WorldWideScience

Sample records for act opportunity knocks

  1. EPA and the Federal Technology Transfer Act: Opportunity knocks

    Gatchett, A.M.; Fradkin, L.; Moore, M.; Gorman, T.; Ehrlich, A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    In 1986, the Federal Technology Transfer Act (FTTA) was established to promote a closer, collaborative relationship between federal government agencies and the private sector. With the increasing need for new cost-effective technologies to prevent and control pollution, both the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and private industry are encouraged to facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology under this Act. The FTTA removed several of the legal and institutional barriers to cooperative research that existed before the Act`s passage. Through the FTTA, the government strives to promote the movement of its products, processes, skills, and knowledge into the private sector for further development and commercialization by encouraging the exchange of technical personnel and the sharing of facilities and other resources. Collaborative efforts between industry, federal agencies, and academia are made possible through cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs). Forty-two CRADAs and five licensing agreements have been initiated with EPA under this program. This paper provides an overview of this new and innovative program within the EPA. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Opportunity Knocks: HIV Prevention in Primary Care.

    Thrun, Mark W

    2014-06-01

    Expansions in health care coverage, a comprehensive framework for HIV prevention and care, electronic medical records, and novel HIV prevention modalities create a current opportunity to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic in the United States. HIV is increasingly disproportionately found in populations historically at higher risk, including gay men and other men who have sex with men, transgender women, injection drug users, and persons of color. This underscores the need for providers to identify persons at higher risk for HIV and assure the provision of screening and prevention services. In turn, universal screening for HIV-testing every adolescent and adult at least once in their lifetime-will increasingly be necessary to find the infrequent cases of HIV in lower risk populations. In both these domains, primary care providers will play a unique role in complementing traditional providers of HIV prevention and care services by increasing the proportion of their patients who have been screened for HIV, opening dialogues around sexual health, including asking about sexual orientation and gender identity, and prescribing antivirals as pre- and postexposure prophylaxis for their non-HIV-infected patients. Primary care providers must understand and embrace their importance along the HIV prevention and care continuum. PMID:26789615

  3. Knock knock

    Tullett, Barrie; ,

    2015-01-01

    Knock Knock is a book of concrete poetry knock knock jokes. With a couple of sight gags, a joke with an east London twang, and a low-brow cultural reference thrown in for good measure. There are two versions; a saddle stitched book with 12 jokes and a perfect bound extended cut with 16 jokes. The covers are Riso printed in a random mixture of red, black and green on different coloured stock.

  4. Opportunities knock: Mediation of peer-relations during meal-time in toddler groups.

    Ellen Os

    2014-01-01

    According to socio-cultural perspectives, adults are seen as mediators of cultural believes, values and practices. Qualitative analyses of teachers’ mediation of peer relations based on video-recordings in 9 toddler-groups indicate that meal-time represents opportunities for teachers to facilitate togetherness and peer-relations between toddlers. The teachers might facilitate sharing, passing food, routinized practices such as singing, and conversations. The results indicate variations betwee...

  5. Current status and future perspectives of PSMA-targeted therapy in Europe: opportunity knocks

    177Lu-based PSMA-targeted therapy appears to be a promising treatment for advanced PCA. However, lessons should be learned from PRRT of neuroendocrine tumours, which was referred to as a ''promising'' tool for 15 years before the advent of evidence-based comparative studies. This experience strongly suggests that the communities involved with PSMA-targeted therapy, namely nuclear medicine, urology, radiochemistry, and medical physics, should capitalize without delay on the great opportunity to conduct well-designed prospective studies. Doing so should advance this modality from the proof-of principle stage to the potential standard-of-Care-stage. From our perspective, crucial components of this process are: - Harmonization of therapy protocols - Implementation of a patient selection algorithm into clinical routine - Standardization of toxicity assessment - Establishment of standardized dosimetry protocols to assess safety and efficacy - Transfer of expertise in PSMA therapy throughout Europe - Regulatory approval of 177Lu-PSMA-targeted compounds.

  6. Opportunities knock: Mediation of peer-relations during meal-time in toddler groups

    Ellen Os

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available According to socio-cultural perspectives, adults are seen as mediators of cultural believes, values and practices. Qualitative analyses of teachers’ mediation of peer relations based on video-recordings in 9 toddler-groups indicate that meal-time represents opportunities for teachers to facilitate togetherness and peer-relations between toddlers. The teachers might facilitate sharing, passing food, routinized practices such as singing, and conversations. The results indicate variations between child- and group-oriented approaches, and accomplishing meals in an effective way. The child- and group-oriented approaches are marked by encouragement of toddlers’ initiatives and teachers supporting peer-interactions. Raising teachers’ consciousness about their contributions to children’s development of peer-relations and togetherness in group settings might contribute to enhance reflected practices in working with toddlers in groups.

  7. Current status and future perspectives of PSMA-targeted therapy in Europe: opportunity knocks

    Pfestroff, A.; Luster, M. [University Hospital Marburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Marburg (Germany); Jilg, C.A. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Urology, Freiburg (Germany); Olbert, P.J. [University Hospital Marburg, Department of Urology, Marburg (Germany); Ohlmann, C.H. [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Urology, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Lassmann, M. [University Hospital Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Maecke, H.R. [University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmacy, Freiburg (Germany); Ezziddin, S. [Saarland University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Bodei, L. [European Institute of Oncology, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Milan (Italy); Collaboration: on behalf of the Radionuclide Therapy Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine

    2015-12-15

    {sup 177}Lu-based PSMA-targeted therapy appears to be a promising treatment for advanced PCA. However, lessons should be learned from PRRT of neuroendocrine tumours, which was referred to as a ''promising'' tool for 15 years before the advent of evidence-based comparative studies. This experience strongly suggests that the communities involved with PSMA-targeted therapy, namely nuclear medicine, urology, radiochemistry, and medical physics, should capitalize without delay on the great opportunity to conduct well-designed prospective studies. Doing so should advance this modality from the proof-of principle stage to the potential standard-of-Care-stage. From our perspective, crucial components of this process are: - Harmonization of therapy protocols - Implementation of a patient selection algorithm into clinical routine - Standardization of toxicity assessment - Establishment of standardized dosimetry protocols to assess safety and efficacy - Transfer of expertise in PSMA therapy throughout Europe - Regulatory approval of {sup 177}Lu-PSMA-targeted compounds.

  8. When Opportunity Knocks Twice: Dual Living Kidney Donation, Autonomy and the Public Interest.

    Bailey, Phillippa; Huxtable, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Living kidney transplantation offers the best treatment in terms of life-expectancy and quality of life for those with end-stage renal disease. The long-term risks of living donor nephrectomy, although real, are very small, with evidence of good medium-term outcomes. Who should be entitled to donate, and in which circumstances, is nevertheless a live question. We explore the ethical dimensions of a request by an individual to donate both of their kidneys during life: 'dual living kidney donation'. Our ethical analysis is tethered to a hypothetical case study in which a father asks to donate a kidney to each of his twin boys. We explore the autonomy of the protagonists, alongside different dimensions of the public interest, such as the need to protect not only the recipients, but also the donor and even the wider community. Whilst acknowledging objections to 'dual-donation', not least by reference to the harms that the donor might be expected to endure, we suggest there is a prima facie case for permitting this, provided that both donor and recipients are willing and that due attention is paid to such considerations as the autonomy and welfare of all parties, as well as to the wider ramifications of acting on such a request. We argue for broader interpretations of the concepts of autonomy and welfare, recognizing the importance of relationships and the relevance of more than merely physical well-being. Equipped with such a holistic assessment, we suggest there is a prima facie case for allowing 'dual living kidney donation'. PMID:26194324

  9. Missed Opportunities: The Vaccine Act of 1813

    Singla, Rohit K.

    1998-01-01

    This Paper simply exposes discontinuities between the theories and the history of the Vaccine Act, suggesting lines of further study. The focus throughout this Paper is on "getting the facts right," i.e., thoroughly recounting the history of the Vaccine Act. Part II of the paper provides some necessary historical background regarding the horrors of smallpox, the breakthrough of vaccination, and the difficulties encountered in implementing vaccination in early 19th century America. In particul...

  10. The Equal Credit Opportunity Act and Credit Rights in Housing.

    Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, Washington, DC.

    Designed for the general public and possibly suitable also for high school economics students, this pamphlet describes the provisions of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act. The act prohibits discrimination because of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, and age when applying for a mortgage or home improvement loan. The…

  11. The Higher Education Opportunity Act: Impact on Students with Disabilities

    Madaus, Joseph W.; Kowitt, Jennifer S.; Lalor, Adam R.

    2012-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) contains several important provisions that make postsecondary education more accessible and affordable for young adults with disabilities. This is particularly true for students with intellectual disabilities, as the law created new comprehensive transition and postsecondary programs and provided…

  12. Codifying the corporate opportunity doctrine: The (UK Companies Act 2006

    John Lowry

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Part 10 of the UK Companies Act 2006 codifies the fiduciary and common law duties of directors as a means of addressing the key policy considerations which underpinned the company law reform project launched by the Labour Government in 1998. Focusing on the core fiduciary duty of loyalty and its corporate law manifestation in the form of the ‘corporate opportunity doctrine’, the article critically examines whether the statutory language adequately captures the totality of the duty as developed in the case law. It concludes that the formalistic language of the relevant provisions neither encompasses the breadth of the pre-existing jurisprudence nor addresses the policy objectives of the reform exercise.

  13. 75 FR 70342 - Privacy Act; System of Records: Equal Employment Opportunity Records

    2010-11-17

    ... Act; System of Records: Equal Employment Opportunity Records SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to amend an existing system of records, Equal Employment Opportunity Records... the name ``Equal Employment Opportunity Records.'' It is also proposed that the amended...

  14. Statistical Engine Knock Control

    Stotsky, Alexander A.

    2008-01-01

    A new statistical concept of the knock control of a spark ignition automotive engine is proposed . The control aim is associated with the statistical hy pothesis test which compares the threshold value to the average value of the max imal amplitud e of the knock sensor signal at a given freq uency...

  15. Freedom of Information Act: Exceptional Opportunity for the Special Librarian.

    Cuddihy, Robert V.

    1980-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) of 1966 which established the rights of private citizens to obtain information from the federal government and the obligations of the government to provide it. Types of information generally made available, exemptions from disclosure, and creative uses of FOIA are noted. (Author/JEG)

  16. 77 FR 50390 - Equal Credit Opportunity Act (Regulation B)

    2012-08-21

    ... from the Bureau's rulemaking authority by section 1029 of the Dodd-Frank Act). 76 FR 79442 (Dec. 21... policy of a government sponsored enterprise or by an automated valuation model, a broker price opinion... exemption from the appraisal delivery requirements in Sec. 1002.14 for credit unions. See 58 FR 65657,...

  17. At the Center or the Margin: Massachusetts' Experience under the School-to-Work Opportunities Act.

    Diehl, William; Alex, Hoffinger; Weisstein, Ephraim

    2002-01-01

    Describes background for school-to-work effort in Massachusetts, the state's design and implementation of the School-to-Work Opportunities Act (STWOA) of 1994, the local impact of the state's STWOA grant, challenges to making school-to-work a top priority of state education reform strategies to improve student achievement, and state and local…

  18. Education Issues Raised by S.744: The Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act

    Murphy, Garrett

    2014-01-01

    This brief report summarizes the requirements for undocumented immigrants set forth by the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act (S.744). Assuming that S.744 will move forward in Congress, the report also examines issues having to do with certain language, civics and government, and education/training provisions…

  19. School to Work Opportunities Act Policy--An Effort at Backward Mapping

    Arthur M. Recesso

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the intent of federal policy and the actual implementation within local school districts. Specifically, the focus is on the Federal School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994 and its implementation in 47 school districts in upstate New York as part of a consortium during the 1995-96 school year. The purpose of the study was to determine 1) the extent to which an agreement to participate in a consortium arrangement designed to facilitate the implementation of a specific Feder...

  20. Education and Marriage Decisions of Japanese Women and the Role of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act

    Linda N. Edwards; Takuya Hasebe; Tadashi Sakai

    2015-01-01

    Prompted by concordant upward trends in both the university advancement rate and the unmarried rate for Japanese women, this paper investigates whether the Equal Employment Opportunity Act (EEOA), which was passed in 1985, affected women•s marriage decisions either directly or via their decisions to pursue university education. To this end, we estimate a model that treats education and marriage decisions as jointly determined using longitudinal data for Japanese women. We find little eviden...

  1. How the Sarbanes-Oxley Act Has Knocked the “SOX” off the DOJ and SEC and Kept the FCPA on Its Feet

    Laura E. Kress

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Congress passed both the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA” or “the Act” and Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“SOX” in reaction to national corruption and bribery scandals.[1]  The reputation and integrity of American companies were under attack as these scandals unraveled and made international news.  Allegations of fraud, bribery and illegal practices plagued corporate America.  Congress needed legislation to address these problems to ensure its own country, as well as the international community, that the legislature would not tolerate corrupt business practices.  The FCPA was enacted to decrease corruption and bribery and to improve the accuracy of accounting and record-keeping of companies, and the SOX was enacted for very similar purposes, yet twenty five years later.  The FCPA requires companies to report their financial information in accordance with its provisions, while the SOX requires the Chief Executive Officers and Chief Financial Officers of public companies to guarantee that their financial reports are accurate.[2]  During the first twenty five years after the FCPA was enacted, the Department of Justice (“DOJ” and Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC” did not conduct many investigations into companies that had potentially violated the Act’s provisions.  However, in the aftermath of the Enron[3] and WorldCom[4] scandals, which lead to the enactment of the SOX in 2002 and subsequent increased international awareness of the problems of bribery and financial fraud, there has been a significant increase in FCPA enforcement.[5] [1] The FCPA was enacted in 1977 in response to the Watergate scandal, and the SOX was enacted in 2002 in response to the Enron and WorldCom scandals. Lawrence A. Cunningham, Sharing Accounting’s Burden: Business Lawyers in Enron’s Dark Shadows, 57 Bus. Law. 1421, 1427 (2002 (commenting that the Enron scandal that led to the enactment of the SOX is “akin to the straw that broke the

  2. Broken or knocked out tooth

    Teeth - broken; Tooth - knocked out ... dentist right away. If your tooth is badly broken, your nerve endings may be exposed. You will ... emergency visit for a simple chip or a broken tooth that is not causing you discomfort. You ...

  3. Bowlegs and Knock-Knees

    ... Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands ... and Knock-Knees Page Content Article Body Toddlers’ legs often have a bowed appearance. In fact, many children have bowing of the ...

  4. Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010: An Opportunity for School Nurses to Make a Difference

    Prokop, Jessica L.; Galon, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Implementation of the Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 will provide an opportunity for school nurses to intervene in the serious childhood obesity problem in the United States. Major changes in the management of the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) will likely challenge schools yet may provide the impetus for a collaborative effort by the…

  5. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    2013-03-18

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for... Quality Management District (SCAQMD) in support of its continuing air program under section 105 of the... expenditures in the programs of the South Coast Air Quality Management District. The shortfall stems from...

  6. The Science of Hard Knocks

    Vance, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Head injuries in sports are nothing new, but in recent years, college athletes have reported a steady rise in concussions. Football players still get the most knocks to the head. Women have managed to keep up with, and often surpass, men in sports-related concussions in the last few years. In basketball, women reported 24 percent more concussions…

  7. 10 CFR 905.23 - What are the opportunities for using the Freedom of Information Act to request plan and report data?

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the opportunities for using the Freedom of Information Act to request plan and report data? 905.23 Section 905.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Integrated Resource Planning § 905.23 What are the opportunities for using the Freedom of Information Act to...

  8. School to Work Opportunities Act Policy--An Effort at Backward Mapping

    Arthur M. Recesso

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the intent of federal policy and the actual implementation within local school districts. Specifically, the focus is on the Federal School to Work Opportunities Act of 1994 and its implementation in 47 school districts in upstate New York as part of a consortium during the 1995-96 school year. The purpose of the study was to determine 1 the extent to which an agreement to participate in a consortium arrangement designed to facilitate the implementation of a specific Federal or state policy resulted in the active implementation efforts by individual consortium members, and 2 how a high school setting where School to Work activities were perceived by local stakeholders as having great specific and important effects differed from a high school setting where School to Work activities were perceived by local stakeholders as having some or no effect. A bottom-up backward mapping policy analysis model was used for the purposes of this study. Local level data was used to create performance, environment, technology implementation, and School to Work implementation profiles of local high schools. Regression and correlation analyses were used to determine the relationship between stakeholder perceptions and local high school characteristics. Results of the study were reported and interpreted with the aim of furthering research and knowledge of policy analysis and the use of local level data to determine the success of policy implementation. This study found that variation between federal intent and local adaptation is explained by characteristics of the high school and perceptions of stakeholders. School to Work policy implementation, perceived by the high school administrator as a stakeholder, varied significantly by high school student performance, environment in which the high school operates, and level of technology implementation in the high school. Results indicated that the backward mapping policy analysis model is effective in

  9. 78 FR 42942 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    2013-07-18

    ... corporate audit agreement pursuant to EPA's policy on Incentives for Self- Policing: Discovery, Disclosure, Correction and Prevention of Violations (Audit Policy), 65 FR 19618 (Apr. 11, 2000), regarding 88 office... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and...

  10. 75 FR 4552 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment, and Opportunity...

    2010-01-28

    ... Violations Final Policy Statement (Audit Policy), 65 FR 19618 (Apr. 11, 2000). Hydro also provided supplemental audit reports in 2006 and 2007. EPA and Hydro have signed an administrative Consent Agreement... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment, and...

  11. 78 FR 5800 - Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and Opportunity...

    2013-01-28

    ..., Correction and Prevention of Violations (Audit Policy), 65 FR 19,618 (April 11, 2000). EPA determined that AboveNet's disclosures satisfied all the conditions set forth in the Audit Policy, and therefore qualify... AGENCY Clean Water Act Class II: Proposed Administrative Settlement, Penalty Assessment and...

  12. Deployment of ACT antimalarials for treatment of malaria: challenges and opportunities

    Leslie Toby

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a long period when the effectiveness of existing mono-therapies for antimalarials was steadily declining with no clear alternative, most malaria-endemic countries in Africa and Asia have adopted artemisinin combination therapy (ACT as antimalarial drug policy. Several ACT drugs exist and others are in the pipeline. If properly targeted, they have the potential to reduce mortality from malaria substantially. The major challenge now is to get the drugs to the right people. Current evidence suggests that most of those who need the drugs do not get them. Simultaneously, a high proportion of those who are given antimalarials do not in fact have malaria. Financial and other barriers mean that, in many settings, the majority of those with malaria, particularly the poorest, do not access formal healthcare, so the provision of free antimalarials via this route has only limited impact. The higher cost of ACT creates a market for fake drugs. Addressing these problems is now a priority. This review outlines current evidence, possible solutions and research priorities.

  13. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the Great Lakes economy: Challenges and opportunities

    This paper deals with the market for SO2 emission allowances over time and electric utility compliance choices. For currently high emitting plants ( > 2.5 lb SO2/MMBtu), the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide for about twice as many SO2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral or other potential speculators in the allowance market are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by risk averse utilities or the utilities may buy forward contracts for SO2 allowances. However, speculators may play an important role by selling forward contracts for SO2 allowances to the risk averse utilities. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions. The revised model (ARGUS2) incorporates unit-level performance data and can incorporate unit-specific compliance decisions when these are known. The model has been designed for convenience in analyzing alternatives scenarios (demand growth rates, technology mix, economic parameters, etc). 1 ref., 5 figs

  14. Pollution prevention opportunity assessment for the K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act Incinerator Operations, Level III

    A Level III pollution prevention opportunity assessment (PPOA) was performed for the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator to evaluate pollution prevention (P2) options for various waste streams: The main objective of this study was to identify and evaluate options to reduce the quantities of each waste stream generated by the TSCA Incinerator operations to realize significant environmental and/or economic benefits from P2. For each of the waste streams, P2 options were evaluated following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) hierarchy to (1) reduce the quantity of waste generated, (2) recycle the waste, and/or (3) use alternate waste treatment or segregation methods. This report provides process descriptions, identification and evaluation of P2 options, and final recommendations

  15. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges for long acting injectable therapies: Insights for applications in HIV therapy.

    Owen, Andrew; Rannard, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Advances in solid drug nanoparticle technologies have resulted in a number of long-acting (LA) formulations with the potential for once monthly or longer administration. Such formulations offer great utility for chronic diseases, particularly when a lack of medication compliance may be detrimental to treatment response. Two such formulations are in clinical development for HIV but the concept of LA delivery has its origins in indications such as schizophrenia and contraception. Many terms have been utilised to describe the LA approach and standardisation would be beneficial. Ultimately, definitions will depend upon specific indications and routes of delivery, but for HIV we propose benchmarks that reflect perceived clinical benefits and available data on patient attitudes. Specifically, we propose dosing intervals of ≥1week, ≥1month or ≥6months, for oral, injectable or implantable strategies, respectively. This review focuses upon the critical importance of potency in achieving the LA outcome for injectable formulations and explores established and emerging technologies that have been employed across indications. Key technological challenges such as the need for consistency and ease of administration for drug combinations, are also discussed. Finally, the review explores the gaps in knowledge regarding the pharmacology of drug release from particulate-based LA injectable suspensions. A number of hypotheses are discussed based upon available data relating to local drug metabolism, active transport systems, the lymphatics, macrophages and patient-specific factors. Greater knowledge of the mechanisms that underpin drug release and protracted exposure will help facilitate further development of this strategy to achieve the promising clinical benefits. PMID:26916628

  16. Opportunity knocks - the sustainable energy industry and climate change

    Price, B.; Keegan, P. [International Institute for Energy Conservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Climate change mitigation, if intelligently undertaken, can stimulate economic growth. The main tools available for this task are energy efficiency, renewable energy, and clean energy technologies and services, which are collectively known as sustainable energy. To unleash this potential, the US and other governments need the full cooperation of the sustainable energy industry. This industry knows more than most other about turning energy-related pollution prevention into profits. If engaged, they can help: (1) Identify the economic benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation; (2) Identify barriers to the implementation of greenhouse gas mitigation projects; (3) Develop policies and measures to overcome these barriers; and (4) Implement greenhouse gas mitigation projects. 7 refs.

  17. Opportunity Design

    Nielsen, Louise Møller; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Tollestrup, Christian; Nielsen, Suna Løwe

    2012-01-01

    development oriented, the act of ‘recognition’ is still a central part of the definition. Recently the term “Opportunity Design” has been introduced, suggesting that opportunities can be proactively and intentionally designed. However, the relatedness between the opportunity recognition process and...... opportunity design is not clear. Furthermore, there is still a lack of approaches, methods and tools, which can support entrepreneurs in designing the entrepreneurial opportunities. In this paper, we take steps towards defining opportunity design in respect to the opportunity recognition process, and identify...... some of the specific approaches applicable to the design of opportunities. By looking at industrial designers working with entrepreneurial opportunities, it becomes evident that there is a set of approaches, which can turn the opportunity recognition process into an intentional and proactive process....

  18. Dual Acting Neuraminidase Inhibitors Open New Opportunities to Disrupt the Lethal Synergism between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Influenza Virus

    Elisabeth eWalther

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Secondary infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae cause severe pneumonia and enhance lethality during influenza epidemics and pandemics. Structural and functional similarities with viral neuraminidase (NA suggest that the highly prevalent pneumococcal NAs, NanA and NanB, might contribute to this lethal synergism by supporting viral replication and that dual acting NA inhibitors (NAIs will disrupt it. To verify this hypothesis, NanA and NanB were expressed in E. coli. After confirming their activity in enzyme assays, in vitro models with influenza virus A/Jena/8178/09 (Jena/8178 and the recombinant NanA or NanB (rNanA and rNanB were established in A549 and MDCK cells to mimic the role of these pneumococcal NAs during co-infection. Studies on the influence of both NAs on viral receptor expression, spread, and yield revealed a distinct effect of NanA and NanB on viral replication in these in vitro models. Both enzymes were able to support Jena/8178 replication at certain concentrations. This synergism was disrupted by the NAIs oseltamivir, DANA, katsumadain A, and artocarpin exerting an inhibitory effect on viral NA and NanA. Interestingly, katsumadain A and artocarpin inhibited rNanA and rNanB similarly. Zanamivir did not show activity. These results demonstrate a key role of pneumococcal NAs in the lethal synergism with influenza viruses and reveal opportunities for its effective disruption.

  19. Handbook for Sponsors; Standards and Procedures for Work-Training Experience Programs under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, as Amended.

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Bureau of Work-Training Programs.

    The standards and procedures presented establish the basic rules governing the development and operation of various programs administered by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Work Programs under the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, as amended. Basic standards relate to qualification of sponsors, eligibility of enrollees, hours of work,…

  20. Knock out for subthreshold pion production

    The contribution of nucleon-nucleon-single collisions to subthreshold pion production in hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions, Esub(Lab) < 300 A MeV is investigated within a knock-out type model. This contribution might be important for energies higher than about 150 MeV/nucleon but decrease strongly with decreasing beam energy

  1. Knocking in an Internal-combustion Engine

    Sokolik, A; Voinov, A

    1940-01-01

    The question remains open of the relation between the phenomena of knocking in the engine and the explosion wave. The solution of this problem is the object of this paper. The tests were conducted on an aircraft engine with a pyrex glass window in the cylinder head. Photographs were then taken of various combinations of fuels and conditions.

  2. 76 FR 54773 - Notice of Intent To Award Affordable Care Act Funding, Funding Opportunity Announcement CDC-RFA...

    2011-09-02

    ..., for programs authorized by the public Health Services Act, for prevention, wellness and public health... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Prevention (CDC), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This...

  3. Frequency domain analysis of knock images

    High speed imaging-based knock analysis has mainly focused on time domain information, e.g. the spark triggered flame speed, the time when end gas auto-ignition occurs and the end gas flame speed after auto-ignition. This study presents a frequency domain analysis on the knock images recorded using a high speed camera with direct photography in a rapid compression machine (RCM). To clearly visualize the pressure wave oscillation in the combustion chamber, the images were high-pass-filtered to extract the luminosity oscillation. The luminosity spectrum was then obtained by applying fast Fourier transform (FFT) to three basic colour components (red, green and blue) of the high-pass-filtered images. Compared to the pressure spectrum, the luminosity spectra better identify the resonant modes of pressure wave oscillation. More importantly, the resonant mode shapes can be clearly visualized by reconstructing the images based on the amplitudes of luminosity spectra at the corresponding resonant frequencies, which agree well with the analytical solutions for mode shapes of gas vibration in a cylindrical cavity. (paper)

  4. The Americans With Disabilities Act: Equal Opportunity for Individuals With Disabilities, in Some Large Businesses, in Some Major Cities, Sometimes . . .

    Eric Allen Harris

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available On July 26, 1990, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA was signed into law by President George H.W. Bush. Congress stated that the purpose of the ADA was “to provide a clear and comprehensive national mandate for the elimination of discrimination against individuals with disabilities.” The first subchapter (Title I of the ADA addresses accommodations for the disabled in the field of employment. President Bush attempted to quash “fears that the ADA is too vague or too costly” by stating that the Act struck a careful balance between the rights of individuals with disabilities and the legitimate interests of businesses. In particular, he noted that Title I of the ADA would become effective for employers with twenty-five or more employees on July 26, 1992, with an extension to employers with fifteen or more employees on July 26, 1994, thus permitting employers adequate time to become acquainted with the ADA. But in fact, the exclusion of employers with fewer than fifteen employees requires only a small percentage of the nation’s employers to ever become acquainted with the ADA at all.

  5. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement: opportunities in the patient protection and affordable care act to reduce cancer care disparities.

    Moy, Beverly; Polite, Blase N; Halpern, Michael T; Stranne, Steven K; Winer, Eric P; Wollins, Dana S; Newman, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Patients in specific vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides both opportunities and challenges for addressing cancer care disparities and access to care. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates for policies that ensure access to cancer care for the underserved. Such policies include insurance reform and the reduction of economic barriers to quality health care. Building on ASCO's prior statement on disparities in cancer care (2009), this article summarizes elements of the health care law that are relevant to cancer disparities and provides recommendations for addressing major provisions in the law. It outlines specific strategies to address insurance reform, access to care, quality of care, prevention and wellness, research on health care disparities, and diversity in the health care workforce. ASCO is committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among the most vulnerable patients. PMID:21810680

  6. The Expression of TALEN before Fertilization Provides a Rapid Knock-Out Phenotype in Xenopus laevis Founder Embryos.

    Kei Miyamoto

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genome editing using programmable nucleases have revolutionized gene targeting in various organisms. Successful gene knock-out has been shown in Xenopus, a widely used model organism, although a system enabling less mosaic knock-out in founder embryos (F0 needs to be explored in order to judge phenotypes in the F0 generation. Here, we injected modified highly active transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN mRNA to oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV stage, followed by in vitro maturation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, to achieve a full knock-out in F0 embryos. Unlike conventional injection methods to fertilized embryos, the injection of TALEN mRNA into GV oocytes allows expression of nucleases before fertilization, enabling them to work from an earlier stage. Using this procedure, most of developed embryos showed full knock-out phenotypes of the pigmentation gene tyrosinase and/or embryonic lethal gene pax6 in the founder generation. In addition, our method permitted a large 1 kb deletion. Thus, we describe nearly complete gene knock-out phenotypes in Xenopus laevis F0 embryos. The presented method will help to accelerate the production of knock-out frogs since we can bypass an extra generation of about 1 year in Xenopus laevis. Meantime, our method provides a unique opportunity to rapidly test the developmental effects of disrupting those genes that do not permit growth to an adult able to reproduce. In addition, the protocol shown here is considerably less invasive than the previously used host transfer since our protocol does not require surgery. The experimental scheme presented is potentially applicable to other organisms such as mammals and fish to resolve common issues of mosaicism in founders.

  7. Commentary: Personalized health planning and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: an opportunity for academic medicine to lead health care reform.

    Dinan, Michaela A; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Snyderman, Ralph

    2010-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) mandates the exploration of new approaches to coordinated health care delivery--such as patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and disease management programs--in which reimbursement is aligned with desired outcomes. PPACA does not, however, delineate a standardized approach to improve the delivery process or a specific means to quantify performance for value-based reimbursement; these details are left to administrative agencies to develop and implement. The authors propose that coordinated care can be implemented more effectively and performance quantified more accurately by using personalized health planning, which employs individualized strategic health planning and care relevant to the patient's specific needs. Personalized health plans, developed by providers in collaboration with their patients, quantify patients' health and health risks over time, identify strategies to mitigate risks and/or treat disease, deliver personalized care, engage patients in their care, and measure outcomes. Personalized health planning is a core clinical process that can standardize coordinated care approaches while providing the data needed for performance-based reimbursement. The authors argue that academic health centers have a significant opportunity to lead true health care reform by adopting personalized health planning to coordinate care delivery while conducting the research and education necessary to enable its broad clinical application. PMID:20844424

  8. Knock characteristics of dual-fuel combustion in diesel engines using natural gas as primary fuel

    O M I Nwafor

    2002-06-01

    This paper investigates the combustion knock characteristics of diesel engines running on natural gas using pilot injection as means of initiating combustion. The diesel engines knock under normal operating conditions but the knock referred to in this paper is an objectionable one. In the dual-fuel combustion process we have the ignition stage followed by the combustion stage. There are three types of knock: diesel knock, spark knock and knock due to secondary ignition delay of the primary fuel (erratic knock). Several factors have been noted to feature in defining knock characteristics of dual-fuel engines that include ignition delay, pilot quantity, engine load and speed, turbulence and gas flow rate.

  9. William Knocke receives 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award

    Daniilidi, Christina

    2008-01-01

    William R. Knocke, W.C. English Professor and head of the Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Virginia Tech, was awarded the 2008 Virginia Outstanding Civil Engineer Award at the Virginia Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers' (ASCE) banquet, held recently in Williamsburg, Va.

  10. A Scholar Who Knocks at the Door to Friendship

    TangRuimin

    2004-01-01

    Senegalese scholar Adama Gaye came from far away Africa to visit China in March when there was still a chill in the early spring air. He is not an ordinary scholar, but an African friend who has come to knock at the door to friendship.

  11. CRISPR/Cas9-induced knockout and knock-in mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    Shin, Sung-Eun; Lim, Jong-Min; Koh, Hyun Gi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Nam Kyu; Jeon, Seungjib; Kwon, Sohee; Shin, Won-Sub; Lee, Bongsoo; Hwangbo, Kwon; Kim, Jungeun; Ye, Sung Hyeok; Yun, Jae-Young; Seo, Hogyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Won-Joong; Chang, Yong Keun; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is crucial for genetic engineering of organisms for improved traits, particularly in microalgae due to the urgent necessity for the next generation biofuel production. The most advanced CRISPR/Cas9 system is simple, efficient and accurate in some organisms; however, it has proven extremely difficult in microalgae including the model alga Chlamydomonas. We solved this problem by delivering Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) comprising the Cas9 protein and sgRNAs to avoid cytotoxicity and off-targeting associated with vector-driven expression of Cas9. We obtained CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations at three loci including MAA7, CpSRP43 and ChlM, and targeted mutagenic efficiency was improved up to 100 fold compared to the first report of transgenic Cas9-induced mutagenesis. Interestingly, we found that unrelated vectors used for the selection purpose were predominantly integrated at the Cas9 cut site, indicative of NHEJ-mediated knock-in events. As expected with Cas9 RNPs, no off-targeting was found in one of the mutagenic screens. In conclusion, we improved the knockout efficiency by using Cas9 RNPs, which opens great opportunities not only for biological research but also industrial applications in Chlamydomonas and other microalgae. Findings of the NHEJ-mediated knock-in events will allow applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in microalgae, including "safe harboring" techniques shown in other organisms. PMID:27291619

  12. CRISPR/Cas9-induced knockout and knock-in mutations in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Shin, Sung-Eun; Lim, Jong-Min; Koh, Hyun Gi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kang, Nam Kyu; Jeon, Seungjib; Kwon, Sohee; Shin, Won-Sub; Lee, Bongsoo; Hwangbo, Kwon; Kim, Jungeun; Ye, Sung Hyeok; Yun, Jae-Young; Seo, Hogyun; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Jin-Soo; Jeong, Won-Joong; Chang, Yong Keun; Jeong, Byeong-ryool

    2016-01-01

    Genome editing is crucial for genetic engineering of organisms for improved traits, particularly in microalgae due to the urgent necessity for the next generation biofuel production. The most advanced CRISPR/Cas9 system is simple, efficient and accurate in some organisms; however, it has proven extremely difficult in microalgae including the model alga Chlamydomonas. We solved this problem by delivering Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) comprising the Cas9 protein and sgRNAs to avoid cytotoxicity and off-targeting associated with vector-driven expression of Cas9. We obtained CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations at three loci including MAA7, CpSRP43 and ChlM, and targeted mutagenic efficiency was improved up to 100 fold compared to the first report of transgenic Cas9-induced mutagenesis. Interestingly, we found that unrelated vectors used for the selection purpose were predominantly integrated at the Cas9 cut site, indicative of NHEJ-mediated knock-in events. As expected with Cas9 RNPs, no off-targeting was found in one of the mutagenic screens. In conclusion, we improved the knockout efficiency by using Cas9 RNPs, which opens great opportunities not only for biological research but also industrial applications in Chlamydomonas and other microalgae. Findings of the NHEJ-mediated knock-in events will allow applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in microalgae, including “safe harboring” techniques shown in other organisms. PMID:27291619

  13. Knock Detection in a Two-Stroke Engine to be Used in the Engine Management System

    Höglund, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Engine knock has long been a well recognized phenomenon in the automotive industry. Detecting engine knock opens up the possibility for an indirect feedback of the engine's internal combustion without installing a pressure transducer inside the cylinder. Knock detection has mainly been used for spark advance control, making it possible to control the engine close to its knock limit in search for the optimal ignition timing. This application has to a lesser extent been applied to lightweight t...

  14. Source characteristics of the underwater knocking displays of a male Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens)

    Hughes, William R.; Reichmuth, Colleen; Mulsow, Jason L.;

    2011-01-01

    "knocks"’ punctuated by occasional metallic "bells." The source characteristics of the knocking sounds that were regularly emitted by a male walrus raised in captivity were examined. Knocks were produced as single 20 ms pulses, or as doublets and triplets, and were typically repeated at rates of 0.8/s to...

  15. Ionization in the Knock Zone of an Internal-combustion Engine

    Hasting, Charles E

    1940-01-01

    The ionization in the knock zone of an internal-combustion engine was investigated. A suspected correlation between the intensity of knock and the degree of ionization was verified and an oscillation in the degree of ionization corresponding in frequency to the knock vibrations in the cylinder pressure was observed.

  16. Wiring knock-knee layouts: A global approach

    Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Wagner, Dorothea; Wagner, Frank; Weihe, Karsten

    1994-05-01

    We present a global approach to solve the three-layer wirability problem for knock-knee layouts. In general, the problem is NP-complete. Only for very restricted classes of layouts polynomial three-layer wiring algorithms are known up to now. In this paper, we show that for a large class of layouts a three-layer wiring can be constructed by solving a path problem in a special class of graphs or a two-satisfiability problem, and thus may be wired in time linear in the size of the layout area. Moreover, it is shown that a minimum stretching of the layout into a layout belonging to this class can be found by solving a clique cover problem in an interval graph. This problem is solvable in time linear in the size of the layout area as well. Altogether, the method also yields a good heuristic for the three-layer wirability problem for knock-knee layouts.

  17. Opportunity Knocks! Inquiry, the New National Social Studies and Science Standards, and You

    Ratzer, Mary Boyd

    2014-01-01

    To be recognized and adopted, the promise and potential of national standards must validate the instructional role of the school librarian and build formative knowledge through authentic process and products. Inquiry is a direct link to those dimensions. Standards that are rigorous and relevant optimize the developing brain's affinity for…

  18. Opportunity Knocks: Pipeline Programs Offer Minority Students a Path to Dentistry

    Fauteux, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Minority students have traditionally been underrepresented in dental schools, which is why enrichment and pipeline programs aimed at helping minority students are necessary. That reality is reflected in their woeful underrepresentation among practicing dentists. Hispanics made up only 5.8 percent of practicing dentists in 2011, according to the…

  19. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 282 Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Gordon, Georgia

    Boyd, Brian K.; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Hand, James R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Weimar, Mark R.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Nesse, Ronald J.

    2010-09-30

    This document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at Fort Gordon, based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also on ground source heat pumps for heating and cooling buildings. The effort was funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) as follow-on to the 2005 Department of Defense (DoD) Renewables Assessment. The site visit to Fort Gordon took place on March 9, 2010.

  20. Opportunities for computer abuse

    Willison, Robert Andrew; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the `insider' threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer...... for the offender. To achieve this goal a model known as the `Crime Specific Opportunity Structure' is advanced. Focussing on the opportunities for computer abuse, the model addresses the nature of such opportunities with regards to the organisational context and the threats posed by rogue employees. Drawing...

  1. Study of Knocking Effect in Compression Ignition Engine with Hydrogen as a Secondary Fuel

    R. Sivabalakrishnan; Jegadheesan, C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this project is detecting knock during combustion of biodiesel-hydrogen fuel and also the knock is suppressed by timed injection of diethyl ether (DEE) with biodiesel-hydrogen fuel for different loads. Hydrogen fuel is an effective alternate fuel in making a pollution-free environment with higher efficiency. The usage of hydrogen in compression ignition engine leads to production of knocking or detonation because of its lower ignition energy, wider flammability range, and shorter q...

  2. System and method for controlling engine knock using electro-hydraulic valve actuation

    Brennan, Daniel G

    2013-12-10

    A control system for an engine includes a knock control module and a valve control module. The knock control module adjusts a period that one or more of an intake valve and an exhaust valve of a cylinder are open based on engine knock corresponding to the cylinder. The valve control module, based on the adjusted period, controls the one or more of the intake valve and the exhaust valve using one or more hydraulic actuators.

  3. 78 FR 26031 - Sunshine Act Notice

    2013-05-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission DATE AND.... Wellness Programs Under Federal Equal Employment Opportunity Laws. Note: In accordance with the...

  4. Numerical and experimental characterization of knock occurrence in a turbo-charged spark-ignition engine

    Highlights: • An index of knock intensity has been based on the cylinder pressure oscillations. • This index allows to set the knock limited spark at different engine operating points. • The influence of the transducer position on the measurement of the pressure oscillations is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, knock intensity is deeply studied through experimental tests carried out on a turbo-charged spark-ignition engine. The experimental methodology is based on the analysis of the pressure signals detected within the engine combustion chamber. In order to evaluate knock intensity, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and bandpass filtering techniques have been used to process the cylinder pressure values acquired in five hundred consecutive cycles. Resonance frequencies have been found at about 8.0 kHz, 13.5 kHz and 18.5 kHz. The maximum amplitude of pressure oscillations (MAPO) has been calculated for every engine cycle. In order to discriminate between knocking cycles and free knock cycles, MAPO values are compared to threshold values. These values have been determined following a statistical approach described in the paper. An index of knock intensity, that takes into account both the extent of knocking events and the cycle- to-cycle variation has been introduced. Thus, at different engine operating points, the knock limited spark advance can be found. At the end, a numerical analysis of the combustion process has been carried out in order to find a relationship between the knock occurrence and the combustion chamber geometry. A 3-D computational model, based on AVL FIRE v2011 code, has been utilized. The 3-D model is able to predict the auto-ignition zones. By matching these zones and the map of mixture distribution, it is possible to predict the location of the most dangerous areas within the combustion chamber. Furthermore, comparisons of calculated and measured data provide sound information about the importance of pressure transducer position in

  5. Opportunity Design

    Løwe Nielsen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Nielsen, Louise Møller;

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is about transforming novel ideas into future business, but it requires an entrepreneurial opportunity to be exploited via an effective strategic and organizational design. While the entrepreneurship literature says much about how to implement and organize new opportunities in a...... market setting (the back-end of entrepreneurial processes), it pays less attention to how entrepreneurs purposely design opportunities (the front-end of entrepreneurial processes). Drawing on methods and processes from the creative design literature, the paper introduces a framework of “opportunity...... design”. The framework explains how opportunities intentionally and pro-actively can be designed from methods and processes of moving-in and moving-out. An illustrative case of opportunity design within the area of sustainable energy and electric cars is presented to link the theoretical discussion to...

  6. Network Analysis for the Identification of Differentially Expressed Hub Genes Using Myogenin Knock-down Muscle Satellite Cells.

    Adeel Malik

    Full Text Available Muscle, a multinucleate syncytium formed by the fusion of mononuclear myoblasts, arises from quiescent progenitors (satellite cells via activation of muscle-specific transcription factors (MyoD, Myf5, myogenin: MYOG, and MRF4. Subsequent to a decline in Pax7, induction in the expression of MYOG is a hallmark of myoblasts that have entered the differentiation phase following cell cycle withdrawal. It is evident that MYOG function cannot be compensated by any other myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs. Despite a plethora of information available regarding MYOG, the mechanism by which MYOG regulates muscle cell differentiation has not yet been identified. Using an RNA-Seq approach, analysis of MYOG knock-down muscle satellite cells (MSCs have shown that genes associated with cell cycle and division, DNA replication, and phosphate metabolism are differentially expressed. By constructing an interaction network of differentially expressed genes (DEGs using GeneMANIA, cadherin-associated protein (CTNNA2 was identified as the main hub gene in the network with highest node degree. Four functional clusters (modules or communities were identified in the network and the functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes included in these clusters significantly contribute to skeletal muscle development. To confirm this finding, in vitro studies revealed increased expression of CTNNA2 in MSCs on day 12 compared to day 10. Expression of CTNNA2 was decreased in MYOG knock-down cells. However, knocking down CTNNA2, which leads to increased expression of extracellular matrix (ECM genes (type I collagen α1 and type I collagen α2 along with myostatin (MSTN, was not found significantly affecting the expression of MYOG in C2C12 cells. We therefore propose that MYOG exerts its regulatory effects by acting upstream of CTNNA2, which in turn regulates the differentiation of C2C12 cells via interaction with ECM genes. Taken together, these findings highlight a new

  7. Study of Knocking Effect in Compression Ignition Engine with Hydrogen as a Secondary Fuel

    R. Sivabalakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is detecting knock during combustion of biodiesel-hydrogen fuel and also the knock is suppressed by timed injection of diethyl ether (DEE with biodiesel-hydrogen fuel for different loads. Hydrogen fuel is an effective alternate fuel in making a pollution-free environment with higher efficiency. The usage of hydrogen in compression ignition engine leads to production of knocking or detonation because of its lower ignition energy, wider flammability range, and shorter quenching distance. Knocking combustion causes major engine damage, and also reduces the efficiency. The method uses the measurement and analysis of cylinder pressure signal for various loads. The pressure signal is to be converted into frequency domain that shows the accurate knocking combustion of fuel mixtures. The variation of pressure signal is gradually increased and smoothly reduced to minimum during normal combustion. The rapid rise of pressure signal has occurred during knocking combustion. The experimental setup was mainly available for evaluating the feasibility of normal combustion by comparing with the signals from both fuel mixtures in compression ignition engine. This method provides better results in predicting the knocking feature of biodiesel-hydrogen fuel and the usage of DEE provides complete combustion of fuels with higher performance, and lower emission.

  8. HOLA: Hunt for Opportunities-Learn-Act

    Gutiérrez, Rochelle

    2015-01-01

    Most mathematics teachers know that students can be a great source for understanding what they need as thinkers, group members, mathematics learners, and future citizens. Thus, listening to students is an important teacher practice. But listening takes time, something that not all teachers feel that they have. And many attempts to listen to…

  9. 76 FR 31451 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    2011-06-01

    ... / Wednesday, June 1, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 202 Equal Credit.... SUMMARY: The Board is publishing amendments to Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity Act) to update the...) 263-4869. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), 15 U.S.C....

  10. 76 FR 59237 - Equal Credit Opportunity

    2011-09-26

    ... 7100 AD 78 Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Board is publishing a final rule amending Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity). Section 704B of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), as added by Section 1071 of the...

  11. Determination of knock characteristics in spark ignition engines: an approach based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    Li, Ning; Yang, Jianguo; Zhou, Rui; Liang, Caiping

    2016-04-01

    Knock is one of the major constraints to improve the performance and thermal efficiency of spark ignition (SI) engines. It can also result in severe permanent engine damage under certain operating conditions. Based on the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), this paper proposes a new approach to determine the knock characteristics in SI engines. By adding a uniformly distributed and finite white Gaussian noise, the EEMD can preserve signal continuity in different scales and therefore alleviates the mode-mixing problem occurring in the classic empirical mode decomposition (EMD). The feasibilities of applying the EEMD to detect the knock signatures of a test SI engine via the pressure signal measured from combustion chamber and the vibration signal measured from cylinder head are investigated. Experimental results show that the EEMD-based method is able to detect the knock signatures from both the pressure signal and vibration signal, even in initial stage of knock. Finally, by comparing the application results with those obtained by short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner-Ville distribution (WVD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the superiority of the EEMD method in determining knock characteristics is demonstrated.

  12. Seizing Opportunity

    2006-01-01

    After the remarkable progress of the past five years, China has entered its new five-year plan period, starting from 2006, aiming to further its economic and social development. Though some are still talking about "China threat," many others consider the country's growth a huge opportunity. In an interview with People's Daily, Bill Fischer, former President of the Sino-European International Business School in Shanghai, comments on China's current development and also talks about problems the country fac...

  13. Utilization of Detection and Identification of Detonation (Knock) Using a Wavelet to Create a Chart for a Petrol Engine’s Characteristics

    Agus Sujono; R. Soekrisno; Eka Firmansyah; Oyas Wahyunggoro

    2015-01-01

    The development of internal combustion engine always facing with the knock problem., Indeed, the characteristics of a motor engine itself is determined by the knocking issue. In this study, a method of knocking detection through simple microphone sensor has been developed. It incorporates discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) analysis and the regression function of the sound wave envelope to identify the occurrance of knock. After detecting the knock, a 3D engine ignition chart (characteri...

  14. Analysis of pressure waves in the cone-type combustion chamber under SI engine knock

    Highlights: • A 3D numerical model is conducted to investigate the shock waves in the engine knock. • Overpressure distribution on the top piston surface is caught while knocking. • Numerical simulation shows that shock waves converge in the combustion chamber. • The converged shock waves damage piston during severe knock. - Abstract: For the internal-combustion engine, super knock produced by the engine downsizing technology induces severe oscillations in a combustion chamber, which may damage the piston. In this work, 3D numerical simulation is used to study the propagation and reflection of pressure waves produced in the cone roof type combustion chamber. Overpressure distribution of top piston surface is caught. Numerical simulation shows that the pressure waves are amplified in a special zone because of the shape of the combustion chamber, which induces the overpressure much higher than that in other zones. The numerical results are validated by the damaged pistons. It is found that the converged pressure waves could be the reason which causes damage in the local region of the piston under super knock. The results obtained in the study provide assistance in the design of combustion chamber shape in order to avoid piston destroyed by the pressure waves

  15. RS-1 enhances CRISPR/Cas9- and TALEN-mediated knock-in efficiency

    Song, Jun; Yang, Dongshan; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Tianqing; Chen, Y. Eugene; Zhang, Jifeng

    2016-01-01

    Zinc-finger nuclease, transcription activator-like effector nuclease and CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) are becoming major tools for genome editing. Importantly, knock-in in several non-rodent species has been finally achieved thanks to these customizable nucleases; yet the rates remain to be further improved. We hypothesize that inhibiting non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or enhancing homology-directed repair (HDR) will improve the nuclease-mediated knock-in efficiency. Here we show that the in vitro application of an HDR enhancer, RS-1, increases the knock-in efficiency by two- to five-fold at different loci, whereas NHEJ inhibitor SCR7 has minimal effects. We then apply RS-1 for animal production and have achieved multifold improvement on the knock-in rates as well. Our work presents tools to nuclease-mediated knock-in animal production, and sheds light on improving gene-targeting efficiencies on pluripotent stem cells. PMID:26817820

  16. Estimation of knock acoustical signal by parametric inversion method; Estimation du signal acoustique de cliquetis par inversion parametrique

    Boubal, O.; Oksman, J. [Ecole Superieure d' Electricite, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1999-07-01

    Knock on spark ignition engines goes against car manufacturers efforts to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. This article develops a signal processing method to quantify knock. After discussing some classical techniques of knock energy estimation, an acoustical measurement technique is presented. An original signal processing method based on a parametric behavioral model for both knock and apparatus and a special inversion technique are used to get actual knock parameters. The knock related parameters are computed in a two step process. A deconvolution algorithm is used to obtain a signal made of unitary pulses, followed by an efficient inversion method. The whole process is applied to real data from a one-cylinder engine. Moreover, the results are compared to those obtained from an existing technique to suit a common industrial application. (authors)

  17. A model of knock-out of oxygen by charged particle irradiation of Bi-2212

    A model of knock-out of oxygen by charged particle (α and proton) irradiation of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+x (Bi-2212) is proposed on the basis of Monte Carlo TRIM calculations. In Bi-2212, the loosely bound excess oxygen is vulnerable to be displaced by particle irradiation. Binding energy and hence, displacement energy of this loosely bound excess oxygen is less compared to that of stoichiometric lattice bound oxygen and other atoms. The displaced or knocked out oxygen goes to pores or intergranular region and generates large pressure inside the sample. Because of porosity of the material, this displaced oxygen diffuses out and there is a net reduction of oxygen content of the sample. The irradiation induced oxygen knock-out is dominant in the bulk where nonionizing energy loss is maximum. (author). 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  18. High-temperature expansion and knock-out properties of moulding sands with water glass

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the topic of improving the knock-out properties of moulding sand with water glass and ester hardener. It is settled that the cause of worse knock-out properties of moulding sand can be brought by their thermal expansion in increased temperatures. There is a presentation of the influence of different additives, containing Al2O3, on moulding sands’ expansion in increased temperatures. Within the frames of research, there was an elaboration of the influence of authors own additive- Glassex, on the expansion phenomenon of moulding sands with water glass and ester hardener. It is concluded, that the new additive stops the expansion of moulding sands and as well it improves their knock-out properties.

  19. Chinese M&A,Opportunities & Risks

    Tang Jintao

    2009-01-01

    @@ Recently, the cases of Chinese enterprises' merger and acquisition are emerging in multitude. It is believed that M&A will provide opportunities for China enterprises to go global and act in the global economic environment.

  20. Hematopoiesis in 5-Fluorouracil-Treated Adenosine A(3) Receptor Knock-Out Mice

    Hofer, Michal; Pospíšil, Milan; Dušek, L.; Hoferová, Zuzana; Komůrková, Denisa

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2 (2015), s. 255-262. ISSN 0862-8408 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : Adenosine A(3) receptor knock-out mice * Hematopoiesis * 5-fluorouracil-induced hematotoxicity Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2014

  1. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knock-down in post-mitotic neurons.

    Christoph Straub

    Full Text Available The prokaryotic adaptive immune system CRISPR/Cas9 has recently been adapted for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. This technique allows for sequence-specific induction of double-strand breaks in genomic DNA of individual cells, effectively resulting in knock-out of targeted genes. It thus promises to be an ideal candidate for application in neuroscience where constitutive genetic modifications are frequently either lethal or ineffective due to adaptive changes of the brain. Here we use CRISPR/Cas9 to knock-out Grin1, the gene encoding the obligatory NMDA receptor subunit protein GluN1, in a sparse population of mouse pyramidal neurons. Within this genetically mosaic tissue, manipulated cells lack synaptic current mediated by NMDA-type glutamate receptors consistent with complete knock-out of the targeted gene. Our results show the first proof-of-principle demonstration of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-down in neurons in vivo, where it can be a useful tool to study the function of specific proteins in neuronal circuits.

  2. (p, α) reactions: knock-on(out) or pick-up

    Nothwithstanding the great lot of data collected starting from the beginning of fifties, it cannot be said that a good degree of knowledge about the (p, α) reaction mechanism has been reached. Experimental data are usually interpreted or on the basis of a pure pick-up or knock-on(out) mechanism, though many results suggest the importance of both mechanism

  3. Knocking Down Snrnp200 Initiates Demorphogenesis of Rod Photoreceptors in Zebrafish

    Yuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 200 kDa (SNRNP200 gene is a fundamental component for precursor message RNA (pre-mRNA splicing and has been implicated in the etiology of autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP. This study aims to determine the consequences of knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish. Methods. Expression of the Snrnp200 transcript in zebrafish was determined via whole mount in situ hybridization. Morpholino oligonucleotide (MO aiming to knock down the expression of Snrnp200 was injected into zebrafish embryos, followed by analyses of aberrant splicing and expression of the U4/U6-U5 tri-small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs components and retina-specific transcripts. Systemic changes and retinal phenotypes were further characterized by histological study and immunofluorescence staining. Results. Snrnp200 was ubiquitously expressed in zebrafish. Knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish triggered aberrant splicing of the cbln1 gene, upregulation of other U4/U6-U5 tri-snRNP components, and downregulation of a panel of retina-specific transcripts. Systemic defects were found correlated with knockdown of Snrnp200 in zebrafish. Only demorphogenesis of rod photoreceptors was detected in the initial stage, mimicking the disease characteristics of RP. Conclusions. We conclude that knocking down Snrnp200 in zebrafish could alter regular splicing and expression of a panel of genes, which may eventually trigger rod defects.

  4. Generation and basic characterization of glutamate carboxypeptidase II knock-out mice

    Vorlová, Barbora; Kašpárek, Petr; Šácha, Pavel; Sedláček, Radislav; Konvalinka, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2016), s. 267. ISSN 0962-8819. [Transgenic Technology Meeting (TT2016) /13./. 20.03.2016-23.03.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : GCPII * PSMA * FolhI * knock-out mice Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  5. Physicochemical effects of varying fuel composition on knock characteristics of natural gas mixtures

    Gersen, Sander; van Essen, Martijn; van Dijk, Gerco; Levinsky, Howard

    2014-01-01

    The physicochemical origins of how changes in fuel composition affect autoignition of the end gas, leading to engine knock, are analyzed for a natural gas engine. Experiments in a lean-burn, high-speed medium-BMEP gas engine are performed using a reference natural gas with systematically varied frac

  6. Study of knock in a high compression ratio SI methanol engine using LES with detailed chemical kinetics

    Highlights: • Knock in a high compression ratio spark ignition methanol engine was simulated. • We used LES coupled with detailed chemical kinetics to simulate knock. • OH radical was the predominant species during knocking combustion. • Weak species such as H2O2, CH2O, HO2 and HCO were also detected during knocking. • The stronger the reaction rate, the higher the knock intensity. - Abstract: Methanol as an alternative fuel is considered to be one of the most favorable fuels for internal combustion engines. In this paper, knock in a high compression ratio SI (Spark Ignition) methanol engine was studied by using LES (Large Eddy Simulation) coupled with detailed chemical kinetics. A 21-species, 84-reaction methanol reaction mechanism was adopted to simulate the auto-ignition and combustion process of the methanol/air mixture. The results showed that the end-gas auto-ignition first occurred in the place near the chamber wall because of the higher temperature and pressure. The evolution of OH radicals was essentially the same with the evolution of in-cylinder temperature. OH radicals could be a good temperature indicator. The concentration of HCO radicals was almost negligible during knocking combustion. There existed two effects for CH2O, OH, and H2O2, which were generation and consumption. The reaction intensities of CO, CH2O, H2O2, and OH species were higher than other species during knocking combustion

  7. Simulation research on the effect of cooled EGR, supercharging and compression ratio on downsized SI engine knock

    Shu, Gequn; Pan, Jiaying; Wei, Haiqiao; Shi, Ning

    2013-03-01

    Knock in spark-ignition(SI) engines severely limits engine performance and thermal efficiency. The researches on knock of downsized SI engine have mainly focused on structural design, performance optimization and advanced combustion modes, however there is little for simulation study on the effect of cooled exhaust gas recirculation(EGR) combined with downsizing technologies on SI engine performance. On the basis of mean pressure and oscillating pressure during combustion process, the effect of different levels of cooled EGR ratio, supercharging and compression ratio on engine dynamic and knock characteristic is researched with three-dimensional KIVA-3V program coupled with pressure wave equation. The cylinder pressure, combustion temperature, ignition delay timing, combustion duration, maximum mean pressure, and maximum oscillating pressure at different initial conditions are discussed and analyzed to investigate potential approaches to inhibiting engine knock while improving power output. The calculation results of the effect of just cooled EGR on knock characteristic show that appropriate levels of cooled EGR ratio can effectively suppress cylinder high-frequency pressure oscillations without obvious decrease in mean pressure. Analysis of the synergistic effect of cooled EGR, supercharging and compression ratio on knock characteristic indicates that under the condition of high supercharging and compression ratio, several times more cooled EGR ratio than that under the original condition is necessarily utilized to suppress knock occurrence effectively. The proposed method of synergistic effect of cooled EGR and downsizing technologies on knock characteristic, analyzed from the aspects of mean pressure and oscillating pressure, is an effective way to study downsized SI engine knock and provides knock inhibition approaches in practical engineering.

  8. 76 FR 70131 - Sunshine Act Notice

    2011-11-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSSION Sunshine Act Notice AGENCY HOLDING THE MEETING: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. DATE AND... Discrimination in Employment Act, and 3. Overcoming Barriers to the Employment of Veterans with...

  9. In-vitro Knock Down of VEGFR2 Expression Using Specific siRNA in the Culture Medium

    Moslem Jafarisani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The use of siRNAforsilencinggene expressionis expandingtoday. Knock down ofvascular endothelial growth factor is one of theobjectives ofthistechnology. In this study we aimed to inhibit the expression of receptor type II of VEGF (VEGFR-2 using specific siRNA in the culture medium.Methods: First, according to the target gene sequences, sequence of the specific siRNA were designed; blasted and built. Using RT-PCR, cDNA of HUVEC was synthesized and PCR with specific primers was reproduced. PEFGP-N1 expression vector was cloned with target gene and confirmed. Then Hela cells which has not any expression of the target genes were transfected whit cloned pEGFP-N1 vector using lipofectamin. GFP expression rate in the Hela cellsContaining initial vector and cloned vector in presence and absence of specific siRNA was assessed. Through evaluation of gene inhibition, decreasing of green fluorescence from GFP, RT-PCR was investigated.Results: The results of the two used siRNA, indicate reduced gene expression 56% and 63% in comparison with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: Transfection of specific VEGFR-2 siRNA using lipofectamin significantly inhibits expression of receptor. In fact,it cancut thesignal transduction pathwayand preventsthe creation ofnewblood vessels. Therefore, probably it can act as a new treatment factor for prevention or reduction of neovascularization.

  10. Numerical analysis of knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine based on LES with detailed chemical kinetics

    Highlights: • Knock during HCCI in a high compression ratio methanol engine was modeled. • A detailed methanol mechanism was used to simulate the knocking combustion. • Compared with the SI engines, the HCCI knocking combustion burnt faster. • The reaction rate of HCO had two obvious peaks, one was positive, and another was negative. • Compared with the SI engines, the values of the reaction rates of CH2O, H2O2, and HO2 were higher, and it had negative peaks. - Abstract: In this study, knock during HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) was studied based on LES (large eddy simulation) with methanol chemical kinetics (84-reaction, 21-species) in a high compression ratio methanol engine. The non-knocking and knocking combustion of SI (spark ignition) and HCCI engines were compared. The results showed that the auto-ignition spots were initially occurred near the combustion chamber wall. The knocking combustion burnt faster during HCCI than SI methanol engine. The HCO reaction rate was different from SI engine, it had two obvious peaks, one was positive peak, and another was negative peak. Compared with the SI methanol engine, in addition to the concentration of HCO, the concentrations of the other intermediate products and species such as CO, OH, CH2O, H2O2, HO2 were increased significantly; the reaction rates of CH2O, H2O2, and HO2 had negative peaks, and whose values were several times higher than SI methanol engine

  11. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Gene Knock-Down in Post-Mitotic Neurons

    Christoph Straub; Granger, Adam J.; Saulnier, Jessica L.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.

    2014-01-01

    The prokaryotic adaptive immune system CRISPR/Cas9 has recently been adapted for genome editing in eukaryotic cells. This technique allows for sequence-specific induction of double-strand breaks in genomic DNA of individual cells, effectively resulting in knock-out of targeted genes. It thus promises to be an ideal candidate for application in neuroscience where constitutive genetic modifications are frequently either lethal or ineffective due to adaptive changes of the brain. Here we use CRI...

  12. Orthogonal gene knock out and activation with a catalytically active Cas9 nuclease

    Dahlman, James E.; Abudayyeh, Omar O.; Joung, Julia; Gootenberg, Jonathan S.; Zhang, Feng; Konermann, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a CRISPR-based method that uses catalytically active Cas9 and distinct sgRNA constructs to knock out and activate different genes in the same cell. These sgRNAs, with 14 15 bp target sequences and MS2 binding loops, can activate gene expression using an active Cas9 nuclease, without inducing DSBs. We use these ‘dead RNAs’ to perform orthogonal gene knockout and transcriptional activation in human cells.

  13. Behavioural and molecular responses to amphetamine in the neurokinin-1 receptor knock-out mouse

    Slone-Murphy, J.

    2011-01-01

    The neurokinin-1 receptor knock-out (NK1R-/-) mouse is hyperactive and shows deficits in attentional processing, and has recently been put forward as a model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Acute amphetamine, a first-line treatment for ADHD and a drug of abuse, paradoxically reduces the hyperactivity of NK1R-/- mice, and the characteristic amphetamine-stimulated increase in striatal dopamine efflux seen in wild-type animals is attenuated in NK1R-/- mice. The...

  14. Combustion Analysis and Knock Detection in Single Cylinder DI-Diesel Engine Using Vibration Signature Analysis

    Y.V.V.SatyanarayanaMurthy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to detect the “knock” in Diesel engines which deteriorate the engine performance adversely. The methodology introduced in the present work suggests a newly developed approach towards analyzing the vibration analysis of diesel engines. The method is based on fundamental relationship between the engine vibration pattern and the relative characteristics of the combustion process in each or different cylinders. Knock in diesel engine is detected by measuring the vibra...

  15. Proton Beam Fast Ignition Fusion: Nonlinear Generation of Bθ-Fields by Knock-on Electrons

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-10-01

    The knock-on electrons, generated by the fast proton beam in interaction with the free and bound electrons in a precompressed DT fusion pellet, outrun the proton beam, generating the Bθ-fields ahead of the beam, which may lead to the defocusing of the beam, if Bθ Tabak et al, Phys. Plasmas 1 (5), 1626 (1994); H. L. Buchanan, F. W. Chambers, E. P. Lee, S. S. Yu, R. J. Briggs, and M. N. Rosenbluth, LLNL, UCRL Report 82586, 1979.

  16. ACT Test

    ... ACT. It is important to evaluate how the person is responding to this ACT lower limit and to the amount of heparin ... to determine someone's heparin anticoagulant requirements, stabilize the person, and then change the monitoring tool. The ACT may be influenced by a person's platelet count ...

  17. Effect of Tbxl knock-down on cardiac performance in zebrafish

    ZHANG Li-feng; GUI Yong-hao; WANG Yue-xiang; JIANG Qiu; SONG Hou-yan

    2010-01-01

    Background Tbxl is the major candidate gene for DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). Similar to defects observed in DGS patients, the structures disrupted in Tbxl-/- animal models are derived from the neural crest cells during development. Although the morphological phenotypes of some Tbxl knock-down animal models have been well described, analysis of the cardiac performance is limited. Therefore, myocardial performance was explored in Tbxl morpholino injected zebrafish embryos. Methods To elucidate these issues, Tbxl specific morpholino was used to reduce the function of Tbxl in zebrafish. The differentiation of the myocardial cells was observed using whole mount in situ hybridization. Heart rates were observed and recorded under the microscope from 24 to 72 hours post fertilization (hpf). The cardiac performance was analyzed by measuring ventricular shortening fraction and atrial shortening fraction.Results Tbxl morpholino injected embryos were characterized by defects in the pharyngeal arches, otic vesicle, aortic arches and thymus. In addition, Tbxl knock down reduced the amount of pharyngeal neural crest cells in zebrafish. Abnormal cardiac morphology was visible in nearly 20% of the Tbxl morpholino injected embryos. The hearts in these embryos did not loop or loop incompletely. Importantly, cardiac performance and heart rate were reduced in Tbxl morpholino injected embryos.Conclusions Tbxl might play an essential role in the development of pharyngeal neural crest cells in zebrafish. Cardiac performance is impaired by Tbxl knock down in zebrafish.

  18. ACTS 2014

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art....... For the 2014 festival, the museum has entered into a collaboration with the Department for Performance Design at Roskilde University – with continued focus on sound and performance art, and social art in public spaces. With ACTS, art moves out of its usual exhibition space and instead utilizes the...... city, its various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes...

  19. Utilization of Detection and Identification of Detonation (Knock Using a Wavelet to Create a Chart for a Petrol Engine’s Characteristics

    Agus Sujono

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of internal combustion engine always facing with the knock problem., Indeed, the characteristics of a motor engine itself is determined by the knocking issue. In this study, a method of knocking detection through simple microphone sensor has been developed. It incorporates discrete wavelet transformation (DWT analysis and the regression function of the sound wave envelope to identify the occurrance of knock. After detecting the knock, a 3D engine ignition chart (characteristic can be created as demonstrated in this paper.

  20. School-to-Work Opportunities. Fair Labor Standards Act and the North Carolina Wage and Hour Act. A Guide to Work-Based Learning, Federal and State Child Labor Laws, Minimum Wage Provisions, and the Provisions of Comparable North Carolina Laws. 3rd Edition.

    North Carolina State Dept. of Labor, Raleigh.

    This guide for work-based learning, the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), and the North Carolina Wage and Hours Act is designed to serve employers, educators, agency placement staff, labor organizations, and all those involved in school-to-work initiatives by helping them to understand a variety of issues related to students in the workplace. Based…

  1. 76 FR 36885 - Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity

    2011-06-23

    ...; ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM 12 CFR Part 202 RIN No. 7100-AD-78 Regulation B; Equal Credit Opportunity AGENCY.... SUMMARY: The Board is publishing for public comment a proposed rule amending Regulation B (Equal Credit Opportunity). Section 704B of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), as added by Section 1071 of the...

  2. Programació dinàmica de port knocking per a dispositius mòbils

    ALBUJER RICO, PEDRO

    2015-01-01

    [ES] Desarrollar una aplicación móvil, e implementarla bajo IOS y Android, con el objeto de acceder a un port knocking en la parte servidora, que reprograme temporalmente el cortafuegos. Albujer Rico, P. (2015). Programació dinàmica de port knocking per a dispositius mòbils. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/56572. TFGM

  3. Generation of knock-in primary human T cells using Cas9 ribonucleoproteins.

    Schumann, Kathrin; Lin, Steven; Boyer, Eric; Simeonov, Dimitre R; Subramaniam, Meena; Gate, Rachel E; Haliburton, Genevieve E; Ye, Chun J; Bluestone, Jeffrey A; Doudna, Jennifer A; Marson, Alexander

    2015-08-18

    T-cell genome engineering holds great promise for cell-based therapies for cancer, HIV, primary immune deficiencies, and autoimmune diseases, but genetic manipulation of human T cells has been challenging. Improved tools are needed to efficiently "knock out" genes and "knock in" targeted genome modifications to modulate T-cell function and correct disease-associated mutations. CRISPR/Cas9 technology is facilitating genome engineering in many cell types, but in human T cells its efficiency has been limited and it has not yet proven useful for targeted nucleotide replacements. Here we report efficient genome engineering in human CD4(+) T cells using Cas9:single-guide RNA ribonucleoproteins (Cas9 RNPs). Cas9 RNPs allowed ablation of CXCR4, a coreceptor for HIV entry. Cas9 RNP electroporation caused up to ∼40% of cells to lose high-level cell-surface expression of CXCR4, and edited cells could be enriched by sorting based on low CXCR4 expression. Importantly, Cas9 RNPs paired with homology-directed repair template oligonucleotides generated a high frequency of targeted genome modifications in primary T cells. Targeted nucleotide replacement was achieved in CXCR4 and PD-1 (PDCD1), a regulator of T-cell exhaustion that is a validated target for tumor immunotherapy. Deep sequencing of a target site confirmed that Cas9 RNPs generated knock-in genome modifications with up to ∼20% efficiency, which accounted for up to approximately one-third of total editing events. These results establish Cas9 RNP technology for diverse experimental and therapeutic genome engineering applications in primary human T cells. PMID:26216948

  4. Lack of Self-Administration of Cocaine in Dopamine D1 Receptor Knock-Out Mice

    Caine, S. Barak; Thomsen, Morgane; Gabriel, Kara I.; Berkowitz, Jill S.; Gold, Lisa H.; Koob, George F; Tonegawa, Susumu; Zhang, Jianhua; Xu, Ming

    2007-01-01

    Evidence suggests a critical role for dopamine in the reinforcing effects of cocaine in rats and primates. However, self-administration has been less often studied in the mouse species, and, to date, “knock-out” of individual dopamine-related genes in mice has not been reported to reduce the reinforcing effects of cocaine. We studied the dopamine D1 receptor and cocaine self-administration in mice using a combination of gene-targeted mutation and pharmacological tools. Two cohorts with varied...

  5. The mechanism of the (p,α) reaction: pick-up or knock-out

    Several early studies of the (p,α) reaction to discrete states of the final nucleus indicated that it proceeds mainly by the pick-up mechanism, whereas more recent experiments provide qualitative arguments in favour of the knock-out mechanism. This paper reports calculations showing that the angular distributions and analysing powers of the sup(90,92)Zr(p,α)sup(87,89)Y and 118Sn(p,α)115In reactions can be equally well fitted by distorted wave calculations using either mechanism. (author)

  6. An Improved Method to Knock Out the asd Gene of Salmonella enterica Serovar Pullorum

    Shi-Zhong Geng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An asd-deleted (Δasd mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Pullorum (SP was constructed using an improved method of gene knockout by combining the π-suicide plasmid system with the Red Disruption system. The asd gene was efficiently knocked out by the recombinant suicide vector, which replaced the asd gene with the CmR gene. Based on the balanced lethal host-vector system, the phenotype of the Δasd mutant was further defined. The improved method was simpler and more effective than previously reported conventional methods.

  7. Elektrophysiologische Hörmessung bei Megalin-knock-out-Mäusen

    König, O; Rüttiger, L; Knipper, M.; Bohlender, J; Willnow, T.; Gross, M.

    2005-01-01

    Einleitung: Megalin ist ein zur LDL-Rezeptorgruppe gehörendes Membranrezeptorprotein. Untersuchungen am Innenohrepithel der embryonalen Maus zeigen, dass der Megalinrezeptor dort exprimiert wird . An erstmals zur Verfügung stehenden Megalin-Knock-out-Mäusen soll das Hörvermögen bei Fehlen des Megalinrezeptors untersucht werden.Material und Methode: Die perinatale Überlebensrate der KO-Mäuse beträgt - bedingt durch eine hohe Missbildungsrate - lediglich 2-5%, so dass nur wenige Mäuse zur Verfü...

  8. MADD Knock-Down Enhances Doxorubicin and TRAIL Induced Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    Andrea Turner; Liang-Cheng Li; Tania Pilli; Lixia Qian; Elizabeth Louise Wiley; Suman Setty; Konstantin Christov; Lakshmy Ganesh; Maker, Ajay V; Peifeng Li; Prasad Kanteti; Tapas K Das Gupta; Prabhakar, Bellur S.

    2013-01-01

    The Map kinase Activating Death Domain containing protein (MADD) isoform of the IG20 gene is over-expressed in different types of cancer tissues and cell lines and it functions as a negative regulator of apoptosis. Therefore, we speculated that MADD might be over-expressed in human breast cancer tissues and that MADD knock-down might synergize with chemotherapeutic or TRAIL-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Analyses of breast tissue microarrays revealed over-expression of MADD in duct...

  9. Applications of the human p53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse model for human carcinogen testing

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Pfeifer, Gerd P

    2010-01-01

    Tumor-driving mutations in the TP53 gene occur frequently in human cancers. These inactivating mutations arise predominantly from a single-point mutation in the DNA-binding domain of this tumor suppressor gene (i.e., exons 4–9). The human p53 knock-in (Hupki) mouse model was constructed using gene-targeting technology to create a mouse strain that harbors human wild-type TP53 DNA sequences in both copies of the mouse TP53 gene. Replacement of exons 4–9 of the endogenous mouse TP53 alleles in ...

  10. Sound vibration signal processing for detection and identification detonation (knock) to optimize performance Otto engine

    Sujono, A.; Santoso, B.; Juwana, W. E.

    2016-03-01

    Problems of detonation (knock) on Otto engine (petrol engine) is completely unresolved problem until now, especially if want to improve the performance. This research did sound vibration signal processing engine with a microphone sensor, for the detection and identification of detonation. A microphone that can be mounted is not attached to the cylinder block, that's high temperature, so that its performance will be more stable, durable and inexpensive. However, the method of analysis is not very easy, because a lot of noise (interference). Therefore the use of new methods of pattern recognition, through filtration, and the regression function normalized envelope. The result is quite good, can achieve a success rate of about 95%.

  11. RECOVERY ACT: TAPOCO PROJECT: CHEOAH UPGRADE

    Tran, Paul

    2013-02-28

    Under Funding Opportunity Announcement Number: DE-FOA-0000120, Recovery Act: Hydroelectric Facility Modernization, Alcoa Power Generating Inc. (APGI), a fully owned subsidiary of Alcoa Inc., implemented major upgrades at its Cheoah hydroelectric facility near Robbinsville, North Carolina.

  12. Oxygen knock-out and other studies in α-irradiated polycrystalline Bi-2212 superconductor

    Bulk polycrystalline samples of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+σ (Bi-2212) have been irradiated with 40 MeV α-particles. Tc increases up to a certain dose. The increase in Tc is correlated with the knock-out of oxygen, which has been verified by the determination of the oxygen contents of the irradiated samples by iodometry. A model of the knock-out of oxygen is proposed on the basis of Monte-Carlo TRIM calculations. Resistivity versus temperature of the irradiated samples shows fairly metallic behaviour up to a certain dose. Excess conductivity analysis shows a cross-over from 2D to 3D behaviour in conductivity for the unirradiated sample. However, for irradiated samples, the critical fluctuation regime sets in. The interlayer coupling strengths decrease with the increase in the irradiation dose. The sample with the highest dose shows a nonmetallic behaviour in resistivity. A detailed analysis shows a conductivity behaviour in the nonmetallic region characteristic of three-dimensional variable range hopping of charge carriers. (orig.)

  13. Oxygen knock-out and other studies in {alpha}-irradiated polycrystalline Bi-2212 superconductor

    Bandyopadhyay, S.K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India); Ghosh, A.K. [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India). Dept. of Physics; Barat, P. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India); Sen Pintu [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India); Basu, A.N. [Jadavpur Univ., Calcutta (India). Dept. of Physics; Ghosh, B. [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)

    1997-08-16

    Bulk polycrystalline samples of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+{sigma}} (Bi-2212) have been irradiated with 40 MeV {alpha}-particles. T{sub c} increases up to a certain dose. The increase in T{sub c} is correlated with the knock-out of oxygen, which has been verified by the determination of the oxygen contents of the irradiated samples by iodometry. A model of the knock-out of oxygen is proposed on the basis of Monte-Carlo TRIM calculations. Resistivity versus temperature of the irradiated samples shows fairly metallic behaviour up to a certain dose. Excess conductivity analysis shows a cross-over from 2D to 3D behaviour in conductivity for the unirradiated sample. However, for irradiated samples, the critical fluctuation regime sets in. The interlayer coupling strengths decrease with the increase in the irradiation dose. The sample with the highest dose shows a nonmetallic behaviour in resistivity. A detailed analysis shows a conductivity behaviour in the nonmetallic region characteristic of three-dimensional variable range hopping of charge carriers. (orig.)

  14. A new alpha particle diagnostic using knock-on ion tails

    We propose a new method of measuring the fast confined ct-particle distribution in a reacting plasma. The presence of ct-particles in a D-T plasma will create a high energy tail on the deuterium and tritium ion energy distributions. A 3.5 MeV alpha can transfer 3.4 MeV to a tritium ion in a single elastic scattering interaction. Calculations of the size of these knock-on tails in tokamaks such as TFTR, JET, and ITER show that it may be possible to measure these tails and provide information on the fast confined alphas. The knock-on tail ions will produce D-T neutrons with energies up to 20.7 MeV, so that D-T neutron spectroscopy can be used to monitor the alpha population. Neutron spectroscopy looks especially attractive for ITER. A collimated array of threshold neutron activation detectors could be used to deduce the confined alpha density profile. Tests of this diagnostic can also be done on TFTR and JET. Existing high energy neutral particle analyzers may allow observation of the ion tails directly via passive and/or active charge exchange

  15. Measurement of ν-values for TARN by the RF knock-out method

    The number of betatron oscillations per revolution (ν-value) can be measured experimentally by an RF knock-out method. The principle of the method is formulated. The RF knock-out system for TARN was desgned and constructed. Its design and specifications are described in detail. The experimental results with H2+ and He2+ beams with the kinetic energy of 7 MeV/u are compared with the calculation with the computer program SYNCH. The νsub(x) and νsub(z) were measured to be 2.29 and 2.12, respectively, for the excitation currents of the quadrupole magnets; I sub(D) = 121 A (G sub(D) = 0.212 kG/cm) and I sub(F) = 74.5 A (G sub(F) = 0.131 kG/cm). The calculation indicates that the corresponding values are 2.21 and 2.19, respectively, which are in fairly good agreement with the experimental ones. (author)

  16. Detection of knock occurrence in a gas SI engine from a heat transfer analysis

    This paper focuses on the transient thermal signal around an engine cylinder in order to propose a new and non-intrusive method of knock detection. Numerical simulations of unsteady heat transfer through the cylinder and inside the coolant flow are performed. The amplification of wall heat transfer due to knock is taken into account by a self-developed program. It enables one to fix the instantaneous heat flux on the internal side of the cylinder. The transient component of the thermal signal is then calculated and analysed. The effect of a machining, consisting of a transverse groove, which reduces the cylinder liner thermal resistance, is investigated. This groove disturbs the turbulent coolant flow, and its shape mainly influences the heat transfer from the wall to the fluid. The numerical results show that the use of a square groove would multiply by three the amplitude of the transient thermal signal recorded within the water compared to a smooth wall case. Moreover, the amplitude can be enhanced by using a nanofluid as coolant because of its higher thermal diffusivity

  17. Differential Bees Flux Balance Analysis with OptKnock for in silico microbial strains optimization.

    Yee Wen Choon

    Full Text Available Microbial strains optimization for the overproduction of desired phenotype has been a popular topic in recent years. The strains can be optimized through several techniques in the field of genetic engineering. Gene knockout is a genetic engineering technique that can engineer the metabolism of microbial cells with the objective to obtain desirable phenotypes. However, the complexities of the metabolic networks have made the process to identify the effects of genetic modification on the desirable phenotypes challenging. Furthermore, a vast number of reactions in cellular metabolism often lead to the combinatorial problem in obtaining optimal gene deletion strategy. Basically, the size of a genome-scale metabolic model is usually large. As the size of the problem increases, the computation time increases exponentially. In this paper, we propose Differential Bees Flux Balance Analysis (DBFBA with OptKnock to identify optimal gene knockout strategies for maximizing the production yield of desired phenotypes while sustaining the growth rate. This proposed method functions by improving the performance of a hybrid of Bees Algorithm and Flux Balance Analysis (BAFBA by hybridizing Differential Evolution (DE algorithm into neighborhood searching strategy of BAFBA. In addition, DBFBA is integrated with OptKnock to validate the results for improving the reliability the work. Through several experiments conducted on Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Clostridium thermocellum as the model organisms, DBFBA has shown a better performance in terms of computational time, stability, growth rate, and production yield of desired phenotypes compared to the methods used in previous works.

  18. Rosa26-targeted sheep gene knock-in via CRISPR-Cas9 system

    Wu, Mingming; Wei, Caihong; Lian, Zhengxing; Liu, Ruizao; Zhu, Caiye; Wang, Huihua; Cao, Jiaxue; Shen, Yuelei; Zhao, Fuping; Zhang, Li; Mu, Zhu; Wang, Yayu; Wang, Xiaogang; Du, Lixin; Wang, Chuduan

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in our ability to design DNA binding factors with specificity for desired sequences have resulted in a revolution in genetic engineering, enabling directed changes to the genome to be made relatively easily. Technologies that facilitate specific and precise genome editing, such as knock-in, are critical for determining the functions of genes and for understanding fundamental biological processes. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has recently emerged as a powerful tool for functional genomic studies in mammals. Rosa26 gene can encode a non-essential nuclear RNA in almost all organizations, and become a hot point of exogenous gene insertion. Here, we describe efficient, precise CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Integration using a donor vector with tGFP sequence targeted in the sheep genomic Rosa26 locus. We succeeded in integrating with high efficiency an exogenous tGFP (turboGFP) gene into targeted genes in frame. Due to its simplicity, design flexibility, and high efficiency, we propose that CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in will become a standard method for the generation transgenic sheep. PMID:27063570

  19. Rewriting the Opportunity Theory

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    The aim of this paper is to further the discussion of opportunity theory by discussing its ontological and epistemological underpinnings, which have been neglected in previous discussions. The idea that opportunities have an objective component is critically examined drawing on insights from social...... constructionism. It is argued that opportunity theory needs to be rewritten....

  20. Opportunity Cost: A Reexamination

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Is opportunity cost an ambiguous and arbitrary concept or a simple, straightforward, and fruitful one? This reexamination of opportunity cost addresses this question, and shows that opportunity cost is an ambiguous concept because "two" definitions are in widespread use. One of the definitions is indeed simple, fruitful, and one that…

  1. A High-Speed Motion-Picture Study of Normal Combustion, Knock and Preignition in a Spark-Ignition Engines

    Rothrock, A M; Spencer, R C; Miller, Cearcy D

    1941-01-01

    Combustion in a spark-ignition engine was investigated by means of the NACA high-speed motion-picture cameras. This camera is operated at a speed of 40,000 photographs a second and therefore makes possible the study of changes that take place in the intervals as short as 0.000025 second. When the motion pictures are projected at the normal speed of 16 frames a second, any rate of movement shown is slowed down 2500 times. Photographs are presented of normal combustion, of combustion from preignitions, and of knock both with and without preignition. The photographs of combustion show that knock may be preceded by a period of exothermic reaction in the end zone that persists for a time interval of as much as 0.0006 second. The knock takes place in 0.00005 second or less.

  2. Combustion Analysis and Knock Detection in Single Cylinder DI-Diesel Engine Using Vibration Signature Analysis

    Y.V.V.SatyanarayanaMurthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to detect the “knock” in Diesel engines which deteriorate the engine performance adversely. The methodology introduced in the present work suggests a newly developed approach towards analyzing the vibration analysis of diesel engines. The method is based on fundamental relationship between the engine vibration pattern and the relative characteristics of the combustion process in each or different cylinders. Knock in diesel engine is detected by measuring the vibration generated by the engine using The DC-11 FFT analyzer with accelerometer. Knock in diesel engine is mainly due to the engine miss .A diesel engine miss results from one or more cylinders when the fuel is not burning properly. Improper fuel burning is caused by Injection system problems which include, Faulty injectors, clogged fuel filters, incorrect Injection timing, Low engine compression, injection system leaks, Air leaks, faulty injection pump etc. Engine miss causes rapid combustion with very high pressures generating a rumble or dull clattering sound. Abnormally loud sound with violent vibration is called “knocking or detonation”. Engine cylinder vibration in FFT form is monitored at each load the cylinder excitation frequencies are compared with the base line frequencies using diesel oil. Time wave forms on the cylinder head are also recorded to analyze the combustion. Since the very combustion in the cylinder is the basic exciter, the vibration study of the engine cylinder through the measured FFT and time waveforms are the representatives of combustion propensity. Vibration accelerometer is mounted on the cylinder head, preferably on the bolt connecting the head and the cylinder to record the engine vibrations using DC-11 data logger which directly gives the spectral data in the form of FFT, the overall vibration levels. This FFT data recorded is collected by On-Time window based software designed by e-predict Inc., Argentina. The Time

  3. Book Act

    Kivland, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Book Act was a new project by AMBruno, initiated by Sophie Loss, in which artist book-makers performed and embodied the concept or essence of their books through the medium of film or performance. The exhibition at The Tetley, Leeds, comprised the originating books and corresponding video work, with live performances on Sunday 9 March 2014. Book Act took place during the 17th International Contemporary Artists' Book Fair (7th to 9th March) and the exhibition continued until 26th March 2014.

  4. Alterations in ethanol-induced behaviors and consumption in knock-in mice expressing ethanol-resistant NMDA receptors.

    Carolina R den Hartog

    Full Text Available Ethanol's action on the brain likely reflects altered function of key ion channels such as glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs. In this study, we determined how expression of a mutant GluN1 subunit (F639A that reduces ethanol inhibition of NMDARs affects ethanol-induced behaviors in mice. Mice homozygous for the F639A allele died prematurely while heterozygous knock-in mice grew and bred normally. Ethanol (44 mM; ∼0.2 g/dl significantly inhibited NMDA-mediated EPSCs in wild-type mice but had little effect on responses in knock-in mice. Knock-in mice had normal expression of GluN1 and GluN2B protein across different brain regions and a small reduction in levels of GluN2A in medial prefrontal cortex. Ethanol (0.75-2.0 g/kg; i.p. increased locomotor activity in wild-type mice but had no effect on knock-in mice while MK-801 enhanced activity to the same extent in both groups. Ethanol (2.0 g/kg reduced rotarod performance equally in both groups but knock-in mice recovered faster following a higher dose (2.5 g/kg. In the elevated zero maze, knock-in mice had a blunted anxiolytic response to ethanol (1.25 g/kg as compared to wild-type animals. No differences were noted between wild-type and knock-in mice for ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex, sleep time, hypothermia or ethanol metabolism. Knock-in mice consumed less ethanol than wild-type mice during daily limited-access sessions but drank more in an intermittent 24 h access paradigm with no change in taste reactivity or conditioned taste aversion. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that NMDA receptors are important in regulating a specific constellation of effects following exposure to ethanol.

  5. Potent Dystrophin knock-Down in Vitro and in Vivo Using RNAi Technonlogy and Expression Signature of Myotubes with Dystrophin knocked Down: Attempts at Unravelling the Mystery

    MM Ghahramani Seno

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is one of a group of genetically heterogeneous muscular dystrophies that are characterized by progressive weakness and wasting of skeletal muscle. Loss of myofibres occurs in response to a deficiency of dystrophin, a protein which is believed to be responsible for myofibre maintenance and integrity. Dystrophin forms a link between the cytoskeleton and the membrane-spanning dystrophin-associated glycoprotein complex (DAPC, indicative of a structural role for dystrophin. The application of gene therapy protocols for DMD still presents many daunting challenges due partly to intrinsic features of the dystrophin gene. Hence, improvement in the understanding of the underlying primary molecular events leading to a dystrophic pathology might pave the way for the discovery of new starting points. Here we present a strategy to use RNAi technology to study the events occurring in muscle cell development due to dystrophin deficiency. RNAi has been proven to be a powerful technology to study molecular effects due to knockdown of single genes. We have used a series of siRNAs to target and knock down the expression of dystrophin in primary cultures of mouse muscle, and subsequently used transcriptomic array analysis to identify genes whose expression were affected in response to dystrophin deficiency. The data obtained from this experiment, which include some very interesting potential new targets, are currently being analysed. We have also developed a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector expressing an shRNA targeting dystrophin. The use of such rAAV-shDNA vectors enables us to target dystrophin in vivo to obtain a better and potentially curative insight into the pathophysiology of DMD.

  6. 29 CFR 1620.27 - Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil... OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.27 Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act. (a) In situations where the jurisdictional prerequisites of both the EPA and title VII of...

  7. RNAi-mediated knocking- down of rlpk2 gene retarded soybean leaf senescence

    LI Xiaoping; MA Yuanyuan; LI Pengli; ZHANG Liwen; WANG Yong; ZHANG Ren; WANG Ningning

    2005-01-01

    Leaf senescence that occurs in the last stage of leaf development is a genetically programmed process. It is very significant to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that control the initiation and progression of leaf senescence and the way the senescence signal is transduced. In a previous study on artificially induced soybean leaf senescence, we cloned a novel gene designated rlpk2 (Genbank Accession No. AY687391) that encodes a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptor like protein kinase. The expression level of rlpk2 gene was shown to be strongly up-regulated during both the natural leaf senescence process in this report and the artificially induced primary-leaf-senescence process in our previous work. The RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knocking-down of rlpk2 dramatically retarded both the natural and nutrient deficiency-induced leaf senescence in transgenic soybean. The transgenic leaves showed more cell-aggregated surface structure and higher content of chlorophyll.

  8. Knock-in of human BACE1 cleaves murine APP and reiterates Alzheimer-like phenotypes.

    Plucińska, Kaja; Crouch, Barry; Koss, David; Robinson, Lianne; Siebrecht, Michael; Riedel, Gernot; Platt, Bettina

    2014-08-01

    Key neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are elevated levels of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) species generated via amyloid precursor protein (APP) endoproteolysis and cleavage by the rate-limiting β-site enzyme 1 (BACE1). Because rodents do not develop amyloid pathologies, we here investigated whether AD-like endophenotypes can be created in mice by expression of human bace1. To avoid pitfalls of existing models, we introduced hbace1 via knock-in under the control of the CaMKII α promoter into the safe HPRT locus. We report amyloidogenic processing of murine APP in the hBACE1 mice (termed PLB4), resulting in the formation of toxic APP metabolites that accumulate intra- and extraneuronally in hippocampus and cortex. Pronounced accumulation of Aβ*56 and Aβ hexamers in the absence of plaque deposition was detected in brain tissue from symptomatic PLB4 mice. Heightened levels of inflammation (gliosis) also appeared in several AD-related brain regions (dentate gyrus, hippocampal area CA1, piriform and parietal cortices) at 6 and 12 months of age. Behaviorally, deficits in habituation to a novel environment and semantic-like memory (social transmission of food preference) were detected from 3 to 4 months of age. Impairments in spatial learning strategies in long-term reference (water maze) and working memory (Y-maze) tasks presented at 6 months, and were distinct from reductions in locomotor activity and anxiety. Overall, our data indicate for the first time that targeted, subtle forebrain-specific expression through single gene knock-in of hBACE1 is sufficient to generate AD-relevant cognitive impairments amid corresponding histopathologies, confirming human BACE as the key parameter in amyloid pathogenesis. PMID:25100603

  9. 29 CFR 1614.203 - Rehabilitation Act.

    2010-07-01

    ... Commission's ADA regulations at 29 CFR part 1630. ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rehabilitation Act. 1614.203 Section 1614.203 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.203 Rehabilitation Act....

  10. Comprehensive Opportunity and Lost Opportunity Control Model and Enterprise Risk Management

    Akira Nishimura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build a comprehensive opportunity and lost opportunity control model throughwhich contemporary management accounting can act in alignment with enterprise risk management, as well as toexamine its managerial and socio-economic functions in relation to risk management in the context ofuncertainty in a global finance–oriented society. For this purpose, the paper demonstrates the structure andcharacteristics of this model specifically in contrast with traditional a...

  11. Measuring growth opportunities

    Danbolt, J.; Hirst, I.; Jones, E

    2002-01-01

    Although the impact of growth opportunities on company value has been recognized since Miller and Modigliani (1961), relatively little empirical work has been undertaken to value growth opportunities. In this study the validity of the KBM model (Kester (1984) and Brealey and Myers (1981)) is tested on a sample of 278 large UK companies for 1987-1995. Applying standard assumptions, the value of growth opportunities is found to account for a larger proportion of market values than assets-in-pla...

  12. True-breeding targeted gene knock-out in barley using designer TALE-nuclease in haploid cells.

    Maia Gurushidze

    Full Text Available Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs are customizable fusion proteins able to cleave virtually any genomic DNA sequence of choice, and thereby to generate site-directed genetic modifications in a wide range of cells and organisms. In the present study, we expressed TALENs in pollen-derived, regenerable cells to establish the generation of instantly true-breeding mutant plants. A gfp-specific TALEN pair was expressed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in embryogenic pollen of transgenic barley harboring a functional copy of gfp. Thanks to the haploid nature of the target cells, knock-out mutations were readily detected, and homozygous primary mutant plants obtained following genome duplication. In all, 22% of the TALEN transgenics proved knocked out with respect to gfp, and the loss of function could be ascribed to the deletions of between four and 36 nucleotides in length. The altered gfp alleles were transmitted normally through meiosis, and the knock-out phenotype was consistently shown by the offspring of two independent mutants. Thus, here we describe the efficient production of TALEN-mediated gene knock-outs in barley that are instantaneously homozygous and non-chimeric in regard to the site-directed mutations induced. This TALEN approach has broad applicability for both elucidating gene function and tailoring the phenotype of barley and other crop species.

  13. 7 CFR 33.14 - Opportunity for hearing.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Opportunity for hearing. 33.14 Section 33.14... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Withholding Certificates § 33.14 Opportunity for hearing. The person accused shall be entitled to a hearing, provided he or she makes...

  14. 78 FR 9431 - Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs

    2013-02-08

    ... BOARD Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB or Board) announces the opportunity to file amicus... Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPEA), 112 Public Law 199, may be applied retroactively to pending cases...

  15. 78 FR 17233 - Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs

    2013-03-20

    ... BOARD Notice of Opportunity To File Amicus Briefs AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Merit Systems Protection Board (MSPB or Board) announces the opportunity to file amicus... Enhancement Act of 2012 (WPEA), 112 Public Law 199, with regard to damages may be applied retroactively...

  16. Equal opportunities in diversity

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  17. Sarbanes - Oxley Act- Threat or Opportunity for Auditors?

    Ionel BOSTAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent events of financial publication revealed aneed for introduction of an effective reform process of thetraditional control methods and processes of decision-makingentities. The crisis of corporate governance systems, the need tointroduce new codes and self-binding and legislative rules, havepushed the legislature to the U.S. issued Sarbanes –Oxley Actmodel.Accountants and financial specialists describe the benefits ofimplementation of the SOX model, saying that the quality of thearea contributed only marginally in the creation of suchbenefits. If there would be no coercion of attitude towardsimplementing the ISO 14001 or ISO, including requirements forintegration of best practice financial, SOX would have hadreason to exist.

  18. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  19. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  20. LMNA knock-down affects differentiation and progression of human neuroblastoma cells.

    Giovanna Maresca

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuroblastoma (NB is one of the most aggressive tumors that occur in childhood. Although genes, such as MYCN, have been shown to be involved in the aggressiveness of the disease, the identification of new biological markers is still desirable. The induction of differentiation is one of the strategies used in the treatment of neuroblastoma. A-type lamins are components of the nuclear lamina and are involved in differentiation. We studied the role of Lamin A/C in the differentiation and progression of neuroblastoma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Knock-down of Lamin A/C (LMNA-KD in neuroblastoma cells blocked retinoic acid-induced differentiation, preventing neurites outgrowth and the expression of neural markers. The genome-wide gene-expression profile and the proteomic analysis of LMNA-KD cells confirmed the inhibition of differentiation and demonstrated an increase of aggressiveness-related genes and molecules resulting in augmented migration/invasion, and increasing the drug resistance of the cells. The more aggressive phenotype acquired by LMNA-KD cells was also maintained in vivo after injection into nude mice. A preliminary immunohistochemistry analysis of Lamin A/C expression in nine primary stages human NB indicated that this protein is poorly expressed in most of these cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated for the first time in neuroblastoma cells that Lamin A/C plays a central role in the differentiation, and that the loss of this protein gave rise to a more aggressive tumor phenotype.

  1. MADD knock-down enhances doxorubicin and TRAIL induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Andrea Turner

    Full Text Available The Map kinase Activating Death Domain containing protein (MADD isoform of the IG20 gene is over-expressed in different types of cancer tissues and cell lines and it functions as a negative regulator of apoptosis. Therefore, we speculated that MADD might be over-expressed in human breast cancer tissues and that MADD knock-down might synergize with chemotherapeutic or TRAIL-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells. Analyses of breast tissue microarrays revealed over-expression of MADD in ductal and invasive carcinomas relative to benign tissues. MADD knockdown resulted in enhanced spontaneous apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines. Moreover, MADD knockdown followed by treatment with TRAIL or doxorubicin resulted in increased cell death compared to either treatment alone. Enhanced cell death was found to be secondary to increased caspase-8 activation. These data indicate that strategies to decrease MADD expression or function in breast cancer may be utilized to increase tumor cell sensitivity to TRAIL and doxorubicin induced apoptosis.

  2. Knock-in Luciferase Reporter Mice for In Vivo Monitoring of CREB Activity.

    Dmitry Akhmedov

    Full Text Available The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB is induced during fasting in the liver, where it stimulates transcription of rate-limiting gluconeogenic genes to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Adenoviral and transgenic CREB reporters have been used to monitor hepatic CREB activity non-invasively using bioluminescence reporter imaging. However, adenoviral vectors and randomly inserted transgenes have several limitations. To overcome disadvantages of the currently used strategies, we created a ROSA26 knock-in CREB reporter mouse line (ROSA26-CRE-luc. cAMP-inducing ligands stimulate the reporter in primary hepatocytes and myocytes from ROSA26-CRE-luc animals. In vivo, these animals exhibit little hepatic CREB activity in the ad libitum fed state but robust induction after fasting. Strikingly, CREB was markedly stimulated in liver, but not in skeletal muscle, after overnight voluntary wheel-running exercise, uncovering differential regulation of CREB in these tissues under catabolic states. The ROSA26-CRE-luc mouse line is a useful resource to study dynamics of CREB activity longitudinally in vivo and can be used as a source of primary cells for analysis of CREB regulatory pathways ex vivo.

  3. The Mosaic Mutants of Cucumber: A Method to Produce Knock-Downs of Mitochondrial Transcripts.

    Del Valle-Echevarria, Angel R; Kiełkowska, Agnieszka; Bartoszewski, Grzegorz; Havey, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Cytoplasmic effects on plant performance are well-documented and result from the intimate interaction between organellar and nuclear gene products. In plants, deletions, mutations, or chimerism of mitochondrial genes are often associated with deleterious phenotypes, as well as economically important traits such as cytoplasmic male sterility used to produce hybrid seed. Presently, genetic analyses of mitochondrial function and nuclear interactions are limited because there is no method to efficiently produce mitochondrial mutants. Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) possesses unique attributes useful for organellar genetics, including differential transmission of the three plant genomes (maternal for plastid, paternal for mitochondrial, and bi-parental for nuclear), a relatively large mitochondrial DNA in which recombination among repetitive motifs produces rearrangements, and the existence of strongly mosaic (MSC) paternally transmitted phenotypes that appear after passage of wild-type plants through cell cultures and possess unique rearrangements in the mitochondrial DNA. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA from three independently produced MSC lines and revealed under-represented regions and reduced transcription of mitochondrial genes carried in these regions relative to the wild-type parental line. Mass spectrometry and Western blots did not corroborate transcriptional differences in the mitochondrial proteome of the MSC mutant lines, indicating that post-transcriptional events, such as protein longevity, may compensate for reduced transcription in MSC mitochondria. Our results support cucumber as a model system to produce transcriptional "knock-downs" of mitochondrial genes useful to study mitochondrial responses and nuclear interactions important for plant performance. PMID:25873637

  4. Mosquito knock-down and adulticidal activities of essential oils by vaporizer, impregnated filter paper and aerosol methods

    M. Ramar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from 12 medicinal plants were evaluated by three different bioassay methods (Vaporizer, Filter paper and Aerosol for Knock-down and adulticidal efficacy on the filarial vector mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus. Based on screening results the effective plants were selected for investigating Knock-down and adulticidal potential against adult female of the laboratory-reared mosquito species, Cx. quinquefasciatus. In vaporizer bioassay method four different doses (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% were used. Four different doses (0.625, 1.25, 2.5 and 10% were used both filter paper (cm2 and aerosol (cm3 bioassay methods. Five essential oils (calamus, camphor, citronella, clove and eucalyptus were identified as potential treatments in vaporizer bioassay. The result showed that the knock down time decreased with increased concentration in clove oil treatment; the Knock-down time (KT 50 = 46.1 ± 0.1, 38.5 ± 0.1, 30.7 ± 0.2, and 20.1 ± 0.1 minutes was recorded at 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10% /cm3 respectively. In filter paper method nine essential oils were identified as potential treatments. After 1 hr exposure period clove oil recorded the lowest median Knock-down time (KT50 which was calculated as 9.15 ± 0.1min/cm2. Followed by citronella (KT50 =11.4 ± 0.1 min and eucalyptus (KT50 =11.4 ±0.1min oils since they recorded lower median Knock-down time. All the twelve essential oils were identified as potential treatments in aerosol activity. The lethal time decreased when the concentration increased. At 5 % concentration the median lethal time (LT50 for clove oil was calculated as (LT50=3.80 ± 0.1minutes. The Cinnamon oil was effective which recorded (LT50 = 1.99 mins as median lethal time. Camphor (LT50 =19.6± 0.1 min oil were found to be less toxic by aerosol method. These results suggest that clove oil and cinnamon oil have the potential to be used as a eco-friendly approach for the control of the major important filaria vector Cx. quinquefasciatus

  5. 76 FR 40874 - Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record

    2011-07-12

    ... Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as amended. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended... recipients' employees understand their customer service role. Collection will occur during face-to-face... Forest Service Information Collection; Equal Opportunity Compliance Review Record AGENCY: Forest...

  6. Opportunities for First Nations

    Moura, Rodrigo [Anaia Global (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The recent development of wind energy project creates opportunities for First Nations. Although they are interested by such projects, First Nations nevertheless have questions such about how they can be a part of the wind industry, what are their rights, what investment would they need to make, and how to judge if they are getting a favourable deal. This presentation aimed at answering those questions an maintained that wind energy would bring social and economic development to First Nations communities as well as diversifying their sources of revenue. Several companies offer their services to First Nations and Anaia Global is a company which helps aboriginal people identify to promote their investment opportunities in renewable energy projects and benefit from the technology transferred to them. This presentation showed that there are significant opportunities for First Nations in the wind energy sector and that Anaia Global is focusing on helping them seize these opportunities.

  7. Creating housing opportunities

    Josephine McNeil

    2007-01-01

    Helping families of low and moderate means find opportunities in high-cost areas requires special tactics. Citizens for Affordable Housing in Newton Development Organization (CAN-DO) shows it can be done.

  8. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    Michael Weiss

    2012-01-01

    User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the u...

  9. Experimental investigation of the knock and combustion characteristics of CH4, H2, CO, and some of their mixtures

    Li, H. [National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Karim, G. [University of Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Experimental data obtained in single-cylinder, variable compression ratio, spark ignition (SI), cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine when operating on CH4, H2, CO, simulated reforming product gas (2H2 + CO), and some of their mixtures are presented. The dependence of the value of some key operational and combustion variables, including the knock and lean operational limits, combustion duration, and exhaust emission on fuel composition, is investigated. The significant effect of the presence of H-bearing species such as CH4, H2, or H2O on the combustion and knock characteristics of dry CO is also highlighted. Guidelines as to the suitability of these fuels for SI engine applications are provided. (author)

  10. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Oncogene Expression Using Cre-Inducible ROSA26 Knock-In Transgenic Mice.

    Carofino, Brandi L; Justice, Monica J

    2015-01-01

    Cre-inducible mouse models are often utilized for the spatial and temporal expression of oncogenes. With the wide number of Cre recombinase lines available, inducible transgenesis represents a tractable approach to achieve discrete oncogene expression. Here, we describe a protocol for targeting Cre-inducible genes to the ubiquitously expressed ROSA26 locus. Gene targeting provides several advantages over standard transgenic techniques, including a known site of integration and previously characterized pattern of expression. Historically, an inherent instability of ROSA26 targeting vectors has hampered the efficiency of developing ROSA26 knock-in lines. In this protocol, we provide individual steps for utilizing Gateway recombination for cloning as well as detailed instructions for screening targeted ES cell clones. By following this protocol, one can achieve germline transmission of a ROSA26 knock-in line within several months. PMID:26069083

  11. Proteomic analysis of differential proteins in pancreatic carcinomas: Effects of MBD1 knock-down by stable RNA interference

    Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 1 (MBD1), a suppressor of gene transcription, may be involved in inactivation of tumor suppressor genes during tumorigenesis. Over-expression of MBD1 has been reported in human pancreatic carcinomas. In this study, we established a MBD1-knock-down pancreatic cancer cell line (BxPC-3) using stable RNA interference, to compare the proteomic changes between control and MBD1-knock-down cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We identified five proteins that were up-regulated and nine proteins that were down-regulated. Most of the identified proteins are involved in tumorigenesis, some are prognostic biomarkers for human malignant tumors. Our data suggest that these differential proteins may be associated with the function of MBD1, and provide some insight into the functional mechanism of MBD1 in the development of pancreatic cancer

  12. A simplified high-throughput method for pyrethroid knock-down resistance (kdr) detection in Anopheles gambiae

    Walker Edward D; Black William C; Randle Nadine P; McCall P J; Ranson Hilary; Lynd Amy; Donnelly Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background A single base pair mutation in the sodium channel confers knock-down resistance to pyrethroids in many insect species. Its occurrence in Anopheles mosquitoes may have important implications for malaria vector control especially considering the current trend for large scale pyrethroid-treated bednet programmes. Screening Anopheles gambiae populations for the kdr mutation has become one of the mainstays of programmes that monitor the development of insecticide resistance. Th...

  13. Sqstm1 knock-down causes a locomotor phenotype ameliorated by rapamycin in a zebrafish model of ALS/FTLD.

    Lattante, Serena; de Calbiac, Hortense; Le Ber, Isabelle; Brice, Alexis; Ciura, Sorana; Kabashi, Edor

    2015-03-15

    Mutations in SQSTM1, encoding for the protein SQSTM1/p62, have been recently reported in 1-3.5% of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (ALS/FTLD). Inclusions positive for SQSTM1/p62 have been detected in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, including ALS/FTLD. In order to investigate the pathogenic mechanisms induced by SQSTM1 mutations in ALS/FTLD, we developed a zebrafish model. Knock-down of the sqstm1 zebrafish ortholog, as well as impairment of its splicing, led to a specific phenotype, consisting of behavioral and axonal anomalies. Here, we report swimming deficits associated with shorter motor neuronal axons that could be rescued by the overexpression of wild-type human SQSTM1. Interestingly, no rescue of the loss-of-function phenotype was observed when overexpressing human SQSTM1 constructs carrying ALS/FTLD-related mutations. Consistent with its role in autophagy regulation, we found increased mTOR levels upon knock-down of sqstm1. Furthermore, treatment of zebrafish embryos with rapamycin, a known inhibitor of the mTOR pathway, yielded an amelioration of the locomotor phenotype in the sqstm1 knock-down model. Our results suggest that loss-of-function of SQSTM1 causes phenotypic features characterized by locomotor deficits and motor neuron axonal defects that are associated with a misregulation of autophagic processes. PMID:25410659

  14. Eléments d'analyse du cliquetis et de ses effets Elements for Analyzing Knocking and Its Effects

    Douaud A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On présente dans cet article une synthèse des travaux théoriques et expérimentaux relatifs à la génération du cliquetis et à ses effets sur le fonctionnement du moteur. L'apparition du cliquetis est décrite par un mécanisme global de délai d'auto-inflammation. Des exemples d'application portant sur l'identification du délai de carburants quelconques et sur l'optimisation de l'ensemble moteurs-carburants documentent cette approche. Le cliquetis a pour conséquence un accroissement de sollicitations mécaniques et thermiques des parois de la chambre de combustion. Des méthodes et résultats d'investigation de ces phénomènes sont présentés. A synthesis is presented of theoretical and experimental research concerning the generating of knocking and its effects on engine running. The appearance of knocking is described by an overall mechanism of autoignition delay. This approach is documented by applied examples concerning the identification of the delay involved with any type of fuel and the optimizing of engine-fuel systems. Knocking causes an increase in mechanical and thermal stresses on combustion-chamber walls. Investigational methods and results concerning these phenomena are described.

  15. Knock down Os1bglu1 β-glucosidase in rice by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation

    Mariena Ketudat-Cairns

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This research attempted to study the function of Os1bglu1 by RNAi technique. The suppression of Os1bglu1genewas done using the 3’UTR region. The target gene fragment was cloned into the pHELLSGATE8 vector. The high percentagesof effective callus induction of 93% were obtained when the seeds were cultured on N6D medium for 4-6 weeks at 28°C. Thesuitable transformation conditions were to incubate the calli with Agrobacterium (OD 600 = 0.02 and blot dry to remove excessbacteria cells, then transferred to co-cultivation medium (pH 5.2 with 200 M acetosyringone and incubate for three days at25°C. The 20% transformation efficiency was obtained from the transformed calli with control plasmid, while transformationefficiency of only 15% was obtained from pHELLSGATE8 Os1bglu1 constructs. The transformed calli with control constructshowed higher growth rate than the transformed calli with pHELLSGATE8 Os1bglu1construct. The expression of Os1bglu1mRNA was not found in the transformed calli and siRNAs were found in the transformed calli. However no siRNAs weredetected in the control transformed calli. The regeneration efficiencies of 6% were obtained from only the calli transformedwith the control construct. The calli transformed with the knock down Os1bglu1 constructs were not able to regenerate. This may indicated that Os1bglu1 is involved in regeneration of rice from callus tissue.

  16. Autism spectrum disorder traits in Slc9a9 knock-out mice.

    Yang, Lina; Faraone, Stephen V; Zhang-James, Yanli

    2016-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of neurodevelopmental disorders which begin in childhood and persist into adulthood. They cause lifelong impairments and are associated with substantial burdens to patients, families, and society. Genetic studies have implicated the sodium/proton exchanger (NHE) nine gene, Slc9a9, to ASDs and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD). Slc9a9 encodes, NHE9, a membrane protein of the late recycling endosomes. The recycling endosome plays an important role in synapse development and plasticity by regulating the trafficking of membrane neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Here we tested the hypothesis that Slc9a9 knock-out (KO) mice would show ADHD-like and ASD-like traits. Ultrasonic vocalization (USV) recording showed that Slc9a9 KO mice emitted fewer calls and had shorter call durations, which suggest communication impairment. Slc9a9 KO mice lacked a preference for social novelty, but did not show deficits in social approach; Slc9a9 KO mice spent more time self-grooming, an indicator for restricted and repetitive behavior. We did not observe hyperactivity or other behavior impairments which are commonly comorbid with ASDs in human, such as anxiety-like behavior. Our study is the first animal behavior study that links Slc9a9 to ASDs. By eliminatingNHE9 activity, it provides strong evidence that lack of Slc9a9leads to ASD-like behaviors in mice and provides the field with a new mouse model of ASDs. PMID:26755066

  17. PARP1 gene knock-out increases resistance to retinal degeneration without affecting retinal function.

    Ayse Sahaboglu

    Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is a group of inherited neurodegenerative diseases affecting photoreceptors and causing blindness in humans. Previously, excessive activation of enzymes belonging to the poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP group was shown to be involved in photoreceptor degeneration in the human homologous rd1 mouse model for RP. Since there are at least 16 different PARP isoforms, we investigated the exact relevance of the predominant isoform - PARP1 - for photoreceptor cell death using PARP1 knock-out (KO mice. In vivo and ex vivo morphological analysis using optic coherence tomography (OCT and conventional histology revealed no major alterations of retinal phenotype when compared to wild-type (wt. Likewise, retinal function as assessed by electroretinography (ERG was normal in PARP1 KO animals. We then used retinal explant cultures derived from wt, rd1, and PARP1 KO animals to test their susceptibility to chemically induced photoreceptor degeneration. Since photoreceptor degeneration in the rd1 retina is triggered by a loss-of-function in phosphodiesterase-6 (PDE6, we used selective PDE6 inhibition to emulate the rd1 situation on non-rd1 genotypes. While wt retina subjected to PDE6 inhibition showed massive photoreceptor degeneration comparable to rd1 retina, in the PARP1 KO situation, cell death was robustly reduced. Together, these findings demonstrate that PARP1 activity is in principle dispensable for normal retinal function, but is of major importance for photoreceptor degeneration under pathological conditions. Moreover, our results suggest that PARP dependent cell death or PARthanatos may play a major role in retinal degeneration and highlight the possibility to use specific PARP inhibitors for the treatment of RP.

  18. Links and opportunities

    1999-09-01

    At the end of June a new website was launched to enable young people to get involved with the UK's national Foresight programme and to help shape the future. `School of the Future - Young people with Foresight' will provide young people with the means to contribute to the national programme which develops scenarios of the future, looking at possible needs, opportunities or threats and deciding what should be done now to make sure these challenges can be met. The site can be found at www.asset.org.uk and it will be run by the Association for Schools' Science, Engineering and Technology (ASSET). The latest round of Foresight began in April and panels are taking a look at the aging population, crime prevention, built environment and transport, aerospace and systems, energy and the natural environment, information, communications and media, materials and sustainable development, amongst other topics. Information about Foresight activities and events can be obtained from the Office of Science and Technology or the Foresight Knowledge pool at www.foresight.gov.uk. The pool will act as a unique and freely accessible electronic library of views and information about the future that young people will be able to draw on for assistance and reference material. Futher assistance for students will also be on offer from museums and art galleries from now on, thanks to additional funding which has been made available over the next three years. Forty museums and galleries will share up to #2.5m for projects intended to improve students' literacy, numeracy and science skills as well as their understanding of history and art. Examples of the imaginative projects which have been put forward include use of the large collection of steam engines at the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester to assist boys' science and literacy skills. The Museum of London will be working with over 2000 schools in the South East to provide materials for the schools' own mini-museums on the Romans

  19. Industrial opportunities - offshore

    Industrial opportunities available in the Canadian offshore petroleum industry are discussed. Oil has been produced offshore from Nova Scotia since 1992, and offshore from Newfoundland since 1997. Special needs that must be addressed in offshore operations in eastern Canada such as the cold North Atlantic environment, isolation, logistics, safety, and quality assurance, are examined. The most obvious opportunities lie with the designing, building and installing the facilities needed to extract oil and gas from beneath the sea floor and transport it to market. However, there are also opportunities in designing and fabricating clothing, customized food containers and other equipment for offshore needs. Short term opportunities also exist in the decommissioning of depleted production fields and their facilities. One of the greatest obstacles facing new entrants into the offshore oil and gas industry is the lack of a track record. To meet this challenge, the ability to seek out partners to pursue local and international opportunities through joint ventures, strategic alliances and technology sharing partnering arrangements is of great importance. It may be the difference between success and failure. 6 figs

  20. International oil opportunities

    Some of the key issues to be addressed when selecting international opportunities, were discussed. The ideal opportunity should have the following characteristics: (1) large, low risk (2) high percentage of rent available to the investor, (3) low cost and low technical requirements, (4) low country risk, (5) low competition, (6) easy to access, and (7) favorable environment in which to work. Entering an international opportunity can be achieved by competitive bidding, direct negotiation, partnership, corporate and/or asset acquisition, and long-term relationships. Key success factors were identified as (1) applying technical financial and commercial skills in the international environment, (2) speedy response, (3) excellent relationships in the foreign country, (4) understanding the local culture, and (5) keeping a good track record. 6 figs

  1. Opportunity Knocks: Closing the Gaps between Leaders and the Public on Math, Science, & Technology Education--A Qualitative Research Report on the Kansas City Region

    Kadlec, Alison; Friedman, Will

    2010-01-01

    The Kansas City region is in many ways representative of the larger national economy. As with many cities of its size, the largest area of employment, other than in government, is in the healthcare sector. While biomedical research is a major growth area across the nation, Kansas City is also the national leader in the animal healthcare industry,…

  2. Mutant Tau knock-in mice display frontotemporal dementia relevant behaviour and histopathology.

    Koss, David J; Robinson, Lianne; Drever, Benjamin D; Plucińska, Kaja; Stoppelkamp, Sandra; Veselcic, Peter; Riedel, Gernot; Platt, Bettina

    2016-07-01

    Models of Tau pathology related to frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are essential to determine underlying neurodegenerative pathologies and resulting tauopathy relevant behavioural changes. However, existing models are often limited in their translational value due to Tau overexpression, and the frequent occurrence of motor deficits which prevent comprehensive behavioural assessments. In order to address these limitations, a forebrain-specific (CaMKIIα promoter), human mutated Tau (hTauP301L+R406W) knock-in mouse was generated out of the previously characterised PLB1Triple mouse, and named PLB2Tau. After confirmation of an additional hTau species (~60kDa) in forebrain samples, we identified age-dependent progressive Tau phosphorylation which coincided with the emergence of FTD relevant behavioural traits. In line with the non-cognitive symptomatology of FTD, PLB2Tau mice demonstrated early emerging (~6months) phenotypes of heightened anxiety in the elevated plus maze, depressive/apathetic behaviour in a sucrose preference test and generally reduced exploratory activity in the absence of motor impairments. Investigations of cognitive performance indicated prominent dysfunctions in semantic memory, as assessed by social transmission of food preference, and in behavioural flexibility during spatial reversal learning in a home cage corner-learning task. Spatial learning was only mildly affected and task-specific, with impairments at 12months of age in the corner learning but not in the water maze task. Electroencephalographic (EEG) investigations indicated a vigilance-stage specific loss of alpha power during wakefulness at both parietal and prefrontal recording sites, and site-specific EEG changes during non-rapid eye movement sleep (prefrontal) and rapid eye movement sleep (parietal). Further investigation of hippocampal electrophysiology conducted in slice preparations indicated a modest reduction in efficacy of synaptic transmission in the absence of altered synaptic

  3. AAV-mediated knock-down of HRC exacerbates transverse aorta constriction-induced heart failure.

    Chang Sik Park

    Full Text Available Histidine-rich calcium binding protein (HRC is located in the lumen of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR that binds to both triadin (TRN and SERCA affecting Ca(2+ cycling in the SR. Chronic overexpression of HRC that may disrupt intracellular Ca(2+ homeostasis is implicated in pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. Ablation of HRC showed relatively normal phenotypes under basal condition, but exhibited a significantly increased susceptibility to isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, we characterized the functions of HRC related to Ca(2+ cycling and pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy using the in vitro siRNA- and the in vivo adeno-associated virus (AAV-mediated HRC knock-down (KD systems, respectively.AAV-mediated HRC-KD system was used with or without C57BL/6 mouse model of transverse aortic constriction-induced failing heart (TAC-FH to examine whether HRC-KD could enhance cardiac function in failing heart (FH. Initially we expected that HRC-KD could elicit cardiac functional recovery in failing heart (FH, since predesigned siRNA-mediated HRC-KD enhanced Ca(2+ cycling and increased activities of RyR2 and SERCA2 without change in SR Ca(2+ load in neonatal rat ventricular cells (NRVCs and HL-1 cells. However, AAV9-mediated HRC-KD in TAC-FH was associated with decreased fractional shortening and increased cardiac fibrosis compared with control. We found that phospho-RyR2, phospho-CaMKII, phospho-p38 MAPK, and phospho-PLB were significantly upregulated by HRC-KD in TAC-FH. A significantly increased level of cleaved caspase-3, a cardiac cell death marker was also found, consistent with the result of TUNEL assay.Increased Ca(2+ leak and cytosolic Ca(2+ concentration due to a partial KD of HRC could enhance activity of CaMKII and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, causing the mitochondrial death pathway observed in TAC-FH. Our results present evidence that down-regulation of HRC could deteriorate cardiac function in TAC-FH through

  4. A new knock-in mouse model of l-DOPA-responsive dystonia.

    Rose, Samuel J; Yu, Xin Y; Heinzer, Ann K; Harrast, Porter; Fan, Xueliang; Raike, Robert S; Thompson, Valerie B; Pare, Jean-Francois; Weinshenker, David; Smith, Yoland; Jinnah, Hyder A; Hess, Ellen J

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal dopamine neurotransmission is associated with many different genetic and acquired dystonic disorders. For instance, mutations in genes critical for the synthesis of dopamine, including GCH1 and TH cause l-DOPA-responsive dystonia. Despite evidence that implicates abnormal dopamine neurotransmission in dystonia, the precise nature of the pre- and postsynaptic defects that result in dystonia are not known. To better understand these defects, we generated a knock-in mouse model of l-DOPA-responsive dystonia (DRD) mice that recapitulates the human p.381Q>K TH mutation (c.1141C>A). Mice homozygous for this mutation displayed the core features of the human disorder, including reduced TH activity, dystonia that worsened throughout the course of the active phase, and improvement in the dystonia in response to both l-DOPA and trihexyphenidyl. Although the gross anatomy of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons was normal in DRD mice, the microstructure of striatal synapses was affected whereby the ratio of axo-spinous to axo-dendritic corticostriatal synaptic contacts was reduced. Microinjection of l-DOPA directly into the striatum ameliorated the dystonic movements but cerebellar microinjections of l-DOPA had no effect. Surprisingly, the striatal dopamine concentration was reduced to ∼1% of normal, a concentration more typically associated with akinesia, suggesting that (mal)adaptive postsynaptic responses may also play a role in the development of dystonia. Administration of D1- or D2-like dopamine receptor agonists to enhance dopamine signalling reduced the dystonic movements, whereas administration of D1- or D2-like dopamine receptor antagonists to further reduce dopamine signalling worsened the dystonia, suggesting that both receptors mediate the abnormal movements. Further, D1-dopamine receptors were supersensitive; adenylate cyclase activity, locomotor activity and stereotypy were exaggerated in DRD mice in response to the D1-dopamine receptor agonist SKF

  5. Generating innovation opportunities:

    Kallio, Anne; Bergenholtz, Carsten

    This study examines how a company can generate innovation opportunities by exploring and absorbing customer knowledge. The exploration can be performed via an in-depth or broad search for resources beyond organisational boundaries. Salespeople are an essential channel for an in-depth search in...

  6. Opportunities in microstructured photonics

    Herzig, Hans Peter; Sfez, Tristan; Scharf, Toralf

    2010-01-01

    The progress in novel light sources, detectors, materials and technology enable new opportunities and challenges for diffractive optics and nanoscale photonics. Important are also analysis tools, such as near-field imaging (SNOM). Only structures that can be characterized can be fabricated

  7. Investment Insight Opportunities Ahead

    2006-01-01

    Over the next five years, China will be shitting its focus to more balanced development and what it sees as quality growth. Its two main strategies are promoting innovation-with the government-backed industrial upgrading-and strengthening the rural economy. This shift will lead to massive investment and fresh, wealth-making opportunities. In the stock

  8. Opportunity Cost: A Reply

    Parkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The author's objective for this reply in reexamining opportunity cost was to draw attention to two conflicting definitions of the concept in current use and to argue the case for dropping one of them. The comments of Daniel Arce, Rod O'Donnell, and Daniel Stone might be read as demonstration that the author has failed on both counts. Such a…

  9. Land of Expat Opportunity

    2009-01-01

    The international work force continues to grow as employment opportunities entice foreigners to live in China Forty-four-year-old Daniell Goodin has spent almost two decades working abroad, calling Indonesia, Hong Kong and the United States "home" for different periods of time. In May, the Australian native arrived in China, working

  10. Creating Work Opportunities.

    Michelle K. Derr; LaDonna Pavetti

    2008-01-01

    This brief profiles three programs that use difference approaches—unpaid work experience, subsidized employment, and unsubsidized transitional employment—to create work opportunities for TANF recipients who are living with a disability and have not been successful in finding competitive employment.

  11. Opportunities for Taiwan's industry

    Jen-Lien Lin; Guang-Way Jang

    2004-01-01

    The Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) in Taiwan recently introduced nanotechnology to local traditional industries. Nanotechnologies provide a great opportunity for these companies to meet outside challenges and join the blooming electronic and optoelectronic industries. The Nanotechnology Community (NTC) was established in 2003, with the goal of finding commercial applications. This year, the Taiwan Nanotechnology Industrialization Promotion Association (TANIPA) was established...

  12. Opportunity at 'Cook Islands'

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its navigation camera to take the images combined into this full-circle view of the rover's surroundings during the 1,825th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's surface mission (March 12, 2009). North is at the top. The rover had driven half a meter (1.5 feet) earlier on Sol 1825 to fine-tune its location for placing its robotic arm onto an exposed patch of outcrop including a target area informally called 'Cook Islands.' On the preceding sol, Opportunity turned around to drive frontwards and then drove 4.5 meters (15 feet) toward this outcrop. The tracks from the SOl 1824 drive are visible near the center of this view at about the 11 o'clock position. For scale, the distance between the parallel wheel tracks is about 1 meter (about 40 inches). Opportunity had previously been driving backward as a strategy to redistribute lubrication in a wheel drawing more electrical current than usual. The outcrop exposure that includes 'Cook Islands' is visible just below the center of the image. The terrain in this portion of Mars' Meridiani Planum region includes dark-toned sand ripples and lighter-toned bedrock. This view is presented as a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  13. Opportunity's 'Olympia' Panorama

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Opportunity's 'Olympia' Panorama (QTVR) This view from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an outcrop called 'Olympia' along the northwestern margin of 'Erebus' crater. The view spans about 120 degrees from side to side, generally looking southward. The outcrop exposes a broad expanse of sulfate-rich sedimentary rocks. The rocks were formed predominantly from windblown sediments, but some also formed in environmental conditions from damp to under shallow surface water. After taking the images that were combined into this view, Opportunity drove along along a path between sand dunes to the upper left side of the image, where a cliff in the background can be seen. This is a cliff is known as the 'Mogollon Rim.' Researchers expect it to expose more than 1 meter (3 feet) of new strata. These strata may represent the highest level observed yet by Opportunity. The image is an approximately true-color rendering generated using the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  14. A Leadership Journey: Personal Reflections from the School of Hard Knocks

    R. Scott Pochron

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The following paper chronicles the evolution of the author’s thinking onleadership through the course of his work experience. Leadership is viewed as adynamical process involving both formal and informal roles. The process is initiated asan individual identifies opportunities and feels pulled to respond to emerging patterns andinitiate action to enable positive change. The dynamics between formal and informalleadership structures and leadership as a state of mind are discussed.

  15. [BLG gene knockout and hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus in goat by TALENs].

    Song, Shaozheng; Zhu, Mengmin; Yuan, Yuguo; Rong, Yao; Xu, Sheng; Chen, Si; Mei, Junyan; Cheng, Yong

    2016-03-01

    To knock out β-lactoglobulin (BLG) gene and insert human lactoferrin (hLF) coding sequence at BLG locus of goat, the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALEN) mediated recombination was used to edit the BLG gene of goat fetal fibroblast, then as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We designed a pair of specific plasmid TALEN-3-L/R for goat BLG exon III recognition sites, and BLC14-TK vector containing a negative selection gene HSV-TK, was used for the knock in of hLF gene. TALENs plasmids were transfected into the goat fetal fibroblast cells, and the cells were screened three days by 2 μg/mL puromycin. DNA cleavage activities of cells were verified by PCR amplification and DNA production sequencing. Then, targeting vector BLC14-TK and plasmids TALEN-3-L/R were co-transfected into goat fetal fibroblasts, both 700 μg/mL G418 and 2 μg/mL GCV were simultaneously used to screen G418-resistant cells. Detections of integration and recombination were implemented to obtain cells with hLF gene site-specific integration. We chose targeting cells as donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer. The mutagenicity of TALEN-3-L/R was between 25% and 30%. A total of 335 reconstructed embryos with 6 BLG-/hLF+ targeting cell lines were transferred into 16 recipient goats. There were 9 pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound on day 30 to 35 (pregnancy rate of 39.1%), and one of 50-day-old fetus with BLG-/hLF+ was achieved. These results provide the basis for hLF gene knock-in at BLG locus of goat and cultivating transgenic goat of low allergens and rich hLF in the milk. PMID:27349115

  16. Spark ignition engine performance and emissions in a high compression engine using biogas and methane mixtures without knock occurrence

    Gómez Montoya Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to use biogas in an internal combustion engine with high compression ratio and in order to get a high output thermal efficiency, this investigation used a diesel engine with a maximum output power 8.5 kW, which was converted to spark ignition mode to use it with gaseous fuels. Three fuels were used: Simulated biogas, biogas enriched with 25% and 50% methane by volume. After conversion, the output power of the engine decreased by 17.64% when using only biogas, where 7 kW was the new maximum output power of the engine. The compression ratio was kept at 15.5:1, and knocking did not occur during engine operation. Output thermal efficiency operating the engine in SI mode with biogas enriched with 50% methane was almost the same compared with the engine running in diesel-biogas dual mode at full load and was greater at part loads. The dependence of the diesel pilot was eliminated when biogas was used in the engine converted in SI mode. The optimum condition of experiment for the engine without knocking was using biogas enriched with 50% methane, with 12 degrees of spark timing advance and equivalence ratio of 0.95, larger output powers and higher values of methane concentration lead the engine to knock operation. The presence of CO2 allows operating engines at high compression ratios with normal combustion conditions. Emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and unburnt methane all in g/kWh decreased when the biogas was enriched with 50% methane.

  17. e-Society and Children's Participation: Risks, Opportunities and Barriers

    O'Neill, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Children are important subjects of information society policy, particularly in the context of digital learning opportunities and e-inclusion. However, their participation is also a cause of concern and anxiety for policy makers. With ever-earlier adoption of new internet technologies and services by children, concerns arise as to how to ensure adequate protection whilst seeking to encourage and foster online opportunities. A delicate balancing act is required to manage risks while promoting b...

  18. Knock-down of ELMO1 in Paediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells by Nanoparticle Mediated siRNA Delivery

    Xinyue Huang; Helen Townley

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma that is found in children and has a poor outcome for those with metastatic disease. Two histological groups have been distinguished - embryonal (ERMS) and alveolar (ARMS) forms. The ARMS subtype has higher rates of metastasis, as well as higher levels of ELMO1, which is thought to be involved in cell migration. Therefore, the knock-down of ELMO1 by targeted siRNA could provide a mechanism to prevent the metastatic behaviour of ARMS...

  19. Ca2+-signaling in airway smooth muscle cells is altered in T-bet knock-out mice

    Bergner, A; Kellner, J.; da Silva, A. K.; Gamarra, F.; Huber, R M

    2006-01-01

    Background: Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) play a key role in bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). A major component of the signaling cascade leading to ASMC contraction is calcium. So far, agonist-induced Ca2+-signaling in asthma has been studied by comparing innate properties of inbred rat or mouse strains, or by using selected mediators known to be involved in asthma. T-bet knock-out (KO) mice show key features of allergic asthma such as a shift towards T(H)2-lymphocytes and display a b...

  20. REGION-SPECIFIC NEURON AND SYNAPSE LOSS IN THE HIPPOCAMPUS OF APPSL/PS1 KNOCK-IN MICE

    Brasnjevic, Ivona; Lardenoije, Roy; Schmitz, Christoph; van der Kolk, Nicolien; Dickstein, Dara L; Takahashi, Hisaaki; Patrick R Hof; STEINBUSCH, Harry W.M.; Rutten, Bart P.F.

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic mouse models with knock-in (KI) expression of human mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP) and/or human presenilin 1 (PS1) may be helpful to elucidate the cellular consequences of APP and PS1 misprocessing in the aging brain. Age-related alterations in total numbers of neurons and in numbers of synaptophysin-immunoreactive presynaptic boutons (SIPB), as well as the amyloid plaque load were analyzed in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), CA3, and CA1–2 of 2- and 10-month-old APPSL/P...

  1. Sleep-Waking Discharge of Ventral Tuberomammillary Neurons in Wild-Type and Histidine Decarboxylase Knock-Out Mice

    Sakai, Kazuya; Takahashi, Kazumi; Anaclet, Christelle; Lin, Jian-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    Using extracellular single-unit recordings, we have determined the characteristics of neurons in the ventral tuberomammillary nucleus (VTM) of wild-type (WT) and histidine decarboxylase knock-out (HDC-KO) mice during the sleep-waking cycle. The VTM neurons of HDC-KO mice showed no histamine immunoreactivity, but were immunoreactive for the histaminergic (HA) neuron markers adenosine deaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67. In the VTM of WT mice, we found waking (W)-specific, non-W-specif...

  2. Mouse nuclear myosin I knock-out shows interchangeability and redundancy of myosin isoforms in the cell nucleus

    Venit, Tomáš; Dzijak, Rastislav; Rohožková, Jana; Kalendová, Alžběta; Hozák, Pavel

    Debrecen : University of Debrecen, 2013. s. 45-45. [Wilhelm Bernard Workshop on the cell nucleus /23./. 19.08.2013-24.08.2013, Debrecen] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084; GA ČR GAP305/11/2232; GA TA ČR TE01020118; GA MŠk LH12143 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : atomic force microscopy * cell membrane * myosin 1C * NM1 * nuclear myosin I * myosin knock-out Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000 (Act 588)

    Act 588 of the Republic of Ghana entitled, Atomic Energy Commission Act, 2000, amends and consolidates the Atomic Energy Commission Act, 204 of 1963 relating to the establishment of the Atomic Energy Commission. Act 588 makes provision for the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission to establish more institutes for the purpose of research in furtherance of its functions and also promote the commercialization of its research and development results. (E.A.A.)

  4. Hot business - cool opportunities

    A new role for the deregulated electric utilities in the energy services market or performance contracting markets was discussed. It was argued that in view of the long tradition of close customer contact, distribution utilities are in a good position to leverage their relationship with their customers to expand the range of products and services that the ''utility'' provides to them. Real time pricing, energy services, HVAC maintenance and operation are just some of the areas where the distribution utility''s linkage to customers could be used to good advantage. Some case histories, and a list of potential product and service opportunities in the commercial/industrial and residential sectors were provided. Some of the potential pitfalls were also identified for utilities that wish to pursue these opportunities. These pitfalls included legal, marketing, risk management and funding issues

  5. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    Michael Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the unique skills and technical capabilities available to the entrepreneur. Finally, an in-depth understanding of the user allows the entrepreneur to hone in on the points of difference and resonance that are the foundation of a strong customer value proposition.

  6. Propane: North American opportunities

    Opportunities for expanding the propane market in North America are discussed. The goal of change should be to enhance client satisfaction and loyalty. The current customer base is largely comprised of pick-up trucks, vans and buses in commercial fleet service, police and similar fleet service and privately owned vehicles. Opportunities for the expansion of propane exist due to: vehicles being kept and lasting longer, allowing a longer pay-back time; exhaust emission standards becoming more stringent; the possible introduction of emission standards for substances currently not controlled; and properly combusted CO2 emissions that are at least 12% lower than gasoline. The continuing development of engine fuel management systems, application of extensive road/highway experience, matching supply and refuelling infrastructure to consumer demands, application in air quality non-attainment areas, and original equipment manufacturer, government and industry cooperation are discussed. 8 figs

  7. Project X: Physics Opportunities

    Kronfeld, Andreas S; Al-Binni, Usama; Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Babu, Kaladi; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bass, Matthew; Batell, Brian; Baxter, David V; Berezhiani, Zurab; Bergevin, Marc; Bernstein, Robert; Bhattacharya, Sudeb; Bishai, Mary; Blum, Thomas; Bogacz, S Alex; Brice, Stephen J; Brod, Joachim; Bross, Alan; Buchoff, Michael; Burgess, Thomas W; Carena, Marcela; Castellanos, Luis A; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chen, Mu-Chun; Cherdack, Daniel; Christ, Norman H; Chupp, Tim; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Coloma, Pilar; Coppola, Christopher E; Cowsik, Ramanath; Crabtree, J Allen; Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Denisov, Dmitri; deNiverville, Patrick; de Gouvêa, André; Dharmapalan, Ranjan; Dolgov, Alexander; Dvali, Georgi; Eichten, Estia; Engelfried, Jürgen; Ferguson, Phillip D; Gabriel, Tony; Gal, Avraham; Gallmeier, Franz; Ganezer, Kenneth S; Gardner, Susan; Glenzinski, Douglas; Godfrey, Stephen; Golubeva, Elena S; Gori, Stefania; Graves, Van B; Greene, Geoffrey; Griffard, Cory L; Haisch, Ulrich; Handler, Thomas; Hartfiel, Brandon; Hawari, Ayman; Heilbronn, Lawrence; Hill, James E; Huber, Patrick; Jaffe, David E; Johnson, Christian; Kamyshkov, Yuri; Kaplan, Daniel M; Kerbikov, Boris; Kiburg, Brendan; Kirk, Harold G; Klein, Andreas; Knoepfel, Kyle; Kopeliovich, Boris; Kopeliovich, Vladimir; Kopp, Joachim; Korsch, Wolfgang; Kribs, Graham; Lipton, Ronald; Liu, Chen-Yu; Lorenzon, Wolfgang; Lu, Zheng-Tian; Makins, Naomi C R; McKeen, David; Mills, Geoffrey; Mohapatra, Rabindra; Mokhov, Nikolai V; Mocko, Michael; Muhrer, Guenter; Mumm, Pieter; Okun, Lev; Neuffer, David; Palmer, Mark A; Palmer, Robert; Pattie, Robert W; Phillips, David G; Pronsikh, Vitaly; Pitts, Kevin; Pospelov, Maxim; Quigg, Chris; Ramberg, Erik; Ray, Amlan; Reimer, Paul E; Richards, David G; Ritz, Adam; Roy, Amit; Ruggles, Arthur; Ryne, Robert; Sarkar, Utpal; Saunders, Andy; Semertzidis, Yannis K; Serebrov, Anatoly; Shimizu, Hirohiko; Shrock, Robert; Snopok, Pavel V; Snow, William M; Sikdar, Arindam K; Soha, Aria; Spanier, Stefan; Striganov, Sergei; Tang, Zhaowen; Townsend, Lawrence; Urheim, Jon; Vainshtein, Arkady; Van Kooten, Richard J; Van de Water, Richard; Van de Water, Ruth S; Wehring, Bernard; Whitehead, Lisa; Wilson, Robert J; Worcester, Elizabeth; Young, Albert R; Wester, William C; Zeller, Geralyn

    2013-01-01

    Part 2 of "Project X: Accelerator Reference Design, Physics Opportunities, Broader Impacts". In this Part, we outline the particle-physics program that can be achieved with Project X, a staged superconducting linac for intensity-frontier particle physics. Topics include neutrino physics, kaon physics, muon physics, electric dipole moments, neutron-antineutron oscillations, new light particles, hadron structure, hadron spectroscopy, and lattice-QCD calculations.

  8. Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    At its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Standing Concertation Committee took note of the appointment of four new members of the Panel: Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano and Markus Nordberg. The present composition of the Panel (appointed ad personam) is as follows: Tiziano Camporesi (Chairperson), Wisla Carena, Pierre Charrue, Sue Foffano, Josi Schinzel (Equal Opportunities Officer), Markus Nordberg, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz et Elena Wildner. Human Resources Department Tel. 74480

  9. Exclusion, employment and opportunity

    Atkinson, Tony; Hills, John

    1998-01-01

    The relationships between employment, education, opportunity, social exclusion and poverty are central to current policy debates. Atkinson argues that the concepts of poverty, unemployment and social exclusion are closely related, but are not the same. People may be poor without being socially excluded, and vice versa. Unemployment may cause poverty, but this can be prevented. Equally, marginal jobs do not ensure social inclusion. Britton argues that convential economic analysis misses a key ...

  10. Opportunities for innovation

    Actual results have shown that the Construction Industry Institute (CII) offers significant opportunities for improvement in cost, schedule, and quality on most projects, and in particular, on large projects. This paper reviews the state of the construction industry, discusses how its problems are being addressed by CII, and addresses potential opportunities through the application of CII research products. CII is meeting the challenge of the industry. Just like the challenge of Department of Energy's Super Conducting Super Collider. With $1.2 billion worth of construction to be constructed during the 90s, the opportunities for innovation appear to be great. Every effort should be made while the projects are still on the high part of cost influence curve to use modern management methods and approaches to executing its work. Proper attention to all the inputs to project design is absolutely essential. Scope definition and control techniques have been developed by CII which can be used. Work packaging for the most efficient execution of engineering and construction are available as well. Approaches, incentives, and contracting strategies have also been researched by CII. Constructability programs virtually always guarantee a savings of at least 10 percent. Partnership arrangements can reduce the size of overhead for all participants in the process and eliminate the typical adversarial climates which tend to predominate on a construction project. SSC Laboratories and the PB-MK team have the opportunity to take the initiative now to make the 21st Century SSC a construction project which is executed in the 21st Century manner

  11. Pou4f2 knock-in Cre mouse: A multifaceted genetic tool for vision researchers

    Simmons, Aaron B.; Bloomsburg, Samuel J.; Billingslea, Samuel A.; Merrill, Morgan M.; Li, Shuai; Thomas, Marshall W.

    2016-01-01

    nucleus, and superior colliculus. Conclusions: Pou4f2Cre provides multiple uses for the vision researcher’s genetic toolkit. First, Pou4f2Cre is a knock-in allele that can be used to eliminate Pou4f2, resulting in depletion of RGCs. Second, expression of Cre in male germ cells makes this strain an efficient germline activator of recombination, for example, to target LoxP-flanked sequences in the whole mouse. Third, Pou4f2Cre efficiently targets RGCs, amacrine cells, bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and a small number of photoreceptors within the retina, as well as the visual centers in the brain. Unlike other Cre recombinase lines that target retinal neurons, no recombination was observed in Müller or other retinal glia. These properties make this Cre recombinase line a useful tool for vision researchers. PMID:27390513

  12. 78 FR 76851 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity Through Partnership...

    2013-12-19

    ...As part of its continuing effort to reduce paperwork and respondent burden, CBP invites the general public and other Federal agencies to comment on an information collection requirement concerning the Haitian Hemispheric Opportunity through Partnership Encouragement Act of 2006 (``Haiti HOPE Act''). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (Pub. L.......

  13. Picture windows of opportunity

    Mattingly, S.

    1987-01-01

    We hate to say that we need a moderate earthquake every once in a while, but experience shows that it surely helps to sell all kinds of seismic safety programs It took the 933 Long Beach earthquake to get the Field Act passed in California requiring the strengthening of our public schools.

  14. ssODN-mediated knock-in with CRISPR-Cas for large genomic regions in zygotes.

    Yoshimi, Kazuto; Kunihiro, Yayoi; Kaneko, Takehito; Nagahora, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Mashimo, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is a powerful tool for generating genetically modified animals; however, targeted knock-in (KI) via homologous recombination remains difficult in zygotes. Here we show efficient gene KI in rats by combining CRISPR-Cas with single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). First, a 1-kb ssODN co-injected with guide RNA (gRNA) and Cas9 messenger RNA produce GFP-KI at the rat Thy1 locus. Then, two gRNAs with two 80-bp ssODNs direct efficient integration of a 5.5-kb CAG-GFP vector into the Rosa26 locus via ssODN-mediated end joining. This protocol also achieves KI of a 200-kb BAC containing the human SIRPA locus, concomitantly knocking out the rat Sirpa gene. Finally, three gRNAs and two ssODNs replace 58-kb of the rat Cyp2d cluster with a 6.2-kb human CYP2D6 gene. These ssODN-mediated KI protocols can be applied to any target site with any donor vector without the need to construct homology arms, thus simplifying genome engineering in living organisms. PMID:26786405

  15. Attenuated lung fibrosis in interleukin 6 knock-out mice after C-ion irradiation to lung

    There is a great deal of evidence that a cyclic cascade of inflammatory cytokines, together with the activation of macrophages, is initiated very early after irradiation to develop lung fibrosis in a late phase. To understand the persistent effects of cytokines, the cytokine gene of knock out or transgenic mouse is one of the useful tools. In this study, we evaluated a role of a key molecule, interleukin-6 (IL-6), in the late-phase inflammatory response and subsequent fibrotic changes after irradiation using wild-type (WT) and IL-6 knock out (IL-6 KO) mice. The mice underwent thoracic irradiation with 10 Gy of C-ion beam or sham-irradiation and were examined by histology. Immunoreactivity for IL-6 was induced at the site of bronchiolar epithelium, in pneumocytes and in monocytes by C-ion irradiation. At 24 weeks after irradiation, the infiltration of macrophages, detected by positive immunohistological staining with Mac3 antibody, was observed in alveolar spaces both in WT and IL-6 KO mice. The thickening of bronchiolar and alveolar walls exhibited in WT mice, but not KO mice, and fibrotic changes detected by Masson-Trichrome staining, were observed only in the lungs of WT mice, while it was attenuated in IL-6 KO mice. These results indicated that IL-6 might not be essential for activating macrophages in the late phase, but plays an important role for fibrotic changes of the alveolar wall after irradiation. (author)

  16. Knock-down of CD44 regulates endothelial cell differentiation via NFκB-mediated chemokine production.

    Berit Olofsson

    Full Text Available A striking feature of microvascular endothelial cells is their capacity to fuse and differentiate into tubular structures when grown in three-dimensional (3D extracellular matrices, in collagen or Matrigel, mimicking the in vivo blood vessel formation. In this study we demonstrate that human telomerase-immortalised foreskin microvascular endothelial (TIME cells express high levels of the hyaluronan receptor CD44 and the hyaluronidase HYAL2. Knock-down of CD44 or HYAL2 resulted in an inability of TIME cells to form a tubular network, suggesting a key regulatory role of hyaluronan in controlling TIME cell tubulogenesis in 3D matrices. Knock-down of CD44 resulted in an upregulation of mRNA expression of the chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL12, as well as their receptors CXCR3 and CXCR4. This was accompanied by a defect maturation of the tubular structure network and increased phosphorylation of the inhibitor of NFκB kinase (IKK complex and thus translocation of NFκB into the nucleus and activation of chemokine targed genes. Furthermore, the interaction between CD44 and hyaluronan determines the adhesion of breast cancer cells. In summary, our observations support the notion that the interaction between CD44 and hyaluronan regulates microvascular endothelial cell tubulogenesis by affecting the expression of cytokines and their receptors, as well as breast cancer dissemination.

  17. ssODN-mediated knock-in with CRISPR-Cas for large genomic regions in zygotes

    Yoshimi, Kazuto; Kunihiro, Yayoi; Kaneko, Takehito; Nagahora, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Mashimo, Tomoji

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas system is a powerful tool for generating genetically modified animals; however, targeted knock-in (KI) via homologous recombination remains difficult in zygotes. Here we show efficient gene KI in rats by combining CRISPR-Cas with single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs). First, a 1-kb ssODN co-injected with guide RNA (gRNA) and Cas9 messenger RNA produce GFP-KI at the rat Thy1 locus. Then, two gRNAs with two 80-bp ssODNs direct efficient integration of a 5.5-kb CAG-GFP vector into the Rosa26 locus via ssODN-mediated end joining. This protocol also achieves KI of a 200-kb BAC containing the human SIRPA locus, concomitantly knocking out the rat Sirpa gene. Finally, three gRNAs and two ssODNs replace 58-kb of the rat Cyp2d cluster with a 6.2-kb human CYP2D6 gene. These ssODN-mediated KI protocols can be applied to any target site with any donor vector without the need to construct homology arms, thus simplifying genome engineering in living organisms. PMID:26786405

  18. Identification and characterization of rabbit ROSA26 for gene knock-in and stable reporter gene expression

    Yang, Dongshan; Song, Jun; Zhang, Jifeng; Xu, Jie; Zhu, Tianqing; Wang, Zhong; Lai, Liangxue; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory rabbit has been a valuable model system for human disease studies. To make the rabbit model more amendable to targeted gene knockin and stable gene over-expression, we identified a rabbit orthologue of the mouse Rosa26 locus through genomic sequence homology analysis. Real-time PCR and 5′ RACE and 3′ RACE experiments revealed that this locus encodes two transcript variants of a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) (rbRosaV1 and rbRosaV2). Both variants are expressed ubiquitously and stably in different tissues. We next targeted the rabbit Rosa26 (rbRosa26) locus using CRISPR/Cas9 and produced two lines of knock-in rabbits (rbRosa26-EGFP, and rbRosa26-Cre-reporter). In both lines, all the founders and their offspring appear healthy and reproduce normally. In F1 generation animals, the rbRosa26-EGFP rabbits express EGFP, and the rbRosa26-Cre-reporter rabbits express tdTomato ubiquitously in all the tissues examined. Furthermore, disruption of rbRosa26 locus does not adversely impact the animal health and reproduction. Therefore, our work establishes rbRosa26 as a safe harbor suitable for nuclease mediated gene targeting. The addition of rbRosa26 to the tool box of transgenic research is expected to allow diverse genetic manipulations, including gain-of function, conditional knock out and lineage-tracing studies in rabbits. PMID:27117226

  19. Funding Opportunity: Genomic Data Centers

    Funding Opportunity CCG, Funding Opportunity Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG, Center for Cancer Genomics, CCG RFA, Center for cancer genomics rfa, genomic data analysis network, genomic data analysis network centers,

  20. Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis

    none,

    2005-09-01

    The Steel Industry Marginal Opportunity Analysis (PDF 347 KB) identifies opportunities for developing advanced technologies and estimates both the necessary funding and the potential payoff. This analysis determines what portion of the energy bandwidth can be captured through the adoption of state-of-the-art technology and practices. R&D opportunities for addressing the remainder of the bandwidth are characterized and plotted on a marginal opportunity curve.

  1. Frontier Aerospace Opportunities

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2014-01-01

    Discussion and suggested applications of the many ongoing technology opportunities for aerospace products and missions, resulting in often revolutionary capabilities. The, at this point largely unexamined, plethora of possibilities going forward, a subset of which is discussed, could literally reinvent aerospace but requires triage of many possibilities. Such initial upfront homework would lengthen the Research and Development (R&D) time frame but could greatly enhance the affordability and performance of the evolved products and capabilities. Structural nanotubes and exotic energetics along with some unique systems approaches are particularly compelling.

  2. Opportunities for Taiwan's industry

    Jen-Lien Lin

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI in Taiwan recently introduced nanotechnology to local traditional industries. Nanotechnologies provide a great opportunity for these companies to meet outside challenges and join the blooming electronic and optoelectronic industries. The Nanotechnology Community (NTC was established in 2003, with the goal of finding commercial applications. This year, the Taiwan Nanotechnology Industrialization Promotion Association (TANIPA was established, with the support of the Industrial Development Bureau, Ministry of Economic Affairs (MOEA, to formulate a strategy for industrial applications in Taiwan and to facilitate cooperation between industries, universities, and research institutes.

  3. On Mars Exploration Rovers - Spirit and Opportunity

    李颖; 吴文忠

    2004-01-01

    NASA's twin Mars exploration rovers, now named Spirit and Opportunity, are designed to study the history of water on Mars. These robotic geologists are equipped with a robotic arm, a drilling tool, three spectrometers, and four pairs of cameras that allow them to have a human-like, 3D view of the terrain. Each rover could travel as far as 100 meters in one day to act as Mars scientists eyes and hands, exploring an environment where humans can't yet go.

  4. 32 CFR 505.3 - Privacy Act systems of records.

    2010-07-01

    ... AND PUBLIC RELATIONS ARMY PRIVACY ACT PROGRAM § 505.3 Privacy Act systems of records. (a) Systems of... Register in a system of records notice, which will provide the public an opportunity to comment before DA... Register on new, amended, altered, or deleted systems of records to inform the public of the Privacy...

  5. 75 FR 54331 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    2010-09-07

    ... updates needed as a result of legislative changes to the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA..., 2007, and by the Higher Education Opportunity Act (Pub. L. 110-315) (HEOA), enacted on August 14, 2008... SMART) Grants, and Teacher Education Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grants,...

  6. Opportunities for computer abuse

    Willison, Robert; Backhouse, James

    2005-01-01

    Systems risk refers to the likelihood that an IS is inadequately guarded against certain types of damage or loss. While risks are posed by acts of God, hackers and viruses, consideration should also be given to the ‘insider’ threat of dishonest employees, intent on undertaking some form of computer abuse. Against this backdrop, a number of researchers have addressed the extent to which security managers are cognizant of the very nature of systems risk. In particular, they note how security pr...

  7. Opportunity and obligation

    2012-01-01

    As anyone in the press or VIP offices can tell you, CERN is in the spotlight like never before. In the first two months of 2012, we welcomed some 56 VIP visits and 144 media visits on site. Not long ago, those were the kind of numbers we’d have had in six months, and 2012 is not a one-off.   Ever since CERN turned 50 in 2004, our visitor numbers have been growing, and that includes teachers and members of the public as well as VIPs and the media. It’s a sign of the explosion of interest around the world in our science, and to me it means two things. Firstly, it means that I owe everyone at CERN a vote of thanks, since I know that visits impinge on everyone’s time. I can assure you all, however, that it is time well spent. That’s because the second thing it tells me is that growing interest in CERN brings opportunity. Our current visibility gives the particle physics community the opportunity to drive science up the popular and political agendas, and it...

  8. A verification scenario of knock-on tail formation due to nuclear plus interference scattering in 3He-containing deuterium plasmas

    A scenario to verify the knock-on tail formation in deuteron distribution function by nuclear plus interference (NI) scattering and validate the Boltzmann-Fokker-Planck (BFP) model is proposed. Deuterium plasma with 3He-beam injection is considered and on the basis of the BFP model, knock-on tail formation in deuteron distribution function by energetic protons and the resulting modification of the neutron emission spectrum are examined. A recognizable change in the energetic-neutron emission rate due to the knock-on tail formation is presented. The noise neutrons for the measurement arising from the T(d,n)4He reaction is also evaluated by continuous-energy Monte Carlo transport simulation. The influence of the noise (slowing-down) neutrons on the measurement is discussed. (author)

  9. Nuclear Regulatory Authority Act, 2015 (Act 895)

    An Act to establish a Nuclear Regulatory Authority in Ghana. This Act provides for the regulation and management of activities and practices for the peaceful use of nuclear material or energy, and to provide for the protection of persons and the environment against the harmful effects of radiation; and to ensure the effective implementation of the country’s international obligations and for related matters. This Act replaced the Radiation Protection Instrument, of 1993 (LI 1559).

  10. An ab-initio analysis of the influence of knock-on-atom induced damage on the peak tensile strength of 3C-SiC grain boundaries

    Han, Yousung; Tomar, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    The effect of knock-on atom induced damage on the peak tensile strength of cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC) is examined using an ab initio simulation framework based on Car Parrinello Molecular Dynamics method. The framework examines the effect of impact damage caused by a knock-on atom with velocities corresponding to four different kinetic energy levels (50 eV, 500 eV, 1 keV, and 2 keV) in three different SiC structure samples with different grain boundary (GB) configurations. Analyses show t...

  11. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction

    Adewale, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  12. Future Testing Opportunities to Ensure Sustainability of the Biofuels Industry

    The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 increased the intensity of biofuel research and development throughout the U.S. For the Soil and Plant Analysis Community, this will undoubtedly create new opportunities to provide analytical services that will help ensure mandates such as the ...

  13. Interactive Fiction: "New Literacy" Learning Opportunities for Children

    Kozdras, Deborah; Haunstetter, Denise Marie; King, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Interactive fiction has great potential for use in schools, providing engaging and empowering opportunities for learning and literacy. Experiences with interactive fiction provide two key components lacking in contemporary storytelling mediums: autonomy (the ability to act and change on its own) and interactivity (or the ability to think and react…

  14. Creative State Pre-K Policies Offer Smart Federal Opportunities

    Pew Center on the States, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act offers an opportunity to invest in programs with the greatest educational and economic benefits. Members of Congress should look to states for flexible, innovative, bipartisan strategies to gradually grow pre-k programs. This brief highlights some of the most promising state efforts to…

  15. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    Meer Rob van der

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  16. Generation opportunities in Alberta

    Reid-Carlson, D. [Optimum Energy Management Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    Optimum Energy Management Inc. (OEMI) specializes in: (1) energy management services and training, (2) regulatory consulting, and (3) energy economics and forecasting. As an example of the company`s special expertise, this historical account and future supply and demand forecast for electricity, and for oil and gas in Alberta was presented. The exercise included a review of the Alberta Pool price study and power generation opportunities in a deregulated market, including risks. A rise in pool prices to $25 to $30 per MWh by the year 2000, and a softening of prices beyond the turn of the century were predicted, along with continued regulatory reform and increased levels of competition. Natural gas convergence is expected to drive electricity prices in the future. 1 tab., 11 figs.

  17. Opportunities within ASTERICS

    van der Meer, Rob; Cimò, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    ASTERICS, The Astronomy ESFRI and Research Infrastructure Cluster project, brings together astronomers and astroparticle physicists of 22 institutes in Europe to help Europe's world-leading observatories work together to find common solutions to their Big Data challenges, their interoperability and scheduling, and their data access, searching for cross-cutting solutions with mutual and wide-ranging benefit to all concerned. ASTERICS is a four year project, funded through the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme. The facilities supported by ASTERICS include SKA, CTA, KM3NeT, E-ELT. ASTERICS aims to open up multi messenger astronomy to all scientists and the public through the Virtual Observatory and the citizen science work. I will draw a picture of the landscape in which ASTERICS operates and the possible interaction with the Very Large Volume Neutrino Telescope community. Attention will be given to emerging opportunities for the Neutrino community and how these can be recognised or created.

  18. 20 CFR 664.600 - Are Local Boards required to offer summer employment opportunities in the local youth program?

    2010-04-01

    ... employment opportunities in the local youth program? 664.600 Section 664.600 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT... INVESTMENT ACT Summer Employment Opportunities § 664.600 Are Local Boards required to offer summer employment opportunities in the local youth program? (a) Yes, Local Boards are required to offer summer youth...

  19. Knock-down of ELMO1 in Paediatric Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells by Nanoparticle Mediated siRNA Delivery

    Xinyue Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS is the most common soft tissue sarcoma that is found in children and has a poor outcome for those with metastatic disease. Two histological groups have been distinguished - embryonal (ERMS and alveolar (ARMS forms. The ARMS subtype has higher rates of metastasis, as well as higher levels of ELMO1, which is thought to be involved in cell migration. Therefore, the knock-down of ELMO1 by targeted siRNA could provide a mechanism to prevent the metastatic behaviour of ARMS cells. However, challenges still lie in the delivery of nucleotides to a tumour site. Herein, we have described the use of a variety of mesoporous silica nanoparticles as a delivery system for siRNA that is specific for ELMO1 and shown the effective reduction in cell invasive behaviour in these cells.

  20. Using strategic foresight to assess conservation opportunity.

    Cook, Carly N; Wintle, Bonnie C; Aldrich, Stephen C; Wintle, Brendan A

    2014-12-01

    The nature of conservation challenges can foster a reactive, rather than proactive approach to decision making. Failure to anticipate problems before they escalate results in the need for more costly and time-consuming solutions. Proactive conservation requires forward-looking approaches to decision making that consider possible futures without being overly constrained by the past. Strategic foresight provides a structured process for considering the most desirable future and for mapping the most efficient and effective approaches to promoting that future with tools that facilitate creative thinking. The process involves 6 steps: setting the scope, collecting inputs, analyzing signals, interpreting the information, determining how to act, and implementing the outcomes. Strategic foresight is ideal for seeking, recognizing, and realizing conservation opportunities because it explicitly encourages a broad-minded, forward-looking perspective on an issue. Despite its potential value, the foresight process is rarely used to address conservation issues, and previous attempts have generally failed to influence policy. We present the strategic foresight process as it can be used for proactive conservation planning, describing some of the key tools in the foresight tool kit and how they can be used to identify and exploit different types of conservation opportunities. Scanning is an important tool for collecting and organizing diverse streams of information and can be used to recognize new opportunities and those that could be created. Scenario planning explores how current trends, drivers of change, and key uncertainties might influence the future and can be used to identify barriers to opportunities. Backcasting is used to map out a path to a goal and can determine how to remove barriers to opportunities. We highlight how the foresight process was used to identify conservation opportunities during the development of a strategic plan to address climate change in New York

  1. Knock-down of hypoxia-induced carbonic anhydrases IX and XII radiosensitizes tumor cells by increasing intracellular acidosis

    Jérôme eDoyen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between acidosis within the tumor microenvironment and radioresistance of hypoxic tumor cells remains unclear. Previously we reported that hypoxia-induced carbonic anhydrases CAIX and CAXII constitute a robust pHi-regulating system that confers a survival advantage on hypoxic human colon carcinoma LS174Tr cells in acidic microenvironments. Here we investigate the role of acidosis, CAIX and CAXII knock-down in combination with ionizing radiation. Fibroblasts cells (-/+ CAIX and LS174Tr cells (inducible knock-down for ca9/ca12 were analyzed for cell cycle phase distribution and survival after irradiation in extracellular pHo manipulations and hypoxia (1% O2 exposure. Radiotherapy was used to target ca9/ca12-silenced LS174Tr tumors grown in nude mice. We found that diminishing the pHi-regulating capacity of fibroblasts through inhibition of NHE-1 sensitize cells to radiation-induced cell death. Secondly, the pHi-regulating function of CAIX plays a key protective role in irradiated fibroblasts in an acidic environment as accompanied by a reduced number of cells in the radiosensitive phases of the cell cycle. Thirdly, we demonstrate that irradiation of LS174Tr spheroids, silenced for either ca9 or both ca9/ca12, showed a respective 50% and 75% increase in cell death as a result of a decrease in cell number in the radioresistant S phase and a disruption of CA-mediated pHi regulation. Finally, LS174Tr tumor progression was strongly decreased when ca9/ca12 silencing was combined with irradiation in vivo. These findings highlight the combinatory use of radiotherapy with targeting of the pHi-regulating carbonic anhydrases as an anti-cancer strategy.

  2. Knock-down of miR-221 and miR-222 in the radiosensitization of breast cancer cells

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of knock-down of miR-221 miR-222 on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and explore the possible mechanism. Methods: Antisense oligonucleotides of miR-221 and miR-222 (AS-miR-221 and AS-miR-222), mediated by lipofectamine, were transfected to MCF-7 cells to knock down miR-221 and miR-222, Northern blotting was conducted to detect the expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in transfected cells. The cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and Caspase-3 and Caspase-7 activity assay. Clonogenic assay was used to measure the sensitizing enhancement ratio. Target genes of miR-221 and miR-222 relevant to radio-sensitivity were searched using bioinformatics analysis. The targeted protein expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Results: The expression of miR-221 and miR-222 in the AS-miR-221/222 cells determined by Northern blotting was significantly reduced. Compared with the control group, the cell apoptosis and mitotic cell death after the radiation were significantly higher in AS-miR-221/222 cells. The sensitizing enhancement ratio was 1.87. Based on bioinformatics analysis, PTEN was a target gene of miR-221 and miR-222 which could enhance the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 cells. In AS-miR-221/222 cells, the expression of PTEN was up-regulated while pAkt down-regulated. Conclusions: AS-miR-221 and AS-miR-222 may enhance the radiosensitivity of MCF-7 breast cancer cells by up-regulating the expression of PTEN. (authors)

  3. Learning Opportunities (Editorial

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We’ve reached the end of another year of publication at EBLIP, my first at the helm as Editor‐in‐Chief, and four full years of publication since we began. This year was a busy one with several changes to the editorial team, the addition of more Editorial Advisors, and new evidence summary writers joining our team. Most importantly, the journal continues to grow and thrive, with more people than ever participating in its success. This year we added a new section called Using Evidence in Practice, and in this issue there are two articles in that section which provide practical examples of applying evidence in the workplace. Putting evidence into practice is what EBLIP is all about, so it is my hope that this new section makes the application of evidence based practice more concrete for readers. As we began working on issue 4.4, the Editorial Team decided that it would be a good idea to seek out an Editorial Intern to help with some of the tasks we never seem to get to, given that we are all volunteers. We see the internship as an opportunity to give a library and information studies student a chance to get involved with an open access journal and learn about publishing in library and information studies, which will hopefully benefit them as they begin their new career. The Editorial Intern will assist with marketing and promotion of the journal, soliciting potential manuscripts, and proofreading. They will also participate in all editorial meetings and general discussions. We anticipate that they will bring a wealth of enthusiasm and fresh ideas to our conversations so that EBLIP Editors can also continue to learn and grow by having a fresh set of eyes involved with our processes. It will certainly be a win‐win situation and a learning opportunity for all involved. We are pleased to announce that Andrea Baer has accepted the position of Editorial Intern and joined our team in mid‐November. Andrea is currently attending the University of

  4. Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt

    Hassine, Nadia Belhaj

    2012-01-01

    The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of o...

  5. Poverty Rankings of Opportunity Profiles

    Vito Peragine; Ernesto Savaglio; Stefano Vannucci

    2008-01-01

    We address the problem of ranking distributions of opportunity sets in terms of poverty. In order to accomplish this task, we identify a suitable notion of ‘multidimensional poverty line’ and we characterize axiomatically several poverty rankings of opportunity profiles. Among them, the Head-Count and the Opportunity-Gap poverty rankings, which are the natural counterparts of the most widely used income poverty indices.

  6. Homologous Recombination-Independent Large Gene Cassette Knock-in in CHO Cells Using TALEN and MMEJ-Directed Donor Plasmids

    Tetsushi Sakuma

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene knock-in techniques have rapidly evolved in recent years, along with the development and maturation of genome editing technology using programmable nucleases. We recently reported a novel strategy for microhomology-mediated end-joining-dependent integration of donor DNA by using TALEN or CRISPR/Cas9 and optimized targeting vectors, named PITCh (Precise Integration into Target Chromosome vectors. Here we describe TALEN and PITCh vector-mediated integration of long gene cassettes, including a single-chain Fv-Fc (scFv-Fc gene, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells, with comparison of targeting and cloning efficiency among several donor design and culture conditions. We achieved 9.6-kb whole plasmid integration and 7.6-kb backbone-free integration into a defined genomic locus in CHO cells. Furthermore, we confirmed the reasonable productivity of recombinant scFv-Fc protein of the knock-in cells. Using our protocol, the knock-in cell clones could be obtained by a single transfection and a single limiting dilution using a 96-well plate, without constructing targeting vectors containing long homology arms. Thus, the study described herein provides a highly practical strategy for gene knock-in of large DNA in CHO cells, which accelerates high-throughput generation of cell lines stably producing any desired biopharmaceuticals, including huge antibody proteins.

  7. Homologous Recombination-Independent Large Gene Cassette Knock-in in CHO Cells Using TALEN and MMEJ-Directed Donor Plasmids.

    Sakuma, Tetsushi; Takenaga, Mitsumasa; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Takahiro; Kamihira, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Gene knock-in techniques have rapidly evolved in recent years, along with the development and maturation of genome editing technology using programmable nucleases. We recently reported a novel strategy for microhomology-mediated end-joining-dependent integration of donor DNA by using TALEN or CRISPR/Cas9 and optimized targeting vectors, named PITCh (Precise Integration into Target Chromosome) vectors. Here we describe TALEN and PITCh vector-mediated integration of long gene cassettes, including a single-chain Fv-Fc (scFv-Fc) gene, in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, with comparison of targeting and cloning efficiency among several donor design and culture conditions. We achieved 9.6-kb whole plasmid integration and 7.6-kb backbone-free integration into a defined genomic locus in CHO cells. Furthermore, we confirmed the reasonable productivity of recombinant scFv-Fc protein of the knock-in cells. Using our protocol, the knock-in cell clones could be obtained by a single transfection and a single limiting dilution using a 96-well plate, without constructing targeting vectors containing long homology arms. Thus, the study described herein provides a highly practical strategy for gene knock-in of large DNA in CHO cells, which accelerates high-throughput generation of cell lines stably producing any desired biopharmaceuticals, including huge antibody proteins. PMID:26473830

  8. Comparative Analysis of KnockOut™ Serum with Fetal Bovine Serum for the In Vitro Long-Term Culture of Human Limbal Epithelial Cells

    Shaokun Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The limbal epithelial cells can be maintained on 3T3 feeder layer with fetal bovine serum supplemented culture medium, and these cells have been used to successfully treat limbal stem cell deficiency. However, fetal bovine serum contains unknown components and displays quantitative and qualitative lot-to-lot variations. To improve the culture condition, the defined KnockOut serum replacement was investigated to replace fetal bovine serum for culturing human limbal epithelial cell. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were cultured in KnockOut serum and fetal bovine serum supplemented medium, respectively. The cell growth rate, gene expression, and maintenance of limbal epithelial stem cells were studied and compared between these two groups. Human primary limbal epithelial cells were isolated and successfully serially cultivated in this novel KnockOut serum supplemented medium; the cell proliferation and stem cell maintenance were similar to those of cells grown in fetal bovine serum supplemented medium. These data suggests that this KnockOut serum supplemented medium is an efficient replacement to traditional fetal bovine serum supplemented medium for limbal epithelial cell culture, and this medium has great potential for long term maintenance of limbal epithelial cells, limbal epithelial stem cells transplantation, and tissue regeneration.

  9. A neuroanatomical and physiological study of the non-image forming visual system of the cone-rod homeobox gene (Crx) knock out mouse

    Rovsing, Louise; Rath, Martin F; Lund-Andersen, Casper; Klein, David C; Møller, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The anatomy and physiology of the non-image forming visual system was investigated in a visually blind cone-rod homeobox gene (Crx) knock-out mouse (Crx(-)(/)(-)), which lacks the outer segments of the photoreceptors. We show that the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the Crx(-/-) mouse exhibit...

  10. Challenges and Opportunities

    A series of overhead viewgraphs accompanied this presentation. The viewgraphs presented 1998 year-end predictions of oil and gas prices. Comparisons of projected versus actual values for 1998 for natural gas consumption, production, imports and wellhead prices for the United States were also presented. A comparison of projected versus actual consumption values for 1998 in the residential, commercial, industrial and electric generation sectors was included. In many cases actual versus projected values were quite different. The importance of storage to balancing the market was illustrated. Graphs depicting gas production, workover rigs, reserve life comparisons, and GOM natural gas rig count and production for the U.S. were described. Drilling activity in the Gulf of Mexico was summarized. The total wells drilled in 1997 was 1223 compared to 1019 in 1998. The factors affecting deliverability additions on the Gulf of Mexico shelf include smaller new discoveries, diminishing completion opportunities in older fields, few productive zones in new discoveries and a rapid decline rate resulting from smaller reservoirs. 6 tabs., 13 figs

  11. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high...

  12. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT)

    ... services—including both ER visits and inpatient hospitalizations—ACT team members are also well-connected with local hospitals and have the ability to work with hospital and emergency room staff. ACT teams ...

  13. ACTS data center

    Syed, Ali; Vogel, Wolfhard J.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on ACTS Data Center status report are included. Topics covered include: ACTS Data Center Functions; data flow overview; PPD flow; RAW data flow; data compression; PPD distribution; RAW Data Archival; PPD Audit; and data analysis.

  14. Comprehensive Opportunity and Lost Opportunity Control Model and Enterprise Risk Management

    Akira Nishimura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to build a comprehensive opportunity and lost opportunity control model throughwhich contemporary management accounting can act in alignment with enterprise risk management, as well as toexamine its managerial and socio-economic functions in relation to risk management in the context ofuncertainty in a global finance–oriented society. For this purpose, the paper demonstrates the structure andcharacteristics of this model specifically in contrast with traditional and other control models that have beenpreviously addressed for controlling the changes and diversity of business environments. We can recognize fromthis demonstration that the accounting control system based on opportunity and lost opportunity control modelhas shifted its fundamental focus from feedback systems, profitability, and managerial control to feed-forward,value creation, and enterprise governance. The paper also refers to the socio-economic function that the modelfulfills in the disclosure and transparency of the risk management process. These results lead to the conclusionthat contemporary management accounting expands its short-term efficiency and company-centeredeffectiveness into long-term efficiency and social effectiveness.

  15. 9 CFR 335.40 - Opportunity for presentation of views before report of criminal violations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Opportunity for presentation of views... PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION RULES OF PRACTICE GOVERNING PROCEEDINGS UNDER THE FEDERAL MEAT INSPECTION ACT Criminal Violations § 335.40 Opportunity for presentation of...

  16. Nuclear Installations Act 1965

    This Act governs all activities related to nuclear installations in the United Kingdom. It provides for the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the duties of licensees, the competent authorities and carriers of nuclear material in respect of nuclear occurrences, as well as for the system of third party liability and compensation for nuclear damage. The Act repeals the Nuclear Installations (Licensing and Insurance) Act 1959 and the Nuclear Installations (Amendment Act) 1965 except for its Section 17(2). (NEA)

  17. Forgetting ACT UP

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    When ACT UP is remembered as the pinnacle of postmodern activism, other forms and forums of activism that were taking place during that time--practices that were linked, related, just modern, in dialogue or even opposition to ACT UP's "confrontational activism"--are forgotten. In its time, ACT UP was embedded in New York City, and a larger world,…

  18. 增压发动机怠速敲缸噪声研究%Research on Idle Knocking Noise of Turbocharged Engine

    冯圆; 杨瑞文; 陈红兵; 黄春生; 王勇

    2013-01-01

    通过研究某增压发动机的怠速敲缸噪声,总结了活塞总成系统的噪声分类,研究了活塞偏心量、连杆大头油孔以及活塞冷却喷嘴对怠速敲缸噪声的影响.研究结果显示,活塞偏心量和连杆大头的油孔对于改善怠速敲缸噪声有很好的效果,而活塞冷却喷嘴不仅能起到冷却活塞的作用,还对怠速敲缸噪声有决定性的影响.通过改变活塞冷却喷嘴的开启压力,在怠速时开启,可以完全消除怠速敲缸噪声.%Based on the idle knocking noise of a turbocharged engine,the noise classification of piston assembly was summarized,and the influences of piston offset,connecting rod big end hole and piston oil nozzle on the idle knocking were researched.The results showed that the piston offset and connecting rod big end hole could improve the idle knocking effectively.The piston oil nozzle had decisive effect on improving the idle knocking noise besides cooling the piston.The optimized opening pressure of piston oil nozzle could eliminate the idle knocking noise.

  19. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  20. DIGITAL PAKISTAN: OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

    Ghulam Muhammad Kundi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available IT has revolutionized the social and organizational life around the globe. Given the newness of IT as a technology, there is a lot of potential that needs to be explored. It is however, argued that as IT can revolutionize the economic development, by the same coin, although its mismanagement in adoption process can end up in problems or even straight failure of the technology at the business-end. This study was conducted with reference to opportunities and challenges in the IT adoption process in Pakistan. The aim of the study was to point out the barriers that are impeding the country’s computerization process in order to provide facts to the policy makers for smooth computerization. The primary data collected through structured questionnaires was analyzed and tested through correlation, regressions analysis and t-test. Out of 10 hypotheses, 3 were accepted while in the rest null hypotheses were not substantiated. Based on primary and secondary data analysis this study has found that all independent bureaucratic, political, education and social and cultural variables are mutually correlated and have significant impact on shaping and reshaping of IT in Pakistan, while the Pakistan IT policy is inconsistent, administrative machinery attitude is negative and non cooperative, procedures are cumbersome and implementation is weak and ineffective, not to mention the lack of IT knowledge on the bureaucratic side. The political environment is instable and law and order is worse which is discouraging the investment. Moreover, physical and legal infrastructure is insufficient and the country is lacking good quality IT professionals. IT organization alignment is another serious issue in Pakistan. However, government incentives and growing interest from the private sector indicate positive attitude towards computerization of the country.

  1. Investment opportunities as real options

    Rovčanin, Adnan

    2005-01-01

    Opportunity (optional) approach to capital investment appraisal represents, completely new theoretical and methodological framework for investment analysis. Compared to traditional, discount cash flow (DCF) model of analysis, the optional approach provides opportunity for valuation and managing flexibility, i.e. possibility of approaching (amending the previous decisions) in compliance with market changes. Risk and uncertainty are inevitably following the capital investment. Therefore, the im...

  2. Opportunity-Sensitive Poverty Measurement

    Brunori, Paolo; Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Lugo, Maria Ana; Peragine, Vito

    2013-01-01

    This paper offers an axiomatic characterization of two classes of poverty measures that are sensitive to inequality of opportunity, one a strict subset of the other. The proposed indices are sensitive not only to income shortfalls from the poverty line, but also to differences in the opportunities faced by people with different predetermined characteristics, such as race or family backgrou...

  3. Indirect Speech Acts

    李威

    2001-01-01

    Indirect speech acts are frequently used in verbal communication, the interpretation of them is of great importance in order to meet the demands of the development of students' communicative competence. This paper, therefore, intends to present Searle' s indirect speech acts and explore the way how indirect speech acts are interpreted in accordance with two influential theories. It consists of four parts. Part one gives a general introduction to the notion of speech acts theory. Part two makes an elaboration upon the conception of indirect speech act theory proposed by Searle and his supplement and development of illocutionary acts. Part three deals with the interpretation of indirect speech acts. Part four draws implication from the previous study and also serves as the conclusion of the dissertation.

  4. Etude expérimentale du cliquetis à haut régime Experimental Study of Hight-Speed Knocking

    Guibet J. C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available La première partie de cette étude a consisté à observer et à tenter d'interpréter l'action des conditions de fonctionnement et des paramètres de réglage du moteur sur la tendance au cliquetis à haut régime. On a montré ensuite que les différentes familles chimiques d'hydrocarbures qui constituent les carburants classiques présentent chacune un comportement bien distinct en fonction de la richesse, de la pression et de la température d'admission. On a également étudié l'influence de la teneur en plomb du carburant et du type d'alkyle de plomb employé. Quelques expériences ont été effectuées afin de déterminer l'incidence d'une réduction de un point de taux de compression sur l'exigence en octane à haut régime et sur l'action des caractéristiques de composition du carburant. Enfin, en déterminant le pourcentage de cycles soumis au cliquetis pour différentes avances à l'allumage, il a été possible de fournir quelques indications permettant de mieux caractériser l'intensité du phénomène. The first part of this study consists in observing and trying to interpret the effect of operating conditions and engine tuning parameters on the tendency for high-speed knocking to appear. The different chemical families of the hydrocarbons making up conventional fuels are shown to each have a quite different behavior depending on the fuel-air equivalency ratio and the admission pressure and temperature. The influence of the lead content in the fuel and of the type of lead alkyl used is also studied. Some experiments were performed to determine the influence of a one-point reduction in the compression ratio on the high-speed octane requirement and on the effect of fuel composition properties. Lastly, by determing the percentage of cycles accompanied by knocking at different spark advances, some indications were found for better characterizing the intensity of the phenomenon.

  5. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    Malur, Anagha; Huizar, Isham [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Wells, Greg [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Barna, Barbara P. [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Malur, Achut G. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Thomassen, Mary Jane, E-mail: thomassenm@ecu.edu [Program in Lung Cell Biology and Translational Research, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR{gamma}) and the PPAR{gamma}-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPAR{gamma}. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPAR{gamma} plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPAR{gamma} or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by

  6. From knock-out phenotype to three-dimensional structure of a promising antibiotic target from Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Con Dogovski

    Full Text Available Given the rise in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, there is an urgent need to discover new antimicrobials targeting this pathogen and an equally urgent need to characterize new drug targets. A promising antibiotic target is dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in lysine biosynthesis. In this study, we firstly show by gene knock out studies that S. pneumoniae (sp lacking the DHDPS gene is unable to grow unless supplemented with lysine-rich media. We subsequently set out to characterize the structure, function and stability of the enzyme drug target. Our studies show that sp-DHDPS is folded and active with a k(cat = 22 s(-1, K(M(PYR = 2.55 ± 0.05 mM and K(M(ASA = 0.044 ± 0.003 mM. Thermal denaturation experiments demonstrate sp-DHDPS exhibits an apparent melting temperature (T(M(app of 72 °C, which is significantly greater than Escherichia coli DHDPS (Ec-DHDPS (T(M(app = 59 °C. Sedimentation studies show that sp-DHDPS exists in a dimer-tetramer equilibrium with a K(D(4→2 = 1.7 nM, which is considerably tighter than its E. coli ortholog (K(D(4→2 = 76 nM. To further characterize the structure of the enzyme and probe its enhanced stability, we solved the high resolution (1.9 Å crystal structure of sp-DHDPS (PDB ID 3VFL. The enzyme is tetrameric in the crystal state, consistent with biophysical measurements in solution. Although the sp-DHDPS and Ec-DHDPS active sites are almost identical, the tetramerization interface of the s. pneumoniae enzyme is significantly different in composition and has greater buried surface area (800 Å(2 compared to its E. coli counterpart (500 Å(2. This larger interface area is consistent with our solution studies demonstrating that sp-DHDPS is considerably more thermally and thermodynamically stable than Ec-DHDPS. Our study describe for the first time the knock-out phenotype, solution properties, stability and crystal structure of DHDPS from S. pneumoniae, a

  7. Lentivirus-ABCG1 instillation reduces lipid accumulation and improves lung compliance in GM-CSF knock-out mice

    Highlights: ► Lentivirus-ABCG1 reduces lipid accumulation in lungs of GM-CSF knock-out mice. ► Up-regulation of ABCG1 improves lung function. ► Upregulation of ABCG1 improves surfactant metabolism. -- Abstract: We have shown decreased expression of the nuclear transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and the PPARγ-regulated ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) in alveolar macrophages from patients with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP). PAP patients also exhibit neutralizing antibodies to granulocyte–macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an upregulator of PPARγ. In association with functional GM-CSF deficiency, PAP lung is characterized by surfactant-filled alveolar spaces and lipid-filled alveolar macrophages. Similar pathology characterizes GM-CSF knock-out (KO) mice. We reported previously that intratracheal instillation of a lentivirus (lenti)-PPARγ plasmid into GM-CSF KO animals elevated ABCG1 and reduced alveolar macrophage lipid accumulation. Here, we hypothesized that instillation of lenti-ABCG1 might be sufficient to decrease lipid accumulation and improve pulmonary function in GM-CSF KO mice. Animals received intratracheal instillation of lenti-ABCG1 or control lenti-enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (eGFP) plasmids and alveolar macrophages were harvested 10 days later. Alveolar macrophage transduction efficiency was 79% as shown by lenti-eGFP fluorescence. Quantitative PCR analyses indicated a threefold (p = 0.0005) increase in ABCG1 expression with no change of PPARγ or ABCA1 in alveolar macrophages of lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. ABCG1 was unchanged in control lenti-eGFP and PBS-instilled groups. Oil Red O staining detected reduced intracellular neutral lipid in alveolar macrophages from lenti-ABCG1 treated mice. Extracellular cholesterol and phospholipids were also decreased as shown by analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Lung compliance was diminished in untreated GMCSF KO mice

  8. Lunar Science Opportunities for Students within Higher Education

    Bailey, B.; Daou, D.; Minafra, J.

    2011-10-01

    The NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) is a virtual institute focused on lunar science, training the next generation of lunar scientists, and education and public outreach. As part of the NLSI mission, we act as a hub for opportunities that engage the public through education and outreach efforts in addition to forming new interdisciplinary, scientific collaborations. This talk will outline several opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students as well as earlycareer scientists and engineers to engage the lunar science and exploration communities through workshops, conferences, online seminars and classes, student exchange programs and internships.

  9. Promoting Prevention Through the Affordable Care Act: Workplace Wellness

    Anderko, Laura; Roffenbender, Jason S.; Goetzel, Ron Z.; Millard, Francois; Wildenhaus, Kevin; DeSantis, Charles; Novelli, William

    2012-01-01

    Public health in the United States can be improved by building workplace “cultures of health” that support healthy lifestyles. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which includes the Prevention and Public Health Fund, will support a new focus on prevention and wellness, offering opportunities to strengthen the public’s health through workplace wellness initiatives. This article describes the opportunity the ACA provides to improve worker wellness.

  10. Generation and evaluation of Myostatin knock-out rabbits and goats using CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Guo, Rihong; Wan, Yongjie; Xu, Dan; Cui, Libin; Deng, Mingtian; Zhang, Guomin; Jia, Ruoxin; Zhou, Wenjun; Wang, Zhen; Deng, Kaiping; Huang, Mingrui; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Yanli

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a conserved negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass in mammals. However, whether precise disruption of Mstn in livestock can be achieved and safely used to improve meat productivity has not been proven. We applied CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate Mstn knock-out (KO) rabbits and goats and then analyzed the changes in their phenotypes to answer this question. We efficiently generated 24 Mstn KO rabbits out of 32 newborn infants after embryo injection with two sgRNAs targeting rabbit Mstn, and found that the Mstn KO rabbits exhibited increased birthweight and a significantly increase in the weight ratios of the quadriceps and biceps muscles to the whole body. Mstn KO also caused high probability of enlarged tongue phenomenon and severe health problems such as stillbirth and early stage death. Using the same method, one out of four goats was generated with edition at Mstn locus. The early stage growth rate of this goat outperformed the control goats. In conclusion, we efficiently generated Mstn KO rabbits and goats using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. However, Mstn KO causes severe health problems and may also have the same effects on other species. This safety issue must be studied further before applied to animal reproduction processes. PMID:27417210