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Sample records for actinium x

  1. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  2. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  3. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  4. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  5. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  6. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  7. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  8. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  9. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  10. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  11. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  12. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  13. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  14. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  15. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  16. Linear free energy relationship applied to trivalent cations with lanthanum and actinium oxide and hydroxide structure

    Linear free energy relationships for trivalent cations with crystalline M2O3 and, M(OH)3 phases of lanthanides and actinides were developed from known thermodynamic properties of the aqueous trivalent cations, modifying the Sverjensky and Molling equation. The linear free energy relationship for trivalent cations is as ΔGf,MvX0=aMvXΔGn,M3+0+bMvX+βMvXrM3+, where the coefficients aMvX, bMvX, and βMvX characterize a particular structural family of MvX, rM3+ is the ionic radius of M3+ cation, ΔGf,MvX0 is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of MvX and ΔGn,M3+0 is the standard non-solvation free energy of the cation. The coefficients for the oxide family are: aMvX=0.2705, bMvX=-1984.75 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=197.24 (kJ/molnm). The coefficients for the hydroxide family are: aMvX=0.1587, bMvX=-1474.09 (kJ/mol), and βMvX=791.70 (kJ/molnm).

  17. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  18. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    A technique of selenium purification from 232Th, 238U, 226,228Ra, 227Ac and 40K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  19. Purification of selenium from thorium, uranium, radium, actinium and potassium impurities for low background measurements

    Rakhimov, A.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz); Warot, G. [CEA-CNRS, Modane (France). Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM); Karaivanov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), Sofia (Bulgaria); Kochetov, O.I.; Lebedev, N.A.; Filosofov, D.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Mukhamedshina, N.M.; Sadikov, I.I. [Uzbek Academy of Sciences, Tashkent (Uzbekistan). Inst. of Nuclear Physics (INP AS RUz)

    2013-07-01

    A technique of selenium purification from {sup 232}Th, {sup 238}U, {sup 226,228}Ra, {sup 227}Ac and {sup 40}K was developed. This technique is simple to perform and employs a minimum number of highly pure reagents (bidistilled water, nitric acid). Operations carried out during purification (elution, evaporation) practically exclude losses of the target product (chemical yields of Se > 99%). A test purification of 100 g of selenium was carried out using this technique. The efficiency of this technique was confirmed by low background gamma spectrometry of the purified selenium sample. Distribution coefficients of Th, U, Ra and Ac on DOWEX 50W- x 8 cation-exchange resin at different concentrations of selenium and nitric acid were experimentally determinated. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of bidistilled water, deionized water and nitric acid was performed. (orig.)

  20. The X-X method

    Based on theoretical and experimental analysis, the X-X method is put forward. The content of some materials such as ash coal can be on-line or in-situ determined relying on the whole spectrum stimulated by a controllable X-ray source. It is proved by practice that the X-X method is advanced, useful, economic, safe and environmental pollution-free

  1. Removal of actinium from europium for the determination of specific radioactivity of ultra low-level Eu-152 in a sample exposed to atomic-bomb neutrons in Nagasaki

    Measurements of specific radioactivities of residual neutron-induced radionuclides such as 152Eu and 60Co have been carried out to check the validity of a series of computer calculations employed for the atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry in Hiroshima (exposed to uranium bomb) and Nagasaki (exposed to plutonium bomb). The use of these nuclides for atomic-bomb neutron dosimetry, however, has been limited by the following difficulties: (1) today, these radionuclides are found only at extremely low concentrations in materials exposed to the atomic-bomb and (2) the neutrons that induced these radionuclides were thermal and epithermal, while the neutron dose received in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is attributable to fast neutrons. In order to overcome the first difficulty, we established a chemical procedure to extract Eu and Co from materials exposed to the atomic-bomb, and the chemical procedure has been successful for the materials exposed to atomic-bomb within 1400 m in slant distance from the explosion point. As for Nagasaki, materials exposed in the distances farther than 1200 m have never been subjected to the measurement of residual neutron-induced radionuclides. In this work, determination of specific radioactivity of 152Eu (half-life: 13.542 y) in a sample exposed to Nagasaki atomic-bomb at a distant place from the explosion point was undertaken. But, because of radioactive decay during this ∝60 years since 1945 and long distance from the explosion point, the present specific radioactivity of 152Eu in the sample is extremely low (estimated to be ∝3 x 10-4 Bq-152Eu/mg-Eu), and a serious problem is interferences from daughters of 227Ac (half-life: 21.8 y) in the measurement of ultra low-level radioactivity of 152Eu. Hence, our chemical procedure to obtain Eu-enriched counting source should be improved, and much attention is being denoted to removal of Ac from Eu. (orig.)

  2. Group X

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  3. X TRAX

    This paper discusses the demonstration of a technology for the treatment of certain wastewater sludges. The sludges were a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste which was also contaminated with uranium and other trace radioisotopes. As such, it was classified as a mixed waste and could not be readily dealt with under current disposal criteria. The technology employed in conducting the demonstration consisted of the X*TRAX thermal separation system and stabilization of the treated solids using a cement solidification system. The X*TRAX transportable system is a prototype, five ton per day, indirect fired unit which utilizes a rotary kiln and includes an associated gas handling trailer. Treatment consists of heating the sludge to drive off the volatile organic fraction followed by condensation and collection of the organics as a separate waste stream. Dried, organic free solids exiting the kiln are still considered hazardous waste due to the presence of toxic, heavy metals

  4. Doba X

    Němec, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Bakalárska práca Doba X je autorský sci-fi príbeh o dokonalej spoločnosti nedefinovanej budúcnosti, ktorá je vybudovaná na nevyhnutnej globálnej genocíde v prospech existencie života na planéte. V práci analyticky skúmam vznik a vývoj novej spoločnosti, globálne ekologické zmeny, etický kodex a pozíciu umenia v tomto systéme. Na teoretickú platformu aplikujem vizuálnu identitu fiktívnej spoločnosti.

  5. Cc (X) Spaces with X Locally Compact

    J. C. FERRANDO; S. MOLL

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we show, among other results, that if X is a [separable] locally compact space X [satisfying the first countability axiom] then the space Cc (X) has countable tightness [if and only if it has bounding tightness] if and only if it is Fréchet-Urysohn, if and only if Cc (X) contains a dense (LM) subspace and if and only if X is σ-compact.

  6. Joint x-ray

    X-ray - joint; Arthrography; Arthrogram ... x-ray technologist will help you position the joint to be x-rayed on the table. Once in place, pictures are taken. The joint may be moved into other positions for more ...

  7. Chest x-ray

    Chest radiography; Serial chest x-ray; X-ray - chest ... You stand in front of the x-ray machine. You will be told to hold your breath when the x-ray is taken. Two images are usually taken. You will ...

  8. How to understand the underlying structures of $X(4140)$, $X(4274)$, $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$

    Liu, Xiao-Hai

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the possible rescattering effects which may contribute to the process $B^+\\to J/\\psi\\phi K^+$. It is shown that the $D_{s}^{*+}D_{s}^-$ rescattering via the open-charmed meson loops, and $\\psi^\\prime \\phi$ rescattering via the $\\psi^\\prime K_1$ loops may simulate the structures of $X(4140)$ and $X(4700)$, respectively. However, if the quantum numbers of $X(4274)$ ($X(4500)$) are $1^{++}$ ($0^{++}$), it is hard to to ascribe the observation of $X(4274)$ and $X(4500)$ to the $P$-wave threshold rescattering effects, which implies that $X(4274)$ and $X(4500)$ could be genuine resonances. We also suggest that $X(4274)$ may be the conventional orbitally excited state $\\chi_{c1}(3P)$.

  9. When is $f(x_1, x_2, \\ldots , x_n) = u_1 (x_1) + u_2(x_2) + \\cdots + u_n (x_n)$?

    A Kłopotowski; M G Nadkarni; K P S Bhaskara Rao

    2003-02-01

    We discuss subsets of $\\mathbb{R}^n$ such that every real valued function on is of the form $$f(x_1, x_2, \\ldots , x_n) = u_1(x_1) + u_2(x_2) + \\cdots + u_n (x_n),$$ and the related concepts and situations in analysis.

  10. X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome systems in the Neotropical Gymnotiformes electric fish of the genus Brachyhypopomus

    Adauto Lima Cardoso

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Several types of sex chromosome systems have been recorded among Gymnotiformes, including male and female heterogamety, simple and multiple sex chromosomes, and different mechanisms of origin and evolution. The X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y systems identified in three species of this order are considered homoplasic for the group. In the genus Brachyhypopomus, only B. gauderio presented this type of system. Herein we describe the karyotypes of Brachyhypopomus pinnicaudatus and B. n. sp. FLAV, which have an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system that evolved via fusion between an autosome and the Y chromosome. The morphology of the chromosomes and the meiotic pairing suggest that the sex chromosomes of B. gauderio and B. pinnicaudatus have a common origin, whereas in B . n. sp. FLAV the sex chromosome system evolved independently. However, we cannot discard the possibility of common origin followed by distinct processes of differentiation. The identification of two new karyotypes with an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y sex chromosome system in Gymnotiformes makes it the most common among the karyotyped species of the group. Comparisons of these karyotypes and the evolutionary history of the taxa indicate independent origins for their sex chromosomes systems. The recurrent emergence of the X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y system may represent sex chromosomes turnover events in Gymnotiformes.

  11. Thoracic spine x-ray

    Vertebral radiography; X-ray - spine; Thoracic x-ray; Spine x-ray; Thoracic spine films; Back films ... care provider's office. You will lie on the x-ray table in different positions. If the x-ray ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... the most commonly performed x-ray exams and use a very small dose of ionizing radiation to ... to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit ...

  13. Dental x-rays

    X-ray - teeth; Radiograph - dental; Bitewings; Periapical film; Panoramic film ... dentist's office. There are many types of dental x-rays. Some are: Bitewing Periapical Palatal (also called occlusal) ...

  14. HISTIOCYTOSIS X: CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS

    E. Y. Ponomareva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Two clinical cases of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis X have been analyzed demonstrating lung and other inner organ pathology, common clinical and X-ray features but different life prognosis.

  15. HISTIOCYTOSIS X: CLINICAL OBSERVATIONS

    E. Y. Ponomareva; A. P. Rebrov; E. E. Archangelskaja; A. A. Roshchina; R. N. Steshenko; A. S. Bukia; N. V. Dvornikova; N. N. Moskaleva

    2014-01-01

    Two clinical cases of pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis X have been analyzed demonstrating lung and other inner organ pathology, common clinical and X-ray features but different life prognosis.

  16. X-ray (image)

    X-rays are a form of ionizing radiation that can penetrate the body to form an image on ... will be shades of gray depending on density. X-rays can provide information about obstructions, tumors, and other ...

  17. National Fragile X Foundation

    ... Anthology Advocacy National Fragile X Foundation Advocacy Day STAR: Local Advocacy Agenda and Accomplishments Community Events International ... Making Sense of the Alphabet Soup Teaching Your Child to Ask for Something Behavior and Fragile X ...

  18. X-ray apparatus

    A diagnostic x-ray device, readily convertible between conventional radiographic and tomographic operating modes, is described. An improved drive system interconnects and drives the x-ray source and the imaging device through coordinated movements for tomography

  19. Targeting fragile X

    Gantois, Ilse; Kooy, R. Frank

    2002-01-01

    Ten years after the identification of the gene responsible for fragile X syndrome, recent studies have revealed a list of mRNAs bound by the fragile X gene product and have identified specific sequences required for the interaction between the fragile X protein and its targets. These results are a breakthrough in understanding why absence of the fragile X protein leads to mental retardation.

  20. X-Rays

    X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your ... different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, ... you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the most commonly performed ...

  2. X-Ray Imaging

    ... Brain Surgery Imaging Clinical Trials Basics Patient Information X-Ray Imaging Print This Page X-ray imaging is perhaps the most familiar type of imaging. Images produced by X-rays are due to the different absorption rates of ...

  3. Fragile X Syndrome Overview

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Fragile X Syndrome: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share ... menu on the left. ​ Common Name Fragile X syndrome or Fragile X Medical or Scientific Names Martin-Bell syndrome Last ...

  4. Effect of Polynomial Identity x[x, y] = (x[x, y]n in the Commutativity of Rings

    Z. Tabatabaei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper we study some sufficient conditions for commutativity of a ring according to Jacobsons’idea. Jacobson proved that if R is a ring satisfying x n = x (n > 1 for each x ∈ R, then R is commutative. In this paper, we show that R is commutative if for every x, y ∈ R there exists a positive integer n = n(x, y such that (x[x, y]n = x[x, y

  5. Cuando x = x, no significa lo mismo

    López, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Uno de los aspectos esenciales en el trabajo en matemáticas es la aceptación del principio de identidad, esto es X=X. Este principio se ha considerado, en los ámbitos educativos como verdad absoluta. Desde una perspectiva psicogenética se asume que los jóvenes acceden a éste como producto del desarrollo cognitivo (Piaget, 1985). Sin embargo, ante posturas filosóficas como la falibilista y dialógica (Ernest (2004), Sierpinska y Lerman (1996), este principio puede ser reconsiderado. La inten...

  6. BMW X6 HYBRID

    2010-01-01

    X6已然很怪异,混合动力的X6就更折腾了。SUV在操控上本来就有别于轿车,术业有专攻,但宝马偏偏要把SUV的越野能力弱化,让其拥有上佳的操控性能,于是就有了X5。这也罢了,毕竟X5拥有不错的驾驶乐趣,也有SUV的实用空间,但宝马还非要在X5平台上开发出一个X6,把SUV的实用性彻底废掉。

  7. X-Ray Polarimetry

    Kaaret, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We review the basic principles of X-ray polarimetry and current detector technologies based on the photoelectric effect, Bragg reflection, and Compton scattering. Recent technological advances in high-spatial-resolution gas-filled X-ray detectors have enabled efficient polarimeters exploiting the photoelectric effect that hold great scientific promise for X-ray polarimetry in the 2-10 keV band. Advances in the fabrication of multilayer optics have made feasible the construction of broad-band ...

  8. X-tree

    Keim, Daniel A.; Bustos Cárdenas, Benjamin Eugenio; Berchtold, Stefan; Kriegel, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    The X-tree (eXtended node tree) [1] is a spatial access method [2] that supports efficient query processing for high-dimensional data. It supports not only point data but also extended spatial data. The X-tree provides overlap-free split whenever it is possible without allowing the tree to degenerate; otherwise, the X-tree uses extended variable size directory nodes, so-called supernodes. The X-tree may be seen as a hybrid of a linear array-like and a hierarchical R-tree-like directory.

  9. Metabolic Engineering X Conference

    Flach, Evan [American Institute of Chemical Engineers

    2015-05-07

    The International Metabolic Engineering Society (IMES) and the Society for Biological Engineering (SBE), both technological communities of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), hosted the Metabolic Engineering X Conference (ME-X) on June 15-19, 2014 at the Westin Bayshore in Vancouver, British Columbia. It attracted 395 metabolic engineers from academia, industry and government from around the globe.

  10. X-ray interferometers

    An improved type of amplitude-division x-ray interferometer is described. The wavelength at which the interferometer can operate is variable, allowing the instrument to be used to measure x-ray wavelength, and the angle of inclination is variable for sample investigation. (U.K.)

  11. P2X receptors.

    North, R Alan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2X receptors have a widespread tissue distribution. On some smooth muscle cells, P2X receptors mediate the fast excitatory junction potential that leads to depolarization and contraction. In the central nervous system, activation of P2X receptors allows calcium to enter neurons and this can evoke slower neuromodulatory responses such as the trafficking of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. In primary afferent nerves, P2X receptors are critical for the initiation of action potentials when they respond to ATP released from sensory cells such as taste buds, chemoreceptors or urothelium. In immune cells, activation of P2X receptors triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β. The development of selective blockers of different P2X receptors has led to clinical trials of their effectiveness in the management of cough, pain, inflammation and certain neurodegenerative diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377721

  12. X-ray - skeleton

    A skeletal x-ray is an imaging test used to look at the bones. It is used to detect fractures , tumors, or ... in the health care provider's office by an x-ray technologist. You will lie on a table or ...

  13. Extremity x-ray

    An extremity x-ray is an image of the hands, wrist, feet, ankle, leg, thigh, forearm humerus or upper arm, hip, shoulder ... term "extremity" often refers to a human limb. X-rays are a form of radiation that passes through ...

  14. X Python reference manual

    Mullender, K.S.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manu

  15. 714-X (PDQ)

    ... only. The main ingredient of 714-X is camphor , which comes from the wood and bark of the camphor tree (see Question 1 ). It is claimed that ... 714-X is made by combining chemicals with camphor , a natural substance that comes from the wood ...

  16. Dental x-rays

    ... addition, many dentists are taking x-rays using digital technology. The image runs through a computer. The amount of radiation given off during the procedure is less than traditional methods. Other types of dental x-rays can create a 3-D picture ...

  17. X Power Tools

    Tyler, Chris

    2008-01-01

    This book puts you in charge of the most flexible and adaptable graphical interface in the computer industry. The X Window System underlies graphical desktops on Linux and Unix systems, and supports advanced features of modern graphics cards. This unique inside look at X gives you a lot of useful ways to harness the power of this system effectively.

  18. Fragile X syndrome.

    Wiebe, E.; A. Wiebe

    1994-01-01

    Fragile X syndrome is the most common form of inherited mental retardation. Only recently has it been possible to detect all carriers and transmitters. We review the syndrome and discuss the pedigree of a large fragile X family. Family doctors should identify cases in their practices so genetic counseling can be offered to the families.

  19. Congenital histiocytosis X

    Congenital histiocytosis X involving multiple organs is a rare disease that causes rapid mortality in intrauterine and neanatal life. The diagnosis of histiocytosis X (Litterer-Siwe disease should be considered in a neonate with vesiculated crusting skin lesions. We present clinical, radiographic and histopathological findings in a neonate with congenital histiocytosis who died of respiratory failure due to diffuse infilteration of lungs with histiocytic cells. Congenital histiocytosis X is a rare form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. We report on an infant with congenital histiocytosis X who died within 10 days of birth due to diffuse infiltration of multiple organ systems with Langerhans histiocytic cells. To our knowledge, this is the first case of the radiographic illustration of progressive lung involvement in an infant with histiocytosis X. (orig.)

  20. X-ray crystallography

    2001-01-01

    X-rays diffracted from a well-ordered protein crystal create sharp patterns of scattered light on film. A computer can use these patterns to generate a model of a protein molecule. To analyze the selected crystal, an X-ray crystallographer shines X-rays through the crystal. Unlike a single dental X-ray, which produces a shadow image of a tooth, these X-rays have to be taken many times from different angles to produce a pattern from the scattered light, a map of the intensity of the X-rays after they diffract through the crystal. The X-rays bounce off the electron clouds that form the outer structure of each atom. A flawed crystal will yield a blurry pattern; a well-ordered protein crystal yields a series of sharp diffraction patterns. From these patterns, researchers build an electron density map. With powerful computers and a lot of calculations, scientists can use the electron density patterns to determine the structure of the protein and make a computer-generated model of the structure. The models let researchers improve their understanding of how the protein functions. They also allow scientists to look for receptor sites and active areas that control a protein's function and role in the progress of diseases. From there, pharmaceutical researchers can design molecules that fit the active site, much like a key and lock, so that the protein is locked without affecting the rest of the body. This is called structure-based drug design.

  1. X-ray nanotomography

    Sasov, Alexander

    2004-10-01

    A compact laboratory x-ray "nano-CT" scanner has been created for 3D non-invasive imaging with 150-200 nanometers 3D spatial resolution, using advanced x-ray technologies and specific physical phenomena for signal detection. This spatial resolution in volume terms is 3 orders better than can be achieved in synchrotron tomography, 5 orders better then in existing laboratory micro-CT instruments and 10-12 orders better in comparison to clinical CT. The instrument employs an x-ray source with a 300-400nm x-ray spot size and uses small-angle scattering to attain a detail detectability of 150-200nm. An object manipulator allows positioning and rotation with an accuracy of 150nm. The x-ray detector is based on an intensified CCD with single-photon sensitivity. A typical acquisition cycle for 3D reconstruction of the full object volume takes from 10 to 60 minutes, with the collection of several hundred angular views. Subsequent volumetric reconstruction produces results as a set of cross sections with isotropic voxel size down to 140 x 140 x 140nm, or as a 3D-model, which can be virtually manipulated and measured. This unique spatial resolution in non-invasive investigations gives previously unattainable 3D images in several application areas, such as composite materials, paper and wood microstructure, biomedical applications and others.

  2. Understanding the internal structures of the $X(4140)$, $X(4274)$, $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$

    Chen, Hua-Xing; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the newly observed $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$ based on the diquark-antidiquark configuration within the framework of QCD sum rules. Both of them may be interpreted as the $D$-wave $cs\\bar{c}\\bar{s}$ tetraquark states of $J^P = 0^+$, but with opposite color structures, which is remarkably similar to the result obtained in Ref. \\cite{Chen:2010ze} that the $X(4140)$ and $X(4274)$ can be both interpreted as the $S$-wave $cs\\bar{c}\\bar{s}$ tetraquark states of $J^P = 1^+$, also with opposite color structures. However, the extracted masses and these suggested assignments to these $X$ states do depend on these running quark masses where $m_s (2 \\mbox{ GeV}) = 95 \\pm 5$ MeV and $m_c (m_c) = 1.23 \\pm 0.09$ GeV. As a byproduct, the masses of the hidden-bottom partner states of the $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$ are extracted to be both around 10.64 GeV, which can be searched for in the $\\Upsilon \\phi$ invariant mass distribution.

  3. From PA(X) to RPAM(X)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    How can we use the well-established Public Awareness of some phenomenon X, i.e. PA(X), to Raise the Public Awareness of the Mathematics of—or within—this X, i.e. RPAM(X)? There are several examples illustrating particular assets for mathematics in this way within such phenomena X. Here we will...

  4. X-ray apparatus

    A patient support system for X-ray equipment in arteriographic studies of the heart is described in detail. The support system has been designed to overcome many of the practical problems encountered in using previous types of arteriographic X-ray equipment. The support system is capable of horizontal movement and, by a series of shafts attached to the main support system, the X-ray source and image intensifier or detector may be rotated through the same angle. The system is highly flexible and details are given of several possible operational modes. (U.K.)

  5. X-ray lasers

    Elton, Raymond C

    2012-01-01

    The first in its field, this book is both an introduction to x-ray lasers and a how-to guide for specialists. It provides new entrants and others interested in the field with a comprehensive overview and describes useful examples of analysis and experiments as background and guidance for researchers undertaking new laser designs. In one succinct volume, X-Ray Lasers collects the knowledge and experience gained in two decades of x-ray laser development and conveys the exciting challenges and possibilities still to come._Add on for longer version of blurb_M>The reader is first introduced

  6. X and Y leadership

    Engelsvoll, Gerd Katrin Hystad; Pedersen, Linda Herwander

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find support for McGregor’s Theory X and Y. Our aim was to investigate whether the relationship between leaders’ X/Y attitude would have a significant impact on employee work behaviour. Further, we wanted to see if this relationship were mediated by an ELMX/SLMX relationship. The surveys were completed by 25 leaders and 91 employees collected among 6 Norwegian organizations. By using self-evaluation questionnaires the leaders were measured on X/Y attitudes, an...

  7. X-Ray Diffraction.

    Smith, D. K.; Smith, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews applications in research and analytical characterization of compounds and materials in the field of X-ray diffraction, emphasizing new developments in applications and instrumentation in both single crystal and powder diffraction. Cites 414 references. (CS)

  8. Medical X-Rays

    ... The Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) publishes Suggested State Regulations for the Control of Radiation , ... eSubmitter Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff - Assembler's Guide to Diagnostic X-Ray Equipment ...

  9. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... also be useful to help diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray requires no special preparation. ...

  10. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... However, it’s important to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny dose of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. ...

  11. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... chest x-ray is used to evaluate the lungs, heart and chest wall and may be used ... diagnose and monitor treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A ...

  12. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Video: Contrast Material Radiology and You Take our survey About this Site ... radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  13. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... of ionizing radiation, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs any risk. For more information about chest x-rays, visit Radiology Info dot org. Thank you for your time! ...

  14. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... Site Index A-Z Spotlight June is Men's Health Month Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids ... to consider the likelihood of benefit to your health. While a chest x-ray use a tiny ...

  15. Project X: Physics Opportunities

    Kronfeld, Andreas S; Al-Binni, Usama; Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Babu, Kaladi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bass, Matthew; Batell, Brian; Baxter, David V; Berezhiani, Zurab; Bergevin, Marc; Bernstein, Robert; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bishai, Mary; Blum, Thomas; Bogacz, S Alex; Brice, Stephen J; Brod, Joachim; Bross, Alan; Buchoff, Michael; Burgess, Thomas W; Carena, Marcela; Castellanos, Luis A; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cherdack, Daniel; Christ, Norman H; Chupp, Tim; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Coloma, Pilar; Coppola, Christopher E; Cowsik, Ramanath; Crabtree, J Allen; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Denisov, Dmitri; deNiverville, Patrick; de Gouvêa, André; Dharmapalan, Ranjan; Dolgov, Alexander; Dvali, Georgi; Eichten, Estia; Engelfried, Jürgen; Ferguson, Phillip D; Gabriel, Tony; Gal, Avraham; Gallmeier, Franz; Ganezer, Kenneth S; Gardner, Susan; Glenzinski, Douglas; Godfrey, Stephen; Golubeva, Elena S; Gori, Stefania; Graves, Van B; Greene, Geoffrey; Griffard, Cory L; Haisch, Ulrich; Handler, Thomas; Hartfiel, Brandon; Hawari, Ayman; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Hill, James E; Huber, Patrick; Jaffe, David E; Johnson, Christian; Kamyshkov, Yuri; Kaplan, Daniel M; Kerbikov, Boris; Kiburg, Brendan; Kirk, Harold G; Klein, Andreas; Knoepfel, Kyle; Kopeliovich, Boris; Kopeliovich, Vladimir; Kopp, Joachim; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kribs, Graham; Lipton, Ronald; Liu, Chen-Yu; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Makins, Naomi C R; McKeen, David; Mills, Geoffrey; Mohapatra, Rabindra; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Mocko, Michael; Muhrer, Guenter; Mumm, Pieter; Okun, Lev; Neuffer, David; Palmer, Mark A; Palmer, Robert; Pattie, Robert W; Phillips, David G; Pronsikh, Vitaly; Pitts, Kevin; Pospelov, Maxim; Quigg, Chris; Ramberg, Erik; Ray, Amlan; Reimer, Paul E; Richards, David G; Ritz, Adam; Roy, Amit; Ruggles, Arthur; Ryne, Robert; Sarkar, Utpal; Saunders, Andy; Semertzidis, Yannis K; Serebrov, Anatoly; Shimizu, Hirohiko; Shrock, Robert; Snopok, Pavel V; Snow, William M; Sikdar, Arindam K; Soha, Aria; Spanier, Stefan; Striganov, Sergei; Tang, Zhaowen; Townsend, Lawrence; Urheim, Jon; Vainshtein, Arkady; Van Kooten, Richard J; Van de Water, Richard; Van de Water, Ruth S; Wehring, Bernard; Whitehead, Lisa; Wilson, Robert J; Worcester, Elizabeth; Young, Albert R; Wester, William C; Zeller, Geralyn

    2013-01-01

    Part 2 of "Project X: Accelerator Reference Design, Physics Opportunities, Broader Impacts". In this Part, we outline the particle-physics program that can be achieved with Project X, a staged superconducting linac for intensity-frontier particle physics. Topics include neutrino physics, kaon physics, muon physics, electric dipole moments, neutron-antineutron oscillations, new light particles, hadron structure, hadron spectroscopy, and lattice-QCD calculations.

  16. Mac OS X Forensics

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  17. X-ray tubes

    An improved form of x-ray tube is described which consists of a rotatable anode disc and an electron beam source enclosed in an envelope. The beam of electrons strikes the edge of the anode disc at an acute angle, producing x-rays which are transmitted through a window in the envelope. To improve performance and life of the anode disc it is additionally reciprocated back and forth along its axis of rotation. Dimensions are specified. (U.K.)

  18. Small-x physics

    Mueller, A.H. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    After a brief review of the kinematics of deep inelastic lepton-proton scattering, the parton model is described. Small-x behavior coming from DGLAP evolution and from BFKL evolution is discussed, and the two types of evolution are contrasted and compared. Then a more detailed discussion of BFKL dynamics is given. The phenomenology of small-x physics is discussed with an emphasis on ways in which BFKL dynamics may be discussed and measured. 45 refs., 12 figs.

  19. X Python reference manual

    Mullender, Sjoerd

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the built-in types, exceptions, and functions of the X windows extension to Python. It assumes basic knowledge about the Python language and access to the X windows documentation. For an informal introduction to the language, see the Python Tutorial. The Python Reference Manual gives a more formal definition of the language. The Python Library Reference describes the built-in and standard modules of Python. This document can be seen as en extension to that document.

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small ... X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose ... limitations of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  3. Lumbosacral spine x-ray

    X-ray - lumbosacral spine; X-ray - lower spine ... The test is done in a hospital x-ray department or your health care provider's office by an x-ray technician. You will be asked to lie on the x-ray table ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very ... of Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive ...

  5. Abdomen X-Ray (Radiography)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Abdomen Abdominal x-ray uses a very ... of an abdominal x-ray? What is abdominal x-ray? An x-ray (radiograph) is a noninvasive medical ...

  6. X-ray laser

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  7. Optimizing X Center experience : case study: Company X

    Lehtinen, Timo

    2014-01-01

    This Master’s thesis explores customer experience management and customer experience optimization. The aim is to optimize customer experience in the case company’s X Center. The thesis studies customer experience and customer experience management as a core factor in holding successful X Center events. The study is conducted in cooperation with Company X. Company X launched a new concept called X Center in Finland 2011. X Center is a place where custom-ers and company representatives can ...

  8. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt

    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  9. X-ray bursts observed with JEM-X

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Chenevez, Jérôme; Lund, Niels;

    2006-01-01

    We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found.......We report on the search for X-ray bursts in the JEM-X X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL during the first two years of operations. More than 350 bursts from 25 different type-I X-ray burst sources were found....

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... around or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no ... might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray technologist ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  13. Features of Fragile X Syndrome

    ... Figuring Out CGG Repeats! Donate | Print Fragile X Syndrome Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetic condition that causes ... health concerns associated with the condition. Features of Fragile X Syndrome in Males Read our Story The majority of ...

  14. Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Fragile X Syndrome: Other FAQs Skip sharing on social media links ... Are there specific disorders or conditions associated with Fragile X syndrome? Among the other conditions associated with Fragile X ...

  15. X-ray Pulsars

    Walter, Roland

    2016-01-01

    X-ray pulsars shine thanks to the conversion of the gravitational energy of accreted material to X-ray radiation. The accretion rate is modulated by geometrical and hydrodynamical effects in the stellar wind of the pulsar companions and/or by instabilities in accretion discs. Wind driven flows are highly unstable close to neutron stars and responsible for X-ray variability by factors $10^3$ on time scale of hours. Disk driven flows feature slower state transitions and quasi periodic oscillations related to orbital motion and precession or resonance. On shorter time scales, and closer to the surface of the neutron star, X-ray variability is dominated by the interactions of the accreting flow with the spinning magnetosphere. When the pulsar magnetic field is large, the flow is confined in a relatively narrow accretion column, whose geometrical properties drive the observed X-ray emission. In low magnetized systems, an increasing accretion rate allows the ignition of powerful explosive thermonuclear burning at t...

  16. X-2 in flight

    1956-01-01

    This inflight photograph of the X-2 (46-674) shows the twin set of shock-diamonds, characteristic of supersonic conditions in the exhaust plume from the two-chamber rocket engine. The Curtiss-Wright XLR-25 rocket engine caused one of several problems that delayed flight of the X-2. At one point, people in the project suggested its replacement. It was the first 'man-rated' (in the terminology of the day) rocket engine that was throttleable, and the technology was not yet mature. Other problems included the X-2's landing gear and the replacement of the planned electronic flight controls with a conventional hydromechanical system like that used in the F-86. The X-2 was a swept-wing, rocket-powered aircraft designed to fly faster than Mach 3 (three times the speed of sound). It was built for the U.S. Air Force by the Bell Aircraft Company, Buffalo, New York. The X-2 was flown to investigate the problems of aerodynamic heating as well as stability and control effectiveness at high altitudes and high speeds (in excess of Mach 3). Bell aircraft built two X-2 aircraft. These were constructed of K-monel (a copper and nickel alloy) for the fuselage and stainless steel for the swept wings and control surfaces. The aircraft had ejectable nose capsules instead of ejection seats because the development of ejection seats had not reached maturity at the time the X-2 was conceived. The X-2 ejection canopy was successfully tested using a German V-2 rocket. The X-2 used a skid-type landing gear to make room for more fuel. The airplane was air launched from a modified Boeing B-50 Superfortress Bomber. X-2 Number 1 made its first unpowered glide flight on Aug. 5, 1954, and made a total of 17 (4 glide and 13 powered) flights before it was lost Sept. 27, 1956. The pilot on Flight 17, Capt. Milburn Apt, had flown the aircraft to a record speed of Mach 3.2 (2,094 mph), thus becoming the first person to exceed Mach 3. During that last flight, inertial coupling occurred and the pilot was

  17. TerraSAR-X

    Fabrizio Bernardini

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available TerraSAR-X è sviluppato ed operato dall’Agenzia Spaziale Tedesca (DLR, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e da EADS Astrium con l’obiettivo di essere il primo satellite per osservazione della Terra (EO in grado di fornire globalmente e con continuità dati radar in banda X. La tecnologia Radar ad Apertura Sintetica (SAR realizzata in banda X, cioè a frequenze superiori rispetto a quelle delle bande C ed L usate in precedenza in altre missioni, permetterà di fornire servizi con risoluzioni variabili tra 1 e 16 metri.

  18. X-ray astronomy

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  19. The products δ2(x), δ(x).X-n, θ(x).X-n, etc. in the class of the asymptotic functions

    Several products like δn(x), δ(x).θ(x), δ(m)(x).X-n, θ(x).X-n, etc., where δ(x), θ(x), X-n, etc. are the kernels of the corresponding Schwartz distributions, have been studied in the framewotk of the class of the asymptotic functions Fo introduced in a previous paper. In some particular cases many formulae are derived and several examples are presented. The work is of mathematical type but its motivations lie in some problems of the quantum theory

  20. HEPiX Summary

    CERN. Geneva; BONFILLOU, Eric; Dr. WIEBALCK, Arne

    2015-01-01

    The HEPiX forum brings together worldwide Information Technology staff, including system administrators, system engineers, and managers from the High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics laboratories and institutes, to foster a learning and sharing experience between sites facing scientific computing and data challenges. Participating sites include BNL, CERN, DESY, FNAL, IN2P3, INFN, JLAB, NIKHEF, RAL, SLAC, TRIUMF and many others.

  1. Mouse-X

    Tagg, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Mouse-X is a short Science Fiction film completed in 2014. It explores identity and reality through a powerful short story about a man trapped in a building with a thousand clones of himself, begging the question, 'Who are you, if you're not the only you?'

  2. X-ray apparatus

    The invention discloses an X-ray apparatus that can be used for tomography with the aid of a computer. With this apparatus plus computer, it is possible to quickly achieve the required edge values whereby the influence of the movement is diminished

  3. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ultrasound Video: Angioplasty & vascular stenting Video: Arthrography Radiology and You About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is ... radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript Welcome to Radiology Info dot org! Hello, I’m Dr. Geoffrey ...

  4. Medical x-ray

    This book describes the fundamental subject about medical radiography. It is a multidisciplinary field that requires cross professional input from scientists, engineers and medical doctors. However, it is presented in simple language to suit different levels of readers from x-ray operators and radiographers to physists, general practitioners and radiology specialists.The book is written in accordance to the requirements of the standard syllabus approved by the Ministry of Health Malaysia for the training of medical x-ray operator and general practitioners. In general, the content is not only designed to provide relevant and essential subject for related professionals in medical radiological services such as x-ray operator, radiographer and radiologists, but also to address those in associated radiological services including nurses, medical technologists and physicists.The book is organized and arranged sequentially into 3 parts for easy reference: Radiation safety; X-ray equipment and associated facilities; Radiography practices. With proper grasping of all these parts, the radiological services could be provided with confident and the highest professional standard. Thus, medical imaging with highest quality that can provide useful diagnostic information at minimum doses and at cost effective could be assured

  5. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript ... Recently posted: Focused Ultrasound for Uterine Fibroids Dementia Video: General Ultrasound Video: Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Radiology and ...

  6. Chest X-Ray

    Full Text Available ... this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Image/Video Gallery Your radiologist explains chest x-ray. Transcript ... time! Spotlight Recently posted: Pediatric MRI Intravascular Ultrasound Video: Chest CT Video:Thyroid Ultrasound Video: Head CT ...

  7. X(1835): A Possible Baryonium

    ZHU Shi-Lin; GAO Chong-Shou

    2006-01-01

    We point out that the large p(p) coupling of X(1835) and the suppression of the three-body strange final states strongly indicate that X(1835) may be a p(p) baryonium. We also point out that the branching ratio of X(1835) →ηππ should be bigger than that of X(1835) →η′ππ. We suggest BES search X(1835) in the ηππ channel Finally, X(1835)may be used a tetraquark generator if X(1835) is really established as a baryonium state.

  8. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  9. X-ray astronomical spectroscopy

    Holt, Stephen S.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of the Goddard group to the history of X-ray astronomy are numerous and varied. One role that the group has continued to play involves the pursuit of techniques for the measurement and interpretation of the X-ray spectra of cosmic sources. The latest development is the selection of the X-ray microcalorimeter for the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) study payload. This technology is likely to revolutionize the study of cosmic X-ray spectra.

  10. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of 224Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides

  11. Bestimmung der Ionisationsenergie von Actinium und Ultraspurenanalyse von Plutonium mit resonanter Ionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS)

    Waldek, Achim Marcus

    2001-01-01

    ZusammenfassungDie Resonanzionisationsmassenspektrometrie (RIMS) verbindet hohe Elementselektivität mit guter Nachweiseffizienz. Aufgrund dieser Eigenschaften ist die Methode für Ultraspurenanalyse und Untersuchungen an seltenen oder schwer handhabbaren Elementen gut geeignet. Für RIMS werden neutrale Atome mit monochromatischem Laserlicht ein- oder mehrfach resonant auf energetisch hoch liegende Niveaus angeregt und anschließend durch einen weiteren Laserstrahl oder durch ein elektrisches Fe...

  12. Radium-228 analysis of natural waters by Cherenkov counting of Actinium-228

    The activities of 228Ra in natural waters were determined by the Cherenkov counting of the daughter nuclide 228Ac. The radium was pre-concentrated on MnO2 and the radium purified via ion exchange and, after a 2-day period of incubation to allow for secular equilibrium between the parent-daughter 228Ra(228Ac), the daughter nuclide 228Ac was isolated by ion exchange according to the method of Nour et al. [2004. Radium-228 determination of natural waters via concentration on manganese dioxide and separation using Diphonix ion exchange resin. Appl. Radiat. Isot. 61, 1173-1178]. The Cherenkov photons produced by 228Ac were counted directly without the addition of any scintillation reagents. The optimum Cherenkov counting window, sample volume, and vial type were determined experimentally to achieve optimum Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and lowest background count rates. An optimum detection efficiency of 10.9±0.1% was measured for 228Ac by Cherenkov counting with a very low Cherenkov photon background of 0.317±0.013 cpm. The addition of sodium salicylate into the sample counting vial at a concentration of 0.1 g/mL yielded a more than 3-fold increase in the Cherenkov detection efficiency of 228Ac to 38%. Tests of the Cherenkov counting technique were conducted with several water standards of known activity and the results obtained compared closely with a conventional liquid scintillation counting technique. The advantages and disadvantages of Cherenkov counting compared to liquid scintillation counting methods are discussed. Advantages include much lower Cherenkov background count rates and consequently lower minimal detectable activities for 228Ra and no need for expensive environmentally unfriendly liquid scintillation cocktails. The disadvantages of the Cherenkov counting method include the need to measure 228Ac Cherenkov photon detection efficiency and optimum Cherenkov counting volume, which are not at all required when liquid scintillation analysis is used

  13. Actinium: A RESTful Runtime Container for Scriptable Internet of Things Applications

    Kovatsch, Matthias; Lanter, Martin; Duquennoy, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Programming Internet of Things (IoT) applications is challenging because developers have to be knowledgeable in various technical domains, from low-power networking, over embedded operating systems, to distributed algorithms. Hence, it will be challenging to find enough experts to provide software for the vast number of expected devices, which must also be scalable and particularly safe due to the connection to the physical world. To remedy this situation, we propose an architecture that pr...

  14. New method for large scale production of medically applicable Actinium-225 and Radium-223

    Alpha-emitters (211At, 212Bi, 213Bi, 223Ra, 225Ac) are promising for targeted radiotherapy of cancer. Only two alpha decays near a cell membrane result in 50% death of cancer cell and only a single decay inside the cell is required for this. 225Ac may be used either directly or as a mother radionuclide in 213Bi isotope generator. Production of 225Ac is provided by three main suppliers - Institute for Transuranium Elements in Germany, Oak Ridge National Laboratory in USA and Institute of Physics and Power Engineering in Obninsk, Russia. The current worldwide production of 225Ac is approximately 1.7 Ci per year that corresponds to only 100-200 patients that could be treated annually. The common approach for 225Ac production is separation from mother 229Th or irradiation of 226Ra with protons in a cyclotron. Both the methods have some practical limitations to be applied routinely. 225Ac can be also produced by irradiation of natural thorium with medium energy protons . Cumulative cross sections of 225Ac, 227Ac, 227Th, 228Th formations have been obtained recently. Thorium targets (1-9 g) were irradiated by 114-91 MeV proton beam (1-50 μA) at INR linear accelerator. After dissolution in 8 M HNO3 + 0.004 M HF thorium was removed by double LLX by HDEHP in toluene (1:1). Ac and REE were pre-concentrated and separated from Ra and most fission products by DGA-Resin (Triskem). After washing out by 0.01 M HNO3 Ac was separated from REE by TRU Resin (Triskem) in 3 M HNO3 media. About 6 mCi 225Ac were separated in hot cell with chemical yield 85%. The method may be upscaled for production of Ci amounts of the radionuclide. The main impurity is 227Ac (0.1% at the EOB) but it does not hinder 225Ac from being used for medical 225Ac/213Bi generators. (author)

  15. Synthesis of chelating agents for actinium 225 complexation and its application in radioimmunotherapy

    Immunotherapy with radiolabeled antibodies should allow fairly specific targeting of certain cancers. However, iodine 131 may not be the best isotope for tumor therapy because of its limited specific activity, low beta-energy, relatively long half life and strong gamma emission. Another approach to improve therapeutic efficacy is the use of replacement isotopes with better physical properties. Chelator that can hold radio-metals with high stability under physiological conditions are essential to avoid excessive damage to non-target cells; Moreover, the development of new bifunctional chelating agents is essential for this purpose. Accordingly, our efforts have been directed, for several years, to the synthesis of original chelating agents likely to form stable complexes in vivo with the numerous potential candidates for such applications. Therefore, we have developed a new simple and efficient synthesis pathway of 2-(4-iso-thio-cyanate-benzyl)-1,4,7,10,13,16- hexa-aza-cyclo-hexadecane- 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexa-acetic acid, though functionalized on the cycle by a termination allowed coupling to an antibody or any other biological substance such as a hapten. (author)

  16. Pyroelectric x-ray detectors and x-ray pyrometers

    This paper discusses pyroelectric detectors which are very promising x-ray detectors for intense pulsed x-ray/γ-ray measurements and can be used as x-ray pyrometers. They are fast, passive, and inherently flat in spectral response for low energy x-rays. The authors report tests of LiTaO3, Sr.5Ba.5Nb2O6 and LiNbO3 detectors at Nova laser with 1 ns low energy x-rays and at Zapp Z-pinch machine with 100 ns x-rays. The temporal and spectral responses are discussed

  17. Pyroelectric x-ray detectors and x-ray pyrometers

    Pyroelectric detectors are very promising x-ray detectors for intense pulsed x-ray/γ-ray measurements and can be used as x-ray pyrometers. They are fast, passive, and inherently flat in spectral response for low-energy x rays. We report our tests of LiTaO3 detectors at Nova laser with 1-ns low-energy x rays and at Zapp Z-pinch machine with 100-ns x rays. The temporal and spectral responses are discussed

  18. X-ray microtomography

    In this paper the authors describe the application of a new high-resolution X-ray tomographic microscope to the study of porous media. The microscope was designed to exploit the properties of a synchrotron X-ray source to perform three dimensional tomography on millimeter sized objects with micron resolution and has been used in materials science studies with both synchrotron and conventional and synchrotron sources will be compared. In this work the authors have applied the microscope to measure the three dimensional structure of fused bead packs and berea sandstones with micron resolution and have performed preliminary studies of flow in these media with the microscope operated in a digital subtraction radiography mode. Computer graphics techniques have been applied to the data to visually display the structure of the pore body system. Tomographic imaging after flow experiments should detect the structure of the oil-water interface in the pore network and this work is ongoing

  19. X-ray generators

    Volume 4 provides a comparative survey on generators for stationary applications as available on the German market. It provides decision-making tools, physical characteristics, suggestions for radiation protection and for safe appliance operation as well as a concept for inspections all of which have been developed jointly by physicians of various specialities, physicists, engineers, business men, hospital experts and medicotechnical X-ray staff on the basis of a well-tried working concept. The systematic representation of correlations relevant to decision-making processes is based on a profile of technico-physical characteristics (standard product information) which was established by way of interdisciplinary dialog and which will enable any hospital or clinic to easily equip its X-ray department in an economic and purposeful way. The information on device data, device descriptions and market survey furnish the data tested by the manufacturers without guarantee and subject to correction. (orig./HP)

  20. X-ray lithography

    An invention relating to the development of photo-resists used in X-ray lithography is described. A COP resist which has been exposed to X-ray radiation, is developed with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) developer and an ethanol solvent. The resist is first developed in a strong developing solution and then with a weaker developer whose concentration is slightly above that required to obtain complete development. Preferably the resist is exposed so as to obtain about a fifty per cent developed thickness and the developing is carried out in steps, the first with a concentration of 5:1.8 (MEK to ethanol) for five seconds, the second using concentrations of 5:1.8 and 5:2.7 for ten seconds and the third with a concentration of 5:2.7 for five seconds. (author)

  1. What is Team X?

    Warfield, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Team X is a concurrent engineering team for rapid design and analysis of space mission concepts. It was developed in 1995 by JPL to reduce study time and cost. More than 1100 studies have been completed It is institutionally endorsed and it has been emulated by many institutions. In Concurrent Engineering (i.e., Parallel) diverse specialists work in real time, in the same place, with shared data, to yield an integrated design

  2. Mac OS X

    Ma, I

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Apple Computer has just released its new operating system for the Macintosh Computer OSX, which has been called "the next generation" of computer operating systems. This session will demonstrate the features of the new operating system and compare it to previous operating systems. Details: Mac OS X is a super-modern operating system that combines the power and stability of UNIX with the legendary simplicity and elegance of the Macintosh. Key Features Aqua...

  3. 10x10

    10x10 collects personal essays by ten leading contemporary social science scholars on the ten works they each find have formed their own academic development the most. Based on the insights and experiences of people who have formed their various fields in important ways, it offers personal reviews....... These eminent scholars here describe in their own words what made a difference for them, and why the rest of us should stand up, take notice, and read these books too....

  4. X-ray diffraction

    We have been interested in structural elucidation by x-ray diffraction of compounds of biological interest. Understanding exactly how atoms are arranged in three-dimensional arrays as molecules can help explain the relationship between structure and functions. The species investigated may vary in size and shape; our recent studies included such diverse substances as antischistosomal drugs, a complex of cadmium with nucleic acid base, nitrate salts of adenine, and proteins

  5. X-chromosome workshop.

    Paterson, A D

    1998-01-01

    Researchers presented results of ongoing research to the X-chromosome workshop of the Fifth World Congress on Psychiatric Genetics, covering a wide range of disorders: X-linked infantile spasms; a complex phenotype associated with deletions of Xp11; male homosexuality; degree of handedness; bipolar affective disorder; schizophrenia; childhood onset psychosis; and autism. This report summarizes the presentations, as well as reviewing previous studies. The focus of this report is on linkage findings for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder from a number of groups. For schizophrenia, low positive lod scores were obtained for markers DXS991 and DXS993 from two studies, although the sharing of alleles was greatest from brother-brother pairs in one study, and sister-sister in the other. Data from the Irish schizophrenia study was also submitted, with no strong evidence for linkage on the X chromosome. For bipolar disease, following the report of a Finnish family linked to Xq24-q27, the Columbia group reported some positive results for this region from 57 families, however, another group found no evidence for linkage to this region. Of interest, is the clustering of low positive linkage results that point to regions for possible further study. PMID:9686435

  6. The $X(4140)$, $X(4274)$, $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$ in the relativized quark model

    Lü, Qi-Fang

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the masses of $cs \\bar c \\bar s$ tetraquark states in a diquark-antidiquark picture employing the relativized quark model proposed by Godfrey and Isgur. Only the antitriplet diquark states in color space are calculated. The diquark masses are obtained with the relativized potential firstly, and then the diquark and antidiquark are treated as the usual antiquark and quark, respectively, and the masses of the tetraquark states are obtained by solving the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation with the relativized potential between the diquark and antidiquark. The theoretical uncertainties induced by screening effects are also taken into account. It is found that the resonance of $X(4140)$ can be regarded as the $cs \\bar c \\bar s$ tetraquark ground states, and the $X(4700)$ can be assigned as the $2S$ excited tetraquark state. When the internal excited diquarks are taken into account, the resonance of $X(4500)$ can be explained as the tetraquark composed of one $2S$ scalar diquark and one scalar antidiquark. In...

  7. Fragile X Syndrome

    Wilmar Saldarriaga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X Syndrome (FXS is a genetic disease due to a CGG trinucleotide expansion, named full mutation (greater than 200 CGG repeats, in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene locus Xq27.3; which leads to an hypermethylated region in the gene promoter therefore silencing it and lowering the expression levels of the fragile X mental retardation 1, a protein involved in synaptic plasticity and maturation.  Individuals with FXS present with intellectual disability, autism, hyperactivity, long face, large or prominent ears and macroorchidism at puberty and thereafter. Most of the young children with FXS will present with language delay, sensory hyper arousal and anxiety. Girls are less affected than boys, only 25% have intellectual disability. Given the genomic features of the syndrome, there are patients with a number of triplet repeats between 55 and 200, known as premutation carriers. Most carriers have a normal IQ but some have developmental problems. The diagnosis of FXS has evolved from karyotype with special culture medium, to molecular techniques that are more sensitive and specific including PCR and Southern Blot. During the last decade, the advances in the knowledge of FXS, has led to the development of investigations on pharmaceutical management or targeted treatments for FXS. Minocycline and sertraline have shown efficacy in children.

  8. 由函数f(x)=x+k/x(k>0)引出的高考题

    郑萍

    2011-01-01

    函数一直是高考的重点和热点,在近年全国和各地方试卷中,多次出现应用函数f(x)=x+k/x(k>0)性质的考题(特别是应用题)应引起重视.对函数f(x)=x+k/x(k>0):(1)定义域:x∈R(x≠0)(2)奇偶性:对任意x(x≠0),f(-x)=-x+k/-x=-f (x)-X∴f(x)=x+k/x为奇函数(3)最值:x∈R+,f(x)=x+k/x≥2(√k)当且仅当x=k/x即x=-(√k)时,f(x)max=-2(√k)(4)单调性:我们只研究x∈R+情况函数f(x)=x+k/x在区间(0,(√k))上单调递减,在区间[(√k),+∞]单调递增证法一(定义法):设x1x2∈(0,(√k)),且x1>x2则f(x2)-f(x1)=(x2+k/x2)-(x1+k/x1)=(x1/x2)/(x1x2)(k—x2x1)∴x1-x2< 0∵x2>x1>0 ∴(x1-x2)/(x1x2)<0且0<x1<x2<(√k) ∴x1x2<k,即k-x1x2>0∴f (x2)-f(x1)<0因此函数f(x)=x+k/x(k>0)在区间(0,(√k))上单调递减.同理:f(x)=x+k/x1在区间[(√k),+∞]上单调递增.

  9. X ray Production. Chapter 5

    The differential absorption of X rays in tissues and organs, owing to their atomic composition, is the basis for the various imaging methods used in diagnostic radiology. The principles in the production of X rays have remained the same since their discovery. However, much refinement has gone into the design of X ray tubes to achieve the performance required for today’s radiological examinations. In this chapter, an outline of the principles of X ray production and a characterization of the radiation output of X ray tubes will be given. The basic processes producing X rays are dealt with in Section 1.4

  10. Constraint on $\\Delta g(x)$ at large $x$

    Hirai, M; Kumano, S.; Saito, N

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the polarized gluon distribution \\Delta g(x) by a global analysis of current DIS data and the \\pi^0 data from RHIC-Spin experiments. The \\pi^0 data provide a strong constraint on \\Delta g(x), so that its uncertainty is reduced. Furthermore, new DIS data of COMPASS and HERMES play an important role in determining \\Delta g(x) at large x.

  11. ER22x: JusticeX: Spring 2013 Course Report

    Reich, Blair Justin Fire; Nesterko, Sergiy O; Seaton, Daniel Thomas; Mullaney, Tommy Philip; Waldo, James H.; Chuang, Isaac; Ho, Andrew Dean

    2014-01-01

    ER22x was offered as a HarvardX course in Spring 2013 on edX, a platform for massive open online courses (MOOCs). It was taught by Professor Michael Sandel. The report was prepared by researchers external to the course team, based on an examination of the courseware, analyses of data collected by the edX platform, and interviews with the course faculty and team members.

  12. JEM-X: Joint European X-ray monitor

    Lund, Niels; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    1998-01-01

    JEM-X is the X-ray monitor for INTEGRAL. It is being built by a large European consortium led by the Danish Space Research Institute. It consists of two identical, independent coded mask X-ray telescopes with an energy span from 3 keV to 60 keV. Each system has a microstrip gas detector and a mask...

  13. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL

    Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt;

    1999-01-01

    The INTEGRAL X-ray monitor, JEM-X, (together with the two gamma ray instruments, SPI and IBIS) will provide simultaneous imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3-60 keV band. The unique angular resolution and low energy response of JEM-X will play a crucial role in the detection and...

  14. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor on INTEGRAL

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Lund, Niels; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt;

    2004-01-01

    The INTEGRAL X-ray monitor, JEM-X, (together with the two gamma ray instruments, SPI and IBIS) provides simultaneous imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3-35 keV band. The good angular resolution and low energy response of JEM-X plays an important role in the detection and...

  15. JEM-X: Joint European X-ray monitor

    Lund, Niels; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    JEM-X is the X-ray monitor for INTEGRAL. It is being built by a large European consortium led by the Danish Space Research Institute. It consists of two identical, independent coded mask X-ray telescopes with an energy span from 3 keV to 60 keV. Each system has a microstrip gas detector and a mask...

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... x-ray machine produces a small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x- ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... foot. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? A bone x-ray is ... care is taken during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ...

  19. Dental X-ray apparatus

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic radiography is described in detail. It comprises a tubular target carrier supporting at its distal end a target with an inclined forward face. Image definition is improved by positioning in the path of the X-rays a window of X-ray transmitting ceramic material, e.g. 90% oxide of Be, or Al, 7% Si02. The target carrier forms a probe which can be positioned in the patient's mouth. X-rays are directed forwardly and laterally of the target to an X-ray film positioned externally. The probe is provided with a detachable sleeve having V-form arms of X-ray opaque material which serve to depress the tongue out of the radiation path and also shield the roof of the mouth and other regions of the head from the X-ray pattern. A cylindrical lead shield defines the X-ray beam angle. (author)

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... position possible that still ensures x-ray image quality. top of page Who interprets the results and ...

  1. Soft X-ray Imaging

    Seely, John

    1999-05-20

    The contents of this report cover the following: (1) design of the soft x-ray telescope; (2) fabrication and characterization of the soft x-ray telescope; and (3) experimental implementation at the OMEGA laser facility.

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is taken during x-ray examinations ... patient's body not being imaged receive minimal radiation exposure. top of page What are the limitations of ...

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems have very controlled x-ray beams and dose ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... fracture. guide orthopedic surgery, such as spine repair/fusion, joint replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, ... and Media Arthritis X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine Radiation Safety Images related to X-ray ( ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... As a result, bones appear white on the x-ray, soft tissue shows up in shades of gray and air appears black. Until recently, x-ray images were maintained on large film sheets (much ...

  6. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ...

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. Imaging with x-rays involves exposing a part of ... oldest and most frequently used form of medical imaging. A bone x-ray makes images of any ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... wrist, arm, elbow, shoulder, spine, pelvis, hip, thigh, knee, leg (shin), ankle or foot. top of page ... the patient standing upright, as in cases of knee x-rays. A portable x-ray machine is ...

  9. Rigidity Transitions in Ternary As_xGe_xSe_1-2x and As_xGe_xS_1-2x Glasses

    Qu, Tao; Boolchand, Punit; Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2003-03-01

    These ternary glasses are of interest for elastic threshold studies because they do not display nanoscale phase separation^1 effects. MDSC measurements on As_xGe_xSe_1-2x glasses have shown^2 T_g(x) to increase monotonically with x, and the non-reversing heat flow, ΔHnr(x), to display a global minimum ˜ 0 in 0.09 < 2.42. The thermally reversing window width in this ternary is large and resides below the Phillips-Thorpe value of rc = 2.4, features that were addressed in ref.1.We have now performed FT-Raman scattering as a function of x, and established compositional trend of corner-sharing mode frequency, ν_cs(x), of Ge(Se_1/2)4 tetrahedra. The results show evidence of a second order elastic threshold near r_c(1) = 2.27(1) and a first order one near r_c(2) = 2.42(1). At the latter, a jump in ν_cs of 0.5(1)cm-1 is observed. The elastic power-law in the intermediate phase yield a value p =0.90(5). Preliminary results on corresponding sulfide glasses have also been obtained. Supported by NSF grant DMR ^_01^_01808 1 P.Boolchand et al. Comptes Rendus ( in press). 2 Y.Wang et al. Europhysics Lett. 52,633(2000).

  10. Nuflood, Version 1.x

    2016-07-29

    NUFLOOD Version 1.x is a surface-water hydrodynamic package designed for the simulation of overland flow of fluids. It consists of various routines to address a wide range of applications (e.g., rainfall-runoff, tsunami, storm surge) and real time, interactive visualization tools. NUFLOOD has been designed for general-purpose computers and workstations containing multi-core processors and/or graphics processing units. The software is easy to use and extensible, constructed in mind for instructors, students, and practicing engineers. NUFLOOD is intended to assist the water resource community in planning against water-related natural disasters.

  11. Matter X waves

    Conti, C; Conti, Claudio; Trillo, Stefano

    2003-01-01

    We predict that an ultra-cold Bose gas in an optical lattice can give rise to a new form of condensation, namely matter X waves. These are non-spreading 3D wave-packets which reflect the symmetry of the Laplacian with a negative effective mass along the lattice direction, and are allowed to exist in the absence of any trapping potential even in the limit of non-interacting atoms. This result has also strong implications for optical propagation in periodic structures

  12. PINS-3X Operations

    E.H. Seabury

    2013-09-01

    Idaho National Laboratory’s (INL’s) Portable Isotopic Neutron Spectroscopy System (PINS) non-intrusively identifies the chemical fill of munitions and sealed containers. The PINS-3X variant of the system is used to identify explosives and uses a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) as the neutron source. Use of the system, including possession and use of the neutron generator and shipment of the system components requires compliance with a number of regulations. This report outlines some of these requirements as well as some of the requirements in using the system outside of INL.

  13. X-ray diffraction

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of literature on X-ray diffraction begins with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips' organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. This is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is divided according to the equipment (cameras, diffractometers, monochromators) and its applications. The applications are subdivided into sections for high/low temperature and pressure, effects due to the equipment, small angle scattering and a part for stress, texture and phase analyses of metals and quantitative analysis of minerals

  14. X-ray detector

    The multicell X-ray or gamma detector is used in computer tomography. To achieve good spatial resolution, the electrode plates are narrowly spaced in each cell and are designed identical over the whole length of the detector group. The uniform spacing and precise check of the angles between the electrodes and accurate control of the dimensions of the whole detector structure are achieved by depositing, in the fabrication process, a viscous, resin type material (e.g., epoxy resin) or glue at selected points between the electrodes and insulators. (ORU)

  15. xPyder

    Pasi, Marco; Tiberti, Matteo; Arrigoni, Alberto;

    2012-01-01

    between one of the most employed molecular graphics systems, PyMOL, and the analysis of dynamical cross-correlation matrices (DCCM). The approach can also be extended, in principle, to matrices including other indexes of communication propensity or intensity between protein residues, as well...... as the persistence of intra- or intermolecular interactions, such as those underlying protein dynamics. The xPyder plugin for PyMOL 1.4 and 1.5 is offered as Open Source software via the GPL v2 license, and it can be found, along with the installation package, the user guide, and examples, at http://linux.btbs.unimib.it/xpyder/....

  16. Verkkomarkkinointisuunnitelma yritykselle X

    Kukkonen, Pyry

    2012-01-01

    Internetin merkitys markkinointikanavana kasvaa jatkuvasti. Yritykset panostavat verkkomarkkinointiin yhä enemmän muiden kanavien kustannuksella. Erityisen tärkeä rooli on sosiaalisen median hyödyntämisellä markkinoinnissa. Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on auttaa yritystä X hyödyntämään internetin mahdollisuuksia markkinoinnissaan aiempaa tehokkaammin. Työ on toiminnallinen opinnäytetyö ja sen tavoitteena on käytännöllinen toiminnan ohje. Tässä työssä tuo käytännöllinen toiminnan ohje o...

  17. Instant Vert.x

    Scarduzio, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. This Instant book will get you started with vert.x. You will learn everything you need to know to become an independent web application developer.This book is great for developers new to asynchronous programming. It's assumed that you will have some experience in JavaScript and the use of terminal and HTML. Many of the same basic concepts of Node.js can be reused.

  18. Statistical (3x+1) -- problem

    Sinai, Yakov

    2002-01-01

    Take an odd number x >0. Then 3x+1 is even and one can find an integer k> 0 so that y= 3x+1/2^k is again odd. We get in this way the mapping T, Tx=y. The paper contains two theorems describing statistical properties of T. The first describes statistical properties of trajectories for large x. The second gives some information about the probability distribution appearing in this problem.

  19. Active X-ray Optics

    Hudec, René; Inneman, A.; Pina, L.; Černá, D.; Tichý, V.

    Bellingham: SPIE, 2013 - (Juha, L.; Bajt, S.; London, R.; Hudec, R.; Pína, L.), 877718/1-877718/7. (Proceedings of SPIE. 8777). ISBN 9780819495792. [Damage to VUV, EUV, and X-ray Optics IV; and EUV and X-ray Optics: Synergy between Laboratory and Space III. Praha (CZ), 15.04.2013-18.04.2013] Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : X-ray optics * active optics * active X-ray optics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  20. On the maps from X(4p) to X(4)

    Jaafar, Samar; Khuri-Makdisi, Kamal

    2007-01-01

    We study pullbacks of modular forms of weight 1 from the modular curve X(4) to the modular curve X(4p), where p is an odd prime. We find the extent to which such modular forms separate points on X(4p). Our main result is that these modular forms give rise to a morphism F from the quotient of X(4p) by a certain involution i to projective space, such that F is a projective embedding of X(4p)/i away from the cusps. We also report on computer calculations regarding products of such modular forms,...

  1. JEM-X inflight performance

    Brandt, Søren Kristian; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Lund, Niels;

    2003-01-01

    We summarize the inflight performance of JEM-X, the X-ray monitor on the INTEGRAL mission during the initial ten months of operations. The JEM-X instruments have now been tuned to stable operational conditions. The performance is found to be close to the pre-launch expectations. The ground...

  2. X-ray Crystallography Facility

    2000-01-01

    Edward Snell, a National Research Council research fellow at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), prepares a protein crystal for analysis by x-ray crystallography as part of NASA's structural biology program. The small, individual crystals are bombarded with x-rays to produce diffraction patterns, a map of the intensity of the x-rays as they reflect through the crystal.

  3. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... lies. A drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . Sometimes the x-ray ... that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath ...

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... x-rays. top of page What does the equipment look like? The equipment typically used for bone x-rays consists of ... and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency ...

  5. Tunable X-ray source

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.

  6. X-Ray Exam: Ankle

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Ankle KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Ankle Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: tobillo What It Is An ankle X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  7. X-Ray Exam: Finger

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Finger KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Finger Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: dedo What It Is A finger X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  8. X-Ray Exam: Wrist

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Wrist KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Wrist Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: muñeca What It Is A wrist X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  9. X-Ray Exam: Hip

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Hip KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Hip Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: cadera What It Is A hip X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  10. X-Ray Exam: Forearm

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Forearm KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Forearm Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: brazo What It Is A forearm X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  11. X-Ray Exam: Pelvis

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Pelvis KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Pelvis Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: pelvis What It Is A pelvis X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  12. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... The x-ray tube is connected to a flexible arm that is extended over the patient while an x-ray film holder or image recording plate is placed beneath the patient. top of page How does the procedure work? X-rays are a form of radiation like ...

  14. SphinX: The Solar Photometer in X-Rays

    Gburek, Szymon; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kordylewski, Zbigniew; Podgorski, Piotr; Plocieniak, Stefan; Siarkowski, Marek; Sylwester, Barbara; Trzebinski, Witold; Kuzin, Sergey V.; Pertsov, Andrey A.; Kotov, Yurij D.; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.

    2013-04-01

    Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) was a spectrophotometer developed to observe the Sun in soft X-rays. The instrument observed in the energy range ≈ 1 - 15 keV with resolution ≈ 0.4 keV. SphinX was flown on the Russian CORONAS-PHOTON satellite placed inside the TESIS EUV and X telescope assembly. The spacecraft launch took place on 30 January 2009 at 13:30 UT at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia. The SphinX experiment mission began a couple of weeks later on 20 February 2009 when the first telemetry dumps were received. The mission ended nine months later on 29 November 2009 when data transmission was terminated. SphinX provided an excellent set of observations during very low solar activity. This was indeed the period in which solar activity dropped to the lowest level observed in X-rays ever. The SphinX instrument design, construction, and operation principle are described. Information on SphinX data repositories, dissemination methods, format, and calibration is given together with general recommendations for data users. Scientific research areas in which SphinX data find application are reviewed.

  15. X pinch a point x-ray source

    X ray emission from an X pinch, a point x-ray source has been studied using a pin-hole camera by a 30 kV, 7.2 μ F capacitor bank. The wires of different material like W, Mo, Cu, S.S.(stainless steel) and Ti were used. Molybdenum pinch gives the most intense x-rays and stainless steel gives the minimum intensity x-rays for same bank energy (∼ 3.2 kJ). Point x-ray source of size (≤ 0.5 mm) was observed using pin hole camera. The size of the source is limited by the size of the pin hole camera. The peak current in the load is approximately 150 kA. The point x-ray source could be useful in many fields like micro lithography, medicine and to study the basic physics of high Z plasmas. (author). 4 refs., 3 figs

  16. X-Armed Bandits

    Bubeck, Sébastien; Stoltz, Gilles; Szepesvari, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    We consider a generalization of stochastic bandits where the set of arms, $\\cX$, is allowed to be a generic measurable space and the mean-payoff function is "locally Lipschitz" with respect to a dissimilarity function that is known to the decision maker. Under this condition we construct an arm selection policy, called HOO hierarchical optimistic optimization), with improved regret bounds compared to previous results for a large class of problems. In particular, our results imply that if $\\cX$ is the unit hypercube in a Euclidean space and the mean-payoff function has a finite number of global maxima around which the behavior of the function is locally H\\"older continuous with a known exponent, then the expected of HOO regret is bounded up to a logarithmic factor by $\\sqrt{n}$, i.e., the rate of growth of the regret is independent of the dimension of the space. We also prove the minimax optimality of our algorithm when the dissimilarity is a metric.

  17. Escape from Vela X

    Hinton, J.; /Leicester U.; Funk, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Parsons, R.D.; /Leeds U.; Ohm, S.; /Leicester U. /Leeds U.

    2012-02-15

    While the Vela pulsar and its associated nebula are often considered as the archetype of a system powered by a {approx} 10{sup 4} year old isolated neutron star, many features of the spectral energy distribution of this pulsar wind nebula are both puzzling and unusual. Here we develop a model that for the first time relates the main structures in the system, the extended radio nebula (ERN) and the X-ray cocoon through continuous injection of particles with a fixed spectral shape. We argue that diffusive escape of particles from the ERN can explain the steep Fermi-LAT spectrum. In this scenario Vela X should produce a distinct feature in the locally-measured cosmic ray electron spectrum at very high energies. This prediction can be tested in the future using the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). If particles are indeed released early in the evolution of PWNe and can avoid severe adiabatic losses, PWN provide a natural explanation for the rising positron fraction in the local CR spectrum.

  18. Structural properties of VPsub(1-x)Assub(x); 0.00 <= x <= 1.00

    The VP-VAs system has been studied by powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Three regions of solid solubility, separated by two phase regions, are found for VPsub(1-x)Assub(x) as function of composition (x). An NiAs type phase prevails for 0.00 <= x <= 0.07+-0.02, a hexagonal phase of unknown crystal structure for 0.17+-0.02 <= x <= 0.63+-0.02 and an MnP type phase for 0.83+-0.02 <= x <= 1.00. No phase transition is observed between 10 and 1300 K. The various VPsub(1-x)Assub(x) phases exhibit Pauli paramagnetism. (Author)

  19. Novel karyotype in the Ullrich-Turner syndrome - 45,X/46,X,r(X)/46,X,dic(X) - investigated with fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Robson, L.; Jackson, J.; Cowell, C.; Sillence, D.; Smith, A. [Children`s Hospital, Camperdown (Australia)

    1994-04-15

    A 10-year-old girl with Ullrich-Turner syndrome was found to have the novel karyotype 45,X/46,X,r(X)(p11q11)/46,X,dic(X)(p11). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with the {alpha} satellite X centromere probe established the origin of the small ring chromosome. Scanning a large number of cells by interphase FISH showed that the dicentric (X) was the least prevalent cell line. The common breakpoint of Xp11 suggests a sequence of errors as the mechanism whereby these 3 distinct cell lines have arisen. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Rigidity Transitions in Ternary As_xGe_xSe_1-2x Glasses

    Qu, Tao; Boolchand, P.

    2002-03-01

    DSC measurements (MDSC) on the titled ternary have shown^1 Tg(x) to increase monotonically with x , and the non-reversing heat flow, ¦¤Hnr(x), to display a global minimum (ΔHnr(x)=0) in the 0.09 MDSC. Supported by NSF grant DMR -01-01808 1 Y.Wang et al. Europhysics Lett. 52,633(2000).

  1. n-X-Coherent Rings

    Bennis, Driss

    2010-01-01

    This paper unifies several generalizations of coherent rings in one notion. Namely, we introduce $n$-$\\mathscr{X}$-coherent rings, where $\\mathscr{X}$ is a class of modules and $n$ is a positive integer, as those rings for which the subclass $\\mathscr{X}_n$ of $n$-presented modules of $\\mathscr{X}$ is not empty, and every module in $\\mathscr{X}_n$ is $n+1$-presented. Then, for each particular class $\\mathscr{X}$ of modules, we find correspondent relative coherent rings. Our main aim is to show that the well-known Chase's, Cheatham and Stone's, Enochs', and Stenstrom's characterizations of coherent rings hold true for any $n$-$\\mathscr{X}$-coherent rings.

  2. Extragalactic X-ray sources

    About 40% of the X-ray sources in the third UHURU catalogue are extragalactic. One, SMC X-1 has been identified with a binary star in the lesser Magellanic Cloud, while five sources, three probably binary stars, have been found in the greater Magellanic Cloud. X-ray sources in normal galaxies (M31), radiogalaxies (NGC5128), Seyfert galaxies (NGC4151), quasars (3C273) and galaxy clusters (Virgo X-1 and Perseus X-1) are briefly discussed. The most probable explanation for the origin of X-ray emissions from galaxy clusters appears at present to be that the cluster is filled with a thin, very hot gas which emits X-radiation by thermal bremsstrahlung. The main alternative is a socalled inverse Compton effect. (JIW)

  3. 新BMW X5

    2010-01-01

    日前,宝马中国宣布,新BMW X5即第二代BMW X5的中期技术升级版携BMW X5 xDrive50i和BMW X5 xDrive35i两款车型进入中国市场,市场售价分别为164.8万元起和88.7万元起。通过BMW高效动力策略(EfflcienlDvnamlcs)的实施,新BMW X5在显著改善性能的同时,其耗油量和排放水平与前代车型相比平均降低了近10%。

  4. [X-33 Systems

    1999-01-01

    Lockheed Martin Skunk Works has compiled an Annual Performance Report of the X-33/RLV Program. This report consists of individual reports from all industry team members, as well as NASA team centers. This portion of the report is comprised of a status report of Allied-Signal Aerospace's contribution to the program. The following is a summary of the work reviewed under their portion of the agreement: (1) Communication Systems; (2) Environmental Control Systems- Active Thermal Control System (ATCS), Purge and Vent System, Hydrogen Detection System (HDS), Avionics Bay Inerting System (ABIS), and Flush Air Data System (FADS); (2) Landing Systems; (3) Power Management and Generation Systems; (4) Flight Control Actuation System (FCAS)- Electric Power Control & Distribution System (EPCDS), and Battery Power System (BPS); and (5) Vehicle Management Systems (VMS)- VMS Hardware, VMS Software Development Activities, and System Integration Laboratory (SIL).

  5. X-ray television system, SHIMAVISION 3200X

    X-ray television system 'SHIMAVISION 3200X' has been developed. This system has achieved large image size in radiography and fluoroscopy utilizing up to 17inch x 14inch cassette radiographic function attached to 2 channel 3 size cassetteless spotfilm device and utilizing 12inch I.I. at same table top height as 9inch I.I. Newly designed image processor makes fluoroscopic image high quality. (author)

  6. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cygnus X-3

    M. Choudhury; A. R. Rao

    2002-03-01

    We have analysed the X-ray spectra of the highly variable X-ray source Cygnus X-3 over a wide energy range from 5 keV to 150 keV using data selected from the RXTE archives. Separate analysis of the low and hard states show the presence of a hard powerlaw tail in both the states. Here we present the result of the wide band spectral study of the source.

  7. NMR and NQR studies on UCu4+xAl8-x (0 < x < 2) system

    We have studied the microscopic properties of the ThMn12-type UCu4+xAl8-x (0 27Al NMR and 63,65Cu NQR. With increasing x from x = 0, the Neel temperature TN decreased and disappeared abruptly at xc = 1.15. No magnetic ordering was detected down to 1.3 K for x ≥ xc by the NMR, suggesting that the effect of short-range magnetic ordering is not a major origin of the heavy-fermion-like (i.e. large C/T) behavior observed for x ≥ xc. From the K versus χ plot in UCu4+xAl8-x, the transferred hyperfine field Hhf for Al was determined to be 0.80, 0.77, 0.45 and 1.1 kOe/μB-Ce for x = 0.25, 0.50, 1.10 and 1.50, respectively. By NQR measurements at 1.3-4.2 K for x = 0.25 no resultant hyperfine field was observed at Cu sites in the AF ordered state, indicating a cancellation of Hhf at the 8(f) Cu sites in the type I AF. The relaxation rate 1/T1 by 63Cu NQR for x 1.5 at 1.3-4.2 K revealed the Korringa-like behavior. (orig.)

  8. The Strong Decays of X(3940) and X(4160)

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Jiang, Libo; Wang, Tian-Hong; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Guo-Li

    2016-01-01

    The new mesons $X(3940)$ and $X(4160)$ have been found by Belle Collaboration in the processes $e^+e^-\\to J/\\psi D^{(*)}\\bar D^{(*)}$. Considering $X(3940)$ and $X(4160)$ as $\\eta_c(3S)$ and $\\eta_c(4S)$ states, the two-body open charm OZI-allowed strong decay of $\\eta_c(3S)$ and $\\eta_c(4S)$ are studied by the improved Bethe-Salpeter method combine with the $^3P_0$ model. The strong decay width of $\\eta_c(3S)$ is $\\Gamma_{\\eta_c(3S)}=(33.5^{+18.4}_{-15.3})$ MeV, which is close to the result of $X(3940)$ measured by Belle, therefore, $\\eta_c(3S)$ is a good candidate of $X(3940)$. The strong decay width of $\\eta_c(4S)$ is $\\Gamma_{\\eta_c(4S)}=(69.9^{+22.4}_{-21.1})$ MeV, considering the errors of the results, it's close to the lower limit of the total width of $X(4160)$. However the branching ratios $\\frac{\\Gamma(D\\bar D^*)}{\\Gamma (D^*\\bar D^*)}$ of $\\eta_c(4S)$ is larger than the experimental data of $X(4160)$. So taking $\\eta_c(4S)$ as the candidate of $X(4160)$, the precision measurement of the total decay...

  9. 关于满足I(x,y)=I(x,I(x,y))D-蕴涵的解%On D-implications solutions of equation I(x,y) =I(x,I(x,y))

    李伟才; 商美娟; 覃锋; 曹锋

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, function equation Ⅰ(x,y)=Ⅰ(x,Ⅰ(x,y)) is discussed, where D-implication / is generated by a continuous t-norm T , a continuous t-conorm S, and a strong negation n , I.e. Ⅰ(x,y) = S(T(n(x), n(y)),y) .It proposes the solutions of the Ⅰ(x, y)=Ⅰ(x, Ⅰ(x, y)) which is satisfied.%研究了I(x,y)=I(x,y))方程,I为由连续三角模T、连续三角余模S和强否定n生成的D-蕴涵,即I(x,y)=S(T(n(x),n(y)),y),给出了满足方程I(x,y)=I(x,I(x,y))的解.

  10. The $X(4140)$, $X(4270)$, $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$ and their $cs\\bar{c}\\bar{s}$ tetraquark partners

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Kan; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Shi-Lin

    2016-01-01

    In the simple color-magnetic interaction model, we investigate possible ground $cs\\bar{c}\\bar{s}$ tetraquark states in the diquark-antidiquark basis. We use several methods to estimate the mass spectrum and discuss possible assignment for the $X$ states observed in the $J/\\psi\\phi$ channel. We find that assigning the Belle $X(4350)$ as a $0^{++}$ tetraquark is consistent with the tetraquark interpretation for the $X(4140)$ and $X(4270)$ while the interpretation of the $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$ needs orbital or radial excitation. There probably exist several tetraquarks around 4.3 GeV which decay into $J/\\psi\\phi$ or $\\eta_c\\phi$.

  11. Sea Surface Wind Field by X-Band TerraSAR-X and Tandem-X

    Lehner, Susanne; Li, Xiaoming; Ren, Yongzheng; He, Mingxia

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we present the newly developed Geophysical Model Function (GMF), denoted XMOD2, to retrieve the sea surface wind field from X-band TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X (TS-X/TD-X) data. In contrary to the previous XMOD1, XMOD2 is based on a nonlinear GMF, and moreover it also depicts the difference between upwind and downwind of the sea surface backscatter. By exploiting 371 collocations, the retrieved TS-X/TD-X sea surface wind speed by XMOD2 agrees well with in situ buoy measurements with a bias of 0.39 m/s, an RMSE of 1.52 m/s and a scatter index (SI) of 16.1%. To evaluate the sea surface wind field retrieved from X-band SAR, we conducted a joint campaign in the South China Sea in August, 2011. Examples of sea surface wind field retrieved from the TS-X/TD-X data acquired in the campaign are shown for demonstration.

  12. Andirobin from X. moluccensis

    Chutima Jittaniyom

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: methyl 2-{(1R,2R-2-[(1aS,4S,4aS,8aS-4-(furan-3-yl-4a-methyl-8-methylene-2-oxooctahydrooxireno[2,3-d]isochromen-7-yl]-2,6,6-trimethyl-5-oxocyclohex-3-en-1-yl}acetate, C27H32O7, was isolated from X. moluccensis seeds from Thailand. The conformations of the six-membered rings are distorted half-chair, chair and half-chair for the isolated cyclohexane, fused cyclohexane and lactone rings, respectively. In addition, the lactone ring bears in an equatorial orientation an essentially planar furan ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.004 Å, which forms an angle of 63.87 (13° with the mean plane defined by the ten atoms of the two fused six-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.213 Å. The absolute configuration was fixed on the basis of literature data.

  13. OS X Mavericks for dummies

    LeVitus, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Coast through OS X Mavericks with help from Dr. Mac and For Dummies Ready to make friends with Mavericks? Then, Dr. Mac's your man. Author and longtime Mac guru, Bob "Dr. Mac" LeVitus shares his witty insights and helpful tips in this full-color update to his bestselling OS X guide. You'll learn the basics of working with the Dock, Launchpad, and Mission Control before moving on to setting up your e-mail, surfing with Safari, organizing your files, and customizing OS X Mavericks for all you need your Mac to do. Familiarizes you with OS X essentials like navigating the desktop, connecting to

  14. X-ray lithography sources

    Synchrotron from dipole magnets in electron storage rings has emerged as a useful source of x-rays for lithography. To meet the need for these sources numerous groups around the world have embarked on projects to design and construct storage rings for x-ray lithography. Both conventional electromagnets as well as superconducting (SC) dipoles have been incorporated into the various designs. An overview of the worldwide effort to produce commercial x-ray sources will be presented. To better illustrate the elements involved in these sources a closer examination of the Superconducting X-ray Lithography Source Project (SXLS) at BNL will be presented. 11 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  15. Java and Mac OS X

    Davis, T Gene

    2010-01-01

    Learn the guidelines of integrating Java with native Mac OS X applications with this Devloper Reference book. Java is used to create nearly every type of application that exists and is one of the most required skills of employers seeking computer programmers. Java code and its libraries can be integrated with Mac OS X features, and this book shows you how to do just that. You'll learn to write Java programs on OS X and you'll even discover how to integrate them with the Cocoa APIs.: Shows how Java programs can be integrated with any Mac OS X feature, such as NSView widgets or screen savers; Re

  16. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  17. X-ray Fluorescence Sectioning

    Cong, Wenxiang

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an x-ray fluorescence imaging system for elemental analysis. The key idea is what we call "x-ray fluorescence sectioning". Specifically, a slit collimator in front of an x-ray tube is used to shape x-rays into a fan-beam to illuminate a planar section of an object. Then, relevant elements such as gold nanoparticles on the fan-beam plane are excited to generate x-ray fluorescence signals. One or more 2D spectral detectors are placed to face the fan-beam plane and directly measure x-ray fluorescence data. Detector elements are so collimated that each element only sees a unique area element on the fan-beam plane and records the x-ray fluorescence signal accordingly. The measured 2D x-ray fluorescence data can be refined in reference to the attenuation characteristics of the object and the divergence of the beam for accurate elemental mapping. This x-ray fluorescence sectioning system promises fast fluorescence tomographic imaging without a complex inverse procedure. The design can be ad...

  18. Semantics of (Resilient) X10

    Crafa, Silvia; Cunningham, David; Saraswat, Vijay; Shinnar, Avraham; Tardieu, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We present a formal small-step structural operational semantics for a large fragment of X10, unifying past work. The fragment covers multiple places, mutable objects on the heap, sequencing, \\code{try/catch}, \\code{async}, \\code{finish}, and \\code{at} constructs. This model accurately captures the behavior of a large class of concurrent, multi-place X10 programs. Further, we introduce a formal model of resilience in X10. During execution of an X10 program, a place may fail for many reasons. R...

  19. Panoramic dental X-ray machine X-motion drive

    A panoramic dental x-ray machine is described which provides continuous and discontinuous radiographic images of the dental arch area of a patient. The systems for moving the chair and the column which carries the x-ray source and camera are specified. (U.K.)

  20. JEM-X: The X-ray monitor aboard INTEGRAL

    Lund, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt;

    2003-01-01

    The JEM-X monitor provides X-ray spectra and imaging with arcminute angular resolution in the 3 to 35 keV band. The good angular resolution and the low energy response of JEM-X plays an important role in the identification of gamma ray sources and in the analysis and scientific interpretation...... of the combined X-ray and gamma ray data. JEM-X is a coded aperture instrument consisting of two identical, coaligned telescopes. Each of the detectors has a sensitive area of 500 cm(2), and views the sky through its own coded aperture mask. The two coded masks are inverted with respect to each other and provides...

  1. Dense X-pinch plasmas for x-ray microlithography

    The authors report experimental results from a study of the radiation emission from aluminum and magnesium x-pinch experiments. The single cross x-pinch, driven by the 0.5 TW, 40ns pulse width Lion accelerator, consists of 2-8 fine wires stretched between the output electrodes of Lion so as to touch at a single point. The wires were twisted up to 360 degrees at the crossing point. The number and size of Al and Mg wires were varied in order to optimize the K-shell line radiation. Diagnostics used for the experiments included pinhole photography, streak imaging, filtered photoconducting diodes and x-ray crystal spectroscopy. The source size and distribution are determined through x-ray pinhole photographs. The radiation energy spectrum is determined by x-ray spectroscopy and attenuation through filters. Energy intensities were obtained from the filtered photoconducting diodes

  2. Scalar tetraquark state candidates: $X(3915)$, $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$

    Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we tentatively assign the $X(3915)$ and $X(4500)$ to be the ground state and the first radial excited state of the axialvector-diquark-axialvector-antidiquark type scalar $c\\bar{c}s\\bar{s}$ tetraquark states, respectively, assign the $X(4700)$ to be the ground state vector-diquark-vector-antidiquark type scalar $c\\bar{c}s\\bar{s}$ tetraquark state, and study their masses and pole residues with the QCD sum rules by calculating the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension 10. The numerical results support assigning the $X(3915)$ and $X(4500)$ to be the ground state and the first radial excited state of the axialvector-diquark-axialvector-antidiquark type scalar $c\\bar{c}s\\bar{s}$ tetraquark states, respectively, and assigning the $X(4700)$ to be the ground state vector-diquark-vector-antidiquark type scalar $c\\bar{c}s\\bar{s}$ tetraquark state.

  3. X-Chromosome dosage compensation.

    Meyer, Barbara J

    2005-01-01

    In mammals, flies, and worms, sex is determined by distinctive regulatory mechanisms that cause males (XO or XY) and females (XX) to differ in their dose of X chromosomes. In each species, an essential X chromosome-wide process called dosage compensation ensures that somatic cells of either sex express equal levels of X-linked gene products. The strategies used to achieve dosage compensation are diverse, but in all cases, specialized complexes are targeted specifically to the X chromosome(s) of only one sex to regulate transcript levels. In C. elegans, this sex-specific targeting of the dosage compensation complex (DCC) is controlled by the same developmental signal that establishes sex, the ratio of X chromosomes to sets of autosomes (X:A signal). Molecular components of this chromosome counting process have been defined. Following a common step of regulation, sex determination and dosage compensation are controlled by distinct genetic pathways. C. elegans dosage compensation is implemented by a protein complex that binds both X chromosomes of hermaphrodites to reduce transcript levels by one-half. The dosage compensation complex resembles the conserved 13S condensin complex required for both mitotic and meiotic chromosome resolution and condensation, implying the recruitment of ancient proteins to the new task of regulating gene expression. Within each C. elegans somatic cell, one of the DCC components also participates in the separate mitotic/meiotic condensin complex. Other DCC components play pivotal roles in regulating the number and distribution of crossovers during meiosis. The strategy by which C. elegans X chromosomes attract the condensin-like DCC is known. Small, well-dispersed X-recognition elements act as entry sites to recruit the dosage compensation complex and to nucleate spreading of the complex to X regions that lack recruitment sites. In this manner, a repressed chromatin state is spread in cis over short or long distances, thus establishing the

  4. Radioisotope x-ray analysis

    Radioisotope x-ray fluorescence and x-ray preferential absorption (XRA) techniques are used extensively for the analysis of materials, covering such diverse applications as analysis of alloys, coal, environmental samples, paper, waste materials, and metalliferous mineral ores and products. Many of these analyses are undertaken in the harsh environment of industrial plants and in the field. Some are continuous on-line analyses of material being processed in industry, where instantaneous analysis information is required for the control of rapidly changing processes. Radioisotope x-ray analysis systems are often tailored to a specific but limited range of applications. They are simpler and often considerably less expensive than analysis systems based on x-ray tubes. These systems are preferred to x-ray tube techniques when simplicity, ruggedness, reliability, and cost of equipment are important; when minimum size, weight, and power consumption are necessary; when a very constant and predictable x-ray output is required; when the use of high-energy x-rays is advantageous; and when short x-ray path lengths are required to minimize the absorption of low-energy x-rays in air. This chapter reviews radioisotope XRF, preferential absorption, and scattering techniques. Some of the basic analysis equations are given. The characteristics of radioisotope sources and x-ray detectors are described, and then the x-ray analytical techniques are presented. The choice of radioisotope technique for a specific application is discussed. This is followed by a summary of applications of these techniques, with a more detailed account given of some of the applications, particularly those of considerable industrial importance. 79 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs

  5. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    Kovalchuk, M V; Zheludeva, S I; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O P; Arutynyan, E H; Kheiker, D M; Kreines, A Y; Lider, V V; Pashaev, E M; Shilina, N Y; Shishkov, V A

    2000-01-01

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  6. X-Ray Emission from the Soft X-Ray Transient Aquila X-1

    Tavani, Marco

    1998-01-01

    Aquila X-1 is the most prolific of soft X-ray transients. It is believed to contain a rapidly spinning neutron star sporadically accreting near the Eddington limit from a low-mass companion star. The interest in studying the repeated X-ray outbursts from Aquila X-1 is twofold: (1) studying the relation between optical, soft and hard X-ray emission during the outburst onset, development and decay; (2) relating the spectral component to thermal and non-thermal processes occurring near the magnetosphere and in the boundary layer of a time-variable accretion disk. Our investigation is based on the BATSE monitoring of Aquila X-1 performed by our group. We observed Aquila X-1 in 1997 and re-analyzed archival information obtained in April 1994 during a period of extraordinary outbursting activity of the source in the hard X-ray range. Our results allow, for the first time for this important source, to obtain simultaneous spectral information from 2 keV to 200 keV. A black body (T = 0.8 keV) plus a broken power-law spectrum describe accurately the 1994 spectrum. Substantial hard X-ray emission is evident in the data, confirming that the accretion phase during sub-Eddington limit episodes is capable of producing energetic hard emission near 5 x 10(exp 35) ergs(exp -1). A preliminary paper summarizes our results, and a more comprehensive account is being written. We performed a theoretical analysis of possible emission mechanisms, and confirmed that a non-thermal emission mechanism triggered in a highly sheared magnetosphere at the accretion disk inner boundary can explain the hard X-ray emission. An anticorrelation between soft and hard X-ray emission is indeed prominently observed as predicted by this model.

  7. Structure cristalline du composé Hg3-x Sb x (S+Se)2+x I2-x (x ≃ 0.1).

    Kars, Mohammed; Herrero, Adrian Gómez; Roisnel, Thierry; Rebbah, Allaoua; Otero-Diáz, L Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Single crystals of the mercury chalcohalide Hg3-x Sb x (S+Se)2+x I2-x (x ≃ 0.1) (mercury anti-mony sulfide selenide iodide), were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure contains three independent A (Hg/Sb) atoms; each atom is strongly covalently bonded with two X (Se/S) atoms to form approximately linear X-A-X units. The X-A-X units link to form A 4 X 4 rings, which are combined into infinite crankshaft-type bands running along the [100] direction. Four equatorial E (I/X = Se,S) atoms at relatively long distances complete the distorted octa-hedral coordination of A (Hg/Sb). The crystal under investigation was twinned by non-merohedry with a refined twin domain fraction of 0.814 (6):0.186 (6). The structure is isotypic with Hg3Se2I2 [Beck & Hedderich (2000 ▸). J. Solid State Chem. 151, 73-76], but the current determination reveals a coupled substitution, with partial replacement of Hg(+2) by Sb(+3), balanced by the equivalent substitution of I(-1) by S(-2) and Se(-2). Bond-valence calculations are consistent with this relative substitution model. PMID:27006793

  8. X-Ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy (X-PACT).

    Oldham, Mark; Yoon, Paul; Fathi, Zak; Beyer, Wayne F; Adamson, Justus; Liu, Leihua; Alcorta, David; Xia, Wenle; Osada, Takuya; Liu, Congxiao; Yang, Xiao Y; Dodd, Rebecca D; Herndon, James E; Meng, Boyu; Kirsch, David G; Lyerly, H Kim; Dewhirst, Mark W; Fecci, Peter; Walder, Harold; Spector, Neil L

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates X-PACT (X-ray Psoralen Activated Cancer Therapy): a new approach for the treatment of solid cancer. X-PACT utilizes psoralen, a potent anti-cancer therapeutic with current application to proliferative disease and extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) of cutaneous T Cell Lymphoma. An immunogenic role for light-activated psoralen has been reported, contributing to long-term clinical responses. Psoralen therapies have to-date been limited to superficial or extracorporeal scenarios due to the requirement for psoralen activation by UVA light, which has limited penetration in tissue. X-PACT solves this challenge by activating psoralen with UV light emitted from novel non-tethered phosphors (co-incubated with psoralen) that absorb x-rays and re-radiate (phosphoresce) at UV wavelengths. The efficacy of X-PACT was evaluated in both in-vitro and in-vivo settings. In-vitro studies utilized breast (4T1), glioma (CT2A) and sarcoma (KP-B) cell lines. Cells were exposed to X-PACT treatments where the concentrations of drug (psoralen and phosphor) and radiation parameters (energy, dose, and dose rate) were varied. Efficacy was evaluated primarily using flow cell cytometry in combination with complimentary assays, and the in-vivo mouse study. In an in-vitro study, we show that X-PACT induces significant tumor cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity, unlike psoralen or phosphor alone (p4T1 tumors, we show that the rate of tumor growth is slower with X-PACT than with saline or AMT + X-ray (p<0.0001). Overall these studies demonstrate a potential therapeutic effect for X-PACT, and provide a foundation and rationale for future studies. In summary, X-PACT represents a novel treatment approach in which well-tolerated low doses of x-ray radiation are delivered to a specific tumor site to generate UVA light which in-turn unleashes both short- and potentially long-term antitumor activity of photo-active therapeutics like psoralen. PMID:27583569

  9. Hyperchaos via X-Diode

    Lindberg, Erik; Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.;

    1998-01-01

    A Chaos diode (X-diode) with a hysteric current-voltage characteristic has been used to generate hyperchaotic oscillations characterized with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents. The hyperchaotic oscillators comprise a X-diode in parallel with an M'th order LC loop (M.GE.4). Numerical simulations...

  10. Generation X Goes to College.

    Jones, Lisa T.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the developmental, learning, and career needs of college and university students from Generation X, or those between 18 and 29 years of age. Discusses general characteristics of Generation X students and highlights specific strategies for instructional and student services staff to effectively educate and retain them. (11 citations) (BCY)

  11. Electromagnetic nonlinear X-waves

    Conti, C; Trapani, P D; Valiulis, G; Jedrkiewicz, O; Trull, J

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear optical media that are normally dispersive, support a new type of localized (nondiffractive and nondispersive) wavepackets that are X-shaped in space and time and have slower than exponential decay. High-intensity X-waves, unlike linear ones, can be formed spontaneously through a trigger mechanism of conical emission, thus playing an important role in experiments.

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone Bone x-ray uses a very small dose of ionizing ...

  13. X-ray Dynamic Defectoscopy

    Vavřík, Daniel; Visschers, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Ponchut, C.

    Orosei : IMC S.r.l., 2001. s. 47. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /3./. 23.09.2001-27.09.2001, Orosei] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/D064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 210000018 Keywords : X-ray Defectoscopy * Damage * X-ray Detectors Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  14. X-ray diagnostic equipment

    An X-ray tube is connected to several different image processing devices in X-ray diagnostic equipment. Only a single organ selector is allocated to it, for which the picture parameters for each image processing device are selected. The choice of the correct combination of picture parameters is made by means of a selector switch. (DG)

  15. Structure functions at low x

    Deep recent data and phenomenology on low-x structure functions are discussed inelastic scattering. We will be interested primordially in the regions Q2 → 0 i.e. the transition from γp to, and x → 10-4 - 10-6 i.e. the region of high parton densities

  16. X-ray tube arrangement

    An x-ray tube is described incorporating an elongated target/ anode over which the electron beam is deflected and from which x-rays are emitted. Improved methods of monitoring and controlling the amplitude of the beam deflection are presented. (U.K.)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... frequently compared to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? The technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. Women should always inform their physician and x-ray ... small burst of radiation that passes through the body, recording an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different ...

  19. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    The methods and results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of plasmons, alloys and gold compounds are discussed. After a comprehensive introduction, seven papers by the author, previously published elsewhere, are reprinted and these cover a wide range of the uses of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (W.D.L.)

  20. Sensitivities of JEM-X

    Westergaard, Niels Jørgen Stenfeldt; Lund, Niels

    The mask design for JEM-X is now finalized regarding the hole pattern and mechnical support structure. The engineering model of the detectors with collimators is under construction. The JEM-X sensitivities for source detection in various circumstances are reviewed with proper regard to the way...

  1. JEM-X background models

    Huovelin, J.; Maisala, S.; Schultz, J.;

    2003-01-01

    revolution 41 of INTEGRAL. Total observing time used for the analysis was 216 502 s, with the average of 25 cps of background for each of the two JEM-X telescopes. JEM-X1 showed slightly higher average background intensity than JEM-X2. The detectors were stable during the long exposures, and weak orbital...... phase dependence in the background outside radiation belts was observed. The analysis yielded an average of 5 cps for the diffuse background, and 20 cps for the instrument background. The instrument background was found highly dependent on position, both for spectral shape and intensity. Diff use...... background was enhanced in the central area of a detector, and it decreased radially towards the edge, with a clear vignetting effect for both JEM-X units. The instrument background was weakest in the central area of a detector and showed a steep increase at the very edges of both JEM-X detectors, with...

  2. Properties of (Ga1-x In x )2O3 over the whole x range.

    Maccioni, M B; Ricci, F; Fiorentini, V

    2016-06-01

    Using density-functional ab initio theoretical techniques, we study (Ga1-x In x )2O3 in both its equilibrium structures (monoclinic [Formula: see text] and bixbyite) and over the whole range of composition. We establish that the alloy exhibits a large and temperature-independent miscibility gap. On the low-x side, the favored phase is isostructural with [Formula: see text]-Ga2O3; on the high-x side, it is isostructural with bixbyite In2O3. The miscibility gap opens between approximately 15% and 55% In content for the bixbyite alloy grown epitaxially on In2O3, and 15% and 85% In content for the free-standing bixbyite alloy. The gap, volume and band offsets to the parent compound also exhibit anomalies as function of x. Specifically, the offsets in epitaxial conditions are predominantly type-B staggered, but have opposite signs in the two end-of-range phases. PMID:26952634

  3. PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment

    Ostroumov, P.N.; /Argonne; Holmes, S.D.; Kephart, R.D.; Kerby, J.S.; Lebedev, V.A.; Mishra, C.S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Shemyakin, A.V.; Solyak, N.; Stanek, R.P.; /Fermilab; Li, D.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-05-01

    A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are planning a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of the Project X. This program is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R&D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. Integrated systems testing, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), will be accomplished with a new test facility under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-16. PXIE will include an H{sup -} ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

  4. Semiconductor X-ray detectors

    Lowe, Barrie Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Identifying and measuring the elemental x-rays released when materials are examined with particles (electrons, protons, alpha particles, etc.) or photons (x-rays and gamma rays) is still considered to be the primary analytical technique for routine and non-destructive materials analysis. The Lithium Drifted Silicon (Si(Li)) X-Ray Detector, with its good resolution and peak to background, pioneered this type of analysis on electron microscopes, x-ray fluorescence instruments, and radioactive source- and accelerator-based excitation systems. Although rapid progress in Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs), Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs), and Compound Semiconductor Detectors, including renewed interest in alternative materials such as CdZnTe and diamond, has made the Si(Li) X-Ray Detector nearly obsolete, the device serves as a useful benchmark and still is used in special instances where its large, sensitive depth is essential. Semiconductor X-Ray Detectors focuses on the history and development of Si(Li) X-Ray Detect...

  5. X-Ray Observations of Cygnus X-2

    Piraino, S; Kaaret, P E

    2001-01-01

    We report on a joint BeppoSAX/RossiXTE observation of the Z-type low mass X-ray binary Cyg X-2. The source was in the so-called high overall intensity state and in less than 24 hours went through all three branches of the Z-track. The continuum x-ray spectrum could be described by the absorbed sum of a soft thermal component, modeled as either a blackbody or a multicolor disk blackbody, and a Comptonized component. The timing power spectrum showed several components including quasiperiodic oscillations in the range 28-50 Hz while the source was on the horizontal branch (horizontal branch oscillation; HBO). We found that the HBO frequency was well correlated with the parameters of the soft thermal component in the x-ray spectrum. We discuss implications of this correlation for models of the HBO.

  6. X-ray quasars and the X-ray background

    The Einstein X-ray observations of a sample of 202 radio-and optically-selected quasars due to Ku, Helfand and Lucy and to Zamorani et al. are analysed. Correlations between X-ray, optical and radio luminosities are examined. The contribution of radio-loud quasars to the 2-keV X-ray background is estimated using high-frequency radio-source counts, and the contribution due to radio-quiet, optically bright quasars using optical counts. It is shown that radio-loud quasars and radio-quiet optically bright quasars together contribute approximately 15 per cent of the observed 2-keV X-ray background. The contribution of optically faint radio-quiet quasars is uncertain, but may be limited to a maximum of approximately 30 per cent if recent indications of a flattening in optical counts at faint magnitudes are correct. (author)

  7. Concepts of x-ray diagnostics for WENDELSTEIN 7-X

    The use of superconducting coils in W7-X will allow to run very long pulses (up to 30 min). Therefore enhanced demands have to be met for plasma diagnostics with respect to hardware components exposed to steady state heat fluxes, but also to the data acquisition and analysis. A multicamera x-ray tomography system inside the vacuum vessel--because of lack of suitable ports--with about 400 viewing chords distributed along the poloidal direction is proposed for magneto hydrodynamics investigations. The system will consist of about 20 compact cameras containing linear photodiode arrays, beryllium-transmission foils, and preamplifiers. A particular technical issue is the control of detector/amplifier offset and gains in steady state plasmas. Another multipurpose x-ray camera system with interchangeable filters will be installed using a particular port combination. In addition x-ray pulse height analysis will be used to deduce spectroscopic information and to provide the central electron temperature

  8. OS X Mavericks portable genius

    Spivey, Dwight

    2013-01-01

    Plenty of tips, tricks, and shortcuts help you make the most of Apple's newest OS X OS X Mavericks is Apple's newest operating system, with great new ways to enhance your digital lifestyle. This hip, straightforward guide focuses on helping you get everything you want from your Mac. You'll discover how to customize your computer and workspace, troubleshoot and maintain OS X, and have fun browsing and manipulating images and multimedia. You'll listen to music and podcasts, discover how to work with and connect peripherals, copy music to an iPod, add a printer, sync your Mac to other devices, an

  9. Asiantuntijapalvelun hinnoittelu : case: X Oy

    Kipahti, Tiina

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoite oli selvittää minkälaiset hinnoittelutavat soveltuvat X Oy:n vakuutusmeklaripalkkion määrittämiseen. Lisäksi selvitetään miten merkittävänä asiakas kokee vakuutusmeklaripalvelun ja kuinka tyytyväisiä asiakkaat ovat X Oy:n tuottamaan asiantuntijapalveluun. X Oy on vakuutusmeklariyritys. Vakuutusmeklari toimii asiakkaan edunvalvojana asiakkaan ja vakuutusyhtiön välillä vakuutus- ja vahinkoasioissa. Vakuutusmeklaripalvelu on asiantuntijapalvelua, joka on kaikkein ...

  10. X-ray diffraction apparatus

    The invention provides an x-ray diffraction apparatus permitting the rotation of the divergence sit in conjunction with the rotation of the x-ray irradiated specimen, whereby the dimensions of the x-ray irradiated portion of the specimen remain substantially constant during the rotation of the specimen. In a preferred embodiment, the divergence slit is connected to a structural element linked with a second structural element connected to the specimen such that the divergence slit rotates at a lower angular speed than the specimen

  11. X-ray crystal interferometers

    Various configurations of the X-ray crystal interferometer are reviewed. The interferometer applications considered include metrology, the measurement of fundamental physical constants, the study of weakly absorbing phase objects, time-resolved diagnostics, the determination of hard X-ray beam parameters, and the characterization of structural defects in the context of developing an X-ray Michelson interferometer. The three-crystal Laue interferometer (LLL-interferometer), its design, and the experimental opportunities it offers are given particular attention. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  12. Circinus X-1 - X-ray observations with SAS 3

    Dower, R. G.; Bradt, H. V.; Morgan, E. H.

    1982-01-01

    Eight observations of Cir X-1 with SAS 3, each lasting 1-6 days, have yielded a variety of new phenomena, viz., a luminous state of steady emission, rapid large-intensity dips, an extremely rapid X-ray transition, and bright flares. Through searches for periodic X-ray pulsations were carried out on data trains of duration up to 6 days; upper limits for pulsations with periods greater than 250 microsec range down to 0.3%. Aperiodic variability with characteristic times of 0.4-1.0 sec was observed but is not well characterized by a simple shot noise model. No millisecond bursts were observed during 40,000 sec in three separate observations. Spectral parameters derived before and after several X-ray transitions indicate that the transitions are not due to absorption of X-rays by intervening gas. Models previously proposed for the Cir X-1 system do not easily provide explanations for all the complex phenomena reported herein.

  13. Ribes x nidigrolaria R. &. A. Bauer und Fragaria x vescana R. & A. Bauer : Beschreibung zweier Hybridarten

    Bauer, Annelise; Weber, Heinrich E.

    2013-01-01

    Zwei von Rudolf Bauer künstlich erzeugte Hybriden werden als neue Nothospecies beschrieben: Ribes x nidigrolaria Rudolf & Annelise Bauer (=[R. nigrum x divaricatum] x [R. nigrum x uva-cripa]) and Fragaria x vescana Rudolf & Annelise Bauer (= [Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens x F. x ananassa] x F. x ananassa). Diese wirtschaftlich wichtigen Kulturarten sind bereits allgemein bekannt als „Jostabeere“ (cv. „Josta“) und als Vescana mit den Kultursorten „Spadeka“ und „Florika“. Die Hybridarten sind...

  14. X-ray Thomson Scattering using the Hybrid X-pinch X-ray Source

    Hoyt, Cad; Pikuz, Sergei; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, Dave

    2013-10-01

    Stringent photometric and bandwidth requirements have historically relegated X-ray Thomson scattering (XRTS) probe sources to high energy laser plasma sources or free electron lasers. Standard x-pinch configurations in which two or more fine wires cross and subtend an angle of about 30° forming an ``X'' between the anode and cathode of a pulsed power generatorcan produce extremely bright, subnanosecond bursts of continuum and line radiation from micron-scale sources. The hybrid x-pinch is a new configuration based on conical W-Cu alloy electrodes with a short 1-2 mm gap that is bridged by a fine wire resulting in an easier to load setup with improved performance characteristics. We explore the possibility of utilizing the hybid x-pinch as a novel XRTS probe source by examining certain spectral and temporal attributes of a range of materials in a hybrid x-pinch configuration on the XP (500 kA, 50 ns) and COBRA(1MA, 100ns) pulsed power generators. We find that a Ti hybrid x-pinch produces >1012 photons/sr in Ti He-alpha radiation and satisfies the noncollective scattering bandwidth requirement. Measurements of photon fluence, bandwidth and applicability to the relevant scattering regime and initial scattering results will be presented.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... an image on photographic film or a special detector. Different parts of the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and ...

  16. Duodenal X-ray diagnostics

    The publication provides an overview of duodenal X-ray diagnostics with the aid of barium meals in 1362 patients. The introducing paragraphs deal with the topographic anatomy of the region and the methodics of X-ray investigation. The chapter entitled ''processes at the duodenum itself'' describes mainly ulcers, diverticula, congenital anomalies, tumors and inflammations. The neighbourhood processes comprise in the first place diseases having their origin at the pancreas and bile ducts. As a conclusion, endoscopic rectograde cholangio-pancreaticography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography are pointed out as advanced X-ray investigation methods. In the annex of X-ray images some of the described phenomena are shown in exemplary manner. (orig./MG)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... is commonly used to diagnose fractured bones or joint dislocation. Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and joint abnormalities. This exam requires little to no special ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... taken of the unaffected limb, or of a child's growth plate (where new bone is forming), for ... have special pediatric considerations. The teddy bear denotes child-specific content. Related Articles and Media Arthritis X- ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... like a photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... the patient lies. A drawer under the table holds the x-ray film or image recording plate . ... when feasible to protect from radiation. You must hold very still and may be asked to keep ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... technologist, an individual specially trained to perform radiology examinations, positions the patient on the x-ray table ... bone is forming), for comparison purposes. When the examination is complete, you may be asked to wait ...

  2. Picosecond x-ray science

    The report discusses the exciting times for short pulse X-rays and the current users of the technology in the United States. Tracking nuclear motions with X-rays transcends scientific disciplines and includes Biology, Materials Science, Condensed Matter and Chemistry. 1 picosecond accesses many phenomena previously hidden at 100ps. Synchrotron advantage over laser plasma and LCLS is that it's easily tunable. There is a large and diverse user community of this technology that is growing rapidly. A working group is being formed to implement 'fast track' Phases 1 and 2 which includes tunable, polarized, monochromatic, focused X-rays; variable pulse length (1 to 100ps) and 1 kHz, 109 X-rays/s with 1% bandwidth. ERL would be a major advance for ultrafast time-resolved studies.

  3. X-ray microtomographic scanners

    Syryamkin, V. I., E-mail: klestov-simon@mail.ru; Klestov, S. A., E-mail: klestov-simon@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    The article studies the operating procedures of an X-ray microtomographic scanner and the module of reconstruction and analysis 3D-image of a test sample in particular. An algorithm for 3D-image reconstruction based on image shadow projections and mathematical methods of the processing are described. Chapter 1 describes the basic principles of X-ray tomography and general procedures of the device developed. Chapters 2 and 3 are devoted to the problem of resources saving by the system during the X-ray tomography procedure, which is achieved by preprocessing of the initial shadow projections. Preprocessing includes background noise removing from the images, which reduces the amount of shadow projections in general and increases the efficiency of the group shadow projections compression. In conclusion, the main applications of X-ray tomography are presented.

  4. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... or in bones. top of page How should I prepare? Most bone x-rays require no special ... to 10 minutes. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? A bone ...

  5. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... the body absorb the x-rays in varying degrees. Dense bone absorbs much of the radiation while ... is further reviewed by committees from the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the Radiological Society of ...

  6. Dental X-ray apparatus

    Intra-oral dental X-ray apparatus for panoramic dental radiography is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun having an elongated tubular target carrier extending into the patient's mouth. The carrier supports an inclined target for direction of an X-ray pattern towards a film positioned externally of the patient's mouth. Image definition is improved by a focusing anode which focuses the electron beam into a sharp spot (0.05 to 0.10 mm diameter) on the target. The potential on the focusing anode is adjustable to vary the size of the spot. An X-ray transmitting ceramic (oxides of Be, Al and Si) window is positioned adjacent to the front face of the target. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... very controlled x-ray beams and dose control methods to minimize stray (scatter) radiation. This ensures that ... around joints, and in evaluating the hips of children with congenital problems. top of page This page ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... can be taken to the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray ... and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and ... in the typical diagnostic range for this exam. Risks There is always a slight chance of cancer ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... in a known abnormality can be monitored over time. Follow-up examinations are sometimes the best way ...

  11. X-ray thickness gauge

    New design of X-ray gauge of rolled product thickness is suggested. It is supplied with self-compensation unit, removing the error, caused by changes of half-cycles of supply voltage of radiation source

  12. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... during x-ray examinations to use the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards ...

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. ... appliances, eye glasses and any metal objects or clothing that might interfere with the x-ray images. ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... a large photographic negative). Today, most images are digital files that are stored electronically. These stored images ... and places the x-ray film holder or digital recording plate under the table in the area ...

  15. Parton distributions at small x

    We perform a next-to-leading order quantum chromodynamics (QCD) analysis of the recent data for deep-inelastic lepton-nucleon scattering and related processes, in which we pay particular attention to the forms of the parton distributions at very small x. We discuss in detail, and we incorporate in the analysis, the theoretical QCD results leading to the singular x-1/2 type of behaviour of the gluon and sea quark distributions, as well as the modifications due to shadowing effects. We find the QCD shadowing corrections are significant for x ''approx -3 even though the parton distributions are below their saturation limit. We give predictions for the structure functions F2 and FL accessible at HERA, and for W and Z productions up to linear hard core pinch devices (LHC) and superconducting supercollider (SSC) energies. We discuss the possibility of experiments at these colliders probing the parton distributions in the very small x region. (author)

  16. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... examination may also be necessary so that any change in a known abnormality can be monitored over ...

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... replacement and fracture reductions. look for injury, infection, arthritis , abnormal bone growths and bony changes seen in ... injuries, including fractures, and joint abnormalities, such as arthritis. X-ray equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely ...

  18. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... of the radiation while soft tissue, such as muscle, fat and organs, allow more of the x- ... views of bone, they provide little information about muscles, tendons or joints. An MRI may be more ...

  19. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... the lowest radiation dose possible while producing the best images for evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology professionals. Modern x-ray systems ...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... pregnant. Many imaging tests are not performed during pregnancy so as not to expose the fetus to ... See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page What does ...

  1. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... the patient in a hospital bed or the emergency room. The x-ray tube is connected to ... equipment is relatively inexpensive and widely available in emergency rooms, physician offices, ambulatory care centers, nursing homes ...

  2. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. top of page ... procedure varies. See the Safety page for more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  3. X-Ray Assembler Data

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Federal regulations require that an assembler who installs one or more certified components of a diagnostic x-ray system submit a report of assembly. This database...

  4. MAD-X PTC Integration

    Schmidt, Frank; Goddard, B; Jacquet, D; Kain, V; Lamont, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J; Wenninger, J

    2005-01-01

    MAD-X is CERN's successor for MAD8, a program for accelerator design with a long history. MAD-X is a modular, better maintainable re-write of MAD8 with data structures written in `C'. Early on in the design of MAD-X we relied on the fact that older or doubtful modules could be replaced by new modules using the PTC code by E. Forest. Both codes remain independent entities but are linked via a converter to the MAD-X data structures. PTC is used for symplectic tracking of smaller machines and transfer line using better defined physical models of the elements and taking into account of how the elements are placed in the tunnel. The matching of the LHC will profit form the fact that the high order nonlinear parameters are provided by a PTC Normal Form analysis.

  5. Utzon(x) 2013: Tetraleaf

    Andersson, Lasse; Foged, Isak Worre

    architectural design and engineering. The Utzon(x) projects and summer school is a hands-on learning environment, where theoretical knowledge is coupled with physical and practical assignments related to specific design themes. During the two weeks of The Utzon(x) Summer School, twenty- five Danish and...... international students have worked on creating the project displayed in the Utzon Center court yard which has been unfolded as a working process and method in the exhibition space....

  6. X-ray fluorescence holography

    Hayashi, K; Takahashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a new structural analysis method of determining a 3D atomic arrangement around fluorescing atoms. We developed an XFH apparatus using advanced X-ray techniques and succeeded in obtaining high-quality hologram data. Furthermore, we introduced applications to the structural analysis of a thin film and the environment around dopants and, discussed the quantitative analysis of local lattice distortion. (author)

  7. Accelerator x-ray sources

    Talman, Richard

    2007-01-01

    This first book to cover in-depth the generation of x-rays in particle accelerators focuses on electron beams produced by means of the novel Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) technology. The resulting highly brilliant x-rays are at the centre of this monograph, which continues where other books on the market stop. Written primarily for general, high energy and radiation physicists, the systematic treatment adopted by the work makes it equally suitable as an advanced textbook for young researchers.

  8. Electromechanical x-ray generator

    Watson, Scott A; Platts, David; Sorensen, Eric B

    2016-05-03

    An electro-mechanical x-ray generator configured to obtain high-energy operation with favorable energy-weight scaling. The electro-mechanical x-ray generator may include a pair of capacitor plates. The capacitor plates may be charged to a predefined voltage and may be separated to generate higher voltages on the order of hundreds of kV in the AK gap. The high voltage may be generated in a vacuum tube.

  9. Unitarity at small Bjorken x

    Weigert, Heribert

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the nonlinear small x ``projectile side'' evolution equations as derived by Balitskii in 1996. The solution is based on functional Fokker-Planck methods. The fixed point at small x is explicitly calculated and all correlation functions in this limit are determined. They show clear saturation and unitarization properties. Scaling laws that hold during the saturation phase and throughout the whole course of the evolution are established. The corresponding Lange...

  10. On Diophantine Equation X(X+1)(X+2)(X+3)=14Y(Y+1)(Y+2)(Y+3)

    DUAN Hui-ming; ZHENG Ji-ming

    2009-01-01

    The Diophantine equation X(X+1)(X+2)(X+3)=14Y(Y+1)(Y+2)(Y+3) still remains open.Using recurrence sequence,Maple software,Pell equation and quadraric residue,this paper proved it has only two positive integer solutions,i.e.,(X,Y)=(5,2),(7,3).

  11. On Qualitative Analysis of Delay Systems and $x^ = f (t, x, x^)$ on Time Scales

    Yajun Ma; Yu Zhang; Jitao Sun

    2010-04-01

    Here we solve two problems presented in paper [9] (C C Tisdell and A Zaidi, Basic qualitative and quantitative results for solutions to nonlinear, dynamic equations on time scales with an application to economic modelling, Nonlinear Anal. 68 (2008) 3504–3524). We study existence and uniqueness of solutions for delay systems and first-order dynamic equations of the form $x^=f(t,x,x^)$ on time scales by using the Banach’s fixed-point theorem. Some examples are presented to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed results.

  12. Vela X at 31 GHz

    Hales, A S; Alvarez, H; May, J; Bronfman, L; Readhead, A C; Pearson, T J; Mason, B S; Dodson, R

    2004-01-01

    We present observations of the Vela X region at 31 GHz using the Cosmic Background Imager (CBI). We find a strong compact radio source (5.9'x4.1', FWHM) about the Vela pulsar, which we associate with the Vela pulsar wind nebula (PWN) recently discovered at lower radio-frequencies. The CBI's 4' resolution for a 45' field of view allows the PWN to be studied in the large-scale context of Vela X. Filamentary structure in Vela X, which stands out in lower frequency maps, is very low-level at 31 GHz. By combining the 10 CBI channels, which cover 26-36 GHz, and 8.4 GHz archive data, we study the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the PWN and the brightest filaments. Our results show that the spectral index alpha (F_{nu} propto nu^alpha) of the PWN is flat, or even marginally positive, with a value of alpha_{8.4}^{31}=0.10+-0.06, while the Vela X filamentary structure has a negative spectral index of alpha_{8.4}^{31}=-0.28+-0.09. The SED inhomogeneity observed in Vela X suggests different excitation processes bet...

  13. X-ray laser; Roentgenlaser

    Samuelsen, Emil J.; Breiby, Dag W.

    2009-07-01

    X-ray is among the most important research tools today, and has given priceless contributions to all disciplines within the natural sciences. State of the art in this field is called XFEL, X-ray Free Electron Laser, which may be 10 thousand million times stronger than the x-rays at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble. In addition XFEL has properties that allow the study of processes which previously would have been impossible. Of special interest are depictions on atomic- and molecular level by the use of x-ray holographic methods, and being able to study chemical reactions in nature's own timescale, the femtosecond. Conclusion: The construction of x-ray lasers is a natural development in a scientific field which has an enormous influence on the surrounding society. While the discovery of x-ray was an important breakthrough in itself, new applications appear one after the other: Medical depiction, dissemination, diffraction, DNA and protein structures, synchrotron radiation and tomography. There is reason to believe that XFEL implies a technological leap as big as the synchrotrons some decades ago. As we are now talking about studies of femtosecond and direct depiction of chemical reactions, it is obvious that we are dealing with a revolution to come, with extensive consequences, both scientifically and culturally. (EW)

  14. X-ray diagnostic apparatus

    A falling load type X-ray diagnostic apparatus comprises a low voltage power source, AC-DC converting means connected to the low voltage power source so as to apply a rectified low DC voltage, chopping means connected to the AC-DC converting means and chopping said DC voltage into a low AC voltage, high voltage applying means for transforming said low AC voltage into a high AC voltage, said high AC voltage being applied as a tube voltage to an X-ray tube from which X-rays are irradiated toward an object to be examined, means for controlling a filament heating power of the X-ray tube, programming means for supplying a control signal to said filament heating control means so as to reduce the emission current of said X-ray tube during the irradiation, and chopper control means for controlling the chopping ratio of said chopping means by evaluating said rectified DC voltage with a preset tube voltage generated in said programming means, said programming means compensating said tube voltage by receiving said control signal in such a manner that said tube voltage is maintained substantially constant during the irradiation by varying said preset tube voltage so as to control the chopping ratio based upon the reduction of the filament heating power for the X-ray tube

  15. Low energy (soft) x rays

    Dosimetry of low-energy (soft) X rays produced by the SOFTEX Model CMBW-2 was performed using Nuclear Associates Type 30 - 330 PTW, Exradin Type A2, and Shonka-Wyckoff ionization chambers with a Keithley Model 602 electrometer. Thermoluminescent (BeO chip) dosimeters were used with a Harshaw Detector 2000-A and Picoammeter-B readout system. Beam quality measurements were made using aluminum absorbers; exposure rates were assessed by the current of the X-ray tube and by exposure times. Dose distributions were established, and the average factors for non-uniformity were calculated. The means of obtaining accurate absorbed and exposed doses using these methods are discussed. Survival of V79 cells was assessed by irradiating them with soft X rays, 200 kVp X rays, and 60Co gamma rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values for soft X rays with 0, 0.2, 0.7 mm added thicknesses of aluminum were 1.6, which were compared to 60Co. The RBE of 200 kVp X rays relative to 60Co was 1.3. Results of this study are available for reference in future RERF studies of cell survival. (author)

  16. Tokamak x ray diagnostic instrumentation

    Three classes of x-ray diagnostic instruments enable measurement of a variety of tokamak physics parameters from different features of the x-ray emission spectrum. (1) The soft x-ray (1 to 50 keV) pulse-height-analysis (PHA) diagnostic measures impurity concentrations from characteristic line intensities and the continuum enhancement, and measures the electron temperature from the continuum slope. (2) The Bragg x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) measures the ion temperature and neutral-beam-induced toroidal rotation velocity from the Doppler broadening and wavelength shift, respectively, of spectral lines of medium-Z impurity ions. Impurity charge state distributions, precise wavelengths, and inner-shell excitation and recombination rates can also be studied. X rays are diffracted and focused by a bent crystal onto a position-sensitive detector. The spectral resolving power E/ΔE is greater than 104 and time resolution is 10 ms. (3) The x-ray imaging system (XIS) measures the spatial structure of rapid fluctuations (0.1 to 100 kHZ) providing information on MHD phenomena, impurity transport rates, toroidal rotation velocity, plasma position, and the electron temperature profile. It uses an array of silicon surface-barrier diodes which view different chords of the plasma through a common slot aperture and operate in current (as opposed to counting) mode. The effectiveness of shields to protect detectors from fusion-neutron radiation effects has been studied both theoretically and experimentally

  17. TerraSAR-X mission

    Werninghaus, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    The TerraSAR-X is a German national SAR- satellite system for scientific and commercial applications. It is the continuation of the scientifically and technologically successful radar missions X-SAR (1994) and SRTM (2000) and will bring the national technology developments DESA and TOPAS into operational use. The space segment of TerraSAR-X is an advanced high-resolution X-Band radar satellite. The system design is based on a sound market analysis performed by Infoterra. The TerraSAR-X features an advanced high-resolution X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar based on the active phased array technology which allows the operation in Spotlight-, Stripmap- and ScanSAR Mode with various polarizations. It combines the ability to acquire high resolution images for detailed analysis as well as wide swath images for overview applications. In addition, experimental modes like the Dual Receive Antenna Mode allow for full-polarimetric imaging as well as along track interferometry, i.e. moving target identification. The Ground Segment is optimized for flexible response to (scientific and commercial) User requests and fast image product turn-around times. The TerraSAR-X mission will serve two main goals. The first goal is to provide the strongly supportive scientific community with multi-mode X-Band SAR data. The broad spectrum of scientific application areas include Hydrology, Geology, Climatology, Oceanography, Environmental Monitoring and Disaster Monitoring as well as Cartography (DEM Generation) and Interferometry. The second goal is the establishment of a commercial EO-market in Europe which is driven by Infoterra. The commercial goal is the development of a sustainable EO-business so that the e.g. follow-on systems can be completely financed by industry from the profit. Due to its commercial potential, the TerraSAR-X project will be implemented based on a public-private partnership with the Astrium GmbH. This paper will describe first the mission objectives as well as the

  18. Atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    Hurley, M D; Ball, J C; Wallington, T J;

    2006-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  19. Molecular Structure of Ge_xP_xS_1-2x Bulk Alloy Glasses

    Vempati, U.; Boolchand, P.

    2004-03-01

    Rather complete Raman and MDSC results on the reversibility window and aging effects are now available on ternary Ge_xP_xSe_1-2x glasses. It is therefore of interest to understand in what manner replacing Se by S alters the reversibility window. We have synthesized titled glasses over the 0 MDSC measurements. Unlike the case of Selenide glasses, in S-rich glasses S8 crowns segregate from the backbone altering the constraint counting. But as in the Se-deficient (x > 2/11) glasses, the S-deficient glasses are also found to partially nanoscale phase separate into P_4(S or Se)3 monomers. The reversibility window in the two chalcogenides will be compared and contrasted. *Supported by NSF grant DMR 01-01808

  20. Convergence of the solutions for the equation x(iv+ax ⃛+bx¨+g(x˙+h(x=p(t,x,x˙,x¨,x

    Anthony Uyi Afuwape

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with differential equations of the formx(iv+ax ⃛+bx¨+g(x˙+h(x=p(t,x,x˙,x¨,x ⃛where a, b are positive constants and the functions g, h and p are continuous in their respective arguments, with the function h not necessarily differentiable. By introducing a Lyapunov function, as well as restricting the incrementary ratio η−1{h(ζ+η−h(ζ}, (η≠0, of h to a closed sub-interval of the Routh-Hurwitz interval, we prove the convergence of solutions for this equation. This generalizes earlier results.

  1. Lattice dynamics of cubic Cs2NaLnX6 and CsNaLn1-xLn'xX6 elpasolites

    Crystal lattice dynamics of stoichiometric Cs2NaLnX6 and nonstoichiometric CsNaLn1-xLn'xX6, 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.10, Ln and Ln' are trivalent positive lanthanide ions and X is chlorine or bromine, were studied.. Phonon dispersion relations were computed for similar compound, Cs2UBr6, and vibronic absorption spectra with reduced number of required input parameters are considered on the basis of proposed model. (author)

  2. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  3. X-ray instrumentation for SR beamlines

    Kovalchuk, M.V.; Shilin, Yu.N.; Zheludeva, S.I. E-mail: zheludeva@ns.crys.ras.ru; Aleshko-Ozhevsky, O.P.; Arutynyan, E.H.; Kheiker, D.M.; Kreines, A.Ya.; Lider, V.V.; Pashaev, E.M.; Shilina, N.Yu.; Shishkov, V.A

    2000-06-21

    The main possibilities and parameters of experimental X-ray stations are presented: 'Protein crystallography', 'X-ray structure analysis', 'High-precision X-ray optics', 'X-ray crystallography and material science', 'X-ray topography', 'Photoelectron X-ray standing wave' that are being installed at Kurchatov SR source by A.V. Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography.

  4. X-rays and some applications

    This book is one of the specialized books issued by the Arab Atomic Energy Agency about the key technologies of interest to Arab researchers . The book contains 10 chapters as follows: the nature of X-ray, methods of production and measurement of X-rays, X-ray and materials, X-ray crystallography, X-ray and chemistry, X-ray and physics, biological effects of X-ray, radiography in the field of medicine and biology, X-ray in the field of industry, other applications in agriculture, imaging artifacts and paintings and geology.

  5. X-ray Echo Spectroscopy

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a pointlike x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1-0.02 meV ultrahigh-resolution IXS applications (resolving power >108 ) with broadband ≃5 - 13 meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than 103 signal enhancement. The technique is general, applicable in different photon frequency domains.

  6. The Simbol-X Mission

    The elucidation of key questions in astrophysics, in particular those related to black hole physics and census, and to particle acceleration mechanisms, necessitates to develop new observational capabilities in the hard X-ray domain with performances several orders of magnitude better than presently available. Relying on two spacecrafts in a formation flying configuration, Simbol-X will provide the world-wide astrophysics community with a single optics long focal length telescope. This observatory will have unrivaled performances in the hard X-ray domain, up to ∼80 keV, as well as very good characteristics in the soft X-ray domain, down to ∼0.5 keV. The Simbol-X mission has successfully passed a phase A study, jointly conducted by CNES and ASI, with the participation of German laboratories. It is now entering phase B studies with the participation of new international partners, for a launch in 2015. We give in this paper a general overview of the mission, as consolidated at the start of phase B.

  7. X-ray echo spectroscopy

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a counterpart of neutron spin-echo, is being introduced here to overcome limitations in spectral resolution and weak signals of the traditional inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) probes. An image of a point-like x-ray source is defocused by a dispersing system comprised of asymmetrically cut specially arranged Bragg diffracting crystals. The defocused image is refocused into a point (echo) in a time-reversal dispersing system. If the defocused beam is inelastically scattered from a sample, the echo signal acquires a spatial distribution, which is a map of the inelastic scattering spectrum. The spectral resolution of the echo spectroscopy does not rely on the monochromaticity of the x-rays, ensuring strong signals along with a very high spectral resolution. Particular schemes of x-ray echo spectrometers for 0.1--0.02-meV ultra-high-resolution IXS applications (resolving power $> 10^8$) with broadband $\\simeq$~5--13~meV dispersing systems are introduced featuring more than $10^3$ signal e...

  8. Maternal and reproductive performance of Brahman x Angus, Senepol x Angus, and Tuli x Angus cows in the subtropics.

    Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W; Hammond, A C

    2004-09-01

    To determine the maternal and reproductive performance of F1 cows in the subtropics, 42 Brahman x Angus, 34 Senepol x Angus, and 50 Tuli x Angus cows were bred to Angus bulls to calve first and subsequently bred to Charolais bulls to calve as 3- to 8-yr-olds. Age at first calving did not differ among crossbred cows. Angus-sired calf birth weights were heavier (P x Angus than either Brahman x Angus or Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Angus-sired calves were heavier (P Brahman x Angus (213.5 kg) than either Senepol x Angus (194.9 kg) or Tuli x Angus (191.5 kg) cows. As 3- to 8-yr-old cows, calf birth weights were heavier (P x Angus compared with Brahman x Angus but not Tuli x Angus cows. Weaning weights of Charolais-sired calves were heaviest (P Brahman x Angus cows (268.9 kg), lightest from Tuli x Angus cows (233.4 kg), and intermediate from Senepol x Angus cows (245.0 kg). Calf crop born and calf crop weaned were lowest (P x Angus cows (76.9 and 70.2%) and did not differ between Brahman x Angus (89.0 and 86.1%) and Tuli x Angus (94.7 and 86.5%) cows. Tuli x Angus cows tended (P Brahman x Angus cows but not Senepol x Angus cows. As 3- to 8-yr-olds, weaning weight per cow exposed was greatest (P Brahman x Angus (234.2 kg), least (P x Angus (173.0 kg), and intermediate (P x Angus (209.1 kg) cows. Also as 3- to 8-yr-olds, efficiency (205-d calf weight per 100 kg of cow exposed) was similar for Brahman x Angus (42.2) and Tuli x Angus cows (40.7), and both were greater (P x Angus cows (33.8). These data indicate that, in the subtropics, maternal and reproductive performance of Tuli x Angus cows, but not Senepol x Angus cows, was comparable to Brahman x Angus cows, except for lower calf survivability and weaning weight. PMID:15446493

  9. Dental X-ray apparatus

    Intra-oral X-ray apparatus which reduces the number of exposures necessary to obtain panoramic dental radiographs is described in detail. It comprises an electron gun, a tubular target carrier projecting from the gun along the beam axis and carrying at its distal end a target surrounded by a shield of X-ray opaque material. This shield extends forward and laterally of the target and has surfaces which define a wedge or cone-shaped radiation pattern delimited vertically by the root tips of the patient's teeth. A film holder is located externally of the patient's mouth. A disposable member can fit on the target carrier to depress the patient's tongue out of the radiation pattern and to further shield the roof of the mouth. The electron beam can be magnetically deflected to change the X-ray beam direction. (author)

  10. Histiocytosis X in the lung.

    Colby, T V; Lombard, C

    1983-10-01

    The histologic and clinical features of pulmonary histiocytosis X are discussed. The majority of patients are in the third and fourth decades of life. They present with nonspecific respiratory complaints and bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates that can be seen on chest radiographs. The histologic lesions of pulmonary histiocytosis X are scattered, discrete nodules that frequently center on small airways. The initially cellular nodules are replaced progressively by fibrous tissue. The cell infiltrates in active lesions contain variable numbers of eosinophils and histiocytes resembling Langerhans cells of the epidermis (Hx cells). In most patients the disease resolves or stabilizes, leaving few, if any, significant residues. A minority of patients develop progressive pulmonary disease that is ultimately fatal. The cause of pulmonary histiocytosis X is unknown, but two recent series suggest a relationship to cigarette smoking. PMID:6352456

  11. Project X RFQ EM Design

    Romanov, Gennady; /Fermilab; Hoff, Matthew; Li, Derun; Staples, John; Virostek, Steve; /LBNL

    2012-05-09

    Project X is a proposed multi-MW proton facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The Project X front-end would consist of an H- ion source, a low-energy beam transport (LEBT), a CW 162.5 MHz radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and a medium-energy beam transport (MEBT). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and FNAL collaboration is currently developing the designs for various components in the Project X front end. This paper reports the detailed EM design of the CW 162.5 MHz RFQ that provides bunching of the 1-10 mA H- beam with acceleration from 30 keV to 2.1 MeV.

  12. X spectrometry with pulse detectors

    A comparison is made of various types of pulse X-ray detectors (scintillators + photomultipliers, proportional counters, ionisation chambers, semi-conductor detectors: Si (Li) and Ge (Li) ) as well as of their associated electronic equipment, from the point of view of the resolving power, the detection efficiency and the working surface, for photons of from 100 eV to 100 KeV. Semiconductor detectors (Si (Li) up to 50 KeV, Ge (Li) from 10 KeV up to 100 KeV) should rapidly find uses in all cases where an excellent resolving power is necessary (in X-fluorescence for example), whereas proportional counters present greater advantages for applications calling for a high detection surface, and also for very soft X-rays because the window of the detector can be very thin. (author)

  13. Soft x-ray interferometry

    The purpose of the soft x-ray interferometry workshop held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was to discuss with the scientific community the proposed technical design of the soft x-ray Fourier-transform spectrometer being developed at the ALS. Different design strategies for the instrument's components were discussed, as well as detection methods, signal processing issues, and how to meet the manufacturing tolerances that are necessary for the instrument to achieve the desired levels of performance. Workshop participants were encouraged to report on their experiences in the field of Fourier transform spectroscopy. The ALS is developing a Fourier transform spectrometer that is intended to operate up to 100 eV. The motivation is solely improved resolution and not the throughput (Jaquinot) or multiplex (Fellgett) advantage, neither of which apply for the sources and detectors used in this spectral range. The proposed implementation of this is via a Mach-Zehnder geometry that has been (1) distorted from a square to a rhombus to get grazing incidence of a suitable angle for 100 eV and (2) provided with a mirror-motion system to make the path difference between the interfering beams tunable. The experiment consists of measuring the emergent light intensity (I(x)) as a function of the path difference (x). The resolving power of the system is limited by the amount of path difference obtainable that is 1 cm (one million half-waves at 200 angstrom wavelength) in the design thus allowing a resolving power of one million. The free spectral range of the system is limited by the closeness with which the function I(x) is sampled. It is proposed to illuminate a helium absorption cell with roughly 1%-band-width light from a monochromator thus allowing one hundred aliases without spectral overlap even for sampling of I(x) at one hundredth of the Nyquist frequency

  14. From PA(X) to RPAM(X)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    discus only one phenomenon, which, however, contains a particularly dramatic momentum for arousing awareness among all of us, namely X = wildfires. The mathematics of this and of similar phenomena range—among several other topics—from elementary K–12 studies of ellipses to deep research questions in...

  15. Phosphorus Doped Zn 1- x Mg x O Nanowire Arrays

    Lin, S. S.

    2009-11-11

    We demonstrate the growth of phosphorus doped Zn 1-xMg xO nanowire (NW) using pulsed laser deposition. For the first time, p-type Zn 0.92Mg 0.08O:P NWs are likely obtained In reference to atomic force microscopy based piezoelectric output measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the transport property between the NWs and a n-type ZnO film. A shallow acceptor level of ∼140 meV Is identified by temperaturedependent photoluminescence. A piezoelectric output of 60 mV on average has been received using the doped NWs. Besides a control on NW aspect ratio and density, band gap engineering has also been achieved by alloying with Mg to a content of x = 0.23. The alloyed NWs with controllable conductivity type have potential application In high-efficiency all-ZnO NWs based LED, high-output ZnO nanogenerator, and other optical or electrical devices. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  16. SphinX: The Solar Photometer in X-Rays

    Gburek, S.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Kordylewski, Z.; Podgorski, P.; Plocieniak, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S.; Pertsov, A.A.; Kotov, Yu. D.; Fárník, František; Reale, F.; Phillips, K. J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 283, č. 2 (2013), s. 631-649. ISSN 0038-0938 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : solar corona * solar instrumentation * X-rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.805, year: 2013

  17. X-ray imaging: Perovskites target X-ray detection

    Heiss, Wolfgang; Brabec, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Single crystals of perovskites are currently of interest to help fathom fundamental physical parameters limiting the performance of perovskite-based polycrystalline solar cells. Now, such perovskites offer a technology platform for optoelectronic devices, such as cheap and sensitive X-ray detectors.

  18. Application of the QCD light cone sum rule to tetraquarks: the strong vertices $X_bX_b\\rho$ and $X_cX_c\\rho$

    Agaev, S S; Sundu, H

    2016-01-01

    The full version of QCD light-cone sum rule method is applied to tetraquarks containing a single heavy $b$ or $c$ quark. To this end, investigations of the strong vertices $X_{b}X_{b}\\rho$ and $X_{c}X_{c}\\rho$ are performed, where $X_b=[su][\\bar b\\bar d]$ and $X_c=[su][\\bar c\\bar d]$ are the exotic states built of four quarks of different flavors. The strong coupling constants $G_{X_{b}X_{b}\\rho}$ and $G_{X_{c}X_{c}\\rho}$ corresponding to these vertices are found using the $\\rho$-meson leading and higher-twist distribution amplitudes. In the calculations $X_{b(c)}$ are treated as scalar bound states of a diquark and antidiquark.

  19. Droid X The Missing Manual

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Get the most from your Droid X right away with this entertaining Missing Manual. Veteran tech author Preston Gralla offers a guided tour of every feature, with lots of expert tips and tricks along the way. You'll learn how to use calling and texting features, take and share photos, enjoy streaming music and video, and much more. Packed with full-color illustrations, this engaging book covers everything from getting started to advanced features and troubleshooting. Unleash the power of Motorola's hot new device with Droid X: The Missing Manual. Get organized. Import your contacts and sync wit

  20. OS X Mountain Lion bible

    Gruman, Galen

    2012-01-01

    The complete guide to Mac OS X, fully updated for the newest release! The Mac's solid, powerful operating system and the exploding popularity of iOS devices are fueling a strong increase in market share for Apple. Previous editions of this book have sold more than 75,000 copies, and this new edition is fully updated with all the exciting features of OS X Mountain Lion, including Game Center, Messages, and Notifications. Written by industry expert Galen Gruman, it covers all the basics and then delves deep into professional and higher-end topics, making it the one book you need to succeed with

  1. Conductivity of Srsub(1-x)Lasub(x)Fsub(2+x), 0.03 <= x <= 0.40

    Temperature and concentrational dependences of conductivity σ of monocrystalline samples of SrF2-LaF3 solid solutions have been studied. It is shown that σ(T) is described by the equation σ(T)=σ0 exp(-ΔH/kT), where ΔH - is conductivity activation enthalpy. To explain the dependences σ(x) and ΔH(x) a model with quasicontinuous energy distribution of highly mobile interstitial fluorine ions is considered. Equivalent scheme of electrochemical cell, describing frequency dependences of impedance is suggested

  2. Customer profiling for Company X

    Liukkonen, Asta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to study the main characteristics of customers of Company X’s Eastern-Finland premises and to find reasons why some of the shopping precincts customers do not visit the Company X. The goal was to divide the respondents into groups based on the basic segmentation model of Company X and analyze the information learned from each segment group’s geographic-, demographic- and psychological variables. Also specific characteristics of non-customer members of the compan...

  3. Project X functional requirements specification

    Holmes, S D; Kephart, R; Kerby, J; Kourbanis, I; Lebedev, V; Mishra, S; Nagaitsev, S; Solyak, N; Tschirhart, R

    2012-01-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  4. Project X functional requirements specification

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  5. X-ray tomographic apparatus

    An x-ray tomographic system consists of a radiation source such as gamma or x radiation which produces a fan-shaped beam. The fan is wide enough to encompass the patient circle. The system further includes means for rotating the radiation source about the patient for less than a full rotation, and detectors for detecting the radiation at positions that surround the patient by 1800 plus the angle of the fan beam plus the angle between adjacent fan detectors. Attenuation data from the detectors is sorted into detector fans of attenuation data, then processed. The convolved data is back-projected into an image memory and displayed on a video monitor

  6. Reanalysis of the $X(3915)$, $X(4500)$ and $X(4700)$ with QCD sum rules

    Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we study the $C\\gamma_5\\otimes \\gamma_5C$ type and $C\\otimes C$ type scalar $cs\\bar{c}\\bar{s}$ tetraquark states with the QCD sum rules by calculating the contributions of the vacuum condensates up to dimension 10 in a consistent way. The ground state masses $M_{C\\gamma_5\\otimes \\gamma_5C}=3.89\\pm 0.05\\,\\rm{GeV}$ and $M_{C\\otimes C}=5.48\\pm0.10\\,\\rm{GeV}$ support assigning the $X(3915)$ to be the ground state $C\\gamma_5\\otimes \\gamma_5C$ type tetraquark state with $J^{PC}=0^{++}$, but do not support assigning the $X(4700)$ to be the ground state $C\\otimes C$ type $cs\\bar{c}\\bar{s}$ tetraquark state with $J^{PC}=0^{++}$. Then we tentatively assign the $X(3915)$ and $X(4500)$ to be the 1S and 2S $C\\gamma_5\\otimes \\gamma_5C$ type scalar $cs\\bar{c}\\bar{s}$ tetraquark states respectively, and obtain the 1S mass $M_{\\rm 1S}=3.85^{+0.18}_{-0.17}\\,\\rm{GeV}$ and 2S mass $M_{\\rm 2S}=4.35^{+0.10}_{-0.11}\\,\\rm{GeV}$ from the QCD sum rules, which support assigning the $X(3915)$ to be the 1S $C\\gamma_5\\oti...

  7. Phase Separation in As_2-xGe_xSe_1-2x Glasses^*

    Georgiev, Daniel; Mamedov, Sergey; Qu, Tao; Boolchand, Punit

    2003-03-01

    The global maximum in Tg near stoichiometric compositions(GeSe_2, As_2Se_3) in binary (Ge-Se, As-Se) selenide glasses is evidence for nanoscale phase separation [1]. The connection between Tg and network connectivity has thus opened new possibilities to address glass structure issues using scanning calorimetry. Eleven compositions spanning the two end members of the titled ternary are examined in MDSC [2] and FT-Raman scattering measurements. T_g(x) are found to increase with x in the 0 increases. At x =1, the glass can be described as a random network of polymeric As2 (Se_1/2)4 units mixed with Ge(Se_1/2)4 tetrahedra. At x > x_t, the Ge/Se ratio > 1/2 , as ethanelike Ge_2Se3 nanophase nucleates, and Tg decline as decreases [1]. ^* Supported by NSF grant DMR 01-010808 [1] P.Boolchand and W.J.Bresser Phil. Mag. B 80,1757(2000). [2] D.G.Georgiev et al. Phys.Rev B 62,R9228(2000).

  8. Dynamical X-ray Diffraction from In x Ga1- x As Heterostructures with Dislocations

    Rago, P. B.; Ayers, J. E.

    2013-08-01

    High-resolution x-ray diffraction is an important nondestructive tool for structural characterization of semiconductor heterostructures, and the diffraction intensity profiles contain information on the depth profiles of strain, composition, and defect densities in device heterostructures. Much of this information remains inaccessible because the lack of phase information prevents direct inversion of the rocking curves. The current practice is to use dynamical simulations in conjunction with a curve-fitting procedure to indirectly extract the profiles of strain and composition, but such dynamical simulations have been based on perfect, dislocation-free laminar crystals, which renders the analysis inapplicable to highly mismatched structures containing dislocation densities greater than about 106 cm-2. In this work we present a dynamical model for Bragg x-ray diffraction in semiconductor device structures with nonuniform composition, strain, and dislocation density, which is based on the Takagi-Taupin equation for distorted crystals and accounts for the diffuse scattering arising from the strain mosaicity and angular mosaicity associated with dislocations. We show theoretically that the x-ray diffraction profiles from In x Ga1- x As/GaAs (001) heterostructures are strongly affected by the depth distribution of the dislocation density as well as the composition and strain, so that in principle all three distributions may be obtained by the analysis of the measured diffraction profiles.

  9. NGC300 X-1 and IC10 X-1: a new breed of black hole binary?

    Barnard, R.; Clark, J. S.; Kolb, U. C.

    2008-01-01

    Context. IC 10 X-1 has recently been confirmed as a black hole (BH) + Wolf-Rayet (WR) X-ray binary, and NGC 300 X-1 is thought to be. The only other known BH+WR candidate is Cygnus X-3. IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1 have similar X-ray properties, with 0.3-10 keV luminosities ~1038 erg s-1, and their X-ray lightcurves exhibit orbital periods ~30 h. Aims. We investigate similarities between IC 10 X-1 and NGC 300 X-1, as well as differences between these systems and the known Galactic BH bina...

  10. x

    KORAY, Özlem; ALTUNÇEKİÇ, Alper; YAMAN, SÜLEYMAN

    2005-01-01

    Learning is meaningful and efficient when people’s mind begins thinking and tries to find answers to the questions which immediately asked. “Questioning” is action which brings into thinking and then applies learning. The purpose of this study is classified preservice science teachers questioning skills according to Cognitive Domain Level of Bloom’s Taxonomy and detected their level of questioning skills. The results show that preservice science teachers of questioning skills deve...

  11. x

    Ali Rıza ERDEM

    2005-01-01

    Mission may be defined as “a long term goal or task to distinguish the organization from similar organizations” from management point of view. A well-defined mission description of an organization will help the organization to express its goals clearly and realistically. Today the missions of a modern university have been identified in the literature as “instruction, research and providing service to the society.” When universities are evaluated according to their functions, they ...

  12. Gamma and X 93 spectrometry

    The Meetings of Gamma and X 93 Spectrometry were held on 12-14 October 1993. The symposium was organized into six sessions: Instrumentation development, Nuclear matter measurement, Method and calibration, Medical applications, Environment survey (radioactive traces measurement), other applications (spent fuels analysis, various techniques). Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers in this volume. (TEC)

  13. Workplace Learning and Generation X.

    Bova, Breda; Kroth, Michael

    2001-01-01

    A survey of the learning preferences of 197 Generation X workers found that they value incidental and action learning. They recognized the need for formal training, but suggested improvements. They preferred learning by doing, visual stimuli, and self-directed learning. (Contains 26 references.) (SK)

  14. The toxicity of X material

    Ferry, J.L.

    1943-12-31

    This report addresses toxicity (largely chemical) of Manhattan Project materials from the point of worker protection. Known chemical toxicities of X material (uranium), nitrous fumes, fluorine, vanadium, magnesium, and lime are described followed by safe exposure levels, symptoms of exposure, and treatment recommendations. The report closes with an overview of general policy in a question and answer format.

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... exam requires little to no special preparation. Tell your doctor and the technologist if there is any possibility you are pregnant. Leave jewelry at home and wear loose, comfortable clothing. You may be asked to wear a gown. What is Bone X-ray (Radiography)? What are some ...

  16. X-ray image converters

    The invention pertains to rare earth phosphor admixtures utilizing thulium-activated lanthanum or gadolinium oxyhalide phosphor material. These materials increase the relative speed and resolution of an X-ray image compared with conventional phosphors as well as reducing the still serious crossover problem now experienced with conventional phosphors. (Auth.)

  17. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... Images related to X-ray (Radiography) - Bone About this Site RadiologyInfo.org is produced by: Please note ... you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The costs ...

  18. X-linked Alport syndrome

    Jais, J P; Knebelmann, B; Giatras, I;

    2000-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen hereditary disease characterized by the association of progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and, frequently, ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are responsible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease. Consid...

  19. X-linked Alport syndrome

    Jais, Jean Philippe; Knebelmann, Bertrand; Giatras, Iannis;

    2003-01-01

    Alport syndrome (AS) is a type IV collagen hereditary disease characterized by progressive hematuric nephritis, hearing loss, and ocular changes. Mutations in the COL4A5 collagen gene are responsible for the more common X-linked dominant form of the disease characterized by much less severe disea...

  20. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray ( ... are the fastest and easiest way for your doctor to view and assess bone fractures, injuries and ...

  1. X-Ray Diffractive Optics

    Dennis, Brian; Li, Mary; Skinner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    X-ray optics were fabricated with the capability of imaging solar x-ray sources with better than 0.1 arcsecond angular resolution, over an order of magnitude finer than is currently possible. Such images would provide a new window into the little-understood energy release and particle acceleration regions in solar flares. They constitute one of the most promising ways to probe these regions in the solar atmosphere with the sensitivity and angular resolution needed to better understand the physical processes involved. A circular slit structure with widths as fine as 0.85 micron etched in a silicon wafer 8 microns thick forms a phase zone plate version of a Fresnel lens capable of focusing approx. =.6 keV x-rays. The focal length of the 3-cm diameter lenses is 100 microns, and the angular resolution capability is better than 0.1 arcsecond. Such phase zone plates were fabricated in Goddard fs Detector Development Lab. (DDL) and tested at the Goddard 600-microns x-ray test facility. The test data verified that the desired angular resolution and throughput efficiency were achieved.

  2. Microphonics control for Project X

    Schappert, W.; Barbanotti, S.; Branlard, J.; Cancelo, G.; Carcagno, R.; Chase, B.; Champion, M.; Gonin, I.; Klebaner, A.; Orris, D.; Pischalnikov, Y.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The proposed multi-MW Project X facility at Fermilab will employ cavities with bandwidths as narrow as 20 Hz. This combination of high RF power with narrow bandwidths combined requires careful attention to detuning control if these cavities are to be operated successfully. Detuning control for Projects X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various machine subsystems. Considerable progress in this area has been made over the past year. Detuning levels in the Project X cavities, specifically the Low and High {beta} 650 MHz elliptical types, can have a significant impact on the overall cost of the project. The narrow bandwidths, and the high RF Power requirements, and the large number of these cavities mean that careful attention to detuning control will be required if these cavities are to operate successfully. Limiting cavity detuning in Project X will require a coordinated effort between the groups responsible for various subsystems of the planned machine. Considerable progress towards this goal has been made by each of these groups over the past year.

  3. X-ray diagnostic equipment

    Lateral and orbital scanning movements can be carried out with the equipment. The assessment is carried out by a computer. Differences in sensitivity of the detectors can be compensated for by displacement of the electron beam of the X-ray tube compared to the anti-cathode or by bending of the electron beam by electromagnetic coils. (RW)

  4. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    The seventh edition of Philips' Review of Literature on x-ray fluorescence spectrometry starts with a list of conference proceedings on the subject, organised by the Philips organisation at regular intervals in various European countries. It is followed by a list of bulletins. The bibliography is subdivided according to spectra, equipment, applications and absorption analysis

  5. X-ray film processing

    X-ray films have to be highly sensitive, for radiation protection reasons. The films used in radiology are coated on both sides with a photosensitive emulsion. This applies to all dental films. Their properties and the development of the different exposed films are explained. (DG)

  6. X-ray backscatter imaging

    Dinca, Dan-Cristian; Schubert, Jeffrey R.; Callerame, J.

    2008-04-01

    In contrast to transmission X-ray imaging systems where inspected objects must pass between source and detector, Compton backscatter imaging allows both the illuminating source as well as the X-ray detector to be on the same side of the target object, enabling the inspection to occur rapidly and in a wide variety of space-constrained situations. A Compton backscatter image is similar to a photograph of the contents of a closed container, taken through the container walls, and highlights low atomic number materials such as explosives, drugs, and alcohol, which appear as especially bright objects by virtue of their scattering characteristics. Techniques for producing X-ray images based on Compton scattering will be discussed, along with examples of how these systems are used for both novel security applications and for the detection of contraband materials at ports and borders. Differences between transmission and backscatter images will also be highlighted. In addition, tradeoffs between Compton backscatter image quality and scan speed, effective penetration, and X-ray source specifications will be discussed.

  7. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z X-ray (Radiography) - Bone ...

  8. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. The effective radiation dose for this procedure varies. ...

  9. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... cancer from excessive exposure to radiation. However, the benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. ...

  10. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... over time. top of page What are the benefits vs. risks? Benefits Bone x-rays are the fastest and easiest ... evaluation. National and international radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique standards used by radiology ...

  11. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos News Physician ... minimize radiation exposure to the baby. See the Safety page for more information about pregnancy and x- ...

  12. X33/X34 Terminated by NASA%美取消X-33和X-34计划

    2001-01-01

    @@ 美国航宇局3月1日宣布不再为X-33和X-34两项运载技术验证计划出资,实际上等于宣判了这两项计划的"死刑".这项决定是在该局决定集中精力在其航天发射计划(SLI)之下发展下一代可复用运载器之后做出的.美国航宇局官员称,他们目前正在同多家公司就SLI合同进行谈判,但X-33和X-34都将得不到SLI计划的资助.该局在3月1日发表的声明中称:"美国航宇局认定,对这两种试验机进行飞行试验所能带来的好处不值得让政府进行所需的高额投资;SLI项目资金应该用来满足更重要的需求."

  13. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure performed? ... benefit of an accurate diagnosis far outweighs the risk. The effective ... more information about radiation dose. Women should always inform their ...

  14. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos ... to current x-ray images for diagnosis and disease management. top of page How is the procedure ...

  15. Bone X-Ray (Radiography)

    Full Text Available ... for more information about pregnancy and x-rays. A Word About Minimizing Radiation Exposure Special care is ... encourage linking to this site. × Recommend RadiologyInfo to a friend Send to (friend's e-mail address): From ( ...

  16. X-Ray Timing Properties of Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-2

    Focke, Warren Bosworth

    Cygnus X-1 and Cygnus X-2 are X-ray sources which are believed to be a black hole and a neutron star, respectively. We investigate the variability of Cygnus X-1 in the context of shot noise models, and employ a peak detection algorithm to select individual shots. The detected shots are fit to several model templates. The fit shot parameters are found to be distributed. The cross spectrum of light curves from Cygnus X-1 in different energy bands is studied. Large, frequency dependent time lags are observed, along with high coherence. The high coherence implies that the transfer function between low and high energy variability is uniform. This implies that, if the lags are due to Compton scattering, variations in the seed intensity must originate in a region much smaller than the Comptonizing medium. The frequency dependence of the lags implies that, if they are due to Comptonization, the Comptonizing medium is nonuniform. The uniformity of the transfer function implies that the observed distribution of shot widths cannot have been acquired through Compton scattering. The energy spectrum of the radiation reaching us from Cygnus X-1 is found to fluctuate at the shortest timescales observable. This implies rapid changes in the geometry or temperature of some portions of the system, possibly due to dynamical instabilities of the system. The high counting rates and temporal resolution of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer allow more detailed investigation of the Horizontal Branch Oscillations (HBO) in Cygnus X-2 than has been possible previously, including observation of a second harmonic. The relations of the frequencies and widths of these peaks are investigated in order to shed light on their origin and thus the conditions in the region of their formation. The observations support the Magnetospheric Beat Frequency Modulated Accretion model for the origin of the HBO. The data indicate that neither rapid variation in the frequency of, nor short lifetime of, a locally

  17. Structural singularities in Ge(x)Te(100-x) films.

    Piarristeguy, A A; Micoulaut, M; Escalier, R; Jóvári, P; Kaban, I; van Eijk, J; Luckas, J; Ravindren, S; Boolchand, P; Pradel, A

    2015-08-21

    Structural and calorimetric investigation of Ge(x)Te(100-x) films over wide range of concentration 10 stability led to conclude to the origin of the first singularity being the flexible/rigid transition proposed in the framework of rigidity model and the origin of the second one being the disappearance of the undercooled region resulting in amorphous materials with statistical distributions of bonds. While the first singularity signs the onset of the Ge-Ge homopolar bonds, the second is related to compositions where enhanced Ge-Ge correlations at intermediate lengthscales (7.7 Å) are observed. These two threshold compositions correspond to recently reported resistance drift threshold compositions, an important support for models pointing the breaking of homopolar Ge-Ge bonds as the main phenomenon behind the ageing of phase change materials. PMID:26298140

  18. Phase-sensitive X-ray imager

    Baker, Kevin Louis

    2013-01-08

    X-ray phase sensitive wave-front sensor techniques are detailed that are capable of measuring the entire two-dimensional x-ray electric field, both the amplitude and phase, with a single measurement. These Hartmann sensing and 2-D Shear interferometry wave-front sensors do not require a temporally coherent source and are therefore compatible with x-ray tubes and also with laser-produced or x-pinch x-ray sources.

  19. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  20. X-33 Contractor Design Proposals

    1996-01-01

    This artist's rendering depicts the three designs submitted for the X-33 proposal for a technology demonstrator of a Single-Stage-To-Orbit (SSTO) Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). NASA considered design submissions from Rockwell, Lockheed Martin, and McDonnell Douglas. NASA selected Lockheed Martin's design on 2 July 1996. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, expected to play a key role in the development and flight testing of the X-33. The RLV technology program was a cooperative agreement between NASA and industry. The goal of the RLV technology program was to enable significant reductions in the cost of access to space and to promote the creation and delivery of new space services and other activities that was to improve U.S. economic competitiveness. The X-33 was a wedged-shaped subscale technology demonstrator prototype of a potential future Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) that Lockheed Martin had dubbed VentureStar. The company hoped to develop VentureStar early this century. Through demonstration flight and ground research, NASA's X-33 program was to have provided the information needed for industry representatives such as Lockheed Martin to decide whether to proceed with the development of a full-scale, commercial RLV program. A full-scale, single-stage-to-orbit RLV was to have dramatically increased reliability and lowered the costs of putting a pound of payload into space, from the current figure of $10,000 to $1,000. Reducing the cost associated with transporting payloads in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by using a commercial RLV was to have create new opportunities for space access and significantly improved U.S. economic competitiveness in the world-wide launch marketplace. NASA expected to be a customer, not the operator, of the commercial RLV. The X-33 design was based on a lifting body shape with two revolutionary 'linear aerospike' rocket engines and a rugged metallic thermal protection system. The vehicle also had lightweight components

  1. Self-organization in P_xGe_xSe_1-2x glasses^*

    Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Georgiev, Daniel; Boolchand, Punit; Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2003-03-01

    Bulk glasses in the titled ternary, in the 0 MDSC and Raman scattering measurements. Both fresh and aged samples were studied. Bimodal endotherms are observed but only the high^T endotherm displays a reversing heat flow signal that represents a glass transition. The pre^_Tg endotherm is observed in quenched samples only, and represents an activation energy [1] associated with P4 units (Se^_P(Se_1/2)_3) converting to P3 (P(Se_1/2)_3) ones. T_g(x) accessed from the reversing heat flow are found to increase with x as a power^_law, displaying a cusp near x = 0.04. The non^_reversing enthalpy is found to display a global minimum in the 0.08 < x < 0.145 range identified with the self^_organized phase. Raman scattering reveals the isostatically rigid units ( P3 , P_4, CS and ES Ge(Se_1/2)_4) comprising building blocks of the self^_organized phase. These results are parallel to those encountered in the As^_Ge^_Se ternary [2,3]. ^*Supported by NSF grant DMR ^_01^_01808 1. D.G. Georgiev et al Phys. Rev. B 64,134204(2001) 2.Y. Wang et al Europhys. Lett. 52, 633 (2000) 3. T.Qu et al. companion abstract

  2. High-Resolution X-ray Emission and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    de Groot, F. M. F.

    2001-01-01

    In this review, high-resolution X-ray emission and X-ray absorption spectroscopy will be discussed. The focus is on the 3d transition-metal systems. To understand high-resolution X-ray emission and reso-nant X-ray emission, it is first necessary to spend some time discussing the X-ray absorption process. Section II discusses 1s X-ray absorption, i.e., the K edges, and section III deals with 2p X-ray absorption, the L edges. X-ray emission is discussed in, respectively, the L edges. X-ray emis...

  3. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy; Radium-Aufreinigung zur Herstellung von Actinium-225 am Zyklotron fuer die Alpha-Immuntherapie

    Marx, Sebastian Markus

    2014-09-23

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  4. Submicron X-ray diffraction

    At the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley the authors have instrumented a beam line that is devoted exclusively to x-ray micro diffraction problems. By micro diffraction they mean those classes of problems in Physics and Materials Science that require x-ray beam sizes in the sub-micron range. The beam line has a unity magnification toroidal mirror that produces a 50 by 200 micron focus just inside an x-ray hutch at the position of an x-y slit. The beam path in the hutch consists of source defining slits, a four bounce Ge or Si monochromator, followed by elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror pair which focuses the beam from the slits to sub micron dimensions (0.8 x 0.8 microns). An important feature of this arrangement is the ability to switch between white and monochromatic beams that are essential for characterizing crystals or crystal grains in the sub-micron range. Since sample rotation is fixed they have facilities for precision translation of the specimen to allow them to scan different crystal regions or grains. The sample stage rests on a state of the art six-circle diffractometer equipped with encoders in the main rotation stages calibrated to a second of arc. The detector is a 4K x 4K CCD (Bruker) with a 9 x 9 cm view area mounted on a detector arm that can be positioned around the sample. The detector itself can also be positioned to better than 1 micron along the detector arm. Using this facility they have been able to measure the orientation structure of single grains of passivated or buried Al interconnect test structures. Such structures or their equivalents are important in connecting individual components on integrated circuits. Their sub-micron dimensions result in very high current densities that can result in interconnect failures. The variation in sub-grain structure in a single grain is rich in detail. They have obtained detailed maps of misorientations in single grains using white beam Laue diffraction patterns From these they have been

  5. Mac OS X ja tietoturva

    Herranen, Joni

    2011-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tavoitteena on luoda kattava kokonaiskuva Mac OS X -käyttöjärjestelmän sisäänrakennetuista tietoturvaratkaisuista ja selvittää miten tietoturvaratkaisut toteuttavat tietoturvan kolmea perustavoitetta eli luottamuksellisuutta, eheyttä ja saatavuutta. Työn kohderyhmäksi on valittu edistyneemmät tietokoneenkäyttäjät, joilla ei ole aikaisempaa Mac-kokemusta. Teoriaosuudessa syvennytään aluksi Apple-yhtiöön sekä Mac OS X -järjestelmän teknisiin ominaisuuksiin. Osuuden pääta...

  6. Digital x-ray imaging

    Digital radiography is progressively replacing conventional (film-based) radiographic techniques promising consistently high levels of image quality, more effective use of radiation and more efficient work practices. At the same time its introduction poses new challenges to those physical scientists who design radiological imaging systems and those who provide scientific/technical support to a clinical radiology service. In this review scientific aspects of those digital x-ray imaging systems which are proving most successful are described. Physical measurement techniques developed to evaluate the imaging performance and radiation dose efficiency of clinical digital radiography systems are outlined. Finally, directions in which digital x-ray imaging technology may evolve in the coming decade are discussed. (author)

  7. Unitarity at small Bjorken x

    Weigert, H

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a solution to the nonlinear small x ``projectile side'' evolution equations as derived by Balitskii in 1996. The solution is based on functional Fokker-Planck methods. The fixed point at small x is explicitly calculated and all correlation functions in this limit are determined. They show clear saturation and unitarization properties. Scaling laws that hold during the saturation phase and throughout the whole course of the evolution are established. The corresponding Langevin equations are given as a basis for numerical simulations opening the field for future studies of dynamical issues of the evolution not analytically accessible. The methods used may be extended to the ``target side'' equations of Jalilian-Marian, Kovner, Leonidov and Weigert.

  8. Unitarity at small Bjorken x

    This paper presents a solution to the nonlinear small-x 'projectile side' evolution equations as derived by Balitskii in 1996. The solution is based on functional Fokker-Planck methods. The fixed point at small x is explicitly calculated and all correlation functions in this limit are determined. They show clear saturation and unitarization properties. Scaling laws that hold during the saturation phase and throughout the whole course of the evolution are established. The corresponding Langevin equations are given as a basis for numerical simulations opening the field for future studies of dynamical issues of the evolution not analytically accessible. The methods used may be extended to the 'target side' equations of Jalilian-Marian, Kovner, Leonidov and Weigert

  9. Unitarity at small Bjorken x

    Weigert, Heribert E-mail: heribert.weigert@physik.uni-regensburg.de

    2002-06-03

    This paper presents a solution to the nonlinear small-x 'projectile side' evolution equations as derived by Balitskii in 1996. The solution is based on functional Fokker-Planck methods. The fixed point at small x is explicitly calculated and all correlation functions in this limit are determined. They show clear saturation and unitarization properties. Scaling laws that hold during the saturation phase and throughout the whole course of the evolution are established. The corresponding Langevin equations are given as a basis for numerical simulations opening the field for future studies of dynamical issues of the evolution not analytically accessible. The methods used may be extended to the 'target side' equations of Jalilian-Marian, Kovner, Leonidov and Weigert.

  10. Structure functions at large x

    Zhang, Z

    2002-01-01

    Structure function data together with other measurements from fixed-target deep inelastic scattering and hadron-hadron collider experiments which contribute to our knowledge of the parton density functions are reviewed. The inclusive cross-section measurements of neutral and charged current interactions at HERA are presented and their impact on the parton density functions is discussed. Future prospects for an improved knowledge of the parton density functions at large x are briefly mentioned.

  11. Clonality - X Chromosome Inactivation Assay

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Molecular Profiling Initiative, NCI This method was successful in our lab using prostate tissue and for our specific objectives. Investigators must be aware that they will need to tailor the following protocol for their own research objectives and tissue under study. Investigators can utilize X chromosome inactivation (methylation) to determine the clonality status of a tumor or premalignant lesion in females. The technique is based on a methylation-sensitive restriction enzym...

  12. Familial colorectal cancer type X

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Therkildsen, Christina; Da Silva, Sabrina;

    2015-01-01

    Heredity is a major cause of colorectal cancer, but although several rare high-risk syndromes have been linked to disease-predisposing mutations, the genetic mechanisms are undetermined in the majority of families suspected of hereditary cancer. We review the clinical presentation, histopathologic...... features, and the genetic and epigenetic profiles of the familial colorectal cancer type X (FCCTX) syndrome with the aim to delineate tumor characteristics that may contribute to refined diagnostics and optimized tumor prevention....

  13. Soft x-ray tomoholography

    We demonstrate an x-ray imaging method that combines Fourier transform holography with tomography (‘tomoholography’) for three-dimensional (3D) microscopic imaging. A 3D image of a diatom shell with a spatial resolution of 140 nm is presented. The experiment is realized by using a small gold sphere as the reference wave source for holographic imaging. This setup allows us to rotate the sample and to collect a number of 2D projections for tomography. (paper)

  14. Soft x-ray tomoholography

    Guehrs, E.; Stadler, A.M.; Flewett, S.; Frömmel, S.; Geilhufe, J.; Pfau, B; Rander, T.; Schaffert, S.; Büldt, G; Eisebitt, S.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate an x-ray imaging method that combines Fourier transform holography with tomography ('tomoholography') for three-dimensional (3D) microscopic imaging. A 3D image of a diatom shell with a spatial resolution of 140 nm is presented. The experiment is realized by using a small gold sphere as the reference wave source for holographic imaging. This setup allows us to rotate the sample and to collect a number of 2D projections for tomography.

  15. Marketing plan for company X

    Trishkina, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this master´s thesis is to make a structured marketing plan for company X, which provide tourism services in Finland. The thesis is done with qualitative method, which is the most suitable for marketing research, because it is mostly analyzing and description rather than statistical or numerical reports. In the theoretical part is studied secondary data of the topic, including research about marketing, marketing plan, customer relationship management, customers´ satisfaction a...

  16. X33枪族

    2009-01-01

    突击步枪已经成为当今步兵的主要装备,现在正向小型化、模块化、多功能化发展。KAC公司新研发的6×35毫米弹药,性能不错,笔者决定以此弹为基础设计一套新枪族——X33枪族。

  17. X-ray tube arrangements

    A technique for ensuring the rapid correction of both amplitude and offset errors in the deflectional movement of an electron beam along an X-ray emissive target is described. The movement is monitored at at least two positions during a sweep and differences, between the two movements and a desired movement, at these positions are combined in different proportions to produce a corrective servo signal. Such arrangements find application, for example, in computerised tomographic scanners. (author)

  18. Parametric X-Ray Radiation

    Shchagin, Alexander

    1997-10-01

    The main PXR properties [1,2] are considered in the paper: energy, width, smooth tuning of monochromatic PXR spectral line; fine structure and absolute differential yields of PXR in the vicinity of and at angular distances from Brag directions; angular spread of the PXR beam; the influence of incident electron energy and of the density effect on the PXR properties; linear polarization of PXR; background in PXR spectra. Experimental setups for linacs and the results of measurements are discussed. Experimental data are compared to theoretical calculations at PXR energies between 5 and 400 keV for incident electron energies ranging from 15 to 1200 MeV. Possible applications of PXR as a new source of a bright, tunable X-ray beam in science and industry are discussed. [1] A.V. Shchagin and N.A. Khizhnyak, NIM B119, 115-122 (1996). [2] A.V. Shchagin and X.K. Maruyama, "Parametric X-rays", a chapter in the book "Accelerator-based Atomic Physics Techniques and Applications", edited by S.M. Shafroth and J.C. Austin, AIP Press, 1997, pp 279-307.

  19. X-ray-powered macronovae

    Kisaka, Shota; Nakar, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after short gamma-ray burst, GRB 130603B. Although the $r$-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose that the X-ray excess simultaneously observed with the infrared excess can naturally heat the ejecta, leading to the thermal re-emission as observed in infrared. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source by the central engine like a black hole, and allows for broader parameter region, in particular smaller ejecta mass $\\sim10^{-3}-10^{-2}M_{\\odot}$ with iron mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers, than the previous models. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  20. X-Ray Crystallography Reagent

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor); Mosier, Benjamin (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Microcapsules prepared by encapsulating an aqueous solution of a protein, drug or other bioactive substance inside a semi-permeable membrane by are disclosed. The microcapsules are formed by interfacial coacervation under conditions where the shear forces are limited to 0-100 dynes per square centimeter at the interface. By placing the microcapsules in a high osmotic dewatering solution. the protein solution is gradually made saturated and then supersaturated. and the controlled nucleation and crystallization of the protein is achieved. The crystal-filled microcapsules prepared by this method can be conveniently harvested and stored while keeping the encapsulated crystals in essentially pristine condition due to the rugged. protective membrane. Because the membrane components themselves are x-ray transparent, large crystal-containing microcapsules can be individually selected, mounted in x-ray capillary tubes and subjected to high energy x-ray diffraction studies to determine the 3-D smucture of the protein molecules. Certain embodiments of the microcapsules of the invention have composite polymeric outer membranes which are somewhat elastic, water insoluble, permeable only to water, salts, and low molecular weight molecules and are structurally stable in fluid shear forces typically encountered in the human vascular system.

  1. X-Ray-powered Macronovae

    Kisaka, Shota; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakar, Ehud

    2016-02-01

    A macronova (or kilonova) was observed as an infrared excess several days after the short gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B. Although the r-process radioactivity is widely discussed as an energy source, it requires a huge mass of ejecta from a neutron star (NS) binary merger. We propose a new model in which the X-ray excess gives rise to the simultaneously observed infrared excess via thermal re-emission, and explore what constraints this would place on the mass and velocity of the ejecta. This X-ray-powered model explains both the X-ray and infrared excesses with a single energy source such as the central engine like a black hole, and allows for a broader parameter region than the previous models, in particular a smaller ejecta mass ˜ {10}-3{--}{10}-2{M}⊙ and higher iron abundance mixed as suggested by general relativistic simulations for typical NS-NS mergers. We also discuss the other macronova candidates in GRB 060614 and GRB 080503, and the implications for the search of electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves.

  2. On strongly $g(x)$-clean rings

    Fan, Lingling; Yang, Xiande

    2008-01-01

    Let $R$ be an associative ring with identity, $C(R)$ denote the center of $R$, and $g(x)$ be a polynomial in the polynomial ring $C(R)[x]$. $R$ is called strongly $g(x)$-clean if every element $r \\in R$ can be written as $r=s+u$ with $g(s)=0$, $u$ a unit of $R$, and $su=us$. The relation between strongly $g(x)$-clean rings and strongly clean rings is determined, some general properties of strongly $g(x)$-clean rings are given, and strongly $g(x)$-clean rings generated by units are discussed.

  3. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  4. X-ray Reciprocal Space Mapping of Graded Al x Ga1 - x N Films and Nanowires.

    Stanchu, Hryhorii V; Kuchuk, Andrian V; Kladko, Vasyl P; Ware, Morgan E; Mazur, Yuriy I; Zytkiewicz, Zbigniew R; Belyaev, Alexander E; Salamo, Gregory J

    2016-12-01

    The depth distribution of strain and composition in graded Al x Ga1 - x N films and nanowires (NWs) are studied theoretically using the kinematical theory of X-ray diffraction. By calculating [Formula: see text] reciprocal space maps (RSMs), we demonstrate significant differences in the intensity distributions from graded Al x Ga1 - x N films and NWs. We attribute these differences to relaxation of the substrate-induced strain on the NWs free side walls. Finally, we demonstrate that the developed X-ray reciprocal space map model allows for reliable depth profiles of strain and Al composition determination in both Al x Ga1 - x N films and NWs. PMID:26860714

  5. Renal uptake of bismuth-213 and its contribution to kidney radiation dose following administration of actinium-225-labeled antibody

    Schwartz, J; O' Donoghue, J A; Humm, J L [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); Jaggi, J S [Bristol-Myers Squibb, Plainsboro, NJ (United States); Ruan, S; Larson, S M [Nuclear Medicine Service Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States); McDevitt, M; Scheinberg, D A, E-mail: schwarj1@mskcc.org [Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Sloan-Kettering Institute, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065 (United States)

    2011-02-07

    Clinical therapeutic studies using {sup 225}Ac-labeled antibodies have begun. Of major concern is renal toxicity that may result from the three alpha-emitting progeny generated following the decay of {sup 225}Ac. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of {sup 225}Ac and non-equilibrium progeny in the mouse kidney after the injection of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and examine the dosimetric consequences. Groups of mice were sacrificed at 24, 96 and 144 h after injection with {sup 225}Ac-huM195 antibody and kidneys excised. One kidney was used for gamma ray spectroscopic measurements by a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The second kidney was used to generate frozen tissue sections which were examined by digital autoradiography (DAR). Two measurements were performed on each kidney specimen: (1) immediately post-resection and (2) after sufficient time for any non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi to decay completely. Comparison of these measurements enabled estimation of the amount of excess {sup 213}Bi reaching the kidney ({gamma}-ray spectroscopy) and its sub-regional distribution (DAR). The average absorbed dose to whole kidney, determined by spectroscopy, was 0.77 (SD 0.21) Gy kBq{sup -1}, of which 0.46 (SD 0.16) Gy kBq{sup -1} (i.e. 60%) was due to non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi. The relative contributions to renal cortex and medulla were determined by DAR. The estimated dose to the cortex from non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi (0.31 (SD 0.11) Gy kBq{sup -1}) represented {approx}46% of the total. For the medulla the dose contribution from excess {sup 213}Bi (0.81 (SD 0.28) Gy kBq{sup -1}) was {approx}80% of the total. Based on these estimates, for human patients we project a kidney-absorbed dose of 0.28 Gy MBq{sup -1} following administration of {sup 225}Ac-huM195 with non-equilibrium excess {sup 213}Bi responsible for approximately 60% of the total. Methods to reduce renal accumulation of radioactive progeny appear to be necessary for the success of {sup 225}Ac radioimmunotherapy.

  6. Purification of radium-226 for the manufacturing of actinium-225 in a cyclotron for alpha-immunotherapy

    The thesis describes the development of methods for the purification of Ra-226. The objective was to obtain the radionuclide in the quality that is needed to be used as starting material in the manufacturing process for Ac-225 via proton-irradiated Ra-226. The radionuclide has been gained efficiently out of huge excesses of impurities. The high purity of the obtained radium affords its use as staring material in a pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

  7. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  8. Differential properties of functions x -> x^{2^t-1} -- extended version

    Blondeau, Céline; Charpin, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    We provide an extensive study of the differential properties of the functions $x\\mapsto x^{2^t-1}$ over $\\F$, for $2 \\leq t \\leq n-1$. We notably show that the differential spectra of these functions are determined by the number of roots of the linear polynomials $x^{2^t}+bx^2+(b+1)x$ where $b$ varies in $\\F$.We prove a strong relationship between the differential spectra of $x\\mapsto x^{2^t-1}$ and $x\\mapsto x^{2^{s}-1}$ for $s= n-t+1$. As a direct consequence, this result enlightens a connection between the differential properties of the cube function and of the inverse function. We also determine the complete differential spectra of $x \\mapsto x^7$ by means of the value of some Kloosterman sums, and of $x \\mapsto x^{2^t-1}$ for $t \\in \\{\\lfloor n/2\\rfloor, \\lceil n/2\\rceil+1, n-2\\}$.

  9. Homo- and heterovalent substitutions in the new clathrates I Si30P16Te(8-x)Se(x) and Si(30+x)P(16-x)Te(8-x)Br(x): synthesis, crystal structure, and thermoelectric properties.

    Abramchuk, Nikolay S; Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder; Veremchuk, Igor; Oeschler, Niels; Olenev, Andrei V; Prots, Yurii; Burkhardt, Ulrich; Dikarev, Evgeny V; Grin, Juri; Shevelkov, Andrei V

    2012-11-01

    The new cationic clathrates I Si(30)P(16)Te(8-x)Se(x) and Si(30+x)P(16-x)Te(8-x)Br(x) were synthesized by the standard ampule technique. The Si(30)P(16)Te(8-x)Se(x) (x = 0-2.3) clathrates crystallize in the cubic space group Pm3̅n with the unit cell parameter a ranging from 9.9382(2) to 9.9696(1) Å. In the case of the Si(30+x)P(16-x)Te(8-x)Br(x) (x = 1-6.4) clathrates, the lattice parameter varies from 9.9720(8) to 10.0405(1) Å; at lower Si/P ratios (x = 1-3) the ordering of bromine atoms induces the splitting of the guest positions and causes the transformation from the space group Pm3n to Pm3. Irrespective of the structure peculiarities, the normal temperature motion of the guest atoms inside the oversized cages of the framework is observed. The title clathrates possess very low thermal expansion coefficients ranging from 6.6 × 10(-6) to 1.0 × 10(-5) K(-1) in the temperature range of 298-1100 K. The characteristic Debye temperature is about 490 K. Measurements of the electrical resistivity and thermopower showed typical behavior of p-type thermally activated semiconductors, whereas the temperature behavior of the thermal conductivity is glasslike and in general consistent with the PGEC concept. The highest value of the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT = 0.1) was achieved for the Br-bearing clathrate Si(32.1(2))P(13.9(2))Te(6.6(2))Br(1.0(1)) at 750 K. PMID:23072375

  10. X-ray diffraction study of the structure Ti{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} amorphous alloys

    Barmin, Yu. [State Technical Univ., Voronezh (Russian Federation). Dept. of Solid State Physics; Doonichev, I.; Kosilov, A. [Dept. of Physics of Metals, State Technical Univ., Voronezh (Russian Federation)

    2000-07-01

    The Ti-Ni amorphous alloys were prepared by high rate sputter-deposition. The Ti{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x} (x = 0,61; 0,65; 0,74) alloys structure was investigated by the X-ray diffraction method. The topological short-range order parameters (the radius of the first coordination sphere and coordination number) was established. The experimental data were compared with the results of computer simulation. (orig.)

  11. 函数[Γ(x)](1/x)·e(α/x)的几何凸性及其应用%The Geometrically Convexity of[Γ(x)](1/x)·e(α/x) and Its Application

    续铁权; 张小明; 陈纪祖

    2006-01-01

    设Γ为(0,+∝)上的Gamma函数,Ψ(x)=Γ′(x)/Γ(x)和fα(x)=[Γ(x)](1/x)·e(α/x),α∈R,x∈(0,+∝),本文研究了函数fα的几何凸性,得到一个关于Gamma函数且含参数的不等式,同时证明了:当n∈N,n≥1时,有(n+1)/(n)1-(lnn+2)/(2n)≤(n!)(1)/(n+1)/((n-1)!)(1/n)(n!)(n+1)/(n)1+(lnn-2)/(2n)成立,其加强了Minc-Sather不等式.

  12. Gauge bosons and fermions in SU(3)C x SU(4)L x U(1)X model with SU(2)H xU(1)AH symmetry

    Sen, Sutapa

    2009-01-01

    We present a phenomenological study of neutral gauge bosons and fermions in an extended Standard model with SU(3)C x SU(4)L x U(1)X gauge symmetry.The model includes gauge bosons and fermions without exotic charges and is distinguished by the symmetry-breaking patern SU(4)L->SU(2)L x SU(2)H x U(1)AH. This introduces an extended electroweak symmetry group SU(2)L x SU(2)H at low energies.We recover the fermion spectra of an anomaly-free three-family 3-4-1 modelwithout exotic chargesfor U(1)X charge X = T3R+(B-L)/2.The interaction of physical neutral gauge bosons Zprime,Z double prime and exotic fermions are presented along with their masses and mixing angle.The electroweak constraints from oblique corections on the model are also calculated.

  13. Crystal structure study of dielectric oxynitride perovskites La1-xSrxTiO2+xN1-x (x=0, 0.2)

    Habu, Daiki; Masubuchi, Yuji; Torii, Shuki; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    As is the case with SrTaO2N, both cis-ordering of nitride anions and octahedral titling are also preferable in La1-xSrxTiO2+xN1-x (x=0, 0.2) oxynitride perovskites. A larger dielectric constant of εr≈5.0×103 was estimated for the pure oxynitride with x=0.2, compared with εr≈750 for the product with x=0, by extrapolating the εr values obtained from powders mixed with paraffin at various mixing ratios. The crystal structure of x=0.2 with larger tolerance factor than x=0 increased the octahedral tilting, which contributes to the increased dielectric constant. The increased dielectric constant supports the exchange mechanism for the dielectric property between two kinds of -Ti-N- helical coils (clockwise and anticlockwise) derived from the above cis-ordering of nitride anions.

  14. Aspergillosis - chest x-ray (image)

    ... usually occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Here, a chest x-ray shows that the fungus has invaded the lung ... are usually seen as black areas on an x-ray. The cloudiness on the left side of this ...

  15. Why Do I Need X-Rays?

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Wednesday, August 24, 2016 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... Related Articles: X-Rays The Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) Sets the Record Straight on Dental X- ...

  16. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  17. Genetics Home Reference: fragile X syndrome

    ... College of Medical Genetics Practice Guideline Boston Children's Hospital Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Disease InfoSearch: Fragile X Syndrome Emory University School of Medicine: Fragile X Premutation--a Cause ...

  18. Acoustooptics of x-rays

    Balakhanov, M.V.; Pustovoyt, V.I.; Radzhabov, R.U.; Khabibullayev, P.K.

    Scattering of x-rays by acoustic phonons in crystals during excitation of a noise phonon flux thermodynamically at equilibrium is analyzed from the standpoint of the dynamic diffraction theory, emphasis being put on the differences with the conventional acoustooptic effect attributable to lower frequencies and smaller amplitudes. The structural peak and the diffusional peak are calculated from known relations for the intensity of scattering in each mode, assuming that the Laue condition is satisfied. Interaction of x-rays and an acoustic wave is considered, the conditions for a diffraction peak being determined by the relations between location of that peak and angular dimensions of the structural peak. Experiments were performed in crystals of photosensitive piezoelectric semiconductors with phonon generation. Rectangular or variable-shape voltage pulses with amplitudes up to 800 V were applied to 6-60 ..mu..m thick CdS crystals at repetition rates up to 800 Hz. The electron concentration was (1.3-4.5) x 10/sup 14/ cm/sup -3/ and the electron mobility, according to saturation of the current-voltage characteristics, was differentially in time. The results reveal sharp anisotropy of scattering, evident in the dependence of scattering intensity on the angle of crystal rotation and the resulting lobar scattering pattern. Structural scattering varies exponentially and diffusional scattering varies linearly with increasing amplitude of the applied voltage. According to the dependence of the spectral density of phonon generation on the concentration of charge carriers, the phase of the scattering effect changes upon transition from the structural range to the diffusional range. 8 references, 3 figures.

  19. Zernike x-ray ptychography.

    Vartiainen, Ismo; Mohacsi, Istvan; Stachnik, Karolina; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; David, Christian; Meents, Alke

    2016-02-15

    We present an imaging technique combining Zernike phase-contrast imaging and ptychography. The contrast formation is explained by following the theory of Zernike phase-contrast imaging. The method is demonstrated with x-rays at a photon energy of 6.2 keV, showing how ptychographic reconstruction of a phase sample leads to a Zernike phase-contrast image appearing in the amplitude reconstruction. In addition, the results presented in this Letter indicate an improvement of the resolution of the reconstructed object in the case of Zernike ptychography compared with the conventional one. PMID:26872172

  20. Crack propagation in Hastelloy X

    The fatigue and creep crack growth rates of Hastelloy X were examined both in air and impure helium. Creep crack growth rate is higher in air and impure helium at 6500C. Initial creep crack growth from the original sharp fatigue crack is by an intergranular mode of fracture. As the cracking accelerates at higher stress intensities, growth is by a mixed mode of both intergranular and transgranular fracture. Fatigue crack growth rate increases with increasing temperature and decreasing frequency for the range of stress intensities reported in the literature and is lower in impure helium than in air

  1. Protonium X-ray spectroscopy

    Gotta, D

    1999-01-01

    The Lyman and Balmer transitions from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were studied extensively at the low-energy-antiproton ring LEAR at CERN in order to determine the strong interaction effects. A first series of experiments $9 was performed with semiconductor and gaseous X-ray detectors. In the last years of LEAR operation using a Bragg crystal spectrometer, strong interaction parameters in the 2p states of antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium were measured $9 directly. The results of the measurements support the meson-exchange models describing the medium and long range part of the nucleon-antinucleon interaction. (39 refs).

  2. Budgeting tool for Restaurant X

    Nguyen, Uyen

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve profitability and advance a company’s commitment to organ-ize growth, details plans which are called budgets are required. A budgeting tool is a beneficial asset for a company because it helps the budgeting preparation process become easier and faster. Thus, the aim of this thesis is to create a budgeting tool for Restaurant X. This thesis is product-orientated. There are three tasks conducted in this thesis. First one is to cover all relevant theories about a budget. T...

  3. Yritys X:n talous

    Mooses, Sirle

    2012-01-01

    Opinnäytetyöni aiheena on Yritys X:n talous. Työn tarkoituksena on selvittää pienyrityksen taloudellinen tilanne. Työn tuloksien avulla halutaan antaa yrittäjälle paremmat valmiudet hahmottaa, hallita sekä kehittää oman yrityksen taloudellista tilannetta. Toimeksiantaja yritys toimii kampaamoalalla. Tutkimus on laadittu kvalitatiivista tutkimusmenetelmää käyttäen. Tutkimus on tapaustutkimus. Tutki-musaineistona olen käyttänyt yrityksen tilinpäätöstietoja, yrittäjän haastatteluja ja omia ...

  4. Carphone Warehouse X Factor Challenge

    张深; 韩多妮

    2008-01-01

    <正>欧洲著名独立手机零销商Carphone Warehouse与英国歌手选秀节目X Factor携手共同创办的一个趣味网站。XFactor是英国独立电视台第一台(ITV1)的歌手选拔节目,比赛模式雷同美国的American Idol。近几年英国电视台ITV都会在下半年举办一次电视歌唱大赛XFactor,只要年满16岁就可以报名

  5. Kustannuslaskentaprojekti - case Yritys X Oy

    Heimonen, Salla

    2014-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön ydin on Yritys X:lle luotu kustannuslaskentajärjestelmä, joka on tarkoitettu tukemaan kyseisen yrityksen johdon päätöksentekotilanteita. Yrityksen toimiala on Muu rakennussepäntuotteiden valmistus ja yritys valmistaa ikkunoita ja ovia. Laskentajärjestelmä perustuu TOC-teorian (Theory of constraints) mukaiseen läpimenolaskentaan. TOC-teoria on Eliyahu M. Goldrattin keksimä ideologia, jonka keskeisimpänä ajatuksena on, että jokaisessa yrityksessä on ainakin yksi rajoite. Rajoitett...

  6. NAGRAJEVANJE ZAPOSLENIH V ORGANIZACIJI X

    Horvat, Silvija

    2013-01-01

    V diplomskem seminarju smo naprej opredelili management človeških virov, nato pa predstavili sistem nagrajevanja zaposlenih iz teoretičnega vidika, v katerem smo združili teoretične osnove različnih avtorjev in jih dopolnili s svojimi mišljenji. Naloga je predstavljena tudi iz praktičnega vidika, v katerem smo analizirali značilnosti sistema nagrajevanja v izbrani organizaciji. Rezultate smo nadgradili tudi z raziskavo, opravljeno z anketnim vprašalnikom, ki smo jo izvedli v organizaciji X. R...

  7. MANAGER IN VODENJE PODJETJA X

    Ferenčak, Ines

    2012-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi z naslovom Manager in vodenja podjetja x, sem s pregledom domače in tuje literature raziskovala naloge managerjev, naloge in funkcije vodenja ter timsko delo. Za to temo sem se odločila, ker ima dandanes dober manager s pravim načinom vodenja, ključ do uspešnega podjetja. Tema se mi je zdela aktualna v tem obdobju, ko je čas recesije in se veliko podjetij spopada z reševanjem krize v svojih podjetjih. V diplomskem delu sem predstavila teoretična izhodišča o managerjih (l...

  8. Customer satisfaction research for Company X

    Kaukonen, Eira

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is a customer satisfaction research for the ICT (information and communication technology) service provider Company X. The thesis was conducted in order to find out the customer satisfaction level of the customers of Company X. Also studied were the reasons why customers ended up choosing Company X as their service provider. The study also examined the customers’ future purchase plans and if the recent organizational changes in Company X had affected the customer relationships. Th...

  9. An SO(10) model with SU(3) x SU(2)L x SU(2)R x U(1)B-L x D intermediate symmetry

    We construct a SO(10) model with intermediate symmetry SU(3) x SU(2)L x SU(2)R x U(1)B-L x D and baryon and lepton number conserved between the two highest scales. The experimental values of sin2 θw and αs are consistent with the lower bound on τP → e++π0 and with a mass value for ντ around 1 eV. (orig.)

  10. Seizures and X-linked intellectual disability

    Stevenson, Roger E.; Holden, Kenton R; Rogers, R. Curtis; Schwartz, Charles E

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual disability occurs as an isolated X-linked trait and as a component of recognizable X-linked syndromes in the company of somatic, metabolic, neuromuscular, or behavioral abnormalities. Seizures accompany intellectual disability in almost half of these X-linked disorders. The spectrum of seizures found in the X-linked intellectual disability syndromes is broad, varying in time of onset, type of seizure, and response to anticonvulsant therapy. The majority of the genes associated wi...

  11. Optical element for X-ray microscopy

    Chadzitaskos, G.

    2008-01-01

    We present a proposal for a X-ray optical element suitable for X-ray microscopy and other X-ray-based display systems. Its principle is based on the Fresnel lenses condition and the Bragg condition for X-ray scattering on a slice of monocrystal. These conditions are fulfilled simultaneously due to a properly machined shape of the monocrystal with a stress at its ends.

  12. Raman scattering from Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} (x ≤ 0.14) alloys

    Navarro C, H.; Rodriguez, A. G.; Vidal, M. A. [Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Coordinacion para la Innovacion y la Aplicacion de la Ciencia y la Tecnologia, Alvaro Obregon No. 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, S. L. P. (Mexico); Perez Ladron de G, H. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Centro Universitario de los Lagos, Av. Enrique Diaz de Leon No. 1144, Col. Paseos de la Montana, 47460 Lagos de Moreno, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2015-07-01

    Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} alloys with x concentration up to 0.14 were grown on Ge(001) and GaAs(001) substrates in a conventional R. F. Magnetron Sputtering system at low substrate temperatures. The structural characteristics of these alloys were studied for different Sn concentrations between 1 to 14% by high resolution X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy. Contrasting characteristics of the grown layers are observed if the Sn concentration is larger or smaller than 6% as revealed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. (Author)

  13. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source.

  14. Structure, transport and magnetic properties in La2xSr2-2xCo2xRu2-2xO6

    The perovskite solid solutions of the type La2xSr2-2xCo2xRu2-2xO6 with 0.25≤x≤0.75 have been investigated for their structural, magnetic and transport properties. All the compounds crystallize in double perovskite structure. The magnetization measurements indicate a complex magnetic ground state with strong competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions. Resistivity of the compounds is in confirmation with hopping conduction behaviour though differences are noted especially for x=0.4 and 0.6. Most importantly, low field (50 Oe) magnetization measurements display negative magnetization during the zero field cooled cycle. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate the presence of Co2+/Co3+ and Ru4+/Ru5+ redox couples in all compositions except x=0.5. Presence of magnetic ions like Ru4+ and Co3+ gives rise to additional ferromagnetic (Ru-rich) and antiferromagnetic sublattices and also explains the observed negative magnetization. - Research Highlights: →In La2xSr2-2xCo2xRu2-2xO6 double perovskite structure is stabilized from x=0.25 to 0.75. →Interplay of FM and AFM exists due to presence of Ru4+/Ru5+ and Co2+/Co3+ redox couples. →Presence of different magnetic sublattices leads to magnetic compensation and negative magnetization.

  15. F2c at low x

    Illarionov, A Yu

    2011-01-01

    We study the heavy-quark contributions to the proton structure function F2(x,Q2) at next-to-leading order using compact formulas at small values of Bjorken's x variable. The formulas provide a good agreement with the modern HERA data for F2c(x,Q2).

  16. Tracing the X-Ray Trail

    What you need to know about… Tracing the X-ray Trail If you’ve just completed an x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) Start here! or other diagnostic imaging procedure, you probably want to know when you will ... los rayos X Si acaba de hacerse una radiografía, tomografía ¡Empezar ...

  17. X-Ray Exam: Neck (For Parents)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth X-Ray Exam: Neck KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Neck Print A A A Text Size ... español Radiografía: cuello What It Is A neck X-ray is a safe and painless test that uses ...

  18. Cryotomography x-ray microscopy state

    Le Gros, Mark; Larabell, Carolyn A.

    2010-10-26

    An x-ray microscope stage enables alignment of a sample about a rotation axis to enable three dimensional tomographic imaging of the sample using an x-ray microscope. A heat exchanger assembly provides cooled gas to a sample during x-ray microscopic imaging.

  19. Electron beam parallel X-ray generator

    Payne, P.

    1967-01-01

    Broad X ray source produces a highly collimated beam of low energy X rays - a beam with 2 to 5 arc minutes of divergence at energies between 1 and 6 keV in less than 5 feet. The X ray beam is generated by electron bombardment of a target from a large area electron gun.

  20. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source

  1. Voigt effect in diluted magnetic semiconductors: Cd sub 1 minus x Mn sub x Te and Cd sub 1 minus x Mn sub x Se

    Oh, E.; Bartholomew, D.U.; Ramdas, A.K. (Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)); Furdyna, J.K.; Debska, U. (Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States))

    1991-11-15

    We report a giant Voigt effect in diluted magnetic semiconductors Cd{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Mn{sub {ital x}}Te and Cd{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Mn{sub {ital x}}Se and present an excitonic model that describes its dispersion and {ital M}{sup 2} dependence, {ital M} being the magnetization. We discuss the Voigt effect in Cd{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Mn{sub {ital x}}Te (0.10{lt}{ital x}{lt}0.45), a zinc-blende diluted magnetic semiconductor, in the context of this model. In addition, we present experimental results for the Voigt effect in Cd{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Mn{sub {ital x}}Se ({ital x}=0.26 and 0.31), a diluted magnetic semiconductor with wurtzite structure, where the effect is considerably more complicated due to its lower symmetry. Specifically, we present a striking anisotropy of the Voigt effect in Cd{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Mn{sub {ital x}}Se, which depends on the relative orientation of the applied magnetic field with respect to the optic ({bold {cflx c}}) axis of the crystal.

  2. X-ray tracing using Geant4

    We describe an extension to the Geant4 software package that allows it to be used as a general purpose X-ray tracing package. We demonstrate the use of our extension by building a model of the X-ray optics of the X-ray observatory XMM-Newton, calculating its effective area, and comparing the results with the published calibration curves.

  3. Multicell X-ray detector

    A detector for X-radiation or other ionizing radiation is described comprising a pair of curved metal bars lying in spaced apart parallel planes. Ceramic members are bonded to the respective bars in facing relationship. Each ceramic member has a plurality of radially extending circumferentially spaced grooves facing similar grooves in the other member. A plurality of electrode plates are held in juxtaposed and circumferentially spaced apart relationship by disposing their respective upper and lower edges in the grooves of opposed ceramic members. The faces of adjacent electrode plates define gas-filled gaps in which photoelectron-ion pairs are produced when radiation enters from the front edges of the plates. The above described assembly is disposed within a pressurized gas-filled chamber having an X-ray transmissive window adjacent the front edges of the plates. A cover encloses the chamber. It has insulator feed-throughs for connecting the electrode plates with external electric circuits. Photoelectrons and/or ions, created by the ionizing radiation, are collected on the electrode plates and thereby generate an electrical signal which corresponds to the incident ionizing radiation. (Auth.)

  4. Preface for DRIP X proceedings

    Landesman (Chairman), Jean-Pierre; Montgomery (Co-Chairman), Paul C.

    2004-07-01

    This issue of the “European Physical Journal Applied Physics” contains the papers presented at the Tenth International Conference on Defects: Recognition, Imaging and Physics in Semiconductors (DRIP X), held in Batz-sur-Mer, France, from 29th September to 2nd October, 2003. The conference gathered 150 scientists from academic institutions and industry of 20 countries from around the world, showing the pertinence of the biennial series of DRIP conferences. A much appreciated aspect of DRIP X was the variety of the different backgrounds of the participants, leading to much fruitful exchange and stimulating discussion. Following the spirit of previous DRIP conferences, the main concern of DRIP X was the methodology and the physics of measurement procedures, together with specific developments in instrumentation, and their relationship with the structural, optical and electrical properties of semiconductor defects. The topics covered related to the different methods and techniques used for the recognition and imaging of defects in semiconductor materials (Si, III-V's including nitrides, SiC, IV-IV's, II-VI's, organic compounds, ...) and in semiconductor devices ranging from defects in the raw materials at the wafer level, through process-induced defects and defects that appear during operation (burn-in, aging tests, ...). One of the highlights of the social events of DRIP X was the awards ceremony as part of the celebrations for the Tenth meeting of DRIP. The founders of the DRIP series, Professor Jean-Pierre Fillard and Professor Tomoya Ogawa were both invited to be permanent members of the International Steering Committee and awarded with appropriately engraved trophies to mark the occasion. With help form Tomoya Ogawa, Jean-Pierre Fillard organized the first DRIP conference in 1985 in La Grande Motte, France. The amusing and thought provoking slide presentation by Jean-Pierre Fillard went a great way to remind us of the history of this conference series and to

  5. X-ray microscopy using synchrotron radiation

    The system for x-ray microscopy now being developed at the X-26 beam line of the Brookhaven National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described here. Examples of the use of x-ray microscopy for trace element geochemistry, biology and medicine, and materials investigations are given to emphasize the scientific applications of the technique. Future directions for the improvement and further development of the X-26 microscope and of the x-ray microscopy field in general are discussed. 11 refs., 7 figs

  6. Comets: mechanisms of x-ray activity

    Ibadov, Subhon

    2016-07-01

    Basic mechanisms of X-ray activity of comets are considered, including D-D mechanism corresponding to generation of X-rays due to production of hot short-living plasma clumps at high-velocity collisions between cometary and interplanetary dust particles as well as M-M one corresponding to production of X-rays due to recombination of multicharge ions of solar wind plasma via charge exchange process at their collisions with molecules/atoms of the cometary atmospheres. Peculiarities of the variation of the comet X-ray spectrum and X-ray luminosity with variation of its heliocentric distance are revealed.

  7. Soft x-ray resonant magnetic diffraction.

    Wilkins, S. B.; Hatton, P. D.; Roper, M.D.; Prabhakaran, D.; Boothroyd, A. T.

    2003-01-01

    We have conducted the first soft x-ray diffraction experiments from a bulk single crystal, studying the bilayer manganite La22xSr12xMn2O7 with x 0:475 in which we were able to access the (002) Bragg reflection using soft x rays. The Bragg reflection displays a strong resonant enhancement at the LIII and LII manganese absorption edges. We demonstrate that the resonant enhancement of the magnetic diffraction of the (001) is extremely large, indeed so large that it exceeds that of t...

  8. Swift Observations of X-ray supernovae

    Li, K. L.; Pun, Chun. S. J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a result of X-ray supernovae (SNe) survey using the Swift satellite public archive. An automatic searching program was designed to search X-ray SNe among all of the Swift archival observations between November 2004 and February 2011. Using the C++ program, 24 X-ray detectable supernovae have been found in the archive and 3 of them were newly-discovered in X-rays which are SN 1986L, SN 2003lx, and SN 2007od. In addition, SN 2003lx is a Type Ia supernova which may be the second X-ray...

  9. X-ray Spectroscopy of Cooling Cluster

    Peterson, J.R.; /SLAC; Fabian, A.C.; /Cambridge U., Inst. of Astron.

    2006-01-17

    We review the X-ray spectra of the cores of clusters of galaxies. Recent high resolution X-ray spectroscopic observations have demonstrated a severe deficit of emission at the lowest X-ray temperatures as compared to that expected from simple radiative cooling models. The same observations have provided compelling evidence that the gas in the cores is cooling below half the maximum temperature. We review these results, discuss physical models of cooling clusters, and describe the X-ray instrumentation and analysis techniques used to make these observations. We discuss several viable mechanisms designed to cancel or distort the expected process of X-ray cluster cooling.

  10. The LibX Edition Builder

    Gaat, Tilottama

    2008-01-01

    LibX is a browser plugin that allows users to access library resources directly from their browser. Many libraries that wished to adopt LibX needed to customize a version of LibX for their own institution. Most librarians did not possess the necessary knowledge of XML, running scripts and the underlying implementation of LibX required to create customized, functional LibX versions for their own institutions. Therefore, we have developed a web-based tool called the \\emph{Li...

  11. Symbiotic stars in X-rays

    Luna, G. J. M.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K; Nelson, T.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, symbiotic binary systems in which a white dwarf accretes from a red giant were thought to be mainly a soft X-ray population. Here we describe the detection with the X-ray Telescope (XRT) on the Swift satellite of nine white dwarf symbiotics that were not previously known to be X-ray sources and one that had previously been detected as a supersoft X-ray source. The nine new X-ray detections were the result of a survey of 41 symbiotic stars, and they increase the number of symbi...

  12. Insular Volume Reduction in Fragile X Syndrome

    Cohen, Jeremy D.; Nichols, Taylor; Brignone, Laura; Hall, Scott S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2011-01-01

    Fragile X Syndrome (FraX) is the most common form of inherited mental deficit and is caused by mutations of the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome. While males and females with the full FMR1 mutation are affected differently because the disorder is X-linked, both suffer from varying degrees of cognitive impairment, attention deficits and social anxiety. The insula is a sensory integrative region that has been increasingly suggested as a critical area involved in an...

  13. X-ray scattering measurements from thin-foil x-ray mirrors

    Christensen, Finn Erland; BYRNAK, BP; Hornstrup, Allan;

    1992-01-01

    Thin foil X-ray mirrors are to be used as the reflecting elements in the telescopes of the X-ray satellites Spectrum-X-Gamma (SRG) and ASTRO-D. High resolution X-ray scattering measurements from the Au coated and dip-lacquered Al foils are presented. These were obtained from SRG mirrors positioned...

  14. X-ray Pulsations in the Supersoft X-ray Binary CAL 83

    Schmidtke, P. C.; Cowley, A. P.

    2005-01-01

    X-ray data reveal that the supersoft X-ray binary CAL 83 exhibits 38.4 minute pulsations at some epochs. These X-ray variations are similar to those found in some novae and are likely to be caused by nonradial pulsations the white dwarf. This is the first detection of pulsations in a classical supersoft X-ray binary.

  15. Management of dental x-ray exposure

    The effects of dental x-ray exposure and how they might be minimized were reviewed. The frequency of dental x-ray exposures in Japan was presented for each year, sex, age group and site of x-ray photography separately. The doses of exposure at various parts of the body per x-ray examination were also presented, and the probabilities of genetic damage, and of development of leukemia or cancer were calculated. The allowable dose of exposure for radiation workers was discussed. It is important to take account of radiation quality, area of irradiation field, and posture of patients to minimize the radiation effect. The actual statistics on the x-ray exposure at the dentists, distribution of the dispersed radiation in the x-ray room, methods of protection against exposure, and plans and designs of the x-ray room were discussed. (Kaihara, S.)

  16. CYGNUS X-3's LITTLE FRIEND

    Using the unique X-ray imaging capabilities of the Chandra X-ray observatory, a 2006 observation of Cygnus X-3 has provided insight into a singular feature associated with this well-known microquasar. This extended emission, located ∼16'' from Cygnus X-3, varies in flux and orbital phase (shifted by 0.56 in phase) with Cygnus X-3, acting like a celestial X-ray 'mirror'. The feature's spectrum, flux, and time variations allow us to determine the location, size, density, and mass of the scatterer. We find that the scatterer is a Bok Globule located along our line of sight, and we discuss its relationship to Cygnus X-3. This is the first time such a feature has been identified with Chandra.

  17. X ray imaging microscope for cancer research

    Hoover, Richard B.; Shealy, David L.; Brinkley, B. R.; Baker, Phillip C.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA technology employed during the Stanford MSFC LLNL Rocket X Ray Spectroheliograph flight established that doubly reflecting, normal incidence multilayer optics can be designed, fabricated, and used for high resolution x ray imaging of the Sun. Technology developed as part of the MSFC X Ray Microscope program, showed that high quality, high resolution multilayer x ray imaging microscopes are feasible. Using technology developed at Stanford University and at the DOE Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Troy W. Barbee, Jr. has fabricated multilayer coatings with near theoretical reflectivities and perfect bandpass matching for a new rocket borne solar observatory, the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA). Advanced Flow Polishing has provided multilayer mirror substrates with sub-angstrom (rms) smoothnesss for the astronomical x ray telescopes and x ray microscopes. The combination of these important technological advancements has paved the way for the development of a Water Window Imaging X Ray Microscope for cancer research.

  18. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  19. Industrial radiography X and Gamma

    This publication gives a practical orientation on industrial radiography. The first chapters deal with basic facts that are useful for professional work in this field. It comprises topics such as generation of X-rays, equipment being used, radiographic films, sensibility, and the penetrameters used. This publication also describes the most used radiographic techniques and the processing of the radiographic film. It contains practical recommendations on how to obtain a good radiographic inspection. It states the reasons for defects in the radiographies. Two annexes are attached which include tables for the selection of penetrameters according to the ASME and DIN codes as well as the time needed for development and fixing according to the temperature

  20. Anomalous x-ray scattering

    The availability of tunable synchrotron radiation has made it possible systematically to perform x-ray diffraction studies in regions of anomalous scattering near absorption edges, e.g. in order to derive phase information for crystal structure determination. An overview is given of recent experimental and theoretical work and discuss the properties of the anomalous atomic scattering factor, with emphasis on threshold resonances and damping effects. The results are applied to a discussion of the very strong anomalous dispersion recently observed near the L3 edge in a cesium complex. Also given is an overview of elements and levels where similar behavior can be expected. Finally, the influence of solid state and chemical effects on the absorption edge structure is discussed. 64 references

  1. Reentry Experiment SAT-X

    Woods, Maurice; Kuhns, Casey; Honda, Motoaki; Shiely, Robert; Adamson, Aaron; Aken, Jordan; Walch, Robert; Galovich, Cynthia; Semak, Matthew

    2011-10-01

    The challenge of reentering the Earth's atmosphere is not new. For years, NASA has successfully designed vessels that have endured the harsh process of reentry. However, in most cases, this is made possible only through the act of over-engineering; designing to withstand conditions far beyond what is expected to be encountered. Though this method has been effective, there would be benefit in knowing more precisely what to expect upon atmospheric reentry. The University of Northern Colorado Reentry Experiment SAT-X project, launched from Wallops Island, Virginia on July 21, 2011, was designed to shed light on the reentry process by collecting motion data for a capsule ejected from a rocket. Moreover, a secondary objective was to test the capability of the prototype capsule to serve as a platform for future reentry experiments. The mission and preliminary results from the launch will be described.

  2. X33 Transient Liftoff Analysis

    Peck, Jeff; Brunty, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The successful design of a launch vehicle requires the careful characterization of the various loads the structure will experience over its lifetime. Many of the most demanding load environments occur during the launch/ascent phase of a mission, typically defined as the point of engine start through engine cut off. One of the critical events during the launch phase is the liftoff event. This event imparts high loads on the vehicle due to transient events such as thrust build-up and vehicle release. This paper describes the theory and procedures used to calculate structural loads due to the liftoff event for the Lockheed-Martin X33 technology demonstrator vehicle. These procedures were developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and verified previously on other advanced launch system concepts and the Space Shuttle system.

  3. X-ray intensifying screens

    An x-ray intensifying screen comprises a support which has a luminescent composition comprising an isotropic phosphor and a polymer having an index of refraction within 0.02 of that of the phosphor over at least 80 percent of its emission spectrum. The support has an index of refraction up to or equal to 0.05 units higher than that of the phosphor and has a reflection optical density of at least 1.7 to light emitted by the phosphor. A preferred luminescent composition comprises Kl:Tl, Rbl:Tl at BaSrFCl:Eu mixed with two monomers such as 1-naphthylmethylmethacrylate, S(1-naphthylmethyl) thioacrylate, 1-bromo-2-naphthylacrylate, and benzyl methacrylate, coated on black anodised Al and polymerised in situ. The ratio of monomers is adjusted to give the desired refractive index. Other phosphors, polymers and supports are specified together with the preparation of the monomers and polymers. (author)

  4. The SOFeX Group

    Coale, K. H.

    2002-12-01

    The SOFeX Group is comprised of the following institutions and individuals, all of whose participation resulted in a successful experiment. Moss Landing Marine Laboratories: K. Coale, C. Hunter, M. Gordon, S. Tanner, W. Wang, N. Ladizinsky, D. Cooper, G. Smith, J. Brewster; Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute: K. Johnson, F. Chavez, S. Fitzwater, P. Strutton, G. Elrod, Z. Chase, E. Drake, J. Plant; Oregon State University: B. Hales, J. Barth, L.Bandstra, P. Covert, D. Hubbard, J. Jennings, S. Pierce, E. Scholz; Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory: T. Takahashi; Duke University: R. Barber, V. Lance, D. Stube, A. Hilting, M. Hiscock, A. Apprill, C. Van Hilst, ; Virginia Institute of Marine Science: W. Smith, H. Ducklow, L. Delizo, J. Oliver, E. Bailey, J. Peloquin, R. Daniels, J. Bauer; University Of Hawaii: M. Landry, R. Bidigare, S. Brown, N. Cassar, B. Twining, K. Selph, C. Sheridan; NOAA Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory: R. Wanninkhof, K. Sullivan, C. Neill; University of Miami: F. Millero, X. Zhu, W. Hiscock, V. Koehler, A. Cabrera; University of Calif. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory: J. Bishop, T. Wood, C. Guay, P. Lam; Rutgers University: P. Falkowski, Z. Kolber, R. Nicolayson, S. Tozzi, M. Gorbunov, M. Koblizek; University of Massachusets: M. Altabet, M. McIlvan, D. Timothy; New Mexico Tech.: Oliver Wingenter; San Francisco State Univ. - Romberg Tiburon Center: W. Cochlan, J. Herndon; University of Calif. Santa Cruz: R. Kudela, A. Roberts; Univ. of Calif. Santa Barbara: M. Brezinski, J. Jones, M. Demarest; Massachusets Inst. of Technology: S. Chisolm, Z. Johnson; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute: K. Buesseler, J. Andrews, G. Crossin, S. Pike, J. Tegeder, C. Herbold, K. Mahoney, M.Coggeshell ; University of East Anglia: L. Houghton, L. Goldson, A. Watson, J. Ledwell; Institute of Marine Research, Kiel: Peter Croot; University of Otago: R. Frew, E. Abraham, P. Boyd.

  5. Structure of Zn_(1-x)Mn_xIn_2Se_4 crystals grown by CVT

    Mantilla, J.; Brito, G. E. S.; Ter Haar, E.; Sagredo, V.; Bindilatti, V.

    2003-01-01

    Single crystals of Zn_(1-x)Mn_xIn_2Se_4 were grown by the chemical vapour phase transport technique (CVT). The Mn concentration was varied from x=1 to x=0.01. Through X-rays powder diffraction patterns and Laue diagrams of single crystals we studied the transformation from the hexagonal structure of MnIn_2Se_4 to the tetragonal structure of ZnIn_2Se_4.

  6. Dynamic changes in paternal X-chromosome activity during imprinted X-chromosome inactivation in mice

    Patrat, Catherine; Okamoto, Ikuhiro; Diabangouaya, Patricia; Vialon, Vivian; Le Baccon, Patricia; Chow, Jennifer; Heard, Edith

    2009-01-01

    In mammals, X-chromosome dosage compensation is achieved by inactivating one of the two X chromosomes in females. In mice, X inactivation is initially imprinted, with inactivation of the paternal X (Xp) chromosome occurring during preimplantation development. One theory is that the Xp is preinactivated in female embryos, because of its previous silence during meiosis in the male germ line. The extent to which the Xp is active after fertilization and the exact time of onset of X-linked gene si...

  7. X-s-Permutable Subgroups%X-s-置换子群

    石磊; 郭文彬; 易小兰

    2008-01-01

    Let X be a nonempty subset of a group G.A subgroup H of G is said to be X-spermutable in G if,for every Sylow subgroup T of G,there exists an element xX such that HTx=Tx H.In this paper,we obtain some results about the X-s-permutable subgroups and use them to determine the structure of some finite groups.

  8. The Productions of $X(3940)$ and $X(4160)$ in $B_c$ decays

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Tian-hong; Jiang, Yue; Wang, Guo-Li

    2016-01-01

    Considering $X(3940)$ and $X(4160)$ as $\\eta_c(3S)$ and $\\eta_c(4S)$, we study the productions of $X(3940)$ and $X(4160)$ in exclusive weak decays of $B_c$ meson by the improved Bethe-Salpeter(B-S) Method. Using the relativistic B-S equation and Mandelstam formalism, we calculate the corresponding decay form factors. The predictions of the corresponding branching ratios are: $Br(B_c^+\\to X(3940)e^+\

  9. Full-field transmission x-ray imaging with confocal polycapillary x-ray optics

    Sun, Tianxi; MacDonald, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    A transmission x-ray imaging setup based on a confocal combination of a polycapillary focusing x-ray optic followed by a polycapillary collimating x-ray optic was designed and demonstrated to have good resolution, better than the unmagnified pixel size and unlimited by the x-ray tube spot size. This imaging setup has potential application in x-ray imaging for small samples, for example, for histology specimens.

  10. On the Hilbert functions of sets of points in P^1 x P^1 x P^1

    Guardo, Elena; Van Tuyl, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Let H_X be the trigraded Hilbert function of a set X of reduced points in P^1 x P^1 x P^1. We show how to extract some geometric information about X from H_X. This note generalizes a similar result of Giuffrida, Maggioni, and Ragusa about sets of points in P^1 x P^1.

  11. X-ray microtomography: applications and developments

    Full text: X-ray microtomography has followed a classical development path being originally available only to those with the expertise to piece together the often cumbersome components to required to make a practical x-ray microtomography system. Subsequent technological and scientific advances have meant that x-ray microtomography instruments are now off-the-shelf items with a cost well within the equipment budgets of research institutions and industry. The technological advances that have contributed to the development of x-ray microtomography include commercially available x-ray micro-sources, high-resolution CCD cameras and highspeed, low-cost computers. The scientific developments have been predominantly in image reconstruction. Some of these scientific developments are, with the advantage of hindsight, very simple while others, such as resolution enhancement using the Fresnel fringes in x-ray projection images, are not so intuitive. As a consequence of the availability of 'black-box' instruments, x-ray microtomography is spreading to a wide range of applications. The materials most suited to examination by x-ray microtomography are those with a medium level of x-ray absorption such as bone, teeth, rocks, porous metals, composite materials and plant materials. For these materials, 3D information can be obtained at resolutions comparable to the resolution of a high-quality optical microscope. A few of these applications will be demonstrated in the presentation. Technological advances that aid x-ray microtomography will continue with x-ray sources becoming smaller, computers becoming faster and CCD cameras having increased numbers of pixels. It will be interesting to see if nano x-ray microtomography is achieved. Developments in x-ray microtomography are required in areas such as contrast enhancement particularly for problematic materials such as soft tissue and low-density polymers. For low-density polymers x-ray absorption is very low while for soft tissue

  12. Towards nature of the X(3872) resonance

    Achasov, N N

    2015-01-01

    We construct spectra of decays of the resonance X(3872) with good analytical and unitary properties which allows to define the branching ratio of the X(3872) \\to D^{*0}\\bar D^0 + c.c. decay studying only one more decay, for example, the X(3872)\\to\\pi^+\\pi^- J/\\psi(1S) decay, and show that our spectra are effective means of selection of models for the resonance X(3872). Then we discuss the scenario where the X(3872 resonance is the c\\bar c = \\chi_{c1}(2P) charmonium which "sits on" the D^{*0}\\bar D^0 threshold. We explain the shift of the mass of the X(3872) resonance with respect to the prediction of a potential model for the mass of the \\chi_{c1}(2P) charmonium by the contribution of the virtual D^*\\bar D+c.c. intermediate states into the self energy of the X(3872) resonance. This allows us to estimate the coupling constant of the X(7872) resonance with the D^{*0}\\bar D^0 channel, the branching ratio of the X(3872) \\to D^{*0}\\bar D^0 + c.c. decay, and the branching ratio of the X(3872) decay into all non-D^{...

  13. Reactions of NO with nitrogen hydrides x

    Mebel, A. M.; Lin, M. C.

    In this review, we consider the reactions of NO ( x 1,2) with the nitrogen x hydrides NH, NH and NH . The reactions are relevant to the post-combustion, non-catalytic reduction of NO with NH in the thermal de-NO process and with x x HNCO in the rapid reduction of NO as well as to the thermal decomposition of x some high-energy materials, including ammonium dinitramide. The practical importance has motivated considerable theoretical interest in these reactions. We review numerous ab - initio molecular orbital studies of potential energy surfaces for NO NH and theoretical calculations of their kinetic parameters, such as x y thermal rate constants and branching ratios of various products. The most advanced theoretical calculations are carried out using the Gaussian-2 family of methods which provides the chemical accuracy (within 2 kcal mol ) for the energetics and molecular parameters of the reactants, products, intermediates and transition states. We present a detailed comparison of the theoretical results with available experimental data. We show that the reactions of NO with NH and NH x are very fast because they occur without a barrier and lead to the formation of multiple products which include radicals and stable molecules. The reactions of NO with NH , taking place by the H abstraction to form NH and HNO , are slow x x but still relevant to the NH de-NO system, because of their fast reverse processes x which have not yet been measured experimentally.

  14. Magnetic properties of CE(Fe sub(1-x) Al sub(x))2 for x<=0.20

    Magnetization measurements of the system Ce(Fe sub(1-x) Al sub(x))2 for x2 has not a simple dilution effect. Together with a accentuated decrease in the iron mean magnetic moment and in Curie temperatures was observed, above a certain concentration, a transition from ferromagnetism to a canted spin phase upon decreasing temperature. For the higher concentration range the system exhibits magnetic freezing effects. A preliminary magnetic phase diagram was proposed. (Author)

  15. Ariel 5 hard X-ray observations

    Results from the hard X-ray detector (8cm2 area, 80 f.w.h.m. field of view, energy range 26-1200 keV) are reviewed in the context of observations by other groups. At least three different classes of galactic sources are studied by this detector. In the first, magnetospheric control of the emission, which seems to be a modified thermal spectrum is dominant. Examples are Cen X-3, Her X-1, AO535 + 26 and GX 301 - 2. So far, only direct evidence on the magnetic field strength from cyclotron line emission has come from Her X-1. In the second, the characteristics are a power law spectrum extending to over about 200 keV and fast aperiodic time variations with little evidence of the presence of strong magnetic fields. Inverse Compton production of the X-ray photons seems important here. Examples are Cyg X-1, AO620-00, Ser X-1 and perhaps Cir X-1, although this last object suffers periodic heavy low energy absorption. The third is the white dwarf emitted class, e.g. AM Herculis and possibly AM Canum Venaticorum; sources in this class surprisingly tend to exhibit a power law rather than a thermal spectral shape. Sco X-1 and Sco X-2 are perhaps a fourth class of object. Hard X-ray upper limits obtained from a survey of COS-B γ-ray source positions are discussed. Further attempts to find hard X-ray emission from the galactic centre X-ray burst sources are mentioned. (author)

  16. Hole Transport in Arsenic-Doped Hg1-x Cd x Te with x ≥ 0.5

    Umana-Membreno, G. A.; Kala, H.; Bains, S.; Akhavan, N. D.; Antoszewski, J.; Maxey, C. D.; Faraone, L.

    2016-04-01

    Hole transport in arsenic-doped p-type Hg1-x Cd x Te epitaxial layers with x ≥ 0.5 has been studied employing Hall-effect measurements and theoretical modeling of hole scattering mechanisms. The hole transport parameters extracted from four different Hg1-x Cd x Te films with x = 0.50, 0.56-0.58, 0.65, and 0.80, were analyzed using an iterative solution of Boltzmann's transport equation. Hole mobilities in the samples with x values of 0.5 and 0.56-0.58 were found to be predominantly limited by ionized impurity scattering, and exhibited relatively high impurity compensation ratios ≥2. The sample with x = 0.65 exhibited the highest hole mobility, a low compensation ratio of 1.05, and mobility characteristics were limited predominantly by polar optical phonon scattering at temperatures ≥200 K. Hole mobility in the sample with x = 0.80 was found to be limited by polar optical phonon scattering and ionized impurity scattering (compensation ratio 1.20-1.56). Although the sample temperatures employed were not sufficiently low to unambiguously discriminate the scattering strength of static strain and dislocations, the experimental hole mobility characteristics cannot be adequately modeled if these two mechanisms are neglected. The ionization energy of the arsenic acceptor impurities was found to exhibit a quadratic dependence on the CdTe mole fraction.

  17. X-ray flat panel detectors and X-ray tubes contributing to development of X-ray diagnostic systems

    X-ray flat panel detectors (FPDs) and X-ray tubes are key devices allowing X-ray diagnostic systems to support more sophisticated medical care. FPDs provide valuable information for the diagnosis of various diseases through the conversion of X-ray images of the human body into electronic signals, while X-ray tubes are used in a wide range of applications such as computed tomography (CT), angiography, fluoroscopy, mammography, and dental systems. Toshiba Electron Tubes and Devices Co., Ltd. has developed and commercialized FPDs providing high-quality diagnostic X-ray images with low dose exposure through the development of cutting-edge technologies including a fine crystal formation technology for cesium iodide (CsI) scintillators, thin-film transistor (TFT) arrays with photodiodes, and so on. In the field of X-ray tubes that can generate a high output of X-rays, we have developed a liquid metal hydrodynamic bearing (LM bearing) technology for various diagnostic systems including medical CT systems with a long lifetime and high rotation speed, and cardiovascular imaging systems with quiet operation. Furthermore, LM bearing technology reduces the burden on the environment by replacing insulating oil with water coolant for the cooling system and making the X-ray tubes more compact. (author)

  18. $SU(3)_{c} X SU(4)_{L} X U(1)_{x}$ model for three families

    Sanchez, Luis A; Ponce, W A; Sanchez, Luis A.; Perez, Felipe A.; Ponce, William A.; 10.1140/epjc/s2004-01851-0

    2004-01-01

    An extension of the Standard Model to the local gauge group $SU(3)_c\\otimes SU(4)_L\\otimes U(1)_X$ as a three-family model is presented. The model does not contain exotic electric charges and we obtain a consistent mass spectrum by introducing an anomaly-free discrete $Z_2$ symmetry. The neutral currents coupled to all neutral vector bosons in the model are studied. By using experimental results from the CERN LEP, SLAC Linear Collider and atomic parity violation we constrain the mixing angle between two of the neutral currents in the model and the mass of the additional neutral gauge bosons to be $-0.0032\\leq\\sin\\theta\\leq 0.0031$ and $0.67 \\hbox{TeV}\\leq M_{Z_2} \\leq 6.1$ TeV at 95% C.L., respectively.

  19. PRIMA-X Final Report

    Lorenz, Daniel [German Research School for Simulation Sciences GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Wolf, Felix [German Research School for Simulation Sciences GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2016-02-17

    The PRIMA-X (Performance Retargeting of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Exascale Computing) project is the successor of the DOE PRIMA (Performance Refactoring of Instrumentation, Measurement, and Analysis Technologies for Petascale Computing) project, which addressed the challenge of creating a core measurement infrastructure that would serve as a common platform for both integrating leading parallel performance systems (notably TAU and Scalasca) and developing next-generation scalable performance tools. The PRIMA-X project shifts the focus away from refactorization of robust performance tools towards a re-targeting of the parallel performance measurement and analysis architecture for extreme scales. The massive concurrency, asynchronous execution dynamics, hardware heterogeneity, and multi-objective prerequisites (performance, power, resilience) that identify exascale systems introduce fundamental constraints on the ability to carry forward existing performance methodologies. In particular, there must be a deemphasis of per-thread observation techniques to significantly reduce the otherwise unsustainable flood of redundant performance data. Instead, it will be necessary to assimilate multi-level resource observations into macroscopic performance views, from which resilient performance metrics can be attributed to the computational features of the application. This requires a scalable framework for node-level and system-wide monitoring and runtime analyses of dynamic performance information. Also, the interest in optimizing parallelism parameters with respect to performance and energy drives the integration of tool capabilities in the exascale environment further. Initially, PRIMA-X was a collaborative project between the University of Oregon (lead institution) and the German Research School for Simulation Sciences (GRS). Because Prof. Wolf, the PI at GRS, accepted a position as full professor at Technische Universität Darmstadt (TU

  20. X-31 Mishap: Lessons Learned

    Larson, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The experimental X-31 High Angle of Attack Research Aircraft crashed during a 1995 test mission flight conducted by NASA at Edwards Air Force Base, California. The pilot lost control of the airplane and was forced to eject, sustaining a permanent back injury that ended his flying career. Prior to this incident the airplane had a perfect record of several hundred non-eventful flights supported by an experienced team. During the subsequent investigation by a mishap committee it was discovered that a series of cascading events contributed to this accident. Some of the identified contributing factors that resulted in this mishap are common to aircraft design and to flight-test in general. The mistakes and the solutions are presented here so that the flight-test community may consider and learn from them. The primary cause of the crash was icing and, ultimately, a complete blockage of the pitot-static nose probe. The icing was caused by a freak weather phenomenon that was neither expected nor known to exist on the day of the mishap. The normal probe had been replaced with a special Kiel probe to allow total pressure measurements of up to 70 degrees angle of attack for flight-test purposes. The Kiel probe did not include a heater, because it was assumed that the airplane would not be flown in the clouds or in conditions conducive to icing. This assumption was later proven to be incorrect. The iced Kiel probe caused incorrect gain scheduling in the flight control system, resulting in an unstable aircraft. This failure was essentially undetected because of a faulty design in the flight control system architecture. There were, however, also a number of other issues that lead up to this situation that never should have happened. This presentation discusses what the issues were that contributed to the incident. After the incident was investigated, some of these issues were addressed and some changes were made. The second X-31 aircraft flew the remainder of the flight tests

  1. Development of confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument using two X-ray beams

    A new confocal micro X-ray fluorescence instrument was developed. This instrument has two independent micro X-ray tubes with Mo targets. A full polycapillary X-ray lens was attached to each X-ray tube. Another half polycapillary lens was attached to a silicon drift X-ray detector (SDD). The focal spots of the three lenses were adjusted to a common position. The effects of the excitation of two X-ray beams were investigated. The instrument enabled highly sensitive three-dimensional X-ray fluorescence analysis. We confirmed that the X-ray fluorescence intensity from the sample increased by applying the two independent X-ray tubes in confocal configuration. Elemental depth profiling of black wheat was demonstrated with the result that each element in the surface coat of a wheat grain showed unique distribution

  2. Thermal Diffusivity and Conductivity of Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te Solids and Melts

    Sha, Yi-Gao; Su, Ching-Hua; Mazuruk, K.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of pseudobinary Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te solids and melts was measured by the laser flash method. The measured diffusivities for the solids of 0.10 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.30 are about 60% of that of the HgTe solid. Those for the melts rise rapidly with temperature but less so with increasing x. For x = 0.30, the diffusivity of the melt is about one third of that of the HgTe melt. Using the calculated beat capacity data from the associated solution model and measured density values, the thermal conductivity for the pseudobinary Hg(1-x)Zn(x)Te solids of 0.10 less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.30 and for the melts of x = O.10, 0.16, and 0.30 was determined.

  3. Soft x-ray polarimeter laboratory tests

    Murphy, Kendrah D.; Marshall, Herman L.; Schulz, Norbert S.; Jenks, Kevin; Sommer, Sophie J. B.; Marshall, Eric A.

    2010-07-01

    Multilayer-coated optics can strongly polarize X-rays and are central to a new design of a broad-band, soft X-ray polarimeter. We have begun laboratory work to verify the performance of components that could be used in future soft X-ray polarimetric instrumentation. We have reconfigured a 17 meter beamline facility, originally developed for testing transmission gratings for Chandra, to include a polarized X-ray source, an X-ray-dispersing transmission grating, and a multilayer-coated optic that illuminates a CCD detector. The X-rays produced from a Manson Model 5, multi-anode source are polarized by a multilayer-coated flat mirror. The current configuration allows for a 180 degree rotation of the source in order to rotate the direction of polarization. We will present progress in source characterization and system modulation measurements as well as null and robustness tests.

  4. X-rays for medical use

    Hessenbruch, A.

    1995-11-01

    1995 is the centenary of the discovery of X-rays by the German physicist Wilhelm C Rontgen. In the past hundred years, the new rays have developed from being unknown to finding application in many walks of life, not least in medicine. This is so much so that in common speech the word `x-ray` refers not to a form of radiation but to an X-ray photograph taken for the purposes of diagnosis (as in: `I had an X-ray done to see if my leg was broken`). X-rays are now used routinely, and they are used both for diagnosis and for therapy. This paper will give an outline of the use of X-rays in medicine throughout our present century.

  5. Handbook of X-Ray Data

    Zschornack, Günter

    2007-01-01

    This sourcebook is intended as an X-ray data reference for scientists and engineers working in the field of energy or wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry and related fields of basic and applied research, technology, or process and quality controlling. In a concise and informative manner, the most important data connected with the emission of characteristic X-ray lines are tabulated for all elements up to Z = 95 (Americium). This includes X-ray energies, emission rates and widths as well as level characteristics such as binding energies, fluorescence yields, level widths and absorption edges. The tabulated data are characterized and, in most cases, evaluated. Furthermore, all important processes and phenomena connected with the production, emission and detection of characteristic X-rays are discussed. This reference book addresses all researchers and practitioners working with X-ray radiation and fills a gap in the available literature.

  6. Clinical X-ray diagnostics. v. 1

    After introductory remarks on historical aspects of the development of X-ray diagnostics, the physical and technological fundamentals of the generation and recording of radiographs are elaborated. In a comprehensive chapter such topics as X-rays, X-ray tubes, X-ray generators, contrast media, interrelations between X-rays and patients as well as classical and recent methods of recording with regard to geometrical conditions, and of picture quality are outlined. Brief notes on analysis, documentation and filing of radiographs are added. Physico-technological fundamentals of radiation protection, remarks concerning radiation protection in the GDR, and special problems of radiation protection as to X-ray diagnostics are discussed

  7. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2

  8. Radiation safety in X-ray facilities

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The guide specifies the radiation safety requirements for structural shielding and other safety arrangements used in X-ray facilities in medical and veterinary X-ray activities and in industry, research and education. The guide is also applicable to premises in which X-ray equipment intended for radiation therapy and operating at a voltage of less than 25 kV is used. The guide applies to new X-ray facilities in which X-ray equipment that has been used elsewhere is transferred. The radiation safety requirements for radiation therapy X-ray devices operating at a voltage exceeding 25 kV, and for the premices in which such devices are used, are set out in Guide ST 2.2.

  9. Science with the constellation-X observatory

    The Constellation X-ray Mission is a high throughput X-ray facility emphasizing observations at high spectral resolution (E/ΔE∼300-3000), and broad energy bandpass (0.25-40 keV). Constellation-X will provide a factor of nearly 100 increase in sensitivity over current high resolution X-ray spectroscopy missions. It is the X-ray astronomy equivalent of large ground-based optical telescopes such as the Keck Observatory and the ESO Very Large Telescope. When observations commence toward the end of next decade, Constellation-X will address many fundamental astrophysics questions such as: the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies; constraining the baryon content of the Universe; determining the spin and mass of supermassive black holes in AGN; and probing strong gravity in the vicinity of black holes

  10. X inactivation in females with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Murphy, Sinéad M

    2012-07-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1X) is the second most common inherited neuropathy, caused by mutations in gap junction beta-1 (GJB1). Males have a uniformly moderately severe phenotype while females have a variable phenotype, suggested to be due to X inactivation. We aimed to assess X inactivation pattern in females with CMT1X and correlate this with phenotype using the CMT examination score to determine whether the X inactivation pattern accounted for the variable phenotype in females with CMT1X. We determined X inactivation pattern in 67 females with CMT1X and 24 controls using the androgen receptor assay. We were able to determine which X chromosome carried the GJB1 mutation in 30 females. There was no difference in X inactivation pattern between patients and controls. In addition, there was no correlation between X inactivation pattern in blood and phenotype. A possible explanation for these findings is that the X inactivation pattern in Schwann cells rather than in blood may explain the variable phenotype in females with CMT1X.

  11. BibTeX-Frontends unter Unix

    Sontag, Ralph

    2001-01-01

    BibTeX gilt als leistungsfähiges Literaturverwaltungsprogramm für LaTeX. In der praktischen Anwendung erweist es sich jedoch als recht spröde und unhandlich. Verschiedene Ansätze versuchen, einige seiner Kanten abzuschleifen. In diesem Vortrag werden einige Tools erwähnt und vorgestellt, die das Leben mit BibTeX unter Unix, speziell Linux, erleichtern sollen.

  12. X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics

    We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

  13. X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics

    Dąbrowski, K. M.; Dul, D. T.; Wróbel, A.; Korecki, P.

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

  14. X-ray spot film device

    Improvements are described in an X-ray spot film device which is used in conjunction with an X-ray table to make a selected number of radiographic exposures on a single film and to perform fluoroscopic examinations. To date, the spot film devices consist of two X-ray field defining masks, one of which is moved manually. The present device is more convenient to use and speeds up the procedure. (U.K.)

  15. Skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice

    In female mammals, dosage compensation for X-linked genes is accomplished by inactivation of one of two X chromosomes. The X-inactivation ratio (a percentage of the cells with inactivated maternal X chromosomes in the whole cells) is skewed as a consequence of various genetic mutations, and has been observed in a number of X-linked disorders. We previously reported that phenotypically normal full-term cloned mouse fetuses had loci with inappropriate DNA methylation. Thus, cloned mice are excellent models to study abnormal epigenetic events in mammalian development. In the present study, we analyzed X-inactivation ratios in adult female cloned mice (B6C3F1). Kidneys of eight naturally produced controls and 11 cloned mice were analyzed. Although variations in X-inactivation ratio among the mice were observed in both groups, the distributions were significantly different (Ansary-Bradley test, P < 0.01). In particular, 2 of 11 cloned mice showed skewed X-inactivation ratios (19.2% and 86.8%). Similarly, in intestine, 1 of 10 cloned mice had a skewed ratio (75.7%). Skewed X-inactivation was observed to various degrees in different tissues of different individuals, suggesting that skewed X-inactivation in cloned mice is the result of secondary cell selection in combination with stochastic distortion of primary choice. The present study is the first demonstration that skewed X-inactivation occurs in cloned animals. This finding is important for understanding both nuclear transfer technology and etiology of X-linked disorders

  16. X-ray microlaminography with polycapillary optics

    Dabrowski, K. M.; Dul, D. T.; Wrobel, A.; Korecki, P. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-06-03

    We demonstrate layer-by-layer x-ray microimaging using polycapillary optics. The depth resolution is achieved without sample or source rotation and in a way similar to classical tomography or laminography. The method takes advantage from large angular apertures of polycapillary optics and from their specific microstructure, which is treated as a coded aperture. The imaging geometry is compatible with polychromatic x-ray sources and with scanning and confocal x-ray fluorescence setups.

  17. Applications of soft x-ray lasers

    Skinner, C.H.

    1993-08-01

    The high brightness and short pulse duration of soft x-ray lasers provide unique advantages for novel applications. Imaging of biological specimens using x-ray lasers has been demonstrated by several groups. Other applications to fields such as chemistry, material science, plasma diagnostics, and lithography are beginning to emerge. We review the current status of soft x-ray lasers from the perspective of applications, and present an overview of the applications currently being developed.

  18. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities

  19. A review of trisomy X (47,XXX)

    Sutherland Ashley; Howell Susan; Tartaglia Nicole R; Wilson Rebecca; Wilson Lennie

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Trisomy X is a sex chromosome anomaly with a variable phenotype caused by the presence of an extra X chromosome in females (47,XXX instead of 46,XX). It is the most common female chromosomal abnormality, occurring in approximately 1 in 1,000 female births. As some individuals are only mildly affected or asymptomatic, it is estimated that only 10% of individuals with trisomy X are actually diagnosed. The most common physical features include tall stature, epicanthal folds, hypotonia a...

  20. X-ray data booklet. Revision

    Vaughan, D. (ed.)

    1986-04-01

    A compilation of data is presented. Included are properties of the elements, electron binding energies, characteristic x-ray energies, fluorescence yields for K and L shells, Auger energies, energy levels for hydrogen-, helium-, and neonlike ions, scattering factors and mass absorption coefficients, and transmission bands of selected filters. Also included are selected reprints on scattering processes, x-ray sources, optics, x-ray detectors, and synchrotron radiation facilities. (WRF)

  1. Novel optics for X-ray telescopes

    Hudec, René; Pína, L.; Semencová, V.; Inneman, A.; Skulinová, Michaela; Nekola, Martin

    Berlin : Springer, 2009 - (Brandl, B.), s. 1-8 ISBN 978-90-481-2232-5. [400 Years of Astronomical Telescopes. Leiden (NL), 29.09.2008-02.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX01220701; GA ČR GP202/07/P510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-ray telescopes * X-ray optics * X-ray astronomy Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics

  2. x-dependent polarized parton distributions

    Using QCD motivated and phenomenological considerations, they construct x- dependent polarized parton distributions, which evolve under GLAP evolution, satisfy DIS data and are within positivity constraints. Each flavor is done separately and the overall set can be used to predict polarization asymmetries for various processes. They perform their NLO analysis strictly in x space, avoiding difficulties in moment inversion. Small-x results and other physical considerations are discussed

  3. P2X receptors in neuroglia

    Verkhratsky, Alexei; Pankratov, Yuri; Lalo, Ulyana; Nedergaard, Maiken

    2012-01-01

    Different types of ionotropic P2X purinoceptors are expressed in all major types of neuroglia, where they mediate a variety of physiological and pathological signaling. Cortical astrocytes express specific P2X1/5 heteromeric receptors that are activated by ongoing synaptic transmission and can trigger fast local signaling through elevation in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations. Oligodendrocytes express several types of P2X receptors that may control their development and mediate axonal–g...

  4. X-ray radiography facility

    The paper described a radiographic apparatus containing a radiation source, a diaphragm with collimating windows and a cassette holder with a cassette for the X-ray film. In order to increase the efficiency and quality of monitoring, the diaphragm and the cassette are made in the form of cylindrical shells, the centre of curvature of which coincides with the position of the radiation source focus. Each collimating window of the diaphragm is made in the form of two coaxially connected truncated cones, joined at the large bases in such a way that the angle at the vertex of the cone nearer the source is not less than the central angle with the vertex at the focus of the radiation source supported by the larger base, and 15-300 less than the angle at the vertex of the cone further from the source. By this means monitoring efficiency is increased by a factor of 1.5-2 and the quality of the radiographs improved. The apparatus is used for flaw detection in cylindrical objects. (author)

  5. X-ray transient AGN and galaxies

    Grupe, D.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray transience is the most extreme form of variability observed in AGN or normal in-active galaxies. While factors of 2-3 on timescales of days to years are quite commen among AGN, X-ray transients appear only once and vanish from the X-ray sky years later. The ROSAT All-Sky Survey was the tool to discover these sources. X-ray transience in AGN or galaxies can be caused by dramatic changes in the accretion rate of the central black hole or by changes of the properties of the accretion disk.

  6. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    Stöhr, Frederik

    characterization details that cannot be obtained by other means. The respective x-ray techniques largely benefit from continuously improved x-ray sources, x-ray detectors and x-ray optics. For instance, some techniques aiming for structural investigation of poly-crystalline materials directly benefit from more...... by their potential for compact integration, which makes them cost-effective, easy to handle and stable on-axis optics. A Si-CRL comprises multiple bi-parabolic cylindrical cavities. The bi-parabolic patterns are defined lithographically and vertically transferred into the Si substrate using deep reactive ion etching...

  7. Toward Adaptive X-Ray Telescopes

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Tim W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peer; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffrey J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution (less than 1 inch) optics with very-large-aperture (greater than 25 square meter) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the surface areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kilogram per square meter or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve adaptive (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, adaptive optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States, and the Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom. This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward adaptive x-ray telescopes.

  8. Toward active x-ray telescopes

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Button, Timothy W.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Doel, Peter; Feldman, Charlotte H.; Freeman, Mark D.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Michette, Alan G.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Reid, Paul B.; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Saha, Timo T.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Willingale, Richard; Zhang, William W.

    2011-09-01

    Future x-ray observatories will require high-resolution ( 25 m2) areas. Even with the next generation of heavy-lift launch vehicles, launch-mass constraints and aperture-area requirements will limit the areal density of the grazing-incidence mirrors to about 1 kg/m2 or less. Achieving sub-arcsecond x-ray imaging with such lightweight mirrors will require excellent mirror surfaces, precise and stable alignment, and exceptional stiffness or deformation compensation. Attaining and maintaining alignment and figure control will likely involve active (in-space adjustable) x-ray optics. In contrast with infrared and visible astronomy, active optics for x-ray astronomy is in its infancy. In the middle of the past decade, two efforts began to advance technologies for adaptive x-ray telescopes: The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project in the United Kingdom (UK) and the Generation-X (Gen-X) concept studies in the United States (US). This paper discusses relevant technological issues and summarizes progress toward active x-ray telescopes.

  9. Droid X2 The Missing Manual

    Gralla, Preston

    2011-01-01

    Droid X2 has more power and better graphics than its predecessor, but it still doesn't offer a printed guide to its amazing features. This Missing Manual helps you dig deep into everything Droid X2 can do. Learn how to shop, keep in touch, play with photos, listen to music, and even do some work. Unleash the power of this popular device with expert advice. The important stuff you need to know: Get organized. Sync Droid X2 with Google Calendar, Exchange, and Outlook.Go online. Navigate the Web, use email, and tap into Facebook and Twitter.Listen to tunes. Play and manage music using Droid X2'

  10. Dose levels in conventional X-rays

    There were a series of measures in the General Hospital of Fresnillo in the X-ray Department in the areas of X-1 and X-2-ray rooms and in the neonatal intensive care unit 2, was determined the dose surface entry in eyes, thyroid and gonads for patients undergoing to X-ray study of chest Tele by thermoluminescent dosimetry. Five dosemeters were used in each one of the scans; so find the following dose ranges 20 +- 23 mGy to 350 +- 41 mGy. With the results obtained we can conclude that the procedures used and the equipment calibration is adequate. (Author)

  11. Teach yourself visually complete OS X Mavericks

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A deep dive into OS X Mavericks If you want to quickly cover the basics of Apple's new operating system, OS X Mavericks, and then delve deeper into the topic, this is the book for you. Using clear, step-by-step screenshots, Teach Yourself VISUALLY Complete OS X Mavericks shows you how to tackle not only beginning but also intermediate and more advanced functions. Two-page, side-by-side lessons break big topics into smaller bits, and you'll find helpful sidebars with plenty of practical tips and tricks. If you're a visual learner looking for enhanced coverage of OS X Mavericks, this new guide

  12. Advanced X-ray diffractive optics

    Vila-Comamala, J.; Jefimovs, K.; Pilvi, T.; Ritala, M; Sarkar, S S; Solak, H H; Guzenko, V.A.; Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; J. Raabe; G. Tzvetkov; Fink, R H; Grolimund, D.; Borca, C.N.; Kaulich, B

    2009-01-01

    X-ray microscopy greatly bene�ts from the advances in x-ray optics. At the Paul Scherrer Institut, developments in x-ray di�ractive optics include the manufacture and optimization of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) and di�ractive optical elements for both soft and hard x-ray regimes. In particular, we demonstrate here a novel method for the production of ultra-high resolution FZPs. This technique is based on the deposition of a zone plate material (iridium) onto the sidewalls of a p...

  13. SO(10) model with SU(3) x SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1)/sub B-L/ x D intermediate symmetry

    Buccella, F.; Rosa, L.

    1987-10-01

    We construct a SO(10) model with intermediate symmetry SU(3) x SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1)/sub B-L/ x D and baryon and lepton number conserved between the two highest scales. The experimental values of sin/sup 2/ theta/sub w/ and ..cap alpha../sub s/ are consistent with the lower bound on tau/sub P/ -> e/sup +/+..pi../sup 0/ and with a mass value for ..nu../sub tau/ around 1 eV.

  14. Escape Artists of the X Chromosome.

    Balaton, Bradley P; Brown, Carolyn J

    2016-06-01

    Inactivation of one X chromosome in mammalian females achieves dosage compensation between XX females and XY males; however, over 15% of human X-linked genes continue to be expressed from the inactive X chromosome. New genomic methodologies have improved our identification and characterization of these escape genes, revealing the importance of DNA sequence, chromatin structure, and chromosome ultrastructure in regulating expression from an otherwise inactive chromosome. Study of these exceptions to the rule of silencing highlights the interconnectedness of chromatin and chromosome structure in X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Recent advances also demonstrate the importance of these genes in sexually dimorphic disease risk, particularly cancer. PMID:27103486

  15. Microscopic x-ray luminescence computed tomography

    Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Dianwen; Zhang, Kun; Li, Changqing

    2015-03-01

    X-ray luminescence computed tomography (XLCT) was emerged as a new hybrid imaging modality, in which the x-rays are used to excite phosphors emitting optical photons to be measured for imaging. In this paper, we reported a microscopic x-ray luminescence computed tomography (microXLCT) with a spatial resolution up to hundreds of micrometers for deep targets. We use a superfine x-ray pencil beam to scan the phosphor targets. The superfine x-ray pencil beam is generated by a small collimator mounted in front of a powerful x-ray tube (93212, Oxford Instrument). A CT detector is used to image the x-ray beam. We have generated an x-ray beam with a diameter of 192 micrometers with a collimator of 100 micrometers in diameter. The emitted optical photons on the top surface of phantom are reflected by a mirror and acquired by an electron multiplier charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera (C9100-13, Hamamatsu Photonics). The microXLCT imaging system is built inside an x-ray shielding and light tight cabinet. The EMCCD camera is placed in a lead box. All the imaging components are controlled by a VC++ program. The optical photon propagation is modeled with the diffusion equation solved by the finite element method. We have applied different regularization methods including L2 and L1 in the microXLCT reconstruction algorithms. Numerical simulations and phantom experiments are used to validate the microXLCT imaging system.

  16. Imaging with x-ray lasers

    Da Silva, L.B.; Cauble, B.; Frieders, G.; Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Matthews, D.L.; Mrowka, S.; Ress, D.; Trebes, J.E.; Weiland, T.L.

    1993-11-01

    Collisionally pumped soft x-ray lasers now operate over a wavelength range extending from 35--300 {Angstrom}. These sources have high peak brightness and are now being utilized for x-ray imaging and plasma interferometry. In this paper we will describe our efforts to probe long scalelength plasmas using Moire deflectrometry and soft x-ray imaging. The progress in the development of short pulse x-ray lasers using a double pulse irradiation technique which incorporates a travelling wave pump will also be presented.

  17. High power X-ray tube

    The X-ray tube is suitable for angiography. It has an X-ray beam generator in a casing that ends on the outlet side for the quasi-monochromatic X-radiation with a zone plate. The generator consists of an electron source and elctron-optical devices, which lead the electrons to a cone. The cone top is directed towards the electron beam away from the zone plate. The cone has a Mo and Ce coating that can be excited to emit fluorescent X-radiation even in deeper layers. (DG)

  18. Origin and evolution of X chromosome inactivation.

    Gribnau, Joost; Grootegoed, J Anton

    2012-06-01

    Evolution of the mammalian sex chromosomes heavily impacts on the expression of X-encoded genes, both in marsupials and placental mammals. The loss of genes from the Y chromosome forced a two-fold upregulation of dose sensitive X-linked homologues. As a corollary, female cells would experience a lethal dose of X-linked genes, if this upregulation was not counteracted by evolution of X chromosome inactivation (XCI) that allows for only one active X chromosome per diploid genome. Marsupials rely on imprinted XCI, which inactivates always the paternally inherited X chromosome. In placental mammals, random XCI (rXCI) is the predominant form, inactivating either the maternal or paternal X. In this review, we discuss recent new insights in the regulation of XCI. Based on these findings, we propose an X inactivation center (Xic), composed of a cis-Xic and trans-Xic that encompass all elements and factors acting to control rXCI either in cis or in trans. We also highlight that XCI may have evolved from a very small nucleation site on the X chromosome in the vicinity of the Sox3 gene. Finally, we discuss the possible evolutionary road maps that resulted in imprinted XCI and rXCI as observed in present day mammals. PMID:22425180

  19. X-ray Emission from Elliptical Galaxies

    Sarazin, Craig L.

    1996-01-01

    Elliptical galaxies are generally luminous sources of X-ray radiation, and contain large amounts of hot, interstellar gas. In the brighter X-ray galaxies, the inferred masses of hot gas are consistent with those expected given the present rates of stellar mass loss. The required rates of heating of the gas are also roughly consistent with those expected from the motions of gas losing stars. X-ray observations, particularly X-ray spectra, require a low rate of Type Ia supernova heating and che...

  20. X-ray Observations of Planetary Nebulae

    Guerrero, M. A.; Chu, Y.-H.; Gruendl, R A

    2003-01-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe) are an exciting addition to the zoo of X-ray sources. Recent Chandra and XMM-Newton observations have detected diffuse X-ray emission from shocked fast winds in PN interiors as well as bow-shocks of fast collimated outflows impinging on the nebular envelope. Point X-ray sources associated with PN central stars are also detected, with the soft X-ray (>0.5 keV) emission from instability shocks in the fast stellar wind itself or from a low-mass companion's coronal activit...

  1. The X(3872) at the Tevatron

    The author reports results on the X(3872) from the Tevatron. Mass and other properties have been studied, with a focus on new results on the dipion mass spectrum in X → J/Ψ π+π- decays. Dipions favor interpreting the decay as J/Ψ ρ, implying even C-parity for the X. Modeling uncertainties do not allow distinguishing between S- and P-wave decays of the J/Ψ-ρ mode. Effects of ρ-ω interference in X decay are also introduced

  2. X-1A in flight over lakebed

    1953-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1A (48-1384) returning from an Air Force test flight over Edwards Air Force Base, California in late 1953. A North American F-86A Sabre as chase plane will follow the X-1A to touchdown. The Rogers Dry Lake is the whitish area under the planes with the airfield at the edge of the dry lake. Bell test pilot Jean 'Skip' Ziegler made six flights between 14 February and 25 April 1953. Air Force test pilots Maj. Charles 'Chuck' Yeager and Maj. Arthur 'Kit' Murray made 18 test flights between 21 November 1953 and 26 August 1954. NACA test pilot Joseph Walker made one successful flight on 20 July 1955. During a second flight attempt, on 8 August 1955, an explosion damaged the aircraft shortly before launch. Walker, unhurt, climbed up into the JTB-29A mothership, and the X-1A was jettisoned over the Edwards AFB bombing range. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system

  3. Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope

    LU Fangjun

    2011-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) will be China's first astronomical satellite. On board HXMT there are three kinds of slat-collimated telescopes, the High Energy X-ray Telescope (HE, 20-250 keV, 5000 cm^2), the Medium Energy X-ray Telescope (ME, 5-30 keV, 952 cm^2), and the Low Energy X-ray Telescope (LE, 1-15 keV, 384 cm^2).

  4. X-ray pulsar rush in 1998

    We present recent remarkable topics about discoveries of X-ray pulsars. 1. Pulsations from two Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters: These pulsars have enormously strong magnetic field (B ∼ 1015 G), thus these are called as 'magnetar', new type of X-ray pulsars. 2. New Crab-like pulsars: These discoveries lead to suggesting universality of Crab-like pulsars. 3. An X-ray bursting millisecond pulsar: This is strong evidence for the recycle theory of generating radio millisecond pulsars. 4. X-ray pulsar rush in the SMC: This indicates the younger star formation history in the SMC. (author)

  5. Structure cristalline du composé Hg3-xSbx(S+Se2+xI2-x (x ≃ 0.1

    Mohammed Kars

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the mercury chalcohalide Hg3-xSbx(S+Se2+xI2-x (x ≃ 0.1 (mercury antimony sulfide selenide iodide, were grown by a chemical transport reaction. The structure contains three independent A (Hg/Sb atoms; each atom is strongly covalently bonded with two X (Se/S atoms to form approximately linear X–A–X units. The X–A–X units link to form A4X4 rings, which are combined into infinite crankshaft-type bands running along the [100] direction. Four equatorial E (I/X = Se,S atoms at relatively long distances complete the distorted octahedral coordination of A (Hg/Sb. The crystal under investigation was twinned by non-merohedry with a refined twin domain fraction of 0.814 (6:0.186 (6. The structure is isotypic with Hg3Se2I2 [Beck & Hedderich (2000. J. Solid State Chem. 151, 73–76], but the current determination reveals a coupled substitution, with partial replacement of Hg+2 by Sb+3, balanced by the equivalent substitution of I−1 by S−2 and Se−2. Bond-valence calculations are consistent with this relative substitution model.

  6. The Lunar X-ray Observatory (LXO)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray emission from charge exchange recombination between the highly ionized solar wind and neutral material i n Earth's magnetosheath has complicated x-ray observations of celestial objects with x-ray observatories including ROSAT, Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Suzaku. However, the charge-exchange emission can also be used as an important diagnostic of the solar-wind interacting with the magnetosheath. Soft x-ray observations from low-earth orbit or even the highly eccentric orbits of Chandra and XMM-Newton are likely superpositions of the celestial object of interest, the true extra-solar soft x-ray background, geospheric charge exchange, and heliospheric charge exchange. We show that with a small x-ray telescope placed either on the moon, in a similar vein as the Apollo ALSOP instruments, or at a stable orbit near L1, we can begin t o disentangle the complicated emission structure in the soft x-ray band. Here we present initial results of a feasibility study recently funded by NASA t o place a small x-ray telescope on the lunar surface. The telescope operates during lunar night to observe charge exchange interactions between the solar wind and magnetospheric neutrals, between the solar wind and the lunar atmosphere, and an unobstructed view of the soft x-ray background without the geospheric component.

  7. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    Chin, Alan Hap [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (US). Dept. of Physics; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90{sup o} Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated {approx} 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 {angstrom}) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has

  8. X-ray pulsars: a review

    Caballero, I

    2012-01-01

    Accreting X-ray pulsars are among the most luminous objects in the X-ray sky. In highly magnetized neutron stars (B~10^12 G), the flow of matter is dominated by the strong magnetic field. The general properties of accreting X-ray binaries are presented, focusing on the spectral characteristics of the systems. The use of cyclotron lines as a tool to directly measure a neutron star's magnetic field and to test the theory of accretion are discussed. We conclude with the current and future prospects for accreting X-ray binary studies.

  9. Teach yourself visually OS X Mavericks

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Clear, step-by-step instruction guides you through OS X Mavericks If you want to get quickly up to speed on the newest (and now cat-free) OS X operating system, OS X Mavericks, this easy-to-follow book is just the ticket. Designed for visual learners, Teach Yourself VISUALLY OS X Mavericks uses rich, full-color screenshots and illustrations to show rather than tell you how to use Mavericks. You'll learn how to customize your Mac, enjoy digital media, connect common peripherals, and get the most out of the very latest enhancements, including iBooks, Maps, iCloud, and Calendar. Shows you how t

  10. Ultrashort X-ray pulse science

    A variety of phenomena involves atomic motion on the femtosecond time-scale. These phenomena have been studied using ultrashort optical pulses, which indirectly probe atomic positions through changes in optical properties. Because x-rays can more directly probe atomic positions, ultrashort x-ray pulses are better suited for the study of ultrafast structural dynamics. One approach towards generating ultrashort x-ray pulses is by 90o Thomson scattering between terawatt laser pulses and relativistic electrons. Using this technique, the author generated ∼ 300 fs, 30 keV (0.4 (angstrom)) x-ray pulses. These x-ray pulses are absolutely synchronized with ultrashort laser pulses, allowing femtosecond optical pump/x-ray probe experiments to be performed. Using the right-angle Thomson scattering x-ray source, the author performed time-resolved x-ray diffraction studies of laser-perturbated InSb. These experiments revealed a delayed onset of lattice expansion. This delay is due to the energy relaxation from a dense electron-hole plasma to the lattice. The dense electron-hole plasma first undergoes Auger recombination, which reduces the carrier concentration while maintaining energy content. Longitudinal-optic (LO) phonon emission then couples energy to the lattice. LO phonon decay into acoustic phonons, and acoustic phonon propagation then causes the growth of a thermally expanded layer. Source characterization is instrumental in utilizing ultrashort x-ray pulses in time-resolved x-ray spectroscopies. By measurement of the electron beam diameter at the generation point, the pulse duration of the Thomson scattered x-rays is determined. Analysis of the Thomson scattered x-ray beam properties also provides a novel means of electron bunch characterization. Although the pulse duration is inferred for the Thomson scattering x-ray source, direct measurement is required for other x-ray pulse sources. A method based on the laser-assisted photoelectric effect (LAPE) has been

  11. Electronic structure of YC/sub x/

    The band structures of YC/sub x/ for concentrations x = 1.0, 0.8, 0.7, and 0.6 are calculated using the coherent-potential approximation (CPA) in the linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) basis. The LCAO Hamiltonian is derived from augmented plane wave (APW) calculations performed for a hypothetical stoichiometric compound with x = 1.0. The results reveal that YC/sub x/ is most stable for about 42 at% C. Most of the theoretical values are compared with experimental data. (author)

  12. First INTEGRAL observations of Cygnus X-3

    Vilhu, O.; Hjalmarsdotter, L.; Zdziarski, A.A.;

    2003-01-01

    We present the first INTEGRAL results on Cyg X-3 from the PV phase observations of the Cygnus region. The source was clearly detected by the JEM-X, ISGRI and SPI. The INTEGRAL observations were supported by simultaneous pointed RXTE observations. Their lightcurves folded over the 4.8 hour binary...... period are compatible with the mean RXTE/ASM and CGRO/BATSE light curves. We fit our broad-band X-ray/gamma-ray spectra with a physical model, which represents the first such published model for Cyg X-3. The main physical processes in the source are thermal Comptonization and Compton reflection with...

  13. X-rays pinpoint tumour targets

    When a surgeon in Birmingham used an X-ray photograph to guide the removal of a needle buried in a woman's hand in January 1896, it became the first X-ray guided operation in medical history. Since then X-rays have been widely used for medical imaging, and 'computed tomography' now provides us with exquisite 2D cross-sectional images of the human body. The technique creates images by passing X-rays along a plane through the body and recording the transmitted signals from various angles. A 'CT scan' lets us locate and visualize tumours with a resolution of 1 mm. But there is more to X-rays than imaging - they can also treat patients by killing cancerous tumours. When X-rays interact with tissue, they release highly reactive radicals that break the double strands in DNA molecules and cause the rapidly dividing cancerous cells to die. But because X-rays kill both healthy and diseased tissue in equal measure, it is vital to minimize the radiation received by healthy organs and tissue surrounding the tumour. The goal of radiotherapy is to find the precise location of a tumour using a CT scan - or other imaging technique - and then concentrate the X-rays on it to destroy the diseased tissue. In the August issue of Physics World Matin Durrani describes how intensity-modulated radiation therapy can deliver precise doses of X-rays to tumours while leaving surrounding, healthy tissue relatively unscathed. (U.K.)

  14. Superorbital Period Variations in the X-ray Pulsar LMC X-4

    B. Paul; S. Kitamoto

    2002-03-01

    We report the discovery of a decay in the superorbital period of the binary X-ray pulsar LMC X-4. Combining archival data and published long term X-ray light curves, we have found a decay in the third period in this system ( ∼ 30.3 day, $\\dot{P}$ ∼ -2 × 10-5 s s-1). Along with this result, a comparison of the superorbital intensity variations in LMC X-4, Her X-1 and SMC X-1 is also presented.

  15. Gromov-Witten Theory of P^1xP^1xP^1

    Karp, Dagan; Ranganathan, Dhruv

    2012-01-01

    We use elementary geometric techniques to exhibit an explicit equivalence between certain sectors of the Gromov-Witten theories of blowups of P^1xP^1xP^1 and P^3. In particular, we prove that the all genus, virtual dimension zero Gromov-Witten theory of the blowup of P^3 at points coincides with that of the blowup at points of P^1xP^1xP^1, for non-exceptional classes. We observe a toric symmetry of the Gromov-Witten theory of P^1xP^1xP^1 analogous and intimately related to Cremona symmetry of...

  16. Effect of nitrogenation on magnetism for Y2Fe17-x(SiAl)x

    The magnetic moment (μ) of the host compounds Y2Fe17-xMx (M=Si, Si0.7Al0.3, Al) decreases gradually with x irrespective of M and of the unit cell volume. After that, μ decreases steeply with x. μ increases about 15% after nitrogenation. μ of nitrides decreases with x which is similar to that of the host compounds. However, the range of x, where μ decreases gradually with x, is narrower than that of host compounds. This result shows that polarization of the 3d-band is enhanced by nitrogenation. ((orig.))

  17. Female chromosome X mosaicism is age-related and preferentially affects the inactivated X chromosome

    Machiela, Mitchell J.; Zhou, Weiyin; Karlins, Eric; Sampson, Joshua N.; Neal D Freedman; Yang, Qi; Hicks, Belynda; Dagnall, Casey; Hautman, Christopher; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Abnet, Christian C.; Aldrich, Melinda C; Amos, Christopher; Amundadottir, Laufey T.; Arslan, Alan A.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate large structural clonal mosaicism of chromosome X, we analysed the SNP microarray intensity data of 38,303 women from cancer genome-wide association studies (20,878 cases and 17,425 controls) and detected 124 mosaic X events >2 Mb in 97 (0.25%) women. Here we show rates for X-chromosome mosaicism are four times higher than mean autosomal rates; X mosaic events more often include the entire chromosome and participants with X events more likely harbour autosomal mosaic events. X ...

  18. X-ray imaging using a tunable coherent X-ray source based on parametric X-ray radiation

    A novel X-ray source based on parametric X-ray radiation (PXR) has been employed for X-ray imaging at the Laboratory for Electron Beam Research and Application (LEBRA), Nihon University. Notable features of PXR are tunable energy, monochromaticity with spatial chirp, narrow local bandwidth and spatial coherence. Since the X-ray beam from the PXR system has a large irradiation area with uniform flux density, the PXR-based source is suited for X-ray imaging, especially for application to phase-contrast imaging. Despite the cone-like X-ray beam, diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) can be employed as a phase contrast imaging technique. DEI experiments were performed using 14- to 34-keV X-rays and the phase-gradient images were obtained. The results demonstrated the capability of PXR as an X-ray source for phase-contrast imaging with a large irradiation field attributed to the cone-beam effect. Given the significant properties of the LEBRA-PXR source, the result suggests the possible construction of a compact linac-driven PXR-Imaging instrument and its application to medical diagnoses

  19. Thermoelectric properties of YMn4+xAl8-x for -2 ≤ x ≤ 2.5

    Seven samples within the series YMn4+xAl8-x (-2.0 ≤ x ≤ 2.5) were synthesized using direct reaction of the elements. The thermoelectric properties of the samples were characterized by measurements of resistivity, thermal conductivity and thermopower. According to transport measurements, slight Mn-deficiency influences the electronic conductivity of the YMn4+xAl8-x system, implying that the electronic structure is marginal to the metal-semiconductor boundary. Furthermore, the ZT values of the samples prepared in this study were low. Experimental results indicated that structurally ordered YMn4Al8 shows metallic conductivity, whereas off-stoichiometric compounds displayed semiconductor-like behavior, at low temperatures.

  20. NGC300 X-1 and IC10 X-1: a new breed of black hole binary?

    Barnard, R; Kolb, U C

    2008-01-01

    [ABRIDGED] IC10 X-1 has recently been confirmed as a black hole (BH) + Wolf-Rayet (WR) X-ray binary, and NGC300 X-1 is thought to be. IC10 X-1 and NGC300 X-1 have similar X-ray properties, with luminosities ~10^38 erg/s, and orbital periods ~30 hr. We investigate similarities between these two, as well as differences between them and the known Galactic BH binary systems. We have examined XMM-Newton observations of NGC300 X-1 and IC10 X-1. We extracted lightcurves and spectra; power density spectra (PDS) were constructed from the lightcurves, and the X-ray emission spectra were modeled. Each source exhibits PDS that are characteristic of disc-accreting X-ray binaries (XBs) in the high state. In this state, Galactic XBs with known BH primaries have soft, thermal emission; however the emission spectra of our targets are predominantly non-thermal. Furthermore, the Observation 1 spectrum of NGC300 X-1 is strikingly similar to that of IC10 X-1. The remarkable similarity between the behaviour of NGC300 X-1 in Observ...