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Sample records for actinidecarbon triple bonds

  1. Theoretical investigation of compounds with triple bonds

    In this thesis, compounds with potential triple-bonding character involving the heavier main-group elements, Group 4 transition metals, and the actinides uranium and thorium were studied by using molecular quantum mechanics. The triple bonds are described in terms of the individual orbital contributions (σ, π parallel, and π perpendicular to), involving electron-sharing covalent or donor-acceptor interactions between the orbitals of two atoms or fragments. Energy decomposition, natural bond orbital, and atoms in molecules analyses were used for the bonding analysis of the triple bonds. The results of this thesis suggest that the triple-bonding character between the heavier elements of the periodic table is important and worth further study and exploration.

  2. Theoretical Investigation of Compounds with Triple Bonds

    Devarajan, Deepa

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, compounds with potential triple-bonding character involving the heavier main-group elements, Group 4 transition metals, and the actinides uranium and thorium were studied by using molecular quantum mechanics. The triple bonds are described in terms of the individual orbital contributions (σ, π||, and π┴), involving electron-sharing covalent or donor–acceptor interactions between the orbitals of two atoms or fragmen...

  3. The Novel Selective Reduction of the C-C Triple Bond

    2000-01-01

    A novel reduction system is reported here in which the compounds with terminal C-C triple bond and disubstituted C-C triple bond react with NaBH4/Pd(PPh3)4 in a base condition and only terminal C-C triple bond is reduced.

  4. A literature review of actinide-carbonate mineral interactions

    Chemical retardation of actinides in groundwater systems is a potentially important mechanism for assessing the performance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility intended to demonstrate safe disposal of transuranic waste. Rigorous estimation of chemical retardation during transport through the Culebra Dolomite, a water-bearing unit overlying the WIPP, requires a mechanistic understanding of chemical reactions between dissolved elements and mineral surfaces. This report represents a first step toward this goal by examining the literature for pertinent experimental studies of actinide-carbonate interactions. A summary of existing models is given, along with the types of experiments on which these models are based. Articles pertaining to research into actinide interactions with carbonate minerals are summarized. Select articles involving trace element-carbonate mineral interactions are also reviewed and may serve as templates for future research. A bibliography of related articles is included. Americium(III), and its nonradioactive analog neodymium(III), partition strongly from aqueous solutions into carbonate minerals. Recent thermodynamic, kinetic, and surface studies show that Nd is preferentially removed from solution, forming a Nd-Ca carbonate solid solution. Neptunium(V) is rapidly removed from solution by carbonates. Plutonium incorporation into carbonates is complicated by multiple oxidation states. Little research has been done on the radium(H) and thorium(IV) carbonate systems. Removal of uranyl ion from solution by calcite is limited to monolayer surface coverage

  5. Facile scission of isonitrile carbon–nitrogen triple bond using a diborane(4) reagent

    Asakawa, Hiroki; Lee, Ka-Ho; Lin, Zhenyang; Yamashita, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Transition metal reagents and catalysts are generally effective to cleave all three bonds (one σ and two π) in a triple bond despite its high bonding energy. Recently, chemistry of single-bond cleavage by using main-group element compounds is rapidly being developed in the absence of transition metals. However, the cleavage of a triple bond using non-transition-metal compounds is less explored. Here we report that an unsymmetrical diborane(4) compound could react with carbon monoxide and tert...

  6. An activated triple bond linker enables 'click' attachment of peptides to oligonucleotides on solid support

    Wenska, Malgorzata; Alvira, Margarita; Steunenberg, Peter; Stenberg, Åsa; Murtola, Merita; Strömberg, Roger

    2011-01-01

    A general procedure, based on a new activated alkyne linker, for the preparation of peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates (POCs) on solid support has been developed. With this linker, conjugation is effective at room temperature (RT) in millimolar concentration and submicromolar amounts. This is made possible since the use of a readily attachable activated triple bond linker enhances the Cu(I) catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (‘click’ reaction). The preferred scheme for conjugate preparation ...

  7. Proposal of a new hydrogen-bonding form to maintain curdlan triple helix.

    Miyoshi, Kentaro; Uezu, Kazuya; Sakurai, Kazuo; Shinkai, Seiji

    2004-06-01

    Curdlan and other beta-1,3-D-glucans form right-handed triple helices, and it has been believed that the intermolecular H-bond is present at the center of the helix to maintain the structure. In this H-bond model, three secondary OH groups form an inequilateral hexagonal shape perpendicular to the helix axis. This hexagonal form seems to be characteristic for beta-1,3-D-glucans and is widely accepted. We carried out MOPAC and ab initio calculations for the curdlan helix, and we propose a new intermolecular H-bonding model. In our model, the H-bonds are formed between the O2-atoms on different x-y planes along the curdlan helix, hence the H-bonds are not perpendicular to the helix axis. The new H-bonds are connected along the helix, traversing three curdlan chains to make a left-handed helix. Therefore, the H-bonding array leads to a reverse helix of the main chain. According to our MOPAC calculation, this model is more stable than the previous one. We believe that the continuous H-bonding array is stabilized by cooperative phenomena in the polymeric system. PMID:17191891

  8. Electronic fluxes during large amplitude vibrations of single, double and triple bonds.

    Bredtmann, Timm; Hupf, Emanuel; Paulus, Beate

    2012-11-28

    We present a time-dependent quantum mechanical analysis of electronic fluxes during large amplitude vibrations of ethane, ethene and ethyne in the electronic ground state. We find that the number of electrons which participate in the concerted electron-nuclear vibrations decrease from ethane via ethene to ethyne. Different initial conditions and different sets of "observer planes" monitoring the electronic rearrangement are tested to demonstrate the robustness of the results. This counter-intuitive result is due to similar electron distributions of single, double and triple bonds along the carbon-carbon (CC)-axis at equal CC-distances. PMID:23073346

  9. Improved Optimization for the Cluster Jastrow Antisymmetric Geminal Power and Tests on Triple-Bond Dissociations

    Neuscamman, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel specialization of the variational Monte Carlo linear method for the optimization of the recently introduced cluster Jastrow antisymmetric geminal power ansatz, achieving a lower-order polynomial cost scaling than would be possible with a naive application of the linear method and greatly improving optimization performance relative to the previously employed quasi-Newton approach. We test the methodology on highly multi-reference triple-bond stretches, achieving accuracies superior to traditional coupled cluster theory and multi-reference perturbation theory in both the typical example of N$_2$ and the transition-metal-oxide example of [ScO]$^+$.

  10. Assessing the distinguishable cluster approximation based on the triple bond-breaking in the nitrogen molecule

    Rishi, Varun; Perera, Ajith; Bartlett, Rodney J.

    2016-03-01

    Obtaining the correct potential energy curves for the dissociation of multiple bonds is a challenging problem for ab initio methods which are affected by the choice of a spin-restricted reference function. Coupled cluster (CC) methods such as CCSD (coupled cluster singles and doubles model) and CCSD(T) (CCSD + perturbative triples) correctly predict the geometry and properties at equilibrium but the process of bond dissociation, particularly when more than one bond is simultaneously broken, is much more complicated. New modifications of CC theory suggest that the deleterious role of the reference function can be diminished, provided a particular subset of terms is retained in the CC equations. The Distinguishable Cluster (DC) approach of Kats and Manby [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 021102 (2013)], seemingly overcomes the deficiencies for some bond-dissociation problems and might be of use in quasi-degenerate situations in general. DC along with other approximate coupled cluster methods such as ACCD (approximate coupled cluster doubles), ACP-D45, ACP-D14, 2CC, and pCCSD(α, β) (all defined in text) falls under a category of methods that are basically obtained by the deletion of some quadratic terms in the double excitation amplitude equation for CCD/CCSD (coupled cluster doubles model/coupled cluster singles and doubles model). Here these approximate methods, particularly those based on the DC approach, are studied in detail for the nitrogen molecule bond-breaking. The N2 problem is further addressed with conventional single reference methods but based on spatial symmetry-broken restricted Hartree-Fock (HF) solutions to assess the use of these references for correlated calculations in the situation where CC methods using fully symmetry adapted SCF solutions fail. The distinguishable cluster method is generalized: 1) to different orbitals for different spins (unrestricted HF based DCD and DCSD), 2) by adding triples correction perturbatively (DCSD(T)) and iteratively (DCSDT

  11. Metal, bond energy, and ancillary ligand effects on actinide-carbon σ-bond hydrogenolysis. A kinetic and mechanistic study

    A kineticmechanistic study of actinide hydrocarbyl ligand hydrogenolysis (An-R + H2 → An-H + RH) is reported. For the complex Cp'2TH(CH2-t-Bu)(O-t-Bu)(Cp' = eta5-Me5C5), the rate law is first-order in organoactinide and first-order in H2, with k/sub H2/k/sub D2/ = 2.5 (4) and k/sub THF/k/sub toluene/ = 2.9 (4). For a series of complexes, hydrogenolysis rates span a range of ca. 105 with Cp'2ThCH2C(CH3)2CH2 ≅ Cp'2U(CH2-t-Bu) (too rapid to measure accurately) > Cp'2Th(CH2-t-Bu)[OCH(t-Bu)2] = Cp'2Th(CH2-t-Bu)(O-t-Bu) > Cp'2Th(CH2-t-Bu)(Cl) > Me2Si(Me4C5)2Th(n-Bu)2 > Cp'2Th(n-Bu)2 ≅ Cp'2ThMe2 > Cp'2Th(Me)(O3SCF3) > Cp'2Th(n-Bu)[OCG(t-Bu)2] ≅ Cp'2Th(Me)[OSiMe2(t-Bu)] > Cp'2ZrMe2 = Cp'2Th(rho-C6H4NMe2)(O-tu-Bu) > Cp'2Th(Ph)(O-t-Bu) > Cp'2U(Me)[OCH(t-Bu)2] > Cp'2Th(Me)[OCH(t-Bu)2]. In the majority of cases, the rate law is cleanly first-order in organoactinide over 3 or more half-lives. However, for Cp'2ThMe2 → (Cp'2ThH2)2, an intermediate is observe by NMR that is probably [Cp'2Th(Me)(μ-H)]2. For Cp'2Th(Me)(O3SCF3), a follow-up reaction, which consumes Cp'2TH(H)(O3SCF3) is detected. Variable-temperature kinetic studies yield ΔH** = 3.7 (2) kcalmol and ΔS double dagger = -50.8 (7) eu for Cp'2Th(CH2-t-Bu)(O-t-Bu) and ΔH double dagger = 9 (2) kcalmol and ΔS double dagger = -45 (5) eu for Cp'2U(Me)[OCH(O-t-Bu)2

  12. The reaction of iodoplatination of triple bond by platinum(4) complexes: formation of σ-vinyl derivatives

    According to IR and 1H NMR data, propargyl alcohol reacts with platinum(4) iodide complexes in aqueous solution at 10-15 deg C to yield the product of the addition of platinum(4) and iodine to the triple bond, which has been isolated in the form of Pt(CH=CI-CH2OH)2I2(CH3OH). The σ-vinyl ligands in the complex are situated in cis-position. The complex obtained decomposed at 80 deg C to form products of reductive elimination - E,E-2,5-diiodo-1,6-diolhexadiene-2,4 and PtI2. 3 refs

  13. Effect of irrigation technique for removal of triple antibiotic paste on bond strength of MTA to root dentin.

    Dumani, Aysin; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Bek, Zeliha Gonca

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) to root canal dentin after the performance of various irrigation procedures to remove triple antibiotic paste (TAP). A total of 56 single-rooted human mandibular premolars were instrumented using a rotary system to size 40 and divided randomly into a control group (no intracanal dressing) and three experimental groups (TAP application for 28 days). TAP was then removed by rinsing with 10 mL 2.5% NaOCl using three irrigation systems (Vibringe sonic irrigation, CanalBrush, and syringe irrigation). The coronal and middle parts of root canals were then obturated with MTA. After storage for 1 week, each specimen was embedded in an acrylic block and sectioned horizontally (2-mm-thick slices) at two levels (coronal and middle). Bond strength of MTA to root canal dentin was assessed in 28 samples per group via push-out test using a universal testing machine. Data from the four groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Push-out bond strength values were significantly higher in the control and Vibringe groups than in the CanalBrush and syringe irrigation groups (p irrigation system may increase the push-out bond strength of MTA compared with the use of the CanalBrush or syringe irrigation. PMID:27191739

  14. Collagenase unwinds triple-helical collagen prior to peptide bond hydrolysis

    Chung, Linda; Dinakarpandian, Deendayal; Yoshida, Naoto; Lauer-Fields, Janelle L.; Fields, Gregg B.; Visse, Robert; Nagase, Hideaki

    2004-01-01

    Breakdown of triple-helical interstitial collagens is essential in embryonic development, organ morphogenesis and tissue remodelling and repair. Aberrant collagenolysis may result in diseases such as arthritis, cancer, atherosclerosis, aneurysm and fibrosis. In vertebrates, it is initiated by collagenases belonging to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. The three-dimensional structure of a prototypic collagenase, MMP-1, indicates that the substrate-binding site of the enzyme is too nar...

  15. Synthesis of Biotin Linkers with the Activated Triple Bond Donor [p-(N-propynoylaminotoluic Acid] (PATA for Efficient Biotinylation of Peptides and Oligonucleotides

    Martina Jezowska

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Biotin is an important molecule for modern biological studies including, e.g., cellular transport. Its exclusive affinity to fluorescent streptavidin/avidin proteins allows ready and specific detection. As a consequence methods for the attachment of biotin to various biological targets are of high importance, especially when they are very selective and can also proceed in water. One useful method is Hüisgen dipolar [3+2]-cycloaddition, commonly referred to as “click chemistry”. As we reported recently, the activated triple bond donor p-(N-propynoylaminotoluic acid (PATA gives excellent results when used for conjugations at submicromolar concentrations. Thus, we have designed and synthesized two biotin linkers, with different lengths equipped with this activated triple bond donor and we proceeded with biotinylation of oligonucleotides and C-myc peptide both in solution and on solid support with excellent yields of conversion.

  16. Photoinduced Processes of Supramolecular Nanoarrays Composed of Porphyrin and Benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide Units through Triple Hydrogen Bonds with One-Dimensional Columnar Phases.

    Sakai, Hayato; Ohkubo, Kei; Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Hasobe, Taku

    2016-02-18

    One-dimensional supramolecular columnar phases composed of porphyrins (electron donor: D) and benzo[ghi]perylenetriimides (electron acceptor: A) through triple hydrogen bonds have been successfully constructed to perform sequential light-harvesting and electron-transfer processes. A series of benzo[ghi]peryleneimide derivatives have been synthesized to examine the substituent effects such as imide and nitrile groups on the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties. Then, formation of the 1:1 supramolecular complex between zinc porphyrin and benzo[ghi]perylenetriimide derivatives through triple hydrogen bonds was confirmed by Job's plot of (1) H NMR titration. Next, the one-dimensional supramolecular nanoarrays were successfully prepared in a mixed solvent. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement suggested that these nanoarrays contained one-dimensional columnar phases composed of stacked donor and acceptor layers. Finally, femtosecond transient absorption and electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements clearly indicated that photoinduced electron transfer occurred via the singlet excited states in the supramolecular columns. PMID:26766519

  17. Triple-bond reactivity of an AsP complex intermediate: synthesis stemming from molecular arsenic, As(4).

    Spinney, Heather A; Piro, Nicholas A; Cummins, Christopher C

    2009-11-11

    While P(4) is the stable molecular form of phosphorus, a recent study illustrated the possibility of P(2) generation for reactions in organic media under mild conditions. The heavier group 15 element arsenic can exist as As(4) molecules, but As(4) cannot be stored as a pure substance because it is both light-sensitive and reverts thermally to its stable, metallic gray form. Herein we report As(4) activation giving rise to a mu-As(2) diniobium complex, serving in turn as precursor to a terminal arsenide anion complex of niobium. Functionalization of the latter provides the new AsPNMes* ligand, which when complexed with tungsten pentacarbonyl elicits extrusion of the (AsP)W(CO)(5) molecule as a reactive intermediate. Trapping reactions of the latter with organic dienes are found to furnish double Diels-Alder adducts in which the AsP unit is embedded in a polycyclic organic framework. Thermal generation of (AsP)W(CO)(5) in the presence of the neutral terminal phosphide complex P identical withMo(N[(i)Pr]Ar)(3) leads to the cyclo-AsP(2) complex (OC)(5)W(cyclo-AsP(2))Mo(N[(i)Pr]Ar)(3). The (AsP)W(CO)(5) trapping products were crystallized and characterized by X-ray diffraction methods, and computational methods were applied for analysis of the As-As and As-P bonds in the complexes. PMID:19842699

  18. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance of double- and triple-helical nucleic acids. Phosphorus-31 chemical shifts as a probe of phosphorus-oxygen ester bond torsional angles

    The temperature dependence to the 31P NMR spectra of poly[d(GC)]-poly[d(GC)], d(GC)4, phenylalanine tRNA (yeast) and mixtures of poly(A) + oligo(U) is presented. The 31P NMR spectra of mixtures of complementary RNA and of the poly d(GC) self-complementary DNA provide torsional information on the phosphate ester conformation in the double, triple, and ''Z'' helix. The increasing downfield shift with temperature for the single-strand nucleic acids provides a measure of the change in the phosphate ester conformation in the single helix to coil conversion. A seperate upfield peak (20-26% of the total phosphates) is observed at lower temperatures in the oligo(U)-poly(A) mixtures which is assigned to the double helix/triple helix. Proton NMR and UV spectra confirm the presence of the multistrand forms. The 31P chemical shift for the double helix/triple helix is 0.2-0.5 ppm upfield from the chemical shift for the single helix which in turn is 1.0 ppm upfield from the chemical shift for the random coil conformation

  19. A paramagnetic diniobium complex with a very short Nb-Nb distance: evidence for a pseudo Nb-Nb triple bond?

    In spite of the short Nb-Nb distance (2.268 A) and the presumable existence of an Nb≡Nb bond, the paddle-wheel-shaped diniobium(II) complex is paramagnetic. Theoretical calculations indicate that the presence of LiCl moieties on the intermetallic axis lowers the Nb-Nb bond order and is responsible for the observed paramagnetism. (orig.)

  20. Upgrading Subgroup Triple Product Property Triples

    Hedtke, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003 COHN and UMANS introduced a group-theoretic approach to fast matrix multiplication. This involves finding large subsets of a group $G$ satisfying the Triple Product Property (TPP) as a means to bound the exponent $\\omega$ of matrix multiplication. Recently, Hedtke and Murthy discussed several methods to find TPP triples. Because the search space for subset triples is too large, it is only possible to focus on subgroup triples. We present methods to upgrade a given TPP triple to a bigger TPP triple. If no upgrade is possible we use reduction methods (based on random experiments and heuristics) to create a smaller TPP triple that can be used as input for the upgrade methods. If we apply the upgrade process for subset triples after one step with the upgrade method for subgroup triples we achieve an enlargement of the triple size of 100 % in the best case.

  1. Upgrading Subgroup Triple Product Property Triples

    Hedtke, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003 COHN and UMANS introduced a group-theoretic approach to fast matrix multiplication. This involves finding large subsets of a group $G$ satisfying the Triple Product Property (TPP) as a means to bound the exponent $\\omega$ of matrix multiplication. Recently, Hedtke and Murthy discussed several methods to find TPP triples. Because the search space for subset triples is too large, it is only possible to focus on subgroup triples. We present methods to upgrade a given TPP triple to a bigg...

  2. Supramolecular self-assembly within polymeric materials utilising triple hydrogen bonded heterocomplexes of 4-hydroxy-2,6-diamino pyridine derivatives

    Banerjee, Sumela

    2015-01-01

    In recent years supramolecular chemistry has established as one of the most active fields of science. The most significant feature of supramolecular chemistry is the use of building blocks which reversibly held together by intermolecular forces, electrostatic or H-bonding. Therefore, the synthesis of supramolecular systems using different non-covalent assemblies provides some unique architectures and features which are extremely difficult to be obtained via covalent synthesis. One main applic...

  3. The samurai bond market

    Frank Packer; Elizabeth Reynolds

    1997-01-01

    Issuance in the samurai bond market has more than tripled over the past several years. Some observers have attributed this growth to a systematic underestimation of credit risk in the market. A detailed review of credit quality, ratings differences, and initial issue pricing in the samurai bond market, however, turns up little evidence to support this concern.

  4. Jordan Triple Disystems

    Bremner, Murray R; Sanchez-Ortega, Juana

    2011-01-01

    We take an algorithmic and computational approach to a basic problem in abstract algebra: determining the correct generalization to dialgebras of a given variety of nonassociative algebras. We give a simplified statement of the KP algorithm introduced by Kolesnikov and Pozhidaev for extending polynomial identities for algebras to corresponding identities for dialgebras. We apply the KP algorithm to the defining identities for Jordan triple systems to obtain a new variety of nonassociative triple systems, called Jordan triple disystems. We give a generalized statement of the BSO algorithm introduced by Bremner and Sanchez-Ortega for extending multilinear operations in an associative algebra to corresponding operations in an associative dialgebra. We apply the BSO algorithm to the Jordan triple product and use computer algebra to verify that the polynomial identities satisfied by the resulting operations coincide with the results of the KP algorithm; this provides a large class of examples of Jordan triple disy...

  5. Triple helix structures: sequence dependence, flexibility and mismatch effects.

    Sun, J S; Mergny, J L; Lavery, R; Montenay-Garestier, T; Hélène, C

    1991-12-01

    By means of molecular modelling, electrostatic interactions are shown to play an important role in the sequence-dependent structure of triple helices formed by a homopyrimidine oligonucleotide bound to a homopurine. homopyrimidine sequence on DNA. This is caused by the presence of positive charges due to the protonation of cytosines in the Hoogsteen-bonded strand, required in order to form C.GxC+ triplets. Energetic and conformational characteristics of triple helices with different sequences are analyzed and discussed. The effects of duplex mismatches on the triple helix stability are investigated via thermal dissociation using UV absorption. PMID:1815635

  6. Implementation of Triple RSA

    Sapna Sejwani*1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA cryptosystem, named after its creators, is one of the most popular public key cryptosystems. It is most widely used for its strong security feature and easy implementation. The RSA cryptosystem has been utilized for many e-commerce applications, various forms of authentication, and virtual private networks in any organizations. The importance of high security and faster implementations paved the way for hardware implementations of the RSA algorithm. This work consists of describing a new approach to enhance RSA security. In this paper we will enhance the security feature by introducing an advance model called Triple RSA. Although RSA has not been attacked yet, it is still prone to attacks. So to enhance its security we have implemented triple RSA just like triple DES which is extremely secure. This model provides along with confidentiality, a strong authentication, data integrity, tamper detection and non repudiation.

  7. Triple Point Topological Metals

    Zhu, Ziming; Winkler, Georg W.; Wu, QuanSheng; Li, Ju; Soluyanov, Alexey A.

    2016-07-01

    Topologically protected fermionic quasiparticles appear in metals, where band degeneracies occur at the Fermi level, dictated by the band structure topology. While in some metals these quasiparticles are direct analogues of elementary fermionic particles of the relativistic quantum field theory, other metals can have symmetries that give rise to quasiparticles, fundamentally different from those known in high-energy physics. Here, we report on a new type of topological quasiparticles—triple point fermions—realized in metals with symmorphic crystal structure, which host crossings of three bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level protected by point group symmetries. We find two topologically different types of triple point fermions, both distinct from any other topological quasiparticles reported to date. We provide examples of existing materials that host triple point fermions of both types and discuss a variety of physical phenomena associated with these quasiparticles, such as the occurrence of topological surface Fermi arcs, transport anomalies, and topological Lifshitz transitions.

  8. Pythagorean Triples from Harmonic Sequences.

    DiDomenico, Angelo S.; Tanner, Randy J.

    2001-01-01

    Shows how all primitive Pythagorean triples can be generated from harmonic sequences. Use inductive and deductive reasoning to explore how Pythagorean triples are connected with another area of mathematics. (KHR)

  9. Overcoming Triple Segregation

    Gandara, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Latinos are, after whites, the most segregated student group in the United States, and their segregation is closely tied to poor academic outcomes. Latinos experience a triple segregation: by race/ethnicity, poverty, and language. Racial segregation perpetuates negative stereotypes, reduces the likelihood of a strong teaching staff, and is often…

  10. Equivariant Lorentzian Spectral Triples

    Paschke, Mario; Sitarz, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    We present examples of equivariant noncommutative Lorentzian spectral geometries. The equivariance with respect to a compact isometry group (or quantum group) allows to construct the algebraic data of a version of spectral triple geometry adapted to the situation of an indefinite metric. The spectrum of the equivariant Dirac operator is calculated.

  11. Constructing Models in Teaching of Chemical Bonds: Ionic Bond, Covalent Bond, Double and Triple Bonds, Hydrogen Bond and Molecular Geometry

    Uce, Musa

    2015-01-01

    Studies in chemistry education show that chemistry topics are considered as abstract, complicated and hard to understand by students. For this reason, it is important to develop new materials and use them in classes for better understanding of abstract concepts. Moving from this point, a student-centered research guided by a teacher was conducted…

  12. The Dilated Triple

    Rodriguez, Marko A; Shinavier, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The basic unit of meaning on the Semantic Web is the RDF statement, or triple, which combines a distinct subject, predicate and object to make a definite assertion about the world. A set of triples constitutes a graph, to which they give a collective meaning. It is upon this simple foundation that the rich, complex knowledge structures of the Semantic Web are built. Yet the very expressiveness of RDF, by inviting comparison with real-world knowledge, highlights a fundamental shortcoming, in that RDF is limited to statements of absolute fact, independent of the context in which a statement is asserted. This is in stark contrast with the thoroughly context-sensitive nature of human thought. The model presented here provides a particularly simple means of contextualizing an RDF triple by associating it with related statements in the same graph. This approach, in combination with a notion of graph similarity, is sufficient to select only those statements from an RDF graph which are subjectively most relevant to t...

  13. Triple axis spectrometers

    Conventional triple-axis neutron spectroscopy was developed by Brockhouse over thirty years ago' and remains today a versatile and powerful tool for probing the dynamics of condensed matter. The original design of the triple axis spectrometer is technically simple and probes momentum and energy space on a point-by-point basis. This ability to systematically probe the scattering function in a way which only requires a few angles to be moved under computer control and where the observed data in general can be analysed using a pencil and graph paper or a simple fitting routine, has been essential for the success of the method. These constraints were quite reasonable at the time the technique was developed. Advances in computer based data acquisition, neutron beam optics, and position sensitive area detectors have been gradually implemented on many triple axis spectrometer spectrometers, but the full potential of this has not been fully exploited yet. Further improvement in terms of efficiency (beyond point by point inspection) and increased sensitivity (use of focusing optics whenever the problem allows it) could easily be up to a factor of 10-20 over present instruments for many problems at a cost which is negligible compared to that of increasing the flux of the source. The real cost will be in complexity - finding the optimal set-up for a given scan and interpreting the data as the they are taken. On-line transformation of the data for an appropriate display in Q, ω space and analysis tools will be equally important for this task, and the success of these new ideas will crucially depend on how well we solve these problems. (author)

  14. Morita "equivalences" of equivariant torus spectral triples

    Venselaar, Jan Jitse

    2011-01-01

    In general, Morita equivalence of spectral triples need not be a symmetric relation. In this paper, we show that Morita equivalence of spectral triples is an equivalence relation for equivariant torus spectral triples.

  15. Triple acting radial seal

    Ebert, Todd A; Carella, John A

    2012-03-13

    A triple acting radial seal used as an interstage seal assembly in a gas turbine engine, where the seal assembly includes an interstage seal support extending from a stationary inner shroud of a vane ring, the interstage seal support includes a larger annular radial inward facing groove in which an outer annular floating seal assembly is secured for radial displacement, and the outer annular floating seal assembly includes a smaller annular radial inward facing groove in which an inner annular floating seal assembly is secured also for radial displacement. A compliant seal is secured to the inner annular floating seal assembly. The outer annular floating seal assembly encapsulates the inner annular floating seal assembly which is made from a very low alpha material in order to reduce thermal stress.

  16. On Split Lie Triple Systems

    Antonio J Calderón Martín

    2009-04-01

    We begin the study of arbitrary split Lie triple systems by focussing on those with a coherent 0-root space. We show that any such triple systems with a symmetric root system is of the form $T=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_j I_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the 0-root space $T_0$ and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of , satisfying $[I_j,T,I_k]=0$ if $j≠ k$. Under certain conditions, it is shown that is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of is characterized. The key tool in this job is the notion of connection of roots in the framework of split Lie triple systems.

  17. HYPERBRANCHED CONJUGATIVE MACROMOLECULES CONSTRUCTED FROM TRIPLE-BOND BUILDING BLOCKS

    Matthias H(a)uβler; Hong-chen Dong; Jacky Wing Yip Lam; Rong-hua Zheng; An-jun Qin; Ben-zhong Tang

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclotrimerization and polycoupling of acetylenic monomers respectively furnish hyperbranched polyarylenes and polyynes with high molecular weights (up to 1 × 106) in high yields (up to 99.9%). The polymers possess low intrinsic viscosities and high thermal stabilities, losing little of their weights when heated to > 400℃. Upon pyrolysis at > 800℃, the polymers graphitize with high char yields (up to 86%). Hyperbranched polyarylenes efficiently emit deep-blue to blue-green lights with fluorescence quantum yields up to 98% and strongly attenuate intense laser pulses with optical power-limiting performances superior to that of C60, a well-known optical limiter. Poly(alkenephenylenes), poly(aroylarylenes) and polyynes are readily cross-linkable by UV irradiation, serving as excellent photoresist materials for the generation of patterns with nanometer resolution. Thin films of hyperbranched polyynes exhibit very high refractive indexes (n up to 1.86). The internal and terminal acetylene moieties of the polyynes readily form complexes with cobalt carbonyls, which can be transformed into soft ferromagnetic ceramics with high magnetic susceptibilities (Ms up to ca. 118 emu/g) and near-zero magnetic losses.

  18. Various Carbon to Carbon Bond Lengths Inter-related via the Golden Ratio, and their Linear Dependence on Bond Energies

    Heyrovska, Raji

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the relations between the carbon to carbon bond lengths in the single, double and triple bonds and in graphite, butadiene and benzene. The Golden ratio, which was shown to divide the Bohr radius into two parts pertaining to the charged particles, the electron and proton, and to divide inter-atomic distances into their cationic and anionic radii, also plays a role in the carbon-carbon bonds and in the ionic/polar character of those in graphite, butadiene and benzene. Further, the bond energies of the various CC bonds are shown to vary linearly with the bond lengths.

  19. Photo-active collagen systems with controlled triple helix architecture

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Wood, David J

    2013-01-01

    The design of photo-active collagen systems is presented as a basis for establishing biomimetic materials with varied network architecture and programmable macroscopic properties. Following in-house isolation of type I collagen, reaction with vinyl-bearing compounds of varied backbone rigidity, i.e. 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (4VBC) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), was carried out. TNBS colorimetric assay, 1H-NMR and ATR-FTIR confirmed covalent and tunable functionalization of collagen lysines. Depending on the type and extent of functionalization, controlled stability and thermal denaturation of triple helices were observed via circular dichroism (CD), whereby the hydrogen-bonding capability of introduced moieties was shown to play a major role. Full gel formation was observed following photo-activation of functionalized collagen solutions. The presence of a covalent network only slightly affected collagen triple helix conformation (as observed by WAXS and ATR-FTIR), confirming the structural organization of fun...

  20. Spectral triples for hyperbolic dynamical systems

    Whittaker, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    Spectral triples are defined for C*-algebras associated with hyperbolic dynamical systems known as Smale spaces. The spectral dimension of one of these spectral triples is shown to recover the topological entropy of the Smale space.

  1. Interfacial assembly of sandwich mixed (Phthalocyaninato)(Porphyrinato) rare earth triple-decker complexes

    Interfacial assembly of sandwich mixed (phthalocyaninato)(porphyrinato) rare earth triple-decker complexes [(Pc)Eu(Pc)Eu(TPyP)] (1) and [(TPyP)Sm(Pc)Sm(TPyP)] (2) (Pc = phthalocyaninate, TPyP = meso-tetrakis(4-pyridyl)porphyrinate) has been comparatively studied at the air/pure water and the air/CdCl2 aqueous solution subphase interfaces. Surface pressure-area isotherms revealed the remarkable increase of limiting mean molecular area of the triple-deckers with the presence of Cd2+, suggesting the occurrence of in situ interfacial coordination. The formation of coordination bonds between the pyridyl groups of TPyP macrocycles in the triple-deckers and Cd2+ ions from the subphase was further supported by FT-IR spectroscopic data. Electronic absorption measurements showed the formation of J-aggregates of the triple-decker molecules in the interfacial assembled films.

  2. Harmonic analysis on triple spaces

    Danielsen, Thomas Hjortgaard

    properties of symmetric spaces. The algebras of invariant differential operators for these spaces are studied and the conclusion is that most of them are non-commutative. Finally, we restrict our attention to a single triple space, giving a specific polar decomposition and corresponding integration formula...

  3. Spectral triples and Toeplitz operators

    Englis, M.; Falk, K.; Iochum, B.

    2014-01-01

    We give examples of spectral triples, in the sense of A. Connes, constructed using the algebra of Toeplitz operators on smoothly bounded strictly pseudoconvex domains in $C^n$, or the star product for the Berezin-Toeplitz quantization. Our main tool is the theory of generalized Toeplitz operators on the boundary of such domains, due to Boutet de Monvel and Guillemin.

  4. Spectral triples and Toeplitz operators

    Engliš, Miroslav; Falk, K.; Iochum, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2015), s. 1041-1076. ISSN 1661-6952 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Toeplitz operator * pseudoconvex domain * spectral triple Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.947, year: 2014 http://www.ems-ph.org/journals/show_abstract.php?issn=1661-6952&vol=9&iss=4&rank=1

  5. Solution Patterns Predicting Pythagorean Triples

    Ezenweani, Ugwunna Louis

    2013-01-01

    Pythagoras Theorem is an old mathematical treatise that has traversed the school curricula from secondary to tertiary levels. The patterns it produced are quite interesting that many researchers have tried to generate a kind of predictive approach to identifying triples. Two attempts, namely Diophantine equation and Brahmagupta trapezium presented…

  6. Triple Crossing Numb ers of Graphs

    Tanaka Hiroyuki; Teragaito Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the triple crossing number, a variation of the crossing number, of a graph, which is the minimal number of crossing points in all drawings of the graph with only triple crossings. It is defined to be zero for planar graphs, and to be infinite for non-planar graphs which do not admit a drawing with only triple crossings. In this paper, we determine the triple crossing numbers for all complete multipartite graphs which include all complete graphs.

  7. Spectral Triples and Generalized Crossed Products

    Gabriel, Olivier; Grensing, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We give a construction allowing to lift spectral triples to crossed products by Hilbert bimodules. The spectral triple one obtains is a concrete unbounded representative of the Kasparov product of the spectral triple and the Pimsner-Toeplitz extension associated to the crossed product by the Hilbert bimodule. To prove that the lifted spectral triple is the above-mentioned Kasparov product, we rely on operator-$*$-algebras and connexions.

  8. Twisted Spectral Triples and Connes' Character Formula

    Fathizadeh, Farzad; Khalkhali, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    We give a proof of an analogue of Connes' Hochschild character theorem for twisted spectral triples obtained from twisting a spectral triple by scaling automorphisms, under some suitable conditions. We also survey some of the properties of twisted spectral triples that are known so far.

  9. Bond Boom

    2011-01-01

    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen,and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time.How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow.

  10. Bond Boom

    2011-01-01

    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen, and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time. How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the ShanghaiSecuritiesJournal. Edited excerpts follow:

  11. Search and test algorithms for Triple Product Property triples

    Hedtke, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003 COHN and UMANS introduced a group-theoretic approach to fast matrix multiplication. This involves finding large subsets of a group $G$ satisfying the Triple Product Property (TPP) as a means to bound the exponent $\\omega$ of matrix multiplication. We present two new characterizations of the TPP, which are useful for theoretical considerations and for TPP test algorithms. With this we describe all known TPP tests and implement them in GAP algorithms. We also compare their runtime. Furthermore we show that the search for subgroup TPP triples of nontrivial size in a nonabelian group can be restricted to the set of all nonnormal subgroups of that group. Finally we describe brute-force search algorithms for maximal subgroup and subset TPP triples. In addition we present the results of the subset brute-force search for all groups of order less than 25 and selected results of the subgroup brute-force search for 2-groups, $SL(n,q)$ and $PSL(2,q)$.

  12. Modal planes are spectral triples

    Axioms for nonunital spectral triples, extending those introduced in the unital case by Connes, are proposed. As a guide, and for the sake of their importance in noncommutative quantum field theory, the spaces R2N endowed with Moyal products are intensively investigated. Some physical applications, such as the construction of noncommutative Wick monomials and the computation of the Connes-Lott functional action, are given for these noncommutative hyperplanes. (author)

  13. Distinguishing Bonds.

    Rahm, Martin; Hoffmann, Roald

    2016-03-23

    The energy change per electron in a chemical or physical transformation, ΔE/n, may be expressed as Δχ̅ + Δ(VNN + ω)/n, where Δχ̅ is the average electron binding energy, a generalized electronegativity, ΔVNN is the change in nuclear repulsions, and Δω is the change in multielectron interactions in the process considered. The last term can be obtained by the difference from experimental or theoretical estimates of the first terms. Previously obtained consequences of this energy partitioning are extended here to a different analysis of bonding in a great variety of diatomics, including more or less polar ones. Arguments are presented for associating the average change in electron binding energy with covalence, and the change in multielectron interactions with electron transfer, either to, out, or within a molecule. A new descriptor Q, essentially the scaled difference between the Δχ̅ and Δ(VNN + ω)/n terms, when plotted versus the bond energy, separates nicely a wide variety of bonding types, covalent, covalent but more correlated, polar and increasingly ionic, metallogenic, electrostatic, charge-shift bonds, and dispersion interactions. Also, Q itself shows a set of interesting relations with the correlation energy of a bond. PMID:26910496

  14. Energy Efficient Triple IG Automation EEE (Triple-E)

    McGlinchy, Timothy B

    2013-02-28

    GED Integrated Solutions collaborated with US window and door manufactures to investigate, design and verify technical and cost feasibility for producing high performance, high volume, low material and labor cost window, utilizing a modified window design containing a triple insulating glass unit (IGU). This window design approach when combined with a high volume IGU manufacturing system, can produce R5 rated windows for an approximate additional consumer cost of only $4 per square foot when compared to conventional Low-E argon dual pane IG windows, resulting in a verify practical, reliable and affordable high performance window for public use.

  15. Almost all cancellative triple systems are tripartite

    Balogh, Jozsef

    2009-01-01

    A triple system is cancellative if no three of its distinct edges satisfy $A \\cup B=A \\cup C$. It is tripartite if it has a vertex partition into three parts such that every edge has exactly one point in each part. It is easy to see that every tripartite triple system is cancellative. We prove that almost all cancellative triple systems with vertex set [n] are tripartite. This sharpens a theorem of Nagle and Rodl on the number of cancellative triple systems. It also extends recent work of Person and Schacht who proved a similar result for triple systems without the Fano configuration. Our proof uses the hypergraph regularity lemma of Frankl and Rodl, and a stability theorem for cancellative triple systems due to Keevash and the second author.

  16. Spectral triples and the geometry of fractals

    Christensen, Erik; Ivan, Cristina; Schroe, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that one can construct a spectral triple for the Sierpinski gasket such that it represents any given K-homology class, On the other hand if the geodesic distance and the dimension has to be part of the data from the triple, there are certain restriction.......It is shown that one can construct a spectral triple for the Sierpinski gasket such that it represents any given K-homology class, On the other hand if the geodesic distance and the dimension has to be part of the data from the triple, there are certain restriction....

  17. Almost all cancellative triple systems are tripartite

    Balogh, Jozsef; Mubayi, Dhruv

    2009-01-01

    A triple system is cancellative if no three of its distinct edges satisfy $A \\cup B=A \\cup C$. It is tripartite if it has a vertex partition into three parts such that every edge has exactly one point in each part. It is easy to see that every tripartite triple system is cancellative. We prove that almost all cancellative triple systems with vertex set [n] are tripartite. This sharpens a theorem of Nagle and Rodl on the number of cancellative triple systems. It also extends recent work of Per...

  18. Synergies Between Human and Animal Health Syndromic Surveillance: Triple-S Outputs

    Dupuy, Céline; Perrin, Jean-Baptiste; Bronner, Anne; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Fouillet, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study, based on the Triple-S project outputs, was to present the existing synergies between human and animal health syndromic surveillance (SyS) systems in Europe and a proposal to enhance this kind of collaboration. Introduction The Triple-S project (Syndromic Surveillance Systems in Europe, www.syndromicsurveillance.eu), co-financed by the European Commission and involving twenty four organizations from fourteen countries was launched in September 2010 with t...

  19. Diffusion bonding

    Anderson, Robert C.

    1976-06-22

    1. A method for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding, comprising the steps of coating at least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces with nickel, positioning a coated surface portion in a contiguous relationship with an other surface portion, subjecting the contiguously disposed surface portions to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure, applying a force upon the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other, heating the contiguous surface portions to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, substantially uniformly decreasing the applied force while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature, and maintaining a portion of the applied force at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions.

  20. Holonomy loops, spectral triples and quantum gravity

    Johannes, Aastrup; Grimstrup, Jesper Møller; Nest, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    We review the motivation, construction and physical interpretation of a semi-finite spectral triple obtained through a rearrangement of central elements of loop quantum gravity. The triple is based on a countable set of oriented graphs and the algebra consists of generalized holonomy loops...

  1. Introductory lecture on triple-axis spectrometer

    Triple-axis spectrometer is a multi-purpose instrument for powder neutron diffraction, single crystal neutron diffraction, powder inelastic neutron scattering, single crystal inelastic neutron scattering, and neutron polarization analysis. In this lecture how to use the triple-axis spectrometer is explained for the beginners. (author)

  2. Discrete spectral triples and their symmetries

    Paschke, M; Paschke, Mario; Sitarz, Andrzej

    1996-01-01

    We classify 0-dimensional spectral triples over complex and real algebras and provide some general statements about their differential structure. We investigate also whether such spectral triples admit a symmetry arising from the Hopf algebra structure of the finite algebra. We discuss examples of commutative algebras and group algebras.

  3. Discrete spectral triples and their symmetries

    Paschke, Mario; Sitarz, Andrzej

    1996-01-01

    We classify 0-dimensional spectral triples over complex and real algebras and provide some general statements about their differential structure. We investigate also whether such spectral triples admit a symmetry arising from the Hopf algebra structure of the finite algebra. We discuss examples of commutative algebras and groups algebras.

  4. Pi Bond Orders and Bond Lengths

    Herndon, William C.; Parkanyi, Cyril

    1976-01-01

    Discusses three methods of correlating bond orders and bond lengths in unsaturated hydrocarbons: the Pauling theory, the Huckel molecular orbital technique, and self-consistent-field techniques. (MLH)

  5. Jordan triple systems by the grid approach

    Neher, Erhard

    1987-01-01

    Grids are special families of tripotents in Jordan triple systems. This research monograph presents a theory of grids including their classification and coordinization of their cover. Among the applications given are - classification of simple Jordan triple systems covered by a grid, reproving and extending most of the known classification theorems for Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs - a Jordan-theoretic interpretation of the geometry of the 27 lines on a cubic surface - structure theories for Hilbert-triples and JBW*-triples, the Jordan analogues of Hilbert-triples and W*-algebras which describe certain symmetric Banach manifolds. The notes are essentially self-contained and independent of the structure theory of Jordan algebras and Jordan pairs. They can be read by anyone with a basic knowledge in algebraic geometry or functional analysis. The book is intended to serve both as a reference for researchers in Jordan theory and as an introductory textbook for newcomers to the subject.

  6. A Short Note on Disjointness Conditions for Triples of Group Subsets Satisfying the Triple Product Property

    Murthy, Sandeep

    2009-01-01

    We deduce some elementary pairwise disjointness and semi-disjointness conditions on triples of subsets in arbitrary groups satisfying the so-called triple product property (TPP) as originally defined by H. Cohn and C. Umans in 2003. This property TPP for a triple of group subsets, called a TPP triple, allows the group to "realize" matrix multiplication of dimensions the sizes of the subsets, with the subsets acting as indexing sets for input matrices which are embedded into the regular algebra of the group. We derive nine different disjointness casetypes for an arbitrary TPP triple, and classify these into four different disjointness classes based on an integer measure of the degree of pairwise disjointness among the subsets. Finally, we derive lower and upper bounds for the sum of sizes of the subsets forming a TPP triple, which is the additive equivalent of the multiplicative bounds originally derived by Cohn and Umans for the product of sizes of subsets forming a TPP triple.

  7. The triple system Zeta Aquarii

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Zeta Aquarii is a bright and nearby (28 pc) triple star with a 26-year astrometric subsystem. Almost a half of the outer 540-year visual orbit has been covered in 238 years of its observations. Both inner and outer orbits are revised here taking into account recent direct resolution of the inner pair Aa,Ab. The inner orbit has a high eccentricity of 0.87 and is inclined to the outer orbit by 140+-10 degrees, suggesting that Kozai-Lidov cycles take place. The masses of the stars Aa, B, and Ab are 1.4, 1.4, and 0.6 solar. The age of the system is about 3 Gyr, and the two main components have just left the main sequence. Hypothetically, this system could have formed by a dynamical capture of the small star Ab in the twin binary Aa,B.

  8. Isobologram analysis of triple therapies

    New concepts in radiation oncology are based on the concept that combinations of irradiation and molecular targeted drugs can yield synergistic or at least additive effects. Up to now the combination of two treatment modalities has been tested in almost all cases. Similar to conventional anti-cancer agents, the efficacy of targeted approaches is also subject to predefined resistance mechanisms. Therefore, it seems reasonable to speculate that a combination of more than two agents will ultimately increase the therapeutic gain. No tools for a bio-mathematical evaluation of a given degree of interaction for more than two anti-neoplastic agents are currently available. The present work introduces a new method for an evaluation of triple therapies and provides some graphical examples in order to visualize the results

  9. Simulation of triple coincidences in PET

    Although current PET scanners are designed and optimized to detect double coincidence events, there is a significant amount of triple coincidences in any PET acquisition. Triple coincidences may arise from causes such as: inter-detector scatter (IDS), random triple interactions (RT), or the detection of prompt gamma rays in coincidence with annihilation photons when non-pure positron-emitting radionuclides are used (β+γ events). Depending on the data acquisition settings of the PET scanner, these triple events are discarded or processed as a set of double coincidences if the energy of the three detected events is within the scanner’s energy window. This latter option introduces noise in the data, as at most, only one of the possible lines-of-response defined by triple interactions corresponds to the line along which the decay occurred. Several novel works have pointed out the possibility of using triple events to increase the sensitivity of PET scanners or to expand PET imaging capabilities by allowing differentiation between radiotracers labeled with non-pure and pure positron-emitting radionuclides. In this work, we extended the Monte Carlo simulator PeneloPET to assess the proportion of triple coincidences in PET acquisitions and to evaluate their possible applications. We validated the results of the simulator against experimental data acquired with a modified version of a commercial preclinical PET/CT scanner, which was enabled to acquire and process triple-coincidence events. We used as figures of merit the energy spectra for double and triple coincidences and the triples-to-doubles ratio for different energy windows and radionuclides. After validation, the simulator was used to predict the relative quantity of triple-coincidence events in two clinical scanners assuming different acquisition settings. Good agreement between simulations and preclinical experiments was found, with differences below 10% for most of the observables considered. For clinical

  10. Transient collagen triple helix binding to a key metalloproteinase in invasion and development.

    Zhao, Yingchu; Marcink, Thomas C; Sanganna Gari, Raghavendar Reddy; Marsh, Brendan P; King, Gavin M; Stawikowska, Roma; Fields, Gregg B; Van Doren, Steven R

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal development and invasion by tumor cells depends on proteolysis of collagen by the pericellular metalloproteinase MT1-MMP. Its hemopexin-like (HPX) domain binds to collagen substrates to facilitate their digestion. Spin labeling and paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) detection have revealed how the HPX domain docks to collagen I-derived triple helix. Mutations impairing triple-helical peptidase activity corroborate the interface. Saturation transfer difference NMR suggests rotational averaging around the longitudinal axis of the triple-helical peptide. Part of the interface emerges as unique and potentially targetable for selective inhibition. The triple helix crosses the junction of blades I and II at a 45° angle to the symmetry axis of the HPX domain, placing the scissile Gly∼Ile bond near the HPX domain and shifted ∼25 Å from MMP-1 complexes. This raises the question of the MT1-MMP catalytic domain folding over the triple helix during catalysis, a possibility accommodated by the flexibility between domains suggested by atomic force microscopy images. PMID:25651059

  11. Conjugation in hydrogen-bonded systems

    Novakovskaya, Yulia V

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of the electron density distribution in clusters composed of hydrogen fluoride, water, and ammonia molecules, especially within the hydrogen-bond domains, reveals the existence of both \\sigma- and \\pi-binding between molecules. The \\sigma-kind density distribution determines the mutual orientation of molecules. A \\pi-system may be delocalized conjugated, which provides additional stabilization of molecular clusters. In those clusters where the sequence of hydrogen bonds is not planar, a peculiar kind of \\pi-conjugation exists. HF anion and H5O2 cation are characterized by quasi-triple bonds between the electronegative atoms. The most long-lived species stabilized by delocalized \\pi-binding are rings and open or closed hoops composed of fused rings. It is conjugated \\pi-system that determines cooperativity phenomenon.

  12. Reverse triple I method of fuzzy reasoning

    宋士吉; 吴澄

    2002-01-01

    A theory of reverse triple I method with sustention degree is presented by using the implication operator R0 in every step of the fuzzy reasoning. Its computation formulas of supremum for fuzzy modus ponens and infimum for fuzzy modus tollens are given respectively. Moreover, through the generalization of this problem, the corresponding formulas of ?-reverse triple I method with sustention degree are also obtained. In addition, the theory of reverse triple I method with restriction degree is proposed as well by using the operator R0, and the computation formulas of infimum for fuzzy modus ponens and supremum for fuzzy modus tollens are shown.

  13. Various Carbon to Carbon Bond Lengths Inter-related via the Golden Ratio, and their Linear Dependence on Bond Energies

    Heyrovska, Raji

    2008-01-01

    This work presents the relations between the carbon to carbon bond lengths in the single, double and triple bonds and in graphite, butadiene and benzene. The Golden ratio, which was shown to divide the Bohr radius into two parts pertaining to the charged particles, the electron and proton, and to divide inter-atomic distances into their cationic and anionic radii, also plays a role in the carbon-carbon bonds and in the ionic/polar character of those in graphite, butadiene and benzene. Further...

  14. Triple Pulsar Tests Mass Triplets

    Shao, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Three conceptually different masses appear in equations of motion for objects under gravity, namely, inertial mass, $m_{\\cal I}$, passive gravitational mass, $m_{\\cal P}$, and active gravitational mass, $m_{\\cal A}$. It is assumed that, for any objects, $m_{\\cal I} = m_{\\cal P} = m_{\\cal A}$ in Newtonian gravity, and $m_{\\cal I} = m_{\\cal P}$ in Einsteinian gravity, oblivious to objects' sophisticated internal structure. Empirical examination of the equivalence probes deep into gravity theories. We propose new tests based on pulsar timing of the stellar triple system, PSR J0337+1715. Various machine-precision three-body simulations are performed, from which, equivalence-violating parameters are extracted with Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling that takes full correlations into account. We show that the difference in masses can be probed to $3\\times10^{-8}$, improving the post-Newtonian constraints of strong equivalence principle by $10^3$--$10^6$. The test of $m_{\\cal P}=m_{\\cal A}$ presents the first test of ...

  15. Triple ion beam irradiation facility

    A unique ion irradiation facility consisting of three accelerators is described. The accelerators can be operated simultaneously to deliver three ion beams on one target sample. The energy ranges of the ions are 50 to 400 keV, 200 keV to 2.5 MeV, and 1.0 to 5.0 MeV. Three different ions in the appropriate mass range can be simultaneously implanted to the same depth in a target specimen as large as 100 mm2 in area. Typical depth ranges are 0.1 to 1.0 μm. The X-Y profiles of all three ion beams are measured by a system of miniature Faraday cups. The low-voltage accelerator can periodically ramp the ion beam energy during the implantation. Three different types of target chambers are in use at this facility. The triple-beam high-vacuum chamber can hold nine transmission electron microscopy specimens at elevated temperature during a irradiation by the three simultaneous beams. A second high-vacuum chamber on the medium-voltage accelerator beamline houses a low- and high-temperature translator and a two-axis goniometer for ion channeling measurements. The third chamber on the high-energy beamline can be gas-filled for special stressed specimen irradiations. Special applications for the surface modification of materials with this facility are described. Appendixes containing operating procedures are also included. 18 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab

  16. Triple fixation of Bacillus subtilis dormant spores.

    Kozuka, S; Tochikubo, K

    1983-01-01

    A triple-fixation method with a sequential application of 5% glutaraldehyde, 1% osmium tetroxide, and 2% potassium permanganate gave superior preservation of the ultrastructure of Bacillus subtilis dormant spores with a thick spore coat.

  17. The graded product of real spectral triples

    Farnsworth, Shane

    2016-01-01

    Forming the product of two geometric spaces is one of the most basic operations in geometry, but in the spectral-triple formulation of non-commutative geometry, the standard prescription for taking the product of two real spectral triples is problematic: among other drawbacks, it is non-commutative, non-associative, does not transform properly under unitaries, and often fails to define a proper spectral triple. In this paper, we explain that these various problems result from using the ungraded tensor product; by switching to the graded tensor product, we obtain a new prescription where all of the earlier problems are neatly resolved: in particular, the new product is commutative, associative, transforms correctly under unitaries, and always forms a well defined spectral triple.

  18. Functionalized alkynyl-chlorogermanes: hydrometallation, Ge-Cl bond activation, Ge-H bond formation and chlorine-tert-butyl exchange via a transient germyl cation.

    Honacker, Christian; Qu, Zheng-Wang; Tannert, Jens; Layh, Marcus; Hepp, Alexander; Grimme, Stefan; Uhl, Werner

    2016-04-14

    Treatment of alkynyl-arylchlorogermanes ArylnGe(Cl)(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)3-n (n = 1, 2) with HM(t)Bu2 (M = Al, Ga) yielded mixed Al or Ga alkenyl-alkynylchlorogermanes via hydrometallation reactions. Intramolecular interactions between the Lewis-basic Cl atoms and the Lewis-acidic Al or Ga atoms afforded MCGeCl heterocycles. The endocyclic M-Cl distances were significantly lengthened compared to the starting compounds and indicated Ge-Cl bond activation. Dual hydrometallation succeeded only with HGa(t)Bu2. One Ga atom of the product was involved in a Ga-Cl bond, while the second one had an interaction to a C-H bond of a phenyl group. In two cases treatment of chlorogermanes with two equivalents of HAl(t)Bu2 resulted in hydroalumination of one alkynyl group and formation of unprecedented Ge-H functionalized germanes, Aryl-Ge(H)(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)[C(Al(t)Bu2)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-(t)Bu] (Aryl = mesityl, triisopropylphenyl). The Al atoms of these compounds interacted with the α-C atoms of the alkynyl groups. Ph(Cl)Ge(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)[C(Al(t)Bu2}[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-(t)Bu] reacted in an unusual Cl/(t)Bu exchange to yield the tert-butylgermane Ph((t)Bu)Ge(C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C-(t)Bu)[C{Al((t)Bu)(Cl)}[double bond, length as m-dash]C(H)-(t)Bu]. Quantum chemical calculations suggested the formation of a germyl cation as a transient intermediate. PMID:26610394

  19. A b3lyp study searching for b-b triple bond in xbbx system (x= co, cs, n/sub 2/, cnch/sub 3/, h/sub 2/o, h/sub 2/s, nh/sub 3/, ph/sub 3/, c/sub 5/h/sub 5/n, f-, cn-, no/sub 2/-)

    A DFT study using B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) method, has been performed to investigate the total energies, equilibrium geometries, bonding energies, and the values of spin contamination of BX and XBBX molecules, where X=CO, CS, N/sub 2/, CNCH/sub 3/, H/sub 2/O, H/sub 2/S, NH/sub 3/, PH/sub 3/, C/sub 5/H/sub 5/N, F-, CN-, NO/sub 2/-. NBO analysis calculations also obtain the natural charges and bond orders at B3LYP/6-311+G(3df,2p) level. The quadruplet is ground state for both CO and CS ligands, by dimer of which can form stable singlet of XBBX. But for the remaining ligands, the doublets are ground states, contrary to the BCO and BCS systems. (author)

  20. Covalent bonding from alchemical linear response density functional theory

    Chang, K Y Samuel; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2015-01-01

    We assess the predictive accuracy of linear response based estimates of changes in covalent bonding due to linear alchemical interpolations among molecules. We have investigated single bonds to hydrogen, as well as single, double, and triple bonds between main-group elements, occurring in small iso-electronic molecular spaces with atomic elements drawn from rows 2-3 in the $p$-block of the periodic table. Numerical evidence suggests that first order estimates of bonding potentials can achieve chemical accuracy if the alchemical interpolation connects molecules containing late elements in the periodic table (3$^{rd}$ and 4$^{th}$ row) and identical number of atoms and molecular geometries. For these interpolations, changes in bonding potential are near-linear in the coupling parameter, resulting in accurate Hellmann-Feynman predictions. Second order estimates for such interpolations yield worse predictions. The predictions become substantially worse if initial and final molecules differ not only in composition...

  1. Cross Shear Roll Bonding

    Bay, Niels; Bjerregaard, Henrik; Petersen, Søren. B;

    1994-01-01

    The present paper describes an investigation of roll bonding an AlZn alloy to mild steel. Application of cross shear roll bonding, where the two equal sized rolls run with different peripheral speed, is shown to give better bond strength than conventional roll bonding. Improvements of up to 20......-23% in bond strength are found and full bond strength is obtained at a reduction of 50% whereas 65% is required in case of conventional roll bonding. Pseudo cross shear roll bonding, where the cross shear effect is obtained by running two equal sized rolls with different speed, gives the same results....

  2. Building a Distributed Infrastructure for Scalable Triple Stores

    Jing Zhou; Wendy Hall; David De Roure

    2009-01-01

    Built specifically for the Semantic Web, triple stores are required to accommodate a large number of RDF triples and remain primarily centralized. As triple stores grow and evolve with time, there is a demanding need for scalable techniques to remove resource and performance bottlenecks in such systems. To this end, we propose a fully decentralized peer-to-peer architecture for large scale triple stores in which triples are maintained by individual stakeholders, and a semantics-directed search protocol, mediated by topology reorganization, for locating triples of interest. We test our design through simulations and the results show anticipated improvements over existing techniques for distributed triple stores. In addition to engineering future large scale triple stores, our work will in particular benefit the federation of stand-alone triple stores of today to achieve desired scalability.

  3. On Split Lie Triple Systems II

    Antonio J Calderón Martín; M Forero Piulestán

    2010-04-01

    In [4] it is studied that the structure of split Lie triple systems with a coherent 0-root space, that is, satisfying $[T_0,T_0,T]=0$ and $[T_0,T_,T_0]≠ 0$ for any nonzero root and where $T_0$ denotes the 0-root space and $T_$ the -root space, by showing that any of such triple systems with a symmetric root system is of the form $T=\\mathcal{U}+\\sum_j I_j$ with $\\mathcal{U}$ a subspace of the 0-root space $T_0$ and any $I_j$ a well described ideal of , satisfying $[I_j,T,I_k]=0$ if $j≠ k$. It is also shown in [4] that under certain conditions, a split Lie triple system with a coherent 0-root space is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie triple system, and the simplicity of is characterized. In the present paper we extend these results to arbitrary split Lie triple systems with no restrictions on their 0-root spaces.

  4. Dynamical states of nearly triple stars

    The classification of dynamical states has been proposed for triple systems; the most important of their characteristics is the total energy Etr and the relative pair energies Eb of the bodies in these systems. For eight triple stars (ADS 1630, 2926, 6175, 6650, 6811, 7114, 9626 and 9909 with the observation data possessing greater accuracy) probabilities of the dynamical states and the values Etr ± σEtr and Eb ± σEb have been obtained by statistical tests. Only three triple stars, namely ADS 1630 (r ∼ 80 pc), 6175 (r ∼ 14 pc) and 9909 (r ∼ 22 pc), appear to be certain physical systems. The last two systems with a probability P > 0.80 are dynamically unhierachial non-stable triple systems with a complicate motion of the components; the final state of these systems is the state of ''escape''. In the triple system ADS 1630 the qualitative course of the component motions has not been determined because of large errors in the observational data

  5. Wire bonding in microelectronics

    Harman, George G

    2010-01-01

    Wire Bonding in Microelectronics, Third Edition, has been thoroughly revised to help you meet the challenges of today's small-scale and fine-pitch microelectronics. This authoritative guide covers every aspect of designing, manufacturing, and evaluating wire bonds engineered with cutting-edge techniques. In addition to gaining a full grasp of bonding technology, you'll learn how to create reliable bonds at exceedingly high yields, test wire bonds, solve common bonding problems, implement molecular cleaning methods, and much more. Coverage includes: Ultrasonic bonding systems and technologies, including high-frequency systems Bonding wire metallurgy and characteristics, including copper wire Wire bond testing Gold-aluminum intermetallic compounds and other interface reactions Gold and nickel-based bond pad plating materials and problems Cleaning to improve bondability and reliability Mechanical problems in wire bonding High-yield, fine-pitch, specialized-looping, soft-substrate, and extreme-temperature wire bo...

  6. Technetium dichloride : a new binary halide containing metal-metal multiple bonds.

    Poineau, F.; Malliakas, C. D.; Weck, P. F.; Scott, B. L.; Johnstone, E. V.; Forster, P. M.; Kim, E.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Czerwinski, K. R.; Sattelberger, A. P. (Materials Science Division); ( OTD-EESA); (Univ. of Nevada at Las Vegas); (LANL); (Northwestern Univ.)

    2011-06-15

    Technetium dichloride has been discovered. It was synthesized from the elements and characterized by several physical techniques, including single crystal X-ray diffraction. In the solid state, technetium dichloride exhibits a new structure type consisting of infinite chains of face sharing [Tc{sub 2}Cl{sub 8}] rectangular prisms that are packed in a commensurate supercell. The metal-metal separation in the prisms is 2.127(2) {angstrom}, a distance consistent with the presence of a Tc {triple_bond} Tc triple bond that is also supported by electronic structure calculations.

  7. Drop evaporation and triple line dynamics

    Sobac, Benjamin; Brutin, David; Gavillet, Jerome; Université de Provence Team; Cea Liten Team

    2011-03-01

    Sessile drop evaporation is a phenomenon commonly came across in nature or in industry with cooling, paintings or DNA mapping. However, the evaporation of a drop deposited on a substrate is not completely understood due to the complexity of the problem. Here we investigate, with several nano-coating of the substrate (PTFE, SiOx, SiOc and CF), the influence of the dynamic of the triple line on the evaporation process. The experiment consists in analyzing simultaneously the motion of the triple line, the kinetics of evaporation, the internal thermal motion and the heat and mass transfer. Measurements of temperature, heat-flux and visualizations with visible and infrared cameras are performed. The dynamics of the evaporative heat flux appears clearly different depending of the motion of the triple line

  8. Normalization for triple-target microarray experiments

    Magniette Frederic

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most microarray studies are made using labelling with one or two dyes which allows the hybridization of one or two samples on the same slide. In such experiments, the most frequently used dyes are Cy3 and Cy5. Recent improvements in the technology (dye-labelling, scanner and, image analysis allow hybridization up to four samples simultaneously. The two additional dyes are Alexa488 and Alexa494. The triple-target or four-target technology is very promising, since it allows more flexibility in the design of experiments, an increase in the statistical power when comparing gene expressions induced by different conditions and a scaled down number of slides. However, there have been few methods proposed for statistical analysis of such data. Moreover the lowess correction of the global dye effect is available for only two-color experiments, and even if its application can be derived, it does not allow simultaneous correction of the raw data. Results We propose a two-step normalization procedure for triple-target experiments. First the dye bleeding is evaluated and corrected if necessary. Then the signal in each channel is normalized using a generalized lowess procedure to correct a global dye bias. The normalization procedure is validated using triple-self experiments and by comparing the results of triple-target and two-color experiments. Although the focus is on triple-target microarrays, the proposed method can be used to normalize p differently labelled targets co-hybridized on a same array, for any value of p greater than 2. Conclusion The proposed normalization procedure is effective: the technical biases are reduced, the number of false positives is under control in the analysis of differentially expressed genes, and the triple-target experiments are more powerful than the corresponding two-color experiments. There is room for improving the microarray experiments by simultaneously hybridizing more than two samples.

  9. The triple point of sulfur hexafluoride

    Rourke, P. M. C.

    2016-04-01

    A cryogenic fixed point cell has been filled with high purity (99.999%) sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and measured in an adiabatic closed-cycle cryostat system. Temperature measurements of the SF6 melting curve were performed using a capsule-type standard platinum resistance thermometer (CSPRT) calibrated over the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) subrange from the triple point of equilibrium hydrogen to the triple point of water. The measured temperatures were corrected by 0.37 mK for the effects of thermometer self-heating, and the liquidus-point temperature estimated by extrapolation to melted fraction F  =  1 of a simple linear regression versus melted fraction F in the range F  =  0.53 to 0.84. Based on this measurement, the temperature of the triple point of sulfur hexafluoride is shown to be 223.555 23(49) K (k  =  1) on the ITS-90. This value is in excellent agreement with the best prior measurements reported in the literature, but with considerably smaller uncertainty. An analysis of the detailed uncertainty budget of this measurement suggests that if the triple point of sulfur hexafluoride were to be included as a defining fixed point of the next revision of the International Temperature Scale, it could do so with a total realization uncertainty of approximately 0.43 mK, slightly larger than the realization uncertainties of the defining fixed points of the ITS-90. Since the combined standard uncertainty of this SF6 triple point temperature determination is dominated by chemical impurity effects, further research exploring gas purification techniques and the influence of specific impurity species on the SF6 triple point temperature may bring the realization uncertainty of SF6 as a fixed point material into the range of the defining fixed points of the ITS-90.

  10. On Bond Portfolio Management

    Vladislav Kargin

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a new method of bond portfolio optimization based on stochastic string models of correlation structure in bond returns. The paper shows how to approximate correlation function of bond returns, compute the optimal portfolio allocation using Wiener-Hopf factorization, and check whether a collection of bonds presents arbitrage opportunities.

  11. NMR structural studies of intramolecular (Y+)n·(R+)n(Y-)n DNA triplexes in solution: Imino and amino proton and nitrogen markers of G·TA base triple formation

    The authors reported previously on NMR studies of (Y+)n·(R+)n(Y-)nDNA triple helices containing one oligopurine strand (R)n and two oligopyrimidine strands (Y)n stabilized by T·AT and C+·GC base triples. Recently, it has been established that guanosine can recognize a thymidine·adenosine base pair to form a G·TA triple in an otherwise (Y+)n·(R+)n(Y-)n triple-helix motif. The present study extends the NMR research to the characterization of structural features of a 31-mer deoxyoligonucleotide that folds intramolecularly into a 7-mer (Y+)n·(R+)n(Y-)n triplex with the strands linked through two T5 loops and that contains a central G·TA triple flanked by T·AT triples. The NMR data are consistent with the proposed pairing alignment for the G·TA triple where the guanosine in an anti orientation pairs through a single hydrogen bond from one of its 2-amino protons to the 4-carbonyl group of thymidine in the Watson-Crick TA pair. They detect a set of NOEs between adjacent triples that establishes that the G·TA triple stacks between flanking T·AT triples in the G·TA triplex. These results demonstrate the capabilities of the NMR approach in monitoring individual base triples and their pairing alignments, as well as establishing that the G·TA triple can be readily accommodated in an otherwise intramolecular (Y+)n (R+)n(Y-)n triple helix in solution

  12. Krein Spectral Triples and the Fermionic Action

    van den Dungen, Koen

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the space of spinors on a Lorentzian manifold, we define Krein spectral triples, which generalise spectral triples from Hilbert spaces to Krein spaces. This Krein space approach allows for an improved formulation of the fermionic action for almost-commutative manifolds. We show by explicit calculation that this action functional recovers the correct Lagrangians for the cases of electrodynamics, the electro-weak theory, and the Standard Model. The description of these examples does not require a real structure, unless one includes Majorana masses, in which case the internal spaces also exhibit a Krein space structure.

  13. Multicenter bonds, bond valence and bond charge apportion

    In the same way that the valence of an atom issues from the definition of bond index, we shoe here that the three-center bond index lends itself to the definition of a bond valence. Within the charge of a bond, we show that its self-charge (i.e., the amount of electron kept by the atoms involved in the bond) is parted in a such a way that the more electronegative atom tends to allot more electronic charge than the other atom. We give examples of these quantities and discuss the results for different kinds of chemical systems. We also show some results for four-center indices and report six-center indices for hexagonal rings. (author). 54 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  14. A novel DNA computing model based on RecA-mediated triple-stranded DNA structure

    Fang Gang; Zhang Shemin; Dong Yafei; Xu Jin

    2007-01-01

    The field of DNA computing emerged in 1994 after Adleman's paper was published. Henceforth, a few scholars solved some noted NP-complete problems in this way. And all these methods of DNA computing are based on conventional Watson-Crick hydrogen bond of doublehelical DNA molecule. In this paper, we show that the triple-stranded DNA structure mediated by RecA protein can be used for solving computational problems. Sequence-specific recognition of double-stranded DNA by oligonucleotide-directed triple helix (triplex) formation is used to carry out the algorithm. We present procedure for the 3-vertex-colorability problems. In our proposed procedure, it is suggested that it is possible to solve more complicated problems with more variables by this model.

  15. New inequalities of Ostrowski and Gruss type for triple integrals

    B. G. Pachpatte

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper we establish new inequalities of Ostrowski and Gruss type for triple integrals involving three functions and their partial derivatives. The discrete Ostrowski and Gruss type inequalities for triple sums are also given.

  16. New inequalities of Ostrowski and Gruss type for triple integrals

    B. G. Pachpatte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we establish new inequalities of Ostrowski and Gruss type for triple integrals involving three functions and their partial derivatives. The discrete Ostrowski and Gruss type inequalities for triple sums are also given.

  17. MEIR-KEELER TYPE CONTRACTIONS FOR TRIPLED FIXED POINTS

    Hassen Aydi; Erdal Karapinar; Calogero Vetro

    2012-01-01

    In 2011,Berinde and Borcut [6] introduced the notion of tripled fixed point in partially ordered metric spaces.In our paper,we give some new tripled fixed point theorems by using a generalization of Meir-Keeler contraction.

  18. Resolution of a triple axis spectrometer

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    A new method for obtaining the resolution function for a triple-axis neutron spectrometer is described, involving a combination of direct measurement and analytical calculation. All factors which contribute to the finite resolution of the instrument may be taken into account, and Gaussian or...

  19. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs

  20. Triple mode filters with coaxial excitation

    Gerini, G.; Bustamante, F.D.; Guglielmi, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe triple mode filters in a square waveguide with integrated coaxial input/output excitation. An important feature of the structure proposed is that it is easily amenable to an accurate full wave analysis. In addition to theory, a practical six pole filter with two transmissio

  1. Detecting triple systems with gravitational wave observations

    Meiron, Yohai; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) has recently discovered gravitational waves (GWs) emitted by merging black hole binaries. We examine whether future GW detections may identify triple companions of merging binaries. Such a triple companion causes variations in the GW signal due to (1) the varying path length along the line of sight during the orbit around the center of mass, (2) relativistic beaming, Doppler, and gravitational redshift, and (3) the variation of the "light"-travel time in the gravitational field of the triple companion, known respectively as Roemer-, Einstein-, and Shapiro-delays in pulsar binaries. We find that the prospects for detecting the triple companion are the highest for low-mass compact object binaries which spend the longest time in the LIGO frequency band with circular orbits. In particular, for merging neutron star binaries, LIGO may detect a white dwarf or M-dwarf perturber at signal to noise ratio of 8, if it is within 0.4 solar radius distance from ...

  2. Overcoming the triple hurdle of diversity management

    Ruigrok, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    Diversity management is a key instrument to position a company as a preferred employer. Fail to recite this mantra and you risk losing the attention of the majority of young graduates in Europe today. Explore the triple hurdle of diversity management that companies need to overcome in order to successfully develop their diversity management policies.

  3. Triple-axis spectrometer DruechaL

    Buehrer, W.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    DruechaL is a triple-axis spectrometer located at a cold guide. The characteristics of guide and instrument allow the use of a broad spectral range of neutrons. The resolution in momentum and energy transfer can be tuned to match the experimental requirements by using either collimators or focusing systems (monochromator, antitrumpet, analyser). (author) figs., tabs., refs.

  4. Construction of Pure Mendelsohn Triple Systems

    XIA Xing-wu; SHEN Hao

    2005-01-01

    This paper determined the existence of λ-fold pure Mendelsohn triple system of order v satisfying λv(v-1)≡0 (mod 3) and v≥4λ+5, or v=2λ+2, and in the caseof λ=4,5,6,which completely settled their existence.

  5. Real structures on almost-commutative spectral triples

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    We refine the reconstruction theorem for almost-commutative spectral triples to a result for real almost-commutative spectral triples, clarifying, in the process, both concrete and abstract definitions of real commutative and almost-commutative spectral triples. In particular, we find that a real almost-commutative spectral triple algebraically encodes the commutative *-algebra of the base manifold in a canonical way, and that a compact oriented Riemannian manifold admits real (almost-)commut...

  6. A reconstruction theorem for almost-commutative spectral triples

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2012-01-01

    We propose an expansion of the definition of almost-commutative spectral triple that accommodates non-trivial fibrations and is stable under inner fluctuation of the metric, and then prove a reconstruction theorem for almost-commutative spectral triples under this definition as a simple consequence of Connes's reconstruction theorem for commutative spectral triples. Along the way, we weaken the orientability hypothesis in the reconstruction theorem for commutative spectral triples, and follow...

  7. Bethlem myopathy and engineered collagen VI triple helical deletions prevent intracellular multimer assembly and protein secretion.

    Lamandé, S R; Shields, K A; Kornberg, A J; Shield, L K; Bateman, J F

    1999-07-30

    Mutations in the genes that code for collagen VI subunits, COL6A1, COL6A2, and COL6A3, are the cause of the autosomal dominant disorder, Bethlem myopathy. Although three different collagen VI structural mutations have previously been reported, the effect of these mutations on collagen VI assembly, structure, and function is currently unknown. We have characterized a new Bethlem myopathy mutation that results in skipping of COL6A1 exon 14 during pre-mRNA splicing and the deletion of 18 amino acids from the triple helical domain of the alpha1(VI) chain. Sequencing of genomic DNA identified a G to A transition in the +1 position of the splice donor site of intron 14 in one allele. The mutant alpha1(VI) chains associated intracellularly with alpha2(VI) and alpha3(VI) to form disulfide-bonded monomers, but further assembly into dimers and tetramers was prevented, and molecules containing the mutant chain were not secreted. This triple helical deletion thus resulted in production of half the normal amount of collagen VI. To further explore the biosynthetic consequences of collagen VI triple helical deletions, an alpha3(VI) cDNA expression construct containing a 202-amino acid deletion within the triple helix was produced and stably expressed in SaOS-2 cells. The transfected mutant alpha3(VI) chains associated with endogenous alpha1(VI) and alpha2(VI) to form collagen VI monomers, but dimers and tetramers did not form and the mutant-containing molecules were not secreted. Thus, deletions within the triple helical region of both the alpha1(VI) and alpha3(VI) chains can prevent intracellular dimer and tetramer assembly and secretion. These results provide the first evidence of the biosynthetic consequences of structural collagen VI mutations and suggest that functional protein haploinsufficiency may be a common pathogenic mechanism in Bethlem myopathy. PMID:10419498

  8. Classification of solvable 3-dimensional Lie triple systems

    Bouetou, Thomas Bouetou

    2003-01-01

    We give the classification of solvable and splitting Lie triple system and it turn that, up to isomorphism there exist 7 non isomorphic canonical Lie triple systems and 6 non isomorphic splitting canonical Lie triple systems and find the solvable Lie algebras associated.

  9. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular structures

    Li, Zhanting

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the advances in the studies of hydrogen-bonding-driven supramolecular systems  made over the past decade. It is divided into four parts, with the first introducing the basics of hydrogen bonding and important hydrogen bonding patterns in solution as well as in the solid state. The second part covers molecular recognition and supramolecular structures driven by hydrogen bonding. The third part introduces the formation of hollow and giant macrocycles directed by hydrogen bonding, while the last part summarizes hydrogen bonded supramolecular polymers. This book is designed to b

  10. Triple-Error-Correcting BCH-Like Codes

    Bracken, Carl; Helleseth, Tor

    2009-01-01

    The binary primitive triple-error-correcting BCH code is a cyclic code of minimum distance 7 with generator polynomial having zeros $\\alpha$, $\\alpha^3$ and $\\alpha^5$ where $\\alpha$ is a primitive root of unity. The zero set of the code is said to be {1,3,5}. In the 1970's Kasami showed that one can construct similar triple-error-correcting codes using zero sets consisting of different triples than the BCH codes. Furthermore, in 2000 Chang et. al. found new triples leading to triple-error-co...

  11. Bonding silicones with epoxies

    Tira, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that silicones, both room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) and millable rubber (press cured) can be successfully bonded to other materials using plasma treatment and epoxy adhesives. The plasma treatment using dry air atmosphere increases the surface energy of the silicone and thus provides a lower water contact angle. This phenomenon allows the epoxy adhesive to wet the silicone surface and ultimately bond. Bond strengths are sufficiently high to result in failures in the silicone materials rather than the adhesive bond.

  12. Australia's Bond Home Bias

    Mishra, Anil V; Umaru B. Conteh

    2014-01-01

    This paper constructs the float adjusted measure of home bias and explores the determinants of bond home bias by employing the International Monetary Fund's high quality dataset (2001 to 2009) on cross-border bond investment. The paper finds that Australian investors' prefer investing in countries with higher economic development and more developed bond markets. Exchange rate volatility appears to be an impediment for cross-border bond investment. Investors prefer investing in countries with ...

  13. Double Planet Meets Triple Star

    2002-08-01

    atmosphere, a large campaign involving more than twenty scientists and engineers from the Paris Observatory and associated institutions [1] was organized to observe the July 20, 2002, event involving an occultation of a star of visual magnitude 11 (i.e., about 100 times fainter than what can be perceived with then unaided eye), referred to as "P126" in McDonald and Elliot's catalogue. In May 2002, preparatory observations showed that star to be double, with the brighter component of the system ( "P126 A" ) being likely to be occulted by Pluto, as seen from South America. However, because of the duplicity, the predictions of exactly where the shadow of Pluto would sweep the ground were uncertain by about 0.1 arcsec in the sky, corresponding to more than 2000 km on the ground. The NACO images ESO PR Photo 21b/02 ESO PR Photo 21b/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 469 pix - 47k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 937 pix - 208k] ESO PR Photo 21c/02 ESO PR Photo 21c/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 467 pix - 53k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 933 pix - 232k] Caption : PR Photo 21b/02 shows one of the images obtained with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics (AO) camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope at the Paranal Observatory in connection with a stellar occultation by Pluto on July 20, 2002. The star was found to be triple - the three components (A, B and C), as well as Pluto and its moon, Charon, are indicated in PR Photo 21c/02 for easy orientation. The images are based on data available from the NACO data webpage. See the text for details. In the end, the close approach (an "appulse" in astronomical terminology) of Pluto and P126 A was indeed observed from various sites in South America, with several mobile telescopes and also including major facilities at the ESO La Silla and Paranal Observatories. In particular, unique and very sharp images were obtained with the NAOS-CONICA (NACO) adaptive optics (AO) camera mounted on the ESO VLT 8.2-m YEPUN telescope . One of the NACO images is shown in PR

  14. Malaysia : Bond Market Development

    International Monetary Fund; World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This paper pertains to the bond market development in Malaysia, and provides an overview of the market scenario in the country. Malaysia has been successful in developing the capital markets, particularly bond markets, in the recent past. Now, it faces the challenge of how to improve broader access and efficiency of the bond market. A high degree of investor concentration, dominated by gov...

  15. Chemical bond fundamental aspects of chemical bonding

    Frenking, Gernot

    2014-01-01

    This is the perfect complement to ""Chemical Bonding - Across the Periodic Table"" by the same editors, who are two of the top scientists working on this topic, each with extensive experience and important connections within the community. The resulting book is a unique overview of the different approaches used for describing a chemical bond, including molecular-orbital based, valence-bond based, ELF, AIM and density-functional based methods. It takes into account the many developments that have taken place in the field over the past few decades due to the rapid advances in quantum chemica

  16. Rankin Triple Products and Quantum Chaos

    Watson, Thomas C

    2008-01-01

    We prove explicit Harris-Kudla type formulas for triples of Maass forms, holomorphic forms, and combinations thereof, on the hyperbolic plane modulo congruence groups and co-compact lattices arising from Eichler orders of quaternion algebras. These formulas relate the central value of the corresponding Rankin triple product L-function to a squared trilinear period integral. Assuming subconvexity estimates for these L-values, we prove Quantum Unique Ergodicity on such quotients; the relevant Lindelof hypotheses imply a quantitative form of QUE, with an optimal rate. In connection with the Berry/Hejhal Random Wave conjecture, we prove decay of third moments in the high energy limit, making use of a subconvexity result of Iwaniec/Ivic/Jutila and Kim-Shahidi's result on cuspidality of the symmetric cube.

  17. On Spectral Triples in Quantum Gravity I

    Aastrup, Johannes; M. Grimstrup, Jesper; Nest, Ryszard

    2009-01-01

    This paper establishes a link between Noncommutative Geometry and canonical quantum gravity. A semi-finite spectral triple over a space of connections is presented. The triple involves an algebra of holonomy loops and a Dirac type operator which resembles a global functional derivation operator....... The interaction between the Dirac operator and the algebra reproduces the Poisson structure of General Relativity. Moreover, the associated Hilbert space corresponds, up to a discrete symmetry group, to the Hilbert space of diffeomorphism invariant states known from Loop Quantum Gravity....... Correspondingly, the square of the Dirac operator has, in terms of canonical quantum gravity, the form of a global area-squared operator. Furthermore, the spectral action resembles a partition function of Quantum Gravity. The construction is background independent and is based on an inductive system of...

  18. A rare case of triple thyroid ectopia

    Mukund Rahalkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various anomalies of thyro-glossal duct have been described, in which the duct may form a cyst or may present as a solid nodule to form an ectopic gland. The ectopic gland can develop along the tract of the duct to give rise to ectopic lingual, sublingual (pre-hyoid or sub-hyoid (pyramidal gland, with or without normal pre-tracheal thyroid gland.There are a few reports of double ectopia of thyroid but triple ectopia of thyroid is extremely rare. We have come across a case of triple thyroid ectopia, i.e., thyroid tissue at three locations along the tract of descent of thyro-glossal duct on CT, which hast been rarely reported in the world literature, and hence this report.

  19. Full CI benchmark calculations on N2, NO, and O2 - A comparison of methods for describing multiple bonds

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    Full configuration interaction (CI) calculations on the ground states of N2, NO, and O2 using a DZP Gaussian basis are compared with single-reference SDCI and coupled pair approaches (CPF), as well as with CASSCF multireference CI approaches. The CASSCF/MRCI technique is found to describe multiple bonds as well as single bonds. Although the coupled pair functional approach gave chemical accuracy (1 kcal/mol) for bonds involving hydrogen, larger errors occur in the CPF approach for the multiple bonded systems considered here. CI studies on the 1Sigma(g +) state of N2, including all single, double, triple, and quadruple excitations show that triple excitations are very important for the multiple bond case, and accounts for most of the deficiency in the coupled pair functional methods.

  20. The Triple Helix of the Organizational Knowledge

    Contantin BRĂTIANU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the inner triple helix dynamics of the organizationalknowledge. This is a new perspective of the classical view of tacit knowledge– explicit knowledge dyad of the organizational knowledge promoted by Nonaka and hisco-workers. The new perspective is based on the metaphor that organizational knowledge isa "eld rather than a stock, or stocks and flows. It is a complex metaphor using the thermodynamicsprinciples. The organizational knowledge is composed of ...

  1. Triple Teeth: Report of an Unusual Case

    Prashant Babaji; M. A. Prasanth; Ajith R. Gowda; Soumya Ajith; Henston D'Souza; Ashok, K. P.

    2012-01-01

    Fusion or synodontia is a union of two or more than two developing teeth. Commonly fusion occurs between teeth of the same dentition, mixed dentition, or between normal and supernumerary teeth. Fused primary teeth present with several clinical problems like caries, periodontal problem, arch asymmetry, delayed eruption, ectopic eruption of succedaneous teeth, aesthetic, and other complications. This paper presents a rare and unusual case of triple teeth in mandibular primary dentition.

  2. Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Taylor, Patrick; Carry, Benoît; Jacobson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.

  3. Gauging triple stores with actual biological data

    2012-01-01

    Background: Semantic Web technologies have been developed to overcome the limitations of the current Web and conventional data integration solutions. The Semantic Web is expected to link all the data present on the Internet instead of linking just documents. One of the foundations of the Semantic Web technologies is the knowledge representation language Resource Description Framework (RDF). Knowledge expressed in RDF is typically stored in so-called triple stores (also known as RDF stores), f...

  4. A Tulczyjew triple for classical fields

    The geometrical structure known as the Tulczyjew triple has proved to be very useful in describing mechanical systems, even those with singular Lagrangians or subject to constraints. Starting from basic concepts of the variational calculus, we construct the Tulczyjew triple for first-order field theory. The important feature of our approach is that we do not postulate ad hoc the ingredients of the theory, but obtain them as unavoidable consequences of the variational calculus. This picture of field theory is covariant and complete, containing not only the Lagrangian formalism and Euler–Lagrange equations but also the phase space, the phase dynamics and the Hamiltonian formalism. Since the configuration space turns out to be an affine bundle, we have to use affine geometry, in particular the notion of the affine duality. In our formulation, the two maps α and β which constitute the Tulczyjew triple are morphisms of double structures of affine-vector bundles. We also discuss the Legendre transformation, i.e. the transition between the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of the first-order field theory. (paper)

  5. A Tulczyjew triple for classical fields

    Grabowska, Katarzyna

    2012-04-01

    The geometrical structure known as the Tulczyjew triple has proved to be very useful in describing mechanical systems, even those with singular Lagrangians or subject to constraints. Starting from basic concepts of the variational calculus, we construct the Tulczyjew triple for first-order field theory. The important feature of our approach is that we do not postulate ad hoc the ingredients of the theory, but obtain them as unavoidable consequences of the variational calculus. This picture of field theory is covariant and complete, containing not only the Lagrangian formalism and Euler-Lagrange equations but also the phase space, the phase dynamics and the Hamiltonian formalism. Since the configuration space turns out to be an affine bundle, we have to use affine geometry, in particular the notion of the affine duality. In our formulation, the two maps α and β which constitute the Tulczyjew triple are morphisms of double structures of affine-vector bundles. We also discuss the Legendre transformation, i.e. the transition between the Lagrangian and the Hamiltonian formulation of the first-order field theory.

  6. Triple dye plus rubbing alcohol versus triple dye alone for umbilical cord care.

    Suliman, Alawia K; Watts, Heidi; Beiler, Jessica; King, Tonya S; Khan, Sana; Carnuccio, Marybeth; Paul, Ian M

    2010-01-01

    Current practices for umbilical cord care vary across centers, but the evidence regarding these practices and their impact on cord separation, complications, and health care use are limited. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of triple dye alone (brilliant green, crystal violet, and proflavine hemisulfate) versus triple dye plus rubbing alcohol (isopropyl alcohol) twice daily on time to umbilical cord separation, complications, and health care use. For the 90 newborns who completed the study, there were no significant differences between treatment groups for time to cord separation, cord-related morbidities, or cord-related urgent care. Based on these study results, there does not appear to be significant benefit to the addition of twice daily applications of rubbing alcohol to neonatal umbilical cords following triple dye treatment after birth. PMID:20034947

  7. Bonding in Mercury Molecules Described by the Normalized Elimination of the Small Component and Coupled Cluster Theory

    Cremer, Dieter; Kraka, Elfi; Filatov, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Bond dissociation energies (BDEs) of neutral HgX and cationic HgX(+) molecules range from less than a kcal mol(-1) to as much as 60 kcal mol(-1). Using NESCICCCSD(T) [normalized elimination of the small component and coupled-cluster theory with all single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of the triple excitations] in combination with triple-zeta basis sets, bonding in 28 mercury molecules HgX (X=H, Li, Na, K, Rb, CH(3), SiH(3), GeH(3), SnH(3), NH(2), PH(2), AsH(2), SbH(2), ...

  8. Weak bond screening system

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  9. Normal mode calculation for triple helical DNA, stability and hydration effects

    Dadarlat, Voichita Maria

    The effective field model for the dynamics of the triple helix d(T)n - d(A)n - d(T)n DNA polymer in solution has been applied to determine the vibrational normal modes of the system for both A and B conformation. The effect of site-bound counterions as compared to the area-bound counterions has been considered specifically by explicitly introducing degrees of freedom for the three counterions associated with a unit cell and coupling these to the DNA degrees of freedom via appropriate interactions. Stability of the system for all vibrational modes (positive eigenvalues for the solution of the dynamics problem) was used as a criterion to find possible equilibrium positions of the site-bound counterions in specific conditions of weak covalent bonding between the counterions and the phosphate free oxygens and distance dependent dielectric constants. Normal mode calculation for the A conformation shows that this type of triple helix is not stable in aqueous solutions unless the counterions are site-bound in certain positions close to the phosphate groups. The equilibrium domains for the positions of the counterions in both conformations have been determined. Free energy calculations for the two triple helices show that the B conformation is more stable than the A conformation. Our calculated normal modes match reasonably well with the experimental IR spectra. The effect of adding structural waters to the triplex DNA in the B conformation have been studied. The results clearly show that there is an inverse proportional relationship between the degree of boundness of the water molecules to the atoms in the triple helix and the relative humidity (RH) of the samples.

  10. Low-stress transfer bonding using floatation

    A novel method for transferring thin, large-area polymer layers from a mould and its subsequent bonding to a destination substrate is presented here. Buoyancy is used for transfer via floatation to allow the release of internal stress in the polymer and to avoid induced strain. Additionally, floatation leads to wrinkle-free contact between the polymer layer and its destination substrate, an important feature for the transfer of large-area polymer sheets. Poly(vinyl alcohol) is used as a release film on the mould, from which the device polymer layer is released using ultrasonication. The polymer layer floats from the mould to a destination surface, to which it automatically aligns. Here, the method is demonstrated by the successful manufacturing of a 4″ sized, triple microfluidic layer PDMS stack on a silicon wafer, containing a total of 48 large-area, fragile membranes, each with a thickness of 50 µm. (paper)

  11. Bond Markets in Africa

    Yibin Mu; Peter Phelps; Janet Gale Stotsky

    2013-01-01

    African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to bette...

  12. Build America Bonds

    Andrew Ang; Vineer Bhansali; Yuhang Xing

    2010-01-01

    Build America Bonds (BABs) are a new form of municipal financing introduced in 2009. Investors in BAB municipal bonds receive interest payments that are taxable, but issuers receive a subsidy from the U.S. Treasury. The BAB program has succeeded in lowering the cost of funding for state and local governments with BAB issuers obtaining finance 54 basis points lower, on average, compared to issuing regular municipal bonds. For institutional investors, BAB issue yields are 116 basis points highe...

  13. A statistically derived parameterization for the collagen triple-helix

    Rainey, Jan K.; Goh, M. Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    The triple-helix is a unique secondary structural motif found primarily within the collagens. In collagen, it is a homo- or hetero-tripeptide with a repeating primary sequence of (Gly-X-Y)n, displaying characteristic peptide backbone dihedral angles. Studies of bulk collagen fibrils indicate that the triple-helix must be a highly repetitive secondary structure, with very specific constraints. Primary sequence analysis shows that most collagen molecules are primarily triple-helical; however, n...

  14. Superconformal M2-branes and generalized Jordan triple systems

    NILSSON, B.; Palmkvist, J.

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal theories with six supersymmetries and SU(4) R-symmetry describing stacks of M2-branes are here proposed to be related to generalized Jordan triple systems. Writing the four-index structure constants in an appropriate form, the Chern-Simons part of the action immediately suggests a connection to such triple systems. In contrast to the previously considered three-algebras, the additional structure of a generalized Jordan triple system is associated to a graded Lie al...

  15. Triple X syndrome: a review of the literature

    Otter, Maarten; Schrander-Stumpel, Constance TRM; Curfs, Leopold MG

    2009-01-01

    The developmental and clinical aspects in the literature on triple X syndrome are reviewed. Prenatal diagnosis depends on karyotyping. The incidence is 1 of 1000 females. At birth, 47,XXX girls have a lower mean birth weight and a smaller head circumference. Triple X diagnosis was not suspected at birth. The maternal age seems to be increased. Toddlers with triple X syndrome show delayed language development. The youngest girls show accelerated growth until puberty. EEG abnormalities seem to ...

  16. Moduli spaces of Dirac operators for finite spectral triples

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2009-01-01

    The structure theory of finite real spectral triples developed by Krajewski and by Paschke and Sitarz is generalised to allow for arbitrary KO-dimension and the failure of orientability and Poincare duality, and moduli spaces of Dirac operators for such spectral triples are defined and studied. This theory is then applied to recent work by Chamseddine and Connes towards deriving the finite spectral triple of the noncommutative-geometric Standard Model.

  17. Moduli spaces of Dirac operators for finite spectral triples

    Ćaćić, Branimir

    2011-01-01

    The structure theory of finite real spectral triples developed by Krajewski and by Paschke and Sitarz is generalised to allow for arbitrary KO-dimension and the failure of orientability and Poincare duality, and moduli spaces of Dirac operators for such spectral triples are defined and studied. This theory is then applied to recent work by Chamseddine and Connes towards deriving the finite spectral triple of the noncommutative-geometric Standard Model.

  18. The Bond Market's q

    Thomas Philippon

    2006-01-01

    I propose an implementation of the q-theory of investment using bond prices instead of equity prices. Credit risk makes corporate bond prices sensitive to future asset values, and q can be inferred from bond prices. The bond market's q performs much better than the usual measure in standard investment equations. With aggregate data, the fit is three times better, cash flows are driven out and the implied adjustment costs are reduced by more than an order of magnitude. The new measure also imp...

  19. Copper wire bonding

    Chauhan, Preeti S; Zhong, ZhaoWei; Pecht, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    This critical volume provides an in-depth presentation of copper wire bonding technologies, processes and equipment, along with the economic benefits and risks.  Due to the increasing cost of materials used to make electronic components, the electronics industry has been rapidly moving from high cost gold to significantly lower cost copper as a wire bonding material.  However, copper wire bonding has several process and reliability concerns due to its material properties.  Copper Wire Bonding book lays out the challenges involved in replacing gold with copper as a wire bond material, and includes the bonding process changes—bond force, electric flame off, current and ultrasonic energy optimization, and bonding tools and equipment changes for first and second bond formation.  In addition, the bond–pad metallurgies and the use of bare and palladium-coated copper wires on aluminum are presented, and gold, nickel and palladium surface finishes are discussed.  The book also discusses best practices and re...

  20. Hydrogen bonding and anaesthesia

    Sándorfy, C.

    2004-12-01

    General anaesthetics act by perturbing intermolecular associations without breaking or forming covalent bonds. These associations might be due to a variety of van der Waals interactions or hydrogen bonding. Neurotransmitters all contain OH or NH groups, which are prone to form hydrogen bonds with those of the neurotransmitter receptors. These could be perturbed by anaesthetics. Aromatic rings in amino acids can act as weak hydrogen bond acceptors. On the other hand the acidic hydrogen in halothane type anaesthetics are weak proton donors. These two facts together lead to a probable mechanism of action for all general anaesthetics.

  1. Triple mental foramina of the mandible

    Mental foramen represents the ending of mandibular canal and is very important for the clinical practice of dentists and orthognatic surgeons. Variations of mandibular foramina according to the number and location of accessory mental foramina could be a reason for complications during anesthesia, dental implants and other surgical procedures in this area. We present an extremely rare case of a triple mental foramina in the left mandible diagnosed by CBCT examination. Information concerning additional mental foramina is very important for the clinical practice in order to prevent possible neurosensory disturbances and haemorage during or after surgical intervention in this part of the mandible. (authors) Key words: CBCT. ACCESSORY MENTAL FORAMEN. IMPLANT. MENTAL FORAMEN

  2. Triple antibiotic paste in root canal therapy

    Rangasamy Vijayaraghavan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The success of the endodontic treatment depends on the microbial suppression in the root canal and periapical region. Endodontic instrumentation alone cannot achieve a sterile condition. With the advent of non-instrumentation endodontic treatment and lesion sterilization and tissue repair, local application of antibiotics has been investigated. Triple antibiotic paste (TAP containing metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline has been reported to be a successful regimen in controlling the root canal pathogen and in managing non-vital young permanent tooth. This paper reviews the existing literature on biocompatibility, efficiency, drawbacks of TAP in endodontic therapy and pulp revascularization.

  3. Uranyl photofootprinting of triple helical DNA.

    Nielsen, P E

    1992-01-01

    Two triple helix structures (15-mers containing only T.A-T triplets or containing mixed T.A-T and C.G-C triplets) have been studied by uranyl mediated DNA photocleavage to probe the accessibility of the phosphates of the DNA backbone. Whereas the phosphates of the pyrimidine strand are at least as accessible as in double stranded DNA, in the phosphates of the purine strand are partly shielded and more so at the 5'-end of the strand. With the homo A/T target increased cleavage is observed towa...

  4. A possible family of B-like triple helix structures: comparison with the Arnott A-like triple helix.

    Ouali, M; Letellier, R; Adnet, F; Liquier, J; Sun, J S; Lavery, R; Taillandier, E

    1993-03-01

    Recent experimental studies of the structure of triple helices show that their conformation in solution differs from the A-like structure derived from diffraction data on triple helix fibers by Arnott and co-workers. Here we show by means of molecular modeling that a family of triple helix structures may exist with similar conformational energies, but with a variety of sugar puckers. The characteristics of these putative triple helices are analyzed for three different base sequences: (T.AxT)n, (C.GxC+)n, and alternating (C.GxC+/T.AxT)n. In the case of (C.GxC+)n triple helix, infrared and Raman spectra have been obtained and clearly reveal the existence of both N- and S-type sugars in solution. The molecular mechanics calculations allow us to propose a stereochemically reasonable model for this triple helix, in good agreement with the vibrational spectroscopy results. PMID:8448168

  5. Electronic states and nature of bonding in the molecule MoC by all electron ab initio calculations

    Shim, Irene; Gingerich, Karl A.

    1997-01-01

    vibrational frequency as 997 cm(-1). The chemical bond in the (3) Sigma(-) electronic ground state has triple bond character due to the formation of delocalized bonding rr and a orbitals. The chemical bond in the MoC molecule is polar with charge transfer from Mo to C, giving rise to a dipole moment of 6.15 D......In the present work all electron ab initio multiconfiguration self-consistent-held (CASSCF) and multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations have been carried out to determine the low-lying electronic states of the molecule MoC. The relativistic corrections for the one electron...

  6. Measurement of the second-order hyperpolarizability of the collagen triple helix and determination of its physical origin.

    Deniset-Besseau, Ariane; Duboisset, Julien; Benichou, Emmanuel; Hache, François; Brevet, Pierre-François; Schanne-Klein, Marie-Claire

    2009-10-01

    We performed Hyper-Rayleigh Scattering (HRS) experiments to measure the second-order nonlinear optical response of the collagen triple helix and determine the physical origin of second harmonic signals observed in collagenous tissues. HRS experiments yielded a second-order hyperpolarizability of 1.25 x 10(-27) esu for rat-tail type I collagen, a surprisingly large value considering that collagen presents no strong harmonophore in its amino acid sequence. Polarization-resolved experiments showed intramolecular coherent contributions to the HRS signal along with incoherent contributions that are the only contributions for molecules with dimensions much smaller than the excitation wavelength. We therefore modeled the effective second-order hyperpolarizability of the 290 nm long collagen triple helix by summing coherently the nonlinear response of well-aligned moieties along the triple helix axis. This model was confirmed by HRS measurements after denaturation of the collagen triple helix and for a collagen-like short model peptide [(Pro-Pro-Gly)(10)](3). We concluded that the large collagen nonlinear response originates in the tight alignment of a large number of small and weakly efficient harmonophores, presumably the peptide bonds, resulting in a coherent amplification of the nonlinear signal. PMID:19754079

  7. Comparison of Gold Bonding with Mercury Bonding

    Kraka, Elfi; Filatov, Michael; Cremer, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Nine AuX molecules (X = H, O, S, Se, Te, F, Cl, Br, I), their isoelectronic HgX(+) analogues, and the corresponding neutral HgX diatomics have been investigated using NESC (Normalized Elimination of the Small Component) and B3LYP theory to determine relativistic effects for bond dissociation energie

  8. Coupled valence bond theory

    Havenith, R.W.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, the formulation and implementation of a parallel response property code for non-orthogonal, valence bond wave-functions are described. Test calculations on benzene and cyclobutadiene show that the polarisability and magnetisability tensors obtained using valence bond theory are compa

  9. Bonded labour in Pakistan

    Ercelawn, Aly; Nauman, Muhammad

    2001-01-01

    Examines the continuing prevalence of debt bondage in the 1990s despite the introduction of national legislation banning the practice. Makes recommendations to the Government and the international community for actions to be taken to eliminate bonded labour and provide rehabilitation for freed workers. Includes texts of Land Reforms Regulations, 1972, the Sindh Tenancy Act, 1950 and the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1992.

  10. Money and Nominal Bonds

    Marchesiani, Alessandro; Senesi, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies an economy with trading frictions, ex post heterogeneity and nominal bonds in a model à la Lagos and Wright (2005). It is shown that a strictly positive interest rate is a sufficient condition for the allocation with nominal bonds to be welfare improving. This result comes from the protection against the inflation tax.

  11. Hydrogen bonding in polyanilines

    Bahceci, S. (Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)); Toppare, L. (Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey)); Yurtsever, E. (Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey))

    1994-11-29

    Hydrogen bonding between poly(bisphenol A carbonate) (PC) and polyaniline (PAn) is analyzed using semi-empirical quantum methodology. Fully optimized AM1 molecular orbital calculations are reported for various aniline structures (monomer, dimer and trimer), the monomer of the PC and the hydrogen-bonded model of PAn-PC oligomer. ((orig.))

  12. Triple Oxygen Isotopes: Fundamental Relationships and Applications

    Bao, Huiming; Cao, Xiaobin; Hayles, Justin A.

    2016-06-01

    The element oxygen has three stable isotopes: 16O, 17O, and 18O. For a defined process, a change in 18O/16O scales with the corresponding change in 17O/16O, or the fractionation factors 18α and 17α have a relationship of θ = ln17α/ln18α, in which the triple oxygen isotope exponent θ is relatively fixed but does vary with reaction path, temperature, and species involved. When the small variation is of interest, the distinction of three concepts—θ, S (a slope through data points in δ17O–δ18O space), and C (an arbitrary referencing number for the degree of 17O deviation)—becomes important. Triple oxygen isotope variations can be measured by modern instruments and thus offer an additional line of information on the underlying reaction processes and conditions. Analytical methods and Earth science applications have recently been developed for air oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, silicates, oxides, sulfates, carbonates, and phosphates.

  13. Mergers and obliquities in stellar triples

    Naoz, Smadar [Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Institute for Theory and Computation, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fabrycky, Daniel C., E-mail: snaoz@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Many close stellar binaries are accompanied by a faraway star. The 'eccentric Kozai-Lidov' (EKL) mechanism can cause dramatic inclination and eccentricity fluctuations, resulting in tidal tightening of inner binaries of triple stars. We run a large set of Monte Carlo simulations, including the secular evolution of the orbits, general relativistic precession, and tides, and we determine the semimajor axis, eccentricity, inclination, and spin-orbit angle distributions of the final configurations. We find that the efficiency of forming tight binaries (≲ 16 days) when taking the EKL mechanism into account is ∼21%, and about 4% of all simulated systems ended up in a merger event. These merger events can lead to the formation of blue stragglers. Furthermore, we find that the spin-orbit angle distribution of the inner binaries carries a signature of the initial setup of the system; thus, observations can be used to disentangle close binaries' birth configuration. The resulting inner and outer final orbits' period distributions and their estimated fraction suggest that secular dynamics may be a significant channel for the formation of close binaries in triples and even blue stragglers.

  14. Discovery of a Probable Physical Triple Quasar

    Djorgovski, S G; Meylan, G; Sluse, D; Thompson, D J; Mahabal, A; Glikman, E

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery of the first known probable case of a physical triple quasar (not a gravitational lens). A previously known double system, QQ 1429-008 at z = 2.076, is shown to contain a third, fainter QSO component at the same redshift within the measurement errors. Deep optical and IR imaging at the Keck and VLT telescopes has failed to reveal a plausible lensing galaxy group or a cluster, and moreover, we are unable to construct any viable lensing model which could lead to the observed distribution of source positions and relative intensities of the three QSO image components. Furthermore, there are hints of differences in broad-band spectral energy distributions of different components, which are more naturally understood if they are physically distinct AGN. Therefore, we conclude that this system is most likely a physical triple quasar, the first such close QSO grouping known at any redshift. The projected component separations in the restframe are ~ 30 - 50 kpc for the standard concordance cosmo...

  15. KAPPA FORNACI, A TRIPLE RADIO STAR

    Bright and nearby (22 pc) solar-type dwarf κ For (HIP 11072) is a triple system. The close pair of M-type dwarfs Ba,Bb with a tentative period of 3.7 days moves around the main component A on a 26 yr orbit. The mass of the 'dark companion' Ba+Bb is comparable to the mass of A, causing large motion of the photo-center. The combined spectro-interferometric orbit of AB is derived, and the relative photometry of the components A and B is given. A weak signature of Ba and Bb is detected in the high-resolution spectra by cross-correlation and by variable emission in the Balmer hydrogen lines. The activity of the M dwarfs, manifested by a previously detected radio flare, is likely maintained by synchronization with their tight orbit. We discuss the frequency of similar hidden triple systems, methods of their detection, and the implications for multiple-star statistics.

  16. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Park, Sung Il

    2006-04-15

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, {approx} 5 m Curved Guide, {approx} 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, {approx} 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world.

  17. VERITAS: Versatile Triple-Axis Spectrometer

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute is planning to build a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO, the 30 MW research reactor. The spectrometer is expected to be completed in 2008 with the following configuration from the upstream to the downstream. Guide Supermirror m = 2, In-pile Straight Section, ∼ 5 m Curved Guide, ∼ 26 m w/ R 1500 m Straight Guide before the Instrument, ∼ 40 m Filters PG and Be Neutron Velocity Selector (Future) Monochromators Vertically Focusing Monochromators PG(002) and Heusler(111) Doubly Focusing Monochromators (Future) Monochromator-Sample Distance 2 m Collimation C1 Soller Collimators, 20', 40' 80'Beam Height at the Sample Table 1.5 m Sample-Analyzer Distance 1.0 m Collimation C2 Soller Collimators, 20', 40', 80' Radial Collimator Analyzers Horizontally Focusing Analyzers w/ Fixed Vertical Focusing PG(002) and Heusler(111) Analyzer-Detector Distance 0.5 m Detectors 5 cm Tube Detector 25 cm wide Position Sensitive Detector Once completed, the neutron flux at sample is expected to surpass that of SPINS at NCNR, making this instrument one of the most powerful 2nd generation cold neutron triple-axis spectrometers in the world

  18. Dispersion cancellation in a triple Laue interferometer

    The concept of dispersion cancellation has been established in light optics to improve the resolution of interferometric measurements on dispersive media. Odd order dispersion cancellation allows to measure phase shifts without defocusing the interferometer due to wave packet displacements, while even order dispersion cancellation allows to measure time lags without losing resolution due to wave packet spreading. We report that either type of dispersion cancellation can be realized very easily in a triple Laue interferometer. Such interferometers are Mach–Zehnder interferometers based on Bragg diffraction, and are commonly used for neutrons and x-rays. Although the first x-ray interferometer was built nearly five decades ago, the feature of dispersion cancellation hasn't been recognized so far because the concept was hardly known in the neutron and x-ray community. However, it explains right away the surprising decoupling of phase shift and spatial displacement that we have discovered recently in neutron interferometry (Lemmel and Wagh 2010 Phys. Rev. A 82 033626). Furthermore, this article might inspire the light optics community to consider whether a triple Laue interferometer for laser light would be useful and feasible. We explain how dispersion cancellation works in neutron interferometry, and we describe the setup rigorously by solving the Schrödinger equation and by calculating the path integral. We point out, that the latter has to be evaluated with special care since in our setup the beam trajectory moves with respect to the crystal lattice of the interferometer. (paper)

  19. Kappa Fornaci, A Triple Radio Star

    Tokovinin, Andrei

    2013-03-01

    Bright and nearby (22 pc) solar-type dwarf κ For (HIP 11072) is a triple system. The close pair of M-type dwarfs Ba,Bb with a tentative period of 3.7 days moves around the main component A on a 26 yr orbit. The mass of the "dark companion" Ba+Bb is comparable to the mass of A, causing large motion of the photo-center. The combined spectro-interferometric orbit of AB is derived, and the relative photometry of the components A and B is given. A weak signature of Ba and Bb is detected in the high-resolution spectra by cross-correlation and by variable emission in the Balmer hydrogen lines. The activity of the M dwarfs, manifested by a previously detected radio flare, is likely maintained by synchronization with their tight orbit. We discuss the frequency of similar hidden triple systems, methods of their detection, and the implications for multiple-star statistics. Based on observations obtained with CHIRON spectrometer at the 1.5 m CTIO telescope operated by SMARTS (NOAO program 2012B-0075), at the SOAR telescope, and at the Gemini Observatory (program GS-2012B-Q-71, PI: M. Hartung).

  20. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET

    Purpose: Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. Methods: To recover triple coincidences, the authors’ method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. Results: The addition of triple-coincidence events with the

  1. Recovery and normalization of triple coincidences in PET

    Lage, Eduardo, E-mail: elage@mit.edu; Parot, Vicente; Dave, Shivang R.; Herraiz, Joaquin L. [Madrid-MIT M+Visión Consortium, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Moore, Stephen C.; Sitek, Arkadiusz; Park, Mi-Ae [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Udías, Jose M. [Grupo de Física Nuclear, Departamento de Física Atómica Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, CEI Moncloa, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Vaquero, Juan J. [Departamento de Ingeniería Biomédica e Ingeniería Aeroespacial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganés 28911 (Spain)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Triple coincidences in positron emission tomography (PET) are events in which three γ-rays are detected simultaneously. These events, though potentially useful for enhancing the sensitivity of PET scanners, are discarded or processed without special consideration in current systems, because there is not a clear criterion for assigning them to a unique line-of-response (LOR). Methods proposed for recovering such events usually rely on the use of highly specialized detection systems, hampering general adoption, and/or are based on Compton-scatter kinematics and, consequently, are limited in accuracy by the energy resolution of standard PET detectors. In this work, the authors propose a simple and general solution for recovering triple coincidences, which does not require specialized detectors or additional energy resolution requirements. Methods: To recover triple coincidences, the authors’ method distributes such events among their possible LORs using the relative proportions of double coincidences in these LORs. The authors show analytically that this assignment scheme represents the maximum-likelihood solution for the triple-coincidence distribution problem. The PET component of a preclinical PET/CT scanner was adapted to enable the acquisition and processing of triple coincidences. Since the efficiencies for detecting double and triple events were found to be different throughout the scanner field-of-view, a normalization procedure specific for triple coincidences was also developed. The effect of including triple coincidences using their method was compared against the cases of equally weighting the triples among their possible LORs and discarding all the triple events. The authors used as figures of merit for this comparison sensitivity, noise-equivalent count (NEC) rates and image quality calculated as described in the NEMA NU-4 protocol for the assessment of preclinical PET scanners. Results: The addition of triple-coincidence events with the

  2. Shape Bonding method

    Pontius, James T. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of bonding at least two surfaces together. The methods step of the present invention include applying a strip of adhesive to a first surface along a predefined outer boundary of a bond area and thereby defining a remaining open area there within. A second surface, or gusset plate, is affixed onto the adhesive before the adhesive cures. The strip of adhesive is allowed to cure and then a second amount of adhesive is applied to cover the remaining open area and substantially fill a void between said first and second surfaces about said bond area. A stencil may be used to precisely apply the strip of adhesive. When the strip cures, it acts as a dam to prevent overflow of the subsequent application of adhesive to undesired areas. The method results in a precise bond area free of undesired shapes and of a preferred profile which eliminate the drawbacks of the prior art bonds.

  3. Water's Hydrogen Bond Strength

    Chaplin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Water is necessary both for the evolution of life and its continuance. It possesses particular properties that cannot be found in other materials and that are required for life-giving processes. These properties are brought about by the hydrogen bonded environment particularly evident in liquid water. Each liquid water molecule is involved in about four hydrogen bonds with strengths considerably less than covalent bonds but considerably greater than the natural thermal energy. These hydrogen bonds are roughly tetrahedrally arranged such that when strongly formed the local clustering expands, decreasing the density. Such low density structuring naturally occurs at low and supercooled temperatures and gives rise to many physical and chemical properties that evidence the particular uniqueness of liquid water. If aqueous hydrogen bonds were actually somewhat stronger then water would behave similar to a glass, whereas if they were weaker then water would be a gas and only exist as a liquid at sub-zero temperature...

  4. Synthesis and structure of bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)nitridotechnetium(v): a technetium-nitrogen triple bond

    The compound bis(diethyldithiocarbamato)nitridotechnetium(V), (dtc)2TcN, has been prepared by the reduction of ammonium pertechnetate with hydrazine followed by reaction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate. The crystal structure of (dtc)2TcN has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods at 17 deg. C. Crystals are monoclinic, space group P21/c, Z = 4, a = 14.823 (1), b = 9.159(1), c = 12.865(1) A, β = 107.98(1) deg. Diffractometry has provided significant Bragg intensities for 2152 independent reflections and the structure has been refined by full-matrix least-squares methods to R 0.042. The compound, which is isostructural with the rhenium analogue, consists of discrete (dtc) 2TcN molecules, each containing a terminal N3- group. The technetium atom has a distorted square-pyramidal environment with the nitrogen atom in the apical position and four sulphur atoms forming the base

  5. Continuously operated falling film microreactor for selective hydrogenation of carbon-carbon triple bonds

    Rehm, Thomas H.; Berguerand, Charline; Ek, Satu; Zapf, Ralf; Löb, Patrick; Nikoshvili, Linda; Kiwi-Minsker, Lioubov

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the fabrication and applications of microreactors for production of chemicals, their use for catalytic reactions remains a challenge, especially in fine chemical synthesis where the selectivity towards the desired product is an issue. A falling film microstructured reactor (FFMR) was tested in the selective hydrogenation of 2-butyne-1,4-diol (1) to its olefinic derivative (2). The FFMR plates were coated with Al2O3 or ZnO followed by the deposition of Pd nanopa...

  6. In the first instants triple bond ultrafast views of radiation effects

    In the first instants following high-energy electronic excitation of a solid, electrons and holes scatter from one another while establishing the initial partition of excitation among available states, and scatter from phonons while cooling to a thermalized population. If significant local lattice relaxation or self-trapping occur, the mobility and recombination time may be strongly altered. Electron capture and/or defect formation can culminate in luminescence for scintillation detection or in stored energy that may be the basis for imaging or dosimetry. It is now possible to observe directly and measure some of the consequences of excitation on fs and ps time scales

  7. Triple Play Service and IPTV Services Offered within it

    Dagmar Pajdusakova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with Triple Play multimedia service and figures its architecture. Triple Play offers voice, video and data services together in one customer connection. There is offered IPTV (Internet Protocol Television service within this service, where we can include also Video on Demand service and other different additional services. In the paper is described classification of Video on Demand services.

  8. Triple Play Service and IPTV Services Offered within it

    Dagmar Pajdusakova; Bohumil Adamec

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Triple Play multimedia service and figures its architecture. Triple Play offers voice, video and data services together in one customer connection. There is offered IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) service within this service, where we can include also Video on Demand service and other different additional services. In the paper is described classification of Video on Demand services.

  9. Reverse triple I method of restriction for fuzzy reasoning

    2002-01-01

    A theory of reverse triple I method of restriction for implication operator R0 is proposed.And the general computation formulas of infimum for fuzzy modus ponens and supremum for fuzzy modus tollens of a-reverse triple I method of restriction are obtained respectively.

  10. The triple pomeron interaction in the perturbative QCD

    Braun, M

    1995-01-01

    The triple pomeron interaction is studied in the perturbative approach of BFKL-Bartels. At finite momentum transfers \\sqrt{-t} the contribution factorizes in the standard manner with a triple-pomeron vertex proportional to 1/\\sqrt{-t}. At t=0 the contribution is finite, although it grows faster with energy than for finite t and does not factorize.

  11. Outcome Measures of Triple Board Graduates, 1991-2003

    Warren, Marla J.; Dunn, David W.; Rushton, Jerry

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe program outcomes for the Combined Training Program in Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Pediatrics, and Psychiatry (Triple Board Program). Method: All Triple Board Program graduates to date (1991-2003) were asked to participate in a 37-item written survey from February to April 2004. Results: The response rate was 80.7%. Most…

  12. Fibonacci-triple sequences and some fundamental properties

    Bijendra Singh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibonacci sequence stands as a kind of super sequence with fabulous properties. This note presents Fibonacci-Triple sequences that may also be called 3-F sequences. This is the explosive development in the region of Fibonacci sequence. Our purpose of this paper is to demonstrate fundamental properties of Fibonacci-Triple sequence.

  13. Government and Governance of Regional Triple Helix Interactions

    Danson, Mike; Todeva, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper contributes to the discussion of the role of regional government and regional Triple Helix constellations driving economic development and growth within regional boundaries. The impact of regionalism and subsidiarity on regional Triple Helix constellations, and the questions of governmentality, governance and institutional…

  14. Corporate Bonds in Denmark

    Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Corporate financing is the choice between capital generated by the corporation and capital from external investors. However, since the financial crisis shook the markets in 2007–2008, financing opportunities through the classical means of financing have decreased. As a result, corporations have...... to think in alternative ways such as issuing corporate bonds. A market for corporate bonds exists in countries such as Norway, Germany, France, the United Kingdom and the United States, while Denmark is still behind in this trend. Some large Danish corporations have instead used foreign corporate bonds...

  15. Transversely Compressed Bonded Joints

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Stang, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    The load capacity of bonded joints can be increased if transverse pressure is applied at the interface. The transverse pressure is assumed to introduce a Coulomb-friction contribution to the cohesive law for the interface. Response and load capacity for a bonded single-lap joint was derived using...... non-linear fracture mechanics. The results indicated a good correlation between theory and tests. Furthermore, the model is suggested as theoretical base for determining load capacity of bonded anchorages with transverse pressure, in externally reinforced concrete structures....

  16. The Halogen Bond

    2016-01-01

    The halogen bond occurs when there is evidence of a net attractive interaction between an electrophilic region associated with a halogen atom in a molecular entity and a nucleophilic region in another, or the same, molecular entity. In this fairly extensive review, after a brief history of the interaction, we will provide the reader with a snapshot of where the research on the halogen bond is now, and, perhaps, where it is going. The specific advantages brought up by a design based on the use of the halogen bond will be demonstrated in quite different fields spanning from material sciences to biomolecular recognition and drug design. PMID:26812185

  17. The Triple Helix Perspective of Innovation Systems

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2010-01-01

    Alongside the neo-institutional model of networked relations among universities, industries, and governments, the Triple Helix can be provided with a neo-evolutionary interpretation as three selection environments operating upon one another: markets, organizations, and technological opportunities. How are technological innovation systems different from national ones? The three selection environments fulfill social functions: wealth creation, organization control, and organized knowledge production. The main carriers of this system-industry, government, and academia-provide the variation both recursively and by interacting among them under the pressure of competition. Empirical case studies enable us to understand how these evolutionary mechanisms can be expected to operate in historical instance. The model is needed for distinguishing, for example, between trajectories and regimes.

  18. Triple grating polychromator for Thomson scattering.

    Greenwald, M; Smith, W I

    1977-03-01

    A high rejection, high transmission, triple grating polychromator with crossed dispersion has been designed and constructed for Thomson scattering plasma diagnostics. Identical gratings, collimating, and field lenses were used for all three stages. A mechanically convenient arrangement was made possible by using the field lenses to adjust the dispersion of the second stage to the required design value. The transmission in the passband for light polarized perpendicular to the rulings of the grating was measured at 33% for the instrument itself, and at 15% through the instrument and 1.8 m of attached fiber optics. With the 30-nm passband set 4-34-nm wavelengths away from the ruby laser line, the order of 10(-11) of 694-nm light incident in the input slit was present in each 3-nm wide output channel, giving a relative rejection factor of 10(-10). PMID:20168547

  19. Triple grating polychromator for Thomson scattering

    A high rejection, high transmission, triple grating polychromator with crossed dispersion has been designed and constructed for Thomson scattering plasma diagnostics. Identical gratings, collimating, and field lenses were used for all three stages. A mechanically convenient arrangement was made possible by using the field lenses to adjust the dispersion of the second stage to the required design value. The transmission in the passband for light polarized perpendicular to the rulings of the grating was measured at 33% for the instrument itself, and at 15% through the instrument and 1.8 m of attached fiber optics. With the 30-nm passband set 4 to 34-nm wavelengths away from the ruby laser line, the order of 10-11 of 694-nm light incident in the input slit was present in each 3-nm wide output channel, giving a relative rejection factor of 10-10

  20. On the uncontrollable damped triple inverted pendulum

    Su, H.; Woodham, C. A.

    2003-02-01

    In this paper, the controllability of the damped triple inverted pendulum is investigated. The work is concerned with the form of the cancelling pole and zero which appear in the transfer functions of an uncontrollable system, and follows on from earlier work on the damped double inverted pendulum. The investigation considers first the cases where only one of the three arm frictions is non-zero, and then explores the cases when two of the three arm frictions are non-zero. Due to the complexity of this problem, and the difficulties with the symbolic manipulation software, exploratory numerical investigations have been carried out to facilitate the symbolic investigations, all of which are reported here.

  1. Modulating permanent sextupole triple magnet lens

    We are developing a permanent magnet sextupole lens (PMSx) that can focus pulsed neutron. It is based on the extended Halbach configuration to generate stronger magnetic field. In order to modulate the strength of magnetic field, the magnet is divided into nested rings, where the inner ring is fixed and outer ring can be rotated. Synchronizing the phase of the modulation with time-of-flight of pulsed neutron beam suppresses the chromatic aberration. This device can focus very cold neutron (VCN) with wavelength from 2.7 to 5.5 nm at a focal length of about 1m. In triple-magnet model, the operation performance has been upgraded. A torque canceling system using permanent magnet is installed to reduce the motor load. In addition, a cooling fan for magnetic pole and neutron flight path filled with helium are installed. (author)

  2. Stability criteria for hierarchical triple systems

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give a summary of stability criteria that have been derived for hierarchical triple systems over the past few decades. We give a brief description and we discuss the criteria that are based on the generalisation of the concept of zero velocity surfaces of the restricted three body problem, to the general case. We also present criteria that have to do with escape of one of the bodies. Then, we talk about the criteria that have been derived using data from numerical integrations. Finally, we report on criteria that involve the concept of chaos. In all cases, wherever possible, we discuss advantages and disadvantages of the criteria and the methods their derivation was based on, and some comparison is made in several cases.

  3. Toric CFTs, Permutation Triples and Belyi Pairs

    Jejjala, Vishnu; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Four-dimensional CFTs dual to branes transverse to toric Calabi--Yau threefolds have been described by bipartite graphs on a torus (dimer models). We use the theory of dessins d'enfants to describe these in terms of triples of permutations which multiply to one. These permutations yield an elegant description of zig-zag paths, which have appeared in characterizing the toroidal dimers that lead to consistent SCFTs. The dessins are also related to Belyi pairs, consisting of a curve equipped with a map to P^1, branched over three points on the P^1. We construct explicit examples of Belyi pairs associated to some CFTs, including C^3 and the conifold. Permutation symmetries of the superpotential are related to the geometry of the Belyi pair. The Artin braid group action and a variation thereof play an interesting role. We make a conjecture relating the complex structure of the Belyi curve to R-charges in the conformal field theory.

  4. Polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP

    Boeni, P.; Keller, P. [Lab. for Neutron Scattering ETH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland) and Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    The polarized triple-axis spectrometer TASP at SINQ has been optimized for measuring magnetic cross sections in condensed matter. The neutrons are polarized or analyzed either by means of benders or Heusler monochromators. The beam divergence, i.e. the intensity, and the spectral range of the neutrons is rather large because of the supermirror coatings of the feeding neutron guide. The intensity can be further increased at the sample position by means of a focussing monochromator and a focussing anti-trumpet. The end position of TASP allows the tailoring of the neutron beam already before the monochromator and to scatter neutrons over very wide ranges of angles. (author) 6 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs.

  5. Benchmarking triple stores with biological data

    Mironov, Vladimir; Blonde, Ward; Antezana, Erick; Lindi, Bjorn; Kuiper, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We have compared the performance of five non-commercial triple stores, Virtuoso-open source, Jena SDB, Jena TDB, SWIFT-OWLIM and 4Store. We examined three performance aspects: the query execution time, scalability and run-to-run reproducibility. The queries we chose addressed different ontological or biological topics, and we obtained evidence that individual store performance was quite query specific. We identified three groups of queries displaying similar behavior across the different stores: 1) relatively short response time, 2) moderate response time and 3) relatively long response time. OWLIM proved to be a winner in the first group, 4Store in the second and Virtuoso in the third. Our benchmarking showed Virtuoso to be a very balanced performer - its response time was better than average for all the 24 queries; it showed a very good scalability and a reasonable run-to-run reproducibility.

  6. Designing Broadband Access Networks with Triple Redundancy

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Riaz, Muhammad Tahir; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip;

    2005-01-01

    An architecture is proposed for designing broadband access networks, which offer triple redundancy to the end users, resulting in networks providing connectivity even in case of any two independent node or line failures. Two physically independent connections are offered by fiber, and the last...... provided by some wireless solution. Based on experience with planning Fiber To The Home, the architecture is designed to meet a number of demands, making it practicable and useful in realworld network planning. The proposed wired topology is planar, and suitable for being fitted onto the road network...... without compromising line independency, and it can be implemented stepwise, the first step being based on a simple ring/tree topology. The double ring is used for the distribution network, ensuring 3-connectivity and making it feasible to use for connecting the base stations of the wireless network...

  7. Triple helix interactions for eco-innovation

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Riisgaard, Henrik; Remmen, Arne

    . Overall, the research found that the Panamanian national innovation system facilitates eco-innovation by: providing research and development, building competence and financing of innovation processes. The “green maritime route” is an example of institutional eco-innovation promoted by the Panama Canal......Eco-innovation encompasses the “creative destruction” of unsustainable patterns of production and consumption. Research on eco-innovation promotion highlights the role of university in supporting industry and government partnerships to achieve sustainability. However, scant literature analyses the...... role of science parks in promoting eco-innovation. This study uses qualitative data gathered in two units of analysis: Panama Canal Authority and City of Knowledge Science Park. The study examines how Triple Helix interactions have built the regional system of eco-innovation at the Panama Canal...

  8. Triple negative breast cancer: an Indian perspective

    Akhtar M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Murtaza Akhtar, Subhrajit Dasgupta, Murtuza Rangwala Department of Surgery, NKP Salve Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in the world. Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a recently identified biological variant with aggressive tumor behavior and poor prognosis. Data of hormonal status from the Indian population is scarce due to financial constraints in performing immunohistochemistry evaluation. The present study aims to prospectively analyze receptor status of all breast cancer patients and identify TNBC and compare their clinical profile and short term survival with other non-TNBC group. Materials and methods: All cytologically and histopathologically confirmed cases of carcinoma breast were prospectively enrolled. In a longitudinal study at tertiary care hospital in central India based on the hormonal status, they were further divided into TNBC and other groups. Comparison of risk factors, clinical profile and short-term survival was carried out. Results: A total 85 patients were enrolled and of them 37 (43.7% were TNBC. On comparing risk factors ie, age, age at menarche, total reproductive age, age at first child birth, and menopausal status – no statistical significance was observed between the TNBC and non-TNBC groups. But on comparison of clinical profile TNBC tumors were significantly large with majority of patients presenting as locally advanced breast cancer (83%. No statistical difference was observed in axillary lymph node status between two groups. TNBC tumors were histologically more aggressive (grade 3 compared to other groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in short term overall survival but all three deaths were observed in the TNBC group only and two local recurrences after surgery were observed in the TNBC group. Conclusion: TNBC forms a large proportion of carcinoma breast patients in a central

  9. Evaluation of eradication by triple therapy plus compared to triple therapy alone

    Silva Medeiros, J. A.; F. O. Gonçalves, T. M.; Boyanova, L; Correia Pereira, M. I.; Silva Paiva De Carvalho, J. N.; Sousa Pereira, A. M.; Silvério Cabrita, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    International audience The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of adding to a triple regimen for eradication in untreated patients with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars. This was a pre-randomized, single-blind, interventional, treatment-efficacy study with active controls and parallel-assignment, set in Coimbra, Portugal, on 62 consecutive -positive untreated adults with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars, diagnosed by gastroduodenoscopy, with pre-treatment direct Gram-staining and c...

  10. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication by triple therapy plus Lactobacillus acidophilus compared to triple therapy alone

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of adding Lactobacillus acidophilus to a triple regimen for Helicobacter pylori eradication in untreated patients with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars. This was a pre-randomized, single-blind, interventional, treatment-efficacy study with active controls and parallel-assignment, set in Coimbra, Portugal, on 62 consecutive H. pylori-positive untreated adults with peptic ulcers or ulcer-scars, diagnosed by gastroduodenosco...

  11. Bond dissociation & electronegativity equalization

    Verstraelen, Toon; Ayers, Paul W.; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Waroquier, Michel

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that the Electrongativity Equalization Mtehod (EEM) fails to describe the charge distribution upon bond dissocation. In this presentation, the bond dissocation is studied with the Atom-Condensed Kohn-Sham DFT approximated to second order (ACKS2). After reviewing the basic equations, a two-fragment system is studied in the dissociation limit. The limiting behavior of the Coulomb interaction (1/r) and the Kohn-Sham matrix elements (exponentially decaying) are plugged into the e...

  12. Anodic bonded graphene

    Balan, Adrian; Kumar, Rakesh; Boukhicha, Mohamed; Beyssac, Olivier; Bouillard, Jean-Claude; Taverna, Dario; Sacks, William; Marangolo, Massimiliano; Lacaze, Emmanuelle; Escoffier, Walter; Poumirol, Jean-Marie; Shukla, Abhay

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We show how to prepare graphene samples on a glass substrate with the anodic bonding method. In this method, a graphite precursor in flake form is bonded to a glass substrate with the help of an electrostatic field and then cleaved off to leave few layer graphene on the substrate. Now that several methods are available for producing graphene, the relevance of our method is in its simplicity and practicality for producing graphene samples of about 100 ?m lateral dimensions. This me...

  13. Handbook of wafer bonding

    Ramm, Peter; Taklo, Maaike M V

    2011-01-01

    Written by an author and editor team from microsystems companies and industry-near research organizations, this handbook and reference presents dependable, first-hand information on bonding technologies.In the first part, researchers from companies and institutions around the world discuss the most reliable and reproducible technologies for the production of bonded wafers. The second part is devoted to current and emerging applications, including microresonators, biosensors and precise measuring devices.

  14. Bond Length and Bond Order in One of the Shortest Cr-Cr Bonds

    La Macchia, Giovanni; Aquilante, Francesco; Veryazov, Valera; Roos, Bjorn O.; Gagliardi, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Multiconfigurational quantum chemical calculations on the R-diimines dichromium compound confirm that the Cr-Cr bond, 1.80 A, is among the shortest Cr (I)-Cr (I) bonds. However, the bond between the two Cr atoms is only a quadruple bond rather than a quintuple bond. The reason why the bond is so short has to be attributed to the strain in the NCCN ligand moieties.

  15. [Period-tripling in Multiscale Physical and Biological Events].

    Bondar, A T; Fedorov, M V; Kolombet, V A

    2015-01-01

    A recent paper by S.J. Puetz et al. (Chaos, Solitons -& Fractals, v. 62-63, p. 55, 2014) described a fundamental period-tripled model. It involves periods of different astronomical (quasars, Sun), geophysical (geomagnetic, climatic, volcanic) and some biological processes. This work contains statistics for sixteen pairs of a period-tripled sequence. These periods range from -50 years to 1.5 billion years and no signs of the timescale limitations are found. We believe that the universal scope of the fundamental period-tripled model can be used for the development of new methodology of research data analysis: the main idea is that the spectrum of the periods of the studied event should be tested for the similarity with the spectrum of fundamental period-tripling pattern (because of the fundamental nature of the period-tripled model). Using this method, in this study we complement an already described period-tripled model with periods of human memory performance ranging from one minute to one month also adding seven relevant periods/frequencies of the period-tripled model in the range of human hearing. We make a conclusion that these characteristic frequencies may form the basis for music and singing phenomena. The new methodology is particularly appropriate for being applied in medicine and engineering. PMID:26841519

  16. Collagen triple-helix formation in all-trans chains proceeds by a nucleation/growth mechanism with a purely entropic barrier

    Bachmann, Annett; Kiefhaber, Thomas; Boudko, Sergei; Engel, Jürgen; Bächinger, Hans Peter

    2005-01-01

    Collagen consists of repetitive Gly–Xaa–Yaa tripeptide units with proline and hydroxyproline frequently found in the Xaa and Yaa position, respectively. This sequence motif allows the formation of a highly regular triple helix that is stabilized by steric (entropic) restrictions in the constituent polyproline-II-helices and backbone hydrogen bonds between the three strands. Concentration-dependent association reactions and slow prolyl isomerization steps have been identified as major rate-lim...

  17. Extended superconformal symmetry, Freudenthal triple systems and gauged WZW models

    Günaydin, M

    1995-01-01

    We review the construction of extended ( N=2 and N=4 ) superconformal algebras over triple systems and the gauged WZW models invariant under them. The N=2 superconformal algebras (SCA) realized over Freudenthal triple systems (FTS) admit extension to ``maximal'' N=4 SCA's with SU(2)XSU(2)XU(1) symmetry. A detailed study of the construction and classification of N=2 and N=4 SCA's over Freudenthal triple systems is given. We conclude with a study and classification of gauged WZW models with N=4 superconformal symmetry.

  18. Repair and recombination induced by triple helix DNA.

    Chin, Joanna Y; Schleifman, Erica B; Glazer, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    Triple-helix DNA structures can form endogenously at mirror repeat polypurine/polypyrimidine sequences or by introduction of triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs). Recent evidence suggests that triple helices are sources of genetic instability, and are subject to increased rates of mutagenesis and recruitment of repair factors. Indeed, observations using TFOs suggest that triple helices provoke a variety of biological processes which can be harnessed to modulate gene expression and induce heritable changes in targeted genes. This review surveys the biological applications of TFOs, with particular attention to their recombinogenic and mutagenic potential, and summarizes available evidence for the mechanism of triplex and triplex-associated repair. PMID:17485375

  19. DNA triple helix formation: A potential tool for genetic repair

    Nayak A

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA triple helices offer new perspectives towards oligonucleotide-directed gene regulation. Triple helix forming oligonucleotides, which bind to double-stranded DNA, are of special interest since they are targeted to the gene itself rather than to its mRNA product (as in the antisense strategy. However, the poor stability of some of these structures might limit their use under physiological conditions. Specific ligands can intercalate into DNA triple helices and stabilize them. This review summarizes recent advances in this field while also highlighting major obstacles that remain to be overcome, before the application of triplex technology to therapeutic gene repair can be achieved.

  20. Zeroing the Baseball Indicator and the Chirality of Triples

    Simons, Christopher S.; Wright, Marcus

    2004-03-01

    Starting with a common baseball umpire indicator, we consider the zeroing number for two-wheel indicators with states (a,b) and three-wheel indicators with states (a,b,c). Elementary number theory yields formulae for the zeroing number. The solution in the three-wheel case involves a curiously nontrivial minimization problem whose solution determines the chirality of the ordered triple (a,b,c) of pairwise relatively prime numbers. We prove that chirality is in fact an invariant of the unordered triple {a,b,c }. We also show that the chirality of Fibonacci triples alternates between 1 and 2.

  1. NMR structural studies of intramolecular (Y+) sub n ter dot (R+) sub n (Y minus ) sub n DNA triplexes in solution: Imino and amino proton and nitrogen markers of Gter dot TA base triple formation

    Radhakrishnan, I.; de los Santos, C.; Patel, D.J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Gao, Xiaolian (Glaxo Research Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)); Live, D. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (United States))

    1991-09-17

    The authors reported previously on NMR studies of (Y+){sub n}{center dot}(R+){sub n}(Y{minus}){sub n}DNA triple helices containing one oligopurine strand (R){sub n} and two oligopyrimidine strands (Y){sub n} stabilized by T{center dot}AT and C{sup +}{center dot}GC base triples. Recently, it has been established that guanosine can recognize a thymidine{center dot}adenosine base pair to form a G{center dot}TA triple in an otherwise (Y+){sub n}{center dot}(R+){sub n}(Y{minus}){sub n} triple-helix motif. The present study extends the NMR research to the characterization of structural features of a 31-mer deoxyoligonucleotide that folds intramolecularly into a 7-mer (Y+){sub n}{center dot}(R+){sub n}(Y{minus}){sub n} triplex with the strands linked through two T{sub 5} loops and that contains a central G{center dot}TA triple flanked by T{center dot}AT triples. The NMR data are consistent with the proposed pairing alignment for the G{center dot}TA triple where the guanosine in an anti orientation pairs through a single hydrogen bond from one of its 2-amino protons to the 4-carbonyl group of thymidine in the Watson-Crick TA pair. They detect a set of NOEs between adjacent triples that establishes that the G{center dot}TA triple stacks between flanking T{center dot}AT triples in the G{center dot}TA triplex. These results demonstrate the capabilities of the NMR approach in monitoring individual base triples and their pairing alignments, as well as establishing that the G{center dot}TA triple can be readily accommodated in an otherwise intramolecular (Y+){sub n}{center dot}(R+){sub n}(Y{minus}){sub n} triple helix in solution.

  2. Romanian government bond market

    Cornelia POP

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to present the level of development reached by Romanian government bond market segment, as part of the country financial market. The analysis will be descriptive (the data series available for Romania are short, based on the secondary data offered by the official bodies involved in the process of issuing and trading the Romanian government bonds (Romanian Ministry of Public Finance, Romanian National Bank and Bucharest Stock Exchange, and also on secondary data provided by the Federation of European Stock Exchanges.To enhance the market credibility as a benchmark, a various combination of measures is necessary; among these measures are mentioned: the extension of the yield curve; the issuance calendars in order to improve transparency; increasing the disclosure of information on public debt issuance and statistics; holding regular meetings with dealers, institutional investors and rating agencies; introducing a system of primary dealers; establishing a repurchase (repo market in the government bond market. These measures will be discussed based on the evolution presented inside the paper.The paper conclude with the fact that, until now, the Romanian government bond market did not provide a benchmark for the domestic financial market and that further efforts are needed in order to increase the government bond market transparency and liquidity.

  3. TEXT tf coil bonding system

    An extensive bond test program was conducted prior to manufacturing and bonding the toroidal field (TF) coils for the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). The bonding materials consisted of fiberglass cloth with pre-impregnated, 'B' staged Hexcel F-159 resin. Approximately 100 double lap bond samples were constructed to test quality, strength, and repeatability of the bonds. The variables investigated included surface machining methods, surface preparations, bond sample size (planform area), bonding pressure, bonding temperature, and the number of laminations bonded simultaneously. Double lap shear tests conducted at room temperature resulted in ultimate shear strengths for all variables in the range of 3000 to 7000 psi with an average value of 5650 psi. Fatigue tests were also conducted to demonstrate bond integrity over the anticipated cycle lifetime of the TEXT machine (10/sup 6/ cycles) under simulated worst case conditions. 2 refs

  4. Hermitian (ϵ,δ)-Freudenthal-Kantor Triple Systems and Certain Applications of *-Generalized Jordan Triple Systems to Field Theory

    We define Hermitian (ϵ,δ)-Freudenthal-Kantor triple systems and prove a structure theorem. We also give some examples of triple systems that are generalizations of the u(N)⊕u(M) and sp(2N)⊕u(1) Hermitian 3-algebras. We apply a *-generalized Jordan triple system to a field theory and obtain a Chern-Simons gauge theory. We find that the novel Higgs mechanism works, where the Chern-Simons gauge theory reduces to a Yang-Mills theory in a certain limit

  5. Insulation bonding test system

    Beggs, J. M.; Johnston, G. D.; Coleman, A. D.; Portwood, J. N.; Saunders, J. M.; Redmon, J. W.; Porter, A. C. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A method and a system for testing the bonding of foam insulation attached to metal is described. The system involves the use of an impacter which has a calibrated load cell mounted on a plunger and a hammer head mounted on the end of the plunger. When the impacter strikes the insulation at a point to be tested, the load cell measures the force of the impact and the precise time interval during which the hammer head is in contact with the insulation. This information is transmitted as an electrical signal to a load cell amplifier where the signal is conditioned and then transmitted to a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzer. The FFT analyzer produces energy spectral density curves which are displayed on a video screen. The termination frequency of the energy spectral density curve may be compared with a predetermined empirical scale to determine whether a igh quality bond, good bond, or debond is present at the point of impact.

  6. The Illiquidity of Corporate Bonds

    Bao, Jack; Pan, Jun; Wang, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the illiquidity of corporate bonds and its asset-pricing implications. Using transactions data from 2003 to 2009, we show that the illiquidity in corporate bonds is substantial, significantly greater than what can be explained by bid–ask spreads. We establish a strong link between bond illiquidity and bond prices. In aggregate, changes in market-level illiquidity explain a substantial part of the time variation in yield spreads of high-rated (AAA through A) bonds, overshad...

  7. KIC 2856960: the impossible triple star

    Marsh, T R; Carter, P J

    2014-01-01

    KIC 2856960 is a star in the Kepler field which was observed by Kepler for 4 years. It shows the primary and secondary eclipses of a close binary of 0.258d as well as complex dipping events that last for about 1.5d at a time and recur on a 204d period. The dips are thought to result when the close binary passes across the face of a third star. In this paper we present an attempt to model the dips. Despite the apparent simplicity of the system and strenuous efforts to find a solution, we find that we cannot match the dips with a triple star while satisfying Kepler's laws. The problem is that to match the dips the separation of the close binary has to be larger than possible relative to the outer orbit given the orbital periods. Quadruple star models can get round this problem but require the addition of a so-far undetected intermediate period of order 5 -- 20d that has be a near-perfect integer divisor of the outer 204d period. Although we have no good explanation for KIC 2856960, using the full set of Kepler ...

  8. Compact Triple Band Slotted Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Ram Singh Kushwaha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compact triple band slot microstrip patch antenna for 1.7/2.92 GHz WLAN applications. The radiating element of the proposed antenna consists of Swastika symbol slot operating at 1.8 GHz, 2.09 GHz, and 2.92 GHz bands. The antenna size is very compact (50 mm x 50 mm x 1.6 mm and covers 1.8 GHz to 2.92 GHz and can be used for AMPS, GSM and WLAN applications. The antenna is fed from a single 50 Ω coaxial cable. Using IE3D software package of Zeland, according to the set size, the antenna is simulated. The composite effect of integrating these techniques and by introducing the novel slotted patch offers a low profile, wide bandwidth, high gain and compact antenna element. The computer simulation results show that the antenna can realize wide band characters with each band having good impedance bandwidth (VSWR ≤ 2 for all the three resonant frequencies.

  9. Applications of tripled chaotic maps in cryptography

    Security of information has become a major issue during the last decades. New algorithms based on chaotic maps were suggested for protection of different types of multimedia data, especially digital images and videos in this period. However, many of them fundamentally were flawed by a lack of robustness and security. For getting higher security and higher complexity, in the current paper, we introduce a new kind of symmetric key block cipher algorithm that is based on tripled chaotic maps. In this algorithm, the utilization of two coupling parameters, as well as the increased complexity of the cryptosystem, make a contribution to the development of cryptosystem with higher security. In order to increase the security of the proposed algorithm, the size of key space and the computational complexity of the coupling parameters should be increased as well. Both the theoretical and experimental results state that the proposed algorithm has many capabilities such as acceptable speed and complexity in the algorithm due to the existence of two coupling parameters and high security. Note that the ciphertext has a flat distribution and has the same size as the plaintext. Therefore, it is suitable for practical use in secure communications.

  10. Spectroscopically resolving the Algol triple system

    Kolbas, V; Southworth, J; Lee, C -U; Lee, D -J; Lee, J W; Kim, S -L; Kim, H -I; Smalley, B; Tkachenko, A

    2015-01-01

    Algol ($\\beta$ Persei) is the prototypical semi-detached eclipsing binary and a hierarchical triple system. From 2006 to 2010 we obtained 121 high-resolution and high-S/N \\'{e}chelle spectra of this object. Spectral disentangling yields the individual spectra of all three stars, and greatly improved elements both the inner and outer orbits. We find masses of $M_{\\rm A} = 3.39\\pm0.06$ M$_\\odot$, $M_{\\rm B} = 0.770\\pm0.009$ M$_\\odot$ and $M_{\\rm C} = 1.58\\pm0.09$ M$_\\odot$. The disentangled spectra also give the light ratios between the components in the $B$ and $V$ bands. Atmospheric parameters for the three stars are determined, including detailed elemental abundances for Algol A and Algol C. We find the following effective temperatures: $T_{\\rm A} = 12\\,550\\pm120$ K, $T_{\\rm B} = 4900\\pm300$ K and $T_{\\rm C} = 7550\\pm250$ K. The projected rotational velocities are $v_{\\rm A} \\sin i_{\\rm A} = 50.8\\pm0.8$ km/s, $v_{\\rm B} \\sin i_{\\rm B} = 62\\pm2$ km/s and $v_{\\rm C} \\sin i_{\\rm C} = 12.4\\pm0.6$ km/s. This is t...

  11. Radiological evidence for the triple bundle anterior cruciate ligament.

    MacKay, James W; Whitehead, Harry; Toms, Andoni P

    2014-10-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has traditionally been described as having two bundles--one anteromedial and one posterolateral. This has been challenged by studies proposing the existence of a third, intermediate, bundle with distinct functional significance, an arrangement that has been described in a number of domesticated animal species. No radiological evidence for the triple bundle ACL has previously been described. A prevalence study was carried out on 73 consecutive human knee magnetic resonance (MR) studies to determine the number of visible bundles, excluding individuals with a history of ACL injury or mucoid degeneration. A triple bundle ACL was demonstrated in 15 out of 73 human knees (20.5%, 95% confidence interval 12.9-31.2%). This is the first radiological description of the human triple bundle ACL. There was MR imaging evidence of a triple bundle ACL in approximately one fifth of human knees in this study. PMID:24890455

  12. The spectrum for overlarge sets of directed triple systems

    2007-01-01

    A directed triple system of order v, denoted by DTS(v, λ), is a pair (X,B) where X is a v-set and B is a collection of transitive triples on X such that every ordered pair of X belongs to λ triples of B. An overlarge set of disjoint DTS(v, λ), denoted by OLDTS(v, λ), is a collection {(Y\\{y}, Ai)}i,such that Y is a (v + 1)-set, each (Y\\{y}, Ai) is a DTS(v, λ) and all Ai's form a partition of all transitive triples of Y. In this paper, we shall discuss the existence problem of OLDTS(v, λ) and give the following conclusion: there exists an OLDTS(v, λ) if and only if either λ = 1 and v = 0, 1 (mod 3), or λ = 3 and v≠2.

  13. Triple Isotope Water Analyzer for Extraplanetary Studies Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to employ Off-Axis ICOS to develop triple-isotope water analyzers for lunar and other extraplanetary exploration. This instrument...

  14. Triple Isotope Water Analyzer for Extraplanetary Studies Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort, Los Gatos Research (LGR) proposes to develop a miniature, high-resolution, low power, triple-isotope water...

  15. Twisted reality condition for spectral triple on two points

    Dabrowski, Ludwik

    2016-01-01

    Lowest dimensional spectral triples with twisted reality condition over the function algebra on two points are discussed. The gauge perturbations (fluctuations), chiral gauge perturbations, conformal rescalings, and permutation of the two points are presented.

  16. Morita equivalence and spectral triples on noncommutative orbifolds

    Harju, Antti J.

    2016-08-01

    Let G be a finite group. Noncommutative geometry of unital G-algebras is studied. A geometric structure is determined by a spectral triple on the crossed product algebra associated with the group action. This structure is to be viewed as a representative of a noncommutative orbifold. Based on a study of classical orbifold groupoids, a Morita equivalence for the crossed product spectral triples is developed. Noncommutative orbifolds are Morita equivalence classes of the crossed product spectral triples. As a special case of this Morita theory one can study freeness of the G-action on the noncommutative level. In the case of a free action, the crossed product formalism reduced to the usual spectral triple formalism on the algebra of G-invariant functions.

  17. A Study of Neoadjuvant Paclitaxel in Combination With Bavituximab in Early- Stage Triple- Negative Breast Cancer

    2016-02-12

    Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms; Triple-Negative Breast Neoplasm; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Neoplasms; ER-Negative PR-Negative HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

  18. Anodic bonded graphene

    Balan, Adrian; Kumar, Rakesh; Boukhicha, Mohamed; Beyssac, Olivier; Bouillard, Jean-Claude; Taverna, Dario; Sacks, William; Shukla, Abhay [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, CNRS-UMR7590, Institut de Mineralogie et de Physique des Milieux Condenses, 140 rue de Lourmel, Paris, F-75015 France (France); Marangolo, Massimiliano; Lacaze, Emanuelle; Gohler, Roger [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, CNRS-UMR7588, Institut des Nanosciences de Paris, 140 rue de Lourmel, Paris, F-75015 France (France); Escoffier, Walter; Poumirol, Jean-Marie, E-mail: abhay.shukla@upmc.f [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, INSA UPS CNRS, UPR 3228, Universite de Toulouse, 143 avenue de Rangueil, 31400 Toulouse (France)

    2010-09-22

    We show how to prepare graphene samples on a glass substrate with the anodic bonding method. In this method, a graphite precursor in flake form is bonded to a glass substrate with the help of an electrostatic field and then cleaved off to leave few layer graphene on the substrate. Now that several methods are available for producing graphene, the relevance of our method is in its simplicity and practicality for producing graphene samples of about 100 {mu}m lateral dimensions. This method is also extensible to other layered materials. We discuss some detailed aspects of the fabrication and results from Raman spectroscopy, local probe microscopy and transport measurements on these samples.

  19. The Trouble With Bonds

    2008-01-01

    @@ In early June,global financial markets gyrated downwards in the wake of central banks'tough language on inflation.At one point bond prices reflected expectations of four rate hikes by the US Federal Reserve (Fed) in the next 12 months.As a result,the dollar firmed,oil prices stabilized,and yield curves flattened around the world.If all these inflation-fighting measures are real,the situation bodes well for bonds.But,I think otherwise.

  20. Tuning the electronic structure of Mo–Mo quadruple bonds by N for O for S substitution

    Hicks, Jamie; Ring, Sam P.; Patmore, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    A series of quadruply bonded dimolybdenum compounds of form Mo2(EE′CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)4 (EE′ = {NPh}2, Mo2NN; {NPh}O, Mo2NO;{NPh}S, Mo2NS; OO, Mo2OO) have been synthesised by ligand exchange reactions of Mo2(O2CCH3)4 with the acid or alkali metal salt of {PhC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCEE′}−. The compounds Mo2NO, Mo2NS and Mo2OO were structurally characterised by single crystal X-ray crystallography. The structures show that Mo2NO adopts a cis-2,2 arrangement of the lig...

  1. Double and triple photoionization of Li and Be

    We present calculations for the double photoionization (with excitation) and the triple photoionization of Li and Be. We extend and more fully discuss the previous calculations made for Li by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053201 (2004)] and present calculations for Be. The Be triple photoionization cross sections are compared with previous double shake-off model calculations of Kheifets and Bray [J. Phys. B 36, L211 (2003)], and our calculations are found to be significantly lower

  2. Double and triple photoionization of Li and Be

    Colgan, J.; Pindzola, M. S.; Robicheaux, F.

    2005-08-01

    We present calculations for the double photoionization (with excitation) and the triple photoionization of Li and Be. We extend and more fully discuss the previous calculations made for Li by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 053201 (2004)] and present calculations for Be. The Be triple photoionization cross sections are compared with previous double shake-off model calculations of Kheifets and Bray [J. Phys. B 36, L211 (2003)], and our calculations are found to be significantly lower.

  3. Co-innovatie Triple P: integratie van marketingstrategie en personeelsbeleid

    Bartels, J.; Hendriks, R.; Ruyter, de, D.J.; Zeelenberg, A.; Engelsman, V.; Eichelsheim, C.; Skoppek, H.; Schmidt, M.

    2008-01-01

    Dit project richt zicht op de integratie van Triple P marketing en personeelsbeleid. Het doel van het project luidt als volgt: “Hoe kun je in de marketing van biologische groenten en fruit effectief gebruik maken van de intrinsieke waarden van duurzame landbouw en maatschappelijk verantwoord ondernemen? ” Er is in het kader van dit project een opleidingstraject opgezet voor het eigen maken van Triple P gedachten bij werknemers. Verder is er een drietal consumentonderzoeken uitgevoerd om zodoe...

  4. Neutral triple and quartic gauge couplings at LEP

    Ofierzynski, R.

    2002-06-01

    The possible existence of neutral triple ZZZ, ZZγ and Zγγ and quartic ZZγγ gauge boson couplings is investigated. Based on data collected at LEP2 at centre-of-mass energies up to 208 GeV no evidence has been found for such couplings. Preliminary limits for neutral triple gauge couplings as obtained from the combination of the LEP experiments are presented.

  5. Backbone Dynamics of Triple-helical Collagen-like Structure

    Lazarev, Yu.A.; Lazareva, A.V.; Komarov, V.M.

    1999-01-01

    Some details of the backbone dynamics in the collagen-like triple helix is discussed and the role of backbone dynamics in functioning collagen proteins is illustrated. On a series of oligotripeptides synthetic analogs of collagen formation of high-frequency vibrational backbone dynamics and low-frequency nonlinear backbone dynamics upon stepwise elongation of peptide chain have been described using infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen-exchange method. In the fully completed triple helix the lev...

  6. Novel nucleotide analogues for forming stable DNA triple helices

    Gerrard, Simon Richard

    2009-01-01

    DNA triple helices are an important tool in a variety of medicinal and biotechnological applications, such as gene therapy and chemotherapeutics. DNA triple helices are formed by binding of a triplex-forming oligonucleotide (TFO) to a DNA duplex, via specific recognition of the individual base pairs in the target sequence. Mixed-sequence recognition of duplex DNA by TFOs is therefore an essential requirement for successful targeting. However, achieving strong, yet specific bin...

  7. New Approaches Towards Recognition of Nucleic Acid Triple Helices

    Arya, Dev P.

    2010-01-01

    We show that groove recognition of nucleic acid triple helices can be achieved with aminosugars. Among these aminosugars, neomycin is the most effective aminoglycoside (groove binder) for stabilizing a DNA triple helix. It stabilizes both the T·A·T triplex and mixed-base DNA triplexes better than known DNA minor groove binders (which usually destabilize the triplex) and polyamines. Neomycin selectively stabilizes the triplex (T·A·T and mixed base) without any effect on the DNA duplex. The sel...

  8. TEDI: the TripleSpec Exoplanet Discovery Instrument

    Edelstein, Jerry; Erskine, David J; Feuerstein, W Michael; Marckwordt, Mario; Wishnow, Ed; Lloyd, James P; Herter, Terry; Muirhead, Phillip; Gull, George E; Henderson, Charles; Parshley, Stephen C

    2007-01-01

    The TEDI (TripleSpec - Exoplanet Discovery Instrument) will be the first instrument fielded specifically for finding low-mass stellar companions. The instrument is a near infra-red interferometric spectrometer used as a radial velocimeter. TEDI joins Externally Dispersed Interferometery (EDI) with an efficient, medium-resolution, near IR (0.9 - 2.4 micron) echelle spectrometer, TripleSpec, at the Palomar 200" telescope. We describe the instrument and its radial velocimetry demonstration program to observe cool stars.

  9. Flax Fiber - Interfacial Bonding

    Measured flax fiber physical and chemical properties potentially impact bonding and thus stress transfer between the matrix and fiber within composites. These first attempts at correlating flax fiber quality and biofiber composites contain the initial steps towards identifying key flax fiber charac...

  10. Bonds Between Atoms.

    Holden, Alan

    The field of inquiry into how atoms are bonded together to form molecules and solids crosses the borderlines between physics and chemistry encompassing methods characteristic of both sciences. At one extreme, the inquiry is pursued with care and rigor into the simplest cases; at the other extreme, suggestions derived from the more careful inquiry…

  11. Thread bonds in molecules

    Ivlev, B

    2015-01-01

    Unusual chemical bonds are proposed. Each bond is almost covalent but is characterized by the thread of a small radius $\\sim 0.6\\times 10^{-11}$cm, between two nuclei in a molecule. The main electron density is concentrated outside the thread as in a covalent bond. The thread is formed by the electron wave function which has a tendency to be singular on it. The singularity along the thread is cut off by electron "vibrations" due to the interaction with zero point electromagnetic oscillations. The electron energy has its typical value of (1-10)eV. Due to the small tread radius the uncertainty of the electron momentum inside the thread is large resulting in a large electron kinetic energy $\\sim 1 MeV$. This energy is compensated by formation of a potential well due to the reduction of the energy of electromagnetic zero point oscillations. This is similar to formation of a negative van der Waals potential. Thread bonds are stable and cannot be created or destructed in chemical or optical processes.

  12. Predicted thermal performance of triple vacuum glazing

    Fang, Yueping; Hyde, Trevor J.; Hewitt, Neil [School of the Built Environment, University of Ulster, N. Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The simulated triple vacuum glazing (TVG) consists of three 4 mm thick glass panes with two vacuum gaps, with each internal glass surface coated with a low-emittance coating with an emittance of 0.03. The two vacuum gaps are sealed by an indium based sealant and separated by a stainless steel pillar array with a height of 0.12 mm and a pillar diameter of 0.3 mm spaced at 25 mm. The thermal transmission at the centre-of-glazing area of the TVG was predicted to be 0.26 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. The simulation results show that although the thermal conductivity of solder glass (1 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) and indium (83.7 W m{sup -1} K{sup -1}) are very different, the difference in thermal transmission of TVGs resulting from the use of an indium and a solder glass edge seal was 0.01 W m{sup -2} K{sup -1}. This is because the edge seal is so thin (0.12 mm), consequently there is a negligible temperature drop across it irrespective of the material that the seal is made from relative to the total temperature difference across the glazing. The results also show that there is a relatively large increase in the overall thermal conductance of glazings without a frame when the width of the indium edge seal is increased. Increasing the rebate depth in a solid wood frame decreased the heat transmission of the TVG. The overall heat transmission of the simulated 0.5 m by 0.5 m TVG was 32.6% greater than that of the 1 m by 1 m TVG, since heat conduction through the edge seal of the small glazing has a larger contribution to the total glazing heat transfer than that of the larger glazing system. (author)

  13. Efficacy of triple therapy in auricular keloids

    Reuben F De Sousa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Keloids are characterised by their continued growth following trauma, extension into normal tissue and their high recurrence rate following excision. Auricular keloids are common following ear piercing or flame burns. These lesions are highly conspicuous and cosmetically unappealing. Multiple methods including surgery, radiotherapy, antimitotic agents, silicone sheet, pressure clips and cryotherapy have been advocated. The risk of recurrence and the need to prevent distortion of the three-dimensional structure of the ear following resection is a challenge to the cutaneous surgeon. Objectives: To devise a standard protocol for management of auricular keloids with minimal distortion and recurrence. Setting and Design: The patients underwent day-care surgery and subsequent out-patient follow-up for a minimum period of 1 year. Methods: Ten patients presenting with 22 ear keloids were enrolled into a keloid protocol: (a surgical excision and keloid rind flap cover with (b intra-operative and post-operative intra-lesional steroid and (c silicone sheet application. Subjective assessment on follow-up was using Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale and objective assessment was by Beausang scale. Statistical Analysis used: Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis curve used to calculate Recurrence Free period. Results: Two out of 22 (9.1% keloids developed post-excision recurrence after a mean follow -up period of 16 months. The average keloid recurrence free interval was 21 months. Conclusion: Triple combination therapy for keloids on the ear is a simple technique for management with preservation of contour of the ear and a low recurrence rate.

  14. TRIPLE ASSESSMENT OF A BREAST LUMP BY APPLYING TRIPLE TEST SCORING IN PATIENTS ATTENDING OPD IN HAMIDIA HOSPITAL , BHOPAL

    Anuradha Chaudhary

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study: triple assessment of a breast lump by applying triple test scoring in patients attending OPD in hamidia hospital, Bhopal. 60 patients were enrolled in the study, for the period of one year. Age group ranged from 35 to 80 years. Oldest female enrolled was 77 years. Most of the patients were in the age group of 35 - 44 years of age. There were almost equal numbers of female in pre and post - menopausal age group. All cases presented with complaints of lump in the breast with duration of symptoms ranging from less than two months to six months. Most of the lumps were situated in upper and outer quadrant. Mammography and FNAC were carried out in all the patients and later triple assessment score was calculated for every case. The end result was correlated with histopathological result. Accuracy of triple assessment and its components wer e measured by comparing them with histopathological report. If applied alone all three components of triple assessment were having less accuracy, but combining them made them more accurate. Triple test was also found to lower the need for excision biopsy for diagnosis and helps in timely and accurate diagnosis of a breast lump with early intervention which can be life s aving.

  15. Structure and stability of a DNA triple helix in solution: NMR studies on d(T) sub 6 ter dot d(T) sub 6 and its complex with a minor groove binding drug

    Umemoto, Kimiko; Sarma, Mukti H.; Gupta, Goutam; Luo, Jia; Sarma, Ramaswamy H. (State Univ. of New York, Albany (USA))

    1990-05-23

    The possibility of both Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen A{center dot}T pairs can result in a triple helical structure for d(T){sub 6}{center dot}d(A){sub 6}{center dot}d(T){sub 6} in solution. In the triple helix the Watson-Crick paired T strand can run antiparallel, while the Hoogsteen paired T strand can run parallel to the A strand. On the basis of 1D/2D NMR studies, we have characterized the structural properties of the triple helix in terms of (a) nature of H-bonding, (b) chain conformations and relative chain orientations, (c) location of triplets T{center dot}A{center dot}T with respect to the helix axis, and (d) effects of NaCl and MgCl{sub 2}. In addition, we experimentally demonstrate that a minor groove specific drug Dst2 (a distamycin analogue) can bind to the triple helix. We show that the nature of thermal transition is altered by Dst2 binding; i.e., the host triple helix shows triple {yields} coil (monophasic) transition in the absence of Dst2, while in its presence the helix shows a triplex {yields} duplex {yields} coil (biphasic) transition.

  16. Fast and accurate predictions of covalent bonds in chemical space.

    Chang, K Y Samuel; Fias, Stijn; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2016-05-01

    We assess the predictive accuracy of perturbation theory based estimates of changes in covalent bonding due to linear alchemical interpolations among molecules. We have investigated σ bonding to hydrogen, as well as σ and π bonding between main-group elements, occurring in small sets of iso-valence-electronic molecules with elements drawn from second to fourth rows in the p-block of the periodic table. Numerical evidence suggests that first order Taylor expansions of covalent bonding potentials can achieve high accuracy if (i) the alchemical interpolation is vertical (fixed geometry), (ii) it involves elements from the third and fourth rows of the periodic table, and (iii) an optimal reference geometry is used. This leads to near linear changes in the bonding potential, resulting in analytical predictions with chemical accuracy (∼1 kcal/mol). Second order estimates deteriorate the prediction. If initial and final molecules differ not only in composition but also in geometry, all estimates become substantially worse, with second order being slightly more accurate than first order. The independent particle approximation based second order perturbation theory performs poorly when compared to the coupled perturbed or finite difference approach. Taylor series expansions up to fourth order of the potential energy curve of highly symmetric systems indicate a finite radius of convergence, as illustrated for the alchemical stretching of H2 (+). Results are presented for (i) covalent bonds to hydrogen in 12 molecules with 8 valence electrons (CH4, NH3, H2O, HF, SiH4, PH3, H2S, HCl, GeH4, AsH3, H2Se, HBr); (ii) main-group single bonds in 9 molecules with 14 valence electrons (CH3F, CH3Cl, CH3Br, SiH3F, SiH3Cl, SiH3Br, GeH3F, GeH3Cl, GeH3Br); (iii) main-group double bonds in 9 molecules with 12 valence electrons (CH2O, CH2S, CH2Se, SiH2O, SiH2S, SiH2Se, GeH2O, GeH2S, GeH2Se); (iv) main-group triple bonds in 9 molecules with 10 valence electrons (HCN, HCP, HCAs, HSiN, HSi

  17. Fast and accurate predictions of covalent bonds in chemical space

    Chang, K. Y. Samuel; Fias, Stijn; Ramakrishnan, Raghunathan; von Lilienfeld, O. Anatole

    2016-05-01

    We assess the predictive accuracy of perturbation theory based estimates of changes in covalent bonding due to linear alchemical interpolations among molecules. We have investigated σ bonding to hydrogen, as well as σ and π bonding between main-group elements, occurring in small sets of iso-valence-electronic molecules with elements drawn from second to fourth rows in the p-block of the periodic table. Numerical evidence suggests that first order Taylor expansions of covalent bonding potentials can achieve high accuracy if (i) the alchemical interpolation is vertical (fixed geometry), (ii) it involves elements from the third and fourth rows of the periodic table, and (iii) an optimal reference geometry is used. This leads to near linear changes in the bonding potential, resulting in analytical predictions with chemical accuracy (˜1 kcal/mol). Second order estimates deteriorate the prediction. If initial and final molecules differ not only in composition but also in geometry, all estimates become substantially worse, with second order being slightly more accurate than first order. The independent particle approximation based second order perturbation theory performs poorly when compared to the coupled perturbed or finite difference approach. Taylor series expansions up to fourth order of the potential energy curve of highly symmetric systems indicate a finite radius of convergence, as illustrated for the alchemical stretching of H 2+ . Results are presented for (i) covalent bonds to hydrogen in 12 molecules with 8 valence electrons (CH4, NH3, H2O, HF, SiH4, PH3, H2S, HCl, GeH4, AsH3, H2Se, HBr); (ii) main-group single bonds in 9 molecules with 14 valence electrons (CH3F, CH3Cl, CH3Br, SiH3F, SiH3Cl, SiH3Br, GeH3F, GeH3Cl, GeH3Br); (iii) main-group double bonds in 9 molecules with 12 valence electrons (CH2O, CH2S, CH2Se, SiH2O, SiH2S, SiH2Se, GeH2O, GeH2S, GeH2Se); (iv) main-group triple bonds in 9 molecules with 10 valence electrons (HCN, HCP, HCAs, HSiN, HSi

  18. Convertible bond valuation focusing on Chinese convertible bond market

    Yang, Ke

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the methods of valuation of convertible bonds in Chinese market. Different from common convertible bonds in European market, considering the complicate features of Chinese convertible bond, this paper represents specific pricing approaches for pricing convertible bonds with different provisions along with the increment of complexity of these provisions. More specifically, this paper represents the decomposing method and binomial tree method for pricing both of Non-...

  19. Comparative study on mammography between triple negative and triple positive breast cancer

    Objective: To analyze the mammographic findings of triple-negative breast cancer [TNBC, which is estrogen receptor (ER) negative, progesterone receptor (PR) negative, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negative] and triple-positive breast cancer (TPBC, which is ER positive, PR positive, and HER2 positive), and to evaluate the relationship of immunohistochemologic receptor status and mammographic findings. Methods: The immunohistochemistry results of 631 cases with breast cancers were reviewed, including 117 cases of TNBC and 44 cases of TPBC. All of the patients took mammography at initial diagnosis. We retrospectively evaluated the visibility, morphology, distribution and size of the lesion (masses and calcifications) and breast density on mammography of TNBC, and compared them with those of TPBC. The age onset and tumor sizes of TNBC and TPBC were compared by using Chi-square test and t test. Results: The visibility rate of TNBC and TPBC on mammography were 88.0%(103/117) and 90.9% (40/44), and the difference between them was insignificant (χ2=0.055, P >0.05). TNBC was more frequently associated with merely a mass (56/103) than TPBC (12/40) (χ2=6.860, P<0.01), and the mean diameter of the mass of TNBC [(2.6 ± 1.4) cm] was larger than that of TPBC [(2.0 ± 0.6) cm] (t=2.087, P<0.05). TNBC were less frequently associated with microcalcifications (37/103) than TPBC (24/40) (χ2=7.423, P<0.01). Mammographic density and lesion visibility were similar between the two different immunophenotypes of breast cancers. The mean age of TNBC (52±9) was more than that of TPBC (48 ±8) (t=2.759, P<0.01). Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the main pathologic type of both groups. Basal-like breast cancer accounted for 49% (57/117) of TNBC while none happened in TPBC. Conclusions: TNBC shows merely a mass with indistinct margins,lager size and is less associated with microcalcifications. These mammographic features might be useful in diagnosing triple negative

  20. Domestic Bond Market Development

    Jonathan A. Batten; Szilagyi, Peter G.

    2007-01-01

    A two-tiered approach to financial market development aimed at both bank and bond market reform would also be complementary to longer term economic development, provided services could be delivered through efficient financial and legal institutions (Chakraborty and Ray 2006) and there was strong protection for investors and sound fiscal and monetary policy management by government (Burger and Warnock 2006b). Historically, local issuers tend to issue in the major currencies (U.S. dollars, yen,...

  1. Disulfide bonds of acetylcholinesterase

    The positions of the inter- and intrasubunit disulfide bridges were established for the 11S form of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) isolated from Torpedo californica. A major form of AChE localized within the basal lamina of the synapse is a dimensionally asymmetric molecule which contains either two (13S) or three (17S) sets of catalytic subunits linked to collagenous and non-collagenous structural subunits. Limited proteolysis yields a tetramer of catalytic subunits which sediments at 11S. Each catalytic subunit contains 8 cysteine residues. Initially, these Cys residues were identified following trypsin digestion of the reduced protein alkylated with [14C]-iodoacetate. Peptides were resolved by gel filtration followed by reverse phase HPLC. To determine the disulfide bonding profile, native non-reduced 11S AChE was treated with a fluorescent, sulfhydryl-specific reagent, monobromobimane, prior to proteolytic digestion. One fluorescent Cys peptide was identified indicating that a single sulfhydryl residue was present in its reduced form. Three pairs of disulfide bonded peptides were identified, sequenced, and localized in the polypeptide chain. The Cys residue that is located in the C-terminal tryptic peptide was disulfide bonded to an identical peptide and thus forms the intersubunit crosslink. Finally, the cysteine positions have been compared with the sequence of the homologous protein, thyroglobulin. Both likely share a common pattern of folding

  2. Integration of European Bond Markets

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU members and stronger for old than new EU members. The integration is weaker for the sovereign debt crisis countries than for other countries. The integration of the EU bond markets is decreasing over time...

  3. Doseringsutrustningen SafeBond Electronic

    Bodegren, Patrik

    2003-01-01

    This thesis for the Master of Science degree was performed at Oppunda Electronics AB. The assignment was to further develop an existing prototype of a dispensing equipment. The dispensing equipment doses a kind of glue, bonding which dentist use to mend teeth. The dispensing equipment is adjusted to dose 12 micro litres of bonding. With the dispensing equipment SafeBond Electronic the user can reduce the bonding consumption with approximately 50 percent. Furthermore will the handling of the b...

  4. The CALBC RDF Triple Store: retrieval over large literature content

    Croset, Samuel; Li, Chen; Kavaliauskas, Silvestras; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    Integration of the scientific literature into a biomedical research infrastructure requires the processing of the literature, identification of the contained named entities (NEs) and concepts, and to represent the content in a standardised way. The CALBC project partners (PPs) have produced a large-scale annotated biomedical corpus with four different semantic groups through the harmonisation of annotations from automatic text mining solutions (Silver Standard Corpus, SSC). The four semantic groups were chemical entities and drugs (CHED), genes and proteins (PRGE), diseases and disorders (DISO) and species (SPE). The content of the SSC has been fully integrated into RDF Triple Store (4,568,678 triples) and has been aligned with content from the GeneAtlas (182,840 triples), UniProtKb (12,552,239 triples for human) and the lexical resource LexEBI (BioLexicon). RDF Triple Store enables querying the scientific literature and bioinformatics resources at the same time for evidence of genetic causes, such as drug ta...

  5. Development of 600 kV triple resonance pulse transformer.

    Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Faqiang; Liang, Chuan; Xu, Zhou

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a triple-resonance pulse transformer based on an air-core transformer is introduced. The voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is significantly less than the output voltage; instead, the full output voltage appears across the tuning inductor. The maximum ratio of peak load voltage to peak transformer voltage is 2.77 in theory. By analyzing pulse transformer's lossless circuit, the analytical expression for the output voltage and the characteristic equation of the triple-resonance circuit are presented. Design method for the triple-resonance pulse transformer (iterated simulation method) is presented, and a triple-resonance pulse transformer is developed based on the existing air-core transformer. The experimental results indicate that the maximum ratio of peak voltage across the load to peak voltage across the high-voltage winding of the air-core transformer is approximately 2.0 and the peak output voltage of the triple-resonance pulse transformer is approximately 600 kV. PMID:26133858

  6. Spectra, triple, and quartic gauge couplings in a Higgsless model

    Spectra, triple, and quartic gauge couplings of the Higgsless model with gauge group SU(2)LxSU(2)RxU(1)B-L defined in warped space are explored with a numerical method. We extend the equation of motions, boundary conditions, and formalism of multi-gauge-boson vertices to the Hirn-Sanz scenario. By assuming the ideally delocalized fermion profile, we study the spectra of vector bosons as well as the triple and quartic gauge couplings among vector bosons. It is found that mass spectra can be greatly modified by the parameters of QCD power corrections. Meanwhile, the triple and quartic gauge couplings can deviate from the values of the standard model to at least ±10% and can saturate the LEP2 bounds. We find the triple gauge couplings of ZWW can be 50% smaller than the unitarity bounds. The triple gauge couplings of ZWW is 20% smaller than the unitarity bounds, which might challenge the detection of Z via s channel at LHC if mZ>500 GeV

  7. Ocular Problems in Triple-A Syndrome and Their Management

    Seydi Okumuş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Triple-A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome that is characterized by adrenal insufficiency, alacrimia and achalasia. In this report, we present a case of triple-A syndrome and discuss the ocular manifestations of the diseases along with evaluation of the therapeutic options. In addition to the classic triad of triple-A syndrome, our patient had intermittent exotropia. The patient was receiving oral steroids for adrenal insufficiency and artificial tear drops for eye dryness. Surgery was planned for exotropia. Punctum plug insertion was made simultaneously with bilateral lateral rectus recessions. Postoperative follow-up revealed near and distant horizontal deviation at the interval of ±10 PD. The patient’s complaints about eyes regressed significantly as well. Triple-A syndrome is a life threatening and rare disorder that could be fatal when undiagnosed. Punctum plugs are convenient therapy option for the treatment of xerophthalmia encountered in triple-A syndrome. With strabismus surgery including punctum plug insertion, any other surgery can be simultaneously carried out during a single session of general anesthesia. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 492-4

  8. Hamiltonian formulation of bond graphs

    Golo, Goran; Schaft, van der Arjan; Breedveld, Peter C.; Maschke, Bernhard M.; Johansson, R.; Rantzer, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical formulation of bond graphs. It is proven that the power continuous part of bond graphs, the junction structure, can be associated with a Dirac structure and that the equations describing a bond graph model correspond to a port Hamiltonian system. The conditions

  9. Numerical Study of Buoyancy and Differential Diffusion Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of Triple Flames

    Chen, J. -Y.; Echekki, T.

    1999-01-01

    Triple flames arise in a number of practical configurations where fuel and oxidizer are partially premixed, such as in the base of a lifted jet flame. Past experimental studies, theoretical analyses, and numerical modeling of triple flames suggested the potential role of triple flames in stabilizing turbulent flames and in promoting flame propagation. From recent numerical simulations of laminar triple flames, a strong influence of differential diffusion among species and heat on the triple flame structure has been gradually appreciated. This paper reports preliminary numerical results on the influence of gravity and differential diffusion effects on the structure and dynamics of triple flames with a one-step global irreversible chemistry model.

  10. Triple jeopardy for HIV: substance using Severely Mentally Ill Adults.

    Devieux, Jessy G; Malow, Robert; Lerner, Brenda G; Dyer, Janyce G; Baptista, Ligia; Lucenko, Barbara; Kalichman, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) adults have disproportionately high HIV seroprevalence rates. Abuse of alcohol and other substances (AOD) and lifetime exposure to trauma by others are particularly potent risk factors, which, in combination with psychiatric disabilities, create triple jeopardy for HIV infection. This study examined the predictive utility of demographic characteristics; history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; extent of drug and alcohol abuse; knowledge about HIV/AIDS; sexual self-efficacy; and condom attitudes toward explaining the variance in a composite of HIV high-risk behavior among 188 SMI women and 158 SMI men. History of sexual abuse, engaging in sexual activities while high on substances, and lower cannabis use were the most significant predictors of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Given the triple jeopardy for HIV risk in this population, a triple barreled approach that simultaneously addresses multiple health risks within an integrated treatment setting is warranted. PMID:17298927

  11. A microelectromechanical systems-enabled, miniature triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Wright, Steven; Malcolm, Andrew; Wright, Christopher; O'Prey, Shane; Crichton, Edward; Dash, Neil; Moseley, Richard W; Zaczek, Wojciech; Edwards, Peter; Fussell, Richard J; Syms, Richard R A

    2015-03-17

    Miniaturized mass spectrometers are becoming increasingly capable, enabling the development of many novel field and laboratory applications. However, to date, triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometers, the workhorses of quantitative analysis, have not been significantly reduced in size. Here, the basis of a field-deployable triple quadrupole is described. The key development is a highly miniaturized ion optical assembly in which a sequence of six microengineered components is employed to generate ions at atmospheric pressure, provide a vacuum interface, effect ion guiding, and perform fragmentation and mass analysis. Despite its small dimensions, the collision cell efficiently fragments precursor ions and yields product ion spectra that are very similar to those recorded using conventional instruments. The miniature triple quadrupole has been used to detect thiabendazole, a common pesticide, in apples at a level of 10 ng/g. PMID:25708099

  12. Triple and quartic gauge couplings at LEP 2

    Brunelière, R.

    We review the status of published and preliminary measurements of triple and quartic gauge boson couplings from the four LEP experiments. Charged current triple gauge boson couplings (WWZ and WWγ) are measured using W-pair, single-W and single-γ productions with the data collected between 1997 and 2000 (700\\ pb-1 per experiment). Neutral current triple gauge boson couplings are studied with Zγ (Zγγ* and ZγZ* vertices) and ZZ (ZZγ* and ZZZ* vertices) events. Limits on anomalous quartic gauge boson couplings with at least one photon (WWγγ, WWZγ and ZZγγ) are set from WWγ, q¯ {q}γ γ and ν ¯ {ν }γ γ events. No strong deviations from the Standard Model expectations are found.

  13. On the Interface Formation Model for Dynamic Triple Lines

    Bothe, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the theory of Y. Shikhmurzaev on forming interfaces as a continuum thermodynamical model for dynamic triple lines. We start with the derivation of the balances for mass, momentum, energy and entropy in a three-phase fluid system with full interfacial physics, including a brief review of the relevant transport theorems on interfaces and triple lines. Employing the entropy principle in the form given in [Bothe & Dreyer, Acta Mechanica, doi:10.1007/s00707-014-1275-1] but extended to this more general case, we arrive at the entropy production and perform a linear closure, except for a nonlinear closure for the sorption processes. Specialized to the isothermal case, we obtain a thermodynamically consistent mathematical model for dynamic triple lines and show that the total available energy is a strict Lyapunov function for this system.

  14. The Knowledge-Based Economy and the Triple Helix Model

    Leydesdorff, Loet

    2012-01-01

    1. Introduction - the metaphor of a "knowledge-based economy"; 2. The Triple Helix as a model of the knowledge-based economy; 3. Knowledge as a social coordination mechanism; 4. Neo-evolutionary dynamics in a Triple Helix of coordination mechanism; 5. The operation of the knowledge base; 6. The restructuring of knowledge production in a KBE; 7. The KBE and the systems-of-innovation approach; 8. The KBE and neo-evolutionary theories of innovation; 8.1 The construction of the evolving unit; 8.2 User-producer relations in systems of innovation; 8.3 'Mode-2' and the production of scientific knowledge; 8.4 A Triple Helix model of innovations; 9. Empirical studies and simulations using the TH model; 10. The KBE and the measurement; 10.1 The communication of meaning and information; 10.2 The expectation of social structure; 10.3 Configurations in a knowledge-based economy

  15. Non-sequential triple ionization in strong fields

    Sacha, K; Sacha, Krzysztof; Eckhardt, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    We consider the final stage of triple ionization of atoms in a strong linearly polarized laser field. We propose that for intensities below the saturation value for triple ionization the process is dominated by the simultaneous escape of three electrons from a highly excited intermediate complex. We identify within a classical model two pathways to triple ionization, one with a triangular configuration of electrons and one with a more linear one. Both are saddles in phase space. A stability analysis indicates that the triangular configuration has the larger cross sections and should be the dominant one. Trajectory simulations within the dominant symmetry subspace reproduce the experimentally observed distribution of ion momenta parallel to the polarization axis.

  16. Optical frequency tripling with improved suppression and sideband selection.

    Thakur, Manoj P; Medeiros, Maria C R; Laurêncio, Paula; Mitchell, John E

    2011-12-12

    A novel optical dispersion tolerant millimetre-wave radio-over-fibre system using optical frequency tripling technique with enhanced and selectable sideband suppression is demonstrated. The implementation utilises cascaded optical modulators to achieve either an optical single sideband (OSSB) or double sideband-suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) signal with high sideband suppression. Our analysis and simulation results indicate that the achievable suppression ratio of this configuration is only limited by other system factors such as optical noise and drifting of the operational conditions. The OSSB transmission system performance is assessed experimentally by the transport of 4 WiMax channels modulating a 10 GHz optical upconverted RF carrier as well as for optical frequency doubling and tripling. The 10 GHz and tripled carrier at 30 GHz are dispersion tolerant resulting both in an average relative constellation error (RCE) of -28.7 dB after 40 km of fibre. PMID:22274056

  17. ASEAN+3 Bond Market Guides

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    The ASEAN+3 Bond Market Guide contains the comprehensive reports of the ASEAN+3 Bond Market Forum Sub-Forum 1 (SF1) and Sub-Forum 2 (SF2). The SF1 report (Volume 1) analyzes the harmonization and standardization of the existing bond markets in the ASEAN+3. It also contains the individual market guides of 11 economies under the ASEAN+3 Bond Market Forum (ABMF). The SF2 report (Volume 2) provides an overview of the ASEAN+3 bond markets and their infrastructures, as well as issues confronted by ...

  18. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    The paper examines the role of structured bonds in the optimal portfolio of a small retail investor. We consider the typical structured bond essentially repacking an exotic option and a zero coupon bond, i.e. an investment with portfolio insurance. The optimal portfolio is found when the investment...... opportunities consist of a risky reference fund, a risk-free asset and a structured bond. Key model elements are the trading strategy and utility function of the investor. Our numerical results indicate structured bonds do have basis for consideration in the optimal portfolio. The product holdings are...

  19. A comprehensive study of the Kepler triples via eclipse timing

    Borkovits, T.; Hajdu, T.; Sztakovics, J.; Rappaport, S.; Levine, A.; Bíró, I. B.; Klagyivik, P.

    2016-02-01

    We produce and analyse eclipse time variation (ETV) curves for some 2600 Kepler binaries. We find good to excellent evidence for a third body in 222 systems via either the light-travel-time (LTTE) or dynamical effect delays. Approximately half of these systems have been discussed in previous work, while the rest are newly reported here. Via detailed analysis of the ETV curves using high-level analytic approximations, we are able to extract system masses and information about the three-dimensional characteristics of the triple for 62 systems which exhibit both LTTE and dynamical delays; for the remaining 160 systems, we give improved LTTE solutions. New techniques of pre-processing the flux time series are applied to eliminate false positive triples and to enhance the ETV curves. The set of triples with outer orbital periods shorter than ˜2000 d is now sufficiently numerous for meaningful statistical analysis. We find that (i) there is a peak near im ≃ 40° in the distribution of the triple versus inner binary mutual inclination angles that provides strong confirmation of the operation of Kozai-Lidov cycles with tidal friction; (ii) the median eccentricity of the third-body orbits is e2 = 0.35; (iii) there is a deficit of triple systems with binary periods ≲1 d and outer periods between ˜50 and 200 d which might help guide the refinement of theories of the formation and evolution of close binaries; and (iv) the substantial fraction of Kepler binaries which have third-body companions is consistent with a very large fraction of all binaries being part of triples.

  20. Merocyanine dyes containing imide functional groups: synthesis and studies on hydrogen bonding to melamine receptors.

    Würthner, Frank; Yao, Sheng

    2003-11-14

    The condensation of the CH acidic heterocycles 4-alkyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (5a and b) and barbituric acid (15) with electron-rich thiophene aldehydes and benzaldehyde derivatives affords the respective monomethine dyes 10-13 and 17-19. The formylation of 5a,b and 15 with N,N'-diphenylformamidine or dibutylformamide in acetic anhydride and further reaction with 4-picolinium salts 9a,b provide the dimethine dyes 14 and 20a,b. Triple hydrogen bonding of the imide groups of merocyanine dyes 10-14 has been investigated by NMR titration experiments with melamine 21. Despite rather pronounced variations of the charge-transfer properties within the given series of dyes, minor changes of their binding constants have been observed. These results could be rationalized by semiempirical calculations that reveal small changes in the charge density at the oxygen functionalities involved in hydrogen bonding upon variation of the electron-donating carbocyclic or heterocyclic groups at the terminal double bond. Although the binding constants for triple hydrogen bonding between imides and melamines are rather weak in chloroform, they proved to be strong enough to facilitate dissolution of some of these dyes in aliphatic solvents by coordination to amphiphilic melamines and dipolar aggregation. UV-vis spectral changes observed in methylcyclohexane vs chloroform suggest the formation of colloidal assemblies through noncovalent polymerization. PMID:14604366

  1. Steam Driven Triple Effect Absorption Solar Cooling System

    Yabase, Hajime; Makita, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    The authors propose a solar cooling system employing a steam-driven triple effect absorption chiller as a new technique for saving CO2 emission in the air conditioning field. The absorption chiller is a cooling machine using thermal energy as a drive source, and it is ideal for utilizing solar heat. In addition, by employing a triple effect absorption chiller of high efficiency, a high energy saving effect and a significant CO2 saving effect can be expected. As a result of studies, it has bee...

  2. RDF 1.1 Turtle : terse RDF triple language

    World Wide Web Consortium

    2014-01-01

    RDF es un lenguaje de objetivo general para la representación de la información en la Web. Este documento define una sintaxis textual para RDF llamada Turtle que permite a un grafo RDF ser completamente escrito en un formulario de texto compacto y natural, con las abreviaturas para los patrones y tipos de datos de uso común. Turtle ofrece niveles de compatibilidad con el formato N-Triples, así como la sintaxis de patrón triple de la Recomendación SPARQL del W3C.

  3. Triple pelvic osteotomy in the treatment of hip dysplasia

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insufficient femoral head coverage is found in a variety of diseases, with acetabular dysplasia as the most frequent disorder and triple pelvic osteotomy as the most recently introduced surgical treatment. Objective. This study analyses pre- and postoperative pathoanatomic characteristics of triple in comparison to Salter and Chiari osteotomies, with a logistic regression analysis of outcome predictor and effect explanator factors in relation to the chosen type of operation. Methods. The study involved 136 adolescents treated with Salter and Chiari osteotomies or a triple pelvic osteotomy at the Institute of Orthopaedic Surgery 'Banjica' in Belgrade. The patients were between 10-20 years old at the time of operation. We collected and analyzed data from all the patients: illness history, operative parameters, preoperative and postoperative pathoanatomic data. The data was statistically processed using the statistical software SPSS, defining standard descriptive values, and by using the appropriate tests of analytic statistics: t-test for dependent and independent variables, χ2-test, Fisher's exact test, Wilcoxon's test, parameter correlation, one-way ANOVA, multi-factorial ANOVA and logistic regression, according to the type of the analyzed data and the conditions under which the statistical methods were applied. Results. The average CE angle after triple pelvic osteotomy was 43.5°, more improved than after the Salter osteotomy (33.0° and Chiari osteotomy (31.4° (F=16.822; p<0.01. Postoperative spherical congruence was also more frequent after the triple osteotomy than after the other two types of operations, and with a high significance. Preoperative painful discomfort was found to be a valid predictor of indications for the triple osteotomy over both Chiari and Salter osteotomies. The valid explanators of effect for the triple osteotomy are: postoperative joint congruence (compared to the Chiari osteotomy and increase in joint

  4. Triple-mode squeezing with dressed six-wave mixing

    Wen, Feng; Li, Zepei; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Che, Junling; Che, Junling; Abdulkhaleq, Hasan; Zhang, Yanpeng; Wang, Hongxing

    2016-05-01

    The theory of proof-of-principle triple-mode squeezing is proposed via spontaneous parametric six-wave mixing process in an atomic-cavity coupled system. Special attention is focused on the role of dressed state and nonlinear gain on triple-mode squeezing process. Using the dressed state theory, we find that optical squeezing and Autler-Towns splitting of cavity mode can be realized with nonlinear gain, while the efficiency and the location of maximum squeezing point can be effectively shaped by dressed state in atomic ensemble. Our proposal can find applications in multi-channel communication and multi-channel quantum imaging.

  5. Triple-point wetting of molecular hydrogen isotopes

    Sohaili, Masoud; Klier, Jürgen; Leiderer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Triple-point wetting is a well-known phenomenon of simple adsorbates on solid substrates, which involves, in the liquid phase above the triple-point temperature, T3, complete wetting with the formation of arbitrary thick films being observed, whereas below T3 only a few monolayers of the solid phase are adsorbed at saturated vapour pressure. This effect is usually ascribed to the substrate-induced strain in the solid film, which occurs due to the lattice mismatch and the strong van der Waals ...

  6. Triple-Point Wetting of Molecular Hydrogen on Tailored Substrates

    Sohaili, Masoud; Klier, Jürgen; Leiderer, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Triple-point wetting is a well-known phenomenon of many simple adsorbates on solid substrates. It implies that in the liquid phase above the triple-point temperature, T3, complete wetting with the formation of arbitrarily thick films is observed, whereas below T3 only a few monolayers of the solid phase are adsorbed at saturated vapour pressure. This effect is usually ascribed to substrate-induced strain in the solid film, which occurs due to lattice mismatch and/or the strong van der Waals p...

  7. Tunable supercurrent in a triangular triple quantum dot system

    The supercurrent in a triangular triple quantum dot system is investigated by using the nonequilibrium Green's function method. It is found that the sign of the supercurrent can be changed from positive to negative with increasing the strength of spin-flip scattering, resulting in the π-junction transition. The supercurrent and the π-junction transition are also modulated by tuning the system parameters such as the gate voltage and the interdot coupling. The tunable π-junction transition is explained in terms of the current carrying density of states. These results provide the ways of manipulating the supercurrent in a triple quantum dot system.

  8. Silicon carbide wafer bonding by modified surface activated bonding method

    Suga, Tadatomo; Mu, Fengwen; Fujino, Masahisa; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Nakazawa, Haruo; Iguchi, Kenichi

    2015-03-01

    4H-SiC wafer bonding has been achieved by the modified surface activated bonding (SAB) method without any chemical-clean treatment and high temperature annealing. Strong bonding between the SiC wafers with tensile strength greater than 32 MPa was demonstrated at room temperature under 5 kN force for 300 s. Almost the entire wafer has been bonded very well except a small peripheral region and few voids. The interface structure was analyzed to verify the bonding mechanism. It was found an amorphous layer existed as an intermediate layer at the interface. After annealing at 1273 K in vacuum for 1 h, the bonding tensile strength was still higher than 32 MPa. The interface changes after annealing were also studied. The results show that the thickness of the amorphous layer was reduced to half after annealing.

  9. Interplay between Peptide Bond Geometrical Parameters in Nonglobular Structural Contexts

    Luciana Esposito

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several investigations performed in the last two decades have unveiled that geometrical parameters of protein backbone show a remarkable variability. Although these studies have provided interesting insights into one of the basic aspects of protein structure, they have been conducted on globular and water-soluble proteins. We report here a detailed analysis of backbone geometrical parameters in nonglobular proteins/peptides. We considered membrane proteins and two distinct fibrous systems (amyloid-forming and collagen-like peptides. Present data show that in these systems the local conformation plays a major role in dictating the amplitude of the bond angle N-Cα-C and the propensity of the peptide bond to adopt planar/nonplanar states. Since the trends detected here are in line with the concept of the mutual influence of local geometry and conformation previously established for globular and water-soluble proteins, our analysis demonstrates that the interplay of backbone geometrical parameters is an intrinsic and general property of protein/peptide structures that is preserved also in nonglobular contexts. For amyloid-forming peptides significant distortions of the N-Cα-C bond angle, indicative of sterical hidden strain, may occur in correspondence with side chain interdigitation. The correlation between the dihedral angles Δω/ψ in collagen-like models may have interesting implications for triple helix stability.

  10. Credit default swaps, bond spreads and the bond market

    Zhu, Meicheng

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of the credit default swap (CDS) market, the issue of how the introduction of CDSs affects the corporate bond market has been of particular interest to researchers and policy makers. This has been investigated in the literature from two perspectives. One is to examine the relationship between the CDS and the bond markets in price discovery, and the other is concerned with researching the CDS trading effects on bond spreads. Referring to the former approach, most rel...

  11. Solder extrusion pressure bonding process and bonded products produced thereby

    Beavis, Leonard C.; Karnowsky, Maurice M.; Yost, Frederick G.

    1992-01-01

    Production of soldered joints which are highly reliable and capable of surviving 10,000 thermal cycles between about -40.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. Process involves interposing a thin layer of a metal solder composition between the metal surfaces of members to be bonded and applying heat and up to about 1000 psi compression pressure to the superposed members, in the presence of a reducing atmosphere, to extrude the major amount of the solder composition, contaminants including fluxing gases and air, from between the members being bonded, to form a very thin, strong intermetallic bonding layer having a thermal expansion tolerant with that of the bonded members.

  12. Avoiding silicon/glass bonding damage with fusion bonding method

    Daohong Yang(杨道虹); Chen Xu(徐晨); Guangdi Shen(沈光地)

    2004-01-01

    A novel fusion bonding method between silicon and glass with Nd:YAG laser is described.This method overcomes the movable mechanical parts damage caused by the electrostatics force in micro-electronic machine-system(MEMS)device during the anodic bonding. The diameter of laser spot is 300 μm,the power of laser is 100 W,the laser velocity for bonding is 0.05 m/s,the average bonding tension is 6.3 MPa.It could distinctly reduce and eliminate the defects and damage,especially in movable sensitive mechanical parts of MEMS device.

  13. 19 CFR 113.12 - Bond application.

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond application. 113.12 Section 113.12 Customs... CUSTOMS BONDS Bond Application and Approval of Bond § 113.12 Bond application. (a) Single entry bond application. In order to insure that the revenue is adequately protected the port director may require...

  14. LAMMPS Framework for Directional Dynamic Bonding

    2012-01-01

    We have extended the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS) to support directional bonds and dynamic bonding. The framework supports stochastic formation of new bonds, breakage of existing bonds, and conversion between bond types. Bond formation can be controlled to li...

  15. Images of triple gas electron multiplier with pixel-pads

    Testing of a triple gas electron multiplier (GEM) with pixel-pads is described. Images by scanning and suspending radioactive sources were obtained by using 96 channels digital data acquisition (DAQ) system which was composed of 96 8 × 8 mm2 pads and associated electronics channels. (nuclear physics)

  16. An improved computer controlled triple-axis neutron spectrometer

    A description is given of the computer-controlled triple-axis neutron spectrometer installed at the PLUTO reactor at Harwell. The reasons for an nature of recent major improvements are discussed. Following a general description of the spectrometer, details are then given of the new computerised control system, including the functions of the various programs which are now available to the user. (author)

  17. Aluminum Silicate System: Experimental Determination of the Triple Point.

    Bell, P M

    1963-03-15

    The kyanite-sillimanite-andalusite triple point exists in the pressure-temperature plane at 8 +/- 0.5 kb and 300 +/- 50 degrees C. Reactions are accomplished experimentally with a Bridgman opposed-anvil press (with an external furnace), modified to provide shearing of the sample charges. All three equilibrium boundaries are proved by reversed reactions. PMID:17812984

  18. The triple-pole pomeron: Regge theory and DGLAP evolution

    Soyez, G.

    2003-01-01

    We will explain how it is possible to link Regge theory with DGLAP evolution using a triple-pole pomeron model. We will first show that Regge theory can be used to constrain the initial condition for DGLAP evolution. We will then spell out a method to extract Regge couplings at high Q^2 using DGLAP evolution.

  19. The EU must triple its energy saving policy effect

    Wesselink, B.; Eichhammer, W.; Harmsen, R.

    2010-01-01

    The impact of EU energy savings policy must triple to achieve the bloc’s 2020 energy savings goal. But such efforts could get a much better foundation if European leaders set a binding energy consumption target, rather than the current indicative savings target. The evidence for such conclusion is p

  20. Structural constraints regulating triple helix formation by A-tracts.

    Sen, A; Gräslund, A

    2000-12-15

    The study concerns the propensity of triple helix formation by different DNA oligonucleotides containing long A-tracts with and without flanking GxC base pairs in order to probe the role of length of the A-tract and the flanking sequences. From nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of imino proton spectra and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of samples composed of potential triplex forming strand sequences in correct stoichiometries, we have concluded that 8-mer A-tracts flanked by GxC base pairs exert significant steric hindrance to triple helix formation. When as much as 50 mM Mg2+ was added, no triple helix formation was observed in these samples. In contrast, open-ended 8-mer A-tracts formed triplex with the corresponding two T8 strands under relatively mild ionic conditions (100 mM Na+). Moreover, the shorter the length of the A-tract, the less is the hindrance to form a triple helix. PMID:11152277

  1. Chemical application of positron annihilation through triple coincidence measurement

    This report summarises the work on the application of triple coincidence measurement of annihilation radiation for providing chemical state information; the observations have been corroborated by angular correlation and Doppler broadening measurements and supplemented by the magnetic quenching in the angular correlation and peak-to-valley ratio in the Ge(Li) singles spectrum for the 511 keV line. (author)

  2. Performance test of a triple GEM chamber with Cosmics

    In this paper, the response of the detector to the cosmic muons is reported and the efficiency of charged particle detection of the chamber at different GEM voltages is estimated . This study would help in optimizing the operating conditions of the triple GEM chamber

  3. Co-innovatie Triple P: integratie van marketingstrategie en personeelsbeleid

    Bartels, J.; Hendriks, R.; Ruyter, de P.; Zeelenberg, A.; Engelsman, V.; Eichelsheim, C.; Skoppek, H.; Schmidt, M.

    2008-01-01

    Dit project richt zicht op de integratie van Triple P marketing en personeelsbeleid. Het doel van het project luidt als volgt: “Hoe kun je in de marketing van biologische groenten en fruit effectief gebruik maken van de intrinsieke waarden van duurzame landbouw en maatschappelijk verantwoord onderne

  4. The Principle of Relativity and Special Relativity Triple

    Guo, Han-Ying; Wu, Hong-Tu; Zhou, Bin

    2008-01-01

    Based on the principle of relativity and the postulate on universal invariant constants ($c,l$) as well as Einstein's isotropy conditions, three kinds of special relativity form a triple with a common Lorentz group as isotropy group under full Umov-Weyl-Fock-Lorentz transformations among inertial motions.

  5. A Comprehensive Study of the Kepler Triples via Eclipse Timing

    Borkovits, T; Sztakovics, J; Rappaport, S; Levine, A; Bíró, I B; Klagyivik, P

    2015-01-01

    We produce and analyze eclipse time variation (ETV) curves for some 2600 Kepler binaries. We find good to excellent evidence for a third body in 222 systems via either the light-travel-time (LTTE) or dynamical effect delays. Approximately half of these systems have been discussed in previous work, while the rest are newly reported here. Via detailed analysis of the ETV curves using high-level analytic approximations, we are able to extract system masses and information about the three-dimensional characteristics of the triple for 62 systems which exhibit both LTTE and dynamical delays; for the remaining 160 systems we give improved LTTE solutions. New techniques of preprocessing the flux time series are applied to eliminate false positive triples and to enhance the ETV curves. The set of triples with outer orbital periods shorter than $\\sim$2000 days is now sufficiently numerous for meaningful statistical analysis. We find that (i) there is a peak near i_m~40 deg in the distribution of the triple vs. inner bi...

  6. Hyperspherical Integration and the Triple-Cross Vertex Graphs

    Laporta, S.

    1994-01-01

    We have extended the hyperspherical variables method to the analytical calculation of the angular integral of the box graph. We discuss the applications of our results to the analytical calculation of the QED contribution to the electron g-2 of the set of three-loop triple-cross vertex graphs.

  7. Software for goniometer control in the Triple Ion Implantation Facility

    Allen, W.R.

    1994-02-01

    A computer program is described tat controls the goniometer employed in the ion scattering chamber of the Triple Ion Implantation Facility (TIF) in the Metals and Ceramics Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Details of goniometer operation and its incorporation into the ion scattering setup specific to the TIF are also discussed.

  8. Carboplatin and Eribulin Mesylate in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    2015-06-23

    Estrogen Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; HER2-negative Breast Cancer; Male Breast Cancer; Progesterone Receptor-negative Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  9. Simulation of triple junction motion with arbitrary surface tensions

    Shofianah, N.; Muhammad, R. Z.; Švadlenka, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2015), s. 235-244. ISSN 1992-9978 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : triple junction motion * mean curvature flow * surface tension Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.iaeng.org/IJAM/issues_v45/issue_3/IJAM_45_3_09.pdf

  10. Stellar evolution and the triple-α reactions

    Suda, Takuma [Osawa 2-21-1, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2014-05-02

    Nuclear reaction rates play a crucial role in the evolution of stars. For low-mass stars, the triple-α reaction controls the helium burning stars in the red giant and asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. More importantly, the cross section of the triple-α reaction has a great impact on the helium ignition at the center of the electron degenerate helium core of red giants and on the helium shell flashes of AGB stars. It is to be noted that stellar evolution models are influenced not only by the value of the cross section, but also by the temperature dependence of the reaction rate. In this paper, I present the impact of the triple-α reaction rates on the evolution of low-mass metal-free stars and intermediate-mass AGB stars. According to the previous study, the constraint on the triple-α reaction rate is derived based on stellar evolution theory. It is found that the recent revisions of the rate proposed by nuclear physics calculations satisfy the condition for the ignition of the helium core flash in low-mass stars.

  11. Performance Characteristics of a New Hybrid Triple Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Tandem Mass Spectrometer

    Andrews, Genna L.; Simons, Brigitte L.; Young, J. Bryce; Hawkridge, Adam M.; David C Muddiman

    2011-01-01

    The TripleTOF 5600 System, a hybrid triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer, was evaluated to explore the key figures of merit in generating peptide and protein identifications which included spectral acquisition rates, data quality, proteome coverage, and biological depth. Employing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae tryptic digest, careful consideration of several performance features demonstrated that the speed of the TripleTOF contributed most to the resultant data. The TripleTOF syste...

  12. Integration of European Bond Markets

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non-EMU memb......I investigate the time variation in the integration of EU government bond markets. The integration is measured by the explanatory power of European factor portfolios for the individual bond markets for each year. The integration of the government bond markets is stronger for EMU than non......-EMU members and stronger for old than new EU members. For EMU countries, the integration is weaker the lower the credit rating is. During the recent crisis periods, the integration is weaker, particularly for EMU countries....

  13. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper;

    2015-01-01

    -chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... higher yields in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar...... predicts four additional four disulfide insulin analogues which could be expressed. Although the location of the additional disulfide bonds is only slightly shifted, this shift impacts both stability and activity of the resulting insulin analogues....

  14. Supersymmetric Valence Bond Solid States

    Arovas, Daniel P.; Hasebe, Kazuki; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    In this work we investigate the supersymmetric version of the valence bond solid (SVBS) state. In one dimension, the SVBS states continuously interpolate between the valence bond states for integer and half-integer spin chains, and they generally describe superconducting valence bond liquid states. Spin and superconducting correlation functions can be computed exactly for these states, and their correlation lengths are equal at the supersymmetric point. In higher dimensions, the wave function...

  15. Mezzanine finance and corporate bonds

    Libena TETREVOVA

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the problems of mezzanine finance in relation to corporate bonds. Firstly, attention is paid to definition of mezzanine finance. The term mezzanine finance is used as a term for hybrid forms of financing that combine elements of debt and equity financing. Mezzanine finance represents an alternative form of financing corporate activities. Secondly, possible forms of mezzanine finance are characterized. We can say that special types of corporate bonds (convertible bonds a...

  16. Hydrogen Bonds Involving Metal Centers

    Pavlović, G.; N. Raos

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen bonds involving metal center as a hydrogen donor or hydrogen acceptor are only a specific type of metal-hydrogen interactions; it is therefore not easy to differentiate hydrogen bond from other metal-hydrogen interactions, especially agostic ones. The first part of the review is therefore devoted to the results of structural chemistry and molecular spectroscopy (NMR, IR), as a tool for differentiating hydrogen bondings from other hydrogen interactions. The classical examples of Pt···...

  17. Combinatorics of RNA Secondary Structures with Base Triples.

    Müller, Robert; Nebel, Markus E

    2015-07-01

    The structure of RNA has been the subject of intense research over the last decades due to its importance for the correct functioning of RNA molecules in biological processes. Hence, a large number of models for RNA folding and corresponding algorithms for structure prediction have been developed. However, previous models often only consider base pairs, although every base is capable of up to three edge-to-edge interactions with other bases. Recently, Höner zu Siederdissen et al. presented an extended model of RNA secondary structure, including base triples together with a folding algorithm-the first thermodynamics-based algorithm that allows the prediction of secondary structures with base triples. In this article, we investigate the search space processed by this new algorithm, that is, the combinatorics of extended RNA secondary structures with base triples. We present generalized definitions for structural motifs like hairpins, stems, bulges, or interior loops occurring in structures with base triples. Furthermore, we prove precise asymptotic results for the number of different structures (size of search space) and expectations for various parameters associated with structural motifs (typical shape of folding). Our analysis shows that the asymptotic number of secondary structures of size n increases exponentially to [Formula: see text] compared to the classic model by Stein and Waterman for which [Formula: see text] structures exist. A comparison with the classic model reveals large deviations in the expected structural appearance, too. The inclusion of base triples constitutes a significant refinement of the combinatorial model of RNA secondary structure, which, by our findings, is quantitatively characterized. Our results are of special theoretical interest, because a closer look at the numbers involved suggests that extended RNA secondary structures constitute a new combinatorial class not bijective with any other combinatorial objects studied so far. PMID

  18. Strategic Clinical Networks: Alberta's Response to Triple Aim.

    Noseworthy, Tom; Wasylak, Tracy; O'Neill, Blair J

    2016-01-01

    Verma and Bhatia make a compelling case for the Triple Aim to promote health system innovation and sustainability. We concur. Moreover, the authors offer a useful categorization of policies and actions to advance the Triple Aim under the "classic functions" of financing, stewardship and resource generation (Verma and Bhatia 2016). The argument is tendered that provincial governments should embrace the Triple Aim in the absence of federal government leadership, noting that, by international standards, we are at best mediocre and, more realistically, fighting for the bottom in comparative, annual cross-country surveys. Ignoring federal government participation in Medicare and resorting solely to provincial leadership seems to make sense for the purposes of this discourse; but, it makes no sense at all if we are attempting to achieve high performance in Canada's non-system (Canada Health Action: Building on the Legacy 1997; Commission on the Future of Health Care in Canada 2002; Lewis 2015). As for enlisting provincial governments, we heartily agree. A great deal can be accomplished by the Council of the Federation of Canadian Premiers. But, the entire basis for this philosophy and the reference paper itself assumes a top-down approach to policy and practice. That is what we are trying to change in Alberta and we next discuss. Bottom-up clinically led change, driven by measurement and evidence, has to meet with the top-down approach being presented and widely practiced. While true for each category of financing, stewardship and resource generation, in no place is this truer than what is described and included in "health system stewardship." This commentary draws from Verma and Bhatia (2016) and demonstrates how Alberta, through the use of Strategic Clinical Networks (SCNs), is responding to the Triple Aim. We offer three examples of provincially scaled innovations, each representing one or more arms of the Triple Aim. PMID:27009587

  19. Photoinduced hydrogen-bonding dynamics.

    Chu, Tian-Shu; Xu, Jinmei

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogen bonding dynamics has received extensive research attention in recent years due to the significant advances in femtolaser spectroscopy experiments and quantum chemistry calculations. Usually, photoexcitation would cause changes in the hydrogen bonding formed through the interaction between hydrogen donor and acceptor molecules on their ground electronic states, and such transient strengthening or weakening of hydrogen bonding could be crucial for the photophysical transformations and the subsequent photochemical reactions that occurred on a time scale from tens of femtosecond to a few nanoseconds. In this article, we review the combined experimental and theoretical studies focusing on the ultrafast electronic and vibrational hydrogen bonding dynamics. Through these studies, new mechanisms and proposals and common rules have been put forward to advance our understanding of the hydrogen bondings dynamics in a variety of important photoinduced phenomena like photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer processes, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network including forming and breaking hydrogen bond in water. Graphical Abstract We review the recent advances on exploring the photoinduced hydrogen bonding dynamics in solutions through a joint approach of laser spectroscopy and theoretical calculation. The reviewed studies have put forward a new mechanism, new proposal, and new rule for a variety of photoinduced phenomena such as photosynthesis, dual fluorescence emission, rotational reorientation, excited-state proton transfer and charge transfer, chemosensor fluorescence sensing, and rearrangements of the hydrogen-bond network in water. PMID:27491849

  20. Wafer bonding applications and technology

    Gösele, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    During the past decade direct wafer bonding has developed into a mature materials integration technology. This book presents state-of-the-art reviews of the most important applications of wafer bonding written by experts from industry and academia. The topics include bonding-based fabrication methods of silicon-on-insulator, photonic crystals, VCSELs, SiGe-based FETs, MEMS together with hybrid integration and laser lift-off. The non-specialist will learn about the basics of wafer bonding and its various application areas, while the researcher in the field will find up-to-date information about this fast-moving area, including relevant patent information.

  1. A simplified indirect bonding technique

    Radha Katiyar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of lingual orthodontics, indirect bonding technique has become an integral part of practice. It involves placement of brackets initially on the models and then their transfer to teeth with the help of transfer trays. Problems encountered with current indirect bonding techniques used are (1 the possibility of adhesive flash remaining around the base of the brackets which requires removal (2 longer time required for the adhesive to gain enough bond strength for secure tray removal. The new simplified indirect bonding technique presented here overcomes both these problems.

  2. mTOR in breast cancer: differential expression in triple-negative and non-triple-negative tumors.

    Walsh, S

    2012-04-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is defined by the absence of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and overexpression of HER2. Targeted therapy is currently unavailable for this subgroup of breast cancer patients. mTOR controls cancer cell growth, survival and invasion and is thus a potential target for the treatment of patients with TNBC. Using immunohistochemistry, mTOR and p-mTOR were measured in 89 TNBCs and 99 non-TNBCs. While mTOR expression was confined to tumor cell cytoplasm, p-mTOR staining was located in the nucleus, perinuclear area and in the cytoplasm. Potentially important, was our finding that nuclear p-mTOR was found more frequently in triple-negative than non triple-negative cancers (p < 0.001). These results suggest that mTOR may play a more important role in the progression of TNBC compared to non-TNBC. Based on these findings, we conclude that mTOR may be a new target for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer.

  3. Reactive Bonding Film for Bonding Carbon Foam Through Metal Extrusion

    Chertok, Maxwell; Irving, Michael; Neher, Christian; Tripathi, Mani; Wang, Ruby; Zheng, Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Future tracking detectors, such as those under development for the High Luminosity LHC, will require mechanical structures employing novel materials to reduce mass while providing excellent strength, thermal conductivity, and radiation tolerance. Adhesion methods for such materials are under study at present. This paper demonstrates the use of reactive bonding film as an adhesion method for bonding carbon foam.

  4. Digital Control of Bonding Force for Gold Wire Bonding Machine

    Xiaochu Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to digitally control the bonding force of a wire bonder precisely, this paper uses a DC solenoid as a force source, and by controlling the solenoid’s current, which causes the electromagnetic force, we can control the bonding force that capillary applies. The bonding force control system in this paper is composed of PC (Personal Computer and hypogyny MCU (Micro Controller Unit, which communicate using a RS485 interface. The digital value of a given bonding force is given by the PC to the MCU. By comparing the sampling current of the solenoid, and through PID regulation, D/A converter of the digital potentiometer and the solenoid driver circuit, the half-closed loop control system of bonding force is accomplished. Tuning of the PID parameters is accomplished with fuzzy adaptive control theory and simulated by Matlab simulink. The control system is tested by comparing the desired bonding force and the force actually applied and examming the relationship between bonding quality and bonding force.

  5. Prevalence of Germline Mutations in Genes Engaged in DNA Damage Repair by Homologous Recombination in Patients with Triple-Negative and Hereditary Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers.

    Pawel Domagala

    Full Text Available This study sought to assess the prevalence of common germline mutations in several genes engaged in the repair of DNA double-strand break by homologous recombination in patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers. Tumors deficient in this type of DNA damage repair are known to be especially sensitive to DNA cross-linking agents (e.g., platinum drugs and to poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors.Genetic testing was performed for 36 common germline mutations in genes engaged in the repair of DNA by homologous recombination, i.e., BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, NBN, ATM, PALB2, BARD1, and RAD51D, in 202 consecutive patients with triple-negative breast cancers and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers.Thirty five (22.2% of 158 patients in the triple-negative group carried mutations in genes involved in DNA repair by homologous recombination, while 10 (22.7% of the 44 patients in the hereditary non-triple-negative group carried such mutations. Mutations in BRCA1 were most frequent in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (18.4%, and mutations in CHEK2 were most frequent in patients with hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancers (15.9%. In addition, in the triple-negative group, mutations in CHEK2, NBN, and ATM (3.8% combined were found, while mutations in BRCA1, NBN, and PALB2 (6.8% combined were identified in the hereditary non-triple-negative group.Identifying mutations in genes engaged in DNA damage repair by homologous recombination other than BRCA1/2 can substantially increase the proportion of patients with triple-negative breast cancer and hereditary non-triple-negative breast cancer who may be eligible for therapy using PARP inhibitors and platinum drugs.

  6. Multiple Bonds Between Metal Atoms

    Cotton, F Albert; Walton, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Provides a discussion of preparations, reactions, bonding, and physical properties for two of the d-block transition metals in groups 5-10. This title includes catalytic and chemotherapeutic applications, and discusses metal-metal bonds of orders 0.5 to 4 discussed in than 4000 compounds, with citations to approximately 2500 references.

  7. Bondings for tubular solar collectors

    We studied the following four models of constructing solar collectors: tubes bonded above the absorber plate, tubes bonded under the absorber plate tubes in-line with the absorber plate and bondless tubes in-line with the absorber plate. 2 refs, 6 figs

  8. Computational Chemistry of Adhesive Bonds

    Phillips, Donald H.

    1999-01-01

    This investigation is intended to determine the electrical mechanical, and chemical properties of adhesive bonds at the molecular level. The initial determinations will be followed by investigations of the effects of environmental effects on the chemistry and properties of the bond layer.

  9. Quantum Confinement in Hydrogen Bond

    Santos, Carlos da Silva dos; Ricotta, Regina Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the quantum confinement effect is proposed as the cause of the displacement of the vibrational spectrum of molecular groups that involve hydrogen bonds. In this approach the hydrogen bond imposes a space barrier to hydrogen and constrains its oscillatory motion. We studied the vibrational transitions through the Morse potential, for the NH and OH molecular groups inside macromolecules in situation of confinement (when hydrogen bonding is formed) and non-confinement (when there is no hydrogen bonding). The energies were obtained through the variational method with the trial wave functions obtained from Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics (SQM) formalism. The results indicate that it is possible to distinguish the emission peaks related to the existence of the hydrogen bonds. These analytical results were satisfactorily compared with experimental results obtained from infrared spectroscopy.

  10. Roll bonding of strained aluminium

    Staun, Jakob M.

    2003-01-01

    This report investigates roll bonding of pre-strained (å ~ 4) aluminium sheets to produce high strain material from high purity aluminium (99.996%) and commercial pure aluminium (99.6%). The degree of bonding is investigated by optical microscopy and ultrasonic scanning. Under the right...... circumstances both materials show good bonding, but the high purity material is excluded because of recrystallisation and the resulting loss of mechanical properties. The effect of cross stacking and roll bonding pre-strained sheets of the commercial purity material is investigated and some dependence of the...... cross rolled volume fraction is found. To further asses this effect, and the anisotropy, it is necessary to acquire knowledge about both texture and microstructure, e.g. by TEM. Roll bonding of pre-strained aluminium is found to be a possible alternative to ARB in the quest for ultra-fine grained...

  11. Dynamical formation & scattering of hierarchical triples: Cross sections, Kozai-Lidov oscillations, and collisions

    Antognini, Joseph M O

    2015-01-01

    Dynamical scattering of binaries and triple systems of stars, planets, and compact objects may produce highly inclined triple systems subject to Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations, potentially leading to collisions, mergers, Type Ia supernovae, and other phenomena. We present the results of more than 400 million gravitational scattering experiments of binary-binary, triple-single, and triple-binary scattering. We compute the cross sections for all possible outcomes and explore their dependencies on incoming velocity, mass, semi-major axis, and eccentricity, including analytic fits and discussion of the velocity dependence. For the production of new triple systems by scattering we find that compact triples are preferred, with ratios of outer to inner semi-major axes of ~few--100, flat or quasi-thermal eccentricity distributions, and flat distributions in cosine of the mutual inclination. Dynamically formed triples are thus subject to strong KL oscillations, the "eccentric Kozai mechanism," and non-secular effects. ...

  12. Dentin-bonding agents

    João Carlos Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New dental restorative materials have been developed to meet not only the functional demands, but esthetics as well, and in the last few years an enormous range of new materials has appeared for use in dentistry. Among them, several adhesive systems, and different operative techniques for each group materials. Therefore, is indispensable for the professional to know about the properties, characteristics, and association of these materials with the dental structures, in order to select and use them correctly. Should conventional self-etching adhesive systems be used? This question encouraged this literature review to be conducted, with the aim of comparing the conventional adhesive systems with the self-etching systems and to look for scientific data that would help professionals to choose which adhesive system to use. When compared to conventional systems, it was noted that the self-etching systems show less sensitivity to technique, especially as regards errors the operator could commit. The self-etching systems, particularly the 2-step type, have shown equivalent values of bond strength, marginal microleakage and performance, therefore, will be an option for direct composite resin restorations in posterior teeth.

  13. A noniterative asymmetric triple excitation correction for the density-fitted coupled-cluster singles and doubles method: Preliminary applications

    Bozkaya, Uǧur

    2016-04-01

    An efficient implementation of the asymmetric triples correction for the coupled-cluster singles and doubles [ΛCCSD(T)] method [S. A. Kucharski and R. J. Bartlett, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 5243 (1998); T. D. Crawford and J. F. Stanton, Int. J. Quantum Chem. 70, 601 (1998)] with the density-fitting [DF-ΛCCSD(T)] approach is presented. The computational time for the DF-ΛCCSD(T) method is compared with that of ΛCCSD(T). Our results demonstrate that the DF-ΛCCSD(T) method provide substantially lower computational costs than ΛCCSD(T). Further application results show that the ΛCCSD(T) and DF-ΛCCSD(T) methods are very beneficial for the study of single bond breaking problems as well as noncovalent interactions and transition states. We conclude that ΛCCSD(T) and DF-ΛCCSD(T) are very promising for the study of challenging chemical systems, where the coupled-cluster singles and doubles with perturbative triples method fails.

  14. NLO QCD corrections to triple collinear splitting functions

    Sborlini, German F R

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we study the triple-collinear limit of scattering amplitudes, focusing the discussion in processes which include at least one photon. To deal with infrared divergences we applied dimensional regularization (DREG) and we worked in the time-like (TL) kinematical region in order to ensure the validity of strict-collinear factorization. Both polarized and unpolarized splitting functions were obtained using independent codes, which allowed to implement a first cross-check among them. The divergent structure of all the triple-collinear splittings was compared with the Catani's formula, and we found a complete agreement. Moreover, in the polarized case, this comparison imposed additional constraints in the finite part of some master integrals (MI). The analysis of photon-started splittings led to very compact expressions, because of gauge invariance. These contributions were identified with the Abelian terms of the remaining splitting functions, which constitutes another cross-check of the results.

  15. Mixed Hyperlipidemia Associated with Triple X Syndrome (A Case Report

    Anton-Pǎduraru Dana-Teodora

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism abnormalities in children may be hereditary or secondary to certain diseases (obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus. Often elevated triglycerides values are associated with high cholesterol values, playing a major role on atherosclerosis. The triple X syndrome also called “the superfemale syndrome” is not a rare condition, but it is usually undiagnosed or occasionally diagnosed when other investigations are done. The authors present the case of a child admitted in the 3rd Clinic of Pediatrics -“Sf. Maria” Children’s Emergency Hospital, Iaşi -Romania for the continuation of her lipid metabolism investigations, being diagnosed on this occasion with the triple X syndrome. We conclude that the investigation of lipid metabolism, early identification of lipid abnormalities and proper treatment significantly reduce the prevalence of cardiovascular disease in adults. We cannot specify the impact of the presence of the chromosomal anomaly, as it is an accidental association

  16. Viscous solution of the triple shock reflection problem

    Lau-Chapdelaine, S She-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The reflection of a triple-shock configuration was studied numerically in two dimensions using the Navier-Stokes equations. The flow field was initialized using three shock theory, and the reflection of the triple point on a plane of symmetry was studied. The conditions simulated a stoichiometric methane-oxygen detonation cell at low pressure on time scales preceding ignition, when the gas was assumed to be thermodynamically inert. Viscosity was found to play an important role on some shock reflection mechanisms believed to accelerate reaction rates in detonations where time scales are small. A small wall jet was present in the double Mach reflection and increased in size with Reynolds number, eventually forming a small vortex. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were absent and there was no Mach stem bifurcation at Reynolds numbers corresponding to and exceeding the induction length. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are unlikely to be a source of rapid reactions in detonations at time scales commensurate with the i...

  17. Artificial neural network analysis of triple effect absorption refrigeration systems

    Hajizadeh Aghdam, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: a.hajizadeh@iaukashan.ac.ir; Nazmara, H.; Farzaneh, B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: h.nazmara@nioec.org, email: b_farzaneh_ms@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In this study, artificial neural networks are utilized to predict the performance of triple effect series and parallel flow absorption refrigeration systems, with lithium bromide/water as the working fluid. Important parameters such as high generator and evaporator temperatures were varied and their effects on the performance characteristics of the refrigeration unit were observed. Absorption refrigeration systems make energy savings possible because they can use heat energy to produce cooling, in place of the electricity used for conventional vapour compression chillers. In addition, non-conventional sources of energy (such as solar, waste heat, and geothermal) can be utilized as their primary energy input. Moreover, absorption units use environmentally friendly working fluid pairs instead of CFCs and HCFCs, which affect the ozone layer. Triple effect absorption cycles were analysed. Results apply for both series and parallel flow systems. A relative preference for parallel-flow over series-flow is also shown.

  18. Triple Helix Formation in a Topologically Controlled DNA Nanosystem.

    Yamagata, Yutaro; Emura, Tomoko; Hidaka, Kumi; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Endo, Masayuki

    2016-04-11

    In the present study, we demonstrate single-molecule imaging of triple helix formation in DNA nanostructures. The binding of the single-molecule third strand to double-stranded DNA in a DNA origami frame was examined using two different types of triplet base pairs. The target DNA strand and the third strand were incorporated into the DNA frame, and the binding of the third strand was controlled by the formation of Watson-Crick base pairing. Triple helix formation was monitored by observing the structural changes in the incorporated DNA strands. It was also examined using a photocaged third strand wherein the binding of the third strand was directly observed using high-speed atomic force microscopy during photoirradiation. We found that the binding of the third strand could be controlled by regulating duplex formation and the uncaging of the photocaged strands in the designed nanospace. PMID:26938310

  19. A compact triple-band bandpass filter based on metamaterials

    Zhao, Ya-juan; Jiang, Bo; Li, Bao-yi; Wang, Dong-hong

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a compact triple-band bandpass filter based on metamaterials. The miniaturization is realized by the principle of phase compensation of metamaterial. Compared with the conventional half-wavelength filter, the metamaterial filter has a small size of 10 mm×10 mm. The triple-band bandpass filter performance has been validated by the electromagnetic simulation software of high frequency structure simulator (HFSS). The results illustrate that the filter is designed with center frequencies of 2.4 GHz, 5.1 GHz and 8.8 GHz, bandwidths of about 7.9% (2.31—2.50 GHz), 7.8% (5.0—5.4 GHz) and 7.4% (8.50—9.15 GHz), respectively, and it shows good band pass characteristics.

  20. Triple neutral gauge boson couplings in noncommutative Standard Model

    Deshpande, N. G.; He, Xiao-Gang

    2002-05-01

    It has been shown recently that the triple neutral gauge boson couplings are not uniquely determined in noncommutative extension of the Standard Model (NCSM). Depending on specific schemes used, the couplings are different and may even be zero. To distinguish different realizations of the NCSM, additional information either from theoretical or experimental considerations is needed. In this Letter we show that these couplings can be uniquely determined from considerations of unification of electroweak and strong interactions. Using SU(5) as the underlying theory and integrating out the heavy degrees of freedom, we obtain unique non-zero new triple γγγ, γγZ, γZZ, ZZZ, γGG, ZGG and GGG couplings at the leading order in the NCSM. We also briefly discuss experimental implications.

  1. Triple Neutral Gauge Boson Couplings in Noncommutative Standard Model

    Deshpande, N G; He, Xiao-Gang

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown recently that the triple neutral gauge boson couplings are not uniquely determined in noncommutative extension of the Standard Model (NCSM). Depending on specific schemes used, the couplings are different and may even be zero. To distinguish different realizations of the NCSM, additional information either from theoretical or experimental considerations is needed. In this paper we show that these couplings can be uniquely determined from considerations of unification of electroweak and strong interactions. Using SU(5) as the underlying theory and integrating out the heavy degrees of freedom, we obtain unique non-zero new triple $\\gamma\\gamma\\gamma$, $\\gamma \\gamma Z$, $\\gamma ZZ$, $ZZZ$, $\\gamma GG$, $ZGG$ and $GGG$ couplings at the leading order in the NCSM. We also briefly discuss experimental implications.

  2. Accelerated Search for Gaussian Generator Based on Triple Prime Integers

    Boris S. Verkhovsky

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern cryptographic algorithms are based on complexity of two problems: Integer factorization of real integers and a Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP. Approach: The latter problem is even more complicated in the domain of complex integers, where Public Key Cryptosystems (PKC had an advantage over analogous encryption-decryption protocols in arithmetic of real integers modulo p: The former PKC have quadratic cycles of order O (p2 while the latter PKC had linear cycles of order O(p. Results: An accelerated non-deterministic search algorithm for a primitive root (generator in a domain of complex integers modulo triple prime p was provided in this study. It showed the properties of triple primes, the frequencies of their occurrence on a specified interval and analyzed the efficiency of the proposed algorithm. Conclusion: Numerous computer experiments and their analysis indicated that three trials were sufficient on average to find a Gaussian generator.

  3. Triple dividends of water consumption charges in South Africa

    Letsoalo, Anthony; Blignaut, James; de Wet, Theuns; de Wit, Martin; Hess, Sebastiaan; Tol, Richard S. J.; van Heerden, Jan

    2007-05-01

    The South African government is exploring ways to address water scarcity problems by introducing a water resource management charge on the quantity of water used in sectors such as irrigated agriculture, mining, and forestry. It is expected that a more efficient water allocation, lower use, and a positive impact on poverty can be achieved. This paper reports on the validity of these claims by applying a computable general equilibrium model to analyze the triple dividend of water consumption charges in South Africa: reduced water use, more rapid economic growth, and a more equal income distribution. It is shown that an appropriate budget-neutral combination of water charges, particularly on irrigated agriculture and coal mining, and reduced indirect taxes, particularly on food, would yield triple dividends, that is, less water use, more growth, and less poverty.

  4. Triple intussusception involving heterotopic pancreatic tissue: a case report

    Sautot-Vial N

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Intussusception involving heterotopic pancreatic tissue is a rare condition where a portion of the bowel telescopes into an adjacent segment with intraluminal pancreatic tissue as the lead point. Cases of heterotopic pancreas are most often described in the upper intestinal tract, particularly the stomach. Case presentation We present the case of a five-month-old boy of Caucasian ethnicity suffering acute abdominal pain and vomiting with an abdominal mass in the upper right quadrant. Work-up including ultrasound scan confirmed the intussusception. Repeated attempts at radiological reduction and two laparoscopic procedures were performed within 24 hours, which eventually led to the diagnosis of a triple intussusception. Conclusion To our knowledge, such a case of triple intussusception involving isolated heterotopic pancreatic tissue is previously unreported.

  5. GSC 03144-595, a new triple-mode HADS

    Mow, Ben; Nhim, Samantha; Watkins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a multi-year study of the high-amplitude $\\delta$ Scuti (HADS) star GSC 03144-595. The star was observed between June and September in 2011 and 2014 for 13 nights and 28 nights respectively. Based on our results we argue that GSC 03144-595 is a new triple-mode radially pulsating HADS, only the fifth discovered and only the second that has a fundamental frequency in the traditional $\\delta$ Scuti regime. While the frequencies and amplitudes of the fundamental and first harmonic were found to be unchanged between 2011 and 2014, we found that the amplitude of the second harmonic increased by 44\\%, a form of evolution not previously seen. This finding suggests that the second harmonic may be transient, thus explaining the scarcity of triple mode HADS stars.

  6. Climate variability according to triple saros gravity cycles

    Livingston, William R

    2013-01-01

    I describe a climate model which corresponds directly to eclipse cycles. The theory is based upon a similarity between the 54 year triple saros eclipse period and the periodicity of drought. I argue that eclipse shadows are an indication of gravity cycles, and that variable lunar gravitation is the most significant aspect of the eclipse process. I reinforce the idea that lunar gravitational forcing has a profound effect on the water vapor in Earth's atmosphere, and can affect the density and location of clouds. I explore the possibility that decadal variability of ocean surface levels may be explained by triple saros gravity cycles. I point out that lunar gravitation was excluded from the most significant climate report of 2007, and that climate data contradictions have been overlooked by researchers. I focus on the value of data that has not been aggregated into global averages. I touch upon the history of global warming, and I offer predictions based upon 54 year climate periodicity.

  7. Heavy Neutrino Impact on the Triple Higgs Coupling

    Baglio, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We present the first calculation of the one-loop corrections to the triple Higgs coupling in the framework of a simplified 3+1 Dirac neutrino model, that is three light neutrinos plus one heavy neutrino embedded in the Standard Model (SM). The triple Higgs coupling is a key parameter of the scalar potential triggering the electroweak symmetry-breaking mechanism in the SM. The impact of the heavy neutrino can be as large as +20% to +30% for parameter points allowed by the current experimental constraints depending on the tightness of the perturbative bound. This can be probed at the high-luminosity LHC and at the Future Circular Collider in hadron-hadron mode, an envisioned 100 TeV pp machine. The effects that we have calculated are expected to be enhanced if more heavy neutrinos are included, as in low-scale seesaw mechanisms.

  8. Photodissociation of methyl formate: Conical intersections, roaming and triple fragmentation

    Lin, King-Chuen; Tsai, Po-Yu [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Chao, Meng-Hsuan [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Kasai, Toshio [Department of Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate School of Science, Department of Chemistry, Osaka University, Toyonaka, 560-0043 Osaka (Japan); Lombardi, Andrea [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Palazzetti, Federico [Scuola Normale Superiore, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Aquilanti, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Struttura della Materia, 00016 Roma (Italy)

    2015-12-31

    The photodissociation channels of methyl formate have been extensively investigated by two different advanced experimental techniques, ion imaging and Fourier-Transform-Infrared emission spectroscopy, combined with quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Our aim is to characterize the role of alternative routes to the conventional transition-state mediated pathway: the roaming and the triple fragmentation processes. The photolysis experiments, carried out at a range of laser wavelengths in the vicinity of the triple fragmentation threshold, beside the simulation of large bunches of classical trajectories with different initial conditions, have shown that both mechanisms share a common path that involves a conical intersection during the relaxation process from the electronic excited state S{sub 1} to the ground state S{sub 0}.

  9. Photodissociation of methyl formate: Conical intersections, roaming and triple fragmentation

    Lin, King-Chuen; Tsai, Po-Yu; Chao, Meng-Hsuan; Kasai, Toshio; Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2015-12-01

    The photodissociation channels of methyl formate have been extensively investigated by two different advanced experimental techniques, ion imaging and Fourier-Transform-Infrared emission spectroscopy, combined with quantum chemical calculations and molecular dynamics simulations. Our aim is to characterize the role of alternative routes to the conventional transition-state mediated pathway: the roaming and the triple fragmentation processes. The photolysis experiments, carried out at a range of laser wavelengths in the vicinity of the triple fragmentation threshold, beside the simulation of large bunches of classical trajectories with different initial conditions, have shown that both mechanisms share a common path that involves a conical intersection during the relaxation process from the electronic excited state S1 to the ground state S0.

  10. [Triple Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty : Indications, variations and results].

    Girbardt, C; Wiedemann, P; Nestler, A

    2016-03-01

    When Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) is indicated in patients with phakic eyes, a combination with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in one sitting should be considered as a triple DMEK. The best possible preoperative deswelling of the cornea should be strived for in order to allow sufficient viewing conditions for the individual stages of cataract surgery. Furthermore, technical details, e.g. regulation of pupillary width also must be considered. The power of the intraocular lens has to be adjusted in order to compensate for the shift of refraction towards hyperopic values induced by DMEK surgery. A rapid and clear improvement in visual acuity can normally be achieved after a triple DMEK. There seem to be no disadvantages compared with a two-stage procedure for DMEK and cataract surgery. PMID:26857142

  11. Introduction of a Triple Prime Symmetric Key Block Cipher

    Chowdhury, Abhijit; Dutta, Saurabh

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes to put forward an innovative algorithm for symmetric key block cipher named as "Triple Prime Symmetric Key Block Cipher with Variable Key-Spaces (TPSKBCVK)" that employs triple prime integers as private key-spaces of varying lengths to encrypt data files. Principles of modular arithmetic have been elegantly used in the proposed idea of the cipher. Depending on observations of the results of implementation of the proposed cipher on a set of real data files of several types, all results are registered and analyzed. The strength of the underlying design of the cipher and the liberty of using a long key-space expectedly makes it reasonably non-susceptible against possible cryptanalytic intrusions. As a future scope of the work, it is intended to formulate and employ an improved scheme that will use a carrier media (image or multimedia data file) for a secure transmission of the private keys.

  12. Current–voltage characteristics of triple-barrier Josephson junctions

    De Luca, R., E-mail: rdeluca@unisa.it; Giordano, A.

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • I–V characteristics of triple-barrier Josephson junctions (TBJJs) are studied. • The I–V characteristics are identical to those of an ordinary single-barrier Josephson junction. • In the presence of r. f. radiation integer and fractional Shapiro steps appear. - Abstract: Current–voltage characteristics of triple-barrier Josephson junctions are analytically and numerically studied. In the presence of a constant current bias and for homogeneous Josephson coupling of all layers, these systems behave exactly as ordinary Josephson junctions, despite their non-canonical current-phase relation. Deviation from this behaviour is found for inhomogeneous Josephson coupling between different layers in the device. Appearance of integer and fractional Shapiro steps are predicted in the presence of r. f. frequency radiation. In particular, the amplitudes of these steps are calculated in the homogeneous case as clear footprints of the non-canonical current-phase relation in these systems.

  13. Mosaic triple X syndrome in a female with primary amenorrhea

    A Venkateshwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Turner′s syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in females, affecting 1 in 2,500 live female births. It is a result of absence of an X chromosome or the presence of a structurally abnormal X chromosome. Its most consistent clinical features are short stature and ovarian failure. Aim: The aim of the study was to report a rare case of mosaic triple X syndrome in a female with primary amenorrhea. Materials and Methods: The chromosomal analysis using GTG banding was carried out, which revealed a mosaicism with 45,XO/47,XXX chromosomal constitution. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was also carried out to further confirm the observation made in the study. Conclusion: The physical features presented by the female could be due to the 45,XO/47,XXX mosaicism and the karyotype analysis was consistent with the diagnosis and clinical symptoms. Triple X mosaicism was confirmed with conventional and molecular cytogenetic analysis.

  14. Structure, stability, and thermodynamics of a short intermolecular purine-purine-pyrimidine triple helix

    Pilch, D.S.; Shafer, R.H. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (United States)); Levenson, C. (Cetus Corp., Emeryville, CA (United States))

    1991-06-25

    The authors have investigated the structure and physical chemistry of the d(C{sub 3}T{sub 4}C{sub 3}){center dot}2(d(G{sub 3}A{sub 4}G{sub 3})) triple helix by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), {sup 1}H NMR, and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. The triplex was stabilized with MgCl{sub 2} at neutral pH. PAGE studies verify the stoichiometry of the strands comprising the triplex and indicate that the orientation of the third strand in purine-purine-pyrimidine (pur-pur-pyr) triplexes is antiparallel with respect to the purine strand of the underlying duplex. Imino proton NMR spectra provide evidence for the existence of new purine-purine (pur{center dot}pur) hydrogen bonds, in addition to those of the Watson-Crick (W-C) base pairs, in the triplex structure. These new hydrogen bonds are likely to correspond to the interaction between third-strand guanine NH1 imino protons and the N7 atoms of guanine residues on the puring strand of the underlying duplex. Thermal denaturation of the triplex proceeds to single strands in one step, under the conditions used in this study. Binding of the third strand appears to enhance the thermal stability of the duplex by 1-3 C, depending on the DNA concentration. This marked enhancement in stability, coupled with the lack of an acidic pH requirement, suggests that pur-pur-pyr triplexes are appealing choices for use in applications involving oligonucleotide targeting of duplex DNA in vitro and in vivo.

  15. Structure, stability, and thermodynamics of a short intermolecular purine-purine-pyrimidine triple helix

    The authors have investigated the structure and physical chemistry of the d(C3T4C3)·2[d(G3A4G3)] triple helix by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), 1H NMR, and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy. The triplex was stabilized with MgCl2 at neutral pH. PAGE studies verify the stoichiometry of the strands comprising the triplex and indicate that the orientation of the third strand in purine-purine-pyrimidine (pur-pur-pyr) triplexes is antiparallel with respect to the purine strand of the underlying duplex. Imino proton NMR spectra provide evidence for the existence of new purine-purine (pur·pur) hydrogen bonds, in addition to those of the Watson-Crick (W-C) base pairs, in the triplex structure. These new hydrogen bonds are likely to correspond to the interaction between third-strand guanine NH1 imino protons and the N7 atoms of guanine residues on the puring strand of the underlying duplex. Thermal denaturation of the triplex proceeds to single strands in one step, under the conditions used in this study. Binding of the third strand appears to enhance the thermal stability of the duplex by 1-3 C, depending on the DNA concentration. This marked enhancement in stability, coupled with the lack of an acidic pH requirement, suggests that pur-pur-pyr triplexes are appealing choices for use in applications involving oligonucleotide targeting of duplex DNA in vitro and in vivo

  16. Quantitative assessment of the multiplicity of carbon-halogen bonds: carbenium and halonium ions with F, Cl, Br, and I.

    Kalescky, Robert; Zou, Wenli; Kraka, Elfi; Cremer, Dieter

    2014-03-13

    CX (X = F, Cl, Br, I) and CE bonding (E = O, S, Se, Te) was investigated for a test set of 168 molecules using the local CX and CE stretching force constants k(a) calculated at the M06-2X/cc-pVTZ level of theory. The stretching force constants were used to derive a relative bond strength order (RBSO) parameter n. As alternative bond strength descriptors, bond dissociation energies (BDE) were calculated at the G3 level or at the two-component NESC (normalized elimination of the small component)/CCSD(T) level of theory for molecules with X = Br, I or E = Se, Te. RBSO values reveal that both bond lengths and BDE values are less useful when a quantification of the bond strength is needed. CX double bonds can be realized for Br- or I-substituted carbenium ions where as suitable reference the double bond of the corresponding formaldehyde homologue is used. A triple bond cannot be realized in this way as the diatomic CX(+) ions with a limited π-donor capacity for X are just double-bonded. The stability of halonium ions increases with the atomic number of X, which is reflected by a strengthening of the fractional (electron-deficient) CX bonds. An additional stability increase of up to 25 kcal/mol (X = I) is obtained when the X(+) ion can form a bridged halonium ion with ethene such that a more efficient 2-electron-3-center bonding situation is created. PMID:24555526

  17. Triple-negative breast cancer: treatment challenges and solutions

    Jerusalem, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Joëlle Collignon,1 Laurence Lousberg,1 Hélène Schroeder,1 Guy Jerusalem,1,21Medical Oncology Department, CHU Sart Tilman Liege, Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Liege, Belgium; 2University of Liege, Liege, Belgium Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the absence of HER2 overexpression. These cancers represent a heterogeneous breast cancer subtype with a poor prognosis. Few sy...

  18. TRIPLE DIVIDENDS OF WATER CONSUMPTION CHARGES IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Anthony Letsoalo; James Blignaut; Theuns de Wet; Martin de Wit; Sebastiaan Hess; TOL, Richard S.J.; Jan van Heerden

    2005-01-01

    The South African government is exploring ways to address water scarcity problems by introducing a water resource management charge on the quantity of water used in sectors such as irrigated agriculture, mining and forestry. It is expected that a more efficient water allocation, lower use and a positive impact on poverty can be achieved. This paper reports on the validity of these claims by applying a computable general equilibrium model to analyse the triple dividend of water consumption cha...

  19. AND BUSINESS INCUBATORS INTO THE TRIPLE HELIX CONCEPT

    Sizova, Y.S.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article’s author endeavors to create a practical model of the Russian economy’s development while integrating such tools of supporting and stimulating entrepreneurship as business incubators and research and technology parks into the Triple Helix concept. The article points out that configurations fusing together the nation-state, business and science/education, possess a greater potential for development.

  20. Results of combination treatment for triple-negative breast cancer

    M. A. Sekundova; V.I. Borisov; A. M. Sdvizhkov

    2014-01-01

    The authors give the results of treatment in 128 patients with operable triple-negative breast cancer (BC). All the patients underwent surgical intervention, the volume of which depended on the stage of the disease. The efficiency of adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy, as well as pre- and postoperative radiotherapy was evaluated. The side effects of different treatment options were analyzed. Five-year relapse-free and overall survival rates were traced in this patient group. It is conclude...

  1. Study of Neutral Triple Gauge Couplings in DELPHI

    Pieri, Lidia

    2002-04-01

    Neutral Triple Gauge boson Couplings ZZZ, ZZ γ and Z γ γ are studied using data collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP at energies between 189 and 208 GeV. The reactions e^+ e^- arrow Z γ, e^+ e^- arrow Z Z and e^+ e^- arrow Z γ^* are used. A summary of the main theoretical aspects of NTGC is given. A summary of the reactions used for deriving limits on these couplings is reported. Current limits are shown.

  2. Prognostic protein markers for triple negative breast cancer

    Umar, Arzu; Liu, Ning Qing; Braakman, René

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBreast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy in women in the Western world, with 13,000 new patients each year in the Netherlands alone. Extensive research on gene expression profiling has shown that breast cancer is a mixture of biologically different disease entities, referred to as molecular subtypes. Of all molecular subtypes, particularly the triple negative phenotype associates with poor prognosis and poor patient survival. Intriguingly, only a small subgroup of t...

  3. Kramers Turnover Theory for a Triple Well Potential

    Kramers turnover theory is solved for a particle in a symmetric triple well potential for temperatures above the crossover temperature between tunneling and activated barrier crossing. Comparison with the turnover theory for a double well potential shows that the presence of the intermediate well always leads to a decrease of the reaction rate. At most though, the rate is a factor of two smaller than in the case of a double well potential. (author)

  4. Triple Jeopardy for HIV: Substance Using Severely Mentally Ill Adults

    Dévieux, Jessy G.; Malow, Robert; Lerner, Brenda G.; Dyer, Janyce G.; Baptista, Ligia; Lucenko, Barbara; Kalichman, Seth

    2007-01-01

    Severely Mentally Ill (SMI) adults have disproportionately high HIV seroprevalence rates. Abuse of alcohol and other substances (AOD) and lifetime exposure to trauma by others are particularly potent risk factors, which, in combination with psychiatric disabilities, create triple jeopardy for HIV infection. This study examined the predictive utility of demographic characteristics; history of physical, emotional, or sexual abuse; extent of drug and alcohol abuse; knowledge about HIV/AIDS; sexu...

  5. Triple gauge vertices at one-loop level in THDM

    Malinsky, Michal; Horejsi, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    Renormalized triple gauge vertices (TGV) are examined within the two-Higgs-doublet model of electroweak interactions. Deviations of the TGV from their standard-model values are calculated at the one-loop level, in the on-shell renormalization scheme. As a consistency check, UV divergence cancellations anticipated on symmetry grounds are verified explicitly. Dependence of the TGV finite parts on the masses of possible heavy Higgs scalars is discussed briefly.

  6. Low Energy Constraints and Anomalous Triple Gauge Boson Couplings

    Zeppenfeld, D.

    1993-01-01

    Low energy (1-loop) constraints on anomalous triple gauge boson vertices (TGV's) are revisited and compared to the sensitivity achievable at LEP II and at future linear $e^+e^-$ colliders. The analysis is performed within the framework of an effective Lagrangian of gauge invariant dimension six operators with the gauge bosons and a single Higgs doublet field as the low energy degrees of freedom. The low energy data do not directly bound TGV's but they provide strong constraints on models whic...

  7. Establishing triple helix relationships : The case of PEA

    Svensson, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This case describes the umbrella organization Printed Electronics Arena (PEA) which is situated in the Norrköping region, Sweden. The strategy of the PEA organization is based on the triple helix model, which is an academic model that promotes regional development through the interaction between academy, public bodies, and industry. The main asset is a new technology – printed electronics (PE) - that the research institute Acreo and Linköping University (LiU) are creating, developing and expl...

  8. Unambiguous demonstration of triple-helix-directed gene modification

    Barre, François-Xavier; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane; Giovannangeli, Carine; Luis, Richard; Robin, Philippe; Pritchard, Linda L; Hélène, Claude; Harel-Bellan, Annick

    2000-01-01

    Triple-helix-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs), which can potentially modify target genes irreversibly, represent promising tools for antiviral therapies. However, their effectiveness on endogenous genes has yet to be unambiguously demonstrated. To monitor endogenous gene modification by TFOs in a yeast model, we inactivated an auxotrophic marker gene by inserting target sequences of interest into its coding region. The genetically engineered yeast cells then were tr...

  9. Lifestyle Triple P: a parenting intervention for childhood obesity

    Gerards Sanne MPL

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reversing the obesity epidemic requires the development and evaluation of childhood obesity intervention programs. Lifestyle Triple P is a parent-focused group program that addresses three topics: nutrition, physical activity, and positive parenting. Australian research has established the efficacy of Lifestyle Triple P, which aims to prevent excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The aim of the current randomized controlled trial is to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention when applied to Dutch parents of overweight and obese children aged 4–8 years. This effectiveness study is called GO4fit. Methods/Design Parents of overweight and obese children are being randomized to either the intervention or the control group. Those assigned to the intervention condition receive the 14-week Lifestyle Triple P intervention, in which they learn a range of nutritional, physical activity and positive parenting strategies. Parents in the control group receive two brochures, web-based tailored advice, and suggestions for exercises to increase active playing at home. Measurements are taken at baseline, directly after the intervention, and at one year follow-up. Primary outcome measure is the children’s body composition, operationalized as BMI z-score, waist circumference, and fat mass (biceps and triceps skinfolds. Secondary outcome measures are children’s dietary behavior and physical activity level, parenting practices, parental feeding style, parenting style, parental self-efficacy, and body composition of family members (parents and siblings. Discussion Our intervention is characterized by a focus on changing general parenting styles, in addition to focusing on changing specific parenting practices, as obesity interventions typically do. Strengths of the current study are the randomized design, the long-term follow-up, and the broad range of both self-reported and objectively measured

  10. Molecular basis of the triple negative breast cancer

    Ayse Feyda Nursal

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women and more than 1 million breast cancer cases are diagnosed each year all over the world. Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease in terms of its molecular structure, mutation type, metastase properties, clinical course and therapeutic response. Breast cancer is divided into subtypes based on expression properties of molecular markers as estrogen receptor, progestron receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Triple-...

  11. Triple-negative breast cancer: treatment challenges and solutions

    Collignon J; Lousberg L; Schroeder H; Jerusalem G

    2016-01-01

    Joëlle Collignon,1 Laurence Lousberg,1 Hélène Schroeder,1 Guy Jerusalem,1,21Medical Oncology Department, CHU Sart Tilman Liege, Domaine Universitaire du Sart Tilman, Liege, Belgium; 2University of Liege, Liege, Belgium Abstract: Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are defined by the absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors and the absence of HER2 overexpression. These cancers represent a heterogeneous breast cancer subtype with a poor prognosis. Few systemic treat...

  12. Triple point shear-layers in gaseous detonation waves

    Massa, L.; Austin, J. M.; Jackson, T. L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments have shown intriguing regions of intense luminescence or ‘hotspots’ in the vicinity of triple-point shear layers in propagating gaseous detonation waves. Localized explosions have also been observed to develop in these fronts. These features were observed in higher effective activation energy mixtures, but not in lower effective activation energy mixtures. The increased lead shock oscillation through a cell cycle in higher activation energy mixtures may result in a signific...

  13. K(pin)-Torsors and the Interpretation of "Triple" Cohomology.

    Duskin, J

    1974-06-01

    A categorical, semi-simplicial interpretation theory for "triple" cohomology is outlined which uses the groups TORS(U) (n)[X;pi] of connected components of certain categories of K(pi,n)-torsors (higher dimensional generalizations of locally trivial principal fiber bundles) to interpret the cohomology groups, i.e., TORS(U) (n)[X;pi] [unk] H(n)(X;pi), n >/= 1. PMID:16592164

  14. Testbeam results for full-size triple GEM detectors

    Sharma, Ram Krishna

    2015-01-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide exceptional instantaneous and integrated luminosities. The forward region $\\mid \\eta \\mid \\ge 1.5$ of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of $KHz/cm^2$ and hence it will affect the momentum resolution and longevity of the muon detectors. To overcome these issues the CMS-GEM collaboration has proposed to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region $(1.5 \\le \\eta \\le 2.2)$ of muon endcap during the long shutdown 2 of the LHC. Towards this goal, full size CMS Triple GEM prototype chambers have been fabricated and put under the test beam at the CERN SPS test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures $Ar/CO_2$ (70/30) and $Ar/CO_2/CF_4$ (40/15/45). In 2014, good quality data was collected during test beam campaigns. In this paper, th...

  15. Improving Triple Play Services Using Multi Protocol Label Switching Technology

    Waheed Yasin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Traditional IP networks have many limitations such as routing tables, which can be complex and time consuming. These limitations affect the performance of the network in some applications of triple play services (i.e., voice, video and data which are characterized as time sensitive applications. Thus, Multi Protocol Label Switching (MPLS technology has been proposed to speed up the traffic flow in the network using labels. Approach: In this study, an experiment using the Network Simulator NS-2 was performed to evaluate the impact of MPLS technology on the Triple Play Services based on the average throughput of the network, total number of packets received at destination nodes and packet loss rates and this is compared to that provided by traditional IP networks. Results: The results showed that MPLS performs better since it utilizes all the available paths to the destinations. Conclusion: MPLS allows Internet Services Providers (ISPs to provide better triple play services for end-users.

  16. Assembly of liposomes controlled by triple helix formation.

    Jakobsen, Ulla; Vogel, Stefan

    2013-09-18

    Attachment of DNA to the surface of different solid nanoparticles (e.g., gold and silica nanoparticles) is well established, and a number of DNA-modified solid nanoparticle systems have been applied to thermal denaturation analysis of oligonucleotides. We report herein the noncovalent immobilization of oligonucleotides on the surface of soft nanoparticles (i.e., liposomes) and the subsequent controlled assembly by DNA triple helix formation. The noncovalent approach avoids tedious surface chemistry and necessary purification procedures and can simplify and extend the available methodology for the otherwise difficult thermal denaturation analysis of complex triple helical DNA assemblies. The approach is based on lipid modified triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) which control the assembly of liposomes in solution in the presence of single- or double-stranded DNA targets. The thermal denaturation analysis is monitored by ultraviolet spectroscopy at submicromolar concentrations and compared to regular thermal denaturation assays in the absence of liposomes. We report on triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) based on DNA and locked nucleic acid (LNA)/DNA hybrid building blocks and different target sequences (G or C-rich) to explore the applicability of the method for different triple helical assembly modes. We demonstrate advantages and limitations of the approach and show the reversible and reproducible formation of liposome aggregates during thermal denaturation cycles. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) show independently from ultraviolet spectroscopy experiments the formation of liposome aggregates. PMID:23885785

  17. Nuclear collective flow from gaussian fits to triple differential distributions

    A simple characterization of triple differential cross sections is needed for a systematic study of the nuclear matter collective flow in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Our analysis is based upon a fitting procedure, so that the triple differential distributions need not be measured in the whole momentum space. If the detector acceptance eliminates most spectator particles or if it is artificially restricted for doing so, this method leads to a flow characterization of the participant nuclear matter. The center-of-mass triple-differential momentum distributions are fitted to a simple analytical shape, namely an anisotropic Gaussian distribution. The adjusted parameters (flow angle and aspect ratios) are corrected for uncertainty in the event-by-event determination of the reaction plane azimuth (finite-number effects). Results are presented for neon-nucleus and argon-nucleus collisions at incident energy between 400 and 800 MeV per nucleon. Flow is already significant for light systems, and depends clearly upon the impact parameter

  18. Triple-point wetting of molecular hydrogen isotopes

    Triple-point wetting is a well-known phenomenon of simple adsorbates on solid substrates, which involves, in the liquid phase above the triple-point temperature, T3, complete wetting with the formation of arbitrary thick films being observed, whereas below T3 only a few monolayers of the solid phase are adsorbed at saturated vapour pressure. This effect is usually ascribed to the substrate-induced strain in the solid film, which occurs due to the lattice mismatch and the strong van der Waals pressure in the first few monolayers. Molecular hydrogen is a suitable system in which to investigate this phenomenon, in particular by tailoring the adsorbate-substrate interaction by means of thin preplating layers of other adsorbates, and by introducing disorder into the system by using not only the pure systems H2 and D2, but also mixtures thereof. The experiments show that triple-point wetting is a rather dominant effect which, in contrast to expectations, persists even if the system parameters are widely varied. This indicates that the present understanding of this effect is incomplete. We present an investigation of the influence of the roughness of the substrate which is expected to be responsible for the dewetting of the solid phase

  19. Mechanical design of the TripleWave debris filter

    This paper presents the design of the TripleWave debris filter. The function of the debris filter is to reduce the amount of debris that can enter the active fuel region and thereby reduce the risk for damage of the fuel cladding by fretting. The design is aimed at catching long and thin debris as this has proved to constitute the largest fretting risk. The trapping efficiency tests demonstrate that the TripleWave debris filter reduces the risk for harmful debris to enter the fuel assembly significantly compared with the current filter design. Fuel assemblies equipped with the TripleWave filter are thermal hydraulic compatible with assemblies equipped with current filter design even with large amounts of debris trapped in the filter. A full-scale endurance test showed no signs of wear between the components in the lower part of the test assembly. The design is robust and redundant, it is subjected to very small stresses and a very well known and proven material is used and reactor operation without mechanical problems can be expected. (author)

  20. Physical Nature of Hydrogen Bond

    Zhyganiuk, I V

    2015-01-01

    The physical nature and the correct definition of hydrogen bond (H-bond) are considered.\\,\\,The influence of H-bonds on the thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic properties of water is analyzed.\\,\\,The conventional model of H-bonds as sharply directed and saturated bridges between water molecules is incompatible with the behavior of the specific volume, evaporation heat, and self-diffusion and kinematic shear viscosity coefficients of water. On the other hand, it is shown that the variation of the dipole moment of a water molecule and the frequency shift of valence vibrations of a hydroxyl group can be totally explained in the framework of the electrostatic model of H-bond.\\,\\,At the same time, the temperature dependences of the heat capacity of water in the liquid and vapor states clearly testify to the existence of weak H-bonds.\\,\\,The analysis of a water dimer shows that the contribution of weak H-bonds to its ground state energy is approximately 4--5 times lower in comparison with the energy of electr...

  1. Property Graph vs RDF Triple Store: A Comparison on Glycan Substructure Search.

    Davide Alocci

    Full Text Available Resource description framework (RDF and Property Graph databases are emerging technologies that are used for storing graph-structured data. We compare these technologies through a molecular biology use case: glycan substructure search. Glycans are branched tree-like molecules composed of building blocks linked together by chemical bonds. The molecular structure of a glycan can be encoded into a direct acyclic graph where each node represents a building block and each edge serves as a chemical linkage between two building blocks. In this context, Graph databases are possible software solutions for storing glycan structures and Graph query languages, such as SPARQL and Cypher, can be used to perform a substructure search. Glycan substructure searching is an important feature for querying structure and experimental glycan databases and retrieving biologically meaningful data. This applies for example to identifying a region of the glycan recognised by a glycan binding protein (GBP. In this study, 19,404 glycan structures were selected from GlycomeDB (www.glycome-db.org and modelled for being stored into a RDF triple store and a Property Graph. We then performed two different sets of searches and compared the query response times and the results from both technologies to assess performance and accuracy. The two implementations produced the same results, but interestingly we noted a difference in the query response times. Qualitative measures such as portability were also used to define further criteria for choosing the technology adapted to solving glycan substructure search and other comparable issues.

  2. Theoretical study of NMR, infrared and Raman spectra on triple-decker phthalocyanines

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of multi-decker phthalocyanines were studied by theoretical calculation. Electronic structures, excited processes at multi-states, isotropic chemical shifts of 13C, 14N and 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), principle V-tensor in electronic field gradient (EFG) tensor and asymmetry parameters (η), vibration mode in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of triple-decker phthalocyanines were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT using B3LYP as basis function. Electron density distribution was delocalized on the phthalocyanine rings with electron static potential. Considerable separation of chemical shifts in 13C, 14N and 1H-NMR was originated from nuclear spin interaction between nitrogen and carbon atoms, nuclear quadrupole interaction based on EFG and η of central metal under crystal field. Calculated optical absorption at multi-excited process was derived from overlapping π-orbital on the phthalocyanine rings. The vibration modes in IR and Raman spectra were based on in-plane deformation and stretching vibrations of metal-ligand coordination bond on the deformed structure

  3. Aptamer/target binding-induced triple helix forming for signal-on electrochemical biosensing.

    Mao, Yinfei; Liu, Jinquan; He, Dinggen; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Shi, Hui; Wen, Li

    2015-10-01

    Owing to its diversified structures, high affinity, and specificity for binding a wide range of non-nucleic acid targets, aptamer is a useful molecular recognition tool for the design of various biosensors. Herein, we report a new signal-on electrochemical biosensing platform which is based on an aptamer/target binding-induced strand displacement and triple-helix forming. The biosensing platform is composed of a signal transduction probe (STP) modified with a methylene blue (MB) and a sulfhydryl group, a triplex-forming oligonucleotides probe (TFO) and a target specific aptamer probe (Apt). Through hybridization with the TFO probe and the Apt probe, the self-assembled STP on Au electrode via Au-S bonding keeps its rigid structure. The MB on the STP is distal to the Au electrode surface. It is eT off state. Target binding releases the Apt probe and liberates the end of the MB tagged STP to fold back and form a triplex-helix structure with TFO (STP/TFO/STP), allowing MB to approach the Au electrode surface and generating measurable electrochemical signals (eT ON). As test for the feasibility and universality of this signal-on electrochemical biosensing platform, two aptamers which bind to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and human α-thrombin (Tmb), respectively, are selected as models. The detection limit of ATP was 7.2 nM, whereas the detection limit of Tmb was 0.86 nM. PMID:26078174

  4. Theoretical study of NMR, infrared and Raman spectra on triple-decker phthalocyanines

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Oku, Takeo [Department of Materials Science, The University of Shiga Prefecture 2500 Hassaka, Hikone, Shiga, 522-8533 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Electronic structures and magnetic properties of multi-decker phthalocyanines were studied by theoretical calculation. Electronic structures, excited processes at multi-states, isotropic chemical shifts of {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 1}H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), principle V-tensor in electronic field gradient (EFG) tensor and asymmetry parameters (η), vibration mode in infrared (IR) and Raman spectra of triple-decker phthalocyanines were calculated by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT using B3LYP as basis function. Electron density distribution was delocalized on the phthalocyanine rings with electron static potential. Considerable separation of chemical shifts in {sup 13}C, {sup 14}N and {sup 1}H-NMR was originated from nuclear spin interaction between nitrogen and carbon atoms, nuclear quadrupole interaction based on EFG and η of central metal under crystal field. Calculated optical absorption at multi-excited process was derived from overlapping π-orbital on the phthalocyanine rings. The vibration modes in IR and Raman spectra were based on in-plane deformation and stretching vibrations of metal-ligand coordination bond on the deformed structure.

  5. Tensile Bond Strength of Latex-Modified Bonded Concrete Overlays

    Dubois, Cameron; Ramseyer, Chris

    2010-10-01

    The tensile bond strength of bonded concrete overlays was tested using the in-situ pull-off method described in ASTM C 1583 with the goal of determining whether adding latex to the mix design increases bond strength. One slab of ductile concrete (f'c > 12,000 psi) was cast with one half tined, i.e. roughened, and one half steel-troweled, i.e. smooth. The slab surface was sectioned off and overlay mixtures containing different latex contents cast in each section. Partial cores were drilled perpendicular to the surface through the overlay into the substrate. A tensile loading device applied a direct tensile load to each specimen and the load was increased until failure occurred. The tensile bond strength was then calculated for comparison between the specimens.

  6. The chemisorptive bond basic concepts

    Clark, Alfred

    1974-01-01

    The Chemisorptive Bond: Basic Concepts describes the basic concepts of the chemisorptive bond on solid surfaces from the simple analogies with ordinary chemical bonds to the quantum-mechanical approaches.This book is composed of 10 chapters and begins with discussions of simple formulas for correlating measurable quantities in chemisorptions and catalysis. The succeeding chapters deal with theories based on quantum-mechanical principles that describe the mutual interactions of atoms of the solid and foreign atoms on the surface. The remaining chapters consider the possible arrangements

  7. Direct Bonded Pontic (Laporan Kasus

    Suhandi Sidjaja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced science and technology in dentistry enable dental practitioners to modified she bonding techniques in tooth replacement. A pontic made of composite resin bonded to etched enamel of the adjacent teeth can be used in the replacement of one missing anterior tooth with a virgin or sowed adpicent tooth. The advantages of this technique include a one visit treatment, cow cost, good esthetics, less side effects and easy repair or rebounding. Clinical evaluation showed a high success rate therefore with a proper diagnosis and a perfect skill of the direct bonded technique this treatment can be used as an alternative restoration.

  8. Ising tricriticality in the extended Hubbard model with bond dimerization

    Ejima, Satoshi; Essler, Fabian H. L.; Lange, Florian; Fehske, Holger

    2016-06-01

    We explore the quantum phase transition between Peierls and charge-density-wave insulating states in the one-dimensional, half-filled, extended Hubbard model with explicit bond dimerization. We show that the critical line of the continuous Ising transition terminates at a tricritical point, belonging to the universality class of the tricritical Ising model with central charge c =7 /10 . Above this point, the quantum phase transition becomes first order. Employing a numerical matrix-product-state based (infinite) density-matrix renormalization group method we determine the ground-state phase diagram, the spin and two-particle charge excitations gaps, and the entanglement properties of the model with high precision. Performing a bosonization analysis we can derive a field description of the transition region in terms of a triple sine-Gordon model. This allows us to derive field theory predictions for the power-law (exponential) decay of the density-density (spin-spin) and bond-order-wave correlation functions, which are found to be in excellent agreement with our numerical results.

  9. Integrating Compassionate, Collaborative Care (the "Triple C") Into Health Professional Education to Advance the Triple Aim of Health Care.

    Lown, Beth A; McIntosh, Sharrie; Gaines, Martha E; McGuinn, Kathy; Hatem, David S

    2016-03-01

    Empathy and compassion provide an important foundation for effective collaboration in health care. Compassion (the recognition of and response to the distress and suffering of others) should be consistently offered by health care professionals to patients, families, staff, and one another. However, compassion without collaboration may result in uncoordinated care, while collaboration without compassion may result in technically correct but depersonalized care that fails to meet the unique emotional and psychosocial needs of all involved. Providing compassionate, collaborative care (CCC) is critical to achieving the "triple aim" of improving patients' health and experiences of care while reducing costs. Yet, values and skills related to CCC (or the "Triple C") are not routinely taught, modeled, and assessed across the continuum of learning and practice. To change this paradigm, an interprofessional group of experts recently recommended approaches and a framework for integrating CCC into health professional education and postgraduate training as well as clinical care. In this Perspective, the authors describe how the Triple C framework can be integrated and enhance existing competency standards to advance CCC across the learning and practice continuum. They also discuss strategies for partnering with patients and families to improve health professional education and health care design and delivery through quality improvement projects. They emphasize that compassion and collaboration are important sources of professional, patient, and family satisfaction as well as critical aspects of professionalism and person-centered, relationship-based high-quality care. PMID:26717505

  10. Reaction-bonded silicon nitride

    Reaction-bonded silicon nitride (RBSN) has been characterized. The oxidation behaviour in air up to 15000C and 3000 h and the effects of static and cyclic oxidation on room-temperature strength have been studied. (orig./IHOE)

  11. Optimal Investment in Structured Bonds

    Jessen, Pernille; Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2012-01-01

    of the article is to provide possible explanations for the puzzle of why small retail investors hold structured bonds. The investment universe consists of a stock index, a risk-free bank account, and a structured bond containing an option written on another index. We apply expected utility......Retail structured products regularly receive much criticism from financial experts but seem to remain popular with investors. This article considers a generic structured product: the principal-protected index-linked note (structured bond), which resembles a portfolio insurance contract. The purpose...... maximization and consider different utility functions and trading strategies. Our results show that investors should include structured bonds in their optimal portfolio only if they cannot access the index underlying the option directly and only if the products then provide sufficient diversification to...

  12. Low temperature GRISM direct bonding

    Kalkowski, Gerhard; Harnisch, Gerd; Grabowski, Kevin; Benkenstein, Tino; Ehrhardt, Sascha; Zeitner, Uwe; Risse, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    For spectroscopy in space, GRISM elements -obtained by patterning gratings on a prism surface - are gaining increasing interest. Originally developed as dispersive elements for insertion into an imaging light path without deflecting the beam, they are progressively found in sophisticated multi stage dispersion optics. We report on GRISM manufacturing by joining the individual functional elements -prisms and gratings - to suitable components. Fused silica was used as glass material and the gratings were realized by e-beam lithography und dry etching. Alignment of the grating dispersion direction to the prism angle was realized by passive adjustment. Materials adapted bonds of high transmission, stiffness and strength were obtained at temperatures of about 200°C in vacuum by hydrophilic direct bonding. Examples for bonding uncoated as well as coated fused silica surfaces are given. The results illustrate the great potential of hydrophilic glass direct bonding for manufacturing transmission optics to be used under highly demanding environmental conditions, as typical in space.

  13. Adhesives for orthodontic bracket bonding

    Déborah Daniella Diniz Fonseca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advent of acid etching, introduced by Buonocore in 1955, brought the possibility of bonding between the bracket base and enamel, contributing to more esthetic and conservative orthodontics. This direct bracket bonding technique has brought benefits such as reduced cost and time in performing the treatment, as well as making it easier to perform oral hygiene. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of published studies on orthodontic bracket bonding to dental enamel. It was verified that resin composites and glass ionomer are the most studied and researched materials for this purpose. Resin-modified glass ionomer, with its biocompatibility, capacity of releasing fluoride and no need for acid etching on the tooth structure, has become increasingly popular among dentists. However, due to the esthetic and mechanical properties of light polymerizable resin composite, it continues to be one of the adhesives of choice in the bracket bonding technique and its use is widely disseminated.

  14. Fundamental indexation for bond markets

    Marielle de Jong; Hongwen Wu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to build alternative indices weighing using a measure of fundamental value rather than debt size. The official bond indices built to reflect general price trends are market weighted, meaning that the bonds are weighted by their debt size. The more indebted, the more weight in the index, which mechanically increments the investment risks that are inherent. Those market indices are shown to be return-to-risk inefficient in recent studies compared to indice...

  15. Hydrogen Bonds in Polymer Folding

    Borg, J; Jensen, M. H.; K. Sneppen; Tiana, G.

    2000-01-01

    The thermodynamics of a homopolymeric chain with both Van der Waals and highly-directional hydrogen bond interaction is studied. The effect of hydrogen bonds is to reduce dramatically the entropy of low-lying states and to give raise to long-range order and to conformations displaying secondary structures. For compact polymers a transition is found between helix-rich states and low-entropy sheet-dominated states. The consequences of this transition for protein folding and, in particular, for ...

  16. Optimising hydrogen bonding in solid wood

    Engelund, Emil Tang

    2009-01-01

    The chemical bonds of wood are both covalent bonds within the wood polymers and hydrogen bonds within and between the polymers. Both types of bonds are responsible for the coherence, strength and stiffness of the material. The hydrogen bonds are more easily modified by changes in load, moisture and...... temperature distorting the internal bonding state. A problem arises when studying hydrogen bonding in wood since matched wood specimens of the same species will have very different internal bonding states. Thus, possible changes in the bonding state due to some applied treatment such as conditioning or...... maintaining 100 % moisture content of the wood. The hypothesis was that this would enable a fast stress relaxation as a result of reorganization of bonds, since moisture plasticizes the material and temperature promotes faster kinetics. Hereby, all past bond distortions caused by various moisture, temperature...

  17. Triple therapy in type 2 diabetes; a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Downes, Martin J.; Bettington, Emilie K.; Jenny E Gunton; Turkstra, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Aims. The purpose was to evaluate the evidence for triple therapy regimen using medicines available in Australia for type 2 diabetes. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to update the relevant evidence from 2002 to 2014 on triple therapy for type 2 diabetes. A multiple-treatments network meta-analysis was undertaken to summarise the comparative efficacy and harms of different triple therapies. Results. Twenty seven trials were identified, most were six months of duration. Th...

  18. Mometasone-based triple combination therapy in melasma: Is it really safe?

    Majid Imran

    2010-01-01

    Background: Kligman′s triple combination formula has been one of the most popular treatment options in melasma over the last three decades. The original Kligman′s formula has been modified in many ways over the years and the most recent modification that has been introduced is a triple combination of 2% hydroquinone, 0.025% tretinoin, and 1% mometasone. The use of this triple combination in patients with melasma has seen a sharp rise over the last few years ...

  19. Fractal spectral triples on Kellendonk's $C^*$-algebra of a substitution tiling

    Mampusti, Michael; Whittaker, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new class of noncommutative spectral triples on Kellendonk's $C^*$-algebra associated with a nonperiodic substitution tiling. These spectral triples are constructed from fractal trees on tilings, which define a geodesic distance between tiles in the tiling. We show that each spectral triple is $\\theta$-summable and respects the hierarchy of the substitution system. To elucidate our results we construct a fractal tree on the Penrose tiling and explicitly show how it gives rise t...

  20. Current Issues of Targeted Therapy in Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Liedtke, Cornelia; Kiesel, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    Patients with triple-negative breast cancer are characterized by a poor prognosis compared with patients with other breast cancer subtypes. The angiogenesis inhibitor bevacizumab is effective in the palliative treatment of patients with triple-negative breast cancer as well as in other breast cancer subtypes. PARP inhibitors represent the first group of targeted agents to be developed under the particular aspect of treating patients with hereditary and triple-negative breast cancer. In additi...

  1. Identification of Prognostic Genes for Recurrent Risk Prediction in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients in Taiwan

    Chen, Lee H.; Kuo, Wen-Hung; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Chen, Pei-Chun; Hsiao, Chuhsing K.; Chuang, Eric Y.; Chang, Li-Yun; Hsieh, Fon-Jou; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Chang, King-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Discrepancies in the prognosis of triple negative breast cancer exist between Caucasian and Asian populations. Yet, the gene signature of triple negative breast cancer specifically for Asians has not become available. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a prediction model for recurrence of triple negative breast cancer in Taiwanese patients. Whole genome expression profiling of breast cancers from 185 patients in Taiwan from 1995 to 2008 was performed, and the results were co...

  2. High ERK Protein Expression Levels Correlate with Shorter Survival in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Liu, Ping; Hayashi, Naoki; Lluch, Ana; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Hortobágyi, Gabriel N.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical significance of extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK) was assessed in patients with triple-negative breast cancer versus patients with non–triple negative breast cancer. High ERK-2 levels were correlated with a lower overall survival rate and high phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase levels were correlated with a higher relapse-free survival rate in triple-negative breast cancer patients.

  3. Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial

    Prinz, Ronald J.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Shapiro, Cheri J.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment necessitates a public health approach. In the U.S. Triple P System Population Trial, 18 counties were randomly assigned to either dissemination of the Triple P—Positive Parenting Program system or to the services-as-usual control condition. Dissemination involved Triple P professional training for the existing workforce (over 600 service providers), as well as universal media and communication strategies. Large effect sizes were found for three independent...

  4. Visual Modeling and Analysis of EMF Model Transformations based on Triple Graph Grammars

    Ermel, Claudia; Hermann, Frank; Gall, Jürgen; Binanzer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The tool HENSHIN is an Eclipse plug-in supporting visual modeling and execution of rule-based EMF model transformations. This paper describes the recent extensions of HENSHIN by a visual editor for triple graph grammars (TGGs). The visual editor (called HENSHINTGG) supports a compact visualization of triple rules in an integrated editor panel. Internally, triple graph rules are represented as HENSHIN rules and can be simulated using the HENSHIN EMF model transformation engine. Our extension s...

  5. The Norwegian PV manufacturing industry in a Triple Helix perspective

    For the benefit of our common future, policies aimed at the development and promotion of renewable energy technologies should be based on a Triple Helix approach with a sense of technological agency. This view is supported by a case study on the emergence and development of a Norwegian solar photovoltaic manufacturing industry. The data and analyses demonstrate how this new industry was fostered by interactions between existing companies, public R and D funding programmes and research organisations and policy contexts; illustrating a policy-driven technological agency in accordance with a Triple Helix innovation process. During the last decade, a solar PV manufacturing industry has emerged in Norway and gone on to a 10 to 20 per cent share of various segments of world markets for solar PV feedstock, wafers and related components. The present financial crisis has caused an investment slump in solar PV installations, especially in Europe. Therefore, the future prospects for the Norwegian solar PV industry are at risk despite of its focus on innovation and R and D, and its technological agency. Political action is needed: (1) creation of market incentives in near markets for the deployment of solar PV, (2) international cooperation for boosting deployment of solar PV in developing countries. - Highlights: • We examine the emergence of the Norwegian solar PV manufacturing industry. • A policy-driven technological agency was essential for the Norwegian PV industry. The Triple Helix model explains the emergence of the Norwegian PV industry. • Market incentives in near markets are needed for the deployment of solar PV. • International cooperation is needed for boosting solar PV in developing countries

  6. Control over the Hydrogen-Bond Docking Site in Anisole by Ring Methylation.

    Gottschalk, Hannes C; Altnöder, Jonas; Heger, Matthias; Suhm, Martin A

    2016-01-26

    The supramolecular docking of methanol to anisole may occur via an OH⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bond or via an OH⋅⋅⋅π contact. The subtle balance between these two structures can be varied in supersonic jets by one order of magnitude through single to triple methylation of the aromatic ring and introduction of a single tert-butyl substituent, as evidenced by infrared spectroscopy. This steep variation makes it possible to assess the accuracy of relative quantum-chemical energy predictions on a kJ mol(-1) level, promising insights into inductive, mesomeric, and dispersive effects. The zero-point-corrected B3LYP-D3/aVTZ level is shown to provide an accurate relative description of the two very different hydrogen bonds, similar to a wavefunction-based protocol including CCSD(T) corrections applied to the same structures. M06-2X alone systematically overestimates the stability of π coordination. PMID:26695475

  7. PD-L1 Expression in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Mittendorf, Elizabeth A; Philips, Anne V; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Qiao, Na; Wu, Yun; Harrington, Susan; Su, Xiaoping; Wang, Ying; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Akcakanat, Argun; Chawla, Akhil; Curran, Michael; Hwu, Patrick; Sharma, Padmanee; Litton, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Early phase trials targeting the T-cell inhibitory molecule PD-L1 have shown clinical efficacy in cancer. This study was undertaken to determine whether PD-L1 is overexpressed in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and to investigate the loss of the phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) as a mechanism of PD-L1 regulation. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) RNA sequencing data showed significantly greater expression of the PD-L1 gene in TNBC (n=120) compared to non-TNBC (n=716) (P

  8. Triple Encrypted Holographic Storage and Digital Holographic System

    ZHU Yi-Chao; ZHANG Jia-Sen; GONG Qi-Huang

    2008-01-01

    We propose a triple encrypted holographic memory containing a digital holographic system. The original image is encrypted using double random phase encryption and stored in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal with shift-multiplexing. Both the reference beams of the memory and the digital holographic system are random phase encoded. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the encryption and decryption of multiple images and the results show high quality and good fault tolerance. The total key length of this system is larger than 4.7×1033.

  9. Triple Encrypted Holographic Storage and Digital Holographic System

    We propose a triple encrypted holographic memory containing a digital holographic system. The original image is encrypted using double random phase encryption and stored in a LiNbO3:Fe crystal with shift-multiplexing. Both the reference beams of the memory and the digital holographic system are random phase encoded. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate the encryption and decryption of multiple images and the results show high quality and good fault tolerance. The total key length of this system is larger than 4.7 × 1033. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  10. GSC 03144-595, a new triple-mode HADS

    Mow, Ben; Reinhart, Erik; Nhim, Samantha; Watkins, Richard

    2016-01-01

    We present results of a multi-year study of the high-amplitude $\\delta$ Scuti (HADS) star GSC 03144-595. The star was observed between June and September in 2011 and 2014 for 13 nights and 28 nights respectively. Based on our results we argue that GSC 03144-595 is a new triple-mode radially pulsating HADS, only the fifth discovered and only the second that has a fundamental frequency in the traditional $\\delta$ Scuti regime. While the frequencies and amplitudes of the fundamental and first ha...

  11. Gluon propagator, triple gluon vertex and the QCD coupling constant

    We study the UV-scaling of the flavorless gluon propagator in the Landau gauge in an energy window up to 9 GeV. Dominant hypercubic lattice artifacts are eliminated. A large set of renormalization schemes is used to test asymptotic scaling. We compare with our results obtained directly from the triple gluon vertex. We end-up with ΔMS-bar = 318(12)(5) MeV and 292(5)(15) MeV respectively for these two methods, compatible which each other but significantly above the Schroedinger method estimate

  12. Triple-phase bone image abnormalities in Lyme arthritis

    Brown, S.J.; Dadparvar, S.; Slizofski, W.J.; Glab, L.B.; Burger, M. (Hahnemann Univ. Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities.

  13. Low Energy Constraints and Anomalous Triple Gauge Boson Couplings

    Zeppenfeld, Dieter

    1993-01-01

    Low energy (1-loop) constraints on anomalous triple gauge boson vertices (TGV's) are revisited and compared to the sensitivity achievable at LEP II and at future linear $e^+e^-$ colliders. The analysis is performed within the framework of an effective Lagrangian of gauge invariant dimension six operators with the gauge bosons and a single Higgs doublet field as the low energy degrees of freedom. The low energy data do not directly bound TGV's but they provide strong constraints on models which lead to anomalous gauge boson interactions in addition to other low energy effects.

  14. Long-term stability test of a triple GEM detector

    Adak, R P; Das, S; Ghosal, D; Ghosh, S K; Mondal, A; Nag, D; Nayak, T K; Patra, R N; Prasad, S K; Raha, S; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S; Swain, S

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to perform the long-term stability test of gain of the single mask triple GEM detector. A simple method is used for this long- term stability test using a radioactive X-ray source with high activity. The test is continued till accumulation of charge per unit area > 12.0 mC/mm2. The details of the chamber fabrication, the test set-up, the method of measurement and the test results are presented in this paper.

  15. A priori precision estimation for neutron triples counting

    The nondestructive assay of Plutonium bearing items for criticality, safety, security, safeguards, inventory balance, process control, waste management and compliance is often undertaken using correlated neutron counting. In particular Multiplicity Shift Register analysis allows one to extract autocorrelation parameters from the pulse train which can, within the framework of a simple interpretational model, be related to the effective 240Pu spontaneous fission mass present. The effective 240Pu mass is a weighted sum of the 238Pu, 240Pu and 242Pu masses so if the relative isotopic composition of the Pu can be established from the measured 240Pu effective mass one can estimate the total Pu mass and also the masses of the individual isotopes, example the fissile species 239Pu and 241Pu. In multiplicity counting three counting rates are obtained. These are the Singles, Doubles and Triples rates. The Singles rate is just the gross, totals or trigger rate. The Doubles and Triples rates are calculated from factorial moments of the observed signal triggered neutron multiplicity distributions following spontaneous fission in the item and can be thought of as the rate of observed coincident pairs and coincident triplets on the pulse train. Coincident events come about because the spontaneous fission and induced fission chains taking place in the item result in bursts of neutrons. These remain time correlated during the detection process and so retain information, through the burst size distribution, about the Pu content. In designing and assessing the performance of a detector system to meet a given goal it is necessary to make a priori estimates of the counting precision for all three kinds of rates. This is non-trivial because the counting does not obey the familiar rules of a Poissonian counting experiment because the pulse train has time correlated events on it and the train is sampled by event triggered gates that may overlap. For Singles and Doubles simple approximate

  16. Triple-phase bone image abnormalities in Lyme arthritis

    Arthritis is a frequent manifestation of Lyme disease. Limited triple-phase Tc-99m MDP bone imaging of the wrists and hands with delayed whole-body images was performed in a patient with Lyme arthritis. This demonstrated abnormal joint uptake in the wrists and hands in all three phases, with increased activity seen in other affected joints on delayed whole-body images. These findings are nonspecific and have been previously described in a variety of rheumatologic conditions, but not in Lyme disease. Lyme disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of articular and periarticular bone scan abnormalities

  17. Assembly of Liposomes Controlled by Triple Helix Formation

    Vogel, Stefan; Jakobsen, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    the otherwise difficult thermal denaturation analysis of complex triple helical DNA-assemblies. The approach is based on lipid modified triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) which control the assembly of liposomes in solution in the presence of single- or double stranded DNA targets. The thermal...... denaturation analysis is monitored by ultraviolet spectroscopy at sub-micromolar concentrations and compared to regular thermal denaturation assays in the absence of liposomes. We report on triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) based on DNA and locked nucleic acid (LNA)/DNA hybrid building blocks and...

  18. A molecular anchor for stabilizing triple-helical DNA.

    Fox, K. R.; Polucci, P; Jenkins, T. C.; Neidle, S

    1995-01-01

    Molecular modeling has been used to predict that 2,6-disubstituted amidoanthraquinones, and not the 1,4 series, should preferentially interact with and stabilize triple-stranded DNA structures over duplex DNA. This is due to marked differences in the nature of chromophore-base stacking and groove accessibility for the two series. A DNA foot-printing method that monitors the extent of protection from DNase I cleavage on triplex formation has been used to examine the effects of a number of synt...

  19. Triple X Egyptian woman and a Down's syndrome offspring

    Faeza Abdel Mogib El-Dahtory

    2013-01-01

    The 47, XXX karyotype (triple X) has a frequency of 1 in 1000 female newborns. However, this karyotype is not usually suspected at birth or childhood. Female patients with a sex chromosome abnormality may be fertile. In patients with a 47, XXX cell line there appears to be an increased risk of a cytogenetically abnormal child but the extent of this risk cannot yet be determined; it is probably lower in the non-mosaic 47, XXX patient than the mosaic 46, XX/47, XXX one. We describe a new rare c...

  20. Triple Pulse Tester - Efficient Power Loss Characterization of Power Modules

    Trintis, Ionut; Poulsen, Thomas; Beczkowski, Szymon;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the triple pulse testing method and circuit for power loss characterization of power modules is introduced. The proposed test platform is able to accurately characterize both the switching and conduction losses of power modules in a single automated process. A configuration of a half...... bridge is tested by making a sweep of the junction temperature, dc-link voltage, and current for a given gate drive and dc-bus setup. Test results are presented for a 1700 V 1400 A IGBT power module....

  1. The spectrum for large sets of pure directed triple systems

    ZHOU; Junling; CHANG; Yanxun

    2006-01-01

    An LPDTS(υ) is a collection of 3(υ - 2) disjoint pure directed triple systems on the same set of υ elements. It is showed in Tian's doctoral thesis that there exists an LPDTS(υ) for υ≡ 0,4 (mod 6), υ≥ 4. In this paper, we establish the existence of an LPDTS(υ) for υ≡ 1, 3 (mod 6), υ> 3. Thus the spectrum for LPDTS(υ) is completely determined to be the set {υ:υ≡0, 1 (mod 3),υ≥4}.

  2. Three cases of triple A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome) in pediatric surgeons' view.

    Erginel, Başak; Gün, Feryal; Kocaman, Hakan; Çelik, Alaadin; Salman, Tansu

    2016-04-01

    Triple A syndrome, also known as Allgrove syndrome, is a rare disease, and presents mainly in children. Its cardinal symptoms are achalasia, alacrima, and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) insensitivity. We report three cases of Triple A syndrome. Our aim is to inform pediatric surgeons about the existence of this rare syndrome and to highlight the need for suspicion of alacrima and ACTH insensitivity in cases of pediatric achalasia. Triple A syndrome should be considered in patients presenting with achalasia. Alacrima should be investigated by a Schirmer test, and adrenal dysfunction should be tested in cases of suspected triple A. PMID:27385299

  3. The Geometry of Quantum Lens Spaces: Real Spectral Triples and Bundle Structure

    Sitarz, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.sitarz@uj.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics (Poland); Venselaar, Jan Jitse, E-mail: jvensel1@gwdg.de [Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Mathematisches Institut (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    We study almost real spectral triples on quantum lens spaces, as orbit spaces of free actions of cyclic groups on the spectral geometry on the quantum group SU{sub q}(2). These spectral triples are given by weakening some of the conditions of a real spectral triple. We classify the irreducible almost real spectral triples on quantum lens spaces and we study unitary equivalences of such quantum lens spaces. Applying a useful characterization of principal U(1)-fibrations in noncommutative geometry, we show that all such quantum lens spaces are principal U(1)-fibrations over quantum teardrops.

  4. Evidence for a base triple in the free HIV-1 TAR RNA

    Huthoff, Hendrik; GIRARD, FREDERIC; Wijmenga, Sybren S.; Berkhout, Ben

    2004-01-01

    We propose the existence of a novel base triple in the HIV-1 TAR hairpin. This triple is supported by covariation of loop residue 31 with residue 22, which is part of an unusual base pair with U40 below the 3-nucleotide bulge. A set of mutants was constructed to test the involvement of bases A22, U31, and U40 in a triple interaction. RNA structure probing, trans-activation assays, and structure modeling are consistent with the existence of this base triple in a bent conformation of the free T...

  5. The Geometry of Quantum Lens Spaces: Real Spectral Triples and Bundle Structure

    We study almost real spectral triples on quantum lens spaces, as orbit spaces of free actions of cyclic groups on the spectral geometry on the quantum group SUq(2). These spectral triples are given by weakening some of the conditions of a real spectral triple. We classify the irreducible almost real spectral triples on quantum lens spaces and we study unitary equivalences of such quantum lens spaces. Applying a useful characterization of principal U(1)-fibrations in noncommutative geometry, we show that all such quantum lens spaces are principal U(1)-fibrations over quantum teardrops

  6. Dynamical formation and scattering of hierarchical triples: cross-sections, Kozai-Lidov oscillations, and collisions

    Antognini, Joseph M. O.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2016-03-01

    Dynamical scattering of binaries and triple systems of stars, planets, and compact objects may produce highly inclined triple systems subject to Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations, potentially leading to collisions, mergers, Type Ia supernovae, and other phenomena. We present the results of more than 400 million gravitational scattering experiments of binary-binary, triple-single, and triple-binary scattering. We compute the cross-sections for all possible outcomes and explore their dependences on incoming velocity, mass, semimajor axis, and eccentricity, including analytic fits and discussion of the velocity dependence. For the production of new triple systems by scattering we find that compact triples are preferred, with ratios of outer to inner semimajor axes of ˜few-100, flat or quasi-thermal eccentricity distributions, and flat distributions in cosine of the mutual inclination. Dynamically formed triples are thus subject to strong KL oscillations, the `eccentric Kozai mechanism', and non-secular effects. For single and binary flyby encounters with triple systems, we compute the cumulative cross-section for changes to the mutual inclination, eccentricity, and semimajor axis ratio. We apply these results to scattering events in the field, open clusters, and globular clusters, and explore the implications for Type Ia supernovae via collisions and mergers, stellar collisions, and the lifetime and dynamical isolation of triple systems undergoing KL oscillations. An appendix provides an analysis of the velocity dependence of the collision cross-section in binary-single scattering.

  7. Halogen Bonding versus Hydrogen Bonding: A Molecular Orbital Perspective

    Wolters, Lando P.; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out extensive computational analyses of the structure and bonding mechanism in trihalides DX⋅⋅⋅A− and the analogous hydrogen-bonded complexes DH⋅⋅⋅A− (D, X, A=F, Cl, Br, I) using relativistic density functional theory (DFT) at zeroth-order regular approximation ZORA-BP86/TZ2P. One purpose was to obtain a set of consistent data from which reliable trends in structure and stability can be inferred over a large range of systems. The main objective was to achieve a detailed unders...

  8. Bond-centered, bond-ordered stripes in doped antiferromagnets

    Wrobel, P.; Maciag, A; Eder, R.

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by recent inelastic neutron scattering experiments on cuprates, we discuss the formation of bond order in the stripe phase. We suggest that the spin Peierls order emerges in hole-rich domain walls (DWs) formed between hole-poor regions in which long-range antiferromagnetic (AF) correlations exist. On the example of a single stripe we analyze the stability of such structures. The motion of a hole inside the DW which takes the form of a bond ordered ladder is in principle unrestricted...

  9. Oregon School Bond Manual. Sixth Edition.

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Office of School District Services.

    Given that purchasers of Oregon school bonds rely on recommendations of accredited bond attorneys, this document is designed to assist school districts in complying with state statutes regulating the issuance of school bond issues in order that attorney opinions may be favorable. Six initial steps toward a bond sale and Oregon laws regarding bonds…

  10. Reduced form models of bond portfolios

    Matti Koivu; Teemu Pennanen

    2010-01-01

    We derive simple return models for several classes of bond portfolios. With only one or two risk factors our models are able to explain most of the return variations in portfolios of fixed rate government bonds, inflation linked government bonds and investment grade corporate bonds. The underlying risk factors have natural interpretations which make the models well suited for risk management and portfolio design.

  11. 27 CFR 19.516 - Bond account.

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond account. 19.516... Determination and Payment of Tax § 19.516 Bond account. Where the proprietor has furnished a withdrawal or unit... maximum penal sum, he shall maintain an account of his bond and he shall charge the bond with the...

  12. Reaction of Laser-Ablated Uranium and Thorium Atoms with H2Se: A Rare Example of Selenium Multiple Bonding.

    Vent-Schmidt, Thomas; Andrews, Lester; Thanthiriwatte, K Sahan; Dixon, David A; Riedel, Sebastian

    2015-10-19

    The compounds H2ThSe and H2USe were synthesized by the reaction of laser-ablated actinide metal atoms with H2Se under cryogenic conditions following the procedures used to synthesize H2AnX (An = Th, U; X = O, S). The molecules were characterized by infrared spectra in an argon matrix with the aid of deuterium substitution and electronic structure calculations at the density functional theory level. The main products, H2ThSe and H2USe, are shown to have a highly polarized actinide-selenium triple bond, as found for H2AnS on the basis of electronic structure calculations. There is an even larger back-bonding of the Se with the An than found for the corresponding sulfur compounds. These molecules are of special interest as rare examples of multiple bonding of selenium to a metal, particularly an actinide metal. PMID:26418218

  13. Low temperature anodic bonding to silicon nitride

    Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De; Bouaidat, Salim;

    2000-01-01

    Low-temperature anodic bonding to stoichiometric silicon nitride surfaces has been performed in the temperature range from 3508C to 4008C. It is shown that the bonding is improved considerably if the nitride surfaces are either oxidized or exposed to an oxygen plasma prior to the bonding. Both bulk...... and thin-film glasses were used in the bonding experiments. Bond quality was evaluated using a tensile test on structured dies. The effect of oxygen-based pre-treatments of the nitride surface on the bond quality has been evaluated. Bond strengths up to 35 Nrmm2 and yields up to 100% were obtained....

  14. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  15. A Phenomenographic Study on Chemical Bonding

    Şenol Şen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal how students perceive and identify the concept of chemical bonding, and to identify and explain the misconceptions of students on this subject through phenomenographic research method, as well. The present study included 17 2nd grade students who enrolled to Inorganic Chemistry course in the Faculty of Education. Concept maps and lotus blossom technique were used as data collection tools in order to determine the perceptions and definitions of students about chemical bonding. Data analysis results determined the misconceptions of students about chemical bonding classified misconceptions under seven categories, which are, according to the results of the study, physical changes and bonding, ionic bond, formation of chemical bonding, the existence of chemical bonding, covalent bonds, metallic bonds and intermolecular bonding.

  16. Special Issue: Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding

    Ronald K. Castellano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Intramolecular hydrogen bonds play critical structure- and function-serving roles in biological and synthetic molecular systems. This special issue, through eight contributions, showcases the prominence of these non-covalent interactions within several scientific disciplines, and in various structural contexts and environments. Reported, for example, are the consequences of intramolecular hydrogen bonds on the structures of molecules that show biological activity, for biological mechanisms, and for the conformational switching of functional synthetic molecules. Also showcased in the contributions are the state-of-the-art experimental and theoretical methods available for the characterization of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, which critically report on their strengths, geometries, and spectroscopic signatures in the gas, solid, and solution phases.

  17. Rethinking hydrogen-bond kinetics

    Prada-Gracia, Diego

    2013-01-01

    At the fundamental level, our understanding of water hydrogen-bond dynamics has been largely built on the detailed analysis of classical molecular simulations. The latter served to develop a plethora of hydrogen bond definitions based on different properties, including geometrical distances, topology and energetics. Notwithstanding, no real consensus emerged from these approaches, making the development of a consistent and reliable definition elusive. In this contribution, a framework to study hydrogen bonds in liquid water based purely on kinetics is presented. This approach makes use of the analysis of commitment probabilities without relying on arbitrarily chosen order parameters and cutoffs. Our results provide evidence for a self-consistent description, resulting in a clear multi-exponential behavior of the kinetics.

  18. Bond percolation on multiplex networks

    Hackett, A; Gómez, S; Arenas, A; Gleeson, J P

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytical approach for bond percolation on multiplex networks and use it to determine the expected size of the giant connected component and the value of the critical bond occupation probability in these networks. We advocate the relevance of these tools to the modeling of multilayer robustness and contribute to the debate on whether any benefit is to be yielded from studying a full multiplex structure as opposed to its monoplex projection, especially in the seemingly irrelevant case of a bond occupation probability that does not depend on the layer. Although we find that in many cases the predictions of our theory for multiplex networks coincide with previously derived results for monoplex networks, we also uncover the remarkable result that for a certain class of multiplex networks, well described by our theory, new critical phenomena occur as multiple percolation phase transitions are present. We provide an instance of this phenomenon in a multipex network constructed from London rail and Eu...

  19. Anion Transport with Chalcogen Bonds.

    Benz, Sebastian; Macchione, Mariano; Verolet, Quentin; Mareda, Jiri; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2016-07-27

    In this report, we introduce synthetic anion transporters that operate with chalcogen bonds. Electron-deficient dithieno[3,2-b;2',3'-d]thiophenes (DTTs) are identified as ideal to bind anions in the focal point of the σ holes on the cofacial endocyclic sulfur atoms. Anion binding in solution and anion transport across lipid bilayers are found to increase with the depth of the σ holes of the DTT anionophores. These results introduce DTTs and related architectures as a privileged motif to engineer chalcogen bonds into functional systems, complementary in scope to classics such as 2,2'-bipyrroles or 2,2'-bipyridines that operate with hydrogen bonds and lone pairs, respectively. PMID:27433964

  20. FATHER, SOCIAL BOND AND WOMEN

    SYLVIA DE CASTRO KORGI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available On the cross-point of two of the most important and inseparable Freudian questions: What is a father?and, What a woman wants?, this paper begins a reflection about the women’s place in the Freudianarticulation of the relationship between the father and the social bond. In fact, the Freudian father, thanksto the law mediation which he is its agent, has as a function the regulation of the pleasure that participatesin the social bond, making this way possible the human community. On the other hand, the support ofthe human community is the bond among brothers, as well as Freud presents it in his foundational textof the Law. How to precise the women’s place in this arrangement? The reflection stands out this thatexceeds the Father’s Law and that Freud sets on women’s account, initially under the figure of heropposition to the culture.

  1. A new high voltage SOILDMOS with triple RESURF structure

    Hu Xiarong; Zhang Bo; Luo Xiaorong; Yao Guoliang; Chen Xi; Li Zhaoji

    2011-01-01

    A novel triple RESURF (T-resurf) SOILDMOS structure is proposed.This structure has a P-type buried layer.Firstly,the depletion layer can extend on both sides of the P-buried layer,serving as a triple RESURF and leading to a high drift doping and a low on-resistance.Secondly,at a high doping concentration of the drift region,the P-layer can reduce high bulk electric field in the drift region and enhance the vertical electric field at the drain side,which results in uniform bulk electric field distributions and an enhanced BV.The proposed structure is used in SOI devices for the first time.The T-resurf SOILDMOS with BV =315 V is obtained by simulation on a 6 μm-thick SOI layer over a 2 μm-thick buried oxide layer,and its Rsp is reduced from 16.5 to 13.8 mΩ.cm2 in comparison with the double RESURF (D-resurf) SOILDMOS.When the thickness of the SOI layer increases,T-resurf SOILDMOS displays a more obvious effect on the enhancement of BV2/Ron.It reduces Rsp by 25% in 400 V SOILDMOS and by 38% in 550 V SOI LDMOS compared with the D-resurf structure.

  2. Viscous solution of the triple-shock reflection problem

    Lau-Chapdelaine, S. S.-M.; Radulescu, M. I.

    2016-07-01

    The reflection of a triple-shock configuration was studied numerically in two dimensions using the Navier-Stokes equations. The flow field was initialized using three shock theory, and the reflection of the triple point on a plane of symmetry was studied. The conditions simulated a stoichiometric methane-oxygen detonation cell at low pressure on time scales preceding ignition when the gas was assumed to be inert. Viscosity was found to play an important role on some shock reflection mechanisms believed to accelerate reaction rates in detonations when time scales are small. A small wall jet was present in the double Mach reflection and increased in size with Reynolds number, eventually forming a small vortex. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities were absent, and there was no Mach stem bifurcation at Reynolds numbers corresponding to when the Mach stem had travelled distances on the scale of the induction length. Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities are found to not likely be a source of rapid reactions in detonations at time scales commensurate with the ignition delay behind the Mach stem.

  3. Bridging disparate symptoms of schizophrenia: a Triple network dysfunction theory

    Tereza eNekovarova

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with variable symptomatology, traditionally divided into positive and negative symptoms, and cognitive deficits. Yet, the etiology of this disorder has yet to be fully understood.Recent findings suggest that alteration of the basic sense of self-awareness may be an essential distortion of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In addition, extensive research of social and mentalizing abilities has stressed the role of distortion of social skills in schizophrenia.This article aims to propose and support a concept of triple brain network model of the dysfunctional switching between default mode and central executive network related to the aberrant activity of salience network. This model could represent a unitary mechanism of a wide array of symptom domains present in schizophrenia including the deficit of SELF (self-awareness and self-representation and theory of mind (ToM dysfunctions along with the traditional positive, negative and cognitive domains. We review previous studies which document the dysfunctions of SELF and ToM in schizophrenia together with neuroimaging data elucidating the triple brain network model as a common neuronal substrate of this dysfunction.

  4. A study of slipstreams in triple shock wave configurations

    Gvozdeva, L.; Gavrenkov, S.; Nesterov, A.

    2015-05-01

    A shock wave appearing in supersonic gas flow reflects in different ways depending on flow conditions. It can take the form of regular or irregular reflection. For the irregular reflection configuration of three shock waves and a slipstream arises. Mathematical investigations of the development of parameters across slipstream in triple shock configuration have been made with variation of the angle of incidence of the shock wave, the shock wave Mach number and the adiabatic index of the gas. It has been shown that the characteristic mixing parameters of the slipstream increase with the increase of Mach number of the flow and the decrease of the heat capacity ratio. This leads to an increase of vortex formation and an increase of the angular spread of the slipstream. It also has been shown that the angle between the reflected wave and the slipstream diminishes with the decrease in heat capacity ratio so that the value may become of the same order as the spread angle. This may lead to quantitative changes in the whole reflection pattern near the triple point. The evident dependence of slipstream instability magnitude on the physical and chemical transformation intensity in the fluid was previously experimentally observed. The results of an analytical investigation appeared to be in good agreement with the experimental data.

  5. Characteristics of the Eclipsing Triple System EPIC 202062176

    Lester, Kathryn Victoria; Gies, Douglas R.; Guo, Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Time series photometry from the Kepler K2 mission has led to the discovery of a number of particularly interesting eclipsing binary systems. One of these is EPIC 202062176, a young, eccentric binary found in the star forming region NGC 2175. Our analysis of the light curve from K2 Campaign 0 and spectra from the CHIRON spectrograph and CTIO's 1.5m telescope indicates that EPIC 202062176 is actually a triple system composed of a hot B-type star and a distant pair of less massive stars. We determined the pulsation frequency of the hot star with Period04, removed this signal from the light curve, and then modeled the eclipses of the companion binary with the Eclipsing Light Curve (ELC) program. We estimated the effective temperature and flux contribution for the hot star by comparison with TLUSTY model spectra, and we completed a radial velocity analysis of the hot star using cross-correlation methods. We present the characteristics of the triple system, including the stellar parameters of the primary B0V star and the orbital elements of the companion eclipsing binary system.

  6. Dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in triple-well potentials

    Dipolar Bose–Einstein condensates in triple-well potentials are well-suited model systems for periodic optical potentials with important contributions of the non-local and anisotropic dipole–dipole interaction, which show a variety of effects such as self-organization and formation of patterns. We address here a macroscopic sample of dipolar bosons in the mean-field limit. This work is based on the Gross–Pitaevskii description of dipolar condensates in triple-well potentials by Peter et al (2012 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 45 225302). Our analysis goes beyond the calculation of ground states presented there and clarifies the role of excited and metastable states in such systems. In particular, we find the formation of phases originating from the interplay of several states with distinct stability properties. As some of the phases are formed by metastable states, special attention is paid to the characteristics of phase transitions in real time and the dynamical stabilization of the condensate. (paper)

  7. Benign metastasizing leiomyoma in triple location: lungs, parametria and appendix

    Raś, Renata; Książek, Mariusz; Skręt-Magierło, Joanna; Kąziołka, Wojciech; Fudali, Ludmiła; Filipowska, Justyna; Skręt, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) usually are situated in one organ, most often in lungs. BML patients typically have a history of uterine leiomyoma treated with hysterectomy, myomectomy or subtotal hysterectomy. The aim of the study was to present the case of a 53-year-old woman with triple location in the lungs, parametria and appendix. She had undergone a myomectomy 26 years earlier. In 2015, she was admitted to the surgical department because of abdominal pain, whereupon a cholecystectomy was performed. CT scans showed pelvic mass with pulmonary metastasis. Upon discharge the patient was referred to the Gynecology Clinic, where a laparotomy was performed. The intraoperative findings were: 1) uterus with multiple leiomyomas, 2) four tumors in the parametria, 3) tumor connected to the appendix. A subtotal hysterectomy, with a bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, removal of the tumors from the parametria and appendectomy was performed. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis based on morphology and immunohistochemical staining (strongly positive for estrogen receptors and SMA, while Ki67 was very low, below 1%). Upon postoperative recovery, the patient was referred to the Thoracic Surgery Department. During the thoracotomy, multiple nodes, surrounded by lung parenchyma, were revealed. Wedge resection was performed, for localized pulmonary lesions, and sent for pathological examination. The final pathological diagnosis was benign metastasizing leiomyomatosis. In conclusion, the triple location of BML could possibly be a result of a parallel different metastasizing mechanism, although it is impossible to exclude one mechanism, which may be the cause of the metastases in three locations.

  8. A millisecond pulsar in a stellar triple system

    Ransom, S M; Archibald, A M; Hessels, J W T; Kaplan, D L; van Kerkwijk, M H; Boyles, J; Deller, A T; Chatterjee, S; Schechtman-Rook, A; Berndsen, A; Lynch, R S; Lorimer, D R; Karako-Argaman, C; Kaspi, V M; Kondratiev, V I; McLaughlin, M A; van Leeuwen, J; Rosen, R; Roberts, M S E; Stovall, K

    2014-01-01

    Gravitationally bound three-body systems have been studied for hundreds of years and are common in our Galaxy. They show complex orbital interactions, which can constrain the compositions, masses, and interior structures of the bodies and test theories of gravity, if sufficiently precise measurements are available. A triple system containing a radio pulsar could provide such measurements, but the only previously known such system, B1620-26 (with a millisecond pulsar, a white dwarf, and a planetary-mass object in an orbit of several decades), shows only weak interactions. Here we report precision timing and multi-wavelength observations of PSR J0337+1715, a millisecond pulsar in a hierarchical triple system with two other stars. Strong gravitational interactions are apparent and provide the masses of the pulsar (1.4378(13) Msun, where Msun is the solar mass and the parentheses contain the uncertainty in the final decimal places) and the two white dwarf companions (0.19751(15) Msun and 0.4101(3) Msun), as well ...

  9. Vascular characterisation of triple negative breast carcinomas using dynamic MRI

    Triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) breast carcinomas (TNBC) are aggressive tumours with underexplored imaging features. This study investigates whether their vascular characteristics as assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI are distinct from the prognostically more favourable ER+/PR+/HER2- cancers. Patients with primary breast cancer underwent MRI before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were identified as ER-/PR-/HER2- or ER+/PR+/HER2- from core biopsy specimens. MRI parameters reflecting tissue perfusion, permeability, and extracellular leakage space were measured. Values for inflow transfer constant (Ktrans), outflow rate constant (kep), leakage space (ve), area under the gadolinium curve (IAUGC60), relative blood volume (rBV) and flow (rBF), and Mean Transit Time (MTT) were compared across receptor status and with known prognostic variables. Thirty seven patients were assessable in total (16 ER-/PR-/HER2-, 21 ER+/PR+/HER2-). Lower ve (p = 0.001), shorter MTT (p = 0.007) and higher kep values (p = 0.044) were observed in TNBC. ve was lower across all T stages, node-negative (p = 0.004) and low-grade TNBC (p = 0.037). ve was the best predictor of triple negativity (ROC AUC 0.80). TNBC possess characteristic features on imaging, with lower extracellular space (higher cell density) and higher contrast agent wash-out rate (higher vascular permeability) suggesting a distinctive phenotype detectable by MRI. (orig.)

  10. The triple-mode pulsating variable V823 Cas

    Jurcsik, J; Varadi, M; Henden, A; Hurta, Z; Lakatos, B; Posztobanyi, K; Klagyivik, P; Sodor, A; Hurta, Zs.

    2005-01-01

    Based on extended multicolour CCD photometry of the triple-mode radial pulsator V823 Cas we studied the properties of the coupling frequencies invoked by nonlinear processes. Our results support that a resonance connection as suggested by Antonello & Aikawa (1998) affects the mode coupling behaviour. The P1/P0 period ratio of V823 Cas has an "out of range" value if compared with the period ratios of the known double mode pulsators, while the P2/P1 period ratio is normal. The periods and period ratios cannot be consistently interpret without conflict with pulsation and/or evolution models. We attempt to interpret this failure by the suggestion that at present, the periods of V823 Cas are in a transient, resonance affected state, thus do not reflect the true parameters of the object. The anomalous period change behaviour of the fundamental and second overtone modes supports this idea. We have also raised the possibility that a f0 + f2 = 2f1 resonance may act in triple mode pulsators.

  11. Bridging disparate symptoms of schizophrenia: a triple network dysfunction theory.

    Nekovarova, Tereza; Fajnerova, Iveta; Horacek, Jiri; Spaniel, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with variable symptomatology, traditionally divided into positive and negative symptoms, and cognitive deficits. However, the etiology of this disorder has yet to be fully understood. Recent findings suggest that alteration of the basic sense of self-awareness may be an essential distortion of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. In addition, extensive research of social and mentalizing abilities has stressed the role of distortion of social skills in schizophrenia.This article aims to propose and support a concept of a triple brain network model of the dysfunctional switching between default mode and central executive network (CEN) related to the aberrant activity of the salience network. This model could represent a unitary mechanism of a wide array of symptom domains present in schizophrenia including the deficit of self (self-awareness and self-representation) and theory of mind (ToM) dysfunctions along with the traditional positive, negative and cognitive domains. We review previous studies which document the dysfunctions of self and ToM in schizophrenia together with neuroimaging data that support the triple brain network model as a common neuronal substrate of this dysfunction. PMID:24910597

  12. Plasma characterisation using combines Mach/triple probe techniques

    Full text: A probe consisting several triple probes and a Mach probe has been designed and installed on the H-1 heliac to study fluctuations. Mach probes have been shown to be sensitive to the fluctuations in the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion drift velocity. If the ion Larmor radius is much larger than the characteristic probe dimension, then the Mach probe is insensitive to the magnetic field. When the Mach probe is oriented such that the two tips are separated radially, it becomes sensitive to the radial velocity of the ions. Fluctuations studies have been done on H-1, using a model devised to allow the above mentioned time-resolved plasma parameters to be reconstructed from the data obtained using the TMT probe. Using standard techniques, the triple probes readily provide the electron temperature Te and plasma potential φ. Also, with the Mach probe located centrally between the two, the poloidal electric field at the Mach probe can be calculated as Ep=(φ p2 - φ p1)/ Δy. Here, Δy=30mm. This in turn gives a measure for the radial velocity of the electrons through ExB. Using an iterative approach, the ion temperature can be deduced by invoking the condition of ambipolarity. Thus localised, time-resolved, electron density, electron and ion temperature, and electron and ion radial velocity can be deduced with this configuration of probes. The results from the TMT probe are presented and discussed

  13. Status of triple GEM muon chambers for the LHCb experiment

    Muon triggering and offline muon identification are fundamental requirements for the LHCb experiment, which will begin to take data at the start-up of the LHC machine. The identification of muon particles and an estimate of the transverse momentum (ΔpT/pT∼20%) in the near-beam area of the first muon station is achieved by a set of 12 double triple-GEM detectors which covers an area of about 0.6m2. Since b-quark production is peaked in the forward direction, GEM detectors will trigger about 20% of muons from B-particle decays. In this paper the results of the detector quality checks on anode and cathode panels planarity, GEM foil HV test, chamber gas leak and gain uniformity are presented. The performance of a chamber, composed of two triple-GEM detectors logically OR-ed, has been measured in a recent test beam at the SPS, with particle bunches with a time structure of 25 ns similar to the LHC running conditions. In this test the final front-end electronics and the final LHCb DAQ have been used. This result demonstrates that the detector can achieve the required performances (efficiency larger than 96%) at a detector gain of 4000, thus ensuring a long detector lifetime in the harsh LHCb environment

  14. Accounting for the differences in the structures and relative energies of the highly homoatomic np pi-np pi (n > or = 3)-bonded S2I4 2+, the Se-I pi-bonded Se2I4 2+, and their higher-energy isomers by AIM, MO, NBO, and VB methodologies.

    Brownridge, Scott; Crawford, Margaret-Jane; Du, Hongbin; Harcourt, Richard D; Knapp, Carsten; Laitinen, Risto S; Passmore, Jack; Rautiainen, J Mikko; Suontamo, Reijo J; Valkonen, Jussi

    2007-02-01

    + and Se2I42+. The difference in the structures of S2I42+ and Se2I42+ is related to the high strength of the S-S pi bond compared to the weak S-I sigma bond and the additional stabilization from increased delocalization of positive charge in the structure of S2I42+ compared to the structure of Se2I42+. The investigation of the E2X42+ series (E = S, Se, Te; X = Cl, Br, I) revealed that only S2I42+ adopts the highly np pi-np pi (n > or = 3)-bonded structure, while all other dications favor the pi-bonded Se2I42+ structure. Theoretical bond order calculations for S2I42+ confirm the previously presented experimentally based bond orders for S-S (2.1-2.3) and I-I (1.3-1.5) bonds. The S-S bond is determined to have the highest reported S-S bond order in an isolated compound and has a bond order that is either similar to or slightly less than the Si-Si bond order in the proposed triply bonded [(Me3Si)2CH]2(iPr)SiSi triple bond SiSi(iPr)[CH(SiMe3)2]2 depending on the definition of bond orders used. PMID:17257010

  15. Probing the Hydrogen Bond Strength at Single Bond Limit

    Guo, Jing; Lü, Jing-Tao; Chen, Ji; Peng, Jinbo; Meng, Xiangzhi; Wang, Zhichang; Li, Xin-Zheng; Wang, Enge; Jiang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Many extraordinary physical, chemical and biological properties of water are determined by hydrogen-bonding interaction between the water molecules. So far, the routine way to determine the hydrogen-bonding strength of water is probing the frequency shift of O-H stretching mode using various spectroscopic techniques, which all suffer from the difficulty of spectral assignment and the broadening of vibrational signals due to the lack of spatial resolution. In this talk, we show the ability to probe the hydrogen-bonding strength of interfacial water at single bond limit using resonantly enhanced inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The conventional IET signals of water molecules are extremely weak and far beyond the experimental detection limit due to the negligible molecular density of states (DOS) around the Fermi level. This difficulty can be surmounted by turning on the tip-water coupling, which shifts and broadens the frontier molecular orbitals of water to the proximity of Fermi level, resulting in a resonantly enhanced IET process. International Center for Quantum Materials, School of Physics, Peking University.

  16. To Bond or Not to Bond? That Is the Question

    Balzer, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    This case, inspired by a real school district scenario, was developed for use in a graduate-level course in school finance. James Spencer had just been selected as the new superintendent of a low-income, 400-student, rural school district in need of many capital improvements. The previous superintendent had refused to hold a bond election because…

  17. Performance bond: conditional or unconditional

    Supardi, Azizan; Yaakob, Jamaluddin; Adnan, Hamimah

    2009-01-01

    In construction contracts, a 'performance bond' is a bond taken out by the contractor, usually with a bank or insurance company (in return for payment of a premium), for the benefit of and at the request of the employer, in a stipulated maximum sum of liability and enforceable by the employer in the event of the contractor's default, repudiation or insolvency, as stated by Nigel M Robinson et. al. in his book, Construction Law in Singapore and Malaysia. He further added that there are two typ...

  18. Weld bonding of stainless steel

    Santos, I. O.; Zhang, Wenqi; Goncalves, V.M.;

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive theoretical and experimental investigation of the weld bonding process with the purpose of evaluating its relative performance in case of joining stainless steel parts, against alternative solutions based on structural adhesives or conventional spot-welding. The...... overall assessment of the weld bonding process is made using several commercial adhesives with varying working times under different surface conditions. The quality of the resulting joints is evaluated by means of macroetching observations, tension-shear tests and peel tests. The theoretical investigation...

  19. Analysis of the Clinicopathologic Features and Prognosis in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Dehong Yang; Hong Liu; Jing Zhao

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical and pathological features,as well as prognosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients.METHODS A total of 509 cases of operable breast cancer from January,2002 to June,2002 treated in the Cancer Hospital of Tianjin Medical University were analyzed.The Her-2,ER and PR status was determined using immunohistochemistry.Of the total cases,one group was identified as triple negative breast cancer,ie defined as ER,PR and Her-2 negative.The other group was nontriple-negative breast cancer.Clinicopathologic features of the groups were compared and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS)analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method.RESULTS Of the total cases,21.4% (109/509) of cases were found to be triple- negative while 78.6% (400/509) were non-triplenegative.The triple negative group had higher incidence rates than the non-triple-negative group of the medullary type and Grade Ⅲ tumors (P < 0.05).There was no other difference in the clinicopathologic features between the 2 groups.From follow-up to June,2007,21.1% (23/109) of the triple-negative group and 12.7%(51/400) of the non-triple negative group had a local recurrence or distant metastasis,resulting in a significant difference (P < 0.05).In the triple-negative group and non-triple-negative group,5-year DFS were 78.9% and 87.3% respectively.There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 groups (P = 0.031).CONCLUSION Compared with non-triple-negative breast cancer,triple-negative breast cancer patients have an increased likehood of a local recurrence or distant metastasis and a poorer prognosis.

  20. The effect of hydrogen bonding on torsional dynamics: A combined far-infrared jet and matrix isolation study of methanol dimer

    Kollipost, F.; Andersen, Jonas; Wallin Mahler Andersen, Denise;

    2014-01-01

    at ∼286 cm(-1). The experimental findings are held against harmonic predictions from local coupled-cluster methods with single and double excitations and a perturbative treatment of triple excitations [LCCSD(T)] and anharmonic. VPT2 corrections at canonical MP2 and density functional theory (DFT......) levels in order to quantify the contribution of vibrational anharmonicity for this important class of intermolecular hydrogen bond vibrational motion....

  1. Metal nanoparticles functionalized with metal-ligand covalent bonds

    Kang, Xiongwu

    Metal-organic contact has been recognized to play important roles in regulation of optical and electronic properties of nanoparticles. In this thesis, significant efforts have been devoted into synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles with various metal-ligand interfacial linkages and investigation of their electronic and optical properties. Ruthenium nanoparticles were prepared by the self-assembly of functional group onto bare Ru colloid surface. As to Ru-alkyne nanoparticles, the formation of a Ru-vinylidene (Ru=C=CH--R) interfacial bonding linkage was confirmed by the specific reactivity of the nanoparticles with imine derivatives and olefin at the metal-ligand interface, as manifested in NMR, photoluminescence, and electrochemical measurements. Interestingly, it was found the electronic coupling coefficient (beta)for strongly depend upon such metal-ligand interfacial bonding. Next, such metal-ligand interfacial bonding was extended to ruthenium-nitrene pi bonds on ruthenium colloids, which were investigated by XPS. The nanoparticles exhibited a 1:1 atomic ratio of nitrogen to sulfur, consistent with that of sulfonyl nitrene fragments. In addition, the nanoparticle-bound nitrene moieties behaved analogously to azo derivatives, as manifested in UV-vis and fluorescence measurements. Further testimony of the formation of Ru=N interfacial linkages was highlighted in the unique reactivity of the nanoparticles with alkenes by imido transfer. Extensive conjugation between metal-ligand interfacial bond results in remarkable intraparticle charge delocalization on Ru-alkynide nanoparticles, which was manipulated by simple chemical reduction or oxidation. Charging of extra electrons into the nanoparticle cores led to an electron-rich metal core and hence red-shift of the triple bond stretching mode, lower binding energy of sp hybridized C 1s and dimmed fluorescence of nanoparticles. Instead, chemical oxidation resulted in the opposite impacts on these properties. By taking

  2. Oral tranexamic acid with fluocinolone-based triple combination cream versus fluocinolone-based triple combination cream alone in melasma: An open labeled randomized comparative trial

    Tanmay Padhi; Swetalina Pradhan

    2015-01-01

    Background : Melasma is a common acquired cause of facial hyperpigmentation with no definitive therapy. Tranexamic acid, a plasmin inhibitor, has demonstrated depigmenting properties and combining this oral drug with other modalities of treatment has shown promising results. Objectives : To compare the efficacy of a combination of oral tranexamic acid and fluocinolone-based triple combination cream with that of fluocinolone-based triple combination cream alone in melasma among Indian patients...

  3. Molecular Characteristics and Metastasis Predictor Genes of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Clinical Study of Triple-Negative Breast Carcinomas

    Kuo, Wen-Hung; Chang, Yao-Yin; Lai, Liang-Chuan; Tsai, Mong-Hsun; Hsiao, Chuhsing Kate; Chang, King-Jen; Chuang, Eric Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer is a subtype of breast cancer with aggressive tumor behavior and distinct disease etiology. Due to the lack of an effective targeted medicine, treatment options for triple-negative breast cancer are few and recurrence rates are high. Although various multi-gene prognostic markers have been proposed for the prediction of breast cancer outcome, most of them were proven clinically useful only for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers. Reliable identif...

  4. Essays on European bond markets

    Y.C. Cheung

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets i

  5. Covered bonds vs. assets securitization

    Silviu Eduard DINCĂ

    2014-01-01

    During the past few years, in the recent post-crisis global banking and capital markets context, financial institutions around the globe are exploring new options to better secure their financing and refinancing demands. We will exhibit herewith a comparison between covered bonds and asset securitizations as financial markets-based funding techniques, highlighting certain key structuring and implementation specifics on each of them.

  6. On double bonds in fullerenes

    Stepenshchikov D. G.; Voytekhovsky Yu. L.

    2016-01-01

    Various distributions of double carbon bonds in the fullerenes have been considered in the paper from the point that they are absent in the pentagonal rings. The appropriate classification of the fullerenes has been built. The results may be used when modeling the fullerenes of a given topology and calculating their physical-chemical properties

  7. Effectiveness of the triple P positive parenting program on parenting: A meta-analysis

    Graaf, I. de; Speetjens, P.; Smit, F.; Wolff, M. de; Tavecchio, L.

    2008-01-01

    Triple P is a parenting program intended to prevent and to provide treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions on parenting styles and parental competency. Level 4

  8. Evidence for a base triple in the free HIV-1 TAR RNA

    Huthoff, H.; Girard, F.C.; Wijmenga, S.S.; Berkhout, B.

    2004-01-01

    We propose the existence of a novel base triple in the HIV-1 TAR hairpin. This triple is supported by covariation of loop residue 31 with residue 22, which is part of an unusual base pair with U40 below the 3-nucleotide bulge. A set of mutants was constructed to test the involvement of bases A22, U3

  9. Software-Enabled Project Management Techniques and Their Relationship to the Triple Constraints

    Elleh, Festus U.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between software-enabled project management techniques and the triple constraints (time, cost, and scope). There was the dearth of academic literature that focused on the relationship between software-enabled project management techniques and the triple constraints (time, cost, and scope). Based on the gap…

  10. Triple Value System Dynamics Modeling to Help Stakeholders Engage with Food-Energy-Water Problems

    Triple Value (3V) Community scoping projects and Triple Value Simulation (3VS) models help decision makers and stakeholders apply systems-analysis methodology to complex problems related to food production, water quality, and energy use. 3VS models are decision support tools that...

  11. Some inequalities of Ostrowski and Grüss type for triple integrals on time scales

    Nazir Ahmad Mir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish some inequalities of Ostrowski and Grüss type for triple integrals on arbitrary time scales involving three functions and their partial derivatives. We also discuss the discrete Ostrowski and Grüss type inequalities for triple sumon time scale.

  12. Some inequalities of Ostrowski and Grüss type for triple integrals on time scales

    Nazir Ahmad Mir; Roman Ullah

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we establish some inequalities of Ostrowski and Grüss type for triple integrals on arbitrary time scales involving three functions and their partial derivatives. We also discuss the discrete Ostrowski and Grüss type inequalities for triple sumon time scale.

  13. Effectiveness of the Triple P Positive Parenting Program on Parenting: A Meta-Analysis

    de Graaf, Ireen; Speetjens, Paula; Smit, Filip; de Wolff, Marianne; Tavecchio, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Triple P is a parenting program intended to prevent and to provide treatment for severe behavioral, emotional, and developmental problems in children. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effectiveness of Triple P Level 4 interventions on parenting styles and parental competency. Level 4 is an intensive training program of 8-10 sessions…

  14. Temperature-insensitive frequency tripling for generating high-average power UV lasers.

    Zhong, Haizhe; Yuan, Peng; Wen, Shuangchun; Qian, Liejia

    2014-02-24

    Aimed for generating high-average power ultraviolet (UV) lasers via third-harmonic generation (THG) consisting of frequency doubling and tripling stages, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate a novel frequency tripling scheme capable of supporting temperature-insensitive phase-matching (PM). Two cascaded tripling crystals, with opposite signs of the temperature derivation of phase-mismatch, are proposed and theoretically studied for improving the temperature-acceptance of PM. The proof-of-principle tripling experiment using two crystals of LBO and BBO shows that the temperature acceptance can be ~1.5 times larger than that of using a single tripling crystal. In addition, the phase shift caused by air dispersion, along with its influence on the temperature-insensitive PM, are also discussed. To illustrate the potential applications of proposed two-crystal tripling design in the high-average-power regime, full numerical simulations for the tripling process, are implemented based on the realistic crystals. The demonstrated two-crystal tripling scheme may provide a promising route to high-average-power THG in the UV region. PMID:24663750

  15. Risk of regional recurrence in triple-negative breast cancer patients: a Dutch cohort study

    Roozendaal, van Lori M.; Smit, Leonie H.M.; Duijsens, Gaston H.N.M.; Vries, de Bart; Siesling, Sabine; Lobbes, Marc B.I.; Boer, de Maaike; Wilt, de Johannes H.W.; Smidt, Marjolein L.

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer is associated with early recurrence and low survival rates. Several trials investigate the safety of a more conservative approach of axillary treatment in clinically T1-2N0 breast cancer. Triple-negative breast cancer comprises only 15 % of newly diagnosed breast cancer

  16. The effects of post coronary stenting triple antiplatelet therapies on platelet functions

    韩雅玲

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of triple antiplatelet therapy on platelet aggregation and activation in patients who underwent coronary stenting. Methods 120 inhospital coronary heart disease patients with coronary stenting were randomized into two groups receiving either triple antiplatelet drugs of aspirin and clopidogrel combined with cilostazol or dual antiplatelet drugs of aspirin and clopidogrel. On the first day after stenting cilostazol

  17. The effectiveness of lifestyle triple P in the Netherlands: A randomized controlled trial

    Gerards, S.M.P.L.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Gubbels, J.S.; Buuren, S. van; Hamers, F.J.M.; Jansen, M.W.J.; Goot, O.H.M. van der; Vries, N.K. de; Sanders, M.R.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle Triple P is a general parenting intervention which focuses on preventing further excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The objective of the current study was to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention in the Netherlands. Method We used

  18. The effectiveness of lifestyle triple P in the Netherlands : A randomized controlled trial

    Gerards, Sanne M P L; Dagnelie, Pieter C.; Gubbels, Jessica S.; Van Buuren, Stef; Hamers, Femke J M; Jansen, Maria W J; Van Der Goot, Odilia H M; De Vries, Nanne K.; Sanders, Matthew R.; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle Triple P is a general parenting intervention which focuses on preventing further excessive weight gain in overweight and obese children. The objective of the current study was to assess the effectiveness of the Lifestyle Triple P intervention in the Netherlands. Method We used

  19. Hydrogen Bonding to Alkanes: Computational Evidence

    Hammerum, Steen; Olesen, Solveig Gaarn

    2009-01-01

    The structural, vibrational, and energetic properties of adducts of alkanes and strong cationic proton donors were studied with composite ab initio calculations. Hydrogen bonding in [D-H+ H-alkyl] adducts contributes to a significant degree to the interactions between the two components, which is...... substantiated by NBO and AIM results. The hydrogen bonds manifest themselves in the same manner as conventional hydrogen bonds, D-H bond elongation, D-H vibrational stretching frequency red shift and intensity increase, and adduct stabilization. The alkane adducts also exhibit elongation of the C-H bonds...... involved and a concurrent red shift, which is rationalized in terms of charge-transfer interactions that cause simultaneous weakening of both the O-H and C-H bonds. Like other dihydrogen-bonded adducts, the adducts possess a bent structure and asymmetric bifurcated hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen bonds are...

  20. Chemical bonding motifs from a tiling of the many-electron wavefunction.

    Liu, Yu; Frankcombe, Terry J; Schmidt, Timothy W

    2016-05-11

    A method is presented to partition the 3N-dimensional space of a many-electron wavefunction into hyper-regions related by permutation symmetry. These hyper-regions represent unit cells, or "tiles" of the wavefunction from which the wavefunction may be regenerated in its entirety upon application of the set of permutations of like-spin electrons. The method, wherein a Voronoi diagram is constructed from the (even permutations of the) average position of a swarm of Monte Carlo walkers sampling |Ψ|(2), determines a self-consistent partitioning of the wavefunction. When one of the identical 3N-dimensional Voronoi sites is projected onto the coordinates of each electron, chemical motifs naturally appear, such as core electrons, lone-pairs, single-bonds and banana-bonds. The structures determined for N2, O2, F2, and other molecules correspond to the double-quartet theory of Linnett. When the procedure is applied to C2, we arrive at an interpretation of its bonding in terms of a near triple bond with singlet-coupled outer electrons. PMID:27122062

  1. Stabilities and Spectroscopy of Hydrogen Bonding Complexes Formed by 2,4-Bis(acrylamido)pyrimidines

    ZHANG Ye; LI Ting; TENG Qi-Wen

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen bonds play important roles to living organisms containing pyrimidine-based derivatives.The electronic structures of the hydrogen bonding complexes formed by 2,4-bis(acrylamido)pyrimidine (2,4-BAAP) derivatives with 1-substituted uracil were studied using Austin Model 1 (AMl) and density function theory (DFT) methods.The UV and NMR spectra of the complexes were calculated with the INDO/CIS (configuration interaction for singlet in intermediate neglect of differential overlap) and B3LYP/6-31G(d)methods.It was shown that the complexes could be formed via the triple hydrogen bonding between two monomers owing to the negative binding energies.The binding energies of the complexes were weakened in the presence of substituents,but this weakening effect depended on the simultaneous influence of the electronic and steric effects.The binding energies of the complexes were also decreased owing to the formation of the isomeric complexes in the presence of piperidyl on 2,4-BAAP.The energy gaps of the complexes were lessened in the presence of electron-donating groups.Holes and electrons were easily injected to the complexes due to the extension of the conjugation chain.The first UV absorptions of the complexes relative to those of the parent compound were red-shifted because of the narrow energy gaps.The chemical shifts of the carbon atoms on the C=O bonds in the complexes were changed downfield.

  2. Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system

    Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface. PMID:24678210

  3. GDC-0941 and Cisplatin in Treating Patients With Androgen Receptor-Negative Triple Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer

    2015-08-17

    Estrogen Receptor Negative Breast Cancer; Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Negative Carcinoma of Breast; Triple Negative Breast Cancer; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-negative Breast Cancer

  4. Numerical Study of Buoyancy and Different Diffusion Effects on the Structure and Dynamics of Triple Flames

    Chen, Jyh-Yuan; Echekki, Tarek

    2001-01-01

    Numerical simulations of 2-D triple flames under gravity force have been implemented to identify the effects of gravity on triple flame structure and propagation properties and to understand the mechanisms of instabilities resulting from both heat release and buoyancy effects. A wide range of gravity conditions, heat release, and mixing widths for a scalar mixing layer are computed for downward-propagating (in the same direction with the gravity vector) and upward-propagating (in the opposite direction of the gravity vector) triple flames. Results of numerical simulations show that gravity strongly affects the triple flame speed through its contribution to the overall flow field. A simple analytical model for the triple flame speed, which accounts for both buoyancy and heat release, is developed. Comparisons of the proposed model with the numerical results for a wide range of gravity, heat release and mixing width conditions, yield very good agreement. The analysis shows that under neutral diffusion, downward propagation reduces the triple flame speed, while upward propagation enhances it. For the former condition, a critical Froude number may be evaluated, which corresponds to a vanishing triple flame speed. Downward-propagating triple flames at relatively strong gravity effects have exhibited instabilities. These instabilities are generated without any artificial forcing of the flow. Instead disturbances are initiated by minute round-off errors in the numerical simulations, and subsequently amplified by instabilities. A linear stability analysis on mean profiles of stable triple flame configurations have been performed to identify the most amplified frequency in spatially developed flows. The eigenfunction equations obtained from the linearized disturbance equations are solved using the shooting method. The linear stability analysis yields reasonably good agreements with the observed frequencies of the unstable triple flames. The frequencies and amplitudes of

  5. Strength of Bond Covenants and Bond Assessment Framework

    Noel Yahanpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine bond covenants of 29 New Zealand bond issues between 2001 and 2007.Results from the study indicate that protection provided for bondholders is weak and limited.On average, only 2-3 types of covenants are embedded with the issues and only 27% of thesecovenants provide full protection to the bondholders. However, bondholders are not compensated for taking the additional risk. We propose an alternative assessment framework that directly assesses the level of protection offered to bondholders. We calculate thecovenant quality score for the issues and classify them into four levels of protection: very high protection, moderate, low and very low. Recent legislative changes will go some way towards improving investor protection and confidence, but the effect is yet to be seen. This proposed scoring framework can be used by potential investors to complement the traditional credit ratings when making their investment decisions.

  6. Metal-metal multiply bonded complexes of technetium. 1. Synthesis and structural characterization of phosphine complexes that contain a Tc-Tc multiple bond

    A series of triply metal-metal bonded ditechnetium(II) phosphine complexes with the general formula Tc2Cl4(PR3)4 (PR3 = PEt3, PPrn3, PMePh2, PMe2Ph) have been prepared from mononuclear Tc(IV) precursors and fully characterized. Two-electron reduction of the Tc(IV) bis(phosphine) complexes TcCl4(PR3)2 (PR3 = PEt3, PPrn3, PMePh2, PMe2Ph) with finely divided zinc in aromatic solvents or tetrahydrofuran results in the formation of the corresponding electron-rich triply bonded compounds Tc2Cl4(PR3)4 in high yield. These are the first phosphine complexes of technetium that possess a metal-metal bond. The solid-state structures of the PEt3, PMe2Ph, and PMePh2 derivatives have been investigated by X-ray crystallography and are described in detail. Similar to the analogous dirhenium(II) complexes, the molecules adopt an eclipsed M2L8 conformation with approximate D2d symmetry. The Tc-Tc bond lengths are 2.133(3), 2.127(1), and 2.1384(5) angstrom for Tc2Cl4(PEt3)4, Tc2Cl4(PEt3)4, Tc2Cl4(PMe2Ph)4, and Tc2Cl4(PMePh2)4, respectively. Structural and spectroscopic evidence indicates that these dimers contain an electron-rich Tc-Tc triple bond with a σ2-π-4δ2δ*2 ground-state electronic configuration. Electrochemical studies reveal that each compound undergoes two reversible one-electron oxidation processes, which presumably produce the corresponding Tc25+ and Tc26+ dinuclear species. 1H HMR, 31P(1H) NMR, and UV-vis spectroscopic data are presented for each compound

  7. A computational approach for the annotation of hydrogen-bonded base interactions in crystallographic structures of the ribozymes

    Hamdani, Hazrina Yusof, E-mail: hazrina@mfrlab.org [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi (Malaysia); Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, Kepala Batas (Malaysia); Artymiuk, Peter J., E-mail: p.artymiuk@sheffield.ac.uk [Dept. of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Firth Court, University of Sheffield, S10 T2N Sheffield (United Kingdom); Firdaus-Raih, Mohd, E-mail: firdaus@mfrlab.org [School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    A fundamental understanding of the atomic level interactions in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and how they contribute towards RNA architecture is an important knowledge platform to develop through the discovery of motifs from simple arrangements base pairs, to more complex arrangements such as triples and larger patterns involving non-standard interactions. The network of hydrogen bond interactions is important in connecting bases to form potential tertiary motifs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of automated methods for annotating RNA 3D structures based on hydrogen bond interactions. COnnection tables Graphs for Nucleic ACids (COGNAC) is automated annotation system using graph theoretical approaches that has been developed for the identification of RNA 3D motifs. This program searches for patterns in the unbroken networks of hydrogen bonds for RNA structures and capable of annotating base pairs and higher-order base interactions, which ranges from triples to sextuples. COGNAC was able to discover 22 out of 32 quadruples occurrences of the Haloarcula marismortui large ribosomal subunit (PDB ID: 1FFK) and two out of three occurrences of quintuple interaction reported by the non-canonical interactions in RNA (NCIR) database. These and several other interactions of interest will be discussed in this paper. These examples demonstrate that the COGNAC program can serve as an automated annotation system that can be used to annotate conserved base-base interactions and could be added as additional information to established RNA secondary structure prediction methods.

  8. A computational approach for the annotation of hydrogen-bonded base interactions in crystallographic structures of the ribozymes

    Hamdani, Hazrina Yusof; Artymiuk, Peter J.; Firdaus-Raih, Mohd

    2015-09-01

    A fundamental understanding of the atomic level interactions in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and how they contribute towards RNA architecture is an important knowledge platform to develop through the discovery of motifs from simple arrangements base pairs, to more complex arrangements such as triples and larger patterns involving non-standard interactions. The network of hydrogen bond interactions is important in connecting bases to form potential tertiary motifs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of automated methods for annotating RNA 3D structures based on hydrogen bond interactions. COnnection tables Graphs for Nucleic ACids (COGNAC) is automated annotation system using graph theoretical approaches that has been developed for the identification of RNA 3D motifs. This program searches for patterns in the unbroken networks of hydrogen bonds for RNA structures and capable of annotating base pairs and higher-order base interactions, which ranges from triples to sextuples. COGNAC was able to discover 22 out of 32 quadruples occurrences of the Haloarcula marismortui large ribosomal subunit (PDB ID: 1FFK) and two out of three occurrences of quintuple interaction reported by the non-canonical interactions in RNA (NCIR) database. These and several other interactions of interest will be discussed in this paper. These examples demonstrate that the COGNAC program can serve as an automated annotation system that can be used to annotate conserved base-base interactions and could be added as additional information to established RNA secondary structure prediction methods.

  9. A computational approach for the annotation of hydrogen-bonded base interactions in crystallographic structures of the ribozymes

    A fundamental understanding of the atomic level interactions in ribonucleic acid (RNA) and how they contribute towards RNA architecture is an important knowledge platform to develop through the discovery of motifs from simple arrangements base pairs, to more complex arrangements such as triples and larger patterns involving non-standard interactions. The network of hydrogen bond interactions is important in connecting bases to form potential tertiary motifs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of automated methods for annotating RNA 3D structures based on hydrogen bond interactions. COnnection tables Graphs for Nucleic ACids (COGNAC) is automated annotation system using graph theoretical approaches that has been developed for the identification of RNA 3D motifs. This program searches for patterns in the unbroken networks of hydrogen bonds for RNA structures and capable of annotating base pairs and higher-order base interactions, which ranges from triples to sextuples. COGNAC was able to discover 22 out of 32 quadruples occurrences of the Haloarcula marismortui large ribosomal subunit (PDB ID: 1FFK) and two out of three occurrences of quintuple interaction reported by the non-canonical interactions in RNA (NCIR) database. These and several other interactions of interest will be discussed in this paper. These examples demonstrate that the COGNAC program can serve as an automated annotation system that can be used to annotate conserved base-base interactions and could be added as additional information to established RNA secondary structure prediction methods

  10. Triple F - A Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission

    Kueppers, Michael; Keller, H. U.; Kuehrt, E.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Altwegg, K.; Bertrand, R.; Busemann, H.; Capria, M. T.; Colangeli, L.; Davidsson, B.; Ehrenfreund, P.; Knollenberg, J.; Mottola, S.; Weiss, P.; Zolensky, M.; Akim, E.; Basilevsky, A.; Galimov, E.; Gerasimov, M.; Korablev, O.; Charnley, S.; Nittler, L. R.; Sandford, S.; Weissman, P.

    2008-01-01

    The Triple F (Fresh From the Fridge) mission, a Comet Nucleus Sample Return, has been proposed to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. A sample return from a comet enables us to reach the ultimate goal of cometary research. Since comets are the least processed bodies in the solar system, the proposal goes far beyond cometary science topics (like the explanation of cometary activity) and delivers invaluable information about the formation of the solar system and the interstellar molecular cloud from which it formed. The proposed mission would extract three sample cores of the upper 50 cm from three locations on a cometary nucleus and return them cooled to Earth for analysis in the laboratory. The simple mission concept with a touch-andgo sampling by a single spacecraft was proposed as an M-class mission in collaboration with the Russian space agency ROSCOSMOS.

  11. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    Pozner, R.; Lifshitz, E. [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Solid State Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Peskin, U., E-mail: uri@tx.technion.ac.il [Schulich Faculty of Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Russell Berrie Nanotechnology Institute, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Lise Meitner Center for Computational Quantum Chemistry, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2015-09-14

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM.

  12. Application of artificial intelligence to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TQMS)

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory the authors have designed a totally computerized triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with the ultimate goal of using it as a prototype for ''knowledge-based'' instrument control. As an ''intelligent'' instrument, with its computer-based data acquisition and control system, it has the ability to learn and respond quickly. The intelligence is encoded in the system using the representation and rule-based reasoning heuristic techniques of Artificial Intelligence. These techniques are used to encode heuristic knowledge, or the intuition, formal and informal rules, and experiential knowledge that the human expert normally uses to make decisions and arrive at solutions in a specific domain problem. In this specific case, the knowledge the authors are encoding is a tuning procedure for the spectrometer, including heuristics to describe a self-adaptive, feedback control process for real-time optimization or tuning of the data acquisition procedure throughout the entire data collection process

  13. Efficacy of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles; Li, Qiyuan;

    2010-01-01

    1 promoter methylation (P = .04), p53 nonsense or frameshift mutations (P = .01), and a gene expression signature of E2F3 activation (P = .03). CONCLUSION Single-agent cisplatin induced response in a subset of patients with TNBC. Decreased BRCA1 expression may identify subsets of TNBCs that are......PURPOSE Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent not used routinely for breast cancer treatment. As a DNA cross-linking agent, cisplatin may be effective treatment for hereditary BRCA1-mutated breast cancers. Because sporadic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and BRCA1-associated breast cancer...... share features suggesting common pathogenesis, we conducted a neoadjuvant trial of cisplatin in TNBC and explored specific biomarkers to identify predictors of response. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-eight women with stage II or III breast cancers lacking estrogen and progesterone receptors and HER2/Neu...

  14. Tetraphenylporphyrin as a protein label for triple detection analytical systems.

    Konopińska, Kamila; Pietrzak, Mariusz; Mazur, Radosław; Malinowska, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Porphyrins and metalloporphyrins are promising new protein labels that can be detected using multiple techniques; improving the reliability of the analysis and broadening the range of the linear response. Here, we investigate the potential of 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphyrin (Tpp) as a hybrid protein label. The electrochemical and optical properties of porphyrin conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA), chicken egg albumin (CEA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) were determined and optimal conditions for Tpp-protein conjugation established. Model conjugates of carboxylated Tpp with BSA and short peptides were characterized using differential pulse voltammetry, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry. These results reveal that Tpp is a promising molecule to be used in a triple detection protein labelling system. PMID:27441235

  15. Triple A syndrome with ophthalmic manifestations in two siblings

    Babu Kalpana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple A syndrome (Allgrove syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenocorticotropic hormone resistant adrenal insufficiency, alacrima, achalasia of the esophageal cardia, progressive neurological degeneration and occasionally autonomic instability. We report the ophthalmic manifestations in 2 siblings from a consanguineous family with this syndrome. A routine ophthalmic examination showed absence of palpebral portion of lacrimal gland, dry eyes and sluggish pupillary reflexes in both eyes of these patients. Both of these patients had achalasia cardia while the boy additionally had increased serum cortisol levels. Topical ocular lubricants were prescribed for both of them and Heller′s cardiomyotomy with fundus plication was done for achalasia. These cases would create an awareness of this rare condition in ophthalmology in addition to suggesting its management.

  16. Triple differential cross sections of magnesium in doubly symmetric geometry

    S, Y. Sun; X, Y. Miao; Xiang-Fu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    A dynamically screened three-Coulomb-wave (DS3C) method is applied to study the single ionization of magnesium by electron impact. Triple differential cross sections (TDCS) are calculated in doubly symmetric geometry at incident energies of 13.65, 17.65, 22.65, 27.65, 37.65, 47.65, 57.65, and 67.65 eV. Comparisons are made with experimental data and theoretical predictions from a three-Coulomb-wave function (3C) approach and distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA). The overall agreement between the predictions of the DS3C model and the DWBA approach with the experimental data is satisfactory. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11274215).

  17. A triple quantum dot based nano-electromechanical memory device

    Colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) are free-standing nano-structures with chemically tunable electronic properties. This tunability offers intriguing possibilities for nano-electromechanical devices. In this work, we consider a nano-electromechanical nonvolatile memory (NVM) device incorporating a triple quantum dot (TQD) cluster. The device operation is based on a bias induced motion of a floating quantum dot (FQD) located between two bound quantum dots (BQDs). The mechanical motion is used for switching between two stable states, “ON” and “OFF” states, where ligand-mediated effective interdot forces between the BQDs and the FQD serve to hold the FQD in each stable position under zero bias. Considering realistic microscopic parameters, our quantum-classical theoretical treatment of the TQD reveals the characteristics of the NVM

  18. Triple M-brane configurations and preserved supersymmetries

    Golubtsova, A.A., E-mail: siedhe@gmail.com [Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya Str., Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation); Laboratoire de Univers et Théories (LUTh), Observatoire de Paris, Place Jules Janssen 5, 92190 Meudon (France); Ivashchuk, V.D., E-mail: ivashchuk@mail.ru [Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya Str., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya Str., Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-21

    We investigate all standard triple composite M-brane intersections defined on products of Ricci-flat manifolds for preserving supersymmetries in eleven-dimensional N=1 supergravity. The explicit formulae for computing the numbers of preserved supersymmetries are obtained, which generalize the relations for topologically trivial flat factor spaces presented in the classification by Bergshoeff et al. We obtain certain examples of configurations preserving some fractions of supersymmetries, e.g. containing such factor spaces as K3, C{sub ⁎}{sup 2}/Z{sub 2}, a four-dimensional pp-wave manifold and the two-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold R{sub ⁎}{sup 1,1}/Z{sub 2}.

  19. Single electron tunneling in double and triple quantum wells

    Filikhin, I.; Karoui, A.; Vlahovic, B.

    2016-03-01

    Electron localization and tunneling in laterally distributed double quantum well (DQW) and triple quantum well (TQW) are studied. Triangular configuration for the TQWs as well as various quantum well (QW) shapes and asymmetry are considered. The effect of adding a third well to a DQW is investigated as a weakly coupled system. InAs/GaAs DQWs and TQWs were modeled using single subband effective mass approach with effective potential simulating the strain effect. Electron localization dynamics in DQW and TQW over the whole spectrum is studied by varying the inter-dot distances. The electron tunneling appeared highly sensitive to small violations of the DQW mirror symmetry. We show that the presence of a third dot increases the tunneling in the DQW. The dependence of the tunneling in quantum dot (QD) arrays on inter-dot distances is also discussed.

  20. Structure-property-function relationships in triple helical collagen hydrogels

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Russell, Stephen J; Wood, David J

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish defined biomimetic systems, type I collagen was functionalised with 1,3-Phenylenediacetic acid (Ph) as aromatic, bifunctional segment. Following investigation on molecular organization and macroscopic properties, material functionalities, i.e. degradability and bioactivity, were addressed, aiming at elucidating the potential of this collagen system as mineralization template. Functionalised collagen hydrogels demonstrated a preserved triple helix conformation. Decreased swelling ratio and increased thermo-mechanical properties were observed in comparison to state-of-the-art carbodiimide (EDC)-crosslinked collagen controls. Ph-crosslinked samples displayed no optical damage and only a slight mass decrease (~ 4 wt.-%) following 1-week incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF), while nearly 50 wt.-% degradation was observed in EDC-crosslinked collagen. SEM/EDS revealed amorphous mineral deposition, whereby increased calcium phosphate ratio was suggested in hydrogels with increased Ph content...

  1. Simple metamaterial structure enabling triple-band perfect absorber

    Two resonators in metamaterial usually correspond only to two absorption peaks. In this report, by breaking the symmetry, we could create multi-fundamental resonances at GHz frequencies in both simulation and experiment. First, a dual-band metamaterial absorber (MA) was achieved for 4.6 and 10.6 GHz. Next, by modifying the relative position of inner square, the triple-band MA was obtained with enhanced absorption properties. In addition, dependence on the polarization of the incident electromagnetic (EM) wave was clarified. The mechanism is elucidated to be an alteration of the coupling strength, which is made by changing the geometrical configuration of the inner square and the outer ring. It is shown that our structural configuration can be applied to the fields where the interaction with a wide range of EM waves exists or is needed. (paper)

  2. Triple GEM Detectors for the Forward Tracker in STAR

    Simon, Frank; Kohl, Michael; Majka, Richard; Plesko, Miroslav; Underwood, David; Sakuma, Tai; Smirnov, Nikolai; Spinka, Harold; Surrow, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Future measurements of the flavor-separated spin structure of the proton via parity-violating W boson production at RHIC require an upgrade of the forward tracking system of the STAR detector. This upgrade will allow the reconstruction of the charge sign of electrons and positrons produced from decaying W bosons. A design based on six large area triple GEM disks using GEM foils produced by Tech-Etch Inc. has emerged as a cost-effective solution to provide the necessary tracking precision. We report first results from a beam test of three test detectors using Tech-Etch produced GEM foils and a laser etched two dimensional strip readout. The detectors show good operational stability, high efficiency and a spacial resolution of around 70 um or better, exceeding the requirements for the forward tracking upgrade. The influence of the angle of incidence of the particles on the spatial resolution of the detectors has also been studied in detail.

  3. Particle tracking with a Timepix based triple GEM detector

    This paper details the response of a triple GEM detector with a 55 μmetre pitch pixelated ASIC for readout. The detector is operated as a micro TPC with 9.5 cm3 sensitive volume and characterized with a mixed beam of 120 GeV protons and positive pions. A process for reconstruction of incident particle tracks from individual ionization clusters is described and scans of the gain and drift fields are performed. The angular resolution of the measured tracks is characterized. Also, the readout was operated in a mixed mode where some pixels measure drift time and others charge. This was used to measure the energy deposition in the detector and the charge cloud size as a function of interaction depth. The future uses of the device, including in microdosimetry are discussed

  4. Covalent bond orders for non-bonded atoms: The case for carbon-carbon interactions

    The Cioslowski-Mixon (CM) covalent bond order and the atoms-in-molecules (AIM) delocalization index can be used to study bonding characteristics between atoms not bonded in the conventional chemical sense. In particular, the bond orders between atoms (AIM basins) with one intervening atom evolve in a predictable manner and are related to the bond orders of conventionally bonded species. The CM approach shows that it is the tails of the incompletely localized orbitals that provide for such interactions. Single, multiple, and resonant bond effects are seen which are physically meaningful and useful as an additional characterization of molecular bonding. The important case of carbon-carbon interactions is studied here.

  5. Installation of cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer at HANARO

    This paper presents a recent installation of a cold neutron triple-axis spectrometer (Cold TAS) at the 30 MW HANARO research reactor at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Because of the importance of neutron science, a cold neutron facility construction project had been started in July 2003 and was finished in 2010. The Cold TAS was primary installed at HANARO during the project. After primary installation, some technical problems had been occurred, Cold TAS improvement was initiated in 2013. The basic design of the Cold TAS was inspired by other triple-axis spectrometers, but was modified slightly to improve reliability and efficiency of the instrument. Some features of the instrument are (a) access to a high-flux neutron beam with a neutron velocity selector (NVS) as a high order filter (HOF), which can also increase the signal-to-noise ratio by eliminating neutrons of the wrong wavelength upstream of the monochromator, (b) a custom tailored and efficient electronics control system with the SPICE interface, and (c) an in-house design and fabrication of a compact single-unit multi-analyzer and detector shielding body system that surrounds an array of pyrolytic graphite (PG) crystals. The Cold TAS was also developed to be flexible enough to facilitate different experimental resolutions and requirements. In its present setup, the instrument is capable of measuring the momentum and energy transferred to the sample in a range physically accessible by the spectrometer and is expected to help instrument users perform sophisticated experiments for future studies of the dynamic energy landscape in strongly-correlated electronic materials.

  6. Persistent, triple-virus co-infections in mosquito cells

    Malasit Prida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that insects and crustaceans can carry simultaneous, active infections of two or more viruses without showing signs of disease, but it was not clear whether co-infecting viruses occupied the same cells or different cells in common target tissues. Our previous work showed that successive challenge of mosquito cell cultures followed by serial, split-passage resulted in stabilized cultures with 100% of the cells co-infected with Dengue virus (DEN and an insect parvovirus (densovirus (DNV. By addition of Japanese encephalitis virus (JE, we tested our hypothesis that stable, persistent, triple-virus co-infections could be obtained by the same process. Results Using immunocytochemistry by confocal microscopy, we found that JE super-challenge of cells dually infected with DEN and DNV resulted in stable cultures without signs of cytopathology, and with 99% of the cells producing antigens of the 3 viruses. Location of antigens for all 3 viruses in the triple co-infections was dominant in the cell nuclei. Except for DNV, this differed from the distribution in cells persistently infected with the individual viruses or co-infected with DNV and DEN. The dependence of viral antigen distribution on single infection or co-infection status suggested that host cells underwent an adaptive process to accommodate 2 or more viruses. Conclusions Individual mosquito cells can accommodate at least 3 viruses simultaneously in an adaptive manner. The phenomenon provides an opportunity for genetic exchange between diverse viruses and it may have important medical and veterinary implications for arboviruses.

  7. Vascular characterisation of triple negative breast carcinomas using dynamic MRI

    Li, Sonia P.; Beresford, Mark J.; Ah-See, Mei-Lin W.; Makris, Andreas [Mount Vernon Cancer Centre, Academic Oncology Unit, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Padhani, Anwar R.; Taylor, N.J.; Stirling, J.J. [Mount Vernon Hospital, Paul Strickland Scanner Centre, Northwood, Middlesex (United Kingdom); D' Arcy, James A.; Collins, David J. [Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, CR UK and EPSRC Cancer Imaging Centre, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Triple-negative (ER-/PR-/HER2-) breast carcinomas (TNBC) are aggressive tumours with underexplored imaging features. This study investigates whether their vascular characteristics as assessed by dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI are distinct from the prognostically more favourable ER+/PR+/HER2- cancers. Patients with primary breast cancer underwent MRI before neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were identified as ER-/PR-/HER2- or ER+/PR+/HER2- from core biopsy specimens. MRI parameters reflecting tissue perfusion, permeability, and extracellular leakage space were measured. Values for inflow transfer constant (K{sup trans}), outflow rate constant (k{sub ep}), leakage space (v{sub e}), area under the gadolinium curve (IAUGC{sub 60}), relative blood volume (rBV) and flow (rBF), and Mean Transit Time (MTT) were compared across receptor status and with known prognostic variables. Thirty seven patients were assessable in total (16 ER-/PR-/HER2-, 21 ER+/PR+/HER2-). Lower v{sub e} (p = 0.001), shorter MTT (p = 0.007) and higher k{sub ep} values (p = 0.044) were observed in TNBC. v{sub e} was lower across all T stages, node-negative (p = 0.004) and low-grade TNBC (p = 0.037). v{sub e} was the best predictor of triple negativity (ROC AUC 0.80). TNBC possess characteristic features on imaging, with lower extracellular space (higher cell density) and higher contrast agent wash-out rate (higher vascular permeability) suggesting a distinctive phenotype detectable by MRI. (orig.)

  8. Triple-negative breast cancer: new perspectives for targeted therapies

    Tomao F

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Federica Tomao,1 Anselmo Papa,2 Eleonora Zaccarelli,2 Luigi Rossi,2 Davide Caruso,2 Marina Minozzi,2 Patrizia Vici,3 Luigi Frati,4 Silverio Tomao21Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Policlinico “Umberto I”, Rome, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Oncology Unit, Istituto Chirurgico Ortopedico Traumatologico, Latina, 3Division of Medical Oncology B, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Molecular Medicine, “Sapienza” University of Rome, Policlinico “Umberto I”, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, encompassing a large number of entities showing different morphological features and having clinical behaviors. It has became apparent that this diversity may be justified by distinct patterns of genetic, epigenetic, and transcriptomic aberrations. The identification of gene-expression microarray-based characteristics has led to the identification of at least five breast cancer subgroups: luminal A, luminal B, normal breast-like, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, and basal-like. Triple-negative breast cancer is a complex disease diagnosed by immunohistochemistry, and it is characterized by malignant cells not expressing estrogen receptors or progesterone receptors at all, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Along with this knowledge, recent data show that triple-negative breast cancer has specific molecular features that could be possible targets for new biological targeted drugs. The aim of this article is to explore the use of new drugs in this particular setting, which is still associated with poor prognosis and high risk of distant recurrence and death.Keywords: basal-like breast cancer, estrogen–progesterone receptors, gene-expression microarray, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, chemotherapy, target therapy

  9. Electronic properties of interfaces produced by silicon wafer hydrophilic bonding

    Trushin, Maxim

    2011-07-15

    The thesis presents the results of the investigations of electronic properties and defect states of dislocation networks (DNs) in silicon produced by wafers direct bonding technique. A new insight into the understanding of their very attractive properties was succeeded due to the usage of a new, recently developed silicon wafer direct bonding technique, allowing to create regular dislocation networks with predefined dislocation types and densities. Samples for the investigations were prepared by hydrophilic bonding of p-type Si (100) wafers with same small misorientation tilt angle ({proportional_to}0.5 ), but with four different twist misorientation angles Atw (being of < , 3 , 6 and 30 , respectively), thus giving rise to the different DN microstructure on every particular sample. The main experimental approach of this work was the measurements of current and capacitance of Schottky diodes prepared on the samples which contained the dislocation network at a depth that allowed one to realize all capabilities of different methods of space charge region spectroscopy (such as CV/IV, DLTS, ITS, etc.). The key tasks for the investigations were specified as the exploration of the DN-related gap states, their variations with gradually increasing twist angle Atw, investigation of the electrical field impact on the carrier emission from the dislocation-related states, as well as the establishing of the correlation between the electrical (DLTS), optical (photoluminescence PL) and structural (TEM) properties of DNs. The most important conclusions drawn from the experimental investigations and theoretical calculations can be formulated as follows: - DLTS measurements have revealed a great difference in the electronic structure of small-angle (SA) and large-angle (LA) bonded interfaces: dominating shallow level and a set of 6-7 deep levels were found in SA-samples with Atw of 1 and 3 , whereas the prevalent deep levels - in LA-samples with Atw of 6 and 30 . The critical twist

  10. Structure and bonding in clusters

    We review here the recent progress made in the understanding of the electronic and atomic structure of small clusters of s-p bonded materials using the density functional molecular dynamics technique within the local density approximation. Starting with a brief description of the method, results are presented for alkali metal clusters, clusters of divalent metals such as Mg and Be which show a transition from van der Waals or weak chemical bonding to metallic behaviour as the cluster size grows and clusters of Al, Sn and Sb. In the case of semiconductors, we discuss results for Si, Ge and GaAs clusters. Clusters of other materials such as P, C, S, and Se are also briefly discussed. From these and other available results we suggest the possibility of unique structures for the magic clusters. (author). 69 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  11. Manufacturing study of beryllium bonded structures

    Manufacturing study has been conducted on Be-bonded structures employed in the first-wall panel of the blanket system for the ITER. For Be tiles bonded to the Cu-Cr-Zr alloy heat sink with stainless-steel cooling pipes, a one-axis hot press with two heating process has been used to bond the three materials. First, Cu-alloy and SS materials are bonded diffusively. Then, Be tiles are bonded to the pre-bonded structure under 20 MPa and at 560 degree C. An Al-Si base interlayer has been used to bond Be to the Cu-Alloy. Because of the limited heat processes using a conventional hot press, the manufacturing cost can be minimized. Using the above bonding techniques, a partial mockup of a blanket first-wall panel with 16 Be tiles (with 50 mm in size) has been successfully manufactured. (author)

  12. Essays on European bond markets

    Cheung, Y.C.

    2005-01-01

    This dissertation focused on a number of issues that are of importance in the current European bond market. In the past years, the fiscal policy of the Eurozone members, advances in the technology of trading platforms and the introduction of a single currency have reshaped the fixed income markets in Europe. These developments have resulted in a far going integration of Eurozone capital markets. Moreover, the massive amounts of debt issued by Japan and the United States combined with the dete...

  13. Attachment bonding of delinquent adolescents

    Čačić Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of this research is to define adolescence bonding as well as to identify their typical bonding type. The bonding was observed in two ways. The analysis was based on seven attachment dimensions that were defined by N. Hanak, as well as on the basis of Bartholomew’s four-style attachment model. The research was conducted at multiple sites: two secondary schools in Sombor, the Juvenile Correctional Institution in Kruševac and the Juvenile Correctional Facility in Niš. It included 524 persons, 421 adolescents and 103 delinquents. Adolescents are the second and the third grade students of the Secondary Technical School and the Second­ary School of Economics, while delinquents were testable juveniles. All of them are under correctional measures in the above mentioned institutions. All results are in accordance with the theoretical expectations. Delinquents attach in insecure way more frequently: 68, 9% delinquents from our sample showed insecure attachment. The fearful type of attachment appears to be typical of delinquents. Delinquents are facing difficulties in obtaining support of close persons, as well as in using significant persons they are related to as safe harbours in stressful situations. In addition, they would see themselves as not worthy of attention and love. There is a high level of painful feelings related to childhood and family, as well as ambivalent and nega­tive current family relations.

  14. Evaluation of Helicobacter Pylori eradication in pediatric patients by triple therapy plus lactoferrin and probiotics compared to triple therapy alone

    Tolone Salvatore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the addition of a probiotic could improve Helicobacter pylori (H.P. eradication rates and reduce the side effects of treatment in children. Methods Between July 2008 and July 2011 all patients with a clinical, laboratory and endoscopic diagnosis of H.P. positive gastritis referred to our Unit were included in the study. Patients suffering from allergy to any of drugs used in the study, with previous attempts to eradicate H.P. and those who received antibiotics, PPIs or probiotics within 4 weeks were excluded from the present study. Patients were randomized into two therapy regimens (group A and B: both groups received standard triple treatment (omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin while only group B patients were also given a probiotic (Probinul - Cadigroup. Patients compliance was evaluated at the end of the treatment. Successful eradication was defined as a negative 13 C-urea breath test (C13-ubt result four weeks after therapy discontinuation. Results A total of 68 histopathologically proven H.P.-infection children (32 male and 36 females were included in the study. All of the patients in both groups used more than 90% of the therapies and no patients were lost at follow up. All side effects were selflimiting and disappeared once the therapy was terminated. Epigastric pain was observed in 6 (17.6% group A vs 2 (5.8% group B patients (P Conclusion The addition of a probiotic formula to triple therapy significantly decreased the frequency of epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.

  15. Valuing Convertible Bonds Based on LSRQM Method

    Jian Liu; Lizhao Yan; Chaoqun Ma

    2014-01-01

    Convertible bonds are one of the essential financial products for corporate finance, while the pricing theory is the key problem to the theoretical research of convertible bonds. This paper demonstrates how to price convertible bonds with call and put provisions using Least-Squares Randomized Quasi-Monte Carlo (LSRQM) method. We consider the financial market with stochastic interest rates and credit risk and present a detailed description on calculating steps of convertible bonds value. The e...

  16. Assessment of bond between asphalt layers

    Muslich, Sutanto

    2010-01-01

    Asphalt pavements are usually constructed in several layers and most of pavement design and evaluation techniques assume that adjacent asphalt layers are fully bonded together and no displacement is developed between them. However, full bonding is not always achieved and a number of pavement failures have been linked to poor bond condition Theoretical research showed that the distribution of stresses, strains and deflections within the pavement structure is highly influenced by the bond c...

  17. Diversification, original sin, and international bond portfolios

    John D. Burger; Warnock, Francis E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper has two main goals: to analyze country allocations in international bond portfolios and to describe the development of bond markets around the world. In the primary analysis, we find that country weights in U.S. investors' foreign bond portfolios are determined by the openness of capital accounts and potential diversification benefits. Positions in local-currency-denominated bonds are particularly sensitive to past and prospective volatility of returns. Analysis of reallocations in...

  18. Three Essays on Corporate Bond Market Liquidity

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The three essays study the US corporate bond market with special attention to bond liquidity. All essays are empirical studies which rely heavily on the availability of transactions data. Earlier studies had to use quoted bond prices for empirical studies, but with the introduction of the TRACE system and with the following dissemination of transaction prices the data quality on corporate bonds has improved immensely. In the years after 2000 a range of studies assessed the p...

  19. European corporate bond liquidity and yield spreads

    Pukka, Juhamatti

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of this study is to provide new empirical evidence on European corporate bond liquidity determinants and the liquidity effect on yield spreads. European corporate bond market is mostly ignored in corporate bond liquidity literature and this thesis’ purpose is to contribute to literature by being among the first papers to estimate liquidity determinants with comprehensive European corporate bond data, covering both investment grade and speculative grade rati...

  20. Bond graph modeling of centrifugal compression systems

    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy

    2015-01-01

    A novel approach to model unsteady fluid dynamics in a compressor network by using a bond graph is presented. The model is intended in particular for compressor control system development. First, we develop a bond graph model of a single compression system. Bond graph modeling offers a different perspective to previous work by modeling the compression system based on energy flow instead of fluid dynamics. Analyzing the bond graph model explains the energy flow during compressor surge. Two pri...