed {Lambda} hyperons allows to determine an upper limit on the ratio N{sub 3{sub {Lambda}H}}/N{sub {Lambda}}, which is confronted with statistical and coalescence-type model calculations. (orig.)

  19. Generation of KCL025 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in NF1 gene

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL025 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin (c.3739–3742 ΔTTTG. Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  20. Generation of KCL028 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the HTT gene

    Laureen Jacquet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL028 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the HTT gene encoding huntingtin (43 trinucleotide repeats; 21 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro and in vivo assays.

  1. Generation of KCL018 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in the DMPK gene

    Cristian Miere

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL018 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation affecting one allele of the DMPK gene encoding the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (2200 trinucleotide repeats; 14 for the normal allele. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  2. Convoy electrons emitted by 2-MeV He + ions at grazing incidence on KCl(0 0 1)

    Nakajima, K.; Nakamoto, A.; Suzuki, M.; Kimura, K.

    2006-07-01

    Convoy electrons produced during grazing angle scattering of 2-MeV He + ions at a clean (0 0 1) surface of KCl are measured to see the effect of the surface track potential. The measurement is performed at 230 °C with a beam current far below 1 pA to avoid macroscopic charging. The observed convoy electron energy coincides with the energy of the electron isotachic to the incident ion. This suggests that the effect of the surface track potential is accidentally cancelled out by the surface wake potential.

  3. Generation of KCL024 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a mutation in NF1 gene

    Heema Hewitson

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The KCL024 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried an autosomal dominant mutation in the NF1 gene encoding neurofibromin (c.3739–3742 ∆TTTG. Mutations in this gene have been linked to neurofibromatosis type 1, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and Watson syndrome. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays.

  4. Determination of the E-pO2- stability diagram of plutonium in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic at 450 deg. C

    Plutonium trichloride solution in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was prepared by carbochlorination of plutonium oxide. Kinetics of this reaction was compared in different conditions in the range of 443-550 deg. C. Using this molten salt solution, the redox potential of the Pu(III)/Pu couple at inert tungsten electrode was measured at 450 deg. C by electromotive force measurement and was found to be E'o = -2.76 V vs. the Cl2(g)(1 atm)/Cl- reference electrode (molar fraction scale). Reaction between plutonium trichloride and oxide ions was studied by potentiometric titration, using yttria stabilized electrodes. In our experimental conditions, the titration curves indicate the precipitation of the sesquioxide Pu2O3. The solubility product cologarithm calculated from these curves is found to be pKs(Pu2O3) = 22.8 ± 1.1 (molality scale). Using the experimentally obtained values for E'o, activity coefficient and pKs joined to the published thermodynamic data, the stability phase diagram of the Pu-O species was then drawn

  5. Determination of the E-pO 2- stability diagram of plutonium in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic at 450 °C

    Caravaca, Concha; Laplace, Annabelle; Vermeulen, Jackie; Lacquement, Jérôme

    2008-07-01

    Plutonium trichloride solution in the molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was prepared by carbochlorination of plutonium oxide. Kinetics of this reaction was compared in different conditions in the range of 443-550 °C. Using this molten salt solution, the redox potential of the Pu(III)/Pu couple at inert tungsten electrode was measured at 450 °C by electromotive force measurement and was found to be E‧○ = -2.76 V vs. the Cl2(g)(1 atm)/Cl- reference electrode (molar fraction scale). Reaction between plutonium trichloride and oxide ions was studied by potentiometric titration, using yttria stabilized electrodes. In our experimental conditions, the titration curves indicate the precipitation of the sesquioxide Pu2O3. The solubility product cologarithm calculated from these curves is found to be pKs(Pu2O3) = 22.8 ± 1.1 (molality scale). Using the experimentally obtained values for E‧○, activity coefficient and pKs joined to the published thermodynamic data, the stability phase diagram of the Pu-O species was then drawn.

  6. An overview of the effect of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor monotherapy on glycemic and other clinical laboratory parameters in type 2 diabetes patients

    Wang, Yaowen; Hu, Xueting; Liu, Xueying; Wang, Zengqi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to determine the effect of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor monotherapy on glycemic and other clinical laboratory parameters versus other antidiabetic medications or placebo therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, we aimed to investigate the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis associated with SGLT2 inhibitor therapy and evaluate its weight-sparing ability. Design Meta-analysis. Materials and methods PubMed and MEDLINE were searched to identify eligible studies up to December 2015. Randomized controlled trials that assessed the efficacy and safety of SGLT2 inhibitor monotherapy versus placebo therapy or active control were considered. The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool was used to evaluate quality and bias. The mean difference was used to evaluate the glycemic and other clinical laboratory parameters for SGLT2 inhibitor intervention versus control by drugs or placebo. Similarly, the risk ratio was used to assess adverse events, and the I2 was used to evaluate heterogeneity. Results SGLT2 inhibitors significantly decreased glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) (P<0.001), weight (P<0.001), and the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio (P=0.03) compared with placebo therapy. No statistically significant changes were found in fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour postprandial glucose, or lipid parameters. Significant changes in the uric acid level were found for SGLT2 inhibitors versus placebo therapy (P=0.005) or active control (P<0.001). Although no significant change in levels of ketones occurred (P=0.93), patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors were at greater risk of increased ketone bodies. Events suggestive of urinary tract infection and pollakiuria presented the greatest risk for patients receiving SGLT2 inhibitors versus active control or placebo therapy. Conclusion SGLT2 inhibitors significantly decreased HbA1c, body weight, and the low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratio and were found

  7. Phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} relevant to salt cake processing

    Bodnar, R.J.; Vityk, M.O. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Hryn, J.N. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Mavrogenes, J. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1997-02-01

    One waste product in recycling of Al is salt cake, a mixture of Al, salts, and residue oxides. Several methods have been proposed to recycle salt cake, one involving high-temperature leaching of salts from the salt cake. The salt composition can be approximated as a mixture predominantly of NaCl and KCl salts, with lesser amounts of Mg chloride. In order to better assess the feasibility of recycling salt cake, an experimental study was conducted of phase equilibria in the system H{sub 2}O-NaCl-KCl-MgCl{sub 2} at pressure (P), temperature (T), and composition conditions appropriate for high- temperature salt cake recycling. These experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of small amounts (2-10 wt%) of MgCl{sub 2} on solubilities of halite (NaCl) and sylvite (KCl) in saturated solutions (30-50 wt% NaCl+KCl; NaCl:KCl = 1:1 and 3:1) at elevated P and T.

  8. Extraction of ytterbium via co-reduction of Al(III) and Yb(III) from LiCl-KCl melt on W electrode

    Anhydrous ytterbium chloride was obtained via solid-phase reaction from Yb2O3 with AlCl3 as a chlorination agent. The electrochemical behavior of the chloridized Yb2O3 was investigated on W electrodes in LiCl-KCl and LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 melts by cyclic voltammetry and square wave voltammetry. The results showed that the reduction/reoxidation of Yb(III)/Yb(II) was reversible and controlled by diffusion. The signals related to the formation of two Al-Yb intermetallic compounds were detected in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 melt. Potentiostatic electrolysis was carried out in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3-YbCl3 melt on W electrodes at 943 K at different potentials and Al3Yb, Al2Yb, AlLi and Al2Li3 phases were detected in deposits. Then, the extraction of ytterbium was performed. The currents evolution was recorded by square wave voltammetry and the extraction efficiency was evaluated via inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analysis during electrolysis. The initial extraction rate is much higher than that at longer times. The extraction efficiency was about 98.0 % for Yb(III) after potentiostatic electrolysis for 60 h at -1.84 V in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3-YbCl3 melt. (author)

  9. Effect of Li and Cu addition on corrosion of Fe–40 at.% Al intermetallics in molten LiCl–KCl eutectic salt

    Highlights: ► Identified effect of Li addition on corrosion of Fe–40 at.% Al into molten LiCl–KCl. ► Identified effect of Cu addition on corrosion of Fe–40 at.% Al into molten LiCl–KCl. ► Identified corrosion mechanism of Li addition of Fe–40 at.% Al into molten LiCl–KCl. ► Identified corrosion mechanism of Cu addition of Fe–40 at.% Al into molten LiCl–KCl. ► FeAl intermetallics doped with Li and Cu has great contribution as boiler coating. - Abstract: The effect of Li and Cu addition to base intermetallic Fe–40 at.% Al on corrosion behaviour in an electrolytic medium of molten LiCl–55 wt.% KCl eutectic salt at 450, 500 and 550 °C is studied. For this purpose, an electrochemical assessment is carried out through polarization curves and polarization resistance techniques. Corrosion products are characterized through scanning electron microscope and electron diffraction scanning. The test results show that Li additions slightly increase the corrosion rate, while Cu additions improve the corrosion resistance; both results are compared with the base material resistance. Further, a first approach of the corrosion mechanism is proposed, including the formation of protective layers.

  10. Research on Wetting-Drying Cycles’ Effect on the Physical and Mechanical Properties of Expansive Soil Improved by OTAC-KCl

    Bao-tian Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Expansive soil experiences periodic swelling and shrinkage during the alternate wet and dry environments, which will result in severe damage to the slope stability. In this study, a promising modifier OTAC-KCl is introduced, which has a good diffusivity and is soluble in water or other solvents easily. Firstly, a reasonable combination of ameliorant 0.3% STAC and 3% KCl is chosen referring to the free swell test. Then, the best curing period, 14 days, is gotten from UCS tests. The effect of wetting and drying cycles on engineering properties of expansive soil improved by OTAC-KCl admixtures after 14-day curing is also studied accordingly. Both treated and untreated expansive soil samples are prepared for the cyclic wetting-drying tests which mainly include cyclic swelling potential and cyclic strength tests. Experimental results show that the swelling potential of expansive soil samples stabilized with OTAC-KCl is suppressed efficiently, and the untreated soil specimens will collapse when immersed in water while the treated specimens keep in good conditions. Moreover, expansive soil samples modified with 0.3% OTAC + 3% KCl show enough durability on the swelling ability, shear strength, and unconfined compressive strength, which means, that both the physical and the mechanical properties of stabilized expansive soil have been improved effectively.

  11. Maternal restraint stress delays maturation of cation-chloride cotransporters and GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at puberty

    Veerawatananan, Bovorn; Surakul, Pornprom; Chutabhakdikul, Nuanchan

    2015-01-01

    The GABAergic synapse undergoes structural and functional maturation during early brain development. Maternal stress alters GABAergic synapses in the pup's brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults; however, the mechanism for this is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of maternal restraint stress on the development of Cation-Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) and the GABAA receptor α1 and α5 subunits in the hippocampus of rat pup...

  12. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Schwartz, Stanley

    2016-01-01

    Stanley S Schwartz,1,2 Arie Katz3 1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Main Line Health System, Ardmore, PA, USA; 3AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, USA Abstract: In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good...

  13. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Schwartz SS; Katz A

    2016-01-01

    Stanley S Schwartz,1,2 Arie Katz3 1University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Main Line Health System, Ardmore, PA, USA; 3AstraZeneca, Fort Washington, PA, USA Abstract: In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good opt...

  14. Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a 27 year-old female patient with type-1-Diabetes treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor Canagliflozin

    Bader, Nimrah; Mirza, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a timely case of atypical euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetic patient treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor canagliflozin. The clinical history, physical examination findings and laboratory values are described. Other causes of acidosis such as salicylate toxicity or alcohol intoxication were excluded. Ketoacidosis resolved after increasing dextrose and insulin doses supporting the hypothesis that SGLT-2 inhibitors may lead to hypoin...

  15. Drug-Drug Interactions with Sodium-Glucose Cotransporters Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors, New Oral Glucose-Lowering Agents for the Management of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Scheen, André

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) reduce hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. They are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. They have proven their efficacy in reducing glycated haemoglobin, without inducing hypoglycaemia, as monotherapy or in combination with various other glucose-lowering agents, with the add-on value of promoting some weight loss and lowering ar...

  16. Exploring Io's atmospheric composition with APEX: first measurement of 34SO2 and tentative detection of KCl

    Moullet, A; Moreno, R; Gurwell, M; Black, J; Butler, B

    2013-01-01

    The composition of Io's tenuous atmosphere is poorly constrained. Only the major species SO2 and a handful of minor species have been positively identified, but a variety of other molecular species should be present, based on thermochemical equilibrium models of volcanic gas chemistry and the composition of Io's environment. This paper focuses on the spectral search for expected yet undetected molecular species (KCl, SiO, S2O) and isotopes (34SO2). We analyze a disk-averaged spectrum of a potentially line-rich spectral window around 345 GHz, obtained in 2010 at the APEX-12m antenna (Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment). Using different models assuming either extended atmospheric distributions or a purely volcanically-sustained atmosphere, we tentatively measure the KCl relative abundance with respect to SO2 and derive a range of 4x10^{-4}-8x10^{-3}. We do not detect SiO or S2O and present new upper limits on their abundances. We also present the first measurement of the 34S/32S isotopic ratio in gas phase on Io, wh...

  17. Investigation on the reaction progress of zirconium and cuprous chloride in the LiCl–KCl melt

    The in-situ preparation of LiCl–KCl–ZrCl4 melt was investigated by the replacement reaction between Zr and CuCl in LiCl–KCl melt at 500 °C, and the reaction progress was also investigated by a series of electrochemical techniques, such as cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. The electrochemical signals show that the concentration of Zr(IV) ions increases gradually and then reaches to the maximum value with the reaction time increasing from 0 to 180 min, while the concentration of Cu(I) ions decreases rapidly and drops to below the detection limit of the electrochemical tests. Meanwhile, the concentrations of Cu and Zr ions in the melt were determined over time by chemical analysis in the course of reaction. The results are in good agreement with the electrochemical tests. Finally, LiCl–KCl melts with (0.837 wt.% ∼ 1.709 wt.%) ZrCl4 are obtained, and the final concentration of Cu(I) in the melt has dropped to below 0.025 wt.% when the reaction lasted for 180 min

  18. Evaluation of mass transfer coefficient of rare earth elements with interfacial agitation in LiCl-KCl/Cd system

    Reductive-extraction is one of the main process of pyro-chemical reprocessing for metallic fuel. Mass transfer coefficient of rare earth elements was evaluated in LiCl-KCl/Cd system at 450 and 500 degree C. The interface between the salt and the Cd was agitated with a fun turbine blade at 30 to 500 rpm. In case of 300 or 500 rpm, the system reached at equilibrium condition within 10 minutes. The evaluated mass transfer coefficient was 0.0008 to 0.05 cm/sec, which depended on the agitation speed or Reynolds number. The mass transfer coefficients became larger at 500 degree C than at 450 degree C, and in case of upward stream than in case of downward stream. Evaluation of recovery yield and separation efficiency of each solute were carried out in single-stage continuous-flow extraction and in multi-stages counter-current extraction in LiCl-KCl/Cd system. The mass transfer coefficients obtained in these experiments should be enough for separation and recovery in pyro-reprocessing by using counter-current extraction with 6 stages in case that the flow rare of both salt and Cd controlled within 2%/min. (author)

  19. Crystal growth of iron-based superconductor FeSe0.94 by KCl flux method

    Highlights: • SC crystals of FeSe0.94 bigger than previous reports are grown by KCl flux method. • The crystal sizes are 6 × 3 × 0.1–0.2 mm3 or 5 × 5 × 0.1–0.2 mm3; the TC is around 10 K. • Relatively big crystal size is realized by optimizing crystal growth conditions. • Optimized are the dissolution and convection, temperature gradient and flux content. - Abstract: Single crystals of iron-based superconductor FeSe0.94, the 11 phase, have been grown using KCl as flux. The size of as-grown crystals is up to 6 × 3 mm2 or 5 × 5 mm2. The relatively big crystal size is achieved by optimizing the experimental scheme. The main phase of the crystal samples is identified to be tetragonal β-FeSe by X-ray diffraction analysis. The superconducting transition temperature is determined to be around 10 K by both electron transport and diamagnetism measurements

  20. Crystal growth of iron-based superconductor FeSe{sub 0.94} by KCl flux method

    Ma, M.W.; Yuan, D.N.; Wu, Y.; Dong, X.L.; Zhou, F., E-mail: fzhou@aphy.iphy.ac.cn

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • SC crystals of FeSe{sub 0.94} bigger than previous reports are grown by KCl flux method. • The crystal sizes are 6 × 3 × 0.1–0.2 mm{sup 3} or 5 × 5 × 0.1–0.2 mm{sup 3}; the T{sub C} is around 10 K. • Relatively big crystal size is realized by optimizing crystal growth conditions. • Optimized are the dissolution and convection, temperature gradient and flux content. - Abstract: Single crystals of iron-based superconductor FeSe{sub 0.94}, the 11 phase, have been grown using KCl as flux. The size of as-grown crystals is up to 6 × 3 mm{sup 2} or 5 × 5 mm{sup 2}. The relatively big crystal size is achieved by optimizing the experimental scheme. The main phase of the crystal samples is identified to be tetragonal β-FeSe by X-ray diffraction analysis. The superconducting transition temperature is determined to be around 10 K by both electron transport and diamagnetism measurements.

  1. Aggregation kinetics of CeO2 nanoparticles in KCl and CaCl2 solutions: measurements and modeling

    To characterize the environmental transport and health risks of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs), it is important to understand their aggregation behavior. This study investigates the aggregation kinetics of CeO2 NPs in KCl and CaCl2 solutions using time-resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS). The initial hydrodynamic radius of CeO2 NPs measured by DLS was approximately 95 nm. Attachment efficiencies were derived both from aggregation data and predictions based on the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory. The deviations of the DLVO predictions were corrected by employing the extended DLVO (EDLVO) theory. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) of CeO2 NPs at pH = 5.6 is approximately 34 mM for KCl and 9.5 mM for CaCl2. Furthermore, based on the EDLVO theory and the von Smoluchowski’s population balance equation, a model accounting for diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) kinetics was established. For the reaction-limited aggregation (RLA) kinetics, a model that takes fractal geometry into account was established. The models fitted the experimental data well and proved to be useful for predicting the aggregation kinetics of CeO2 NPs.

  2. Influence of HCl and water vapour on the corrosion kinetics of Fe beneath molten ZnCl{sub 2}/KCl

    Ruh, Andreas; Spiegel, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, MPIE, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf, Germany (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Heat exchanger tubes in waste-fired boilers are usually covered by solid and molten salts, formed by condensation of aerosols within the flue gas. The presence of salts accelerates the corrosion process, especially if they are associated with the formation of melts on the material surface or in the oxide scales. But also corrosive gas species in the flue gases like HCl and H{sub 2}O are known to accelerate the corrosion kinetics by supplying more oxidant. This report focuses on investigations on the influence of HCl and H{sub 2}O on the kinetics of high temperature corrosion of pure Fe beneath a molten chloride deposit. Thermogravimetric (TG) experiments were conducted on pure Fe with a 50 mol.% KCl - 50 mol.% ZnCl{sub 2}-salt mixture (15 mg/cm{sup 2}) at T=320 deg. C in an Ar - O{sub 2} atmosphere with additional H{sub 2}O and HCl. TG tests carried out on pure Fe covered with KCl - ZnCl{sub 2} yield enhanced mass gain for atmospheres containing HCl in comparison to TG tests without HCl. This effect will be discussed with respect to incubation time and overall kinetics. Results showing the influence of water vapour are presented as well. (authors)

  3. Dynamical correlations and negative Maxwell-Stefan diffusivities for molten salt LiCl-KCl and LiF-BeF2

    Multicomponent diffusional mechanisms in ternary systems LiCl-KCl and LiF-BeF2 are elucidated using the Green-Kubo formalism. We observe a sign change and a divergent-like behavior for the MS diffusivity of the K-Li ion pair at a temperature of 1095 K for the eutectic composition, and at a KCl mole fraction of 0.48 at 1043K. For molten coolant LiF-BeF2 MS diffusivity shows strong composition dependence with negative MS diffusivity even between positive-negative pairs for low LiF%. Negative MS diffusivities while unusual are however, shown to satisfy the non-negative entropic constraints. Local structure of solutes Sr and U in LiCl-KCl make more bonds with Cl ions for higher concentration states and the first peak radial distribution function is greater. (author)

  4. Purification of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides delivered from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel using a reactive distillation process

    In the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel, the purification of waste salts containing radioactive nuclides can greatly contribute to a radioactive waste reduction. For this reason, the purification of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt containing rare earth chlorides was performed using a series of the phosphorylation process and the distillation process. LiCl-KCl eutectic salt recovered from the purification had a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides. The recycling feasibility of the recovered salt was verified through a uranium electro-deposition test using LiCl-KCl eutectic salt as the electrolyte. Based on these results, one body type of reactive distillation equipment with two top covers was designed. (author)

  5. Correcting for background nitrate contamination in KCl-extracted samples during isotopic analysis of oxygen and nitrogen by the denitrifier method

    Bell, MD; Sickman, JO

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE Previous research has shown that the denitrifying bacteria Pseudomonas chlororaphis ssp. aureofaciens (P. aureofaciens) can be used to measure the δ15N and δ18O values of extracted soil nitrate (NO3 -) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. We discovered that N2O production from reference blanks made in 1 M KCl increased relative to blanks made of deionized water (DIW). Further investigation showed that isotopic standards made in KCl yielded δ15N and δ18O values different from the stan...

  6. Electrochemical Study on the Electrodeposition of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a Liquid Cadmium Cathode in a LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    Electro-depositions of U, Nd, Ce, La and Y on a liquid cadmium cathode in a LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were studied by using an electrolytic cell. For the LiCl-KCl-UCl3- NdCl3-CeCl3-LaCl3-YCl3/Cd system, cyclic voltammograms and polarization curves were measured and the electrochemical properties of the system were discussed. From the results of the electro-depositions of U and rare earth metals on the LCC, separation factors and recovery ratios of U and REs were obtained and co-electro-depositions of U and REs were investigated. (authors)

  7. Solubilidade do SrO em NaCl-Kcl fundido a 727ºC Strontium oxide solubility in mol ten NaCl-KCl at 727°C

    Richard Louis Combes

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The solubility product value of SrO has been found to be equal to 10-4,2 (molality scale in molten equimolar mixture of NaCl and KCl at 727ºC, using a potentiometric method involving a calcia stabilized zirconia membrane electrode. This value, which is in a logical agreement with other alkaline-earth oxide determined solubilities, is compared to those of 10-5,8, 10-3,0 and 10-3,08 (molality scale found in the litterature 33, 22 and 5 years ago, respectively. Such discrepencies have called the attention of the authors, their possible reasons (methodology, titrating agent are analyzed and a theoretical discussion, for considering the authors' value as more reliable, is given in this paper.

  8. Place of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 inhibitors for treatment of type 2 diabetes

    Nasser; Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2(SGLT2), such as canagliflozin and dapagliflozin, are recently approved for treatment of type 2 diabetes. These agents lower blood glucose mainly by increasing urinary glucose excretion. Compared with placebo, SGLT2 inhibitors reduce hemoglobin A1c(Hb A1c) levels by an average of 0.5%-0.8% when used as monotherapy or add-on therapy. Advantages of this drug class include modest weight loss of approximately 2 kg, low risk of hypoglycemia, and decrease blood pressure of approximately 4 mm Hg systolic and 2 mm Hg diastolic. These characteristics make these agents potential add-on therapy in patients with Hb A1 c levels close to 7%-8.0%, particularly if these patients are obese, hypertensive, and/or prone for hypoglycemia. Meanwhile, these drugs are limited by high frequency of genital mycotic infections. Less common adverse effects include urinary tract infections, hypotension, dizziness, and worsening renal function. SGLT2 inhibitors should be used with caution in the elderly because of increased adverse effects, and should not be used in chronic kidney disease due to decreased or lack of efficacy and nephrotoxicity. Overall, SGLT2 inhibitors are useful addition for treatment of select groups of patients with type 2 diabetes,but their efficacy and safety need to be established in long-term clinical trials.

  9. Polymorphisms in sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide are not associated with hepatitis B virus clearance in Chinese Tibetans and Uygurs.

    Su, Zhenzhen; Li, Yi; Liao, Yun; Cai, Bei; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Junlong; Li, Lixin; Ying, Binwu; Tao, Chuanmin; Zhao, Min; Ba, Zhu; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Wang, Lanlan

    2016-07-01

    An association between polymorphisms in the sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) and the natural course of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the Chinese Han population has been noted. However, it is not known whether these polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing chronic HBV infection in other racial or ethnic populations. Accordingly, we conducted a candidate single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association study in Tibetan and Uygur HBV-infected patients. A total of 1302 subjects including 871 Tibetans and 431 Uygurs were recruited. According to their serological and clinical characteristics, each ethnic group was divided into two groups comprising spontaneous clearance individuals and persistently infected patients. Three SNPs were genotyped by a high resolution melting curve methodology. Among the SNPs, rs2296651 exhibited a minor allele frequency of viral load and HBV genotype; however, no significant differences were found in the SNP genotype distribution for each characteristic. In conclusion, the NTCP polymorphisms we identified tended to be ethnicity-dependent. For Tibetans and Uygurs, no association of the three SNPs (rs7154439, rs4646287 and rs2296651) and their haplotypes with HBV chronicity was observed. Examination of SNPs in NTCP for their specific associations with the course of HBV infection in other ethnic minority groups is now required. PMID:27051045

  10. Mobilization and co-transport of pyrene in the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2 biosurfactants in sandy soil columns

    Lafrance, P.; Lapointe, M.

    1998-12-31

    Washing technologies are currently applied for the remediation of contaminated soils. The efficiency of biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains to mobilize some hydrocarbons sorbed on soils has already been demonstrated. However, few studies have been made to define optimal procedures for the injection of these rhamnolipids in soil. This study examines (1) the efficiency of the biosurfactants produced by P. aeruginosa UG2 to mobilize pyrene from a contaminated sandy loam as compared to that of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS); (2) the injection procedures that might affect the efficiency of pyrene mobilization using UG2 biosurfactants; and (3) the co-transport of UG2 biosurfactants and pyrene. Based on the experimental results, it would be advantageous to use a high UG2 biosurfactant concentration, a high pore water velocity, and possibly a flow interruption of more than 15 h in order to reduce the injected volume and the duration of the treatment required. The 0.25% UG2 biosurfactant concentration greatly enhanced pyrene transport and could facilitate contaminant recovery.

  11. Knockdown of the sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter 2b (NPT2b suppresses lung tumorigenesis.

    Seong-Ho Hong

    Full Text Available The sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter 2b (NPT2b plays an important role in maintaining phosphate homeostasis. In previous studies, we have shown that high dietary inorganic phosphate (Pi consumption in mice stimulated lung tumorigenesis and increased NPT2b expression. NPT2b has also been found to be highly expressed in human lung cancer tissues. The association of high expression of NPT2b in the lung with poor prognosis in oncogenic lung diseases prompted us to test whether knockdown of NPT2b may regulate lung cancer growth. To address this issue, aerosols that contained small interfering RNA (siRNA directed against NPT2b (siNPT2b were delivered into the lungs of K-ras (LA1 mice, which constitute a murine model reflecting human lung cancer. Our results clearly showed that repeated aerosol delivery of siNPT2b successfully suppressed lung cancer growth and decreased cancer cell proliferation and angiogenesis, while facilitating apoptosis. These results strongly suggest that NPT2b plays a role lung tumorigenesis and represents a novel target for lung cancer therapy.

  12. Characterization and comparison of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: Part 2. Antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Tahara, Atsuo; Takasu, Toshiyuki; Yokono, Masanori; Imamura, Masakazu; Kurosaki, Eiji

    2016-07-01

    Previously we investigated the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and pharmacologic properties of all six sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitors commercially available in Japan using normal and diabetic mice. We classified the SGLT2 inhibitors with respect to duration of action as either long-acting (ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin) or intermediate-acting (tofogliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and luseogliflozin). In the present study, antidiabetic effects of repeated administration of these SGLT2 inhibitors in type 2 diabetic mice were investigated. When repeatedly administered for 4 weeks, all SGLT2 inhibitors significantly exhibited antihyperglycemic, antihyperinsulinemic, and pancreas-protective effects, as well as insulin resistance-improving effects. When compared at doses producing comparable reduction in hyperglycemia across all drugs, the antidiabetic effects of ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin were more potent than those of the other four drugs, but these differences among the six drugs were not statistically significant. Further, an oral glucose tolerance test performed after repeated administration demonstrated significant improvement in glucose tolerance only with ipragliflozin and dapagliflozin, implying improved insulin resistance and secretion. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that, although all SGLT2 inhibitors exert antidiabetic effects in type 2 diabetic mice, these pharmacologic effects might be slightly superior with the long-acting drugs, which are able to provide favorable blood glucose control throughout the day. PMID:27430987

  13. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as add-on therapy to insulin: rationale and evidences.

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are recently approved class of anti-hyperglycaemic agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). SGLT-2I inhibits renal glucose reabsorption, thereby ensuing urinary glucose excretion in a dose-dependent manner. This caloric loss and osmotic diuresis, secondary to increased urinary glucose excretion, has a unique potential to counter insulin induced weight gain and fluid retention, with little potential of hypoglycemic exacerbation. Also, as these agents act independently of insulin secretion or action, they are effective even in long-standing diabetes with depleted β-cell reserve. Improvement in insulin sensitivity, as observed with SGLT-2I can also facilitate insulin action. Furthermore, significant reduction in total daily insulin dosage and reduction of body weight as observed during combination therapy renders SGLT-2I, a near-ideal partner to insulin. This review aims to evaluate the safety and efficacy of currently used SGLT-2I as an add-on to insulin therapy in the treatment of T2DM. PMID:26732230

  14. Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide inhibition efficiently blocks hepatitis B virus spread in mice with a humanized liver

    Nakabori, Tasuku; Hikita, Hayato; Murai, Kazuhiro; Nozaki, Yasutoshi; Kai, Yugo; Makino, Yuki; Saito, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Wada, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Takeshi; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is a recently discovered hepatitis B virus (HBV) receptor. In the present study, we used TK-NOG mice with a humanized liver to examine the impact of endogenous NTCP expression on HBV infection. Upon inoculation with HBV, these mice exhibited clear viremia in 2 weeks, and serum HBV DNA levels gradually increased. The frequency of HBsAg-positive hepatocytes in the liver was 5.1 ± 0.6% at 2 weeks and increased with increasing HBV DNA levels, reaching 92.9 ± 2.8% at 10 to 12 weeks. In vivo siRNA-mediated NTCP knockdown before and after HBV inoculation significantly suppressed the levels of HBV replication and the frequency of HBsAg-positive hepatocytes at 2 weeks, whereas NTCP knockdown 13 weeks after infection did not affect these parameters. Similar to the humanized mouse livers in the early phase of HBV infection, human liver samples from chronic hepatitis B patients, especially those treated with nucleos(t)ide analogues, contained a considerable number of hepatocytes that were negative for the anti-HBs antibody. In conclusion, NTCP inhibition prevents the spread of HBV-infected hepatocytes in mice with a humanized liver. NTCP-targeted therapy has potential for regulating HBV infection in patients with chronic hepatitis B. PMID:27278060

  15. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats.

    Michelle B Bales

    Full Text Available Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX and in sham-operated controls (SHAM. Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p., but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average. For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001 in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006 in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and

  16. Production of strangeness in Ar+KCl reactions at 1.756 AGeV with HADES; Produktion von Seltsamkeit in Ar+KCl Reaktionen bei 1.756 AGeV mit HADES

    Schmah, Alexander Marc

    2008-05-15

    In september/october 2005 the first of heavier colliding systems was investigated with the HADES spectrometer by using an Ar projectile and a KCl target at a bombarding energy of 1.756 AGeV. With 850 million semi-central reactions in the colliding system Ar+KCl the opportunity was given for one of the most extensive hadron analyses in the SIS energy regime. The results of these analyses are presented in this thesis. The main focal point is the production of particles with strangeness content. The particle ratios of {lambda} and K{sup 0}{sub S} are comparable to those of other experiments. The corrections of acceptance, detector-, cut- and reconstruction efficiency is done using the simulation packages PLUTO, UrQMD and GEANT. With the corrected transverse mass spectra rapidity distributions and particle multiplicities are calculated. Due to the nearly full sample of reconstructed particles carrying strangeness, one can conclude to the missing part, which is connected to the charged {sigma}-hyperons. Within the error bars the fraction of {sigma}{sup {+-}}{sup ,0} is at least 12 % of the {lambda} multiplicity. The detection of the {phi} vector meson far below the nucleon-nucleon production threshold in the decay channel {phi} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} exceeds with 168 {+-} 18 the only up to now published data by more than a factor 7. The extracted effective temperature of T{sub eff}=80{+-}9{sup +2}{sub -3} is a brand-new result. The determined {phi}/K{sup -} ratio is 0.59{sup +0.30}{sub -0.29}. (orig.)

  17. High temperature corrosion of thermally sprayed NiCr- and amorphous Fe-based coatings covered with a KCl-K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} salt

    Varis, T.; Suhonen, T.; Tuurna, S.; Ruusuvuori, K.; Holmstroem, S.; Salonen, J. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bankiewicz, D.; Yrjas, P. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland)

    2010-07-01

    New process conditions due to the requirement of higher efficiency together with the use of high-chlorine and alkali containing fuels such as biomass and waste fuels for heat and electricity production will challenge the resistance and life of tube materials. In conventional materials the addition of alloying elements to increase the corrosion resistance in aggressive combustion conditions increases costs relatively rapidly. Thermally sprayed coating offer promising, effective, flexible and cost efficient solutions to fulfill the material needs for the future. Some heat exchanger design alteractions before global commercialization have to be overcome, though. High temperature corrosion in combustion plants can occur by a variety of mechanisms including passive scale degradation with subsequent rapid scaling, loss of adhesion and scale detachment, attack by melted or partly melted deposits via fluxing reactions and intergranular-/interlamellar corrosion. A generally accepted model of the ''active oxidation'' attributes the responsibility for inducing corrosion to chlorine. The active oxidation mechanism plays a key role in the thermally sprayed coatings due to their unique lamellar structure. In this study, the corrosion behaviour of NiCr (HVOF and Wire Arc), amorphous Fe-based, and Fe13Cr (Wire Arc) thermally sprayed coatings, were tested in the laboratory under simplified biomass combustion conditions. The tests were carried out by using a KCl-K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} salt mixture as a synthetic biomass ash, which was placed on the materials and then heat treated for one week (168h) at two different temperatures (550{sup 0}C and 600 C) and in two different gas atmospheres (air and air+30%H{sub 2}O). After the exposures, the metallographic cross sections of the coatings were studied with SEM/EDX analyzer. The results showed that the coatings behaved relatively well at the lower test temperature while critical corrosion through the lamella boundaries

  18. Electrochemical studies and analysis of 1–10 wt% UCl{sub 3} concentrations in molten LiCl–KCl eutectic

    Hoover, Robert O., E-mail: roberthoover@vandals.uidaho.edu [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department and Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Shaltry, Michael R., E-mail: mshaltry@uidaho.edu [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department and Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States); Martin, Sean, E-mail: Sean.martin@xenuclear.com [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sridharan, Kumar, E-mail: kumar@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1415 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Phongikaroon, Supathorn, E-mail: supathor@uidaho.edu [Chemical and Materials Engineering Department and Nuclear Engineering Program, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, Center for Advanced Energy Studies, 995 University Blvd, Idaho Falls, ID 83401 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Three electrochemical methods – cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), and anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) – were applied to solutions of up to 10 wt% UCl{sub 3} in the molten LiCl–KCl eutectic salt at 500 °C to determine electrochemical properties and behaviors and to help provide a scientific basis for the development of an in situ electrochemical probe for determining the concentration of uranium in a used nuclear fuel electrorefiner. Diffusion coefficients of UCl{sub 4} and UCl{sub 3} were calculated to be (6.72 ± 0.360) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s and (1.04 ± 0.17) × 10{sup −5} cm{sup 2}/s, respectively. Apparent standard reduction potentials were determined to be (−0.381 ± 0.013) V and (−1.502 ± 0.076) V vs. 5 mol% Ag/AgCl or (−1.448 ± 0.013) V and (−2.568 ± 0.076) V vs. Cl{sub 2}/Cl{sup −} for the U(IV)/U(III) and U(III)/U redox couples, respectively. In comparing this data with supercooled thermodynamic data to determine activity coefficients, the thermodynamic database used was important with resulting activity coefficients ranging from 2.34 × 10{sup −3} to 1.08 × 10{sup −2} for UCl{sub 4} and 4.94 × 10{sup −5} to 4.50 × 10{sup −4} for UCl{sub 3}. Of anodic stripping voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry anodic or cathodic peaks, the CV cathodic peak height divided by square root of scan rate was shown to be the most reliable method of determining UCl{sub 3} concentration in the molten salt.

  19. Synthesis of CaCrO{sub 4} powders for the cathode material of the thermal battery by GNP and electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl/CaCrO{sub 4} thermal battery system

    Kim, Whung Whoe

    2000-04-01

    Thermal batteries are one of the devices employing solid electrolyte that are not nonconductive at ambient temperature, and activated by electrochemical reaction when the sufficient heat is supplied to electrolyte to melt. The demand of thermal batteries would be increased because it is cost effective and highly reliable in that no maintenance is necessary, electric power can be generated as necessary and no self discharge unlike the other primary batteries. These thermal batteries are used to the military purposes and satellite communication systems and as an emergency power sources, applied to the important places where power supply should not be interrupted, such as hospital, powder plants, ships and portable communication devices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was focused to obtain the manufacturing technologies of thermal battery on our own, after manufacturing the CaCrO{sub 4} produced by GNP and investigating the electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl+CaCrO{sub 4}/Ni.

  20. Synthesis of CaCrO4 powders for the cathode material of the thermal battery by GNP and electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl/CaCrO4 thermal battery system

    Thermal batteries are one of the devices employing solid electrolyte that are not nonconductive at ambient temperature, and activated by electrochemical reaction when the sufficient heat is supplied to electrolyte to melt. The demand of thermal batteries would be increased because it is cost effective and highly reliable in that no maintenance is necessary, electric power can be generated as necessary and no self discharge unlike the other primary batteries. These thermal batteries are used to the military purposes and satellite communication systems and as an emergency power sources, applied to the important places where power supply should not be interrupted, such as hospital, powder plants, ships and portable communication devices. Therefore, the purpose of this study was focused to obtain the manufacturing technologies of thermal battery on our own, after manufacturing the CaCrO4 produced by GNP and investigating the electrochemical characteristics of Ca/LiCl-KCl+CaCrO4/Ni

  1. Λp femtoscopy in collisions of Ar + KCl at 1.76A GeV with HADES

    Results on Λp femtoscopy are reported at the lowest energy so far. At a beam energy of 1.76 A GeV, the reaction Ar+KCl was studied with HADES at SIS18/GSI. A high-statistics and high-purity Λ sample was collected, allowing for the investigation of Λp correlations at small relative momenta. The experimental correlation function is compared to corresponding model calculations allowing the determination of the space-time extent of the Λp emission source. The Λp radius is found significantly smaller than that for Au + Au/Pb + Pb collisions in the AGS, SPS and RHIC energy domains, but larger than that for electroproduction from He. Taking into account all available data, we find the Λp source radius to increase almost linearly with the number of participants to the power of one-third

  2. Thermoluminescence dependence on the wavelength of monochromatic UV-radiation in Cu-doped KCl and KBr at room temperature

    Perez R, A.; Piters, T.; Aceves, R.; Rodriguez M, R.; Perez S, R., E-mail: rperez@cifus.uson.mx [Universidad de Sonora, Departamento de Investigaciones en Fisica, Apdo. Postal 5-088, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2014-08-15

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) dependence on the UV irradiation wavelengths from 200 to 500 nm in Cu-doped KCl and KBr crystals with different thermal treatment has been analyzed. Spectrum of the Tl intensity of each material show lower intensity at wavelengths longer than 420 nm. The Tl intensity depends on the irradiation wavelength. Structure of the Tl intensity spectrum of each sample is very similar to the structure of its optical absorption spectrum, indicating that at each wavelength, monochromatic radiation is absorbed to produce electronic transitions and electron hole pairs. Thermoluminescence of materials with thermal treatment at high temperature shows electron-hole trapping with less efficiency. The results show that Cu-doped alkali-halide materials are good detectors of a wide range of UV monochromatic radiations and could be used to measure UV radiation doses. (Author)

  3. Zr electrorefining process for the treatment of cladding hull waste in LiCl-KCl molten salts

    Lee, Chang Hwa; Lee, You Lee; Jeon, Min Ku; Kang, Kweon Ho; Choi, Yong Taek; Park, Geun Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daeduk-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Zr electrorefining for the treatment of Zircaloy-4 cladding hull waste is demonstrated in LiCl-KCl-ZrCl{sub 4} molten salts. Although a Zr oxide layer thicker than 5 μm strongly inhibits the Zr dissolution process, pre-treatment processes increases the dissolution kinetics. For 10 g-scale experiments, the purities of the recovered Zr were 99.54 wt.% and 99.74 wt.% for fresh and oxidized cladding tubes, respectively, with no electrical contact issue. The optimal condition for Zr electrorefining has been found to improve the morphological feature of the recovered Zr, which reduces the salt incorporation by examining the effect of the process parameters such as the ZrCl{sub 4} concentration and the applied potential.

  4. Zirconium behaviour during electrorefining of actinide-zirconium alloy in molten LiCl-KCl on aluminium cathodes

    Meier, R.; Souček, P.; Malmbeck, R.; Krachler, M.; Rodrigues, A.; Claux, B.; Glatz, J.-P.; Fanghänel, Th.

    2016-04-01

    A pyrochemical electrorefining process for the recovery of actinides from metallic nuclear fuel based on actinide-zirconium alloys (An-Zr) in a molten salt is being investigated. In this process actinides are group-selectively recovered on solid aluminium cathodes as An-Al alloys using a LiCl-KCl eutectic melt at a temperature of 450 °C. In the present study the electrochemical behaviour of zirconium during electrorefining was investigated. The maximum amount of actinides that can be oxidised without anodic co-dissolution of zirconium was determined at a selected constant cathodic current density. The experiment consisted of three steps to assess the different stages of the electrorefining process, each of which employing a fresh aluminium cathode. The results indicate that almost a complete dissolution of the actinides without co-dissolution of zirconium is possible under the applied experimental conditions.

  5. Hot Corrosion Behavior of High-Chromium, High-Carbon Cast Irons in NaCl-KCl Molten Salts

    S. Vuelvas-Rayo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the corrosion behavior of a series of experimental high-chromium (18.53–30.48 wt.%, high-carbon (3.82–5.17% cast irons in NaCl-KCl (1 : 1 M at 670°C has been evaluated by using weight loss technique and compared with a 304-type stainless steel. It was found that all castings had a higher corrosion rate than conventional 304SS and that the addition of Cr increased the degradation rate of the cast irons. Additionally, corrosion rate increased by increasing the C contents up to 4.29%, but it decreased with a further increase in its contents. Results are discussed in terms of consumption of the Cr2O3 layer by the melt.

  6. Effect of Minor Alloying Elements on the Corrosion Behavior of Fe40Al in NaCl-KCl Molten Salts

    G. Salinas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hot corrosion behavior of Fe40Al intermetallic alloyed with Ag, Cu, Li, and Ni (1–5 at.% in NaCl-KCl (1 : 1 M at 670°C, typical of waste gasification environments, has been evaluated by using polarization curves and weight loss techniques and compared with a 304-type stainless steel. Both gravimetric and electrochemical techniques showed that all different Fe40Al-base alloys have a much higher corrosion resistance than that for stainless steel. Among the different Fe40Al-based alloys, the corrosion rate was very similar among each other, but it was evident that the addition of Li decreased their corrosion rate whereas all the other elements increased it. Results have been explained in terms of the formation and stability of an external, protective Al2O3 layer.

  7. Thermoluminescence dependence on the wavelength of monochromatic UV-radiation in Cu-doped KCl and KBr at room temperature

    Thermoluminescence (Tl) dependence on the UV irradiation wavelengths from 200 to 500 nm in Cu-doped KCl and KBr crystals with different thermal treatment has been analyzed. Spectrum of the Tl intensity of each material show lower intensity at wavelengths longer than 420 nm. The Tl intensity depends on the irradiation wavelength. Structure of the Tl intensity spectrum of each sample is very similar to the structure of its optical absorption spectrum, indicating that at each wavelength, monochromatic radiation is absorbed to produce electronic transitions and electron hole pairs. Thermoluminescence of materials with thermal treatment at high temperature shows electron-hole trapping with less efficiency. The results show that Cu-doped alkali-halide materials are good detectors of a wide range of UV monochromatic radiations and could be used to measure UV radiation doses. (Author)

  8. Electrochemical Study of Ni20Cr Coatings Applied by HVOF Process in ZnCl2-KCl at High Temperatures.

    Porcayo-Calderón, J; Sotelo-Mazón, O; Casales-Diaz, M; Ascencio-Gutierrez, J A; Salinas-Bravo, V M; Martinez-Gomez, L

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion behavior of Ni20Cr coatings deposited by HVOF (high velocity oxygen-fuel) process was evaluated in ZnCl2-KCl (1 : 1 mole ratio) molten salts. Electrochemical techniques employed were potentiodynamic polarization curves, open circuit potential, and linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements. Experimental conditions included static air and temperatures of 350, 400, and 450°C. 304-type SS was evaluated in the same conditions as the Ni20Cr coatings and it was used as a reference material to assess the coatings corrosion resistance. Coatings were evaluated as-deposited and with a grinded surface finished condition. Results showed that Ni20Cr coatings have a better corrosion performance than 304-type SS. Analysis showed that Ni content of the coatings improved its corrosion resistance, and the low corrosion resistance of 304 stainless steel was attributed to the low stability of Fe and Cr and their oxides in the corrosive media used. PMID:25210645

  9. Spanish LLW and MLW disposal: durability of cemented materials in (Na, K)Cl simulated radioactive liquid waste.

    Goñi, S; Guerrero, A; Hernández, M S

    2001-01-01

    The microstructural stability or durability of a specific backfilling pozzolanic-cement mortar, which is employed in Spain, in concrete containers for the storage of low level liquid wastes (LLW) and medium level liquid wastes (MLW), has been studied by means of the Koch-Steinegger test at the temperatures of 20 and 40 degrees C during a period of 365 days. Mortar samples were immersed in salt solutions of 3.46 M NaCl and 3.46 M KCl to simulate the salinity of some radioactive liquid waste matrices. The resistance of the mortar to the saline solution attack is evaluated by the development of the relative flexural strength. The changes of the microstructure were followed by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Pore solution was extracted and analyzed at different periods of time to know the possible diffusion of sodium, chloride and potassium inside the microstructure. PMID:11150135

  10. Environmentally friendly growth of single-crystalline K2Ti6O13 nanoribbons from KCl flux

    Single-crystalline K2Ti6O13 nanoribbons with typical width ranging from one hundred nanometers to a few hundred nanometers and length up to tens of microns were prepared from KCl flux. The nanoribbons were characterized by a range of methods including X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Ultraviolet-visible experiments showed that the K2Ti6O13 nanoribbons were wide-band semiconductors with a band width Eg = 3.4 eV. The mechanism of one-dimensional growth of the nanoribbons was attributed to the oriented attachment mechanism.

  11. Production of strangeness in Ar+KCl reactions at 1.756 AGeV with HADES

    In september/october 2005 the first of heavier colliding systems was investigated with the HADES spectrometer by using an Ar projectile and a KCl target at a bombarding energy of 1.756 AGeV. With 850 million semi-central reactions in the colliding system Ar+KCl the opportunity was given for one of the most extensive hadron analyses in the SIS energy regime. The results of these analyses are presented in this thesis. The main focal point is the production of particles with strangeness content. The particle ratios of Λ and K0S are comparable to those of other experiments. The corrections of acceptance, detector-, cut- and reconstruction efficiency is done using the simulation packages PLUTO, UrQMD and GEANT. With the corrected transverse mass spectra rapidity distributions and particle multiplicities are calculated. Due to the nearly full sample of reconstructed particles carrying strangeness, one can conclude to the missing part, which is connected to the charged Σ-hyperons. Within the error bars the fraction of Σ±,0 is at least 12 % of the Λ multiplicity. The detection of the φ vector meson far below the nucleon-nucleon production threshold in the decay channel φ → K+K- exceeds with 168 ± 18 the only up to now published data by more than a factor 7. The extracted effective temperature of Teff=80±9+2-3 is a brand-new result. The determined φ/K- ratio is 0.59+0.30-0.29. (orig.)

  12. The solid-liquid separation characteristics of pure LiCl-KCl eutectic salt using different types of crucibles

    Uranium deposits were recovered at the solid cathode of an electrorefining system, and deposited uranium dendrite normally contains about 30-40 wt% LiCl-KCl eutectic salts. Therefore, a separation of the eutectic salts from deposited uranium is essential for reusing these salts and uranium. A process such as distillation was employed for cathode processing due to the advantages of a minimal generation of secondary waste, a compact unit process, and simple and low-cost equipment. However, the realization of a wide evaporation area or high distillation temperature is limited by various factors such as the material or structure of a distiller. Also, the electrical energy flow from outside has a lot of consumption to maintain the high temperature. Hence, in this study, solid-liquid separation experiments are proposed to increase the throughput of the salt removal process by the separation of the liquid salt prior to the distillation of the LiCl-KCl eutectic salt. The solid-liquid separation of salt was carried out in a vertical type distiller. The behavior of the solid-liquid separation of pure eutectic salt was investigated as a function of temperature, pressure, sieve size, and crucible shape. From the experimental results using pure eutectic salts, the amount of salt separation was achieved at more than 94 wt%. The rate of solid-liquid separation of salt using 600 deg C is higher than that of 500 deg C under the same condition. The influence of a vacuum for solid-liquid separation can be disregarded, and the separation rate of a 100 mesh was higher than that of a 150 mesh. In addition, the rate of separation for salts using a porous crucible is higher than that in a non-porous crucible. (author)

  13. Design of In-situ Measurement System of Uranium Concentration in LiCl-KCl Eutectic Electrolyte

    Pyrochemical process technology of nuclear fuels using a LiCl-KCl eutectic, currently being developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) as promising options for future spent nuclear fuel management in Korea, has many advantages such as compactness, economy, radiation stability of the solvent, and non-proliferation. In this pyrochemical process, it is essential to have in-situ information on the concentration of process material such as uranium, plutonium, and fission products as well as their chemical and physical behaviors in a high temperature molten salt medium, since the actinides and lanthanides in the molten salt play an important role for an effective actinide metal recovery during the electro-refining step. In the electro-refining step of the pyrochemical process, a small amount of UCl3 is added to a LiCl-KCl eutectic bath to initiate electro-deposition of uranium onto a working electrode. Since the concentration of uranium in the melts has a tendency to decrease after several batches of process, the concentration of uranium has to be checked continuously, especially when being transferred to the electro-winning step to collect the minor actinides such as neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium left over in the salts. The study of the application of a spectroscopic technique, especially absorption spectroscopy, which is known as the one of the most powerful tools to apply on-line monitoring, has been continuously increased for the investigation of the behavior of RE elements as well as actinides present in molten salt. In this report, the applicability of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy was studied as the on-line monitoring method for uranium concentrations in molten chloride electrolyte and a new design of UV-Vis absorption device setup was proposed for direct application to the electro-refining process

  14. Activity-mediated plasticity of GABA equilibrium potential in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons.

    Yang, B; Tadavarty, R; Xu, J-Y; Sastry, B R

    2010-01-01

    The equilibrium potential (E(GABA)(-PSC)) for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (PSCs) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons shifts when theta-burst stimulation (four pulses at 100 Hz in each burst in a train consisting of five bursts with an inter-burst interval of 200 ms, the train repeated thrice at 30-s intervals) is applied to the input. E(GABA)(-PSC) is regulated by K(+)/Cl(-) co-transporter (KCC2). GABA(B) receptors are implicated in modulating KCC2 levels. In the current study, the involvement of KCC2, as well as GABA(B) receptors, in theta-burst-mediated shifts in E(GABA)(-PSC) was examined. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons (from 9 to 12 days old rats), in a slice preparation. Glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents were blocked with dl-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (50 microM) and 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (20 microM). The PSC and the E(GABA)(-PSC) were stable when stimulated at 0.05 Hz. However, both changed following a 30-min stimulation at 0.5 or 1 Hz. Furosemide (500 microM) and KCC2 anti-sense in the recording pipette but not bumetanide (20 or 100 microM) or KCC2 sense, blocked the changes, suggesting KCC2 involvement. Theta-burst stimulation induced a negative shift in E(GABA)(-PSC), which was prevented by KCC2 anti-sense; however, KCC2 sense had no effect. CGP55845 (2 microM), a GABA(B) antagonist, applied in the superfusing medium, or GDP-beta-S in the recording pipette, blocked the shift in E(GABA)(-PSC). These results indicate that activity-mediated plasticity in E(GABA)(-PSC) occurs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and theta-burst-induced negative shift in E(GABA)(-PSC) requires KCC2, GABA(B) receptors and G-protein activation. PMID:19879261

  15. Investigation on the electrochemical behavior of neodymium chloride at W, Al and Cd electrodes in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Electrochemical behavior of neodymium (III) ion was studied in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt in the temperature range 723-798 K on inert tungsten electrode using various transient electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, convolution voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and square wave voltammetry. The reduction of Nd(III) ion to Nd metal on tungsten electrode takes place in two steps- Nd(III)/Nd(II) and Nd(II)/Nd(0). Reduction of Nd(III) to Nd(II) showed reversible electrode behavior and that for Nd(II) to Nd metal followed the quasi-reversible behavior. Heterogeneous rate constant for the reduction, Nd(II)/Nd(0) was estimated from the convoluted voltammograms. The apparent standard electrode potentials,ENd(III)/Nd(II)*, ENd(II)/Nd(0)* and ENd(III)/Nd(0)* were estimated from the cyclic voltammograms and open circuit potentiograms. • The electrode behavior of Nd(III) ion on solid aluminium electrode and liquid cadmium electrode was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Under-potential reduction of Nd(III) ion takes place on Al and Cd cathodes in a single step with three electron transfer. The apparent standard electrode potentials, ENd(III)/Nd(Al)* and ENd(III)/Nd(Cd)* were estimated for different temperatures in the range 698-773 K. The formation of intermetallics, Al11Nd3 and Cd11Nd were studied from open circuit potential measurement on Al and Cd film electrode respectively. Thermodynamic properties of Nd-Al and Nd-Cd systems were evaluated. - Abstract: Electrochemical behavior of neodymium (III) ion was studied in LiCl-KCl eutectic melt in the temperature range 723-798 K on inert tungsten electrode using various transient electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, convolution voltammetry, chronopotentiometry and square wave voltammetry. The reduction of Nd(III) ion to Nd metal on tungsten electrode takes place in two steps- Nd(III)/Nd(II) and Nd(II)/Nd(0). The diffusion coefficient of Nd(III) and Nd (II) ions were

  16. Thermodynamic description of the AgCl–CoCl{sub 2}–InCl{sub 3}–KCl system

    Wang, Kun, E-mail: wangkun@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China); Fei, Zejie [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China); Wang, Jian [Center for Research in Computational Thermochemistry (CRCT), Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique, Montréal, Québec, H3C 3A7 (Canada); Wu, Zhu [Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Li, Chonghe [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy & Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai, 200072 (China); Xie, Leidong [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 201800 (China)

    2015-08-01

    The present investigation is aimed at deriving a set of self-consistent thermodynamic functions for the AgCl–CoCl{sub 2}–InCl{sub 3}–KCl quaternary system within the framework of the CALPHAD approach. All the previous reported thermodynamic parameters for the binary subsystems were initially reviewed and adopted, and critical thermodynamic evaluations and optimizations were later performed on the unavailable AgCl–KCl and InCl{sub 3}–KCl systems in terms of the required phase equilibria and thermochemical data from experimental measurements and theoretical predictions (First-principles method and empirical equation). The Modified Quasi-Chemical model were applied to describing the molten salt phase, while all the intermediate phases were treated as the stoichiometric compounds due to no observation of the homogeneity composition range. Various phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties in the ternary and quaternary systems could be facilely calculated based upon the ultimate thermodynamic database established in this case, which will support beneficial instructions in the related industrial processes. - Highlights: • The modified quasi-chemical model was used to describe the liquid phase. • First principles method was applied to assist model parameters optimization of the intermediate phase. • The complete phase diagram of the InCl{sub 3}–KCl system was calculated for the first time in the present work.

  17. Effects of Partial Substitutions of NaCl with KCl, CaSO4 and MgSO4 on the Quality and Sensorial Properties of Pork Patties

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of NaCl replacers (KCl, CaSO4, and MgSO4) on the quality and sensorial properties of pork patty. In the characteristics of spray-dried salt particles, KCl showed the largest particle size with low viscosity in solution. Meanwhile CaSO4 treatment resulted in the smallest particle size and the highest viscosity (p<0.05). In comparison of the qualities of pork patties manufactured by varying level of Na replacers, MgSO4 treatment exhibited low cooking loss comparing to control (p<0.05). Textural properties of KCl and MgSO4 treatments showed similar pattern, i.e., low level of the replacers caused harder and less adhesive texture than those of control (p<0.05), whereas the hardness of these products was not different with control when the replacers were added more than 1.0%. The addition of CaSO4 also manifested harder and less adhesive than control (p<0.05), but the textural properties of CaSO4 treatment was not affected by level of Ca-salt. Eventually, sensorial properties indicated that KCl and CaSO4 influenced negative effects on pork patties. In contrast, MgSO4 showed better sensorial properties in juiciness intensity, tenderness intensity as well as overall acceptability than control, reflecting that MgSO4 was an effective Na-replacer in meat product formulation. PMID:26761288

  18. Optical destruction of radiation-induced F- and V-centres in γ-irradiated NaCl and KCl at room temperature

    The destruction of radiation induced F- and V-centres in γ-irradiated NaCl and KCl, caused by an illumination with F-light at room temperature is investigated in experimental and theoretical aspects. The OH-free NaCl and KCl crystal samples are prepared by irradiation with γ-rays from 60Co-source (dose rate 7800 rad/min) at room temperature. The absorption bands (optical density) of F- and V-centres in both type of samples after optical bleaching by F-light for different periods of time are measured. For comparison the absorption bands of the samples after annealing at 400 deg C for 10 min are presented as well. The absorption coefficients are evaluated as functions of bleaching time. The spectral distribution of the specific photoconductivity for NaCl and KCl corresponding to the initial value of optical bleaching is obtained. A possible mechanism for an explanation of optical destruction of radiation-induced F- and V-centres in NaCl and KCl is proposed and a model is constructed. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data

  19. The importance of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} for sulphation of gaseous KCl - An experimental investigation in a biomass fired CFB boiler

    Kassman, Haakan [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden); Baefver, Linda [Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Energy Technology, Boraas (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Energy and Environment, Division of Energy Technology, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-09-15

    This paper is based on results obtained during co-combustion of wood pellets and straw in a 12 MW circulating fluidised bed (CFB) boiler. Elemental sulphur (S) and ammonium sulphate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) were used as additives to convert the alkali chlorides (mainly KCl) to less corrosive alkali sulphates. Their performance was then evaluated using several measurement tools including, IACM (on-line measurements of gaseous alkali chlorides), a low-pressure impactor (particle size distribution and chemical composition of extracted fly ash particles), and deposit probes (chemical composition in deposits collected). The importance of the presence of either SO{sub 2} or SO{sub 3} for gas phase sulphation of KCl is also discussed. Ammonium sulphate performed significantly better than elemental sulphur. A more efficient sulphation of gaseous KCl was achieved with (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} even when the S/Cl molar ratio was less than half compared to sulphur. Thus the presence of gaseous SO{sub 3} is of greater importance than that of SO{sub 2} for the sulphation of gaseous KCl. (author)

  20. Study by electronic paramagnetic resonance of the Ni(CN)4K2 irradiated with electrons in KCl e NaCl

    The Ni(CN)4K2 irradiated with electrons in KCl and NaCl is studied by electronic paramagnetic resonance. The validity of two approximations, is tested, one, said of intermediate symmetry and the other one of super-hyperfine structure, to evaluate the coefficients of the ligants in the molecular orbital

  1. Measurement of standard potentials of actinides (U,Np,Pu,Am) in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt and separation of actinides from rare earths by electrorefining

    Pyrochemical separation of actinides from rare earths in LiCl-KCl eutectic-liquid metal systems has been studied. The electromotive forces of galvanic cells of the form, Ag vertical stroke Ag(I), LiCl-KCl parallel actinide(III), LiCl-KCl vertical stroke actinide, were measured and standard potentials were determined for uranium, neptunium and plutonium to be -1.283 V, -1.484 V and -1.593 V (at 450 C vs. Ag/AgCl (1wt%-AgCl)), respectively. A typical cyclic voltammogram of americium chloride has two cathodic peaks, which suggests reduction Am(III)→Am(II) occurs followed by reduction of Am(II) to americium metal. Standard potential of Am(II)/Am(0) was estimated to be -1.642 V. Electrorefining experiments to separate actinides (U, Np, Pu and Am) from rare earths (Y, La, Ce, Nd and Gd) in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were carried out. It was shown that the actinide metals were recovered on the cathodes and that americium was the most difficult to separate from rare earths. The actinide separation will be achieved by means of the combination of electrorefining with multistage extraction. (orig.)

  2. NaCl(KCl)-NH/sub 4/Cl-GdCl/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O system at 25 deg C

    Lazorenko, N.M.; Shevchuk, V.G. (Sibirskij Tekhnologicheskij Inst., Krasnoyarsk (USSR))

    1983-10-01

    The solubility in the NaCl(KCl)-NH/sub 4/Cl-GdCl/sub 3/-H/sub 2/O sytems is studied by the isothermal method. Crystallization regions of the initial salts are delimited, their relative dimensions are determined.

  3. Short communication: Effect of storage temperature on the solubility of milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80) treated with NaCl or KCl.

    Sikand, V; Tong, P S; Walker, J; Wang, T; Rodriguez-Saona, L E

    2016-03-01

    A previous study in our laboratory showed that addition of 150 mM NaCl or KCl into diafiltration water improved the solubility of freshly made milk protein concentrate 80 (MPC80). In the present study, the objectives were (1) to evaluate the solubility of NaCl- or KCl-treated MPC80 samples kept at varying temperatures and then stored for extensive periods at room temperature (21°C ± 1°C); and (2) to determine if MPC80 samples stored at different temperatures and protein conformation can be grouped or categorized together. Freshly manufactured MPC80 samples were untreated (control), processed with NaCl, or processed with KCl. One set of sample bags was stored at 4°C; second and third sets of bags were kept at 25°C and 55°C for 1 mo (31d) and then transferred to room temperature (21°C ± 1°C) storage conditions for 1 yr (365d). Samples were tested for nitrogen solubility index (NSI) and for protein changes by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Analysis of variance results for NSI showed 2 significantly different groupings of MPC80 samples. The more soluble group contained samples treated with NaCl or KCl and stored at either 4°C or 25°C. These samples had mean NSI >97.5%. The less soluble groups contained all control samples, regardless of storage temperature, and NaCl- or KCl-treated samples stored at 55°C. These samples had mean NSI from 39.5 to 58%. Within each of these groups (more soluble and less soluble), no significant differences in solubility were detected. Pattern recognition analysis by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) was used to assess protein changes during storage by monitoring the amide I and amide II (1,700(-1) to 1,300cm(-1)) regions. Dominant bands were observed at 1,385cm(-1) for control, 1,551cm(-1) for KCl-treated samples, and 1,694cm(-1) for NaCl-treated samples. Moreover, SIMCA clustered the MPC80 samples stored at 4°C separately from samples stored at 25°C and 55°C. This study demonstrates that (1

  4. Temperature effect on fluorescence and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic properties of Dy(III) in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt

    Kim, Bong Young [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Jong-Il, E-mail: jiyun@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    The spectroscopic properties of Dy(III) in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic salt at high temperature were investigated by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. For the first time, a visible fluorescence of Dy(III) in high-temperature LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was measured due to the electronic transitions from {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2} to {sup 6}H{sub J/2} (J=7, Horizontal-Ellipsis ,15). The effect of temperature on hypersensitivity for the electronic transitions from the {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} excited state ({approx}25700 cm{sup -1}) of Dy(III) was confirmed by altering temperature in chloride eutectic salt in accord with optical absorption measurements. The molar absorptivity of {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} Leftwards-Arrow {sup 6}H{sub 15/2} was enhanced with increasing temperature. The fluorescence intensity of Dy(III) followed a simple mono-exponential decay curve, suggesting the formation of a single chemical species in high-temperature LiCl-KCl molten salt. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spectroscopic characteristics of Dy(III) in the high-temperature LiCl-KCl salt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-situ chemical analysis of Dy(III) by fluorescence and absorbance measurement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature effect on hypersensitivity for electronic transitions from {sup 4}I{sub 13/2} excited state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single chemical species of Dy(III) exists in high-temperature LiCl-KCl salt.

  5. Maternal restraint stress delays maturation of cation-chloride cotransporters and GABAA receptor subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at puberty.

    Veerawatananan, Bovorn; Surakul, Pornprom; Chutabhakdikul, Nuanchan

    2016-06-01

    The GABAergic synapse undergoes structural and functional maturation during early brain development. Maternal stress alters GABAergic synapses in the pup's brain that are associated with the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders in adults; however, the mechanism for this is still unclear. In this study, we examined the effects of maternal restraint stress on the development of Cation-Chloride Cotransporters (CCCs) and the GABAA receptor α1 and α5 subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups at different postnatal ages. Our results demonstrate that maternal restraint stress induces a transient but significant increase in the level of NKCC1 (Sodium-Potassium Chloride Cotransporter 1) only at P14, followed by a brief, yet significant increase in the level of KCC2 (Potassium-Chloride Cotransporter 2) at P21, which then decreases from P28 until P40. Thus, maternal stress alters NKCC1 and KCC2 ratio in the hippocampus of rat pups, especially during P14 to P28. Maternal restraint stress also caused biphasic changes in the level of GABAA receptor subunits in the pup's hippocampus. GABAA receptor α1 subunit gradually increased at P14 then decreased thereafter. On the contrary, GABAA receptor α5 subunit showed a transient decrease followed by a long-term increase from P21 until P40. Altogether, our study suggested that the maternal restraint stress might delay maturation of the GABAergic system by altering the expression of NKCC1, KCC2 and GABAA receptor α1 and α5 subunits in the hippocampus of rat pups. These changes demonstrate the dysregulation of inhibitory neurotransmission during early life, which may underlie the pathogenesis of psychiatric diseases at adolescence. PMID:26844244

  6. Prenatal hypoxia-ischemia induces abnormalities in CA3 microstructure, potassium chloride cotransporter 2 expression and inhibitory tone

    Lauren L Jantzie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infants who suffer perinatal brain injury, including those with encephalopathy of prematurity, are prone to chronic neurological deficits including epilepsy, cognitive impairment, and behavioral problems such as anxiety, inattention and poor social interaction. These deficits, especially in combination, pose the greatest hindrance to these children becoming independent adults. Cerebral function depends on adequate development of essential inhibitory neural circuits and the appropriate amount of excitation and inhibition at specific stages of maturation. Early neuronal synaptic responses to γ-amino butyric acid (GABA are initially excitatory. During the early postnatal period, GABAAR responses switch to inhibitory with the upregulation of potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2. With extrusion of chloride by KCC2, the Cl- reversal potential shifts and GABA and glycine responses become inhibitory. We hypothesized that prenatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury chronically impairs the developmental upregulation of KCC2 that is essential for cerebral circuit formation. Following late gestation hypoxia-ischemia, diffusion tensor imaging in juvenile rats shows poor microstructural integrity in the hippocampal CA3 subfield, with reduced fractional anisotropy and elevated radial diffusivity. The loss of microstructure correlates with early reduced KCC2 expression on NeuN-positive pyramidal neurons, and decreased monomeric and oligomeric KCC2 protein expression in the CA3 subfield. Together with decreased IPSCs during a critical window of development, we document for the first time that prenatal transient systemic hypoxia-ischemia in rats impairs hippocampal CA3 inhibitory tone. Failure of timely development of inhibitory tone likely contributes to a lower seizure threshold and impaired cognitive function in children who suffer perinatal brain injury.

  7. Cardiovascular outcomes of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors: A comprehensive review of clinical and preclinical studies.

    Ghosh, Raktim Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Hajra, Adrija; Biswas, Monodeep; Gupta, Anjan

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Management of diabetes is changing at a rapid pace. Three new classes of antidiabetic drugs including GLP-1 (Glucagon-like peptide 1), DPP-IV (Dipeptidyl peptidase IV) and SGLT2 (Sodium glucose cotransporter 2) inhibitors have been approved in the last few years. Treating diabetes with the antidiabetic drug does not always reduce the cardiovascular complications of diabetes. On the contrary, there was a huge controversy regarding the effect of rosiglitazone on cardiovascular risk reduction a few years ago. Since then, submission of postmarketing cardiovascular outcome study data has been mandated by US FDA and other drug regulatory agencies for newer antidiabetic medications. This is to avoid further premature claims regarding cardiovascular harm or safety of the newer classes. We already have some cardiovascular safety data available on DPP-IV and GLP-1 groups of medications. Dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin are currently approved SGLT2 inhibitors. We do not have sufficient cardiovascular outcome data available for this novel class. However, this group of drugs, which act by increasing renal glucose excretion, have also shown some non-glycemic benefits including weight reduction, blood pressure control, diuretic action, renal protection, decrease in arterial stiffness and uric acid reduction. Empagliflozin, a new member of SGLT2 class, showed significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality benefit in recently published EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. The authors summarize all the published clinical and preclinical cardiovascular outcome data of SGLT2 inhibitors, including recently completed and ongoing major clinical trials in this comprehensive review. PMID:27017118

  8. Disrupting Na⁺, HCO₃⁻-cotransporter NBCn1 (Slc4a7) delays murine breast cancer development.

    Lee, S; Axelsen, T V; Andersen, A P; Vahl, P; Pedersen, S F; Boedtkjer, E

    2016-04-21

    Increased metabolism and insufficient blood supply cause acidic waste product accumulation in solid cancers. During carcinogenesis, cellular acid extrusion is upregulated but the underlying molecular mechanisms and their consequences for cancer growth and progression have not been established. Genome-wide association studies have indicated a possible link between the Na⁺, HCO₃⁻-cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) and breast cancer. We tested the functional consequences of NBCn1 knockout (KO) for breast cancer development. NBCn1 protein expression increased 2.5-fold during breast carcinogenesis and was responsible for the increased net acid extrusion and alkaline intracellular pH of breast cancer compared with normal breast tissue. Genetic disruption of NBCn1 delayed breast cancer development: tumor latency was ~50% increased while tumor growth rate was ~65% reduced in NBCn1 KO compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Breast cancer histopathology in NBCn1 KO mice differed from that in WT mice and included less aggressive tumor types. The extracellular tumor microenvironment in NBCn1 KO mice contained higher concentrations of glucose and lower concentrations of lactate than that in WT mice. Independently of NBCn1 genotype, the cleaved fraction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 and expression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1 increased while phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1 decreased as functions of tumor volume. Cell proliferation, evaluated from Ki-67 and phospho-histone H₃staining, was ~60% lower in breast cancer of NBCn1 KO than that of WT mice when corrected for variations in tumor size. We conclude that NBCn1 facilitates acid extrusion from breast cancer tissue, maintains the alkaline intracellular environment and promotes aggressive cancer development and growth. PMID:26212013

  9. Sodium-glucose cotransport inhibitors: mechanisms, metabolic effects and implications for the treatment of diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Vlotides, George; Mertens, Peter R

    2015-08-01

    Remarkable progress has been achieved in the field of diabetes with the development of incretin analogues, dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors and novel insulin analogues; nevertheless, there is an unmet need for additional therapeutic options. Individualization of HbA1c target levels is a recent progress within the field. Approximately 50% of diabetics do not reach a previously aspired treatment goal of glycosylated HbA1 levels below 7% and often face a vicious circle with accelerated weight gain. Current antidiabetic therapeutics mainly target the decline in insulin secretion and ameliorate insulin resistance. In this regard a new generation of drugs, denoted gliflozines, that specifically interfere with sodium-glucose cotransporters (SGLT)-2 and exhibit a favourable impact on glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes are emerging as hopeful avenues. The resultant negative energy balance caused by glucosuria results in long-term weight losses, significantly reduced HbA1c levels approximating 0.5-1.0% and may in addition exert beneficial effects on blood pressure, reactive oxygen products and inflammatory mediators. Recent studies indicate improvement in β-cell glucose sensitivity and insulin sensitivity in patients treated with gliflozines, a decrease in tissue glucose disposal and interestingly an increase in endogenous glucose production. The list of side effects observed under SGLT2 inhibition includes increased rates of genitourinary infections, balanitis, vulvovaginitis, hypotensive episodes and acute deterioration of kidney function. Main questions towards the safety profile are still unanswered given that long-term clinical outcome data with SGLT2 inhibition are lacking and the cardiovascular safety profile is under scrutiny in large trials. Thus, the successful development of selective SGLT2 inhibitors for therapeutic use in diabetics has a huge potential to meet patients' needs. However, it awaits quick results from clinical trials with

  10. Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 Plays as a Physiological Glucose Sensor and Regulates Cellular Contractility in Rat Mesangial Cells.

    Masanori Wakisaka

    Full Text Available Mesangial cells play an important role in regulating glomerular filtration by altering their cellular tone. We report the presence of a sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT in rat mesangial cells. This study in rat mesangial cells aimed to evaluate the expression and role of SGLT2.The SGLT2 expression in rat mesangial cells was assessed by Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Changes in the mesangial cell surface area at different glucose concentrations and the effects of extracellular Na+ and Ca2+ and of SGLT and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX inhibitors on cellular size were determined. The cellular sizes and the contractile response were examined during a 6-day incubation with high glucose with or without phlorizin, an SGLT inhibitor.Western blotting revealed an SGLT2 band, and RT-PCR analysis of SGLT2 revealed the predicted 422-bp band in both rat mesangial and renal proximal tubular epithelial cells. The cell surface area changed according to the extracellular glucose concentration. The glucose-induced contraction was abolished by the absence of either extracellular Na+ or Ca2+ and by SGLT and NCX inhibitors. Under the high glucose condition, the cell size decreased for 2 days and increased afterwards; these cells did not contract in response to angiotensin II, and the SGLT inhibitor restored the abolished contraction.These data suggest that SGLT2 is expressed in rat mesangial cells, acts as a normal physiological glucose sensor and regulates cellular contractility in rat mesangial cells.

  11. Interaction of the Sodium/Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor Canagliflozin with SGLT1 and SGLT2.

    Ohgaki, Ryuichi; Wei, Ling; Yamada, Kazunori; Hara, Taiki; Kuriyama, Chiaki; Okuda, Suguru; Ueta, Kiichiro; Shiotani, Masaharu; Nagamori, Shushi; Kanai, Yoshikatsu

    2016-07-01

    Canagliflozin, a selective sodium/glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 inhibitor, suppresses the renal reabsorption of glucose and decreases blood glucose level in patients with type 2 diabetes. A characteristic of canagliflozin is its modest SGLT1 inhibitory action in the intestine at clinical dosage. To reveal its mechanism of action, we investigated the interaction of canagliflozin with SGLT1 and SGLT2. Inhibition kinetics and transporter-mediated uptake were examined in human SGLT1- or SGLT2-expressing cells. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was conducted to examine the sidedness of drug action. Canagliflozin competitively inhibited SGLT1 and SGLT2, with high potency and selectivity for SGLT2. Inhibition constant (Ki) values for SGLT1 and SGLT2 were 770.5 and 4.0 nM, respectively. (14)C-canagliflozin was suggested to be transported by SGLT2; however, the transport rate was less than that of α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside. Canagliflozin inhibited α-methyl-d-glucopyranoside-induced SGLT1- and SGLT2-mediated inward currents preferentially from the extracellular side and not from the intracellular side. Based on the Ki value, canagliflozin is estimated to sufficiently inhibit SGLT2 from the urinary side in renal proximal tubules. The Ki value for SGLT1 suggests that canagliflozin suppresses SGLT1 in the small intestine from the luminal side, whereas it does not affect SGLT1 in the heart and skeletal muscle, considering the maximal concentration of plasma-unbound canagliflozin. Similarly, SGLT1 in the kidney would not be inhibited, thereby aiding in the prevention of hypoglycemia. After binding to SGLT2, canagliflozin may be reabsorbed by SGLT2, which leads to the low urinary excretion and prolonged drug action of canagliflozin. PMID:27189972

  12. Inhibition of Sodium-GlucoseCotransporter 2 with Dapagliflozin in Han: SPRD Rats with Polycystic Kidney Disease

    Daniel Rodriguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Dapagliflozin (DAPA is a selective inhibitor of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2 which induces glucosuria and osmotic diuresis. The therapeutic effect of DAPA in progressing stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD has not been studied. Methods: We examined the effect of DAPA in the Han: SPRD rat model of PKD. DAPA (10 mg/kg/day or vehicle (VEH was administered orally via gavage to 5 week old male Han: SPRD (Cy/+ or control (+/+ rats (n = 8-9 per group for 5 weeks. Blood and urine were collected at baseline and after 2.5 and 5 weeks of treatment to assess renal function and albuminuria. At the end of the treatment, rats were sacrificed and kidneys were excised for histological analysis. Results: After 5 weeks of treatment, DAPA-treated Cy/+ and +/+ rats exhibited significantly higher glucosuria, water intake and urine output than VEH-treated rats. DAPA-treated Cy/+ rats also exhibited significantly higher clearances for creatinine and BUN and less albuminuria than VEH-treated Cy/+ rats. DAPA treatment for 5 weeks resulted in a significant increase of the kidney weight in Cy/+ rats but no change in cyst growth. The degree of tubular epithelial cell proliferation, macrophage infiltration and interstitial fibrosis was also similar in DAPA-and VEH-treated Cy/+ rats. Conclusion: The induction of glucosuria with the SGLT2-specific inhibitor DAPA was associated with improved renal function and decreased albuminuria, but had no effect on cyst growth in Cy/+ rats. Overall the beneficial effects of DAPA in this PKD model were weaker than the previously described effects of the combined SGLT1/2 inhibitor phlorizin.

  13. Inhibition of sodium glucose cotransporters following status epilepticus induced by intrahippocampal pilocarpine affects neurodegeneration process in hippocampus.

    Melo, Igor S; Santos, Yngrid M O; Costa, Maísa A; Pacheco, Amanda L D; Silva, Nívea K G T; Cardoso-Sousa, L; Pereira, U P; Goulart, L R; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Duzzioni, Marcelo; Gitaí, Daniel L G; Tilelli, Cristiane Q; Sabino-Silva, Robinson; Castro, Olagide W

    2016-08-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures, starting from secondary functional disorders due to several insults, including self-sustaining continuous seizures identified as status epilepticus (SE). Although hypoglycemia has been associated with SE, the effect of inhibition of the Na(+)/glucose cotransporters (SGLTs) on hippocampus during SE is still unknown. Here we evaluated the functional role of SGLT in the pattern of limbic seizures and neurodegeneration process after pilocarpine (PILO)-induced SE. Vehicle (VEH, 1μL) or phlorizin, a specific SGLT inhibitor (PZN, 1μL, 50μg/μL), was administered in the hippocampus of rats 30min before PILO (VEH+PILO or PZN+PILO, respectively). The limbic seizures were classified using the Racine's scale, and the amount of wet dog shakes (WDS) was quantified before and during SE. Neurodegeneration process was evaluated by Fluoro-Jade C (FJ-C), and FJ-C-positive neurons (FJ-C+) were counted 24h and 15days after SE. The PZN-treated rats showed higher (pclass 5 seizures repeated themselves more times (pclasses in the PZN group at 50min after SE induction. The PZN+PILO animals had a higher (p<0.05) number of FJ-C+ cells in the dentate gyrus (DG), hilus, and CA3 and CA1 of hippocampus, when compared with VEH+PILO. The PZN+PILO animals had a decreased number (p<0.05) of FJ-C+ cells in CA1 compared with VEH+PILO 15days after SE induction. Taken together, our data suggest that SGLT inhibition with PZN increased the severity of limbic seizures during SE and increased neurodegeneration in hippocampus 24h after SE, suggesting that SGLT1 and SGLT2 could participate in the modulation of earlier stages of epileptogenic processes. PMID:27429292

  14. Spectroscopy of virtual photons in Ar+KCl collisions at E{sub kin}=1.76 AGeV; Spektroskopie virtueller Photonen in Ar+KCl Stoessen bei E{sub kin}=1,76 AGeV

    Jurkovic, Martin

    2010-01-14

    The objective of this thesis is the analysis of virtual photon emission originating from the decays of the short lived hadrons produced in Ar+KCl collisions at E{sub kin}=1.76 AGeV. The measured observables were the reconstructed e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs and their kinematic distributions. The data were recorded with the HADES spectrometer assembled at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt, Germany. Due to the considerably higher combinatorial background originating from the {gamma}-conversion as compared to that from light collision systems (p+p,C+C) investigated so far with HADES, a new method for identification and suppression of conversion electrons using the signal pattern in the RICH-detector was studied. An improvement of signal to background ratio (S/B) reaching 30% was achieved. For the procedure of calculating the e{sup +}/e{sup -} track efficiencies a detailed study of RICH detector signals was performed, leading to an overall improved description of ring observables in the simulation. In total, 32545pm 385 e{sup +}e{sup -} signal pairs with an opening angle {alpha}{sub ee} > 15 and 0.1 < p{sub e} < 1.1 GeV/c were identified, with 7402{+-}222 pairs in the so-called {eta} mass region (0.15 < M{sub ee} < 0.55 GeV/c{sup 2}) and 253{+-}25 for masses M{sub ee} > 0.55 GeV/c{sup 2}. A clear signal from direct {omega} decay with S/B {proportional_to}1 was identified for the first time in the SIS18 energy regime. The extraction of the {omega} yield per produced {pi}{sup 0} results in N({omega})/N({pi}{sup 0}) {approx} (4,5 {+-} 2,5(stat) {+-} 2(sys)) .10{sup -8}. The e{sup +}e{sup -} production in the {eta} mass region was compared to the expected {eta} Dalitz decay {eta}{yields}{gamma}e{sup +}e{sup -} contribution. The measured e{sup +}e{sup -} yield is higher by a factor F = 3.4{+-}0.2(stat){+-}0.6(sys){+-}0.9({eta}) as compared to the {eta} production. The excitation function of the extra e{sup +}/e{sup -} sources shows similar energy

  15. Vhc1, a novel transporter belonging to the family of electroneutral cation–Cl− cotransporters, participates in the regulation of cation content and morphology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuoles

    Petrezsélyová, Silvia; Kinclová-Zimmermannová, Olga; Sychrová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1828, č. 2 (2013), s. 623-631. ISSN 0005-2736 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110801; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531; GA MŠk(CZ) OC10012 Grant ostatní: Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M200110901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : salt tolerance * yeast vacuole * potassium homeostasis * cation-chloride cotransport Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.431, year: 2013

  16. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCH...

  17. EUGLYCEMIC DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS AND SEVERE ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY SECONDARY TO OFF LABEL USE OF SODIUM GLUCOSE COTRANSPORTER-2 INHIBITOR IN A TYPE-1 DIABETIC PATIENT.

    Tahir, Hassan; Wani, Adil; Daruwalla, Vistasp; Daboul, Nour; Sagi, Jahnavi

    2015-01-01

    Sodium glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of drug approved for the treatment of type-2 diabetes; however they are also increasingly used off label in type-1 diabetic patients. SGLT2 Inhibitors work by increasing glucose excretion in urine. Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is potentially life threatening side effect as patients have normal glucose and minimal symptoms thus delaying diagnosis and treatment. Our case report highlights the risk of using SGLT2 inhibitors in type-1 diabetes and also supports the need for long term studies to define clear efficacy and complications of SGLT 2 inhibitors in both type-1 and type 2 diabetes mellitis. PMID:27004352

  18. Physiology and pathophysiology of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport in the heart, brain, and blood

    Pedersen, S. F.; O´Donnell, M. E.; Anderson, S. E.;

    2006-01-01

    . The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms and consequences of stress-induced stimulation of these transporters with focus on the heart, brain, and blood. The physiological stressors reviewed are metabolic/exercise stress, osmotic stress, and mechanical stress, conditions in which......Maintenance of a stable cell volume and intracellular pH is critical for normal cell function. Arguably, two of the most important ion transporters involved in these processes are the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1). Both NHE1 and NKCC1...

  19. The human Na+-glucose cotransporter is a molecular water pump

    Meinild, A; Klaerke, D A; Loo, D D;

    1998-01-01

    + and sugar to the uphill transport of water, indicative of secondary active transport of water. 5. Unstirred layer effects were ruled out on the basis of experiments on oocytes treated with gramicidin or other ionophores. Na+ currents maintained by ionophores did not lead to any initial water movements. 6...

  20. Spectroscopy of virtual photons in Ar+KCl collisions at Ekin=1.76 AGeV

    The objective of this thesis is the analysis of virtual photon emission originating from the decays of the short lived hadrons produced in Ar+KCl collisions at Ekin=1.76 AGeV. The measured observables were the reconstructed e+e- pairs and their kinematic distributions. The data were recorded with the HADES spectrometer assembled at GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH in Darmstadt, Germany. Due to the considerably higher combinatorial background originating from the γ-conversion as compared to that from light collision systems (p+p,C+C) investigated so far with HADES, a new method for identification and suppression of conversion electrons using the signal pattern in the RICH-detector was studied. An improvement of signal to background ratio (S/B) reaching 30% was achieved. For the procedure of calculating the e+/e- track efficiencies a detailed study of RICH detector signals was performed, leading to an overall improved description of ring observables in the simulation. In total, 32545pm 385 e+e- signal pairs with an opening angle αee > 15 and 0.1 e ee 2) and 253±25 for masses Mee > 0.55 GeV/c2. A clear signal from direct ω decay with S/B ∝1 was identified for the first time in the SIS18 energy regime. The extraction of the ω yield per produced π0 results in N(ω)/N(π0) ∼ (4,5 ± 2,5(stat) ± 2(sys)) .10-8. The e+e- production in the η mass region was compared to the expected η Dalitz decay η→γe+e- contribution. The measured e+e- yield is higher by a factor F = 3.4±0.2(stat)±0.6(sys)±0.9(η) as compared to the η production. The excitation function of the extra e+/e- sources shows similar energy dependence as the π0 production. Possible candidates for these extra e+e- sources are the Δ Dalitz decays, the NN and πN bremsstrahlung and partly the direct decay of the ρ meson. Relative to the π0 production in both Ar+KCl and C+C collisions, the e+e- production of unknown composition in Ar+KCl collisions is increased by a factor of

  1. Range effects of the Coulombic forces on structures, thermodynamic properties and potential energy landscapes: (KCl)32 and related systems

    Graphical abstract: The caloric curve (T vs. E), heat capacity (C) (per ion), and relative rms fluctuation in the interatomic distances (δ) of the 64-atom binary cluster for three different sets of values of the (γ, B) shielding parameters (0.000, 1.000), (0.350, 5.230), and (0.500, 9.723) (see the text for details). As the range of the Coulomb part of the interaction potential becomes shorter, the energy of the most preferred structure of the cluster decreases, and the structure itself changes from rocksalt cubic, which is the native form of (KCl)32, through an amorphous, to a hollow cage type. The energy segment in which the heat capacity is negative narrows and eventually vanishes. Highlights: ► Effects of the range of Coulombic interactions on structures of binary systems. ► Effects of the range of Coulombic interactions on dynamics of binary systems. ► Effects of the range of Coulombic interactions on energy landscapes. ► We explain changes in structures and dynamics through changes in energy landscapes. - Abstract: By introducing two shielding parameters into the Coulombic part of the Coulomb plus Born–Mayer potential originally developed for (KCl)n systems, we study the effects of the range of the Coulombic interactions on the structures, thermodynamic properties and the potential energy landscapes of binary ionically bonded systems as illustrated by the case of n = 32. Our calculations show that shortening of the Coulomb interaction range leads to a decrease in the energy of the most stable structure, and the structure itself changes from the rocksalt cubic to a hollow cage type. The energy range, in which the heat capacity exhibits a negative value, gradually narrows and eventually disappears. The number of stationary points on the potential energy surface increases, and their energies get spread over a larger interval. The extent of the Coulombic interaction also affects the energy difference (gap) between the most stable structure and the

  2. Thermoluminescent monitoring of the solar ultraviolet radiation with KCl: Eu{sup 2+} crystals; Monitoreo termoluminiscente de la radiacion solar ultravioleta con cristales de KCl: Eu{sup 2+}

    Chernov, V.; Melendrez, R.; Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 5-88, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In this work it has been investigating the Tl properties of KCl: Eu{sup 2+} subjected to solar direct radiation. Also it was realized irradiation with the Deuterium and Xenon lamps. It was used a set of filters and a Katos monochromator 0.25 M to determine the spectral response to Tl peaks and a study of them with respect to the duration of the Sun irradiation. After of the Sun irradiation the Tl curves show several peaks between the ambient temperature and 673 K. The relation between peaks depends strongly of the irradiation time and the different solar light wavelength. It is possible to divide the Tl peaks in two groups. The first one (T<473 K) is very sensitive to ultraviolet radiation but it is strongly affected by visible light. The second one (T>473 K) is not too sensitive but is more stable under optical whitening. Here the obtained results are discussed with respect to UV dosemeters development for environment which facilitate to obtain direct measurements of the UV index. (Author)

  3. Alternative splice variant of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter

    Tutakhel, Omar A Z; Jeleń, Sabina; Valdez-Flores, Marco;

    2016-01-01

    in comparison to NCC3. Mimicking a constitutively active phosphorylation site at residue 811 (S811D) in NCC1 further augmented Na(+) transport, while a non-phosphorylatable variant (S811A) of NCC1 prevented this enhanced response. Analysis of human urinary exosomes demonstrated that water loading in human...... subjects significantly reduces the abundance of NCC1/2 in urinary exosomes. The present study highlights that previously underrepresented NCC1/2 is a fully functional thiazide-sensitive NaCl-transporting protein. Being significantly expressed in the kidney it may constitute a unique route of renal Na...

  4. Passive water and urea permeability of a human Na(+)-glutamate cotransporter expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    Macaulay, Nanna; Gether, Ulrik; Klærke, Dan Arne;

    2002-01-01

    The human Na(+)-glutamate transporter (EAAT1) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The passive water permeability, L(p), was derived from volume changes of the oocyte induced by changes in the external osmolarity. Oocytes were subjected to two-electrode voltage clamp. In the presence of Na...... similar to the K(0.5) value for glutamate activation of transport. The specific inhibitor DL-threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartate (TBOA) reduced the EAAT1-specific L(p) to 72 %. EAAT1 supported passive fluxes of [(14)C]urea and [(14)C]glycerol. The [(14)C]urea flux was increased in the presence of glutamate. The...

  5. 転位と不純物との相互作用に関する研究(6) : KCl:Sr2+単結晶中の転位と不純物との力対距離関係に及ぼす不純物の状態の影響

    上月, 陽一

    2007-01-01

    Strain-rate cycling tests associated with the oscillation were carried out at 80 to 240K for two kinds of single crystals: quenched and annealed specimens of KCl:Sr2+ (0.050 mol% in the melt). The following three results were mainly found on the basis of linear plots of effective stress vs. temperature and proportionality of temperature vs. activation energy. 1: The force-distance profile, which expresses the interaction between a dislocation and an impurity, cannot be approximated by the Fle...

  6. An Inverse Relationship Links Temperature and Substrate Apparent Affinity in the Ion-Coupled Cotransporters rGAT1 and KAAT1

    Antonio Peres

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature on the operation of two ion-coupled cotransporters of the SLC6A family, namely rat GAT1 (SLC6A1 and KAAT1 (SLC6A19 from Manduca sexta, have been studied by electrophysiological means in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing these proteins. The maximal transport-associated current (Imax and the apparent substrate affinity (K05 were measured. In addition to the expected increase in transport rate (Q10 = 3–6, both transporters showed greater K05 values (i.e., a decrease in apparent affinity at higher temperatures. The transport efficiency, estimated as Imax/K05, increased at negative potentials in both transporters, but did not show statistically significant differences with temperature. The observation that the apparent substrate affinity is inversely related to the transport rate suggests a kinetic regulation of this parameter. Furthermore, the present results indicate that the affinities estimated at room temperature for mammalian cotransporters may not be simply extrapolated to their physiological operating conditions.

  7. X-ray diffraction studies on merohedrally twinned Δ1–62NtNBCe1-A crystals of the sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter

    A truncated mutant missing the first 62 residues of the N-terminal, cytoplasmic domain of the sodium-bicarbonate NBCe1-A cotransporter crystallizes in space group P31 with pseudo-P3121 symmetry and a hemihedral twin fraction of 33.0%. Twinned fractions and twin-pair statistics over binned resolutions confirm that the calculated twin fraction is associated with hemihedral twinning and not to non-crystallographic symmetry. NBCe1-A membrane-embedded macromolecules that cotransport sodium and bicarbonate ions across the bilayer serve to maintain acid–base homeostasis throughout the body. Defects result in a number of renal and eye disorders, including type-II renal tubular acidosis and cataracts. Here, crystals of a human truncated mutant of the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of NBCe1 (Δ1–62NtNBCe1-A) are reported that diffract X-rays to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystal symmetry of Δ1–62NtNBCe1-A is of space group P31 with pseudo-P3121 symmetry and it has a hemihedral twin fraction of 33.0%. The crystals may provide insight into the pathogenic processes observed in a subset of patients with truncating and point mutations in the gene encoding NBCe1

  8. Altered expression of renal bumetanide-sensitive sodium-pota-ssium-2 chloride cotransporter and Cl- channel -K2 gene in angiotensin Ⅱ-infused hypertensive rats

    YE Tao; LIU Zhi-quan; SUN Chao-feng; ZHENG Yong; MA Ai-qun; FANG Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Background Little information is available regarding the effect of angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ) on the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-2 chloride cotransporter (NKCC2), the thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC), and the Cl- channel (CLC)-K2 at both mRNA and protein expression level in Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertensive rats. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of Ang Ⅱ with chronic subpressor infusion on nephron-specific gene expression of NKCC2, NCC and CLC-K2. Results Ang Ⅱ significantly increased blood pressure and up-regulated NKCC2 mRNA and protein expression in the kidney. Expression of CLC-K2 mRNA in the kidney increased 1.6 fold (P<0.05).There were no changes in NCC mRNA or protein expression in AngII-treated rats versus control. Conclusions Chronic subpressor Ang Ⅱ infusion can significantly alter NKCC2 and CLC-K2 mRNA expression in the kidney, and protein abundance of NKCC2 in kidney is positively regulated by Ang Ⅱ. These effects may contribute to enhanced renal Na+ and Cl- reabsorption in response to Ang Ⅱ.

  9. Observation of Fluorescence for some lanthanides in LiCl-KCl molten salt media at high temperature

    To our knowledge, the fluorescence studies of lanthanides in LiCl-KCl eutectic molten salt at a high temperature are not reported yet. The fluorescence of the lanthanide-ions was generally decreased when the temperature was increased. Moreover, the fluorescence of the lanthanides was strong when the sample was solidified to or from the melt. The temperature, where the fluorescence was decreased, was identified to be different depending on the species of the lanthanides and the substrates was considered to possibly be from quenching of the fluorescence due to either the collisions of melted samples induced by high temperature media or the re-absorption of fluorescence by the samples. Several comparison experiments were performed to explain and understand this phenomenon and improve the fluorescence. In this way, an on-line monitoring of chemical species and the concentration for lanthanides elements in molten salt media of pyrochemical process can be accomplished, and it can replace the currently used trouble for determination of the concentration in molten salt such as a destructive ICP-AES method during process

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy of hydrated potassium hexauranate for the phase study of the UO3-KCl-H2O system

    In the study of the UO3-KCl-H2O system, a phase, called C phase, was isolated; it has a radiocrystallogram very close to the hexauranate K2U6O19,11H2O, but K+ and Cl- are found in its composition. Links between these two phases are studied and especially structure relationships. Hydrated potassium hexauranate structure was determined previously with a natural crystal. Position of potassium and uranium atoms only are known. As monocrystal preparation is impossible a direct structural study is impossible too. Vibrational spectroscopic analysis was selected for this study. Hexauranate structure is determined and results are extended for the study of the C phase. The hydrate UO3.0.8 H2O a stable and well defined compound is chosen for the hydrothermal synthesis of the different phases. Four main phases are evidenced: the chloro-uranate Ksub(x)UO3Clsub(x) (already known), a hydrated potassium uranate and two phases (one is the C phase) containing chloride ions are intermediaries between the chloro-uranate and the uranate

  11. Electrochemical extraction of neodymium by co-reduction with aluminum in LiCl–KCl molten salt

    Yan, Yong-De, E-mail: y5d2006@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Xu, Yan-Lu [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Mi-Lin, E-mail: zhangmilin@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Xue, Yun [Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, Wei; Huang, Ying; Chen, Qiong [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Zhi-Jian [Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2013-02-15

    The electrochemical behavior of Nd(III) ions in LiCl–KCl and LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3} melts on a Mo electrode at 723 K was studied by various electrochemical techniques. The results showed that Nd(III) ions are reduced to Nd(0) through two consecutive steps, and the underpotential deposition of neodymium on pre-deposited Al electrode formed two kinds of Al–Nd intermetallic compounds in LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3} solutions. The electrochemical extraction of neodymium was carried out in LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3} melts on a Mo electrode at 873 K by potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The extraction efficiency was 99.25% after potentiostatic electrolysis for 30 h. Al–Li–Nd bulk alloy was obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that Al{sub 2}Nd and Al{sub 3}Nd phases were formed in Al–Li–Nd alloy. The microstructure and micro-zone chemical analysis of Al–Li–Nd alloy were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively.

  12. Electrochemical extraction of neodymium by co-reduction with aluminum in LiCl–KCl molten salt

    The electrochemical behavior of Nd(III) ions in LiCl–KCl and LiCl–KCl–AlCl3 melts on a Mo electrode at 723 K was studied by various electrochemical techniques. The results showed that Nd(III) ions are reduced to Nd(0) through two consecutive steps, and the underpotential deposition of neodymium on pre-deposited Al electrode formed two kinds of Al–Nd intermetallic compounds in LiCl–KCl–AlCl3 solutions. The electrochemical extraction of neodymium was carried out in LiCl–KCl–AlCl3 melts on a Mo electrode at 873 K by potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis. The extraction efficiency was 99.25% after potentiostatic electrolysis for 30 h. Al–Li–Nd bulk alloy was obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) suggested that Al2Nd and Al3Nd phases were formed in Al–Li–Nd alloy. The microstructure and micro-zone chemical analysis of Al–Li–Nd alloy were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), respectively

  13. AlCl3-aided extraction of praseodymium from Pr6O11 in LiCl–KCl eutectic melts

    Gibbs energy showed that AlCl3 can chloridize Pr6O11 and release Pr(III) ions in the LiCl–KCl–Pr6O11–AlCl3 melts. The co-reduction process of Al(III), Pr(III) and Li(I) ions was investigated in the LiCl–KCl–Pr6O11–AlCl3 melts. Three signals, corresponding to different Al–Pr intermetallic compounds, were observed by cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. Potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis were conducted to extract Pr element from LiCl–KCl eutectic melts by forming Al–Pr and Al–Li–Pr alloys, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that both Al–Pr and Al–Li–Pr alloys comprised Al2Pr phase. The composition of Al–Li–Pr alloys was analyzed by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The proportion of Pr element in Al–Li–Pr alloys exceeded 40 wt.% when the concentration of AlCl3 reached 8 wt.% in the LiCl–KCl–Pr6O11(1 wt.%) melts

  14. Following the electroreduction of uranium dioxide to uranium in LiCl–KCl eutectic in situ using synchrotron radiation

    Highlights: • We investigated the electroreduction of UO2 to U in LiCl/KCL eutectic molten salt. • Combined electrochemical measurement and in situ XRD is utilised. • The electroreduction appears to occur in a single, 4-electron-step, process. • No intermediate compounds were observed. - Abstract: The electrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide to metallic uranium has been investigated in lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic molten salt. Laboratory based electrochemical studies have been coupled with in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction, for the first time, to deduce the reduction pathway. No intermediate phases were identified using the X-ray diffraction before, during or after electroreduction to form α-uranium. This suggests that the electrochemical reduction occurs via a single, 4-electron-step, process. The rate of formation of α-uranium is seen to decrease during electrolysis and could be a result of a build-up of oxygen anions in the molten salt. Slow transport of O2− ions away from the UO2 working electrode could impede the electrochemical reduction

  15. Electrodeposition of uranium and transuranic elements onto solid cathode in LiCl-KCl/Cd system for pyrometallurgical partitioning

    A pyrometallurgical partitioning process is being developed for recovering transuranic elements (TRUs) from high-level liquid waste. In the process, actinides are separated from fission product, especially rare earth elements (REs), by means of an electrorefining technique or a reductive-extraction technique. In this study, electrorefining experiments were carried out in LiCl-KCl/Cd system to recover actinides from salt bath containing actinides and REs. Uranium and neptunium could be depleted from the salt bath and recovered onto a solid cathode with high collection efficiency and high selectivity. Plutonium and americium, however, were difficult to be recovered at high current efficiency because reduction of Nd3+ to Nd2+ at about -1.7 V consumed cathodic current prior to the deposition of Pu or Am. The rotation of the cathode had rather negative effect against deposition of Am and Pu in case of coexistence of much amount of Nd because Nd2+ was removed from the cathode surface quickly and the reaction of Nd3+ to Nd2+ was promoted. At higher current density, Pu and Am could be recovered onto solid cathode but current efficiency became too low. The result indicated that electrorefining technique in the pyro-partitioning was effective for U and Up but not for Pu and Am. (author)

  16. MeV-ion axial surface-channeling from an electron irradiated KCl(0 0 1) surface

    Fukazawa, Yuuko; Matsumoto, Yuugo; Mitsuhara, Kei [Division of Science Education, Osaka Kyoiku University, 4-698-1, Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 5828582 (Japan); Susuki, Yasufumi, E-mail: susuki@cc.osaka-kyoiku.ac.jp [Division of Science Education, Osaka Kyoiku University, 4-698-1, Asahigaoka, Kashiwara, Osaka 5828582 (Japan)

    2009-11-30

    Surface-channeling of protons incident with 5 mrad on an electron-irradiated surface is investigated using a 0.55 MeV beam of protons. The target surface is KCl(0 0 1), which is damaged by electron-stimulated desorption with 5 keV electron irradiation. The direction of the incident beam is adjusted along the <1 0 0> and <1 1 0> channeling conditions and the channeling-dips of the scattering yields are observed. The irradiation dose-dependence of the minimum yields and widths of the dips is measured. Two dips are compared, i.e., for the <1 0 0> and <1 1 0> channelings. By increasing the irradiation dose up to 2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, the dip around the <1 0 0> axis becomes opened, but that of the <1 1 0> axis becomes shallow. The irradiated surfaces are observed to have many overlapped terraces of sub-micron with monolayer steps. The surface morphology deformed by the irradiation effects to truncate trajectories of the <1 0 0> channeling protons. This roughness of the surface is more effective for the trajectories of the <1 1 0> channeling protons. The protons incident on the rough surface along the <1 1 0> axis are not reflected from the atomic row but reflected by a potential of the surface with steps. Results by a simple computer simulation of the trajectories of protons at stepped surfaces also indicate the scattering processes.

  17. A Glial K/Cl Transporter Controls Neuronal Receptive Ending Shape by Chloride Inhibition of an rGC.

    Singhvi, Aakanksha; Liu, Bingqian; Friedman, Christine J; Fong, Jennifer; Lu, Yun; Huang, Xin-Yun; Shaham, Shai

    2016-05-01

    Neurons receive input from the outside world or from other neurons through neuronal receptive endings (NREs). Glia envelop NREs to create specialized microenvironments; however, glial functions at these sites are poorly understood. Here, we report a molecular mechanism by which glia control NRE shape and associated animal behavior. The C. elegans AMsh glial cell ensheathes the NREs of 12 neurons, including the thermosensory neuron AFD. KCC-3, a K/Cl transporter, localizes specifically to a glial microdomain surrounding AFD receptive ending microvilli, where it regulates K(+) and Cl(-) levels. We find that Cl(-) ions function as direct inhibitors of an NRE-localized receptor-guanylyl-cyclase, GCY-8, which synthesizes cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). High cGMP mediates the effects of glial KCC-3 on AFD shape by antagonizing the actin regulator WSP-1/NWASP. Components of this pathway are broadly expressed throughout the nervous system, suggesting that ionic regulation of the NRE microenvironment may be a conserved mechanism by which glia control neuron shape and function. PMID:27062922

  18. Correlation between the extracting solutions, Modified KCl-Olsen and Mehlich 3, used in soil laboratories in Costa Rica

    The correlation found, between the 2 most commonly used extraction solutions in soil laboratories of Costa Rica, is discussed for Ca, Mg, K, Zn and P determinations in soil analyses. Given the coexistence of extraction methodologies, it is of great relevance to provide users with information allowing an adequate interpretation of the analysis results. Using data exchanged among laboratories, at the national level, relationships between modified KCl-Olsen and Mehlich 3 solutions were established. For all elements determined, except for P, the association between both solutions is very clear and well-defined. Both solutions extract the same amounts of Ca and Mg; Mehlich 3 extracts 1.5 times more K than Modified Olsen. In the case of Zn, in Ca-rich soils (>10 cmol(+) 1-1) Mehlich 3 extracts more Zn, so the critical level must be raised to 3.5 mg 1''-1; whereas, in soils low in Ca (-1), Mehlich 3 extracts less Zn than Modified Olsen, so the critical level must be lowered to 2.5 mg 1-1. As for P, the association is not clear at all. (author)

  19. Fundamental Study on a Distillation Separation of a LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt from Rare Earth Precipitates

    The distillation rate on LiCl-KCl eutectic salt under different vacuums from 0.5-50 mmHg was first investigated by using both a non-isothermal and a isothermal thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Based on the non-isothermal TG data, distillation rate equations as a function of the temperature could be derived. Calculated flux by these model flux equations was in agreement with the distillation rate obtained from isothermal TG analysis. A distillation rate of 10-4-10-5 mole cm-2 sec-1 is obtainable at temperatures less than 1300 K and vacuums of 0.5-50 mmHg. About a 99% salt distillation efficiency was obtained after an hour at a temperature above 1150 K under 50 mmHg in a small scale distillation test system. An increase in the vaporizing surface area is relatively effective for removing residual salt in the remaining particles, when compared to that for the vaporizing time. Over 99.95% of total distillation efficiency was obtained for a 1-h distillation operation by increasing the inner surface area from 4.52 cm2 to 12.56 cm2.

  20. Electron spin ressonance of radicals produced by ultra-violet photolysis of KCL dopped with potassium cyanide and potassium cyanate

    The production of radicals by ultra-violet photolysis of KCL dopped with potassium cyanide and potassium cyanate is studied by electron spin resonance. Several new paramagnetic species are detected which are identified as HCNO-, NCN-/NCNO-, CNN-/CNON- and CNOsup(=) all giving isotropic spectra at 77 0K. The temperature dependence of the CNOsup(=) spectrum is investigated down to 1.6 0K. It is found that two different recrientation motions ocurr which freeze at different temperatures. The effect of this motion on the line width is analized using Anderson's theory of exchange narrowing. The electronic structure of the CNOsup(=) radical is discussed using the measured the carbon and nitrogen hfs constants. It is found that a bonding scheme similar to that accepted for the isoelectronic molecule NO2 is applicable, and a one electron molecular orbital scheme is given. Within this scheme a negative contribution to the nitrogen isotropic hfs constant is found which is assumed to originate from the polarization of the fully occupied ls orbitals

  1. Electrochemical formation of Al–Tm intermetallics in eutectic LiCl–KCl melt containing Tm and Al ions

    This work focuses on investigating the electrochemical formation of Al–Tm and Al–Li–Tm alloys in LiCl–KCl–AlCl3–Tm2O3 melt on both W and Al electrodes. Thermodynamic calculation and electrochemical behavior of LiCl–KCl melt containing both AlCl3 and Tm2O3 showed that AlCl3 can chlorinate Tm2O3 to release Tm(III) ions. Three kinds of Al–Tm intermetallics at about −1.26, −1.32 and −1.43 V were detected by means of various electrochemical measurement techniques, i.e. cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. Potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis were carried out on Al and W electrodes to prepare Al–Tm and Al–Li–Tm alloys, respectively. The composition of Al–Li–Tm alloys was analyzed by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES)

  2. Electrochemical formation of Al–Tm intermetallics in eutectic LiCl–KCl melt containing Tm and Al ions

    Li, Xing [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Yan, Yong-De, E-mail: y5d2006@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhang, Mi-Lin; Tang, Hao; Ji, De-Bin; Han, Wei [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Xue, Yun; Zhang, Zhi-Jian [Fundamental Science on Nuclear Safety and Simulation Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-09-15

    This work focuses on investigating the electrochemical formation of Al–Tm and Al–Li–Tm alloys in LiCl–KCl–AlCl{sub 3}–Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt on both W and Al electrodes. Thermodynamic calculation and electrochemical behavior of LiCl–KCl melt containing both AlCl{sub 3} and Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} showed that AlCl{sub 3} can chlorinate Tm{sub 2}O{sub 3} to release Tm(III) ions. Three kinds of Al–Tm intermetallics at about −1.26, −1.32 and −1.43 V were detected by means of various electrochemical measurement techniques, i.e. cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and open circuit chronopotentiometry. Potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolysis were carried out on Al and W electrodes to prepare Al–Tm and Al–Li–Tm alloys, respectively. The composition of Al–Li–Tm alloys was analyzed by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES)

  3. Distribution of plutonium, americium, and several rare earth fission product elements between liquid cadmium and LiCl-KCl eutectic

    Separation factors were measured that describe the partition between molten cadmium and molten LiCl-KCl eutectic of plutonium, americium, praseodymium, neodymium, cerium, lanthanum, gadolinium, dysprosium, and yttrium. The temperature range was 753-788 K, and the range of concentrations was that allowed by the sensitivity of the chemical analysis methods. Mean separation factors were derived for Am-Pu, Nd-Am, Nd-Pu, Nd-Pr, Gd-La, Dy-La, La-Ce, La-Nd, Y-La, and Y-Nd. Where previously published data were available, agreement was good. For convenience, the following series of separation factors relative to plutonium was derived by combining the measured separation factors: Pu, 1.00 (basis); Am, 1.54; Pr, 22.0; Nd, 23.4; Ce, 26; La, 70; Gd, 77; Dy, 270; Y, 3000. These data are used in calculating the distribution of the actinide and rare earth elements in the prochemical reprocessing of spent fuel from the Integral Fast Reactor. (orig.)

  4. On chlorization of uranium and plutonium oxides in NaCl-KCl-MgCl2 molten eutectic

    The chlorination process of U3O8, UO2, and PuO2 in a melt of anhydrous NaCl-KCl-MgCl2 with gaseous chlorine and carbon tetrachloride has been studied. The chlorination rate of uranium oxides has been studied within a temperature range 500-800 deg C at a chlorine feeding rate of 10 ml/min. Thermoqravimetric and X-ray analyses have shown that K2UO2Cl4 compound is the final product of chlorination of uranium oxides. The mechanism of chlorination has been proposed. THe rate of PuO2 chlorination has been studied within the same temperature range. It has been established that PuO2 is readily chlorinated with CCl4 vapours at a feeding rate of 10 ml/min. In contrast to uranium, chloride forms of plutonium in a highest oxidized state are unstable and are reduced in the melt to Pu(3) and Pu(4). The oxygen being released is retained by CCl4 and by the products of CCl4 pyrolysis

  5. Following the electroreduction of uranium dioxide to uranium in LiCl–KCl eutectic in situ using synchrotron radiation

    Brown, L.D.; Abdulaziz, R.; Jervis, R.; Bharath, V.J. [Electrochemical Innovation Lab, Dept. Chemical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Atwood, R.C.; Reinhard, C.; Connor, L.D. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Simons, S.J.R.; Inman, D.; Brett, D.J.L. [Electrochemical Innovation Lab, Dept. Chemical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Shearing, P.R., E-mail: p.shearing@ucl.ac.uk [Electrochemical Innovation Lab, Dept. Chemical Engineering, UCL, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We investigated the electroreduction of UO{sub 2} to U in LiCl/KCL eutectic molten salt. • Combined electrochemical measurement and in situ XRD is utilised. • The electroreduction appears to occur in a single, 4-electron-step, process. • No intermediate compounds were observed. - Abstract: The electrochemical reduction of uranium dioxide to metallic uranium has been investigated in lithium chloride–potassium chloride eutectic molten salt. Laboratory based electrochemical studies have been coupled with in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction, for the first time, to deduce the reduction pathway. No intermediate phases were identified using the X-ray diffraction before, during or after electroreduction to form α-uranium. This suggests that the electrochemical reduction occurs via a single, 4-electron-step, process. The rate of formation of α-uranium is seen to decrease during electrolysis and could be a result of a build-up of oxygen anions in the molten salt. Slow transport of O{sup 2−} ions away from the UO{sub 2} working electrode could impede the electrochemical reduction.

  6. I-NERI ANNUAL TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT: 2006-002-K, Separation of Fission Products from Molten LiCl-KCl Salt Used for Electrorefining of Metal Fuels

    S. Frank

    2009-09-01

    An attractive alternative to the once-through disposal of electrorefiner salt is to selectively remove the active fission products from the salt and recycle the salt back to the electrorefiner (ER). This would allow salt reuse for some number of cycles before ultimate disposal of the salt in a ceramic waste form. Reuse of ER salt would, thus, greatly reduce the volume of ceramic waste produced during the pyroprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. This final portion of the joint I-NERI research project is to demonstrate the separation of fission products from molten ER salt by two methods previously selected during phase two (FY-08) of this project. The two methods selected were salt/zeolite contacting and rare-earth fission product precipitation by oxygen bubbling. The ER salt used in these tests came from the Mark-IV electrorefiner used to anodically dissolved driver fuel from the EBR-II reactor on the INL site. The tests were performed using the Hot Fuel Dissolution Apparatus (HFDA) located in the main cell of the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) at the Materials and Fuels complex on the INL site. Results from these tests were evaluated during a joint meeting of KAERI and INL investigators to provide recommendations as to the future direction of fission product removal from electrorefiner salt that accumulate during spent fuel treatment. Additionally, work continued on kinetic measurements of surrogate quaternary salt systems to provide fundamental kinetics on the ion exchange system and to expand the equilibrium model system developed during the first two phases of this project. The specific objectives of the FY09 I-NERI research activities at the INL include the following: • Perform demonstration tests of the selected KAERI precipitation and INL salt/zeolite contacting processes for fission product removal using radioactive, fission product loaded ER salt • Continue kinetic studies of the quaternary Cs/Sr-LiCl-KCl system to determine the rate of ion

  7. Incretins and selective renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors in hypertension and coronary heart disease

    Ramiro; A; Sanchez; Hugo; Sanabria; Cecilia; de; los; Santos; Agustin; J; Ramirez

    2015-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease,and the consequences ofintensive therapy may depend on the mechanism of the anti-diabetic agent(s)used to achieve a tight control.In animal models,stable analogues of glucagon-like peptide-1(GLP-1)were able to reduce body weight and blood pressure and also had favorable effects on ischemia following coronary reperfusion.In a similar way,dipeptidyl peptidase IV(DPPIV)showed to have favorable effects in animal models of ischemia/reperfusion.This could be due to the fact that DPPIV inhibitors were able to prevent the breakdown of GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide,but they also decreased the degradation of several vasoactive peptides.Preclinical data for GLP-1,its derivatives and inhibitors of the DPPIV enzyme degradation suggests that these agents may be able to,besides controlling glycaemia,induce cardio-protective and vasodilator effects.Notwithstanding the many favorable cardiovascular effects of GLP-1/incretins reported in different studies,many questions remain unanswered due the limited number of studies in human beings that aim to examine the effects of GLP-1 on cardiovascular endpoints.For this reason,long-term trials searching for positive cardiovascular effects are now in process,such as the CAROLINA and CARMELINA trials,which are supported by small pilot studies performed in humans(and many more animal studies)with incretin-based therapies.On the other hand,selective renal sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors were also evaluated in the prevention of cardiovascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes.However,it is quite early to draw conclusions,since data on cardiovascular outcomes and cardiovascular death are limited and long-term studies are still ongoing.In this review,we will analyze the mechanisms underlying the cardiovascular effects of incretins and,at the same time,we will present a critical position about the real value of these compounds in the

  8. The chemical stability of L-isoleucine, L-threonine, and L-serine in aqueous solutions of KCl at 298.15 K

    Roy, Sanjay; Dolui, Bijoy Krishna

    2016-06-01

    The experimental saturated solubilities of L-isoleucine, L-threonine, and L-serine in aqueous mixtures of a KCl solution at 298.15 K are presented in this article. The solubilities are measured by gravimetric method. In the present study the theoretical calculation of the standard transfer Gibbs free energy, cavity forming enthalpy of transfer, cavity forming transfer Gibbs free energy, dipole-dipole interaction effect have been computed. The chemical effects of the transfer Gibbs energies for the present amino acids have been obtained by subtracting the cavity effects and dipole-dipole interaction effects from the Δ G t 0 ( i). The stability of the experimental amino acids in aqueous KCl in terms of thermodynamic parameters is explained.

  9. Viscosity studies of (L-alanine-, L-proline, L-valine, L-leucine + aqueous KCl/KNO3) solutions at different temperatures

    Viscosity coefficients of (L-alanine-, L-proline, L-valine, L-leucine + 2.0 M aqueous KCl/KNO3) solutions have been determined as a function of amino acid concentration at different temperatures: (298.15, 303.15, 308.15, 313.15, 318.15, and 323.15) K. The trends of variation of viscosity values with increase in the concentration of L-alanine, L-proline, L-valine, and L-leucine in 2.0 M aqueous KCl and 2.0 M aqueous KNO3 solutions, and temperature have been ascribed to the solute-solvent interactions operative in the solutions

  10. Physical chemistry of molten-salt batteries. Final report, 1 October 1980-September 1981. Current-induced composition gradients in molten LiCl-KCl

    Current-induced composition gradients have been predicted in mixed molten salt battery electrolytes. Composition shifts, if large enough, can produce significant deleterious effects, such as solid phase precipitation in or near the electrodes of molten salt batteries, including the LiAl/LiCl-KCl/FeS/sub x/ battery. Quantitative measurements are needed to determine the extent of the gradients and to find means to reduce them. This report presents the first quantitative SEM/EDX measurements with high distance resolution (<50 μm) of the shape of the composition profile in LiCl-KCl electrolyzed between LiAl electrodes. Also, current-induced precipitation of LiCl in a porous LiAl anode is indicated by SEM/EDX examination. The measured compositions are consistent with predictions from mass transport models based on the electrode reactions, migrational and diffusional mobilities. 5 figures, 4 tables

  11. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER: Influence of Ca and Pb impurities on the bulk optical strength of ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals

    Vinogradov, An V.; Voszka, R.; Kovalev, Valerii I.; Faĭzullov, F. S.; Janszky, J.

    1987-06-01

    A significant increase (by a factor of about 3) of the bulk damage threshold in the case of interaction of CO2 laser radiation pulses with ultrapure NaCl and KCl crystals grown in a reactive atmosphere was observed on introduction of divalent metal ions Ca and Pb in concentrations of 10-5-10-6 mol/mol. Impurities were introduced in concentrations of 10-8-10-3 and 2×10-7-10-4 mol/mol into the melts of KCl and NaCl, respectively. The concentration of other impurities (including OH) did not exceed ~10-6 mol/mol. A physical model was developed to account for the observed dependence on the basis of an analogy between a system of colloidal particles and F centers in a crystal and a liquid-vapor system.

  12. Branchial Na+:K+:2Cl- cotransporter 1 and Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in a brackish water-type ionocyte of the euryhaline freshwater white-rimmed stingray, Himantura signifer

    Yuen K Ip

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It can survive in brackish water but not seawater. In brackish water, it becomes partially ureosmotic, but how it maintains its plasma hypoionic to the external medium is enigmatic because of the lack of a rectal gland. Here, we report for the first time the expression of Na+:K+:2Cl− cotransporter 1 (nkcc1 in the gills of freshwater H. signifer, and its moderate up-regulation (~2-fold in response to brackish water (salinity 20 acclimation. The absence of the Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidation stress response kinase 1 interaction site from the N-terminus of H. signifer Nkcc1 suggested that it might not be effectively activated by stress kinases in response to salinity changes as in more euryhaline teleosts. The increased activity of Nkcc1 during salt excretion in brackish water would lead to an influx of Na+ into ionocytes, and the maintenance of intracellular Na+ homeostasis would need the cooperation of Na+/K+-ATPase (Nka. We demonstrated for the first time the expression of nkaα1, nkaα2 and nkaα3 in the gills of H. signifer, and the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of nkaα3 and the overall protein abundance of Nkaα in response to acclimation to brackish water. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of a sub-type of ionocyte, co-expressing Nkcc1 and Nkaα, near the base of the secondary lamellae in the gills of H. signifer acclimated to brackish water, but this type of ionocyte was absent from the gills of fish kept in fresh water. Hence, there could be a change in the function of the gills of H. signifer from salt absorption to salt excretion during brackish water acclimation in the absence of a functioning rectal gland.

  13. Branchial Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-subunit in a brackish water-type ionocyte of the euryhaline freshwater white-rimmed stingray, Himantura signifer.

    Ip, Yuen K; Hiong, Kum C; Wong, Samuel Z H; Ching, Biyun; Chen, Xiu L; Soh, Melody M L; Chng, You R; Ong, Jasmine L Y; Wilson, Jonathan M; Chew, Shit F

    2013-01-01

    Himantura signifer is a freshwater stingray which inhabits rivers in Southeast Asia. It can survive in brackish water but not seawater. In brackish water, it becomes partially ureosmotic, but how it maintains its plasma hypoionic to the external medium is enigmatic because of the lack of a rectal gland. Here, we report for the first time the expression of Na(+):K(+):2Cl(-) cotransporter 1 (nkcc1) in the gills of freshwaterH. signifer, and its moderate up-regulation (~2-fold) in response to brackish water (salinity 20) acclimation. The absence of the Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase and oxidation stress response kinase 1 interaction site from the N-terminus of H. signifer Nkcc1 suggested that it might not be effectively activated by stress kinases in response to salinity changes as in more euryhaline teleosts. The increased activity of Nkcc1 during salt excretion in brackish water would lead to an influx of Na(+) into ionocytes, and the maintenance of intracellular Na(+) homeostasis would need the cooperation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (Nka). We demonstrated for the first time the expression of nkaα1, nkaα2 and nkaα3 in the gills of H. signifer, and the up-regulation of the mRNA expression of nkaα3 and the overall protein abundance of Nkaα in response to acclimation to brackish water. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed the presence of a sub-type of ionocyte, co-expressing Nkcc1 and Nkaα, near the base of the secondary lamellae in the gills of H. signifer acclimated to brackish water, but this type of ionocyte was absent from the gills of fish kept in fresh water. Hence, there could be a change in the function of the gills of H. signifer from salt absorption to salt excretion during brackish water acclimation in the absence of a functioning rectal gland. PMID:24339817

  14. Generation of KCL021 research grade human embryonic stem cell line carrying a ΔF508 mutation in the CFTR gene.

    Miere, Cristian; Hewitson, Heema; Wood, Victoria; Kadeva, Neli; Cornwell, Glenda; Codognotto, Stefano; Stephenson, Emma; Ilic, Dusko

    2016-01-01

    The KCL021 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from an embryo donated for research that carried a ΔF508 mutation affecting the CFTR gene encoding the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. The ICM was isolated using laser microsurgery and plated on γ-irradiated human foreskin fibroblasts. Both the derivation and cell line propagation were performed in an animal product-free environment. Pluripotent state and differentiation potential were confirmed by in vitro assays. PMID:27345808

  15. Temperature Dependence of Behavior of Interface Between Molten Sn and LiCl-KCl Eutectic Melt Due to Rising Gas Bubble

    Natsui, Shungo; Nashimoto, Ryota; Takai, Hifumi; Kumagai, Takehiko; Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of the interface between molten Sn and the LiCl-KCl eutectic melt system was observed directly. We found that the transient behavior of the interface exhibits considerable temperature dependence through a change in its physical properties. The "metal film" generated in the upper molten salt phase significantly influences the shape of the interface. Although the lifetime of the metal film depends on the gas flow rate, it is not affected by the buoyancy if the interfacial tension is dominant.

  16. Solubility of alkaline earth metal oxides in CsCl-KCl-NaCl eutectic mixture melt at 600 degC

    Products of solubility of alkaline-earth metal oxides in the melt of eutectic mixture CsCl-KCl-NaCl at 600 deg C were determined by the method of potentiometric titration. It is found that CaO and SrO under experimental conditions dissociate incompletely, while BaO is utterly dissociated: solubility of the oxides increases in the series MgO-CaO-SrO-BaO

  17. Contribution of Na+,HCO3--cotransport to cellular pH control in human breast cancer: a role for the breast cancer susceptibility locus NBCn1 (SLC4A7)

    Boedtkjer, Ebbe; Moreira, José M. A.; Mele, Marco;

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies recently linked the locus for Na(+) ,HCO(3) (-) -cotransporter NBCn1 (SLC4A7) to breast cancer susceptibility, yet functional insights have been lacking. To determine whether NBCn1, by transporting HCO(3) (-) into cells, may dispose of acid produced during high...

  18. Interplay between structure and transport properties of molten salt mixtures of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl: A molecular dynamics study.

    Manga, Venkateswara Rao; Swinteck, Nichlas; Bringuier, Stefan; Lucas, Pierre; Deymier, Pierre; Muralidharan, Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Molten mixtures of network-forming covalently bonded ZnCl2 and network-modifying ionically bonded NaCl and KCl salts are investigated as high-temperature heat transfer fluids for concentrating solar power plants. Specifically, using molecular dynamics simulations, the interplay between the extent of the network structure, composition, and the transport properties (viscosity, thermal conductivity, and diffusion) of ZnCl2-NaCl-KCl molten salts is characterized. The Stokes-Einstein/Eyring relationship is found to break down in these network-forming liquids at high concentrations of ZnCl2 (>63 mol. %), while the Eyring relationship is seen with increasing KCl concentration. Further, the network modification due to the addition of K ions leads to formation of non-bridging terminal Cl ions, which in turn lead to a positive temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in these melts. This new understanding of transport in these ternary liquids enables the identification of appropriate concentrations of the network formers and network modifiers to design heat transfer fluids with desired transport properties for concentrating solar power plants. PMID:26957165

  19. Acidic properties of cations and the solubility of metal oxides in the SrCl2-KCl-NaCl eutectic melt at 700 deg C

    By the potentiometric titration method the solubility products (pP) of MgO, NiO, CoO, MnO, ZnO, CdO oxides in SrCl2-KCl-NaCl (0.22:0.42:0.36) melt at 700 deg C were determined. It is shown that addition of strong bases does not result in SrO precipitation from the melt (up to pO = 0.5). It is ascertained that pP (mol. parts) for all the oxides studied increase by a factor of approximately 1.95 as to KCl-NaCl and CsCl-KCl-NaCl melts, which is close to pKSrO in the melts (2.30 and 2.14 respectively). Increase in solubility and enhancing of dissociation of the oxides studied are explained by increased acid properties of the melt studied brought about by Sr2+ ions presence

  20. Effect of potassium sources on the antioxidant activity of eggplant¹

    Douglas José Marques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Potassium participates in the essential processes in plant physiology, however, the effects of K sources on plant metabolism have been little studied. Also, in certain cases, K sources and concentrations may cause undesirable effects, e.g., soil salinization. The objective was to evaluate the effect of K sources and levels on the enzyme activity of the antioxidant system and protein content in eggplant (Solanum melongena L. leaves and to determine the most suitable K sources for these physiological characteristics. The experiment was conducted in randomized blocks, in a 2 × 4 factorial design, consisting of two K sources (KCl and K2SO4 and rates (250, 500, 750, and 1000 kg ha-1 K2O, with four replications. The following variables were evaluated: plant height, number of leaves per plant, superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and leaf protein content. There was an increase in CAT activity with increasing K levels until 30 days after transplanting (DAT, when K2SO4 was applied and until 60 DAT, when KCl was used; after this period, the enzyme activity decreased under both sources. The activity of SOD increased in the presence of KCl, but was reduced with the application of K2SO4. For both K sources, increasing rates reduced the protein content and number of leaves per plant, and this reduction was greater under KCl application. Thus it was concluded that KCl tends more strongly to salinize the soil than K2SO4. Both for KCl and for K2SO4, the increasing rates adversely affected the activities of CAT and SOD and the levels of leaf protein in eggplant. The potential of KCl to reduce the enzyme activity of SOD and CAT, leaf protein content and plant growth of eggplant was stronger than that of K2SO4.

  1. Solid-solution hardening in kbr-kcl alkali halide single crystals

    Temperature and concentration dependences of the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) of KBr-KCI solid- solution crystals containing 8 to 41 mol% KCI in the temperature range 77 to 230 K have been analysed within the frame work of the KPN mode of plastic flow in solid- solution crystals. It is found that CRSS tow decreases with the increase in temperature T in accord with the model relation In tow= A -BT, where A and B are positive constants. The CRSS tow at a given temperature depends on solute concentration c as tow alpha c/sup row/, where exponent p has a value between 0.5 and 1 depending on the temperature at which deformation is carried out. The model parameter W/sub o/, i.e. binding energy between the edge-dislocation segment involved in the unit activation process and the solute atoms close to it ( T --+ OK), increases with solute concentration c monotonically upto a critical value Cm = 35 mol% KCI, as predicted by the model. However, W/sub o/ decreases with increase in c beyond cm, which indicates somewhat ordered distribution of solute in the host lattice of concentrated solid-solutions with c > cm. (author)

  2. Electrochemical behaviour of uranium ions at liquid Bi electrode in molten LiCI-KCl eutectic

    Pyrochemical reprocessing method based on molten salt electrorefining is ideally suited for separating the fuel elements from the irradiated metal fuel leaving behind the fission products. In the electrorefiner, pure uranium is collected on the solid mandrel cathode and a mixture of uranium, plutonium, americium, neptunium, and curium are collected at a liquid cadmium cathode. Some amount of rare-earth fission products also deposit along with actinides on cadmium cathode due to their similar chemical behaviour as actinides, thereby making the product less pure. Some work has been in progress to explore the use of other reactive cathodes such as bismuth, zinc, aluminium, etc., so as to achieve better separation of actinides from lanthanide fission products. In the present work, U(lII) ion reduction on liquid bismuth electrode in LiCI-KCI-UCI3 electrolyte salt and the thermodynamic properties of U-Bi intermetallics have been discussed. The studies were carried out using cyclic voltammetry and open circuit potentiometry. Under potential deposition of uranium takes place on liquid bismuth cathode as the activity of uranium is reduced in bismuth cathode due to formation of stable intermetallic compounds. The equilibrium potential for the redox process was evaluated in the temperature range 660-810 K. (author)

  3. Regional distribution of SGLT activity in rat brain in vivo

    Yu, Amy S.; Hirayama, Bruce A.; Timbol, Gerald; Liu, Jie; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Kepe, Vladimir; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Wright, Ernest M.; Barrio, Jorge R.

    2012-01-01

    Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) mRNAs have been detected in many organs of the body, but, apart from kidney and intestine, transporter expression, localization, and functional activity, as well as physiological significance, remain elusive. Using a SGLT-specific molecular imaging probe, α-methyl-4-deoxy-4-[18F]fluoro-d-glucopyranoside (Me-4-FDG) with ex vivo autoradiography and immunohistochemistry, we mapped in vivo the regional distribution of functional SGLTs in rat brain. Since Me-4-FDG ...

  4. Na+-glucose cotransporter inhibitor for treatment of diabetes%钠-葡萄糖共转运体抑制剂在糖尿病治疗中的价值

    张志佳; 曲伸

    2011-01-01

    Sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) is one of the transporters responsible for the resorption of glucose, and inhibition of its activity can decrease the resorption of glucose. Human SGLT is mainly composed of SGLT1 and SGLT2. Due to the specific distribution and the high efficiency of SGLT2, SGLT2 inhibitor is a potential new strategy for treatment diabetes. Abundant animal experiments and clinical trails have found that SGLT2 inhibitor can greatly lower the blood glucose and help to lose weights. However, the current researches about SGLT2 inhibitor are still very limited both in depth and in broadness; problems concerning the safety, efficacy and indication of SGLT2 inhibitor still need to be further studied.%钠-葡萄糖共转运体(sodium glucose co-transporter,SGLT)是葡萄糖吸收的载体之一,通过抑制其活性可抑制葡萄糖的重吸收.人体内主要存在SGLT1及SGLT2两种载体,由于SGLT2分布的特异性及重吸收葡萄糖的高效性,SGLT2抑制剂成为葡萄糖治疗的新途径.大量的动物实验及临床研究发现SGLT2抑制剂能显著降低血糖、减轻体质量,但是目前关于SGLT2的临床研究还比较局限,仍面临着安全性、有效性及适应证方面的问题,尚待进一步探讨.

  5. Expression of Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 in rodents is kidney-specific and exhibits sex and species differences

    Sabolić, Ivan; Vrhovac, Ivana; Eror, Daniela Balen; Gerasimova, Maria; Rose, Michael; Breljak, Davorka; Ljubojević, Marija; BRZICA, HRVOJE; Sebastiani, Anne; Thal, Serge C.; Sauvant, Christoph; Kipp, Helmut; Vallon, Volker; Koepsell, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    With a novel antibody against the rat Na+-d-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 (rSGLT2-Ab), which does not cross-react with rSGLT1 or rSGLT3, the ∼75-kDa rSGLT2 protein was localized to the brush-border membrane (BBM) of the renal proximal tubule S1 and S2 segments (S1 > S2) with female-dominant expression in adult rats, whereas rSglt2 mRNA expression was similar in both sexes. Castration of adult males increased the abundance of rSGLT2 protein; this increase was further enhanced by estradiol and pr...

  6. Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in a 27 year-old female patient with type-1-Diabetes treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor Canagliflozin.

    Bader, Nimrah; Mirza, Lubna

    2016-01-01

    We are reporting a timely case of atypical euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetic patient treated with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor canagliflozin. The clinical history, physical examination findings and laboratory values are described. Other causes of acidosis such as salicylate toxicity or alcohol intoxication were excluded. Ketoacidosis resolved after increasing dextrose and insulin doses supporting the hypothesis that SGLT-2 inhibitors may lead to hypoinsulinemia. Euglycemic ketoacidosis did not recur in our patient after discontinuing canagliflozin. We recommend reserving SGLT2 inhibitor therapy to type 2 diabetics, discontinuing medication and treating patients presenting with ketoacidosis due to SGLT-2 inhibitors with higher concentrations of dextrose with appropriate doses of insulin to help resolve acidosis. PMID:27375734

  7. Analysis of electron pair production in the collision system Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV; Analyse der Elektronpaarproduktion im Stosssystem Ar+KCl bei 1,76 AGeV

    Lang, Simon Martin

    2008-06-30

    The HADES-spectrometer at GSI is used to measure the production of the light vector mesons {rho}, {omega} and {phi} at SIS energies. Therefore, the medium sized collision system Ar+KCl was measured at 1.76 AGeV kinetic energy of beam particles. In this system the density of particle tracks is much larger as compared to the formerly used collision system C+C, making it necessary to upgrade the data analysis. The previous method of hard-cuts - used for particle identification - was replaced by a newly developed multi-variate analysis based on an artificial neural network. This algorithm has the benefit, that it is more robust against fluctuations in one or more of the used detector observables. This increases the overall efficiency and purity of the analysis procedure. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle tracks inside the HADES spectrometer is based on a few position information, only. During analysis of raw data, these information are combined to a artificially large manifold of tracks. This leads to the general problem that one has to select the maximum number of true physical tracks out of this set of tracks per event. A new method of track selection is used to filter the data not only to select single tracks, but also to identify electron pairs created during Dalitz-decay of {pi}{sup 0} mesons, which build the bulk of combinatorial background. The result of the analysis is an efficiency corrected invariant mass spectrum of electron pairs, normalized to the mean number of pions per event. The spectrum consists of more than 16,000 pairs with an invariant mass larger than 150 MeV. In total more than 150000 pairs were found. A first comparison with the spectra calculated by using the old analysis approach shows a 30% enhancement in yield of reconstructed electron pairs. A first comparison with a simple thermal model implemented by the Pluto event generator, opens the possibility to compare the measured pair yield of {omega} and {phi} mesons via m{sub T

  8. Characterization of incomplete fusion in the reactions Ar + KCl at 32,40,52 and 74 MeV/u; Caracterisation de la fusion incomplete dans les reactions Ar + KCl a 32,40,52 et 74 Mev/u

    Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire]|[Universite Claude Bernard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1996-12-20

    Heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies (10 to 100 A.MeV) have been investigated and gave evidence to the persistence of so-called low energy mechanisms such as incomplete fusion. This thesis aims at determining the energy threshold beyond which such a mechanism does not occur any more. First we investigated the so-called conventional incomplete fusion. This mechanism is well known from low energy studies: a thermalized compound nucleus is formed which further de-excites by evaporating particles. Residues will be therefore detected in coincidence with mainly light particles. Ar + KCl at incident energies of 32, 40, 52 and 74 A.MeV has been selected for this analysis. These experiments have been performed using the INDRA multidetector in GANIL (Caen). The detection performance of INDRA allowed to use new analysis methods via global variables. In a first step, global variables have been compared in order to find the one that is the most appropriate to our study. Then incomplete fusion events have been extracted from raw events recorded at incident energies of 32, 40 and 52 A.MeV. It turned out that the contribution of this mechanisms was very weak at 52. A.MeV. It turned out that the contribution of this mechanism was very weak at 52 A.MeV and even zero at 74 A.MeV. We then investigated events in which three fragments were detected which could possibly sign multifragmentation. We did not find instantaneous multifragmentation with any expansion contribution. We also performed BNV simulations in order to compare our experimental results to model predictions, solving in a semi-classical way the Vlasov transport equation. A good agreement has been obtained on the size of the compound nucleus formed. However the excitation energy has not been reproduced, as the code seems to overestimate the energy taken away by preequilibrium particles. Incomplete fusion decreases as a function of energy but is not replaced by instantaneous multifragmentation with any expansion

  9. Primary Biliary Acids Inhibit Hepatitis D Virus (HDV) Entry into Human Hepatoma Cells Expressing the Sodium-Taurocholate Cotransporting Polypeptide (NTCP)

    Veloso Alves Pereira, Isabel; Buchmann, Bettina; Sandmann, Lisa; Sprinzl, Kathrin; Schlaphoff, Verena; Döhner, Katinka; Vondran, Florian; Sarrazin, Christoph; Manns, Michael P.; Pinto Marques Souza de Oliveira, Cláudia; Sodeik, Beate; Ciesek, Sandra; von Hahn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background The sodium-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) is both a key bile acid (BA) transporter mediating uptake of BA into hepatocytes and an essential receptor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV). In this study we aimed to characterize to what extent and through what mechanism BA affect HDV cell entry. Methods HuH-7 cells stably expressing NTCP (HuH-7/NTCP) and primary human hepatocytes (PHH) were infected with in vitro generated HDV particles. Infectivity in the absence or presence of compounds was assessed using immunofluorescence staining for HDV antigen, standard 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) assays and quantitative PCR. Results Addition of primary conjugated and unconjugated BA resulted in a dose dependent reduction in the number of infected cells while secondary, tertiary and synthetic BA had a lesser effect. This effect was observed both in HuH-7/NTCP and in PHH. Other replication cycle steps such as replication and particle assembly and release were unaffected. Moreover, inhibitory BA competed with a fragment from the large HBV envelope protein for binding to NTCP-expressing cells. Conversely, the sodium/BA-cotransporter function of NTCP seemed not to be required for HDV infection since infection was similar in the presence or absence of a sodium gradient across the plasma membrane. When chenodeoxycolic acid (15 mg per kg body weight) was administered to three chronically HDV infected individuals over a period of up to 16 days there was no change in serum HDV RNA. Conclusions Primary BA inhibit NTCP-mediated HDV entry into hepatocytes suggesting that modulation of the BA pool may affect HDV infection of hepatocytes. PMID:25646622

  10. a Modified Denitrifying Bacteria Method for Dual Stable Isotopic Analysis of of Soil Nitrate in Kcl Extracts: Identification of Bioindicators of Nitrogen Deposition Along a Gradient in the Sonoran Desert

    Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Allen, E. B.

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies performing dual isotopic analysis of nitrate in KCl soil extracts using denitrifying bacteria have not incorporated alterations in the method to compensate for the increased N2O blank produced when the bacteria are exposed to KCl in solution. When 1M KCl is used as a blank, the amount of N2O released from the concentrated bacteria solution is more than four times as high as when using a DI water blank. The excess N2O produced is not an artifact of nitrate impurity in the KCl, although the blank increases with the molarity of KCl up to 1M. The introduction of N2O gas is significant enough to alter the values of IAEA USGS standards (3 μg in 3ml KCl) which in turn results in an inaccurate regression for unknown samples. We reduced the size of the KCl blank and its effect on the standards by adding 3ml of KCl to the bacteria solution prior to purging the sample with He gas. This removes the N2O gas which is released by the bacteria when they initially come in contact with the KCl, and allows for standards to be calibrated to a precision of ± 0.1 % δ15N and ± 0.2 % δ18O. Using this new method, we measured δ15N and δ18O of nitrate in 1M KCl soil extracts taken from surface soil (5cm cores) along a nitrogen deposition gradient spanning the Coachella Valley in the western Sonoran Desert during the summer. Early germinating winter annual plant species (Schismus barbatus, Chaenactic fremontii, and Malacothrix glabrata) were collected as seedlings early in the growing season and again in late spring before senescence. Leaves from the dominant shrub, Larrea tridentata, were also collected from each site. Soil nitrogen from sites on the eastern edge of the valley had δ18O values between +30 and +41%, indicating an influence of atmospheric nitrate in plant available nitrate. There was an inverse correlation (r2=0.907) between soil δ18O and the δ15N of the C.fremontii leaf tissue, which suggests that in areas of high N deposition, some seedlings are

  11. Analysis of electron pair production in the collision system Ar+KCl at 1.76 AGeV

    The HADES-spectrometer at GSI is used to measure the production of the light vector mesons ρ, ω and φ at SIS energies. Therefore, the medium sized collision system Ar+KCl was measured at 1.76 AGeV kinetic energy of beam particles. In this system the density of particle tracks is much larger as compared to the formerly used collision system C+C, making it necessary to upgrade the data analysis. The previous method of hard-cuts - used for particle identification - was replaced by a newly developed multi-variate analysis based on an artificial neural network. This algorithm has the benefit, that it is more robust against fluctuations in one or more of the used detector observables. This increases the overall efficiency and purity of the analysis procedure. Furthermore, the reconstruction of particle tracks inside the HADES spectrometer is based on a few position information, only. During analysis of raw data, these information are combined to a artificially large manifold of tracks. This leads to the general problem that one has to select the maximum number of true physical tracks out of this set of tracks per event. A new method of track selection is used to filter the data not only to select single tracks, but also to identify electron pairs created during Dalitz-decay of π0 mesons, which build the bulk of combinatorial background. The result of the analysis is an efficiency corrected invariant mass spectrum of electron pairs, normalized to the mean number of pions per event. The spectrum consists of more than 16,000 pairs with an invariant mass larger than 150 MeV. In total more than 150000 pairs were found. A first comparison with the spectra calculated by using the old analysis approach shows a 30% enhancement in yield of reconstructed electron pairs. A first comparison with a simple thermal model implemented by the Pluto event generator, opens the possibility to compare the measured pair yield of ω and φ mesons via mT-scaling with the yield of η mesons

  12. Acute Aerobic Swimming Exercise Induces Distinct Effects in the Contractile Reactivity of Rat Ileum to KCl and Carbachol

    Araujo, Layanne C. da Cunha; de Souza, Iara L. L.; Vasconcelos, Luiz H. C.; Brito, Aline de Freitas; Queiroga, Fernando R.; Silva, Alexandre S.; da Silva, Patrícia M.; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade; da Silva, Bagnólia A.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise promotes short-term physiological changes in the intestinal smooth muscle associated to the ischemia-reperfusion process; however, few studies have demonstrated its effect on the intestinal contractile function. Thus, this work describes our observations regarding the influence of acute aerobic swimming exercise in the contractile reactivity, oxidative stress, and morphology of rat ileum. Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SED) and acutely exercised (EX-AC) groups. Animals were acclimated by 10, 10, and 30 min of swimming exercise in intercalated days 1 week before exercise. Then they were submitted to forced swimming for 1 h with a metal of 3% of their body weight attached to their body. Animals were euthanized immediately after the exercise section and the ileum was suspended in organ baths for monitoring isotonic contractions. The analysis of lipid peroxidation was performed in order to determinate the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as a marker of oxidative stress, and intestinal smooth muscle morphology by histological staining. Cumulative concentration-response curves to KCl were altered in the EX-AC with an increase in both its efficacy and potency (Emax = 153.2 ± 2.8%, EC50 = 1.3 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 1.8 ± 0.1 × 10−2 M). Interestingly, carbachol had its efficacy and potency reduced in the EX-AC (Emax = 67.1 ± 1.4%, EC50 = 9.8 ± 1.4 × 10−7 M) compared to the SED group (Emax = 100%, EC50 = 2.0 ± 0.2 × 10−7 M). The exercise did not alter the MDA levels in the ileum (5.4 ± 0.6 μ mol/mL) in the EX-AC compared to the SED group (8.4 ± 1.7 μ mol/mL). Moreover, neither the circular nor the longitudinal smooth muscle layers thickness were modified by the exercise (66.2 ± 6.0 and 40.2 ± 2.6 μm, respectively), compared to the SED group (61.6 ± 6.4 and 34.8 ± 3.7 μm, respectively). Therefore, the ileum sensitivity to contractile agents is differentially altered by the acute aerobic

  13. First-principles simulation of intrinsic collision cascades in KCl and NaCl to test interatomic potentials at energies between 5 and 350 eV

    Keinonen, J.; Kuronen, A; Tikkanen, P; Börner, H. G.; Jolie, J.; Ulbig, S.; Kessler, E. G.; Nieminen, Risto M.; Puska, Martti J.; Seitsonen, A. P.

    1991-01-01

    Theoretical interatomic potentials for KCl and NaCl are tested at energies 5–350 eV against experimental data from intrinsic collision cascades. The collisional scattering of Cl with Cl, K, and Na atoms was observed from Doppler-shifted γ rays depopulating an excited state in recoiling Cl36 produced through the thermal neutron capture Cl35(n,γ)36Cl. The collisional scattering was simulated with molecular dynamics. Interatomic potentials from the present Iab initioP atomic cluster calculations...

  14. Extensive lesions in rat insular cortex significantly disrupt taste sensitivity to NaCl and KCl and slow salt discrimination learning.

    Ginger D Blonde

    Full Text Available While studies of the gustatory cortex (GC mostly focus on its role in taste aversion learning and memory, the necessity of GC for other fundamental taste-guided behaviors remains largely untested. Here, rats with either excitotoxic lesions targeting GC (n = 26 or sham lesions (n = 14 were assessed for postsurgical retention of a presurgically LiCl-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA to 0.1M sucrose using a brief-access taste generalization test in a gustometer. The same animals were then trained in a two-response operant taste detection task and psychophysically tested for their salt (NaCl or KCl sensitivity. Next, the rats were trained and tested in a NaCl vs. KCl taste discrimination task with concentrations varied. Rats meeting our histological inclusion criterion had large lesions (resulting in a group averaging 80% damage to GC and involving surrounding regions and showed impaired postsurgical expression of the presurgical CTA (LiCl-injected, n = 9, demonstrated rightward shifts in the NaCl (0.54 log10 shift and KCl (0.35 log10 shift psychometric functions, and displayed retarded salt discrimination acquisition (n = 18, but eventually learned and performed the discrimination comparable to sham-operated animals. Interestingly, the degree of deficit between tasks correlated only modestly, if at all, suggesting that idiosyncratic differences in insular cortex lesion topography were the root of the individual differences in the behavioral effects demonstrated here. This latter finding hints at some degree of interanimal variation in the functional topography of insular cortex. Overall, GC appears to be necessary to maintain normal taste sensitivity to NaCl and KCl and for salt discrimination learning. However, higher salt concentrations can be detected and discriminated by rats with extensive damage to GC suggesting that the other resources of the gustatory system are sufficient to maintain partial competence in these tasks, supporting the

  15. Spectroscopic ellipsometry of interfacial phase transitions in fluid metallic systems: KxKCl1-x and Ga1-xBix [online

    Dogel, Stanislav

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of the interfacial phase transitions in fluid systems with short-range intermetallic interactions are of great interest. The phenomena were studied in two systems exhibiting a liquid-liquid miscibility gap: at the fluid/wall interface in fluid KxKCl1-x and at the fluid/vacuum interface of the Ga1 xBix alloys. To characterize the interfacial changes of the ultra thin films (composition, thickness and their evolution with time) the spectroscopic ellipsometry was performed ove...

  16. Determination of hydrolysis constants for gadolinium in ion strength media 2M of NaCl, NaClO4 and KCl at 303 K

    This work was made with the purpose to extend information about the hydrolysis constants of gadolinium (III) in ion strength media 2M of NaCl, NaClO4, KCl at 303 K using the potentiometric method for this determination, and analysing starting from those data, the influence of anions and cations. It is concluded that the media which were determined the hydrolysis constants are very important and it is recommended the sodium perchlorate as the more adequate salt for those determinations. Also it was obtained the distribution diagrams of chemical species in each one of the media studied. (Author)

  17. Experimental determination of calcite solubility in H2O-KCl-NaCl-LiCl solutions at 700 °C and 8 kbar

    Eguchi, James Hiro

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the interactions between calcite and aqueous solutions is important when studying the deep carbon cycle. The present study investigates the solubility of calcite in salt-H2O fluids at 700 °C and 8 kbar. The investigated salts included NaCl, KCl, LiCl, and CsCl. All experiments were conducted in a piston cylinder apparatus. The results show that calcite solubility increases with increasing concentration of any individual salt. The data were successfully fit to simple functions of...

  18. Salting-out effect of NaCl and KCl on the ternary LLE data for the systems of (water + propionic acid) + isopropyl methyl ketone and of (water + propionic acid + isobutyl methyl ketone)

    (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium (LLE) data were obtained for the ternary systems of {water + propionic acid (PA) + isopropyl methyl ketone (IPMK)} and of {water + PA + isobutyl methyl ketone (IBMK)} at atmospheric pressure and temperatures (303.15, 313.15 and 323.15) K, respectively. The effect of electrolytes on the LLE data for the ternary systems was also investigated. The results obtained from the experiments showed that the electrolytes studied in this work, i.e., NaCl and KCl significantly affect the solubility of PA in the organic solvents used in the experiments. The results also showed that the distribution coefficients for PA and the selectivity of the solvents in extracting PA, increase in presence of electrolytes in the ternary systems. The tie line data of the ternary systems were correlated using the Othmer-Tobias method. The conventional local composition activity coefficient model, the non-random two liquid (NRTL), was used in correlating the experimental data for the ternary systems. It was concluded from the results that the NRTL model accurately correlates the experimental data of the ternary systems. The results for the binary interaction parameters for the NRTL model are also reported

  19. Comparative effectiveness of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors for controlling hyperglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Chen, Min; Xie, Chun-Guang; Gao, Hong; Zheng, Hui; Qin CHEN; Fang, Jian-qiao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction As a new class of glucose-lowering drugs, sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are effective for controlling hyperglycaemia, however, the relative effectiveness and safety of 6 recently available SGLT2 inhibitors have rarely been studied. Therefore, we aim to perform pairwise comparisons of the 6 SGLT2 inhibitors. Methods and analysis A systematic review and network meta-analysis will be conducted. Clinical studies that examine effectiveness and safety of either can...

  20. De novo expression of sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 in Bowman’s capsule coincides with replacement of parietal epithelial cell layer with proximal tubule-like epithelium

    Tabatabai, Niloofar M.; North, Paula E.; Regner, Kevin R.; Kumar, Suresh N.; Duris, Christine B.; Blodgett, Amy B.

    2014-01-01

    In kidney nephron, parietal epithelial cells line the Bowman’s capsule and function as a permeability barrier for the glomerular filtrate. Bowman’s capsule cells with proximal tubule epithelial morphology have been found. However, the effects of tubular metaplasia in Bowman’s capsule on kidney function remain poorly understood. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a major role in reabsorption of glucose in the kidney and is expressed on brush border membrane of epithelial cells in the...

  1. Genetic analysis of inheritance of rates of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-cotransport, calcium concentration in erythrocytes, and blood pressure of F/sub 2/ hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive rats

    Kotelevtsev, Yu.V.; Orlov, S.N.; Pokudin, N.I.; Agnaev, V.M.; Postnov, Yu.V.

    1987-09-01

    Inheritance of the rates of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-cotransport, measured as the furosemide-sensitive component of the /sup 86/Rb inflow, the /sup 4//sub 5/Ca concentration in the erythrocytes in the presence of orthovanadate, and BP were analyzed in second generation hybrids of spontaneously hypertensive Kyoto-Wistar rats and normotensive Kyoto-Wistar rats of the control line.

  2. Reduction behavior of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in molten LiCl–RbCl and LiCl–KCl eutectics by using tungsten

    Nagai, Takayuki, E-mail: nagai.takayuki00@jaea.go.jp [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Lab., Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Muramatsu, Tokai, Naka, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Uehara, Akihiro; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Yamana, Hajimu [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Asashironishi, Kumatori, Sen-nan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    The reduction of uranium from UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} to UO{sub 2}{sup +} or U{sup 4+} in molten LiCl–RbCl and LiCl–KCl eutectics was examined by using tungsten and chlorine gas. Spectrophotometric technique was adopted to determine the concentration of uranium species. When tungsten was immersed into the LiCl–RbCl eutectic melt at 400 °C without supplying chlorine gas, 36% of the total weight of the hexavalent of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} was reduced to the pentavalent of UO{sub 2}{sup +}. Under purging chlorine gas into the melt, 96% of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} was reduced to the tetravalent of U{sup 4+}. Tungsten oxy-chloride of WOCl{sub 4} was produced via the reductions of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, which was volatized from the melt and adsorbed on the upper part of experimental cell. On the other hand, 84% of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in the LiCl–KCl eutectic melt at 500 °C was reduced to U{sup 4+} by using tungsten and chlorine gas.

  3. Separation of actinides from irradiated An–Zr based fuel by electrorefining on solid aluminium cathodes in molten LiCl–KCl

    Souček, P., E-mail: Pavel.Soucek@ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Murakami, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Claux, B.; Meier, R.; Malmbeck, R. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tsukada, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Glatz, J.-P. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), Postfach 2340, 76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Electrorefining process in molten LiCl-KCl using solid Al electrodes was demonstrated. • High separation factors of actinides over lanthanides were achieved. • Efficient recovery of actinides from irradiated nuclear fuel was achieved. • Uniform, dense and well adhered deposits were obtained and characterised. • Kinetic parameters of actinide–aluminium alloy formation were evaluated. - Abstract: An electrorefining process for metallic spent nuclear fuel treatment is being investigated in ITU. Solid aluminium cathodes are used for homogeneous recovery of all actinides within the process carried out in molten LiCl–KCl eutectic salt at a temperature of 500 °C. As the selectivity, efficiency and performance of solid Al has been already shown using un-irradiated An–Zr alloy based test fuels, the present work was focused on laboratory-scale demonstration of the process using irradiated METAPHIX-1 fuel composed of U{sub 67}–Pu{sub 19}–Zr{sub 10}–MA{sub 2}–RE{sub 2} (wt.%, MA = Np, Am, Cm, RE = Nd, Ce, Gd, Y). Different electrorefining techniques, conditions and cathode geometries were used during the experiment yielding evaluation of separation factors, kinetic parameters of actinide–aluminium alloy formation, process efficiency and macro-structure characterisation of the deposits. The results confirmed an excellent separation and very high efficiency of the electrorefining process using solid Al cathodes.

  4. Separation of CsCl from a Ternary CsCl-LiCl-KCl Salt via a Melt Crystallization Technique for Pyroprocessing Waste Minimization

    Ammon Williams; Supathorn Phongikaroon; Michael Simpson

    2013-02-01

    A parametric study has been conducted to identify the effects of several parameters on the separation of CsCl from molten LiCl-KCl salt via a melt crystallization process. A reverse vertical Bridgman technique was used to grow the salt crystals. The investigated parameters were: (1) the advancement rate, (2) the crucible lid configuration, (3) the amount of salt mixture, (4) the initial composition of CsCl, and (5) the temperature difference between the high and low furnace zones. From each grown crystal, samples were taken axially and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results show that CsCl concentrations at the top of the crystals were low and increased to a maximum at the bottom of the salt. Salt (LiCl-KCl) recycle percentages for the experiments ranged from 50% to 75% and the CsCl composition in the waste salt was low. To increase the recycle percentage and the concentration of CsCl in the waste form, the possibility of using multiple crystallization stages was explored to further optimize the process. Results show that multiple crystallization stages are practical and the optimal experimental conditions should be operated at 5.0 mm/hr rate with a lid configuration and temperature difference of 200 °C for a total of five crystallization stages. Under these conditions, up to 88% of the salt can be recycled.

  5. Separation of actinides from irradiated An–Zr based fuel by electrorefining on solid aluminium cathodes in molten LiCl–KCl

    Highlights: • Electrorefining process in molten LiCl-KCl using solid Al electrodes was demonstrated. • High separation factors of actinides over lanthanides were achieved. • Efficient recovery of actinides from irradiated nuclear fuel was achieved. • Uniform, dense and well adhered deposits were obtained and characterised. • Kinetic parameters of actinide–aluminium alloy formation were evaluated. - Abstract: An electrorefining process for metallic spent nuclear fuel treatment is being investigated in ITU. Solid aluminium cathodes are used for homogeneous recovery of all actinides within the process carried out in molten LiCl–KCl eutectic salt at a temperature of 500 °C. As the selectivity, efficiency and performance of solid Al has been already shown using un-irradiated An–Zr alloy based test fuels, the present work was focused on laboratory-scale demonstration of the process using irradiated METAPHIX-1 fuel composed of U67–Pu19–Zr10–MA2–RE2 (wt.%, MA = Np, Am, Cm, RE = Nd, Ce, Gd, Y). Different electrorefining techniques, conditions and cathode geometries were used during the experiment yielding evaluation of separation factors, kinetic parameters of actinide–aluminium alloy formation, process efficiency and macro-structure characterisation of the deposits. The results confirmed an excellent separation and very high efficiency of the electrorefining process using solid Al cathodes

  6. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer of the Tb(III)-Nd(III) Binary System in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    The lanthanides act as a neutron poison in nuclear reactor with large neutron absorption cross section. For that reason, very low amount of lanthanides is required in the recovered U/TRU ingot product from pyrochemical process. In view of that, the investigation of thermodynamic properties and chemical behaviors of lanthanides in molten chloride salt are necessary to estimate the performance efficiency of pyrochemical process. However, there are uncertainties about knowledge and understanding of basic mechanisms in pyrochemical process, such as chemical speciation and redox behaviors due to the lack of in-situ monitoring methods for high temperature molten salt. The spectroscopic analysis is one of the probable techniques for in-situ qualitative and quantitative analysis. Recently, a few fluorescence spectroscopic measurements on single lanthanide element in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic have been investigated. The fluorescence intensity and the fluorescence lifetime of Tb(III) were decreased as increasing the concentration of Nd(III), demonstrating collisional quenching between donor ions and acceptor ions. The Forster distance (..0) of Tb(III)-Nd(III) binary system in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was determined in the specific range of .... (0.1-1.0) and .. (1.387-1.496)

  7. Magneto-optical measurement of spin-lattice relaxation time in KBr and in the Na and Cs halogenetes and Co++ ion magnetic circular dichroism study in KCl

    A magnetic circular dicroism spectrometer is described, which was used in the following experiments: 1) The spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) for F centers in NaCl, NaBr, CsBr and CsCl, at 1,80K in magnetic fields up to 15000Gs is described. The suitability of the theory of ref. (08) to explain the differences observed for halides of differents alkali ions as well as for different structures is verified proves that the hyperfine interaction is the most important mechanism for this kind of centers. It is also verified that, for temperatures between 60K and 150K, T1 experimental values fits the theory of ref. (21) reasonably well, for F centers in KBr. This theory us an extension of that of ref. (8). 2) The MCD spectra for KCl:Co++ and Caf2:Co++ in different magnetic fields up to 56KGs, and in temperature range between 1,80K and 4,20K is obtained. The results are consistent with the assumption that Co++ centers are intersticial in KCl lattice

  8. Comparative study of the thermoluminescence between the materials α-Al2O3:C, KCl:Eu2+, KBr: Eu2+ and VYCOR

    It is presented some investigation results related to the thermoluminescence curves (Tl), Tl emission and the spectra of excitation of thermoluminescence in the ultraviolet region of 190 to 250 nm in the materials α-Al2O3:C, KCl: Eu2+, KBr: Eu2+ and the Vycor glass. It was able to be observed that the Tl emission for the first three materials exists around 420 nm and in the case of Vycor the emission consists of two Tl peaks where the most low temperature is a band more wide centered in 460 nm and the other band of high temperature emits in 470 nm. In the excitation curves of Tl were obtained centered bands around 230 nm for KCl: Eu2+, 235 nm for KBr: Eu2+, 220 nm for the alumina and 195 nm for the Vycor. From the results it was able to be appreciated that this last has a minor relative intensity with respect to the others materials but also the region in which works there was an alone band between the 190 to 205 nm. This fact makes the material be very selective in the ultraviolet region of greatest energy. (Author)

  9. Energy loss and fragmentation of 3 keV C{sub 60}{sup +} ions at grazing scattering from a KCl(0 0 1)

    Kimura, K. [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: kimura@kues.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsushita, T.; Nakajima, K.; Suzuki, M. [Department of Micro Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2009-08-15

    Charge state, angular and energy distributions of reflected projectiles are measured when 3 keV C{sub 60}{sup +,2+} ions are scattered from a clean and flat KCl(0 0 1) surface under grazing incidence. The dominant charge state is found to be C{sub 60}{sup +} irrespective of the incident charge state as is expected from the electronic structure of KCl and C{sub 60} ions. The observed angular distribution has a well defined peak at a specular angle, indicating that the normal energy is not dissipated during the grazing angle scattering. In spite of no dissipation of the normal energy we observe the fragmentation of the scattered C{sub 60}{sup +} ions. The energy transferred from the parallel energy to the internal excitations was estimated from the observed fragment distribution. The transferred energy changes from almost 0 to {approx}15 eV when the angle of incidence changes from 1 deg. to 6 deg., which is less than 10% of the observed energy loss of the C{sub 60}{sup +} ions.

  10. Energy loss and fragmentation of 3 keV C60+ ions at grazing scattering from a KCl(0 0 1)

    Charge state, angular and energy distributions of reflected projectiles are measured when 3 keV C60+,2+ ions are scattered from a clean and flat KCl(0 0 1) surface under grazing incidence. The dominant charge state is found to be C60+ irrespective of the incident charge state as is expected from the electronic structure of KCl and C60 ions. The observed angular distribution has a well defined peak at a specular angle, indicating that the normal energy is not dissipated during the grazing angle scattering. In spite of no dissipation of the normal energy we observe the fragmentation of the scattered C60+ ions. The energy transferred from the parallel energy to the internal excitations was estimated from the observed fragment distribution. The transferred energy changes from almost 0 to ∼15 eV when the angle of incidence changes from 1 deg. to 6 deg., which is less than 10% of the observed energy loss of the C60+ ions.

  11. The effect of mixed HCl-KCl competitive adsorbate on Pt adsorption and catalytic properties of Pt-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts in propane dehydrogenation

    Zangeneh, Farnaz Tahriri; Taeb, Abbas; Gholivand, Khodayar; Sahebdelfar, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The effect of competitive adsorbate concentration and combination on the adsorption of H2PtCl6 onto γ-Al2O3 in the preparation and performance of PtSnK/γ-Al2O3 catalyst for propane dehydrogenation was investigated. The catalysts were prepared by sequential impregnation of Sn and Pt precursors. The effect of competitor concentration on Pt adsorption was studied by using hydrochloric acid (0.1-0.3 M) and the effect of pH was studied by using KCl/HCl mixtures at constant (0.1 M) total chloride ion concentration. The catalysts were characterized by nitrogen adsorption/desorption, XRD, XRF, SEM and CO chemisorption. The catalytic performance tests were carried out in a fixed-bed quartz reactor under kinetic controlled condition for proper catalyst screening. It was found that the corrosive competitor HCl could be partially substituted with KCl without appreciable impact on catalyst performance with the advantage of lower acid attack on the support and reduced leaching of the deposited tin. A model based on initial concentration and uptake of the adsorbates was developed to obtain the adsorption parameters. Values of 890 μmol/g and 600 lit/mol were obtained for adsorption site concentration of the tin-impregnated support and equilibrium constant for Pt adsorption, respectively, for HCl concentration range of 0.1-0.3 M.

  12. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer of the Tb(III)-Nd(III) Binary System in Molten LiCl-KCl Eutectic Salt

    Kim, B. Y. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J. I. [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The lanthanides act as a neutron poison in nuclear reactor with large neutron absorption cross section. For that reason, very low amount of lanthanides is required in the recovered U/TRU ingot product from pyrochemical process. In view of that, the investigation of thermodynamic properties and chemical behaviors of lanthanides in molten chloride salt are necessary to estimate the performance efficiency of pyrochemical process. However, there are uncertainties about knowledge and understanding of basic mechanisms in pyrochemical process, such as chemical speciation and redox behaviors due to the lack of in-situ monitoring methods for high temperature molten salt. The spectroscopic analysis is one of the probable techniques for in-situ qualitative and quantitative analysis. Recently, a few fluorescence spectroscopic measurements on single lanthanide element in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic have been investigated. The fluorescence intensity and the fluorescence lifetime of Tb(III) were decreased as increasing the concentration of Nd(III), demonstrating collisional quenching between donor ions and acceptor ions. The Forster distance (..0) of Tb(III)-Nd(III) binary system in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic was determined in the specific range of .... (0.1-1.0) and .. (1.387-1.496)

  13. Differential expression of gill Na+,K+-ATPaseα - and β-subunits, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter and CFTR anion channel in juvenile anadromous and landlocked Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Nilsen, Tom O.; Ebbesson, Lars O.E.; Madsen, Steffen S.; McCormick, Stephen D.; Andersson, Eva; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Prunet, Patrick; Stefansson, Sigurd O.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines changes in gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) α- and β-subunit isoforms, Na+,K+,2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR I and II) in anadromous and landlocked strains of Atlantic salmon during parr-smolt transformation, and after seawater (SW) transfer in May/June. Gill NKA activity increased from February through April, May and June among both strains in freshwater (FW), with peak enzyme activity in the landlocked salmon being 50% below that of the anadromous fish in May and June. Gill NKA-α1b, -α3, -β1 and NKCC mRNA levels in anadromous salmon increased transiently, reaching peak levels in smolts in April/May, whereas no similar smolt-related upregulation of these transcripts occurred in juvenile landlocked salmon. Gill NKA-α1a mRNA decreased significantly in anadromous salmon from February through June, whereas α1a levels in landlocked salmon, after an initial decrease in April, remained significantly higher than those of the anadromous smolts in May and June. Following SW transfer, gill NKA-α1b and NKCC mRNA increased in both strains, whereas NKA-α1a decreased. Both strains exhibited a transient increase in gill NKA α-protein abundance, with peak levels in May. Gill α-protein abundance was lower in SW than corresponding FW values in June. Gill NKCC protein abundance increased transiently in anadromous fish, with peak levels in May, whereas a slight increase was observed in landlocked salmon in May, increasing to peak levels in June. Gill CFTR I mRNA levels increased significantly from February to April in both strains, followed by a slight, though not significant increase in May and June. CFTR I mRNA levels were significantly lower in landlocked than anadromous salmon in April/June. Gill CFTR II mRNA levels did not change significantly in either strain. Our findings demonstrates that differential expression of gill NKA-α1a, -α1b and -α3 isoforms may be important for potential functional

  14. Polarized distribution of Na+/H+ antiport and Na+/HCO3- cotransport in primary cultures of renal inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    Hart, D; Nord, E P

    1991-02-01

    Primary cultures of rat renal inner medullary collecting duct cells were grown to confluence on glass coverslips and treated permeant supports, and the pH-sensitive fluorescent probe 2,7-biscarboxyethyl-5,6-carboxyfluorescein was employed to delineate the nature of the transport pathways that allowed for recovery from an imposed acid load in a HCO3-/CO2-buffered solution. The H+ efflux rate of acid-loaded cells was 13.44 +/- 0.94 mM/min. Addition of amiloride, 10(-4) M, to the recovery solution reduced the H+ efflux rate to 4.06 +/- 0.63 mM/min. The amiloride-resistant pHi recovery mechanism displayed an absolute requirement for Na+ but was Cl(-)-independent. Studies performed on permeable supports demonstrated that the latter pathway was located primarily on the basolateral-equivalent (BE) cell surface and was inhibited by 50 microM 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). In a Na(+)-replete solution containing DIDS (50 microM) and amiloride (10(-4) M), acid-loaded cells failed to return to basal pHi. To delineate further the amiloride-inhibitable component of pHi recovery, monolayers were studied in the nominal absence of HCO3-/CO2. In 70% of monolayers studied, Na(+)-dependent, amiloride-inhibitable H+ efflux was the sole mechanism whereby acid-loaded cells returned to basal pHi. A Na(+)-independent pathway was observed in 30% of monolayers examined and represented only a minor component of the pHi recovery process. In studies performed on permeable supports, the Na(+)-dependent amiloride-inhibitable pathway was found to be confined exclusively to the BE cell surface. In summary, confluent monolayers of rat renal inner medullary collecting duct cells in primary culture possess two major mechanisms that contribute toward recovery from an imposed acid load, namely, Na+/H+ antiport and Na+/HCO3- cotransport. Na(+)-independent pHi recovery mechanisms represent a minor component of the pHi recovery process in the cultured cell. Both the Na

  15. The vasorelaxant activity of marrubenol and marrubiin from Marrubium vulgare.

    El Bardai, Sanae; Morel, Nicole; Wibo, Maurice; Fabre, Nicolas; Llabres, Gabriel; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2003-01-01

    Crude extracts of the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare show a potent in vitro inhibition of KCl-induced contraction of rat aorta. Bio-guided fractionations, spectroscopic analysis and chemical derivatization revealed the furanic labdane diterpenes marrubenol and marrubiin as the most active compounds. PMID:12567286

  16. Vapor-liquid phase equilibria of potassium chloride-water mixtures: Equation-of-state representation for KCl-H2O and NaCl-H2O

    Hovey, J.K.; Pitzer, Kenneth S.; Tanger, J.C., IV; Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of isothermal vapor-liquid compositions for KCl-H2O as a function of pressure are reported. An equation of state, which was originally proposed by Pitzer and was improved and used by Tanger and Pitzer to fit the vapor-liquid coexistence surface for NaCl-H2O, has been used for representation of the KCl-H2O system from 300 to 410??C. Improved parameters are also reported for NaCl-H2O from 300 to 500??C. ?? 1990 American Chemical Society.

  17. High brain ammonia tolerance and down-regulation of Na+:K+:2Cl(- Cotransporter 1b mRNA and protein expression in the brain of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus, exposed to environmental ammonia or terrestrial conditions.

    Yuen K Ip

    Full Text Available Na(+:K(+:2Cl(- cotransporter 1 (NKCC1 has been implicated in mediating ischemia-, trauma- or ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling/brain edema in mammals. This study aimed to determine the effects of ammonia or terrestrial exposure on ammonia concentrations in the plasma and brain, and the mRNA expression and protein abundance of nkcc/Nkcc in the brain, of the swamp eel Monopterusalbus. Ammonia exposure led to a greater increase in the ammonia concentration in the brain of M. albus than terrestrial exposure. The brain ammonia concentration of M. albus reached 4.5 µmol g(-1 and 2.7 µmol g(-1 after 6 days of exposure to 50 mmol l(-1 NH4Cl and terrestrial conditions, respectively. The full cDNA coding sequence of nkcc1b from M. albus brain comprised 3276 bp and coded for 1092 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 119.6 kDa. A molecular characterization indicated that it could be activated through phosphorylation and/or glycosylation by osmotic and/or oxidative stresses. Ammonia exposure for 1 day or 6 days led to significant decreases in the nkcc1b mRNA expression and Nkcc1b protein abundance in the brain of M. albus. In comparison, a significant decrease in nkcc1b mRNA expression was observed in the brain of M. albus only after 6 days of terrestrial exposure, but both 1 day and 6 days of terrestrial exposure resulted in significant decreases in the protein abundance of Nkcc1b. These results are novel because it has been established in mammals that ammonia up-regulates NKCC1 expression in astrocytes and NKCC1 plays an important role in ammonia-induced astrocyte swelling and brain edema. By contrast, our results indicate for the first time that M. albus is able to down-regulate the mRNA and protein expression of nkcc1b/Nkcc1b in the brain when confronted with ammonia toxicity, which could be one of the contributing factors to its extraordinarily high brain ammonia tolerance.

  18. A sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin prevents abnormality of circadian rhythm of blood pressure in salt-treated obese rats.

    Takeshige, Yui; Fujisawa, Yoshihide; Rahman, Asadur; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Nakano, Daisuke; Mori, Hirohito; Masaki, Tsutomu; Ohmori, Koji; Kohno, Masakazu; Ogata, Hiroaki; Nishiyama, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effects of the selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin on urinary sodium excretion and circadian blood pressure in salt-treated obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fifteen-week-old obese OLETF rats were treated with 1% NaCl (in drinking water), and vehicle (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose, n=10) or empagliflozin (10 mg kg(-1)per day, p.o., n=11) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was continuously measured by telemetry system. Glucose metabolism and urinary sodium excretion were evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test and high salt challenge test, respectively. Vehicle-treated OLETF rats developed non-dipper type blood pressure elevation with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. Compared with vehicle-treated animals, empagliflozin-treated OLETF rats showed an approximately 1000-fold increase in urinary glucose excretion and improved glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. Furthermore, empagliflozin prevented the development of blood pressure elevation with normalization of its circadian rhythm to a dipper profile, which was associated with increased urinary sodium excretion. These data suggest that empagliflozin elicits beneficial effects on both glucose homeostasis and hypertension in salt-replete obese states. PMID:26818652

  19. Shift to Fatty Substrate Utilization in Response to Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition in Subjects Without Diabetes and Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Ferrannini, Ele; Baldi, Simona; Frascerra, Silvia; Astiarraga, Brenno; Heise, Tim; Bizzotto, Roberto; Mari, Andrea; Pieber, Thomas R; Muscelli, Elza

    2016-05-01

    Pharmacologically induced glycosuria elicits adaptive responses in glucose homeostasis and hormone release. In type 2 diabetes (T2D), along with decrements in plasma glucose and insulin levels and increments in glucagon release, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors induce stimulation of endogenous glucose production (EGP) and a suppression of tissue glucose disposal (TGD). We measured fasting and postmeal glucose fluxes in 25 subjects without diabetes using a double glucose tracer technique; in these subjects and in 66 previously reported patients with T2D, we also estimated lipolysis (from [(2)H5]glycerol turnover rate and circulating free fatty acids, glycerol, and triglycerides), lipid oxidation (LOx; by indirect calorimetry), and ketogenesis (from circulating β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations). In both groups, empagliflozin administration raised EGP, lowered TGD, and stimulated lipolysis, LOx, and ketogenesis. The pattern of glycosuria-induced changes was similar in subjects without diabetes and in those with T2D but quantitatively smaller in the former. With chronic (4 weeks) versus acute (first dose) drug administration, glucose flux responses were attenuated, whereas lipid responses were enhanced; in patients with T2D, fasting β-hydroxybutyrate levels rose from 246 ± 288 to 561 ± 596 µmol/L (P < 0.01). We conclude that by shunting substantial amounts of carbohydrate into urine, SGLT2-mediated glycosuria results in a progressive shift in fuel utilization toward fatty substrates. The associated hormonal milieu (lower insulin-to-glucagon ratio) favors glucose release and ketogenesis. PMID:26861783

  20. The human osmoregulatory Na{sup +}/myo-inositol cotransporter gene (SLC5A3): Molecular cloning and localization to chromosome 21

    Berry, G.T.; Mallee, J.J. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Muenke, M. [Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    A human Na{sup +}/myo-inositol cotransporter (SLC5A3) gene was cloned; sequencing revealed a single intron-free open reading frame of 2157 nucleotides. Containing 718 amino acid residues, the predicted protein is highly homologous to the product of the canine osmoregulatory SLC5A3 gene. The SLC5A3 protein is number 3 of the solute carrier family 5 and was previously designated SMIT. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, the human SLC5A3 gene was localized to band q22 on chromosome 21. Many tissues including brain demonstrate gene expression. The inability of a trisomic 21 cell to downregulate expression of three copies of this osmoregulatory gene could result in increased flux of both myo-inositol and Na{sup +} across the plasma membrane. The potential consequences include perturbations in the cell membrane potential and tissue osmolyte levels. The SLC5A3 gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of Down syndrome. 54 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Sodium-Glucose Linked Cotransporter-2 Inhibition Does Not Attenuate Disease Progression in the Rat Remnant Kidney Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

    Zhang, Yanling; Thai, Kerri; Kepecs, David M.; Gilbert, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibition of the proximal tubular sodium-glucose linked cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) leads to glycosuria in both diabetic and non-diabetic settings. As a consequence of their ability to modulate tubuloglomerular feedback, SGLT2 inhibitors, like agents that block the renin-angiotensin system, reduce intraglomerular pressure and single nephron GFR, potentially affording renoprotection. To examine this further we administered the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, to 5/6 (subtotally) nephrectomised rats, a model of progressive chronic kidney disease (CKD) that like CKD in humans is characterised by single nephron hyperfiltration and intraglomerular hypertension and where angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are demonstrably beneficial. When compared with untreated rats, both sham surgery and 5/6 nephrectomised rats that had received dapagliflozin experienced substantial glycosuria. Nephrectomised rats developed hypertension, heavy proteinuria and declining GFR that was unaffected by the administration of dapagliflozin. Similarly, SGLT2 inhibition did not attenuate the extent of glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial fibrosis or overexpression of the profibrotic cytokine, transforming growth factor-ß1 mRNA in the kidneys of 5/6 nephrectomised rats. While not precluding beneficial effects in the diabetic setting, these findings indicate that SGLT2 inhibition does not have renoprotective effects in this classical model of progressive non-diabetic CKD. PMID:26741142

  2. Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin–metformin

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Katz, Arie

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. PMID:27042132

  3. Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor combination therapy to optimize glycemic control and tolerability in patients with type 2 diabetes: focus on dapagliflozin-metformin.

    Schwartz, Stanley S; Katz, Arie

    2016-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes (T2D), early combination therapy using agents that target a number of the underlying pathophysiologic defects contributing to hyperglycemia may improve patient outcomes. For many patients, the combination of metformin with a sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor may be a good option because these agents have complementary mechanisms of action, neutral-to-positive effects on body weight, and a low risk of hypoglycemia. This review focuses on the combination of metformin with dapagliflozin, a member of the SGLT-2 inhibitor class of antidiabetes agents. In clinical trials, the combination of dapagliflozin with metformin produced significant and sustained reductions in glycated hemoglobin and body weight in a broad range of adult patients with T2D, including those initiating pharmacotherapy and those with more advanced disease. These reductions were accompanied by modest decreases in blood pressure. Dapagliflozin as add-on therapy to metformin was well tolerated and associated with low rates of hypoglycemia. Genital infections and, in some studies, urinary tract infections were more frequent with dapagliflozin than with placebo. Early combination therapy with dapagliflozin and metformin may be a safe and appropriate treatment option that enables patients with T2D to achieve individualized glycemic goals as either initial combination therapy in treatment-naïve patients or as dapagliflozin add-on in patients inadequately controlled with metformin therapy. PMID:27042132

  4. Frequency dispersion of dielectric permittivity and dielectric losses in aqueous KCl and CsCl solutions depending on their state parameters

    The frequency spectra of the coefficients of dielectric permittivity, ε1(ω), and dielectric losses, ε2(ω), have been studied for aqueous KCl and CsCl solutions in wide intervals of the density ρ, concentration C, and temperature T. The research is carried out on the basis of the analytical expressions obtained for those parameters, by using the method of kinetic equations. Numerical calculations of ε1(ω) and ε2(ω) at various ρ, C, and T are carried out with a certain choice of the solution model, the potential interaction energy Φab(|r|), and the radial distribution function gab(|r|) for ions of sorts a and b in the solutions concerned. The obtained results are in satisfactory quantitative agreement with experimental data

  5. Flexible electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for instantaneous concentration measurements of NaCl, KCl, MnCl2 and CuCl solutions

    A novel electromagnetic wave sensor operating at GHz frequencies for real-time chlorides concentration analysis is reported. The sensor response to deionized water, NaCl, KCl, MnCl2 and CuCl solutions at various concentrations was tested. The sensing element, in the form of a silver pattern antenna that emits an electromagnetic field, was printed on a polyimide flexible laminate substrate to form a sensor to suit a broad range of applications, where a sensor could be placed in water reservoirs or fluid-carrying pipes for continuous analysis. The developed system confirmed the viability of using microwaves for real-time chloride solutions monitoring as the reflected signals represented by S11 parameters were unique with clearly observed shifts in the resonant frequencies and amplitude changes when placed in direct contact with 20 µl of each solution. (paper)

  6. Strong super-superphyperfine and quadrupole interations by RPE in divalent Co,RH,IR complexes in NaCl, KCl and RbCl lattices

    The M(CN)4Cl24-:NaCl, M = Co, Rh and Ir paramagnetic complexes obtained by irradiation are analysed by ESR spectroscopy. These complexes present a superhyperfine structure due to the interaction of the unpaired electron with the host lattice Na nearest-neighbors atoms. This structure is explained by overlap and covalent effects in a molecular orbital approach. ESR quadrupolar interaction measurements of the Ir(CN)53-, Ir(CN)5Cl4- and Ir(CN)4Cl24- complexes in NaCl, KCl and RbCl host lattices indicate that the origin of the electron field gradient at the iridium nucleus is correlated to the Π and δ bonds ailities of the ligands. (author)

  7. Selective electrodeposition of dysprosium in LiCl-KCl-GdCl3-DyCl3 melts at magnesium electrodes: Application to separation of nuclear wastes

    The electrochemical behaviour and extraction efficiency of DyCl3 and GdCl3 solutions were studied by cyclic voltammetry, square wave voltammetry and open-circuit chronopotentiometry in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at 773 K using inert and reactive electrodes, i.e. W and Mg, respectively. On W and Mg electrodes, Dy(III) ions are reduced to metallic dysprosium through two consecutive steps. The selective electrodepositing of dysprosium in a form of Mg-Dy alloys can be easier than that in a pure metallic form, without reduction of the extraction yield. Potentiostatic electrolysis experiments were performed to extract Dy from GdCl3 and DyCl3 mixtures at magnesium electrodes. XRD patterns of deposit indicated that Mg3Dy phase was formed. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images with Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) showed the grain size was refined with a greater content of Dy in alloys

  8. Study on electrochemical preparation of Al-Li-Y alloys from Y2O3 in LiCl-KCl-AlCl3 molten salts

    LI Yaming; WANG Fengli; ZHANG Milin; HAN Wei; TIAN Yang

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical preparaton of Al-Li-Y alloys from LiCl-KCl-A1Cl3-Y2O3 system was studied. The chlorination of Y2O3 by AlCl3 led to the formation of Y (Ⅲ) ions in the molten salts. Cyclic voltammogram (CV) showed that the underpotential deposition (UPD) of yttrium on pre-deposited aluminum caused the formation of Al-Y alloy. Al-Li-Y alloys with different yttriurn contents were obtained by galvanostatic electrolysis and analysed by SEM-EDS and ICP. The ICP results showed that the lithium and yttrium contents in Al-Li-Y alloysdepended on the addition of AlCl3 into the melts.

  9. Electrochemical deposition of La-Mg alloys in LaCl3-MgCl2-KCl system with molten salt electrolysis process

    Sahoo Kumar D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La-Mg alloys of different compositions were prepared by electrolysis of LaCl3-MgCl2-KCl melts. Different phases of La-Mg alloys were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES analyses showed that chemical compositions of La-Mg alloys were consistent with phase structures of XRD pattern, and magnesium content in the alloy could be controlled by electrolysis parameters. The effects of various process parameters such as concentration of magnesium chloride in the bath, temperature of electrolysis and cathode current density on the current efficiency have been investigated. A maximum current efficiency of 85% and yield of 80% was obtained from the bath at 12.5A/cm2 current density at an operating temp 850°C.

  10. Electrochemical behaviors of Dy(III) and its co-reduction with Al(III) in molten LiCl-KCl salts

    In this work, the electrochemical behaviors of Dy(III) and its co-reduction with Al(III) on an inert tungsten electrode was investigated in LiCl-KCl molten salts at the temperature of 773 K by using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP) and square wave voltammetry (SWV) techniques. The results showed that the reduction of Dy(III) ions in LiCl-KCl salts is a reversible diffusion controlled process through a one-step reaction: Dy(III) + 3e− ↔ Dy(0). The diffusion coefficient of Dy(III) ions was calculated by both the CV and CP methods. Furthermore, the co-reduction of Al(III) and Dy(III) ions on the inert tungsten electrode allows Dy(III) ions to be reduced at a more positive potential through forming Al-Dy alloys. The concentration ratio of Al(III) cations to Dy(III) cations has a large impact on the formation of Al-Dy alloys. In a Dy(III) ion rich system, three signals attributed to the formation of Al-Dy intermetallic compounds were observed in CV and SWV analyses, while only two signals corresponding to Al-Dy intermetallic compounds were observed in the Dy(III) ion poor system. Potentiostatic and galvanostatic electrolyses performed on an aluminum electrode identified the co-reduction by the formation of one (Al3Dy) and two Al-Dy alloys (Al3Dy, AlDy), respectively. Finally, the electrolysis products were characterized by the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses

  11. Absorption characteristics of anions (I{sup −}, Br{sup −}, and Te{sup 2−}) into zeolite in molten LiCl–KCl eutectic salt

    Uozumi, Koichi, E-mail: uozumi@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Sugihara, Kei [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kinoshita, Kensuke; Koyama, Tadafumi; Tsukada, Takeshi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1 Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Terai, Takayuki; Suzuki, Akihiro [The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    The behaviors of anion fission product (FP) elements to be absorbed into zeolite in molten LiCl–KCl eutectic salt were studied using iodine, bromine, and tellurium. First, the type-A zeolite was selected as the most suitable type of zeolite among type-A, type-X, and type-Y zeolites through experiments in which zeolites were heated together with LiCl–KCl–KI salt. As the next step, experiments in which the type-A zeolite was immersed in molten LiCl–KCl salt containing various concentrations of iodine, bromine, or tellurium were performed. The degree of absorption of the anion FP elements was evaluated using the separation factor (SF) value versus chlorine. Although the SF values for iodine and tellurium were higher than 1.0, which meant that these elements were absorbed into the type-A zeolite more intensively than chlorine in the salt, the corresponding value for bromine was approximately 1.0. The effects of coexisting cation FPs were also examined using cesium, strontium, and neodymium, and it was revealed that the SF values for iodine were less than those in the case without cation addition. On the other hand, the SF values for tellurium were not affected by the coexistence of cesium and strontium. Finally, the feasibility of the present pyroprocess flowsheet was evaluated by calculating the inventory of each anion FP in an electrorefiner based on the obtained SF values instead of temporary values for the anion FPs absorption, which were set due to lack of experimental data.

  12. On oxoacidic properties and solubilities of beryllium and magnesium oxides in molten (CsCs + KCl + NaCl) eutectic at T = 783 K

    Highlights: ► Solubility product index of MgO in CsCl–KCl–LiCl eutectic melt is 11.89, molality. ► Solubility product index of BeO in CsCl–KCl–LiCl eutectic melt is 9.62, molality. ► Dissociation constant index of Be2O2+ in the said melt is 15.68, molality. ► Solutions of MgO in the said melt demonstrate positive deviations from ideality. - Abstract: Reactions of Be2+ and Mg2+ with O2– in molten eutectic mixture (CsCs + KCl + NaCl) (0.455:0.245:0.30) at T = 783 K were studied by a potentiometric method using Pt(O2)|ZrO2(Y2O3) indicator electrode. Addition of O2– ions to the melt containing Mg2+ results in precipitation of MgO (pKs,MgO = 11.89 ± 0.3, molality) whereas interaction of Be2+ with O2– is accompanied with sequential formation of Be2O2+ (pK = 15.68 ± 0.5, molality) and precipitation of BeO (pKs,BeO = 9.62 ± 0.3, molality). On the basis of the obtained and known data pKs,MgO–T−1 dependence in molten (CsCs + KCl + NaCl) eutectic is constructed. The slope of the said dependence in T/K = (from 583 to 1073) range is in good agreement with the value predicted by the Shreder equation, that extends the range of use of the Shreder equation for predictions of metal oxide solubilities in molten halides.

  13. Determination of hydrolysis constants for gadolinium in ion strength media 2M of NaCl, NaClO{sub 4} and KCl at 303 K; Determinacion de las constanted de hidrolisis del gadolinio en los medios de fuerza ionica 2M de NaCl, NaClO{sub 4} y KCl, a 303 K

    Serna M, S.; Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    This work was made with the purpose to extend information about the hydrolysis constants of gadolinium (III) in ion strength media 2M of NaCl, NaClO{sub 4}, KCl at 303 K using the potentiometric method for this determination, and analysing starting from those data, the influence of anions and cations. It is concluded that the media which were determined the hydrolysis constants are very important and it is recommended the sodium perchlorate as the more adequate salt for those determinations. Also it was obtained the distribution diagrams of chemical species in each one of the media studied. (Author)

  14. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    Ian M. Thornell

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4, Na-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2, electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2, and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE, as well as a borate transporter (BTR1. These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO3– either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO3– transporter contributes to a cell’s ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s (e.g., Na+ or Cl–. In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both classical and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family.

  15. Comparative study of the thermoluminescence between the materials {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, KCl:Eu{sup 2+}, KBr: Eu{sup 2+} and VYCOR; Estudio comparativo de la termoluminiscencia entre los materiales {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: C, KCl:Eu{sup 2+}, KBr: Eu{sup 2+} y VYCOR

    Pedroza M, M. [Programa de Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 2681, C.P. 22800, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Melendrez, R.; Perez S, R.; Aceves, R.; Piters, T.M.; Barboza F, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apdo. Postal 5-088, C.P. 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    It is presented some investigation results related to the thermoluminescence curves (Tl), Tl emission and the spectra of excitation of thermoluminescence in the ultraviolet region of 190 to 250 nm in the materials {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, KCl: Eu{sup 2+}, KBr: Eu{sup 2+} and the Vycor glass. It was able to be observed that the Tl emission for the first three materials exists around 420 nm and in the case of Vycor the emission consists of two Tl peaks where the most low temperature is a band more wide centered in 460 nm and the other band of high temperature emits in 470 nm. In the excitation curves of Tl were obtained centered bands around 230 nm for KCl: Eu{sup 2+}, 235 nm for KBr: Eu{sup 2+}, 220 nm for the alumina and 195 nm for the Vycor. From the results it was able to be appreciated that this last has a minor relative intensity with respect to the others materials but also the region in which works there was an alone band between the 190 to 205 nm. This fact makes the material be very selective in the ultraviolet region of greatest energy. (Author)

  16. Hormonal Regulation of chicken intestinal NHE and SGLT-1 activities

    Ilundáin Larrañeta, María Anunciación; De la Horra, Maria del Carmen; Cano Rodríguez, María Mercedes; Peral Rubio, María José; Calonge Castrillo, María Luisa

    2001-01-01

    The effects of aldosterone and arginine vasotocin (AVT) on intestinal Na/Hexchange (NHE) and Na-sugar cotransport (SGLT-1) activi-ties have been investigated using brush-border membrane ves-icles isolated from Hubbard chicken small and large intestines, and they were compared with those induced by either Nadepletion or dehydration. Na depletion was induced by feeding the chickens with either a low- or a high-Na diet for either 0.5, 1, 2, 4, or 8 days. Ileal and colonic NHE2 activity inc...

  17. Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials

    Mittal, Niti; Mittal, Rakesh; Kumar, Harish; Medhi, Bikash

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors represent a novel class of antidiabetic drugs. The reporting quality of the trials evaluating the efficacy of these agents for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus has not been explored. Our aim was to assess the reporting quality of such randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to identify the predictors of reporting quality. Materials and Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted for RCTs published till 12 June 2014. Two independent investigators carried out the searches and assessed the reporting quality on three parameters: Overall quality score (OQS) using Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) 2010 statement, Jadad score and intention to treat analysis. Inter-rater agreements were compared using Cohen's weighted kappa statistic. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to identify the predictors. Results: Thirty-seven relevant RCTs were included in the present analysis. The median OQS was 17 with a range from 8 to 21. On Jadad scale, the median score was three with a range from 0 to 5. Complete details about allocation concealment and blinding were present in 21 and 10 studies respectively. Most studies lacked an elaborate discussion on trial limitations and generalizability. Among the factors identified as significantly associated with reporting quality were the publishing journal and region of conduct of RCT. Conclusions: The key methodological items remain poorly reported in most studies. Strategies like stricter adherence to CONSORT guidelines by journals, access to full trial protocols to gain valuable information and full collaboration among investigators and methodologists might prove helpful in improving the quality of published RCT reports. PMID:26955572

  18. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice.

    Kuralay Atageldiyeva

    Full Text Available A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver.

  19. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors as an add-on to insulin therapy: A comparative review.

    Singh, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    The gradual decline in β-cell function is inevitable in type 2 diabetes mellitus and therefore, substantial proportions of patients require insulin subsequently, in order to achieve optimal glucose control. While weight gain, hypoglycemia, and fluid retention especially during dose intensification is a known limitation to insulin therapy, these adverse effects also reduce patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. It is also possible that the benefits of intensive control achieved by insulin therapy, perhaps get nullified by the weight gain and hypoglycemia. In addition, improvement in plasma glucose or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) itself is associated with weight gain. Notably, studies have already suggested that reduction in body weight by ~3-5%, may allow a significantly better glycemic control. Thus, a class of drugs, which can reduce HbA1c effectively, yet are weight neutral or preferably reduce body weight, could be the most sought out strategy as an add-on therapy to insulin. While sulfonylureas (SUs) are associated with weight gain and hypoglycemia, pioglitazone increases body weight and fluid retention. Moreover, SUs are not recommended once premix or prandial insulin is commenced. The addition of newer agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist to insulin certainly appears to be an effective tool in reducing both HbA1c and body weight as is evident across the studies; however, this approach incurs an additional injection as well as cost. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I) and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I) are other exciting options, as an add-on to insulin therapy primarily because these are oral drugs and do not possess any intrinsic potential of hypoglycemia. Furthermore, these are either weight neutral or induce significant weight loss. This review article aims to comparatively analyze the safety and efficacy of DPP-4I and SGLT-2I, as an add-on therapy to insulin. PMID:26904466

  20. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors combination therapy in type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of current evidence

    Awadhesh Kumar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a chronic and progressive disease with multiple pathophysiologic defects, no single anti-diabetic agent can tackle all these multi-factorial pathways. Consequently, multiple agents working through the different mechanisms will be required for the optimal glycemic control. Moreover, the combination therapies of different anti-diabetic agents may complement their actions and possibly act synergistic. Furthermore, these combinations could possess the additional properties to counter their undesired physiological compensatory response. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2I are newly emerging class of drugs, with a great potential to reduce glucose effectively with an additional quality of lowering cardiovascular events as demonstrated very recently by one of the agents of this class. However, increase in endogenous glucose production (EGP from the liver, either due to the increase in glucagon or compensatory response to glucosuria can offset the glucose-lowering potential of SGLT-2I. Interestingly, another class of drugs such as dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4I effectively decrease glucagon and reduce EGP. In light of these findings, combination therapies with SGLT-2I and DPP-4I are particularly appealing and are expected to produce a synergistic effect. Preclinical studies of combination therapies with DPP-4I and SGLT-2I have already demonstrated a significant lowering of hemoglobin A1c potential and human studies also find no drug-drug interaction between these agents. This article aims to systematically review the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of SGLT-2I and DPP-4I in T2DM.