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Sample records for actinium chlorides

  1. Extraction of actinium with di-(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid from hydrochloric and nitric acid solutions

    The extraction of actinium with HDEHP from Cl- and NO3- systems has been investigated. It was found that extraction of actinium from HCl solutions is much better than from HNO3 solutions. Stability constants of actinium complexes Ac(X-)+2 with Cl- and NO3- ligands were determined. Our results show that the actinium formed less stable complexes with Cl- than with NO3- ligands. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  2. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials

    This paper describes a combined experimental and modeling program of generic sorption studies to increase confidence in the performance assessment for a potential high-level radioactive waste repository in Japan. The sorption of polonium, actinium and protactinium onto geological materials has been investigated. Sorption of these radioelements onto bentonite, tuff and granodiorite from equilibrated de-ionized water was studied under reducing conditions at room temperature. In addition, the sorption of actinium and protactinium was investigated at 60 C. Thermodynamic chemical modeling was carried out to aid interpretation of the results

  3. Discovery of the actinium, thorium, protactinium, and uranium isotopes

    Fry, C; Thoennessen, M

    2012-01-01

    Currently, 31 actinium, 31 thorium, 28 protactinium, and 23 uranium isotopes have so far been observed; the discovery of these isotopes is discussed. For each isotope a brief summary of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented.

  4. Separation of Actinium 227 from the uranium minerals

    The purpose of this work was to separate Actinium 227, whose content is 18%, from the mineral carnotite found in Gomez Chihuahua mountain range in Mexico. The mineral before processing is is pre-concentrated and passed, first through anionic exchange resins, later the eluate obtained is passed through cationic resins. The resins were 20-50 MESH QOWEX and 100-200 MESH 50 X 8-20 in some cased 200-400 MESH AG 50W-X8, 1X8 in other cases. The eluates from the ionic exchange were electrodeposited on stainless steel polished disc cathode and platinum electrode as anode; under a current ODF 10mA for 2.5 to 5 hours and of 100mA for .5 of an hour. it was possible to identify the Actinium 227 by means of its descendents, TH-227 and RA-223, through alpha spectroscopy. Due to the radiochemical purity which the electro deposits were obtained the Actinium 227 was low and was not quantitatively determined. A large majority of the members of the natural radioactive series 3 were identified and even alpha energies reported in the literature with very low percentages of non-identified emissions were observed. We conclude that a more precise study is needed concerning ionic exchange and electrodeposit to obtain an Actinium 227 of radiochemical purity. (Author)

  5. Spectroscopic and computational investigation of actinium coordination chemistry.

    Ferrier, Maryline G; Batista, Enrique R; Berg, John M; Birnbaum, Eva R; Cross, Justin N; Engle, Jonathan W; La Pierre, Henry S; Kozimor, Stosh A; Lezama Pacheco, Juan S; Stein, Benjamin W; Stieber, S Chantal E; Wilson, Justin J

    2016-01-01

    Actinium-225 is a promising isotope for targeted-α therapy. Unfortunately, progress in developing chelators for medicinal applications has been hindered by a limited understanding of actinium chemistry. This knowledge gap is primarily associated with handling actinium, as it is highly radioactive and in short supply. Hence, Ac(III) reactivity is often inferred from the lanthanides and minor actinides (that is, Am, Cm), with limited success. Here we overcome these challenges and characterize actinium in HCl solutions using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and molecular dynamics density functional theory. The Ac-Cl and Ac-OH2O distances are measured to be 2.95(3) and 2.59(3) Å, respectively. The X-ray absorption spectroscopy comparisons between Ac(III) and Am(III) in HCl solutions indicate Ac(III) coordinates more inner-sphere Cl(1-) ligands (3.2±1.1) than Am(III) (0.8±0.3). These results imply diverse reactivity for the +3 actinides and highlight the unexpected and unique Ac(III) chemical behaviour. PMID:27531582

  6. Production of high-purity radium-223 from legacy actinium-beryllium neutron sources.

    Soderquist, Chuck Z; McNamara, Bruce K; Fisher, Darrell R

    2012-07-01

    Radium-223 is a short-lived alpha-particle-emitting radionuclide with potential applications in cancer treatment. Research to develop new radiopharmaceuticals employing (223)Ra has been hindered by poor availability due to the small quantities of parent actinium-227 available world-wide. The purpose of this study was to develop innovative and cost-effective methods to obtain high-purity (223)Ra from (227)Ac. We obtained (227)Ac from two surplus actinium-beryllium neutron generators. We retrieved the actinium/beryllium buttons from the sources and dissolved them in a sulfuric-nitric acid solution. A crude actinium solid was recovered from the solution by coprecipitation with thorium fluoride, leaving beryllium in solution. The crude actinium was purified to provide about 40 milligrams of actinium nitrate using anion exchange in methanol-water-nitric acid solution. The purified actinium was then used to generate high-purity (223)Ra. We extracted (223)Ra using anion exchange in a methanol-water-nitric acid solution. After the radium was separated, actinium and thorium were then eluted from the column and dried for interim storage. This single-pass separation produces high purity, carrier-free (223)Ra product, and does not disturb the (227)Ac/(227)Th equilibrium. A high purity, carrier-free (227)Th was also obtained from the actinium using a similar anion exchange in nitric acid. These methods enable efficient production of (223)Ra for research and new alpha-emitter radiopharmaceutical development. PMID:22697483

  7. Radium, thorium, and actinium extraction from seawater using an improved manganese-oxide-coated fiber

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency with which improved manganese-oxide-coated acrylic fibers extract radium, thorium, and actinium from seawater. Tests were made using surface seawater spiked with 227Ac, 227Th and 223Ra. For sample volumes of approximately 30 liters and flow rates up to 0.5 liters per minute, radium and actinium are removed quantitatively. Approximately 80-95% of the thorium is removed under these same conditions. (Auth.)

  8. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    Harvey, James T.; Nolen, Jerry; Vandergrift, George; Gomes, Itacil; Kroc, Tom; Horwitz, Phil; McAlister, Dan; Bowers, Del; Sullivan, Vivian; Greene, John

    2011-12-30

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces {approx}100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 Ge

  9. Production of Actinium-225 via High Energy Proton Induced Spallation of Thorium-232

    The science of cancer research is currently expanding its use of alpha particle emitting radioisotopes. Coupled with the discovery and proliferation of molecular species that seek out and attach to tumors, new therapy and diagnostics are being developed to enhance the treatment of cancer and other diseases. This latest technology is commonly referred to as Alpha Immunotherapy (AIT). Actinium-225/Bismuth-213 is a parent/daughter alpha-emitting radioisotope pair that is highly sought after because of the potential for treating numerous diseases and its ability to be chemically compatible with many known and widely used carrier molecules (such as monoclonal antibodies and proteins/peptides). Unfortunately, the worldwide supply of actinium-225 is limited to about 1,000mCi annually and most of that is currently spoken for, thus limiting the ability of this radioisotope pair to enter into research and subsequently clinical trials. The route proposed herein utilizes high energy protons to produce actinium-225 via spallation of a thorium-232 target. As part of previous R and D efforts carried out at Argonne National Laboratory recently in support of the proposed US FRIB facility, it was shown that a very effective production mechanism for actinium-225 is spallation of thorium-232 by high energy proton beams. The base-line simulation for the production rate of actinium-225 by this reaction mechanism is 8E12 atoms per second at 200 MeV proton beam energy with 50 g/cm2 thorium target and 100 kW beam power. An irradiation of one actinium-225 half-life (10 days) produces ∼100 Ci of actinium-225. For a given beam current the reaction cross section increases slightly with energy to about 400 MeV and then decreases slightly for beam energies in the several GeV regime. The object of this effort is to refine the simulations at proton beam energies of 400 MeV and above up to about 8 GeV. Once completed, the simulations will be experimentally verified using 400 MeV and 8 GeV protons

  10. Neutron-Induced Fission of Actinium-227, Protactinium-231 and Neptunium-237: Mass Distribution

    Results of radiochemical studies on the mass distribution in the neutron-induced fission of actinium-227, protactinium-231 and neptunium-237 have been presented. This work has been carried out as part of a programme to determine the mass distribution in the fission of heavy elements as a function of Z and A. All irradiations have been carried out in the core of the swimming-pool type reactor APSARA with cadmium shielding wherever necessary. Relative yields of several fission product nuclides have been obtained by a method involving a comparison of the fission product activities from the respective targets with those formed from uranium-235 simultaneously irradiated. Thermal-neutron fission yields of uranium-235 have been assumed. These results indicate a predominantly asymmetric mass distribution in all the three cases, and also a distinct though small symmetric peak in the case of actinium-227. (author)

  11. A new method for the determination of low-level actinium-227 in geological samples

    We developed a new method for the determination of 227Ac in geological samples. The method uses extraction chromatographic techniques and alpha-spectrometry and is applicable for a range of natural matrices. Here we report on the procedure and results of the analysis of water (fresh and seawater) and rock samples. Water samples were acidified and rock samples underwent total dissolution via acid leaching. A DGA (N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide) extraction chromatographic column was used for the separation of actinium. The actinium fraction was prepared for alpha spectrometric measurement via cerium fluoride micro-precipitation. Recoveries of actinium in water samples were 80 ± 8 % (number of analyses n = 14) and in rock samples 70 ± 12 % (n = 30). The minimum detectable activities (MDA) were 0.017-0.5 Bq kg-1 for both matrices. Rock sample 227Ac activities ranged from 0.17 to 8.3 Bq kg-1 and water sample activities ranged from below MDA values to 14 Bq kg-1of 227Ac. From the analysis of several standard rock and water samples with the method we found very good agreement between our results and certified values. (author)

  12. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-09-01

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore.

  13. Analysis of the gamma spectra of the uranium, actinium, and thorium decay series

    This report describes the identification of radionuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series by analysis of gamma spectra in the energy range of 40 to 1400 keV. Energies and absolute efficiencies for each gamma line were measured by means of a high-resolution germanium detector and compared with those in the literature. A gamma spectroscopy method, which utilizes an on-line computer for deconvolution of spectra, search and identification of each line, and estimation of activity for each radionuclide, was used to analyze soil and uranium tailings, and ore

  14. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS—towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm − 1 which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  15. Developments towards in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy studies of actinium isotopes at LISOL

    Raeder, S.; Bastin, B.; Block, M.; Creemers, P.; Delahaye, P.; Ferrer, R.; Fléchard, X.; Franchoo, S.; Ghys, L.; Gaffney, L. P.; Granados, C.; Heinke, R.; Hijazi, L.; Huyse, M.; Kron, T.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Laatiaoui, M.; Lecesne, N.; Luton, F.; Moore, I. D.; Martinez, Y.; Mogilevskiy, E.; Naubereit, P.; Piot, J.; Rothe, S.; Savajols, H.; Sels, S.; Sonnenschein, V.; Traykov, E.; Van Beveren, C.; Van den Bergh, P.; Van Duppen, P.; Wendt, K.; Zadvornaya, A.

    2016-06-01

    To study exotic nuclides at the borders of stability with laser ionization and spectroscopy techniques, highest efficiencies in combination with a high spectral resolution are required. These usually opposing requirements are reconciled by applying the in-gas-laser ionization and spectroscopy (IGLIS) technique in the supersonic gas jet produced by a de Laval nozzle installed at the exit of the stopping gas cell. Carrying out laser ionization in the low-temperature and low density supersonic gas jet eliminates pressure broadening, which will significantly improve the spectral resolution. This article presents the required modifications at the Leuven Isotope Separator On-Line (LISOL) facility that are needed for the first on-line studies of in-gas-jet laser spectroscopy. Different geometries for the gas outlet and extraction ion guides have been tested for their performance regarding the acceptance of laser ionized species as well as for their differential pumping capacities. The specifications and performance of the temporarily installed high repetition rate laser system, including a narrow bandwidth injection-locked Ti:sapphire laser, are discussed and first preliminary results on neutron-deficient actinium isotopes are presented indicating the high capability of this novel technique.

  16. Chloride ingress prediction

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth and...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  17. Chloride ingress prediction

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...... marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  18. Chloride ingress prediction

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...

  19. Chloride ingress prediction

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  20. Groundwater seepage from the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam: radioisotopes of radium, thorium and actinium. Supervising Scientist report 106

    Monitoring of bores near the Ranger uranium mine tailings dam has revealed deterioration in water quality in several bores since 1983. In a group of bores to the north of the dam, increases have been observed of up to 500 times for sulphate concentrations and of up to 5 times for 226Ra concentrations. Results are presented here of measurements of members of the uranium, thorium and actinium decay series in borewater samples collected between 1985 and 1993. In particular, measurements of all four naturally-occurring radium isotopes have been used in an investigation of the mechanism of radium concentration changes. For the most seepage-affected bores the major findings of the study include: 228Ra/226Ra 223Ra /226Ra and 224Ra/228Ra ratios all increased over the course of the study; barium concentrations show high seasonal variability, being lower in November than May, but strontium concentrations show a steady increase with time. Calculations show that the groundwater is probably saturated with respect to barite but not with respect to celestite or anglesite; sulphide concentrations are low in comparison with sulphate, and are higher in November than in May; and 227Ac concentrations have increased with time, but do not account for the high 223Ra/226Ra ratios. It is concluded on the basis of these observations that increases in Ra isotope concentrations observed in a number of seepage-affected bores arise from increases in salinity leading to desorption of radium from adsorption sites in the vicinity of the bore rather by direct transport of radium from the tailings. Increased salinity is also causing the observed increases in 227Ac and strontium concentrations, while formation of a barite solid phase in the groundwater is causing the removal of some radium from solution. This is the cause of the increasing radium isotope ratios noted above

  1. Mass transport in aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride electrolytes

    Leaist, D.G.

    1986-09-01

    Conductimetric and diaphragm cell techniques have been used to measure ternary diffusion coefficients for aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride solutions at 25/sup 0/C. At low concentrations where Zn/sup 2 +/ is the major zinc-transporting species, the diffusion-induced electric field along zinc chloride concentration gradients drives large co-current flows of potassium chloride. In concentrated solutions where a large proportion of zinc diffusses as anionic ZnCl/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnCl/sub 4//sup 2 -/ complexes, flow of zinc chloride generates counterflow of potassium chloride. If a sharp zinc chloride is formed in an otherwise uniform solution of potassium chloride, coupled diffusion can concentrate potassium ions within the diffusion boundary. Equations are developed to predict multicomponent transport coefficients for zinc chloride in supporting electrolytes.

  2. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  3. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  4. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  5. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  6. Chloride channels in stroke

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  7. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  8. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  9. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    Yuan, Q.; Shi, C; Schutter, G. de; Audenaert, K.; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  10. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  11. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P.A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  12. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  13. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. Neutron diffraction study of aluminum chloride imidazolium chloride molten salts

    Takahashi, S. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Saboungi, M.L.; Suzuya, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Koura, N. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1994-02-01

    The structure of molten mixtures of (AlCl{sub 3}){sub x}(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride){sub 1-x} was investigated by neutron diffraction techniques for x=0.46, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.67. Results derived from earlier ab initio molecular orbital (6-31G* basis set) computations for AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}}, and EMI{sup +} were used to calculate the diffraction patterns; the calculated contributions of each species are thus obtained and overall results are in good agreement with measurements.

  15. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of SixZry intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  16. Cooper hydrometallurgy and extraction from chloride media

    The development of copper hydrometallurgy is presented and various processes proposed for copper recovery from sulphide concentrates are discussed. Leaching, extraction and stripping are considered, including reagents and processes. The extraction of copper from chloride solutions is discussed. Various extractants are presented and their use for copper transfer from chloride solutions to the organic phase and back to chloride and to sulphate solutions is discussed. (author) 4 refs

  17. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C2HCl3 and CH2Cl2. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C2HCl3 was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C2HCl3 was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C2HCl3 and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl2 and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl2, CO and CO2 were formed. CH2Cl2 was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl2, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH3+ and CH4 were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH2Cl2. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  18. Method of processing chloride waste

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  19. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  20. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  1. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  2. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  3. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements are...

  4. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after a...

  5. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.)

  6. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics...

  7. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect...

  8. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  9. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  10. Membrane chloride transport measured using a chloride-sensitive fluorescent probe

    Transport of chloride across cell membranes through exchange, cotransport, or conductive pathways is a subject of great biological importance. Current methods of measurement are restricted in their sensitivity, time resolution, and applicability. A new transport measurement technique has been developed on the basis of the fluorescence quenching by chloride of the dye 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium (SPQ). SPQ fluorescence quenching by chloride is rapid and sensitive, with a greater than 50% decrease in fluorescence at 10 mM chloride. SPQ fluorescence is not altered by other physiological anions or by pH and can be used to measure both neutral and conductive transport processes. The high water solubility and membrane permeability properties of SPQ make it ideal for use in both membrane vesicles and cells. Chloride transport determined with SPQ was validated by measurement of erythrocyte chloride/anion exchange and membrane vesicle chloride conductance using 35SO4 uptake

  11. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  12. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  13. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  14. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-01

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

  15. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  16. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Rene Kizek; Petr Babula; Jaromir Hubalek; Vojtech Adam; Libuse Trnkova

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the mo...

  17. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  18. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  19. Monoclonal antibodies to the apical chloride channel in Necturus gallbladder inhibit the chloride conductance.

    Finn, A L; Tsai, L M; Falk, R J

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The...

  20. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; A. S. Kayaalp

    2009-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many...

  1. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  2. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  3. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  4. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  5. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  6. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  7. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Tommasso J.R., Wright, M. I.; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  8. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  9. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl3liquid + H2O → FeOClsolid + 2 HClgas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOClsolid + H2O → Fe2O3solid + 2 HClgas. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  10. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  11. Combining sulfate electrowinning with chloride leaching

    Fletcher, A. W.; Sudderth, R. B.; Olafson, S. M.

    1991-08-01

    Although the chloride leaching of copper sulfide concentrates has proved highly efficient, electrowinning from chloride solutions presents many difficulties, notably in cell design and the handling of the powder product. Sulfate electrowinning,on the other hand, continues to improve and has played a significant part in the widespread adoption of the solvent extraction-electrowinning process for copper recovery from low-grade ores. It has been found that the two steps can be combined by introducing a novel solvent extraction process after chloride leaching. This article presents the results of laboratory tests to prove the feasibility of this approach and discusses how it can be integrated into a commercially viable flow sheet.

  12. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  13. Hydrogenation of Tasmanian alginite in the presence of tin (II) chloride and zinc chloride

    Russell, N.J.

    1981-10-01

    A Mersey River (Tasmanian) algnite concentrate was heated (3 Cmin$SUP$-$SUP$1 to temperatures of 200-480 C in a small capacity, high-pressure, single-cell differential thermal analysis, batch autoclave under nitrogen or hydrogen (initial pressure 9.8 MPa) with or without 10 wt% zinc chloride or tin (II) chloride. An organic solvent (vehicle) was not used in these experiments. Although there is an almost complete conversion of alginite to gaseous and liquid products between 425 and 450 C, the compositions of the autoclave gas samples, the yields and compositions of the hexane-soluble material derived from the autoclave products, and the optical properties of the hexane-soluble residues, reflect the experimental conditions, in particular the influence of the metal chlorides. Principal phases of hydrogen uptake by alginite occur at different temperatures in a hydrogen atmosphere depending on the presence and nature of the metal chloride. The autoclave gas compositions reveal a clear distinction between the uncatalysed and catalysed experiments. The hydrocarbon gas ratios permit a distinction to be made between catalytic (carbonium ion mechanism) reactions and thermal (free radical mechanism) reactions; at higher temperatures the latter are dominant, even in the catalysed experiments. The metal chlorides lower the organic sulphur and nitrogen contents of the hexane-soluble material; zinc chloride being more effective than tin (II) chloride. Incident light fluorescence microscopy suggests that zinc chloride and tin (II) chloride give rise to different hydrogenation reactions between 300 and 425 C. Incident light fluorescence microscopy is a most useful method of studying the petrography of alignite in the hexane-insoluble residues. (28 refs.)

  14. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  15. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    2010-04-01

    ..., and crystallized. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  16. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  17. Polyvinyl chloride filled with bismuth oxychloride powder

    Polášková, M.; Sedláček, T.; Kharlamov, Alexander; Pivokonský, Radek; Saha, P.

    Larnaca : Polymer Processing Society, 2009, s. 242. [Polymer Processing Society Europe/Africa Regional Meeting. Larnaca (GR), 18.10.2009-21.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : olyvinyl chloride * bismuth oxychloride * radiopaque agents Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  18. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effec...

  19. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  20. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C10H21NH3Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer

  1. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg...

  2. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination to conduct a full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on...

  3. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    2010-04-20

    ... established a schedule for the conduct of this review (74 FR 62587, November 30, 2010). Subsequently, counsel... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  4. Chloride concentration affects soil microbial community

    Gryndler, Milan; Rohlenová, Jana; Kopecký, Jan; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2008), s. 1401-1408. ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : soil chloride * terminal restriction fragments * soil microorganisms Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.054, year: 2008

  5. Determination of chloride in uranium solutions

    Danse, A.; Stoch, H.; Steele, T.W.

    1967-05-15

    Thiocyanate is first removed by precipitation with a small excess of a copper solution, and the cations are removed by passing the filtrate through a cation-exchange resin. The chloride is determined in the eluate by a potentiometric titration in which silver nitrate solution is used.

  6. Regulated trafficking of the CFTR chloride channel

    Braakman, L.J.; Kleizen, B.; Jonge, H.R. de

    2000-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the ABC transporter encoded by the cystic fibrosis gene, is localized in the apical membrane of epithelial cells where it functions as a cyclic AMP-regulated chloride channel and as a regulator of other ion channels and transporters. Wh

  7. Binary nucleation of water and sodium chloride

    Němec, Tomáš; Maršík, František; Palmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 4 (2006), 0445091-0445096. ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/2536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : binary nucleation * sodium chloride * water Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 3.166, year: 2006

  8. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  9. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  10. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  11. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  12. Revised Model of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Bridge by Considering Complex Action of Load and Chloride Binding Capacity

    Xiang, Yiqiang; Guo, DongMei

    2014-01-01

    Coastal concrete bridges will suffer from deterioration of RC structural performance and resistance attenuation because of the chloride penetration and other environment factors. This article discusses current different chloride diffusion models and puts forward the revised model of chloride diffusion in concrete bridge by considering the complex action of load influence and chloride-binding capacity. Comparison of numerical predicted values and relative experimental tests show the presented ...

  13. BARRIER PROPERTIES OF VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE COPOLYMERS

    LI Yuesheng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1996-01-01

    The permeability coefficients of a series of copolymers of vinylidene chloride (VDC)with methyl acrylate (MA), butyl acrylate (BA) or vinyl chloride (VC) (as comonomer)to oxygen and carbon dioxide have been measured at 1.0 MPa and 30℃, while those to water vapor have been measured at 30℃ and 100% relative humidity. All the copolymers are semicrystalline. VDC/MA copolymers have lower melting temperature compared with VDC/BA copolymers, while that melting temperature of VDC/VC copolymer is higher than that of VDC/acrylate copolymers with the same VDC content. The barrier property of the copolymers is predominantly controlled by crystallite, free volume fraction, and cohesive energy. The permeability coefficients of VDC/MA copolymers to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor were successfully correlated with the ratio of free volume to cohesive energy.

  14. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient; the...

  15. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  16. Influence of chloride admixtures on cement matrix durability

    The influence of various inorganic salts, as chloride admixtures to Portland cement, on the mechanical properties and the durability of the matrix has been studied. The salts used in this study are chromium, nickel and cadmium chlorides. Improved compressive strength values are obtained which have been correlated to the stable metal hydroxide formation in high pH environment. Under static water conditions at 500C, hydrolyzed chloride ions exhibit adverse effects on the matrix durability through rapid release of calcium as calcium chloride in the initial period of leaching. On the contrary, enhanced matrix durability is obtained on long term leaching in the case of cement containing chromium chloride

  17. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete mixtures aretested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures.Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP wa...

  18. Gasometric titration for dimethylaluminum chloride analysis.

    Wang, Lin; Maligres, Peter; Eckenroad, Kyle; Simmons, Bryon

    2016-06-01

    A gasometric titration method was developed to quantitate active alkylaluminum content in dimethylaluminum chloride solution to perform the stoichiometry calculation for the reaction charge. The procedure was reproducible with good precision, and the results showed good correlation with ICP-MS method. The gasometric titration is a simple, inexpensive alternative to analysis via ICP-MS which provides more selective analysis of methylaluminum species without the need for inertion. PMID:27017569

  19. A Duplex Stainless Steel for Chloride Environments

    Sridhar, N.; Kolts, J.; Flasche, L. H.

    1985-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of microstructural changes on the corrosion, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue resistance of a duplex stainless steel to chloride environments. The microstructural changes can be precipitation of phases such as sigma and carbides, or changes in the distribution of austenite and ferrite. The former can be important in hot forming operations while the latter is important in welding. The methods of minimizing these deleterious effects can sometimes be different from those used for austenitic stainless steel.

  20. Electrodeposition of Zinc from Chloride Solution

    NAIK, Yanjerappa Arthoba; VENKATESHA, Thimmappa Venkatarangaiah

    2002-01-01

    The electroplating of zinc is carried out in the presence of 3,4,5-Trimethoxy benzaldehyde from a chloride bath. The bath constituents are optimized through Hull cell experiments. Operating parameters such as pH, temperature, and current density are also optimized. The current efficiency and throwing power are measured at different current densities. Polarization study is carried out under galvanostatic conditions. Corrosion resistance test indicated good protection of steel by the ...

  1. Acylation of Toluene with Isobutyryl Chloride

    Čejka, Jiří; Klisáková, Jana; Žilková, Naděžda; Červený, L.

    Cape Town, 2004 - ( Steen van, E.), s. 2717-2723 ISBN 0-958-46636-X. [International Zeolite Conference /14./. Cape Town (ZA), 25.04.2004-30.04.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : acylation of toluene * isobutyryl chloride * zeolites Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  2. Manganese laser using manganese chloride as lasant

    Chen, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    A manganese vapor laser utilizing manganese chloride as a lasant has been observed and investigated. Lasing is attained by means of two consecutive electrical discharges. The maximum laser output is obtained at a vapor pressure of about 3 torr, a temperature of 680 C, and a time delay between electrical discharges of 150 microsec. The maximum energy density is 1.3 microjoule per cu cm.

  3. (tert-Butyl(2-hydroxyethylammonium chloride

    Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title molecular salt, C6H16NO+·Cl−, the N—C—C—O torsion angle is 176.5 (2°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride ions are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (100.

  4. Electrochemical behaviours of scandium in chloride melts

    Electrochemical behaviour of scandium(3) ions in an eutectic melt of NaCl-KCl-CsCl at 810-850 K is studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The process of cathodic reduction of scandium complex ions in chloride melts is found to proceed according to the scheme: Sc(3) → Sc(0) and to be controlled by the rate of ScCl63- complex dissociation

  5. Boldine action against the stannous chloride effect.

    Reiniger, I W; Ribeiro da Silva, C; Felzenszwalb, I; de Mattos, J C; de Oliveira, J F; da Silva Dantas, F J; Bezerra, R J; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-12-15

    Peumus boldus extract has been used in popular medicine in the treatment of biliar litiase, hepatic insufficiency and liver congestion. Its effects are associated to the substance boldine that is present in its extract. In the present work, we evaluated the influence of boldine both in: (i) the structural conformation of a plasmid pUC 9.1 through gel electrophoresis analysis; and in (ii) the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species (ROS), generated by a Fenton like reaction, induced by stannous chloride. Our results show a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of boldine. The supercoiled form of the plasmid is not modified by stannous chloride in the presence of boldine. We suggest that the protection induced by boldine could be explained by its anti-oxidant mechanism. In this way, the boldine could be reacting with stannous ions, protecting them against the oxidation and, consequently, avoiding the generation of ROS. PMID:10624900

  6. Chloride Channel Myotonia: Study of Five Cases

    M Ghofrani

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channel Myotonia is a form of channelopathy, and Myotonia is its manifestation. Myotonia may be defined as delayed relaxation of skeletal muscle after its contraction. Decreased chloride conductance across the transverse tubular system, renders the muscle membrane hyper-excitable and leads to repetitive firing, creating Myotonia. Myotonia congenital is another name for chloride channel Myotonia. Myotonia congenital appears in autosomal dominant type called Thomson disease, autosomal recessive type called Becker disease, and a type with sporadic occurrence. Symptoms appear in the first or second decade of life. Repeated muscle contraction, the so called warm up, result in resolution of the Myotonia stiffness. Muscle stiffness and hypertrophy is another finding at physical examination. In this study we report on 5 patients, which had clinical and electrical signs of Myotonia. Muscle hypertrophy and warm up phenomena were present in all cases. CPK measurement of all cases were normal. 2 patients underwent muscle biopsy that showed only atrophy and increased central nuclei. In three cases autosomal recessive inheritance (Becker, in one case autosomal dominant inheritance (Thomsen and in one case sporadic occurrence was suggested. With respect to successful results of carbamazepine therapy in 4 patients, and being excellent in one of them, we suggest carbamazepine for the first choice of Myotonia treatment.

  7. An autopsy case of zinc chloride poisoning.

    Kondo, Takeshi; Takahashi, Motonori; Watanabe, Seiya; Ebina, Masatomo; Mizu, Daisuke; Ariyoshi, Koichi; Asano, Migiwa; Nagasaki, Yasushi; Ueno, Yasuhiro

    2016-07-01

    Ingestion of large amounts of zinc chloride causes corrosive gastroenteritis with vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. Some individuals experience shock after ingesting large amounts of zinc chloride, resulting in fatality. Here, we present the results of an administrative autopsy performed on a 70-year-old man who ingested zinc chloride solution and died. After drinking the solution, he developed vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, and called for an ambulance. Except for tachycardia, his vital signs were stable at presentation. However, he developed hypotension and severe metabolic acidosis and died. The patient's blood zinc concentration on arrival was high at 3030μg/dL. Liver cirrhosis with cloudy yellow ascites was observed, however, there were no clear findings of gastrointestinal perforation. The gastric mucosa was gray-brown, with sclerosis present in all gastric wall layers. Zinc staining was strongly positive in all layers. There was almost no postmortem degeneration of the gastric mucosal epithelium, and hypercontracture of the smooth muscle layer was observed. Measurement of the zinc concentration in the organs revealed the highest concentration in the gastric mucosa, followed by the pancreas and spleen. Clinically, corrosive gastroenteritis was the cause of death. However, although autopsy revealed solidification in the esophagus and gastric mucosa, there were no findings in the small or large intestine. Therefore, metabolic acidosis resulting from organ damage was the direct cause of death. PMID:27497327

  8. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl2–N2 mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated

  9. Microwave spectrum and structure of nitrosyl chloride

    The microwave spectra of 15N isotopic species of nitrosyl chloride, 15NO35Cl and 15NO37Cl, have been assigned between 8 and 26 GHz, and the following rotational constants have been obtained: A = 81600 MHz, B = 5693.80 MHz, and C = 5322.44 MHz for 15NO35Cl, A = 81520 MHz, B = 5556.07 MHz, and C = 5201.56 MHz for 15NO37Cl. The microwave spectra of the normal species of nitrosyl chloride as well as the 37Cl species and the 18O species have already been measured by Millen et al. (1961). An analysis of both the rotational constants obtained in this study and the constants by Millen et al. has given the following bond lengths and angle as the complete r sub(s) structural parameters of nitrosyl chloride. r(N-O) = 1.143 +- 0.006 A, r(N-Cl) = 1.973 +- 0.003 A, and 0 +- 0.50. The nuclear quadrupole coupling constants in the N-Cl bond axis system of 15NO35Cl are X sub(zz) = -57.8 MHz and eta = -0.311. (author)

  10. Solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam

    The solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam was investigated in laboratory-scale experiments up to 20 MPa and 475 C. These experiments were carried out using a dynamic method where deionized steam was passed through a packed bed of salt crystals in a 500 mL Hastelloy autoclave. The residence time of the steam in the salt bed was sufficient to saturate the steam with the salt. The steam samples were cooled and analyzed by ion chromatography. Correlations based on temperature and density were selected to describe the solubility of sodium chloride in superheated steam. The density dependence is much stronger than the temperature dependence. By using these correlations, it is possible to estimate the solubility of salt in steam at lower densities than those used in the experiments. Enthalpy-entropy diagrams are given that show the steam expansion line in turbines, including curves for constant concentration of sodium chloride solubility in steam. These can be used to analyze where in the steam cycle this salt may deposit. (orig.)

  11. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  12. The Accelerated Test of Chloride Permeability of Concrete

    TAN Ke-feng; ODD E Gjφrv

    2003-01-01

    The availability of accelerated chloride permeability test and the effect of w/c ratio, incorporation of silica fume, maximum aggregate size and aggregate type on the chloride permeability were studied. The mathematic analysis certifies that there is a linear relationship between accelerated test and natural diffusion. Test results show that the chloride permeability of concrete increases as w/c ratio increases whilst a limited amount of replacement of cement with silica fume, the chloride permeability decreases dramatically. The maximum aggregate size in the range of 8 to 25 mm seems also affect chloride permeability but with a much less significant level. The chloride permeability of silica fume lightweight aggregate concrete is very low, especially the concrete made with dry lightweight concrete. The chloride permeability can be evaluated by this accelerated test method.

  13. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series of...... systems could be explained as secondary effects due to a primary interaction with the sodium transport mechanisms. A correlation was found between the clamping current recorded during hyperpolarization and the efflux of chloride under short circuit conditions with chloride Ringer's on both sides. On the...

  14. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  15. Molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis by vinyl chloride.

    Dogliotti, Eugenia

    2006-01-01

    In 1974 vinyl chloride (VC), a gas used in the plastics industry, was shown to be a human carcinogen, inducing a very rare type of tumor, angiosarcoma of the liver. The same type of tumor was induced in rodents exposed to VC thus providing an excellent model for mechanistic studies. Here, we review the numerous studies on the mechanism of action of VC with particular emphasis on the DNA products induced by this strong alkylating agent. In particular, the genotoxicity, repair mechanisms, in vivo formation and tumor mutation spectra by etheno-adducts will be analysed and possible approaches for future research suggested. PMID:17033136

  16. Solidification of supercooled molten zinc chloride

    Rodová, Miroslava; Cihlář, Antonín; Nitsch, Karel

    Bratislava: x, 2005 - (Koman, M.; Mikloš, D.), s. 5-9 ISBN 80-89088-42-2. [Development of Materials Science in Research and Education - DMS -RE 2005 /15./. Kežmarské Žĺaby (SK), 05.09.2005-09.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/03/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : molten zinc chloride * thermal analysis * crystallization * glass formation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  17. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel...... results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors and for the......-Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...

  18. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes;

    2005-01-01

    increasing focus on the need for modeling the ingress of chloride into cracked concrete. Present models quantify chloride ingress in static cracks only, although several structural applications display dynamic loading conditions in an environment containing chlorides, e.g. marine structures and car parks....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected to a...... load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces was...

  19. Anodic Behavior of Alloy 22 in Calcium Chloride and in Calcium Chloride Plus Calcium Nitrate Brines

    Evans, K J; Day, S D; Ilevbare, G O; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-05-13

    Alloy 22 (UNS N60622) is a nickel-based alloy, which is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in concentrated calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}) brines and to evaluate the inhibitive effect of nitrate, especially to localized corrosion. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion potential of Alloy 22 was approximately -360 mV in the silver-silver chloride (SSC) scale and independent of the tested temperature. Cyclic polarization tests showed that Alloy 22 was mainly susceptible to localized attack in 5 M CaCl{sub 2} at 75 C and higher temperatures. The addition of nitrate in a molar ratio of chloride to nitrate equal to 10 increased the onset of localized corrosion to approximately 105 C. The addition of nitrate to the solution also decreased the uniform corrosion rate and the passive current of the alloy.

  20. Interactions between chloride ingress and carbonation in cementitious materials

    SAILLIO, Mickael; BARBERON, Fabien; BAROGHEL BOUNY, Véronique; GEGOUT, Philippe; PLATRET, Gérard; D'ESPINOSE DE LA CAILLERIE, JB

    2011-01-01

    Carbonation and chloride attacks are the major causes of reinforced concrete (RC) structure deterioration by initiation of steel rebar corrosion. These attacks are usually studied separately in the literature. Chloride-induced corrosion takes place mainly in marine environment or in the case of contact with deicing salts, while carbonation is systematically present in all RC structures at a variable degree. Since carbonation leads to significant microstructure changes, the effect of chloride ...

  1. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    Jun Liu; Kaifeng Tang; Dong Pan; Zongru Lei; Weilun Wang; Feng Xing

    2014-01-01

    Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions...

  2. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  3. Cobalt electrodeposition using urea and choline chloride

    The electrochemical behavior of Co(II) in urea-choline chloride-CoCl2 melt was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at 373 K. The results show that the reaction of Co(II) to Co is irreversible and it proceeds via a one-step two electrons transfer process. The diffusion coefficient of Co(II) was estimated to be 1.7 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 at 373 K. Electrodeposition of cobalt was studied at different cathodic potentials (-0.80 to -0.95 V) and at different temperatures (353 to 383 K) in eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea (1:2 molar ratio). The deposits were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM images show that uniform, dense, and compact deposits were obtained at -0.80 V within a temperature range of 353 K to 373 K. EDS and XRD analysis confirm that high-purity metallic Co deposits were obtained

  4. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  5. Radiolytic preparation of anhydrous tin (2) chloride

    Philipp, W. H.; Marsik, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Anhydrous tin (2) chloride (SnCl2) is prepared by radiolysis with high energy electrons of a tin (4) chloride (SnCl4) solution in heptane. The SnCl4 is reduced to insoluble SNCl2. The energy yield, G(SnCl2), molecules of SnCl2, produced per 100 eV, increases with SnCl4 concentration from 1.6 at 0.15 M SnCl4 to 3.1 at 3.0 M SnCl4. Other parameters such as temperature total dose and beam current have little influence on G(SnCl2). The method may be used to prepare other metal halides if the higher valence, more covalent metal halide is soluble in aliphatic hydrocarbons and the lower more ionic metal halide is insoluble. The reaction mechanism is discussed; the radiolysis of both heptane and SnCl4 is involved. At high SnCl4 concentration G(SnCl2) appears to be limited by the yield of SnC13 radicals.

  6. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  7. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  8. The electrodeposition of lead from chloride electrolytes

    Wright, A.

    1986-11-28

    At low current densities, lead was deposited onto a lead substrate as a fine powder that did not adhere well to the substrate. At higher current densities dendritic growth occurred. Lead does not adhere to a graphite substrate and, since copper and titanium substrates require higher cell voltages than lead substrates, these three substrates were rejected. The temperature of the electrolyte must be maintained above 69/sup 0/C to avoid the precipitation of lead chloride in the cell. Optimum current efficiencies at the anode and cathode were obtained at 80/sup 0/C, and no improvement in the morphology of the deposit was observed at higher temperatures. A combination of Quebracho extract and cuprous ions achieved the greatest improvement in the morphology of the deposit, while maintaining high current efficiencies at the anode and cathode. However, when the deposition time was increased, dendritic growth was much in evidence. A compact, adherent deposit of lead could not be obtained from chloride electrolytes. 22 refs., 21 figs., 11 tabs.

  9. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution is...... used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....

  10. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  11. Estimation of trace chloride in nuclear grade sodium

    The author represents a method to determinate trace levels of chloride in sodium coolant in a fast neutron reactor. Vacuum distillation is used for separating chloride from sodium matrix. After separation, matrix interference from sodium salts is eliminated and a large sample amount can be taken for analysing chloride. In contrast with other similar mercuric thiocyanate colorimetric method in China, this method minimizes a glaring blank of colorimetric solution and determining influence of temperature. Therefore, it increases the precision in analysing chloride. The results of the research demonstrate that when a level of chloride in sodium is less than 1 μg/g, the precision is 37% (n = 10). The recoveries of chloride in high pure sodium demonstrate that when 15-30 μg/g of chloride is added in sodium, the recovery is 97.8%-98.6% and when 4μg/g of chloride is added, then the average recovery is 99.2%. And the relative standard deviation is 16.2% (n =7). It is demonstrated that a monitoring requirement of chloride can be satisfied with this method in coolant of sodium in a fast neutron reactor

  12. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. PMID:27105154

  13. Effect of application of ammonium chloride and calcium chloride on alfalfa cation-anion content and yield.

    Goff, J P; Brummer, E C; Henning, S J; Doorenbos, R K; Horst, R L

    2007-11-01

    A major factor predisposing the cow to periparturient hypocalcemia, or milk fever, is being fed a prepartum ration with a high dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD). The DCAD can be favorably altered to prevent milk fever by decreasing K and Na or increasing Cl and S in forages for cows in late gestation. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that application of Cl to alfalfa could increase Cl in forage, thereby lowering DCAD. We conducted a field experiment at 2 Iowa locations in which established plots of alfalfa were treated in April 2001 with 0, 56, 112, or 168 kg of Cl/ha using ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, or a mix of the 2 sources with equal amounts of chloride coming from each source. Plots were harvested 4 times in 2001 and once in 2002 and plant tissue analyzed for mineral composition. Applying chloride from either source once in the spring resulted in increased plant chloride content over all 4 cuttings for that year. Averaged across both locations, chloride levels were elevated from 0.52% in control plots to 0.77, 0.87, and 0.89% Cl in plots treated with 56, 112, and 168 kg of Cl/ha, respectively. Chloride application had no effect on plant potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, or phosphorus. These results suggest chloride application can elevate chloride content and lower DCAD values of alfalfa, and also maintain crop yield. PMID:17954756

  14. THE COMPATIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) OR CHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    WANG Qingguo; CHENG Rongshi

    1988-01-01

    IR spectral shifts of carbonyl vibrational absorption for ethyl acetate, which acts analogically as the structural unit of poly(methyl methacrylate), in cyclohexane, chloroform, chlorinated paraffins, poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) were measured. The results suggest that there are specific interactions between the carbonyl groups and the chlorinated hydrocarbons which could be responsible for the apparent compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Additionally, the effects of the preparation mode of blend films on phase separation and observed compatibility are discussed.

  15. Phosphates behaviours in conversion of FP chlorides

    The spent electrolyte of the pyroprocessing by metal electrorefining method should be considered for recycling after removal of fission products (FP) such as, alkali metals (AL), alkaline earth metals (ALE), and/or rare earth elements (REE), to reduce the volume of high-level radioactive waste. Among the various methods suggested for this purpose is precipitation by converting FP from chlorides to phosphates. Authors have been carrying out the theoretical analysis and experiment showing the behaviours of phosphate precipitates so as to estimate the feasibility of this method. From acquired results, it was found that AL except lithium and ALE are unlikely to form phosphate precipitates. However their conversion behaviours including REE were compatible with the theoretical analysis; in the case of LaPO4 as one of the REE precipitates, submicron-size particles could be observed while that of Li3PO4 was larger; the precipitates were apt to grow larger at higher temperature; etc.

  16. Aspects of the magnetism of ferrous chloride

    This work is a critical review of the existing work on ferrous chloride and presents, as well, a number of new experimental results. First, a careful analysis of the level structure of ferrous ions in the crystalline field shows that the crystalline anisotropy is of the same order of magnitude as the exchange interactions, a feature which gives rise to some particular effects, such as an upward curvature of the magnetization curve at 0 K in a perpendicular magnetic field. Further, the very low temperature (T > 0.4 K) thermal variation of both the specific heat and magnetic susceptibility evidences a magnetic component in elementary excitations. This result suggests the presence of a large magneto-elastic coupling. Finally, an experimental study of the H-T phase diagram near TN and of the critical behaviour of the specific heat and parallel susceptibility was performed. (author)

  17. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  18. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  19. Probabilistic Models and Computational Methods for Chloride Ingress in Concrete

    Engelund, S.

    Within the last decades it has been recognized that reinforced concrete structures are subject to a number of destructive mechanisms which might affect the structure in such a way that it is not able to fulfil its purpose efficiently. The present report focuses on chloride ingress and chloride-in...

  20. Prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor in an infant with congenital chloride diarrhoea.

    Minford, A M; Barr, D G

    1980-01-01

    Hyper-reninaemia, hypokaluria, and hypokalaemia in an infant with congenital chloride diarrhoea improved during treatment with a prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor, ketoprofen. There was evidence of increased activity of therenin-aldosterone system when ketoprofen was stopped. It is suggested that prostaglandins may be involved in stimulating the renin-aldosterone system in congenital chloride diarrhoea.

  1. Coordination compounds of transition metal chlorides with tetrazoles

    Coordination compounds (CC) of Co(2), Ni(2), Cu(2), Cd(2) chlorides with tetrazole and Ni(2) and Cd(2) chloride CC with tetrazolylhydrazone benzaldehyde are synthesized. The compounds are characterized by electron- and IR-spectroscopy, magnetic measurements (78-300 K), radiography. Conclusions are made on polynuclear structure of coordination compounds and Msup((2)) octahedron coordination

  2. Stability constants of the Europium complexes with the chloride ions

    The stability constants of lanthanides complexes with chloride ions which were determined at the same ionic force but in different media, are significantly different. It does not exist a systematic study over these stability constants. The purpose of this work is to determine the stability constants of the europium complexes with chloride ions at 303 K, by the solvents extraction method. (Author)

  3. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl2, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al2O3.CaCl2) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl2. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl2.

  4. Monte Carlo calculation of chloride diffusion in concrete

    Coefficient of chloride diffusion is calculated by applying the Fick's second law of diffusion to a chloride concentration profile. Then from the signal strength for various chlorine gamma-ray energies was then calculated at the detector of the portable D-D neutron generator based PGNAA setup. (author)

  5. Phosphatase inhibitors activate normal and defective CFTR chloride channels.

    Becq, F; Jensen, T J; Chang, X B; Savoia, A.; Rommens, J M; Tsui, L C; Buchwald, M; Riordan, J R; Hanrahan, J W

    1994-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation at multiple sites. Although activation by protein kinases has been studied in some detail, the dephosphorylation step has received little attention. This report examines the mechanisms responsible for the dephosphorylation and spontaneous deactivation ("rundown") of CFTR chloride channels excised from transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human airway epi...

  6. Contribution on creep polygonization study in crystals. Creep of single crystalline silver chloride and sodium chloride

    Subgrain formation and their influence on plastic behavior of materials has been studied in the case of single crystals of silver chloride and sodium chloride crept at high temperature (T > 0.5 Tmelting). It is shown that the creep rate ε is a function of the mean subgrain diameter d. For secondary creep ε ∝ dk with k = 2 for NaCl and AgCl. During secondary creep, the substructure changes continuously: sub-boundaries migrate and sub-grains rotate. We find that sub-boundaries migration accounts for 35 pc of the total strain and that subgrain misorientation θ increases linearly with strain ε: θ ∝ 0.14 ε. The stability of permanent creep seems related to the power that the substructure is able to dissipate. The possible subgrain formation mechanisms are examined. It is shown that subgrain formation is closely related to the geometrical conditions of deformation and to the heterogeneities of this later. (author)

  7. Monoclonal Antibodies to the Apical Chloride Channel in Necturus Gallbladder Inhibit the Chloride Conductance

    Finn, Arthur L.; Tsai, Lih-Min; Falk, Ronald J.

    1989-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The channel or a closely related molecule is present in the membrane whether or not the pathway is open, since, in addition to inhibiting the conductance of the open channel, the antibody also bound to the membrane in the resting state and prevented subsequent opening of the channel. The antibody was shown to recognize, by ELISA, epitopes from the Necturus gallbladder and small intestine. Finally, by Western blot analysis of Necturus gallbladder homogenates, the antibody was shown to recognize two protein bands of Mr 219,000 and Mr 69,000. This antibody should permit isolation and characterization of this important ion channel.

  8. Caesium-137 Chloride Retention following Accidental Ingestion

    Four men became contaminated with caesium-137 chloride due to leaks in a 100 c source. The source was believed to be completely leak proof, since the caesium chloride was contained in a welded stainless-steel capsule which was covered with an outer steel jacket of standard Oak Ridge design. Most of the contamination occurred while the men were cleaning the components of a pneumatic device used to move the source. The most heavily- contaminated individual placed his mouth over the end of a transport tube and attempted to blow some ''dust'' out of the tube. The other men handled various parts of the transport mechanism and wiped ''dust'' out of holes with their fingers. None of the men washed their hands before eating lunch. When radioactive contamination was discovered on the following day, immediate efforts were made to decontaminate the men. Arrangements for whole-body counts were also made and, on the fifth day following contamination, the men reported to the Radiation Exposure Evaluation laboratory. The body burdens on the fifth day ranged from 35 - 970 nc of caesium-137. During the next five to six days the burdens dropped rapidly and on the eleventh day ranged from 28- 780 nc. After the eleventh day the body burdens of caesium-137 changed much more slowly. Whole-body counts made between the 11th and 160th day yielded biological half-lives of 76, 95 and 126 d for the three most heavily-contaminated individuals. During the period of rapid excretion all urine and faeces were collected and counted. These counts indicated a considerable superficial contamination prior to the eleventh day since only a portion of the removed caesium-137 was found in the urine and stool specimens. The body burdens of the four men are compared with normals of the same size, build, age and diet habits. A short discussion of normal burdens is included. A brief description of the counting system, data handling techniques and calibration procedures is also included. (author)

  9. Regulation of neuronal chloride homeostasis by neuromodulators.

    Mahadevan, Vivek; Woodin, Melanie A

    2016-05-15

    KCC2 is the central regulator of neuronal Cl(-) homeostasis, and is critical for enabling strong hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition in the mature brain. KCC2 hypofunction results in decreased inhibition and increased network hyperexcitability that underlies numerous disease states including epilepsy, neuropathic pain and neuropsychiatric disorders. The current holy grail of KCC2 biology is to identify how we can rescue KCC2 hypofunction in order to restore physiological levels of synaptic inhibition and neuronal network activity. It is becoming increasingly clear that diverse cellular signals regulate KCC2 surface expression and function including neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. In the present review we explore the existing evidence that G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling can regulate KCC2 activity in numerous regions of the nervous system including the hypothalamus, hippocampus and spinal cord. We present key evidence from the literature suggesting that GPCR signalling is a conserved mechanism for regulating chloride homeostasis. This evidence includes: (1) the activation of group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors and metabotropic Zn(2+) receptors strengthens GABAergic inhibition in CA3 pyramidal neurons through a regulation of KCC2; (2) activation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine type 2A serotonin receptors upregulates KCC2 cell surface expression and function, restores endogenous inhibition in motoneurons, and reduces spasticity in rats; and (3) activation of A3A-type adenosine receptors rescues KCC2 dysfunction and reverses allodynia in a model of neuropathic pain. We propose that GPCR-signals are novel endogenous Cl(-) extrusion enhancers that may regulate KCC2 function. PMID:26876607

  10. Design of zirconium tetra chloride purification apparatus

    Design of zirconium tetrachloride purification apparatus was done. The purification was done by sublimation and desublimation of zirconium tetrachloride compound. Zirconium tetrachloride,which was produced by the chlorination processes, was sublimated at 600oC then was desublimated at 331oC. The impurities could be separated. Zirconium tetra chloride was put at the tray in the column heated by the furnace, so that it sublimated. Ferri and Chromi salt was reduced to be ferro and chromo which could not be sublimated. Desublimation, was done in the cooler from pipe which was flowed by water. Cooler mode from 6 pieces of pipe, 1/4 inch in diameter and 30 cm in length. The water flow was 2.8 l/minute. Air was entered in the annulus surrounding the column. From the 80 cm length of the column, 50 cm was used for sublimation, and 30 cm for desublimation. Heat requirement was supplied by a furnace outside of the column. Heat flux could be arranged by the controller. (author)

  11. Redetermination of 1-carboxycyclohexan-1-aminium chloride

    Teresa González

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound, C7H14NO2+·Cl−, was reported previously [Chacko, Srinivasan & Zand (1975. J. Cryst. Mol. Struct. 5, 353–357] from Weissenberg photographic data with R = 0.113. It has now been redetermined, providing a significant increase in the precision of the derived geometric parameters, viz. mean σ(C—C = 0.003 Å in the present work compared with 0.021 Å for the previous work. The complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirrror symmetry, with three C atoms, two O atoms and the N atom lying on the reflecting plane; the chloride anion also has m site symmetry. The crystal structure is established by a two-dimensional network of O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, generating C12(4 and C12(7 chains, and R24(8 and R24(14 rings.

  12. NEXAFS and XPS studies of nitrosyl chloride.

    Schio, Luca; Li, Cui; Monti, Susanna; Salén, Peter; Yatsyna, Vasyl; Feifel, Raimund; Alagia, Michele; Richter, Robert; Falcinelli, Stefano; Stranges, Stefano; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Carravetta, Vincenzo

    2015-04-14

    The electronic structure of nitrosyl chloride (ClNO) has been investigated in the gas phase by X-ray Photoelectron (XPS) and Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy at the Cl 2p, Cl 2s, N 1s and O 1s edges in a combined experimental and theoretical study. The theoretical calculations at different levels of approximation predict ionization potential values in good agreement with the experimental data and allow us to assign the main features of the absorption spectra. An unexpected failure of the density functional model is, however, observed in the calculation of the Cl 2s binding energy, which is related to a large self-interaction error. Largely different photoabsorption cross-section patterns are experimentally observed in core excitations from the investigated quantum shells (n = 1, 2). This finding is confirmed by the oscillator strength distributions calculated at different absorption edges; in the case of the n = 2 shell the bands below the threshold are extremely weak and most of the absorption intensity is due to excitations in the continuum. PMID:25754872

  13. Formation of plutonium phosphates in chloride melts

    Burnaeva, A.A.; Kryukova, A.I.; Kazanstev, G' N.; Skiba, O.V.; Korshunov, I.A.

    1984-01-01

    Introduction of sodium- and potassium phosphates Na/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ and K/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ in the PuCl/sub 3/-NaCl, PuCl/sub 3/-KCl melts results in reduction of plutonium amount in the liquid phase. Low-soluble plutonium (3) phosphates, of assumed Na/sub 3/Pu/sub 2/ composition (PO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ are transported into the solid phase. Using the methods of radiographical and radiometric analyses the phases of plutonium phosphates separated by precipitation from chloride melt and also prepared from PuO/sub 2/ and NaH/sub 2/PO/sub 4/ at 1200 deg C are investigated. Their solubility in the NaCl-KCl melt and stability to these melts during a long-term contact, and also under the effect of CCl/sub 4/ are evaluated. The data are compared with similar data for thorium-, uranium-, americium-, curium-, zirconium-, rare earth phosphates.

  14. NQR in tert-butyl chloride

    Brunetti, Aldo H.

    2004-03-01

    Tert-butyl chloride has been broadly studied experimentally through various techniques such as X-ray crystallography, DTA, and NMR. It was also studied experimentally through nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR), but this study was limited and incomplete. In this paper, we present a more detailed study of TBC through the NQR of 35Cl. Our results show that near 120 K, the onset of the CH 3 groups semirotations around symmetry axis C3 takes place with an activation energy U=16.1 kJ mol -1. This intramolecular movement produces a T1 minimum near 148 K and is the dominant mechanism of the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation in phase III of this compound. In phase II of TBC, we show that there are not only methyl groups semirotations, but also semirotations of the whole molecule around a different axis from the symmetry axis C' 3 (C-Cl bond) with an activation energy of E=10.4 kJ mol -1.

  15. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  16. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be...

  17. Durability Analysis of Subway Station in Chloride Environment

    Yang LuFeng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a finite element model for chloride ions transport in saturated concrete was proposed based on the Fick’s second law of diffusion. The governing partial differential equation was solved numerically in space as a boundary-value problem and in time as an initial-value problem by means of the finite element formulations. The maximum allowable value of chloride diffusion coefficient within different locations of subway station with service life of 100a was achieved and suggestions for durability analysis of subway station in chloride environment were also proposed.

  18. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface...

  19. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface...

  20. Applicability of boron-doped diamond electrode to the degradation of chloride-mediated and chloride-free wastewaters

    The electrochemical degradation of chloride-mediated and chloride-free dye wastewaters was investigated on a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode in comparison with that on a dimensionally stable anode (DSA), and the applicability of BDD electrode to the degradation of these two kinds of wastewaters was explored. In chloride-free wastewater, the electrochemical degradation efficiency of dye on BDD electrode was much higher than that on DSA, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 100% and 26% for BDD and DSA, respectively. In chloride-mediated dye wastewater, COD removal was faster than that in chloride-free wastewater on both BDD and DSA electrodes with COD removal efficiencies higher than 95%, whereas the rate of COD removal on DSA was faster than that on BDD electrode. The investigation indicates that DSA is more suitable than BDD electrode in degradation of originally chloride contained dye wastewaters for the sake of energy and time saving. However, for chloride-free dye wastewaters, with the aim of environmental protection, BDD electrode is more appropriate to realize complete mineralization. At the same time, the secondary pollution can be avoided

  1. A synthetic chloride channel restores chloride conductance in human cystic fibrosis epithelial cells.

    Bing Shen

    Full Text Available Mutations in the gene-encoding cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR cause defective transepithelial transport of chloride (Cl(- ions and fluid, thereby becoming responsible for the onset of cystic fibrosis (CF. One strategy to reduce the pathophysiology associated with CF is to increase Cl(- transport through alternative pathways. In this paper, we demonstrate that a small synthetic molecule which forms Cl(- channels to mediate Cl(- transport across lipid bilayer membranes is capable of restoring Cl(- permeability in human CF epithelial cells; as a result, it has the potential to become a lead compound for the treatment of human diseases associated with Cl(- channel dysfunction.

  2. Adsorption of Tetradecylpyridinium Chloride on Aqueous Surfaces of Sodium Chloride Solutions

    Fujio, Katsuhiko; Hayashi, Koji; Suzuki, Maki

    2014-01-01

    Surface tension of aqueous NaCl solutions of tetradecylpyridinium chloride (TPC) has been measured by the drop weight method at different NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1.000 mol dm−3 at 25◦C. Surface excess densities of tetradecylpyridinium ion (TP+), Cl− and Na+ have been obtained as functions of TPC concentration at different NaCl concentrations by applying the Gibbs adsorption isotherm to the surface tension data below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of TPC. Surface excess densiti...

  3. Adsorption of Dodecylpyridinium Chloride on Aqueous Surfaces of Sodium Chloride Solutions

    Fujio, Katsuhiko; TAKEUCHI, Kumiko; Suzuki, Maki

    2012-01-01

    Surface tension of aqueous NaCl solutions of dodecylpyridinium chloride (DPC) has been measured by the drop weight method at different NaCl concentrations from 0 to 1.000 mol dm-3 at 25℃. Applying the Gibbs adsorption isotherm to the surface tension data at DPC concentrations below the critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface excess densities of dodecylpyridinium ion (DP+), Cl- and Na+ have been obtained as functions of DPC concentration at different NaCl concentrations. Surface excess d...

  4. Catalytic Decomposition of Methylene Chloride by Sulfated Titania Catalysts

    2002-01-01

    Catalytic decomposition of methylene chloride in air below 300℃ was studied.Sulfated titania was very effective in converting 959ppm methylene chloride selectively to CO,CO2 and HCl.Complete decomposition of methylene chloride was achieved at low temperature(275℃).It was found that the acidic property of catalyst was a determinant factor for the catalytic activity.The presence of water vapor in the feed stream remarkably reduced the catalytic activity,which could be due to the blockage of acidic sites on the surface of catalyst by water molecules.A bifunctional catalyst comprising copper oxide was developed to improve the selectivity of catalytic oxidation,which indicated that copper oxide can promote the deep oxidation of methylene chloride.The crystal form of TiO2 imposes an important influence upon the catalytic oxidation.

  5. Thermodynamic calculation of self-diffusion in sodium chloride

    Zhang, Baohua; Li, Chengbo; Shan, Shuangming

    2016-05-01

    Using the available pressure-volume-temperature equation of state of sodium chloride, we show that the self-diffusion coefficients of sodium and chloride in sodium chloride as a function of temperature and pressure can be successfully reproduced in terms of bulk elastic and expansivity data. We use a thermodynamic model that interconnects point-defect parameters with bulk properties. Our calculated diffusion coefficients and point-defect parameters, including activation enthalpy, activation entropy, and activation volume, well agree with reported experimental results when uncertainties are considered. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity of sodium chloride inferred from our predicted diffusivities of sodium through the Nernst-Einstein equation is compared with previous experimental data.

  6. Laboratory stress corrosion cracking studies with sulfur acids and chlorides

    Baylor, V.B.

    1985-10-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) caused by polythionic acid and/or chlorides has occurred in coal liquefaction pilot plants. This problem is also common in refineries and has been extensively researched. This study examines: (1) the relationship of the ASTM standard ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid test for determining sensitization to resistance to polythionic SCC; (2) the cracking resistance of higher-alloy. Fe-Ni-Cr materials and common austenitic stainless steels (SS); and (3) the effect of chloride concentrations up to 1% in polythionic acid solutions on cracking behavior. The ferric sulfatesulfuric acid test can be used as an acceptance test for materials resistant to polythionic acid SCC. More highly alloyed materials were more resistant to sensitization than most austenitic SS and were virtually unattacked in polythionic acid solutions containing up to 1% chloride. Chloride increased the corrosion rate and caused localized pitting but it did not significantly affect the number of failures or the failure mode.

  7. Use of saturated sodium chloride solution as a tissue fixative

    A. Al-Saraj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to examine the capability of saturated sodium chloride solution as a fixative agent instead of formalin which is regarded as a carcinogenic material. For this purpose 3 rabbits were used and their livers, kidneys and spleens were exposed and removed. Neutral buffered formalin solution, saturated sodium chloride solution and distilled water were used as fixatives for specimens obtained from the first, second and third rabbits respectively. Routine histological technique was performed to prepare a stained histological sections for light microscopic examination. The result showed that the tissue sections which were obtained by using sodium chloride have the same histological features and without any artifacts when they compared with the results obtained using formalin fixation method. We conclude that the saturated sodium chloride solution can be used as a fixative agent in some circumstances when no any fixative agent is available.

  8. Nickel Chloride Promoted Glaser Coupling Reaction in Hot Water

    Pin Hua LI; Lei WANG; Min WANG; Jin Can YAN

    2004-01-01

    A Glaser coupling reaction of terminal alkynes in the presence of nickel chloride without any organics and bases in hot water has been developed, which produces the corresponding homo-coupling products in good yields.

  9. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications. PMID:21922094

  10. Purification and reconstitution of chloride channels from kidney and trachea

    Chloride channels mediate absorption and secretion of fluid in epithelia, and the regulation of these channels is now known to be defective in cystic fibrosis. Indanyl-oxyacetic acid 94 (IAA-94) is a high-affinity ligand for the chloride channel, and an affinity resin based on that structure was developed. Solubilized proteins from kidney and trachea membranes were applied to the affinity matrix, and four proteins with apparent molecular masses of 97, 64, 40, and 27 kilodaltons were eluted from the column by excess IAA-94. A potential-dependent 36Cl- uptake was observed after reconstituting these proteins into liposomes. Three types of chloride channels with single-channel conductances of 26, 100, and 400 picosiemens were observed after fusion of these liposomes with planar lipid bilayers. Similar types of chloride channels have been observed in epithelia

  11. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones

    Bhupinder Kaur; Harish Kumar

    2013-09-01

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  12. Mechanisms of chloride decomposition in upgrading oil sands bitumen

    Le, T.; Diaz, D.; Gray, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Eaton, P. [Champion Technologies, Fresno, TX (United States); Wu, A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    In addition to clay minerals, bitumens from mining operations contain chloride salts because of the salinity of the extraction process water and the connate water in the ore. These chlorides form corrosive hydrochloric acid. High concentrations of organic acid components known as naphthenic acids are also found in bitumen from Alberta's oil sands. These also cause corrosion. Chloride salts, clays and organic acids may interact in the presence of steam to promote hydrochloric acid formation causing major corrosion problems in downstream facilities. This study examined the behaviour of these components under upgrading conditions. In particular, it examined the rate and the extent of the hydrolysis reactions for salts found in bitumen. Mixtures of bitumen, salts and organic acids were exposed to flowing steam at 100 to 400 degrees C under nitrogen purge. Ion chromatography was used to analyze the condensed vapours for chloride.

  13. Solidification of spent TBP solvent with aluminium chloride compounds

    The new techniques for processing spent TBP was investigated. It was proved that treatment of TBP containing DBP with aluminium chloride resulted in the formation of aluminium phosphate suitable for long term storage and final disposal

  14. Reinforcement corrosion in alkaline chloride media with reduced oxygen concentrations

    It is commonly considered that the corrosion of steel in concrete is controlled by the oxygen content of the pore solution and there are service life models that relate the corrosion rate to the amount of oxygen. It is also commonly believed that in water saturated conditions the oxygen content in the pores is negligible and that underwater there is no risk of depassivation and the corrosion rate is very low. However, the available data on corrosion rates in immersed conditions do not indicate such performance; on the contrary corrosion develops when sufficient chloride reaches the reinforcement. In the present paper, results are presented for tests performed in alkaline chloride solutions that were purged with nitrogen to reduce the oxygen content. The results indicate that at very low oxygen concentrations, corrosion may develop in the presence of chlorides. The presence or absence of corrosion is influenced by the amount of chloride, the corrosion potential and the steel surface condition. (authors)

  15. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    Treiner, C. (Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France)); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. (Faculte de Pharmacie de Paris-sud, Chatenay-Malabry (France))

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  16. Density Functional Theory Study on Conformers of Benzoylcholine Chloride

    Mustafa Karakaya; Fatih Ucun; Ahmet Tokatlı

    2013-01-01

    The optimized molecular structures and vibrational frequencies and also gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR shift values of benzoylcholine chloride [(2-benzoyloxyethyl) trimethyl ammonium chloride] have been calculated using density functional theory (B3LYP) method with 6-31++G(d) basis set. The comparison of the experimental and calculated infrared (IR), Raman, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra has indicated that the experimental spectra are formed from the superp...

  17. Influence of cracks on chloride penetration and corrosion initiation time

    Audenaert, K.; De Schutter, G.; L. Marsavina

    2009-01-01

    Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is the main durability problem for concrete structures in a marine environment. If the chlorides reach the reinforcement steel, it will depassivate and start to corrode in presence of air and water. Since the corrosion products have a larger volume than the intial products, concrete stresses are induced, leading to spalling and degradation of the concrete structures. If cracks, caused by early drying, thermal effects, shrinkage or overstress, are pre...

  18. Optical Studies on Sol-Gel Derived Lead Chloride Crystals

    Rejeena, I; Lillibai, B; Nithyaja, B; Nampoori, P.N V; P. Radhakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Optical characterization of lead chloride crystals prepared by sol-gel method is reported. The relevant sol-gel technique is used for the preparation of PbCl2 samples with five different types. In this paper, we report the absorption and fluorescence behaviour of pure, UV& IR irradiated and electric & magnetic field applied lead chloride crystal samples in solution phase at two different concentrations. Optical bandgap and emission studies of these crystals are also done.

  19. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    2002-01-01

    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  20. Polarization and Charge Transfer in the Hydration of Chloride Ions

    Zhao, Zhen; Rogers, David M.; Beck, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical study of the structural and electronic properties of the chloride ion and water molecules in the first hydration shell is presented. The calculations are performed on an ensemble of configurations obtained from molecular dynamics simulations of a single chloride ion in bulk water. The simulations utilize the polarizable AMOEBA force field for trajectory generation, and MP2-level calculations are performed to examine the electronic structure properties of the ions and surrounding...

  1. Effect of kaolin treatment temperature on mortar chloride permeability

    Puertas, F.; Mejía de Gutiérrez, R.; J. Torres

    2007-01-01

    The present paper discusses the results of chloride resistance tests conducted on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) mortars containing a Colombian kaolin pre-treated at temperatures of from 600 to 800 ºC. The resulting metakaolin (MK) was added to OPC mortar mixes in proportions of 10 and 20% by cement weight. The mortars were compared for physical and chemical properties, including capillary absorption, chloride permeability and pore microstructure as assessed by mercury porosimetry....

  2. Extraction and immobilization of simulated pyrometallurgical chloride waste in Zeolite

    Zeolites are effective media for the removal and immobilization of fission products waste from pyrometallurgical reprocessing of nuclear fuels. In the present study, equilibration experiments between zeolite 4A and a simulated: pyrometallurgical chloride waste were carried out. Several batches of equilibration were carried out by varying the zeolite to salt (Z/S) ratio. The effects of Z/S on the extraction behaviour of the waste chloride salts were explored. (author)

  3. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations

    Metzger, Loren F.; Izbicki, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality—possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer.

  4. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K;

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat...... anions determine the homeostatic set point for [Cl(-)], and hence, neuronal volume and the polarity of local GABA(A)R signaling....

  5. Intracellular chloride concentration of the mouse vomeronasal neuron

    Kim, Sangseong; Ma, Limei; Unruh, Jay; McKinney, Sean; Yu, C. Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is specialized in detecting pheromone and heterospecific cues in the environment. Recent studies demonstrate the involvement of multiple ion channels in VNO signal transduction, including the calcium-activated chloride channels (CACCs). Opening of CACCs appears to result in activation of VNO neuron through outflow of Cl− ions. However, the intracellular Cl− concentration remains undetermined. Results We used the chloride ion quenching dye, MQAE, to measu...

  6. Computational modelling of chloride ion transport in reinforced concrete

    Meijers, S.J.H.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.; De Borst, R.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to a saline environment is a major threat with respect to the durability of reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ions, which are present in seawater and de-icing salts, are able to penetrate the concrete up to the depth of the reinforcement. They can eventually trigger a pitting corrosion process. The assessment of a corrosion-free service life of concrete structures is of paramount economic interest. However, the modelling of the ingress of chloride ions is complicated due t...

  7. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    Ravindra Rajarao; Badekai Ramachandra Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs) on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe) as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental ef...

  8. Durability Analysis of Subway Station in Chloride Environment

    Yang LuFeng; Yu Bo; Hong Bin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, a finite element model for chloride ions transport in saturated concrete was proposed based on the Fick’s second law of diffusion. The governing partial differential equation was solved numerically in space as a boundary-value problem and in time as an initial-value problem by means of the finite element formulations. The maximum allowable value of chloride diffusion coefficient within different locations of subway station with service life of 100a was achieved and suggestions ...

  9. Influence of cracks on chloride penetration in concrete

    Audenaert, K.; Schutter, G. de; MARSAVINA, L

    2009-01-01

    Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is the main durability problem for concrete structures in a marine environment. If the chlorides reach the reinforcement steel, it will depassivate and start to corrode in presence of air and water. Since the corrosion products have a larger volume than the initial products, concrete stresses are induced, leading to spalling and degradation of the concrete structures. If cracks, caused by early drying, thermal effects, shrinkage movements or overstre...

  10. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  11. Stabilizing Plutonium oxide material containing Chloride salts at PFP

    PFP had over 900 items, weighing more than 1100 kg consisting of impure plutonium oxides referred to as high chloride content plutonium oxides. Tests were conducted to examine items for physical characteristics. After 17 years of storage, the inner food-pack cans maintained integrity with very little evidence of corrosion. Items were washed with water to remove chloride salts. Chloride was readily soluble with plutonium concentrations less than 0.05 g/L in wash solution from all but one of seven items. Washed material was calcined at 1000 C. The calcined material passed the storage test for less than 0.5% water. Unopened items were examined using gamma energy analysis to determine if a prompt gamma (n, x) interaction could be used to screen out items with low chloride concentrations. The prompt gamma was not measurable. A 2168 keV gamma from the (α, x) interaction with chloride correlated within 10% of the chloride concentration measured from washing the item with water

  12. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    Elrefae F

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. Subjects and methods: This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Results: Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management. Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, children, chronic diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, prenatal diagnosis

  13. Investigation of chloride-release of nuclear grade resin in PWR primary system coolant

    A new preparation technique is developed for making the low-chloride nuclear-grade resin by commercial resin. The chloride remained in nuclear grade resin may release to PWR primary coolant. The amount of released chloride is depended on the concentration of boron, lithium, other anion impurities, and remained chloride concentration in resin

  14. A small synthetic molecule functions as a chloride-bicarbonate dual-transporter and induces chloride secretion in cells.

    Liu, Peng-Yun; Li, Shing-To; Shen, Fang-Fang; Ko, Wing-Hung; Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Yang, Dan

    2016-05-31

    A C2 symmetric small molecule composed of l-phenylalanine and isophthalamide was found to function as a Cl(-)/HCO3(-) dual transporter and self-assemble into chloride channels. In Ussing-chamber based short-circuit current measurements, this molecule elicited chloride-dependent short-circuit current (Isc) increase in both Calu-3 cell and CFBE41o-cell (with F508del mutant CFTR) monolayers. PMID:27188496

  15. Ab initio Investigations of the Equilibria between Trichlorothioacetyl Chloride, Tetrachlorothiirane, and Trichloroethenesulfenyl Chloride, their Reactants and Decomposition Products

    Pedersen, Kim Vestergaard; Christensen, Henrik; Shim, Irene;

    2004-01-01

    Trichlorothioacetyl chloride 1, tetrachlorothiirane 2, and trichloroethenesulfenyl chloride 3 and the equilibria between them have been investigated by ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset second order perturbation (MP2) calculations, and by Gaussian-3 theory, G3(MP2). The transition state...... of the isomerization reactions have been identified. Also investigated were possible reactions leading to the isomers and their possible decomposition products. The results show that the unobserved isomerization reactions are feasible....

  16. Technical note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; J. Kaiser

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur environmental risks and significant expense. There is therefore a strong motivation to find less hazardous alternatives. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previousl...

  17. Technical Note: Could benzalkonium chloride be a suitable alternative to mercuric chloride for preservation of seawater samples?

    Gloël, J.; Robinson, C.; Tilstone, G. H.; Tarran, G.; J. Kaiser

    2015-01-01

    Instrumental equipment unsuitable or unavailable for fieldwork as well as lack of ship space can necessitate the preservation of seawater samples prior to analysis in a shore-based laboratory. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) is routinely used for such preservation, but its handling and subsequent disposal incur significant risks and expense. Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) has been used previously for freshwater samples. Here, we assess BAC as a less hazardous alterna...

  18. Characterization of the lanthanum chloride scintillation detector

    This paper reports about the investigations on the performance of the new earth-rare halide Scintillator, the LaCl3:10%Ce, which has been discovered with attractive scintillation properties: fast, efficient, and high-energy resolution. The combination of good brightness and linear response has naturally resulted in a very good energy resolution, whereas the fast decay time promoted counting applications at very high rate and very fast timing resolution. Energy resolutions of (2.99±0.02) %, (8.66±0.02) %, and (2.05±0.01) % have been achieved by exciting the detector with 662 keV 137Cs, 122 keV 152Eu, and 1332.5 keV 60Co sources respectively, at room temperature. The variations of the resolution as a function of both shaping time and high voltage have been studied and found to be relatively linear. The timing resolution was also studied. The value of 1.07 ns FWHM has been recorded with LaCl3:10%Ce and BaF2 detectors operating in coincidence mode, using 1333.5 keV γ-ray 60Co peak. Compared to similar studies, this timing resolution was worse than expected even if the exciting radioactive sources used in the two experiments were different. The efficiency values of (0.24±0.01)%, (0.01±0.01)% and (0.09±0.01)% were obtained with laboratory 137Cs, 152Eu, 60Co isotopes respectively. These detector efficiency values were very low, due to the smaller detector sizes used in these earlier crystals and to the large detector-source-distance used in this experiment. The Lanthanum Chloride Scintillator detector is hygroscopic and relatively expensive compared to established scintillators. In addition, it carries internal contamination in 138La and 227Ac for larger thicknesses. Nevertheless, the energy resolution figures achieved, twice as good as that of NaI(Tl), are in good agreement with those reported elsewhere. They credit the scintillation detectors as good challengers of semiconductor-based detectors, allowing their application fields to be extended. (author)

  19. Effects of Cations on Corrosion of Inconel 625 in Molten Chloride Salts

    Zhu, Ming; Ma, Hongfang; Wang, Mingjing; Wang, Zhihua; Sharif, Adel

    2016-04-01

    Hot corrosion of Inconel 625 in sodium chloride, potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride and their mixtures with different compositions is conducted at 900°C to investigate the effects of cations in chloride salts on corrosion behavior of the alloy. XRD, SEM/EDS were used to analyze the compositions, phases, and morphologies of the corrosion products. The results showed that Inconel 625 suffers more severe corrosion in alkaline earth metal chloride molten salts than alkaline metal chloride molten salts. For corrosion in mixture salts, the corrosion rate increased with increasing alkaline earth metal chloride salt content in the mixture. Cations in the chloride molten salts mainly affect the thermal and chemical properties of the salts such as vapor pressure and hydroscopicities, which can affect the basicity of the molten salt. Corrosion of Inconel 625 in alkaline earth metal chloride salts is accelerated with increasing basicity.

  20. Henry’s constant of carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (choline chloride/ethylene glycol, choline chloride/glycerol, choline chloride/malonic acid) systems

    Highlights: • A new set of Henry’s constant for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvents were measured. • The DESs used were: ethaline, glyceline, and maline. • The measured data were reported as functions of temperature and composition. • The measured data were represented satisfactorily by the applied correlations. -- Abstract: In this study, we present a new set of Henry’s constant data for the system carbon dioxide-aqueous deep eutectic solvent (DES) (20 to 80 wt% DES) at T = (303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. The DESs used were choline chloride-based: ethaline (choline chloride/ethylene glycol), glyceline (choline chloride/glycerol), and maline (choline chloride/malonic acid). A differential Henry’s coefficient model was used to describe the behaviour of Henry’s constant, and correlate it with temperature and concentration of DES in the aqueous DES solution. The correlation was found satisfactory such that the proposed model can be used in engineering calculations with reasonable accuracy

  1. Resistance of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete to Chloride-Induced Corrosion

    Joon Woo Park; Ki Yong Ann; Chang-Geun Cho

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion resistance of steel in alkali-activated slag (AAS) mortar was evaluated by a monitoring of the galvanic current and half-cell potential with time against a chloride-contaminated environment. For chloride transport, rapid chloride penetration test was performed, and chloride binding capacity of AAS was evaluated at a given chloride. The mortar/paste specimens were manufactured with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, instead of Portland cement, and alkali activators were added ...

  2. Simulation of Chloride Diffusion in Cracked Concrete with Different Crack Patterns

    Xiao-Yong Wang; Li-Na Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Chloride-induced corrosion of steel rebar is one of the primary durability problems for reinforced concrete structures in marine environment. Furthermore, if the surfaces of concrete structures have cracks, additional chloride can penetrate into concrete through cracked zone. For chloride ingression into cracked concrete, former researches mainly focus on influence of crack width on chloride diffusion coefficients. Other crack characteristics, such as chloride depth, crack shape (equal-width ...

  3. Effect of n-tetradecanol on the extraction of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides with tri-n-dodecylammonium chloride

    Equations are proposed to describe the reduction in the partition coefficients of metal chlorides in amine extractant systems following the addition of alcohols. The equations include two empirical factors: solvation parameters for amine chloride and the compound undergoing extraction. These parameters can be found from independent data. The equations have been used to describe the extraction of micro amounts of iron(III), cobalt(II), and zinc(II) chlorides by tridodecylammonium chloride in the presence of n-tetradecanol

  4. Interactions between chloride and cement-paste materials.

    Barberon, Fabien; Baroghel-Bouny, Véronique; Zanni, Hélène; Bresson, Bruno; d'Espinose de la Caillerie, Jean-Baptiste; Malosse, Lucie; Gan, Zehong

    2005-02-01

    The durability of cement-based materials with respect to exterior aggressions is one of the current priorities in civil engineering. Depending on their use, the cement-based materials can be exposed to different types of aggressive environments. For instance, damages to concrete structures in contact with a saline environment (sea water on bridges, deicing salts on roads, etc.) are of utmost importance. Upon exposure to saline water, Cl- ions penetrate into the structures and subsequently lead to reinforcement corrosion. Chloride attack is often combined with other aggressive influences such as temperature (e.g., freezing) or the ingress of other ions (e.g., sulfates in sea water). We therefore aim to explore the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on the structural chemistry of cement paste. Existing studies about reinforcement corrosion by chloride have focused on the penetration of Cl- ions and the comparison between "free" ions (water-soluble ions) and bound ones. However, little is known about the fixation mechanisms, the localization of Cl in the cement matrix and the structural interaction between Cl and the silicate and aluminate hydrate phases present in cement paste. We present here results of a multinuclear nuclear magnetic resonance study on the fixation of chloride in the hydration products and the characterization of new phases potentially appearing due to chloride ingress. PMID:15833625

  5. A spectroscopic study of uranium species formed in chloride melts

    The chlorination of uranium metal or uranium oxides in chloride melts offers an acceptable process for the head-end of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The reactions of uranium metal and ceramic uranium dioxide with chlorine and with hydrogen chloride were studied in the alkali metal chloride melts, NaCl-KCl at 973K, NaCl-CsCl between 873 and 923K and LiCl-KCl at 873K. The uranium species formed therein were characterized from their electronic absorption spectra measured in situ. The kinetic parameters of the reactions depend on melt composition, temperature and chlorinating agent used. The reaction of uranium dioxide with oxygen in the presence of alkali metal chlorides results in the formation of alkali metal uranates. A spectroscopic study, between 723 and 973K, on their formation and their solutions was undertaken in LiCl, LiCl-KCl eutectic and NaCl-CsCl eutectic melts. The dissolution of uranium dioxide in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 923K containing added aluminium trichloride in the presence of oxygen has also been investigated. In this case, the reaction leads to the formation of uranyl chloride species. (author)

  6. VOCl as a Cathode for Rechargeable Chloride Ion Batteries.

    Gao, Ping; Reddy, M Anji; Mu, Xiaoke; Diemant, Thomas; Zhang, Le; Zhao-Karger, Zhirong; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Clemens, Oliver; Behm, R Jürgen; Fichtner, Maximilian

    2016-03-18

    A novel room temperature rechargeable battery with VOCl cathode, lithium anode, and chloride ion transporting liquid electrolyte is described. The cell is based on the reversible transfer of chloride ions between the two electrodes. The VOCl cathode delivered an initial discharge capacity of 189 mAh g(-1) . A reversible capacity of 113 mAh g(-1) was retained even after 100 cycles when cycled at a high current density of 522 mA g(-1) . Such high cycling stability was achieved in chloride ion batteries for the first time, demonstrating the practicality of the system beyond a proof of concept model. The electrochemical reaction mechanism of the VOCl electrode in the chloride ion cell was investigated in detail by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results confirm reversible deintercalation-intercalation of chloride ions in the VOCl electrode. PMID:26924132

  7. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    It is assumed that 111In-chloride is bound to serum transferrin and then transported into reticulocyte in erythropoietic marrow. However, several biochemical differences between radioiron and 111In have been reported since these years. In present study, clinical usefulness of 111In-chloride bone marrow scintigraphy was examined especially by comparing 111In-chloride image with sup(99m)Tc-colloid. Obtained results are as follows: 1) In most cases, both 111In-chloride and sup(99m)Tc-colloid images showed similar bone marrow distributions. 2) In three out of 7 cases with hypoplastic anemia and two patients with bone marrow irradiation (700-1,000 rad), the central marrow or irradiated marrow showed marked decreased uptake of 111In, and showed normal uptake of sup(99m)Tc. 3) In two out of 3 cases with chronic myelogenous leucemia, central marrow showed normal uptake of 111In, and showed decreased uptake of sup(99m)Tc. From the present study, the same dissociation findings as those between radioiron and radiocolloid could be obtained in hypoplastic anemia and bone marrow irradiation. 111In-chloride would appear to be a useful erythropoietic imaging agent, although further study of exact comparison with radioiron should be necessary. (auth.)

  8. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  9. Aluminum chloride restoration of in-situ leached uranium ores

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    During in-situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other elements (uranium and selenium) that are mobilized during the leaching process, have also been found in post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and, thus, greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid increase in permeability.

  10. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability

  11. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability.

  12. Chloride channels of platelets%血小板氯通道

    陈晓琳; 尹松梅

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channels distribute widely in the body, and participate in many physiological actions and regulatory processes. Based on their physiological roles and molecular structures, six kinds of chloride channels have been identified: (1) The chloride channels family; (2) Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; (3) Swelling-activated chloride channels; (4) Calcium-activated chloride channels; (5) The p64 (CLIC) gene family; (6) γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors. The chloride channels do exist in platelets, and their appearances are dependent on the presence of intracellular calcium. Blocking agents of chloride channels inhibit the thrombin-activated platelet aggregation and the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that chloride channels play a role in the activation of platelets. In addition, chloride channels act on both the cell volume regulation and the intracellular pH regulation in platelets.

  13. Production and mitigation of acid chlorides in geothermal steam

    Simonson, J.M.; Palmer, D.A.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the equilibrium distribution of relatively nonvolatile solutes between aqueous liquid and vapor phases have been made at temperatures to 350{degrees}C for HCl(aq) and chloride salts. These data are directly applicable to problems of corrosive-steam production in geothermal steam systems. Compositions of high-temperature brines which could produce steam having given concentrations of chlorides may be estimated at various boiling temperatures. Effects of mitigation methods (e.g., desuperheating) can be calculated based on liquid-vapor equilibrium constants and solute mass balances under vapor-saturation conditions.

  14. An experiment on multibubble sonoluminescence spectra in sodium chloride solution

    CHEN Zhan; XU JunFeng; HUANG Wei; CHEN WeiZhong; MIAO GuoQing

    2008-01-01

    We investigated experimentally the spectra of MBSL in sodium chloride water solution with krypton as dissolved gas. We observed and compared the spectra of hydroxyl ion at 310 nm and that of sodium atom at 589 nm. It has been found that under the same experimental condition, the intensity of sodium atom spectra is obviously higher than that of the hydroxyl ion spectra, and is more sensitive to the experimental condition. The krypton content, the concentration of sodium chloride solution, and the driving sound pressure obviously affect the spectra intensity in certain range.

  15. SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD

    The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

  16. Microreactor Technology for On-Site Production of Methyl Chloride

    Schmidt, S A.; Vajglová, Z. (Zuzana); Eränen, K.; Murzin, D.Y.; Salmi, T

    2014-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two stainless steel microreactors [gas-phase microreactor (GPMR)-mix from the Institut für Mikrotechnik Mainz (IMM)] coupled in series was used for production of methyl chloride by hydrochlorination of methanol. The catalyst was γ-alumina on microreactor platelets. The influence of temperature on the methanol conversion and methyl chloride selectivity was investigated. A maximum conversion of 97.6% and a selectivity of 98.8% were reached at 340°C, which is c...

  17. Venous uptake of 201Tl as thallous chloride

    Thallium-201, injected as thallous chloride, has been found to adhere to or be taken up by the vein into which it is injected, permitting images to be obtained of human veins up to 4 h following injection. A digoxin-insensitive rat vein model also retained 201Tl but for shorter periods of time. 201Tl uptake is independent of the solution into which it is introduced, whether 5% dextrose or 0.9% sodium chloride. This technique permits multiple delayed views of normal veins to be obtained but is of uncertain value in the evaluation of thrombophlebitis of the calf because of rather poor resolution and high cost. (author)

  18. Steel corrosion in anoxic mediums with high chloride concentrations

    Carbon steels are widely used in contact with chloride containing mediums, however most of the literature reports corrosion problems in solutions in contact with air, for example, sea water. There are other applications where the steel is in contact with freshwater in the absence of oxygen as is the case with materials for nuclear repositories or in petroleum production. These mediums can have varied composition but their corrosivity is usually related to the concentration of chlorides. There are no systematic studies in the literature about the influence of high chloride concentrations on the speed of steel corrosion for carbon steels in the absence of oxygen. Some work has been done using Raman and XPS spectroscopy, but these techniques have been carried out ex situ in samples submitted to the action of high chloride concentrations. This results in the appearance of corrosion products on the metal surface due to the oxidation of the surface from exposure to air before and during the use of these techniques, generating confusing and uncertain data. The lack of reliable data is due to the difficulty of applying these techniques in situ under very low oxygen conditions (less than 10 ppb) without allowing any air into the system. Since there are no studies in the literature about the influence of high concentrations of chloride on the corrosion speed of carbon steels in the absence of oxygen, this work aims to generate experimental data to evaluate the influence of high concentrations of this anion on the corrosion speed of steel under anoxic conditions. The corrosivity of each solution was evaluated using electrochemical techniques such as corrosion potential, corrosion speed, anodic and cathodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammetries and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the oxidation-reduction processes that occur with specific temperature, pH and chloride concentration conditions. Concentrated solutions of sodium chloride (50,000, 100,000 and 180

  19. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which the...... chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORM/SORM-analysis....

  20. Uranium(VI) extraction from chloride solution with benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC) in a liquid membrane process

    The recovery of uranium(VI) from chloride solution using a liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) technique was studied. The emulsion is constituted by the quaternary salt of benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC, R4NCl) as a carrier, kerosene as organic diluent, Span 80 as emulsifying agent and 0.5 mol/l Na2CO3 as stripping phase. The important variables affecting the LEM permeation process such as the concentrations of extractant, internal strip phase, types of organic diluent, and the presence of magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate were investigated. It was found that, at a given condition, the maximum extraction rate of uranium(VI) reached 80%. The emulsion was stable at low pH in the presence of certain amounts of electrolytes such as NaCl and MgCl2. (author)

  1. The compatibility of steel and aluminium with calcium chloride/ammonia, magnesium chloride/methylamine and magnesium chloride/methylamine/decane

    The use of pairs of substances such as calcium chloride/ammonia or magnesium chloride/methylamine for distant heating or heat storage requires compatibility between these substances and the structural materials of the reactor vessels, transport-containers, and/or heat exchangers. Readily weldable mild steel or aluminium are considered likely candidates for the structural materials for transport containers or heat exchangers. In these compatibility investigations the metal samples have been held in contact with the chemical substances under different conditions (temperature, pressure, time) and after the compatibility treatments, the samples were tested. When there is no detectable change in the properties of the samples after the compatibility treatments (in comparison with the as received status) the compatibility is deemed good. Weight changes, surface investigations, fatigue strength tests and metallographical investigations were performed for determining this compatibility. (Auth.)

  2. An electrochemical method for accelerated testing of chloride diffusivity in concrete

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. (Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials)

    1994-01-01

    In the present paper an electrochemical method for accelerated testing of chloride diffusivity in concrete is presented. The method is based on a theoretical relationship between chloride diffusivity and observed steady-state rate of chloride migration through the concrete. The concentration of the chloride source solution has a significant influence on the rate of chloride migration and, therefore, a correction factor for ionic interaction in the relationship is introduced. It is shown that the relationship can be used for calculation of chloride diffusivity under various testing conditions. Some experimental results are also presented.

  3. Chloride isolation for accelerator mass spectrometry of 36Cl produced by atomic bomb neutrons

    Accelerator mass spectrometry was performed at the Munich tandem laboratory to determine the ratio of 36Cl/Cl in silicate rock samples exposed to neutrons of the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Chloride was chemically separated from silicate rock for this purpose. Five grams of silicate rock was fused with 30 g of sodium hydroxide and dissolved in 900 ml of water. The chloride in the resulting solution was spectrophotometrically determined. Chloride was precipitated as silver chloride by addition of appropriate amounts of silver nitrate, and silver chloride was then collected on a membrane filter. The chloride in the rock samples was thus isolated quantitatively. (author)

  4. The precipitation of radioactive radium-226 from acidic chloride leach liquors with barium chloride

    The conventional barium chloride (BaClsub(2)) precipitation has been effective in the 99+ percent removal of radium-226 as radium-barium sulphate [RaBa(SOsub(4))sub(2)] sludge, from HCl liquors produced by laboratory and pilot leaches of Canadian uranium ores. Radium-226, due to its low-level radiation characteristics, is removed as it has been identified as an environmental and long-term health problem. The formation of the RaBa(SOsub(4))sub(2) sludge was aided due to adequate sulphate (SOsub(4)) concentrations in the HCl pilot liquors produced. Recyclable Rasup(226) concentrations of about 66 pCi/L, in treated effluents, will cost about 1/10 that of effluents below federal environmental guidelines of 10 pCi Rasup(226)/L. Toxic barium (Ba) will potentially build up in effluents as recyclable Rasup(226) concentrations around 66 pCi/L. Barium, in addition to being added to liquors as BaClsub(2) precipitant, is present in the radioactive ore and HCl leach liquors

  5. A mathematical model for electrochemical chloride removal from marine cast iron artifacts

    Weizhen OUYANG; Xia CAO; Ning WANG

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to theoretically study diffusion and migration of chlo-ride ions during electrochemical chloride removal. The proposed model would enable optimization of its application by predicting the optimal treatment time and current combination. A mathematical model for simulating the transport behavior of chloride ions was developed by consideration of diffusion and migration of chloride ions when a constant DC current density was applied through the marine cast iron artifacts. The corresponding tests were conducted to validate the mathematical model. This model predicted the data of the extraction ratio of the chloride ion that correlated satisfac-torily with the experimental values. An important issue in electrochemical chloride removal was to understand how chloride ions moved, taking account of diffusion and migration of chloride ions and the release of binding chloride ions. The effects of the treatment time, externally applied current density, chloride diffusion coefficient, and rate constant of release of binding chloride ion on chloride removal are studied. The specific quantitative details applied to one-dimensional model were discussed here. This article has proposed a mathematical model for the first time, which was showed to be a useful tool that can reveal the ionic transport mechanism and optimize the application during electrochemical chloride removal.

  6. Preparation of pure uranyl chloride from crude yellow cake

    A process is described for the preparation of pure uranyl chloride solution from crude yellow cake. The process involves dissolution of the latter in hydrochloric acid followed by uranium extraction using TBP-kerosene mixture. A series of experiments were carried out in order to determine the optimum conditions for both the dissolution and the extraction steps

  7. 21 CFR 184.1845 - Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated).

    2010-04-01

    .... (b) Both forms of the ingredient meet the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride (anhydrous and dihydrated). 184.1845 Section 184.1845 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  8. Electrodeposition of cerium from aqueous cerous chloride solutions

    Cerium was plated as a grey, metallic, adherent deposit from aqueous cerous chloride baths containing certain organic addition agents. The cathodic current efficiency was determined for each case. Chemical analysis indicates that the purity of the metal is better than 99.0 per cent. (author). 7 refs

  9. Synthesis and characterization of uranium(VI) chloride fluorides

    Uranium (VI) chloride fluorides were synthesized by the reaction of liquid HCl and solid UF6 between -80 and -114 deg C. These dark red compounds are unstable above -40 to -60 deg C. The simplest formulas derived from compositional analysis are UF5Cl and UF4Cl2. (author)

  10. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  11. Mass-spectrometric investigation of thermochemical properties of lanthanide chlorides

    Sapegin, A.M.; Baluev, A.V.; Evdokimov, V.I. (AN SSSR, Chernogolovka. Inst. Novykh Khimicheskikh Problem)

    1984-12-01

    Ionization potentials are measured for ions formed during lanthanide chloride molecules ionization by an electron shock with the use of the improved technique of mass-spectral data processing. Energies of atomization and atomic bond scission in molecules of tri-, di-, and monochlorides are defined along with enthalpies of formation of these molecules in a gaseous state.

  12. Mass-spectrometric investigation of thermochemical properties of lanthanide chlorides

    Ionization potentials are measured for ions formed during lanthanide chloride molecules ionization by an electron shock with the use of the improved technique of mass-spectral data processing. Energies of atomization and atomic bond scission in molecules of tri-, di-, and monochlorides are defined along with enthalpies of formation of these molecules in a gaseous state

  13. Study on the Reaction Mechanism of Naphthalene with Oxalyl Chloride

    2001-01-01

    The reaction of naphthalene with oxalyl chloride in the presence of anhydrous AlCl3 was investigated. The homolog of dinaphthyl methanone can be obtained mainly from this reaction. Naphthalene conversion does not have evident correlation with the amount of AlCl3. The results show that the reaction proceeds via carbon cation electrophilic substitution reaction-free radical substitution reaction pathway.

  14. Involvement of chloride in renin secretion from isolated rat glomeruli

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    M) inhibited renin release reversibly. Substitution of Cl- with nitrate (101 mM) stimulated renin secretion. Substitution with iodide (15 or 101 mM) had no consistent effect. The stimulation induced by calcium-free solutions was high in May and low in September. In the absence of chloride, the response to...

  15. Polyvinyl chloride catheters with repressed migration of plasticizers

    Sedláček, T.; Polášková, M.; Kašpárková, V.; Filip, Petr; Sáha, P.

    Larnaca : Polymer Processing Society, 2009, s. 243. [Polymer Processing Society Europe/Africa Regional Meeting. Larnaca (GR), 18.10.2009-21.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Polyvinyl chloride * catheter * repressed migration of plasticizers Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  16. Disposable sensor for electrochemical determination of chloride ions.

    Bujes-Garrido, Julia; Arcos-Martínez, M Julia

    2016-08-01

    This work describes the development of a new, simple and inexpensive method for the determination of chloride ions, by using voltammetric disposable sensors. The sensor includes three screen printed electrodes: a working, an auxiliary (both carbon based paste electrodes), and a pseudo-reference Ag/AgCl paste based electrode. Since the presence of chloride ions in the solution modifies the equilibrium potential of Ag/AgCl electrode, the concentration of this analyte has been determined through the systematic shift of the voltammetric peak potential of a control species such as potassium ferricyanide, potassium ferrocyanide or ferrocenemethanol. These control species can be used in solution or mixed into the carbon paste of the working screen printed electrode. In order to characterize the developed methods, reproducibility, repeatability and detection limit of the sensors were calculated in each case. Reproducibility values below 3% (n=5) were obtained. When ferrocenemethanol was used as control species, the lowest quantity of chloride ions detected was 10.0mM. A comprehensive study of interfering ions was also carried out. These sensors were successfully applied to determine the chloride content in sea water and in a commercial saline solution sample. PMID:27216668

  17. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95 reg-sign, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%

  18. 4-(1H-Tetrazol-5-ylpyridinium chloride

    Yan-Wei Zhang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the cation of the title compound, C6H6N5+·Cl−, the tetrazole and pyridine rings are nearly coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 5.58 (11°. The organic cations are linked to the chloride anions via N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [110].

  19. Reaction of uranium dioxide with copper-containing chloride melts

    Cermet composition materials consisting of metallic copper and uranium dioxide can be used for manufacturing fuel rods of nuclear power reactors. Reprocessing of such irradiated fuel of dispersive type can be done employing non-aqueous pyrochemical methods and developing such technology requires information on interaction of uranium dioxide with chloride melts containing copper ions

  20. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    Chloride (Cl-) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO2 sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl- from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H+) and up to 5 M Cl-. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H+, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO3), facilitated by the presence of NO2, strongly affects the rate of Cl- removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl- salt solution without pre-heating the NO2 gas has minimal effect on Cl- removal rates when the contact times between NO2 and the salt solution are on the order of seconds

  1. Photonic crystal fiber based chloride chemical sensors for corrosion monitoring

    Wei, Heming; Tao, Chuanyi; Krishnaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-04-01

    Corrosion of steel is one of the most important durability issues in reinforced concrete (RC) structures because aggressive ions such as chloride ions permeate concrete and corrode steel, consequently accelerating the destruction of structures, especially in marine environments. There are many practical methods for corrosion monitoring in RC structures, mostly focusing on electrochemical-based sensors for monitoring the chloride ion which is thought as one of the most important factors resulting in steel corrosion. In this work, we report a fiber-optic chloride chemical sensor based on long period gratings inscribed in a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with a chloride sensitive thin film. Numerical simulation is performed to determine the characteristics and resonance spectral response versus the refractive indices of the analyte solution flowing through into the holes in the PCF. The effective refractive index of the cladding mode of the LPGs changes with variations of the analyte solution concentration, resulting in a shift of the resonance wavelength, hence providing the sensor signal. This fiber-optic chemical sensor has a fast response, is easy to prepare and is not susceptible to electromagnetic environment, and can therefore be of use for structural health monitoring of RC structures subjected to such aggressive environments.

  2. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen; Wu, Hao; Pedersen, Kim H.; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Jensen, Anker Degn; Glarborg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea...

  3. Sodium Chloride Dihydrate - A Potential Cause of Slippery Accidents

    Mejlholm, Morten; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter;

    From a thermodynamic point of view, it can be expected that sodium chloride dihydrate (hydrohalite, NaCl2H2O) will form on winter roads under certain conditions at temperatures below 0.1¢®C. In order to elucidate whether or not the formation of hydrohalite on the pavement can explain the phenomenon...

  4. Analysis of Yucca Mountain Pore-Water Chloride Data

    Distribution of chemical constituents in the unsaturated zone (UZ) system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, depends on many factors, such as hydrological and geochemical processes of surface precipitation, evapotranspiration, the water-fracture-matrix interactions, large-scale mixing via lateral flow and transport, and the history of climate changes. This study analyzes pore-water chloride-concentration data and models the transport processes. The model results are then used to calibrate the UZ flow model with the aim of refining the infiltration distribution and percolation fluxes to the potential repository. The major chemical data used in this study were pore-water chloride (Cl) concentrations. The sensitivity of this conservative tracer to the UZ flow system is well known. This constituent was directly incorporated into a three-dimensional dual-permeability flow model. Chemical transport properties were taken into account. The surface flux of chloride was determined by the total amount of precipitation reaching the surface and chemical concentration in the precipitation. The entire flow system was divided into domains based on the distribution of pore-water chemical data, infiltration data, hydrogeological and hydrostructural features. Model calibration proceeded by adjusting the site-scale infiltration map and anisotropy permeabilities to reach a satisfying agreement between the simulated subsurface chloride distribution and measured data

  5. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  6. A chronopotentiometric approach for measuring chloride ion concentration

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; Berg, van den Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions in aqueous solution. This sensor is based on the stimulus/response principle of chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with

  7. Application and comparison of cocrystallization techniques on trospium chloride cocrystals

    Sládková, V.; Cibulková, J.; Eigner, V.; Šturc, A.; Kratochvíl, B.; Rohlíček, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 6 (2014), s. 2931-2936. ISSN 1528-7483 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cocrystal * cocrystallization methods * x-ray diffraction * x-ray powder diffraction * trospium chloride Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.891, year: 2014

  8. (tert-Butyl)(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium chloride

    Cintya Valerio-Cárdenas; Simón Hernández-Ortega; David Morales-Morales

    2014-01-01

    In the cation of the title molecular salt, C6H16NO+·Cl−, the N—C—C—O torsion angle is 176.5 (2)°. In the crystal, the cations and chloride ions are linked by N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a two-dimensional network parallel to (100).

  9. Factors other than chloride level influencing rate of reinforcement

    Castel, A.; Arliguie, G. [Paul Sabatier Univ., Toulouse (France); Francois, R. [Institut National Des Sciences Appliques, Toulouse (France)

    2000-07-01

    To evaluate the degree of corrosion a 14 year-old concrete member was completely bared and three meter-long beams were stored in three-point flexion in an aggressive environment by sequences of drying and wetting by a salt fog. Total chloride content was measured at the level of all reinforcements. Despite the small concrete cover of 10 mm at the stirrups and 16 mm for the longitudinal reinforcement, no evidence was found to relate corrosion to chloride content, since a large part of the reinforcement was not affected by corrosion. It was concluded that the steel-concrete interface had a major influence on being able to predict the onset of corrosion in relation to chloride content. Indeed, corrosion damage was only present when the steel-concrete interface was damaged. These results call into question the validity of the chloride threshold as the single determining criterion to forecast corrosion development. It is suggested that the nature of the interface between steel and concrete, which may be randomly distributed along the reinforcements, should also be considered. Experimental evidence shows that steel-concrete interface damage is linked to non-elastic behaviour of bond that occurs at a given level of mechanical loading. Therefore, corrosion damage is best considered as a deterministic phenomenon linked to a bonding damage. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Chloride channels and the reactions of cells to topography

    Tobasnick G.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of rat epitenon cells to substratum topography on the micrometric and nanometric scale such as groove-ridge structures include cell extension, elongation and orientation reactions. In this paper we report that stretch-sensitive chloride channels may be involved in the earliest stages of these reactions in epitenon fibroblast-like cells. We report that rat epitenon-cells can develop appreciable lateral mechanical tension that could stretch both the force generating cells themselves and those nearby. We show that cells in medium in which more than 80% of the chloride has been replaced by nitrate show little reaction to topography. Spreading of the cells takes place but is much reduced along the direction of the groove-ridge topography but enhanced across the topography. The chloride channel inhibitors NPPB (5-Nitro-2- (3phenylpropylamino benzoicacid 4,4'-disothiocyanostilbene-2, 2' sulphonic acid (DIDS and Chlorotoxin produce similar results which are further accentuated when these inhibitors are presented in low chloride medium. An antibody against ClC3, which has close homology to ClC5/6 also, blocked reaction to topography. These treatments have no significant effect on cell spreading on planar surfaces nor do they lead to changes in internal pH in the cells. There is a slight inhibition of rates of cell movement . Experiments using antisense oligoribonucleotides to ClC-5 or ClC-6 channel m-RNA also inhibit topographic reactions, which provides further confirmation of the hypothesis. Since the ClC-3,4 and 5 share considerable sequence similarities in the genes and in their proteins it has not been possible to make an unambigous determination of which precise chloride channel(s is (are involved.