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Sample records for acquisition systematic review

  1. Systematic review

    Enggaard, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Title: Systematic review a method to promote nursing students skills in Evidence Based Practice Background: Department of nursing educate students to practice Evidence Based Practice (EBP), where clinical decisions is based on the best available evidence, patient preference, clinical experience and...... resources available. In order to incorporate evidence in clinical decisions, nursing students need to learn how to transfer knowledge in order to utilize evidence in clinical decisions. The method of systematic review can be one approach to achieve this in nursing education. Method: As an associate lecturer...... I have taken a Comprehensive Systematic Review Training course provide by Center of Clinical Guidelines in Denmark and Jonna Briggs Institute (JBI) and practice in developing a systematic review on how patients with ischemic heart disease experiences peer support. This insight and experience with...

  2. Systematic review

    Lødrup, Anders Bergh; Reimer, Christina; Bytzer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    getting off acid-suppressive medication and partly explain the increase in long-term use of PPI. A number of studies addressing this issue have been published recently. The authors aimed to systematically review the existing evidence of clinically relevant symptoms caused by acid rebound following PPI...

  3. Parameters for the mathematical modelling of Clostridium difficile acquisition and transmission: a systematic review.

    Eroboghene H Otete

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mathematical modelling of Clostridium difficile infection dynamics could contribute to the optimisation of strategies for its prevention and control. The objective of this systematic review was to summarise the available literature specifically identifying the quantitative parameters required for a compartmental mathematical model of Clostridium difficile transmission. METHODS: Six electronic healthcare databases were searched and all screening, data extraction and study quality assessments were undertaken in duplicate. Results were synthesised using a narrative approach. RESULTS: Fifty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Reproduction numbers for hospital based epidemics were described in two studies with a range from 0.55 to 7. Two studies provided consistent data on incubation periods. For 62% of cases, symptoms occurred in less than 4 weeks (3-28 days after infection. Evidence on contact patterns was identified in four studies but with limited data reported for populating a mathematical model. Two studies, including one without clinically apparent donor-recipient pairs, provided information on serial intervals for household or ward contacts, showing transmission intervals of <1 week in ward based contacts compared to up to 2 months for household contacts. Eight studies reported recovery rates of between 75%-100% for patients who had been treated with either metronidazole or vancomycin. Forty-nine studies gave recurrence rates of between 3% and 49% but were limited by varying definitions of recurrence. No study was found which specifically reported force of infection or net reproduction numbers. CONCLUSIONS: There is currently scant literature overtly citing estimates of the parameters required to inform the quantitative modelling of Clostridium difficile transmission. Further high quality studies to investigate transmission parameters are required, including through review of published epidemiological studies where these

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisition techniques intended to decrease movement artefact in paediatric brain imaging: a systematic review

    Woodfield, Julie [University of Edinburgh, Child Life and Health, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kealey, Susan [Western General Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Attaining paediatric brain images of diagnostic quality can be difficult because of young age or neurological impairment. The use of anaesthesia to reduce movement in MRI increases clinical risk and cost, while CT, though faster, exposes children to potentially harmful ionising radiation. MRI acquisition techniques that aim to decrease movement artefact may allow diagnostic paediatric brain imaging without sedation or anaesthesia. We conducted a systematic review to establish the evidence base for ultra-fast sequences and sequences using oversampling of k-space in paediatric brain MR imaging. Techniques were assessed for imaging time, occurrence of movement artefact, the need for sedation, and either image quality or diagnostic accuracy. We identified 24 relevant studies. We found that ultra-fast techniques had shorter imaging acquisition times compared to standard MRI. Techniques using oversampling of k-space required equal or longer imaging times than standard MRI. Both ultra-fast sequences and those using oversampling of k-space reduced movement artefact compared with standard MRI in unsedated children. Assessment of overall diagnostic accuracy was difficult because of the heterogeneous patient populations, imaging indications, and reporting methods of the studies. In children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus there is evidence that ultra-fast MRI is sufficient for the assessment of ventricular size. (orig.)

  5. Vaginal microbicides for reducing the risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection in women: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Obiero Jael

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year more than two million people are newly infected with HIV worldwide, a majority of them through unprotected vaginal sex. More than half of new infections in adults occur in women. Male condoms and male circumcision reduce the risk of HIV acquisition; but the uptake of these methods is out of the control of women. We therefore aimed to determine the effectiveness of vaginal microbicides (a potential female-controlled method for prevention of sexual acquisition of HIV in women. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and grey literature for publications of randomised controlled trials available by September 2012. We screened search outputs, selected studies, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data in duplicate; resolving differences by discussion and consensus. Results We identified 13 eligible trials that compared vaginal microbicides to placebo. These studies enrolled 35,905 sexually active HIV-negative women between 1996 and 2011; in Benin, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, India, Thailand, and the United States of America. A small trial of 889 women found that tenofovir (a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor significantly reduces the risk of HIV acquisition (risk ratio [RR] 0.63, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.43 to 0.93. Effectiveness data are not yet available from follow-up tenofovir trials being conducted in South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe (1 trial and multiple sites in South Africa (1 trial. We found no evidence of a significant effect for nonoxynol-9 (5 trials, cellulose sulphate (2 trials, SAVVY (2 trials, Carraguard (1 trial, PRO 2000 (2 trials, and BufferGel (1 trial microbicides. The pooled RR for the effect of current experimental vaginal microbicides on HIV acquisition in women was 0.97, 95%CI 0.87 to 1.08. Although study results were homogeneous across the different drug classes (heterogeneity P

  6. Vaginal microbicides for reducing the risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection in women: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Obiero Jael; Mwethera Peter G; Hussey Gregory D; Wiysonge Charles S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Each year more than two million people are newly infected with HIV worldwide, a majority of them through unprotected vaginal sex. More than half of new infections in adults occur in women. Male condoms and male circumcision reduce the risk of HIV acquisition; but the uptake of these methods is out of the control of women. We therefore aimed to determine the effectiveness of vaginal microbicides (a potential female-controlled method) for prevention of sexual acquisition of ...

  7. Systematic reviews. Some examples.

    Knipschild, P

    1994-09-17

    Reviewing the literature is a scientific inquiry that needs a clear design to preclude bias. It is a real enterprise if one aims at completeness of the literature on a certain subject. Going through refereed English language journals is not enough. On line databases are helpful, but mainly as a starting point. This article gives examples of systematic reviews on vitamin C and the common cold, pyridoxine against the premenstrual syndrome, homeopathy, and physiotherapy. PMID:7950526

  8. Swaddling : A systematic review

    van Sleuwen, Bregje E.; Engelberts, Adele C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W. J.; L'Hoir, Monique P.

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on s

  9. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology - A systematic review

    A. Lundh; S.L. Knijnenburg; A.W. Jørgensen; E.C. van Dalen; L.C.M. Kremer

    2009-01-01

    Background: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. Methods: We identified eligible systematic reviews th

  10. Swaddling: A Systematic Review

    Sleuwen, van, B.E.; Engelberts, Adèle C.; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Kuis, Wietse; Schulpen, Tom W J

    2007-01-01

    Swaddling was an almost universal child-care practice before the 18th century. It is still tradition in certain parts of the Middle East and is gaining popularity in the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Netherlands to curb excessive crying. We have systematically reviewed all articles on swaddling to evaluate its possible benefits and disadvantages. In general, swaddled infants arouse less and sleep longer. Preterm infants have shown improved neuromuscular development, less physiolo...

  11. Aromatherapy: a systematic review.

    Cooke, B.; Ernst, E.

    2000-01-01

    Aromatherapy is becoming increasingly popular; however there are few clear indications for its use. To systematically review the literature on aromatherapy in order to discover whether any clinical indication may be recommended for its use, computerised literature searches were performed to retrieve all randomised controlled trials of aromatherapy from the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, British Nursing Index, CISCOM, and AMED. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using...

  12. Systematic reviews on leptospirosis

    Fabio GUIDUGLI; Aldemar Araujo CASTRO; ATALLAH Álvaro Nagib

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To find the existing clinical evidence on interventions for leptospirosis. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any intervention on leptospirosis through systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DATA SOURCE: The sources of studies used (where there were no limitations concerning language, date, or other restrictions) were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Database, and the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Rando...

  13. Systematic reviews on leptospirosis

    Fabio GUIDUGLI; Aldemar Araujo CASTRO; ATALLAH Álvaro Nagib

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To find the existing clinical evidence on interventions for leptospirosis. The objective is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of any intervention on leptospirosis through systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). DATA SOURCE: The sources of studies used (where there were no limitations concerning language, date, or other restrictions) were: EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials Database, and the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Ra...

  14. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed.Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  15. Review of L2 Vocabulary Acquisition Studies

    周先军

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary is important in language and language acquisition, but it did not catch as much attention as it deserved for a long time. In this thesis, I’ll go through changes of vocabulary studied in linguistics and language teaching as well as rise of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies. Several aspects of L2 vocabulary acquisition studies will then be reviewed .Issues that need to be further studied will at last be put forward.

  16. A review of spelling acquisition

    Dich, Nadya; Cohn, Abigail C.

    2013-01-01

    literacy factors into modeling phonological knowledge. In this article, we show that the spelling acquisition data support and are best accounted for by models allowing for a hierarchy of representations, that learning to read and write has a profound effect on the phonological knowledge of an adult...

  17. Systematic Review of Clozapine Cardiotoxicity.

    Curto, Martina; Girardi, Nicoletta; Lionetto, Luana; Ciavarella, Giuseppino M; Ferracuti, Stefano; Baldessarini, Ross J

    2016-07-01

    Clozapine is exceptionally effective in psychotic disorders and can reduce suicidal risk. Nevertheless, its use is limited due to potentially life-threatening adverse effects, including myocarditis and cardiomyopathy. Given their clinical importance, we systematically reviewed research on adverse cardiac effects of clozapine, aiming to improve estimates of their incidence, summarize features supporting their diagnosis, and evaluate proposed monitoring procedures. Incidence of early (≤2 months) myocarditis ranges from ECG changes, elevated indices of myocardial damage, cardiac MRI findings, and importantly, echocardiographic evidence of developing ventricular failure. Treatment involves stopping clozapine and empirical applications of steroids, diuretics, beta-blockers, and antiangiotensin agents. Mortality averages approximately 25 %. Safety of clozapine reuse remains uncertain. Systematic studies are needed to improve knowledge of the epidemiology, avoidance, early identification, and treatment of these adverse effects, with effective and practicable monitoring protocols. PMID:27222142

  18. The Emergence of Systematic Review in Toxicology.

    Stephens, Martin L; Betts, Kellyn; Beck, Nancy B; Cogliano, Vincent; Dickersin, Kay; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Freeman, James; Gray, George; Hartung, Thomas; McPartland, Jennifer; Rooney, Andrew A; Scherer, Roberta W; Verloo, Didier; Hoffmann, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    The Evidence-based Toxicology Collaboration hosted a workshop on "The Emergence of Systematic Review and Related Evidence-based Approaches in Toxicology," on November 21, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. The workshop featured speakers from agencies and organizations applying systematic review approaches to questions in toxicology, speakers with experience in conducting systematic reviews in medicine and healthcare, and stakeholders in industry, government, academia, and non-governmental organizations. Based on the workshop presentations and discussion, here we address the state of systematic review methods in toxicology, historical antecedents in both medicine and toxicology, challenges to the translation of systematic review from medicine to toxicology, and thoughts on the way forward. We conclude with a recommendation that as various agencies and organizations adapt systematic review methods, they continue to work together to ensure that there is a harmonized process for how the basic elements of systematic review methods are applied in toxicology. PMID:27208075

  19. Primary neural leprosy: systematic review

    Jose Antonio Garbino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors proposed a systematic review on the current concepts of primary neural leprosy by consulting the following online databases: MEDLINE, Lilacs/SciELO, and Embase. Selected studies were classified based on the degree of recommendation and levels of scientific evidence according to the “Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine”. The following aspects were reviewed: cutaneous clinical and laboratorial investigations, i.e. skin clinical exam, smears, and biopsy, and Mitsuda's reaction; neurological investigation (anamnesis, electromyography and nerve biopsy; serological investigation and molecular testing, i.e. serological testing for the detection of the phenolic glycolipid 1 (PGL-I and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR; and treatment (classification criteria for the definition of specific treatment, steroid treatment, and cure criteria.

  20. Quality of systematic reviews in pediatric oncology--a systematic review

    Lundh, Andreas; Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L; Jørgensen, Anders W;

    2009-01-01

    quality of systematic reviews was low for all ten items, but the quality of Cochrane systematic reviews was significantly higher than systematic reviews published in regular journals. On a 1-7 scale, the median overall quality score for all systematic reviews was 2 (range 1-7), with a score of 1 (range 1......BACKGROUND: To ensure evidence-based decision making in pediatric oncology systematic reviews are necessary. The objective of our study was to evaluate the methodological quality of all currently existing systematic reviews in pediatric oncology. METHODS: We identified eligible systematic reviews...... through a systematic search of the literature. Data on clinical and methodological characteristics of the included systematic reviews were extracted. The methodological quality of the included systematic reviews was assessed using the overview quality assessment questionnaire, a validated 10-item quality...

  1. Organizational Culture in Nursing: A Systematic Review

    Setiawan

    2010-01-01

    Systematic reviews are useful to keep abreast of the literature by summarizing large bodies of evidence. By conducting systematic reviews, we can learn how to apply scientific strategies, in ways that limit bias, to the assembly, critical appraisal, and synthesis of all relevant studies that address a specific question. This systematic review is found to be useful in understanding a concept by careful reviews of several studies and assist to get the confident of the findings. This study re...

  2. Systematic Review Methodology in Higher Education

    Bearman, Margaret; Smith, Calvin D.; Carbone, Angela; Slade, Susan; Baik, Chi; Hughes-Warrington, Marnie; Neumann, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Systematic review methodology can be distinguished from narrative reviews of the literature through its emphasis on transparent, structured and comprehensive approaches to searching the literature and its requirement for formal synthesis of research findings. There appears to be relatively little use of the systematic review methodology within the…

  3. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  4. Improving the uptake of systematic reviews: a systematic review of intervention effectiveness and relevance.

    Wallace, John

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the barriers, facilitators and interventions that impact on systematic review uptake. The objective of this study was to identify how uptake of systematic reviews can be improved.

  5. Dissemination Bias in Systematic Reviews of Animal Research: A Systematic Review

    Mueller, Katharina F; Briel, Matthias; Strech, Daniel; Meerpohl, Joerg J; Lang, Britta; Motschall, Edith; Gloy, Viktoria; Lamontagne, Francois; Bassler, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological fe...

  6. Heterotopic ossification: a systematic review.

    Edwards, Dafydd S; Clasper, J C

    2015-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of mature lamellar bone in extraskeletal soft tissues. It was first described 1000 years ago in the healing of fractures, and in relation to military wounds, texts from the American Civil War and World War I refer to HO specifically. It continues to cause problems to injured service personnel; the consequences of wound and soft tissue complications in traumatic amputations pose particular problems to rehabilitation and prosthetic use. While HO is seen in rare genetic conditions, it is most prevalent after joint replacement surgery and trauma. In the civilian setting HO has been commonly described in patients after traumatic brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and burns. Militarily, as a consequence of recent operations, and the characteristic injury of blast-related amputations, a renewed interest in HO has emerged due to an increased incidence seen in casualties. The heterogeneous nature of a blast related amputation makes it difficult for a single aetiological event to be identified, although it is now accepted that blast, amputation through the zone of injury, increased injury severity and associated brain injuries are significant risk factors in HO formation. The exact cellular event leading to HO has yet to be identified, and as a consequence its prevention is restricted to the use of anti-inflammatory medication and radiation, which is often contraindicated in the acute complex military casualty. A systematic review in PubMed and the Cochrane Database identified research articles related to HO to illustrate the military problem of HO and its management, current research concepts and experimental theories regarding HO. This also served as a gap analysis providing the researchers detail of any knowledge deficit in this field, in particular to the military aspects of HO; 637 out of 7891 articles initially identified that referenced HO were relevant to this review. PMID:25015927

  7. Dissemination bias in systematic reviews of animal research: a systematic review.

    Katharina F Mueller

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of preclinical studies, in vivo animal experiments in particular, can influence clinical research and thus even clinical care. Dissemination bias, selective dissemination of positive or significant results, is one of the major threats to validity in systematic reviews also in the realm of animal studies. We conducted a systematic review to determine the number of published systematic reviews of animal studies until present, to investigate their methodological features especially with respect to assessment of dissemination bias, and to investigate the citation of preclinical systematic reviews on clinical research.Eligible studies for this systematic review constitute systematic reviews that summarize in vivo animal experiments whose results could be interpreted as applicable to clinical care. We systematically searched Ovid Medline, Embase, ToxNet, and ScienceDirect from 1st January 2009 to 9th January 2013 for eligible systematic reviews without language restrictions. Furthermore we included articles from two previous systematic reviews by Peters et al. and Korevaar et al.The literature search and screening process resulted in 512 included full text articles. We found an increasing number of published preclinical systematic reviews over time. The methodological quality of preclinical systematic reviews was low. The majority of preclinical systematic reviews did not assess methodological quality of the included studies (71%, nor did they assess heterogeneity (81% or dissemination bias (87%. Statistics quantifying the importance of clinical research citing systematic reviews of animal studies showed that clinical studies referred to the preclinical research mainly to justify their study or a future study (76%.Preclinical systematic reviews may have an influence on clinical research but their methodological quality frequently remains low. Therefore, systematic reviews of animal research should be critically appraised before

  8. Methodologies for assessing telemedicine : a systematic review of reviews

    Ekeland, Anne G; Bowes, Alison; Flottorp, Signe

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives: Previous reviews have expressed concerns about the quality of telemedicine studies. There is debate about shortcomings and appropriate methodologies. The aim of this review of systematic reviews of telemedicine is to summarize methodologies used in telemedicine research, discuss knowledge gaps and recommendations and suggest methodological approaches for further research. Methods: We conducted a review of systematic reviews of telemedicine according to a protocol li...

  9. Burnout in journalists: A systematic literature review

    Jasmine B. MacDonald; Anthony J. Saliba; Gene Hodgins; Linda A. Ovington

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to the experience of burnout in journalists of various specialties and mediums. The systematic review method adopted is that prescribed by Fink (2010), which contains three main elements: Sampling the literature, screening the literature, and extracting data. Results indicate that journalists most at risk of burnout are females who are younger, with fewer years of journali...

  10. Short implants: A systematic review

    Karthikeyan, I.; Shrikar R. Desai; Singh, Rika

    2012-01-01

    Background: Short implants are manufactured for use in atrophic regions of the jaws. Although many studies report on short implants as ≤10 mm length with considerable success, the literature regarding survival rate of ≤7 mm is sparse. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate the publications concerning short dental implants defined as an implant with a length of ≤7 mm placed in the maxilla or in the mandible. Materials and Methods: A Medline and manual search was cond...

  11. Borderline Intellectual Functioning: A Systematic Literature Review

    Peltopuro, Minna; Ahonen, Timo; Kaartinen, Jukka; Seppälä, Heikki; Närhi, Vesa

    2014-01-01

    The literature related to people with borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) was systematically reviewed in order to summarize the present knowledge. Database searches yielded 1,726 citations, and 49 studies were included in the review. People with BIF face a variety of hardships in life, including neurocognitive, social, and mental health…

  12. Systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy

    Leeflang, Mariska M G; Deeks, Jonathan J; Gatsonis, Constantine;

    2008-01-01

    More and more systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies are being published, but they can be methodologically challenging. In this paper, the authors present some of the recent developments in the methodology for conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic test accuracy studies....... Restrictive electronic search filters are discouraged, as is the use of summary quality scores. Methods for meta-analysis should take into account the paired nature of the estimates and their dependence on threshold. Authors of these reviews are advised to use the hierarchical summary receiver...

  13. 76 FR 30362 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium

    2011-05-25

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Acquisition of Helium AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General... previously approved information collection requirement concerning acquisition of helium. Public comments are... Collection 9000- 0113, Acquisition of Helium, by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  14. A systematic review of social marketing effectiveness

    Stead, Martine; Gordon, Ross; Angus, Kathryn; McDermott, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To review the effectiveness of social marketing interventions in influencing individual behaviour and bringing about environmental and policy-level changes in relation to alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs and physical activity. Social marketing is the use of marketing concepts in programmes designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences in order to improve health and society. Methodology/Approach: Review of systematic reviews and primary studies using pre-specif...

  15. Coeliac disease and oats: a systematic review

    Haboubi, N Y; Taylor, S.; Jones, S

    2006-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature related to the inclusion of oats in the gluten‐free diet for patients with coeliac disease to assess whether oats can be recommended. A computerised literature review of multiple databases was carried out, identifying 17 primary studies, 6 of which met the criteria for inclusion in this review. None of the six studies found any significant difference in the serology between the oats and control groups. Two studies, however, identified a significant differ...

  16. Systemic mastocytosis - A systematic review

    Andersen, C.L.; Hasselbalch, H.C.; Kristensen, T.K.;

    2012-01-01

    cell has been described and its fascinating biology has only recently been depicted. We here give a review of systemic mastocytosis in regards to cell biology, diagnostic approaches and clinical practice. METHODS: A search was made in PubMed in August 2011 entering the keywords: mastocytosis, (systemic...

  17. Composite inlays: a systematic review.

    Grivas, E; Roudsari, R V; Satterthwaite, J D

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the available literature related to composite inlays. Electronic databases published up to November 2013 were searched. Studies that evaluate composite resin inlays for the restoration of posterior teeth were selected. The studies should compare composite inlays against gold inlays, ceramic inlays and direct composite fillings regarding longevity, aesthetic quality and postoperative sensitivity or comparing the clinical effectiveness of them on premolars versus molars or on 1-2 surface preparations versus multi-surface preparations. Despite the heterogeneity of the available clinical trials composite inlays seem to be an effective method for the restoration of posterior teeth. PMID:25831713

  18. Systematic imaging review: Multiple Sclerosis

    Aparna Katdare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterised by immune-mediated demyelination, and is a leading cause of neurological disability worldwide. It has a wide spectrum of clinical presentations which overlap with other neurological conditions many times. Further, the radiological array of findings in MS can also be confused for multiple other conditions, leading to the need to look for the more typical findings, and interpret these in close conjunction with the clinical picture including temporal evolution. This review aims to revisit the MRI findings in MS, including recent innovations in imaging, and to help distinguish MS from its mimics.

  19. Systematic review of reviews of risk factors for intracranial aneurysms

    Systematic reviews of systematic reviews identify good quality reviews of earlier studies of medical conditions. This article describes a systematic review of systematic reviews performed to investigate factors that might influence the risk of rupture of an intracranial aneurysm. It exemplifies the technique of this type of research and reports the finding of a specific study. The annual incidence of subarachnoid haemorrhage resulting from the rupture of intracranial aneurysms is estimated to be nine per 100,000. A large proportion of people who have this bleed, will die or remain dependent on the care of others for some time. Reliable knowledge about the risks of subarachnoid haemorrhage in different populations will help in planning, screening and prevention strategies and in predicting the prognosis of individual patients. If the necessary data were available in the identified reviews, an estimate for the numerical relationship between a particular characteristic and the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage was included in this report. The identification of eligible systematic reviews relied mainly on the two major bibliographic databases of the biomedical literature: PubMed and EMBASE. These were searched in 2006, using specially designed search strategies. Approximately 2,000 records were retrieved and each of these was checked carefully against the eligibility criteria for this systematic review. These criteria required that the report be a systematic review of studies assessing the risk of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients known to have an unruptured intracranial aneurysm or of studies that had investigated the characteristics of people who experienced a subarachnoid haemorrhage without previously being known to have an unruptured aneurysm. Reports which included more than one systematic review were eligible and each of these reviews was potentially eligible. The quality of each systematic review was assessed. In this review, 16 separate reports were

  20. Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions

    Smith, Valerie

    2011-02-03

    Abstract Background Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need. Methods The methods used to identify and appraise published and unpublished reviews systematically, drawing on our experiences and good practice in the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews are described. The process of identifying and appraising all published reviews allows researchers to describe the quality of this evidence base, summarise and compare the review\\'s conclusions and discuss the strength of these conclusions. Results Methodological challenges and possible solutions are described within the context of (i) sources, (ii) study selection, (iii) quality assessment (i.e. the extent of searching undertaken for the reviews, description of study selection and inclusion criteria, comparability of included studies, assessment of publication bias and assessment of heterogeneity), (iv) presentation of results, and (v) implications for practice and research. Conclusion Conducting a systematic review of reviews highlights the usefulness of bringing together a summary of reviews in one place, where there is more than one review on an important topic. The methods described here should help clinicians to review and appraise published reviews systematically, and aid evidence-based clinical decision-making.

  1. Expediting systematic reviews: methods and implications of rapid reviews

    Ciliska Donna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers and others often require synthesis of knowledge in an area within six months or less. Traditional systematic reviews typically take at least 12 months to conduct. Rapid reviews streamline traditional systematic review methods in order to synthesize evidence within a shortened timeframe. There is great variation in the process of conducting rapid reviews. This review sought to examine methods used for rapid reviews, as well as implications of methodological streamlining in terms of rigour, bias, and results. Methods A comprehensive search strategy--including five electronic databases, grey literature, hand searching of relevant journals, and contacting key informants--was undertaken. All titles and abstracts (n = 1,989 were reviewed independently by two reviewers. Relevance criteria included articles published between 1995 and 2009 about conducting rapid reviews or addressing comparisons of rapid reviews versus traditional reviews. Full articles were retrieved for any titles deemed relevant by either reviewer (n = 70. Data were extracted from all relevant methodological articles (n = 45 and from exemplars of rapid review methods (n = 25. Results Rapid reviews varied from three weeks to six months; various methods for speeding up the process were employed. Some limited searching by years, databases, language, and sources beyond electronic searches. Several employed one reviewer for title and abstract reviewing, full text review, methodological quality assessment, and/or data extraction phases. Within rapid review studies, accelerating the data extraction process may lead to missing some relevant information. Biases may be introduced due to shortened timeframes for literature searching, article retrieval, and appraisal. Conclusions This review examined the continuum between diverse rapid review methods and traditional systematic reviews. It also examines potential implications of streamlined review methods. More of

  2. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Luís Carlos Machado Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.

  3. Maternal Intensive Care’: a systematic literature review

    Van Parys, A. S.; Verstraelen, H.; Roelens, K.; Temmerman, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this systematic literature review is to review current scientific knowledge on the definition of and the indications for maternal/obstetric intensive care (MIC). Methods: We conducted a extensive search in OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, COCHRANE, CINHAL and CEBAM using the keywords: maternal/obstetric intensive care, subacute care, intermediate care, postacute care, critical care, sub intensive care, progressive patient care, postnatal care, perinatal care, obstetrical nurs...

  4. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

    Irene Torres-Sánchez; Elisabeth Rodríguez-Alzueta; Irene Cabrera-Martos; Isabel López-Torres; Maria Paz Moreno-Ramírez; Marie Carmen Valenza

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findin...

  5. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review*

    Torres-Sánchez, Irene; Rodríguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; López-Torres, Isabel; Moreno-Ramírez, Maria Paz; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findin...

  6. Systematic review and meta-analyses

    Werenberg Dreier, Julie; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    systematically review evidence from epidemiologic studies on adverse health outcomes of the offspring in relation to exposure to maternal fever during pregnancy. METHODS: Systematic searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were performed by using Medical Subject Headings, Boolean operators......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Fever during pregnancy has been suspected to harm the developing fetus. However, until now, no systematic analysis of the available evidence has been undertaken to assess the impact of maternal fever on health outcomes in the child. The goal of this study was to......, and truncation, and references of references were reviewed. Cohort and case-control studies addressing health outcomes of prenatal fever exposure in humans were eligible for inclusion. Studies with no direct reference to fever, studies in selected populations (eg, preterm births), and studies...

  7. Surgically facilitated orthodontic treatment : A systematic review

    Hoogeveen, Eelke J.; Jansma, Johan; Ren, Yijin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Corticotomy and dental distraction have been proposed as effective and safe methods to shorten orthodontic treatment duration in adolescent and adult patients. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the evidence supporting these claims. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane data

  8. Transanal total mesorectal excision - a systematic review

    Bjørn, Maya Xania; Perdawood, Sharaf Karim

    2015-01-01

    dissection. We aimed to evaluate the literature on TaTME. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of the literature in the PubMed and Embase databases. Both authors assessed the studies. All publications on TaTME were included with the exception of review articles. RESULTS: A total of 29 studies (336...

  9. Systematic review with meta-analysis

    Kimer, N; Krag, A; Møller, Søren;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rifaximin is recommended for prevention of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). The effects of rifaximin on overt and minimal HE are debated. AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on rifaximin for HE. METHODS: We performed electronic and...

  10. Management of anaphylaxis : a systematic review

    Dhami, S.; Panesar, S. S.; Roberts, G.; Muraro, A.; Worm, M.; Bilo, M. B.; Cardona, V.; Dubois, A. E. J.; DunnGalvin, A.; Eigenmann, P.; Fernandez-Rivas, M.; Halken, S.; Lack, G.; Niggemann, B.; Rueff, F.; Santos, A. F.; Vlieg-Boerstra, B.; Zolkipli, Z. Q.; Sheikh, A.

    2014-01-01

    To establish the effectiveness of interventions for the acute and long-term management of anaphylaxis, seven databases were searched for systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted t

  11. Pancreatectomy for metastatic disease: a systematic review.

    Adler, H

    2014-04-01

    Tumours rarely metastasise to the pancreas. While surgical resection of such metastases is believed to confer a survival benefit, there is limited data to support such management. We present a systematic review of case series of pancreatic metastasectomy and analysis of survival outcomes.

  12. A Systematic Review of Assessment Literacy Measures

    Gotch, Chad M.; French, Brian F.

    2014-01-01

    This work systematically reviews teacher assessment literacy measures within the context of contemporary teacher evaluation policy. In this study, the researchers collected objective tests of assessment knowledge, teacher self-reports, and rubrics to evaluate teachers' work in assessment literacy studies from 1991 to 2012. Then they evaluated…

  13. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  14. Management of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment of prostate cancer: A systematic review of the literature

    Punnen, S; Cooperberg, MR; D'Amico, AV; Karakiewicz, PI; Moul, JW; Scher, HI; Schlomm, T; Freedland, SJ

    2013-01-01

    Context Despite excellent cancer control with the treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa), some men will experience a recurrence of disease. The optimal management of recurrent disease remains uncertain. Objective To systematically review recent literature regarding management of biochemical recurrence after primary treatment for localized PCa. Evidence acquisition A comprehensive systematic review of the literature was performed from 2000 to 2012 to identify articles pertaining to manag...

  15. Randomized Controlled Trials: A Systematic Review of Laparoscopic Surgery and Simulation-Based Training

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This systematic review was conducted to analyze the impact and describe simulation-based training and the acquisition of laparoscopic surgery skills during medical school and residency programs. Methods This systematic review focused on the published literature that used randomized controlled trials to examine the effectiveness of simulation-based training to develop laparoscopic surgery skills. Searching PubMed from the inception of the databases to May 1, 2014 and specific hand...

  16. Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review: a systematic review

    Peek, S.T.M.; Wouters, E.J.M.; van Hoof, J.; Luijkx, K.G.; Boeije, H.R.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    S.T.M. Peek, E.J.M. Wouters, J. van Hoof, K.G. Luijkx, H.R. Boeije, H.J.M. Vrijhoef (2014) Factors influencing acceptance of technology for aging in place: a systematic review: a systematic review. International Journal of Medical Informatics 83(4):235-248 http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.20

  17. 10 CFR 1045.43 - Systematic review for declassification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 1045.43 Section... Systematic review for declassification. (a) The Secretary shall ensure that RD documents, and the DoD shall... Classification (and with the DoD for FRD) to ensure the systematic review of RD and FRD documents. (c) Review...

  18. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva; Ana Maria Baptista Menezes; Flavio Fernando Demarco; Fabiana Vargas-Ferreira; Marco Aurelio Peres

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking t...

  19. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Dugdill, L.; Brettle, A; Hulme, C.; McCluskey, Serena; Long, A F

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommended...

  20. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review

    Sara Mota Borges Bottino; Bottino, Cássio M. C.; Caroline Gomez Regina; Aline Villa Lobo Correia; Wagner Silva Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrator...

  1. Smoking in Video Games: A Systematic Review.

    Forsyth, SR; Malone, RE

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Video games are played by a majority of adolescents, yet little is known about whether and how video games are associated with smoking behavior and attitudes. This systematic review examines research on the relationship between video games and smoking. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, psycINFO, and Web of Science through August 20, 2014. Twenty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Studies were synthesized qualitatively in four domains: the prevalence and incidence of smoking imager...

  2. Psychotherapy in dizziness: a systematic review

    Schmid, Gabriele; Henningsen, Peter; Dieterich, Marianne; Sattel, Heribert; Lahmann, Claas

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background: About 30-50% of complex dizziness disorders are organically not sufficiently explained or related to a psychiatric disorder. Of patients with such dizziness disorders, 80% are severely impaired by dizziness in their daily lives; nevertheless, they are often not diagnosed and treated adequately. Objectives: This review aims to give a systematic overview of psychotherapeutic approaches and their efficacy regarding the treatment of dizziness that is medically ...

  3. Transplantation of Cryopreserved Teeth: A Systematic Review

    Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine the research articles regarding biological and mechanical properties of cryopreserved teeth for potential use in tooth transplantation. A systematic review of literatures was performed by Pubmed searching with assigned key words from January 1, 1990 to June 8, 2009. All articles were examined for inclusion criteria. Secondary search was conducted by hand-search through references of included articles from primary search. A total of 24 articles were obtai...

  4. Qigong for Hypertension: A Systematic Review

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of qigong for hypertension. A systematic literature search was performed in 7 databases from their respective inceptions until April 2014, including the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang database, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials of qigong as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy with anti...

  5. Identifying relevant studies for systematic reviews.

    Dickersin, K.; R Scherer; Lefebvre, C. (Charles)

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the sensitivity and precision of Medline searching for randomised clinical trials. DESIGN--Comparison of results of Medline searches to a "gold standard" of known randomised clinical trials in ophthalmology published in 1988; systematic review (meta-analysis) of results of similar, but separate, studies from many fields of medicine. POPULATIONS--Randomised clinical trials published in 1988 in journals indexed in Medline, and those not indexed in Medline and identified by...

  6. Rumination in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    Érico de M. Silveira Jr.; Marcia Kauer-Sant'Anna

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To conduct a systematic review of the literature about the symptom of rumination in bipolar disorder (BD).Methods:We searched the MEDLINE (PubMed), ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases using the descriptors “rumination” and “bipolar disorder” and no time limits. This strategy yielded 105 references, of which 74 were selected. Inclusion criteria were studies involving patients with BD and the use of at least one validated scale for the assessment of rumination. Review...

  7. Need for Quality Improvement in Renal Systematic Reviews

    Mrkobrada, Marko; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Haynes, R. Brian; Iansavichus, Arthur V; Rehman, Faisal; Garg, Amit X

    2008-01-01

    Background and objectives: Systematic reviews of clinical studies aim to compile best available evidence for various diagnosis and treatment options. This study assessed the methodologic quality of all systematic reviews relevant to the practice of nephrology published in 2005.

  8. [Systematic review of diagnostic tests accuracy: a narrative review].

    de Oliveira, Glória Maria; Camargo, Fábio Trinca; Gonçalves, Eduardo Costa; Duarte, Carlos Vinicius Nascimento; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study is to perform a narrative review of systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. We undertook a search using The Cochrane Methodology Reviews (Cochrane Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy), Medline and LILACS up to October 2009. Reference lists of included studies were also hand searched. The following search strategy was constructed by using a combination of subject headings and text words: 1. Cochrane Methodology Reviews: accuracy study "Methodology" 2. In Pubmed "Meta-Analysis" [Publication Type] AND "Evidence-Based Medicine" [Mesh]) AND "Sensitivity and Specificity" [Mesh] 3. LILACS (revisao sistematica) or "literatura de REVISAO como assunto" [Descritor de assunto] and (sistematica) or "SISTEMATICA" [Descritor de assunto] and (acuracia) or "SENSIBILIDADE e especificidade" [Descritor de assunto]. In summary, the methodological planning and preparation of systematic reviews of therapeutic interventions are prior to that used in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests accuracy. There are more sources of heterogeneity in design of diagnostic test studies, which impair the synthesis - meta-analysis - of the results. To work around this problem, there are currently uniform requirements for diagnostic test manuscripts submitted to leading biomedical journals. PMID:20549106

  9. Burnout in journalists: A systematic literature review

    Jasmine B. MacDonald

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to provide a concise, comprehensive, and systematic review of the quantitative literature relating to the experience of burnout in journalists of various specialties and mediums. The systematic review method adopted is that prescribed by Fink (2010, which contains three main elements: Sampling the literature, screening the literature, and extracting data. Results indicate that journalists most at risk of burnout are females who are younger, with fewer years of journalism experience, working in small circulation newspapers. Editors and reporters seem to experience higher levels of burnout than those in other roles, as do journalists in non-management positions. The thorough and structured process adopted in this review provides the ability to assert with some degree of certainty what areas within the burnout and journalism literature require further consideration. This review emphasises and problematises the large focus on male reporters in newspaper settings, settings that are becoming less significant over time. Studies have tended to focus on reporters, without providing a convincing a priori rationale. What is lacking is consideration of other role groups central to broadcast news, such as camera-operators. A range of methodological and theoretical issues and future areas of research are discussed.

  10. Latino Veterans with PTSD: A Systematic Review

    James O. E. Pittman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Latinos have a long history of military service with recent service including combat conditions and multiple deployments, which are highly associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Clinical acumen underscores the importance of culture in assessment and treatment, but there has been little scientific literature that investigates the unique needs of veteran Latinos with PTSD. The primary goal of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature on Latino veterans with PTSD and to critically evaluate attention to cultural issues. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses were used to guide this review. Peer-reviewed, research reports written in English on Latino Veterans with PTSD since 1980 were included; 20 were assessment related, and nine were treatment related. All studies were quantitative. Only 13 studies mentioned culture as part of the context for Latino veterans, and only seven included cultural factors as part of the study design. Present findings highlight a lack of research focused on understanding cultural factors related to the assessment and treatment of Latino veterans with PTSD. Culturally-informed research on Latino veterans from current wars, Latina veterans and Latino veteran treatment outcomes are necessary to provide culturally-appropriate care to this growing veteran subgroup.

  11. 32 CFR 2001.31 - Systematic declassification review.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systematic declassification review. 2001.31... Declassification § 2001.31 Systematic declassification review. (a) General. Agencies shall establish systematic review programs for those records containing information exempted from automatic declassification....

  12. 32 CFR 2400.20 - Systematic review for declassification.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 2400.20... SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 2400.20 Systematic review for declassification. (a) Permanent records. Systematic review is applicable only to those classified records, and presidential...

  13. 14 CFR 1203.603 - Systematic review for declassification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification... INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Declassification and Downgrading § 1203.603 Systematic review for... years old. (2) Systematic review for declassification of classified cryptologic information will...

  14. 15 CFR 2008.13 - Systematic review guidelines.

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 2008.13... REPRESENTATIVE Declassification and Downgrading § 2008.13 Systematic review guidelines. Within 180 days after the..., issue and maintain guidelines for systematic review of classified information originated by the...

  15. 22 CFR 9.11 - Systematic declassification review.

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Systematic declassification review. 9.11... Systematic declassification review. The Information and Privacy Coordinator shall be responsible for conducting a program for systematic declassification review of historically valuable records that...

  16. 12 CFR 403.6 - Systematic review for declassification.

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review for declassification. 403.6..., AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION § 403.6 Systematic review for declassification... permanent retention will be subject to systematic declassification review by the Archivist in...

  17. Methodology in conducting a systematic review of systematic reviews of healthcare interventions.

    Smith, Valerie

    2011-02-01

    Hundreds of studies of maternity care interventions have been published, too many for most people involved in providing maternity care to identify and consider when making decisions. It became apparent that systematic reviews of individual studies were required to appraise, summarise and bring together existing studies in a single place. However, decision makers are increasingly faced by a plethora of such reviews and these are likely to be of variable quality and scope, with more than one review of important topics. Systematic reviews (or overviews) of reviews are a logical and appropriate next step, allowing the findings of separate reviews to be compared and contrasted, providing clinical decision makers with the evidence they need.

  18. Vending machine assessment methodology. A systematic review.

    Matthews, Melissa A; Horacek, Tanya M

    2015-07-01

    The nutritional quality of food and beverage products sold in vending machines has been implicated as a contributing factor to the development of an obesogenic food environment. How comprehensive, reliable, and valid are the current assessment tools for vending machines to support or refute these claims? A systematic review was conducted to summarize, compare, and evaluate the current methodologies and available tools for vending machine assessment. A total of 24 relevant research studies published between 1981 and 2013 met inclusion criteria for this review. The methodological variables reviewed in this study include assessment tool type, study location, machine accessibility, product availability, healthfulness criteria, portion size, price, product promotion, and quality of scientific practice. There were wide variations in the depth of the assessment methodologies and product healthfulness criteria utilized among the reviewed studies. Of the reviewed studies, 39% evaluated machine accessibility, 91% evaluated product availability, 96% established healthfulness criteria, 70% evaluated portion size, 48% evaluated price, 52% evaluated product promotion, and 22% evaluated the quality of scientific practice. Of all reviewed articles, 87% reached conclusions that provided insight into the healthfulness of vended products and/or vending environment. Product healthfulness criteria and complexity for snack and beverage products was also found to be variable between the reviewed studies. These findings make it difficult to compare results between studies. A universal, valid, and reliable vending machine assessment tool that is comprehensive yet user-friendly is recommended. PMID:25772195

  19. Coeliac disease and oats: a systematic review.

    Haboubi, N Y; Taylor, S; Jones, S

    2006-10-01

    A systematic review of the literature related to the inclusion of oats in the gluten-free diet for patients with coeliac disease to assess whether oats can be recommended. A computerised literature review of multiple databases was carried out, identifying 17 primary studies, 6 of which met the criteria for inclusion in this review. None of the six studies found any significant difference in the serology between the oats and control groups. Two studies, however, identified a significant difference (poats and control groups. Oats can be symptomatically tolerated by most patients with coeliac disease; however, the long-term effects of a diet containing oats remain unknown. Patients with coeliac disease wishing to consume a diet containing oats should therefore receive regular follow-up, including small bowel biopsy at a specialist clinic for life. PMID:17068278

  20. Methodology of systematic reviews and recommendations.

    Furlan, Julio C; Singh, Jeffrey; Hsieh, Jane; Fehlings, Michael G

    2011-08-01

    Although research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI) is a relatively new endeavor, a remarkable number of papers focused on this subspecialty have been published in a broad variety of journals over the last two decades. A multidisciplinary group of experts, including clinical epidemiologists, neurosurgical and orthopedic spine surgeons, basic scientists, rehabilitation specialists, intensivists, and allied health professionals (nursing and physical therapy) was assembled through the Spinal Cord Injury Solutions Network to summarize the existing literature focusing on 12 key topics related to acute traumatic SCI, which have not been recently reviewed. The objective was to develop evidence-based recommendations to help translate current science into clinical practice and to identify new directions for research. For each topic one to three specific questions were formulated by consensus through the expert panel. A systematic review of the literature was performed to determine the current evidence for the specific questions. A primary literature search was performed using MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. A secondary search strategy incorporated additional articles referenced in significant publications (i.e., meta-analysis, systematic and nonsystematic review articles). Two reviewers independently reviewed the titles and abstracts yielded by this comprehensive search and subsequently selected articles based on the predetermined inclusion and inclusion criteria. Data were extracted for population into evidentiary tables. Selected articles were rated for level of evidence and methodological quality, information that was also included in evidentiary tables. Disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer or consensus-based discussion. Based on the evidence compiled, answers to the targeted questions were formulated and recommendations generated by consensus-based discussion and anonymized voting using Delphi methodology. A level of consensus of 80

  1. Systematic approach to acquisition and transmission of digital images

    While the feasibility of teleradiology has been demonstrated locally and over long distances, general use remains limited for reasons including the expense of the equipment, difficulty in use of the equipment, and slow rates of data transmission. This paper examines remote image transmission in a systematic fashion directed at the above problems. A Macintosh II-based nuclear medicine computer system was developed and interfaced directly to gamma cameras within our department. A network was then established linking multiple computers within the hospital with the use of Apple Talk to nearby hospitals that use Ethernet and to remove locations up to 1,000 miles away with use of a VPN 56 telephone service

  2. Intellectual Disability in Children; a Systematic Review

    Dasteh Goli N.*BSc

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims: Intellectual disability is a condition characterised by the inability of a person to undertake normal psychological activities. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the intellectual disability in children and discuss the implications of different environmental and genetic factors, which describe particular categories of intellectual disable cases. Information & Methods: This systematic review was performed in 2014 by searching the existing literature in PubMed database in the scope of “intellectual disability in children”. 38 articles written from 1987 to 2014 were selected and surveyed for review. Findings: The prevalence of ID in the general population is estimated to be approximately 1%. ID disorder is multi-causal, encompassing all factors that interfere with brain development and functioning. Causes usually are classified according to the time of the insult, as prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal or acquired. Some causes, such as environmental toxins or endocrine disorders, may act at multiple times. Others, such as genetic disorders, have different manifestations during postnatal development. The outcome for ID is variable and depends upon the aetiology, associated conditions, and environmental and social factors. The goals of management of ID are to strengthen areas of reduced function, minimize extensive deterioration in mental cognitive and adaptability, and lastly, to promote optimum or normal functioning of the individuals in their community. Conclusion: Prominent features of ID include significant failures in both intellectual functioning and adaptive behaviour, which comprises daily social and practical life skills, commencing earlier in life.

  3. Melatonin influence in ovary transplantation: systematic review.

    Shiroma, M E; Botelho, N M; Damous, L L; Baracat, E C; Soares-Jr, J M

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin is an indolamine produced by the pineal gland and it can exert a potent antioxidant effect. Its free radical scavenger properties have been used to advantage in different organ transplants in animal experiments. Several concentrations and administration pathways have been tested and melatonin has shown encouraging beneficial results in many transplants of organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, pancreas, and kidneys. The objective of the present study was to review the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin in ovary transplantation. A systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement was carried out using the Cochrane and Pubmed databases and employing the terms 'melatonin' AND 'ovary' AND 'transplantation.' After analysis, 5 articles were extracted addressing melatonin use in ovary transplants and involving 503 animals. Melatonin enhanced various graft aspects like morphology, apoptosis, immunological reaction, revascularization, oxidative stress, and survival rate. Melatonin's antioxidative and antiapoptotic properties seemingly produce positive effects on ovarian graft activity. Despite the promising results, further studies in humans need to be conducted to consolidate its use, as ovary transplantation for fertility preservation is gradually being moved from the experimental stage to a clinical setting. PMID:27287621

  4. A Systematic Review on Medication Errors

    Karthikeyan M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Medication Errors (MEs are a common cause for iatrogenic adverse events. A systematic review of MEs in prescribing, transcribing, dispensing, administration and documentation in adults and children was done. We included all types of studies that reported the incidence of medication errors or identified the causes of MEs, either in adults or children. All healthcare professionals have a responsibility in identifying contributing factors to medication errors and to use that information to further reduce their occurrence. Developing countries urgently need to introduce professional programmes to improve prescribing skills and knowledge of prescribers, and to encourage nurses to improve their quality of drug administration.

  5. Enteral Nutrition in Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Joanne Brooke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life.

  6. Enteral nutrition in dementia: a systematic review.

    Brooke, Joanne; Ojo, Omorogieva

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of enteral nutrition in dementia. The prevalence of dementia is predicted to rise worldwide partly due to an aging population. People with dementia may experience both cognitive and physical complications that impact on their nutritional intake. Malnutrition and weight loss in dementia correlates with cognitive decline and the progress of the disease. An intervention for long term eating difficulties is the provision of enteral nutrition through a Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy tube to improve both nutritional parameters and quality of life. Enteral nutrition in dementia has traditionally been discouraged, although further understanding of physical, nutritional and quality of life outcomes are required. The following electronic databases were searched: EBSCO Host, MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Google Scholar for publications from 1st January 2008 and up to and including 1st January 2014. Inclusion criteria included the following outcomes: mortality, aspiration pneumonia, pressure sores, nutritional parameters and quality of life. Each study included separate analysis for patients with a diagnosis of dementia and/or neurological disease. Retrospective and prospective observational studies were included. No differences in mortality were found for patients with dementia, without dementia or other neurological disorders. Risk factors for poor survival included decreased or decreasing serum albumin levels, increasing age or over 80 years and male gender. Evidence regarding pneumonia was limited, although did not impact on mortality. No studies explored pressure sores or quality of life. PMID:25854831

  7. Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis of Health IT.

    Urquhart, Christine; Currell, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    This contribution examines how systematic reviews contribute to the evaluation of health IT planning and implementation. It defines and explains the systematic review process and how higher level overviews of health IT can be conducted. A reprise of some of the Cochrane reviews relating to health IT, particularly those conducted for the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group (EPOC), provides examples of the type of question that can be answered (at least in part) by a Cochrane-type systematic review. The contribution also discusses the benefits and limitations of the systematic review process using examples of reviews on telemedicine, nursing records, and home uterine monitoring in pregnancy. PMID:27198108

  8. How to conduct systematic reviews more expeditiously?

    Tsertsvadze, Alexander; Chen, Yen-Fu; Moher, David; Sutcliffe, Paul; McCarthy, Noel

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare consumers, researchers, patients and policy makers increasingly use systematic reviews (SRs) to aid their decision-making process. However, the conduct of SRs can be a time-consuming and resource-intensive task. Often, clinical practice guideline developers or other decision-makers need to make informed decisions in a timely fashion (e.g. outbreaks of infection, hospital-based health technology assessments). Possible approaches to address the issue of timeliness in the production of SRs are to (a) implement process parallelisation, (b) adapt and apply innovative technologies, and/or (c) modify SR processes (e.g. study eligibility criteria, search sources, data extraction or quality assessment). Highly parallelised systematic reviewing requires substantial resources to support a team of experienced information specialists, reviewers and methodologists working alongside with clinical content experts to minimise the time for completing individual review steps while maximising the parallel progression of multiple steps. Effective coordination and management within the team and across external stakeholders are essential elements of this process. Emerging innovative technologies have a great potential for reducing workload and improving efficiency of SR production. The most promising areas of application would be to allow automation of specific SR tasks, in particular if these tasks are time consuming and resource intensive (e.g. language translation, study selection, data extraction). Modification of SR processes involves restricting, truncating and/or bypassing one or more SR steps, which may risk introducing bias to the review findings. Although the growing experiences in producing various types of rapid reviews (RR) and the accumulation of empirical studies exploring potential bias associated with specific SR tasks have contributed to the methodological development for expediting SR production, there is still a dearth of research examining the actual

  9. Match Analysis in Volleyball: a systematic review

    Miguel Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to review the available literature on match analysis in adult male Volleyball. Specific key words "performance analysis", "match analysis", "game analysis", "notational analysis", "tactical analysis", "technical analysis", "outcome" and "skills" were used to search relevant databases (PubMed, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Academic Search Complete and the International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. The research was conducted according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta analyses guidelines. Of 3407 studies initially identified, only 34 were fully reviewed, and their outcome measures extracted and analyzed. Studies that fit all inclusion criteria were organized into two levels of analysis, according to their research design (comparative or predictive and depending on the type of variables analyzed (skills and their relationship with success, play position and match phase. Results show that from a methodological point of view, comparative studies where currently complemented with some predictive studies. This predictive approach emerged with the aim to identify the relationship between variables, considering their possible interactions and consequently its effect on team performance, contributing to a better understanding of Volleyball game performance through match analysis. Taking into account the limitations of the reviewed studies, future research should provide comprehensive operational definitions for the studied variables, using more recent samples, and consider integrating the player positions and match phase contexts into the analysis of Volleyball.

  10. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews

    Lee, Joseph G. L.; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye

    2016-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28–29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching. PMID:27219460

  11. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Lee, Joseph G L; Ylioja, Thomas; Lackey, Mellanye

    2016-01-01

    Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching. PMID:27219460

  12. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Joseph G L Lee

    Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  13. Rumination in bipolar disorder: a systematic review

    Érico de M. Silveira Jr.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To conduct a systematic review of the literature about the symptom of rumination in bipolar disorder (BD.Methods:We searched the MEDLINE (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, and SciELO databases using the descriptors “rumination” and “bipolar disorder” and no time limits. This strategy yielded 105 references, of which 74 were selected. Inclusion criteria were studies involving patients with BD and the use of at least one validated scale for the assessment of rumination. Review articles were excluded. Seventeen articles were ultimately analyzed and included in the review.Results:Rumination is present in all BD phases, is a stable interepisodic symptom, is associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and hypomania, and may occur in response to both positive and negative affect. There is no research on rumination and neurobiological findings in patients with BD.Conclusions:Rumination seems to be independent of mood state, but shows close relationship with it. It is possible that rumination has a negative impact on cognitive and executive functions, particularly inhibitory control. Finally, rumination is an important symptom in both phases of BD, and, therefore, may be a useful target for further exploration as a dimensional domain and a transdiagnostic phenomenon in Research Domain Criteria (RDoC projects.

  14. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review

    Irene Torres-Sánchez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD.

  15. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Wells Cherie; Kolt Gregory S; Marshall Paul; Hill Bridget; Bialocerkowski Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of...

  16. Speed Management Strategies; A Systematic Review

    Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63% had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA, speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies.

  17. Speed Management Strategies; A Systematic Review

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Saadati, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To systematically identify the various methods of speed management and their effects. Methods: A systematic search was performed in Science Direct, Ovid Medline, Scopus, PubMed and ProQuest databases from April to June 2015. Hand searching and reference of selected articles were used to improve article identification. Articles published after 1990 which had reported on efficacy/effectiveness of speed management strategies were included. Data were extracted using pre-defined extraction table. Results: Of the 803 retrieved articles, 22 articles were included in this review. Most of the included articles (63%) had before-after design and were done in European countries. Speed cameras, engineering schemes, intelligent speed adaption (ISA), speed limits and zones, vehicle activated sign and integrated strategies were the most common strategies reported in the literature. Various strategies had different effects on mean speed of the vehicles ranging from 1.6 to 10 km/h. Moreover, 8-65% and 11-71% reduction was reported in person injured accidents and fatal accidents, respectively as a result of employing various strategies. Conclusion: Literature revealed positive effects of various speed management strategies. Using various strategies was mostly dependent on road characteristics, driver’s attitude about the strategy as well as economic and technological capabilities of the country. Political support is considered as a main determinant in selecting speed management strategies.

  18. Religion and Suicide Risk: A Systematic Review.

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Oquendo, Maria A; Stanley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Although religion is reported to be protective against suicide, the empirical evidence is inconsistent. Research is complicated by the fact that there are many dimensions to religion (affiliation, participation, doctrine) and suicide (ideation, attempt, completion). We systematically reviewed the literature on religion and suicide over the last 10 years (89 articles) with a goal of identifying what specific dimensions of religion are associated with specific aspects of suicide. We found that religious affiliation does not necessarily protect against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts. Whether religious affiliation protects against suicide attempts may depend on the culture-specific implications of affiliating with a particular religion, since minority religious groups can feel socially isolated. After adjusting for social support measures, religious service attendance is not especially protective against suicidal ideation, but does protect against suicide attempts, and possibly protects against suicide. Future qualitative studies might further clarify these associations. PMID:26192968

  19. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review

    O’Dwyer, Tom

    2014-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.

  20. Qigong for healthcare: an overview of systematic reviews

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Oh, Byeongsang; Ernst, Edzard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Qigong has been recommended to improve health and prevent disease but the evidence is inconclusive. The aim of this overview was to critically evaluate all systematic reviews (SRs) of qigong for the treatment of any condition or symptom. Design Literature searches were carried out in 11 electronic databases for all systematic reviews of the effectiveness of qigong in any indication. Reviews were defined as systematic if they included an explicit and repeatable methods section descr...

  1. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Rachel M Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  2. Acupuncture for Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review

    Hongzhi Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (LE. Methods. Seven databases and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal were searched to identify relevant studies. The data were extracted and assessed by two independent authors, and Review Manager Software (V.5.3 was used for data synthesis with effect estimate presented as standard mean difference (SMD and mean difference (MD with a 95% confidence interval. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE was used to assess the level of evidence. Results. Four RCTs with 309 participants were included with poor methodological quality. Participants who received acupuncture and acupuncture plus moxibustion with material insulation were likely to have an improvement in elbow functional status and/or myodynamia. The overall quality rated by GRADE was from very low to low. Two studies reported that the needle pain would be the main reason for the dropout. Conclusion. For the small number of included studies with poor methodological quality, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding the effect of acupuncture of elbow functional status and myodynamia for LE. This trial is registered with CRD42015016199.

  3. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. PMID:22750033

  4. Fetal deaths in Brazil: a systematic review

    Barbeiro, Fernanda Morena dos Santos; Fonseca, Sandra Costa; Tauffer, Mariana Girão; Ferreira, Mariana de Souza Santos; da Silva, Fagner Paulo; Ventura, Patrícia Mendonça; Quadros, Jesirée Iglesias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the frequency of and factors associated with fetal death in the Brazilian scientific literature. METHODS A systematic review of Brazilian studies on fetal deaths published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted. In total, 27 studies were analyzed; of these, 4 studies addressed the quality of data, 12 were descriptive studies, and 11 studies evaluated the factors associated with fetal death. The databases searched were PubMed and Lilacs, and data extraction and synthesis were independently performed by two or more examiners. RESULTS The level of completeness of fetal death certificates was deficient, both in the completion of variables, particularly sociodemographic variables, and in defining the underlying causes of death. Fetal deaths have decreased in Brazil; however, inequalities persist. Analysis of the causes of death indicated maternal morbidities that could be prevented and treated. The main factors associated with fetal deaths were absent or inadequate prenatal care, low education level, maternal morbidity, and adverse reproductive history. CONCLUSIONS Prenatal care should prioritize women that are most vulnerable (considering their social environment or their reproductive history and morbidities) with the aim of decreasing the fetal mortality rate in Brazil. Adequate completion of death certificates and investment in the committees that investigate fetal and infant deaths are necessary. PMID:25902565

  5. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review

    Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. METHODS A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. RESULTS Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. CONCLUSIONS The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  6. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review.

    Schoenberg, Poppy L A; David, Anthony S

    2014-06-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, depression, dissociation, eating disorders, schizophrenia and psychoses] to date and provide a useful reference for consultation by clinicians and researchers planning to administer a biofeedback treatment. A systematic search of EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and WOK databases and hand searches in Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, and Journal of Neurotherapy, identified 227 articles; 63 of which are included within this review. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback constituted the most investigated modality (31.7%). Anxiety disorders were the most commonly treated (68.3%). Multi-modal biofeedback appeared most effective in significantly ameliorating symptoms, suggesting that targeting more than one physiological modality for bio-regulation increases therapeutic efficacy. Overall, 80.9% of articles reported some level of clinical amelioration related to biofeedback exposure, 65.0% to a statistically significant (p biofeedback interventions within mainstream psychiatry. PMID:24806535

  7. How useful are systematic reviews for informing palliative care practice? Survey of 25 Cochrane systematic reviews

    Hadley Gina

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In contemporary medical research, randomised controlled trials are seen as the gold standard for establishing treatment effects where it is ethical and practical to conduct them. In palliative care such trials are often impractical, unethical, or extremely difficult, with multiple methodological problems. We review the utility of Cochrane reviews in informing palliative care practice. Methods Published reviews in palliative care registered with the Cochrane Pain, Palliative and Supportive Care Group as of December 2007 were obtained from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, issue 1, 2008. We reviewed the quality and quantity of primary studies available for each review, assessed the quality of the review process, and judged the strength of the evidence presented. There was no prior intention to perform any statistical analyses. Results 25 published systematic reviews were identified. Numbers of included trials ranged from none to 54. Within each review, included trials were heterogeneous with respect to patients, interventions, and outcomes, and the number of patients contributing to any single analysis was generally much lower than the total included in the review. A variety of tools were used to assess trial quality; seven reviews did not use this information to exclude low quality studies, weight analyses, or perform sensitivity analysis for effect of low quality. Authors indicated that there were frequently major problems with the primary studies, individually or in aggregate. Our judgment was that the reviewing process was generally good in these reviews, and that conclusions were limited by the number, size, quality and validity of the primary studies. We judged the evidence about 23 of the 25 interventions to be weak. Two reviews had stronger evidence, but with limitations due to methodological heterogeneity or definition of outcomes. No review provided strong evidence of no effect. Conclusion Cochrane reviews

  8. Skip segment Hirschsprung's disease: a systematic review.

    O'Donnell, Anne-Marie

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Hirschsprung\\'s disease is characterised by the congenital absence of ganglion cells beginning in the distal rectum and extending proximally for varying distances. \\'Zonal aganglionosis\\' is a phenomenon involving a zone of aganglionosis occurring within normally innervated intestine. \\'Skip segment\\' Hirschsprung\\'s disease (SSHD) involves a \\'skip area\\' of normally ganglionated intestine, surrounded proximally and distally by aganglionosis. While Hirschsprung\\'s disease is believed to be the result of incomplete craniocaudal migration of neural crest-derived cells, the occurrence of SSHD has no clear embryological explanation. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of SSHD, reported in the literature between 1954 and 2009, in order to determine the clinical characteristics of this rare entity and its significance. METHODS: The first reported case of SSHD was published in 1954. A systematic review of SSHD cases in the literature, from 1954 to 2009, was carried out using the electronic database \\'Pubmed\\'. Detailed information was recorded regarding the age, gender, presenting symptoms and location of the skip segment in each patient. RESULTS: 24 cases of SSHD have been reported in the literature to date. 18\\/24 (75%) of these cases were males and 6\\/24 (25%) were females. Of these, 22\\/24 (92%) were cases of total colonic aganglionosis (TCA), and 2\\/24 (8%) were rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease. Of the 22 TCA cases, 9 (41%) had a skip segment in the transverse colon, 6 (27%) in the ascending colon, 2 (9%) in the caecum and 5 (23%) had multiple skip segments. In both rectosigmoid Hirschsprung\\'s disease cases, the skip segment was in the sigmoid colon. Overall, the length of the skip segment was variable, with the entire transverse colon ganglionated in some cases. CONCLUSION: SSHD occurs predominantly in patients with TCA. The existence of a skip area of normally innervated colon in TCA may influence surgical

  9. Qigong for hypertension: a systematic review.

    Xiong, Xingjiang; Wang, Pengqian; Li, Xiaoke; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of qigong for hypertension.A systematic literature search was performed in 7 databases from their respective inceptions until April 2014, including the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Chinese Scientific Journal Database, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, Wanfang database, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure. Randomized controlled trials of qigong as either monotherapy or adjunctive therapy with antihypertensive drugs versus no intervention, exercise, or antihypertensive drugs for hypertension were identified. The risk of bias was assessed using the tool described in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions, version 5.1.0.Twenty trials containing 2349 hypertensive patients were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was generally high. Compared with no intervention, qigong significantly reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -17.40 mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] -21.06 to -13.74, P Qigong was inferior to exercise in decreasing SBP (WMD = 6.51 mm Hg, 95% CI 2.81 to 10.21, P = 0.0006), but no significant difference between the effects of qigong and exercise on DBP (WMD = 0.67 mm Hg, 95% CI -1.39 to 2.73, P = 0.52) was identified. Compared with antihypertensive drugs, qigong produced a clinically meaningful but not statistically significant reduction in SBP (WMD = -7.91 mm Hg, 95% CI -16.81 to 1.00, P = 0.08), but appeared to be more effective in lowering DBP (WMD = -6.08 mm Hg, 95% CI -9.58 to -2.58, P = 0.0007). Qigong plus antihypertensive drugs significantly lowered both SBP (WMD = -11.99 mm Hg, 95% CI -15.59 to -8.39, P qigong is an effective therapy for hypertension. However, more rigorously designed randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up focusing on hard clinical outcomes are required to confirm the results. PMID:25569652

  10. Reducing Workload in Systematic Review Preparation Using Automated Citation Classification

    Cohen, A M; Hersh, W R; Peterson, K; Yen, Po-Yin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether automated classification of document citations can be useful in reducing the time spent by experts reviewing journal articles for inclusion in updating systematic reviews of drug class efficacy for treatment of disease.

  11. On the benefits of systematic reviews for wildlife parasitology.

    Haddaway, Neal R; Watson, Maggie J

    2016-08-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are widely accepted as the best means to synthesise quantitative or qualitative scientific evidence. Many scientific fields have embraced these more rigorous review techniques as a means to bring together large and complex bodies of literature and their data. Unfortunately, due to perceived difficulties and unfamiliarity with processes, other fields are not using these options to review their literature. One way to provide guidance for a specific field is to examine critically recent reviews and meta-analyses and to explain the advantages and disadvantages of the various review techniques. In this paper, we examine review papers in the emerging field of wildlife parasitology and compare five different literature review types-configurative narrative review, aggregative scoping review, aggregative literature review, aggregative meta-analysis, and aggregative systematic review. We found that most literature reviews did not adequately explain the methodology used to find the literature under review. We also found that most literature reviews were not comprehensive nor did they critically appraise the literature under review. Such a lack severely reduces the reliability of the reviews. We encourage all authors to consider using systematic reviews in the future, and for authors and peer-reviewers to be aware of the limitations of non-systematic reviews. PMID:27617203

  12. Topiramate and the vision: a systematic review

    Abtahi MA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad-Ali Abtahi1–3, Seyed-Hossein Abtahi1,3,4, Farhad Fazel2,3, Peyman Roomizadeh1,4, Masoud Etemadifar5, Keivan Jenab2,3, Mojtaba Akbari11Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 2Ophthalmology Ward, Feiz Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 3Isfahan Eye Research Center (IERC, Feiz Hospital, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 4Isfahan Medical Students Research Center (IMSRC, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, 5Department of Neurology, Medical School, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, IranBackground and purpose: Topiramate (TPM is a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide that is used mainly for treating epilepsy and preventing migraine. Within the gamut of side effects attributable to this drug, ophthalmologic manifestations are of crucial importance. In this study, for the first time, the aim was to provide a systematic literature review regarding this issue.Methods: For the time period 1996–2011, a PubMed search was made for the studies concerning the adverse/beneficial effects of TPM on vision. Overall, 404 citations out of a total of 2756 TPM-related studies were examined for relevance.Results: A total of 74 relevant studies were reviewed, 65 of which comprise small observational studies describing the ophthalmic side effects of TPM in 84 patients. Of these patients, 66 were affected by ciliochoroidal effusion syndrome as the cardinal ocular side effect of TPM (17 cases of myopic shift and 49 cases of angle closure glaucoma. A comprehensive statistical analysis is provided on these 66 subjects. Other rare side effects of TPM on the vision were also reviewed, including massive choroidal effusion, ocular inflammatory reactions, visual field defects, probable effects on retina, cornea, and sclera, and neuroophthalmologic complications. In addition, a framework is provided to classify these results.Discussion: Due to the expanding spectrum of indications for the administration of TPM

  13. Review of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems

    Reva Nickelson; Briam Johnson; Ken Barnes

    2004-01-01

    A review using open source information was performed to obtain data related to Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems used to supervise and control domestic electric power generation, transmission, and distribution. This report provides the technical details for the types of systems used, system disposal, cyber and physical security measures, network connections, and a gap analysis of SCADA security holes.

  14. Latent Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.

    Isabelle Malhamé

    Full Text Available In countries with low tuberculosis (TB incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI. The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial.In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection.A systematic review of 4 databases (Embase, Embase Classic, Medline, Cochrane Library covering articles published from January 1st 1980 to April 30th 2014. Articles in English, French or Spanish with relevant information on prevalence, natural history, screening tools, screening strategies and treatment of LTBI during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Articles were excluded if (1 Full text was not available (2 they were case series or case studies (3 they focused exclusively on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of active TB (4 the study population was exclusively HIV-infected.Of 4,193 titles initially identified, 208 abstracts were eligible for review. Of these, 30 articles qualified for full text review and 22 were retained: 3 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of LTBI ranged from 14 to 48% in women tested, and tuberculin skin test (TST positivity was associated with ethnicity. One study suggested that incidence of active TB was significantly increased during the 180 days postpartum (Incidence rate ratio, 1.95 (95% CI 1.24-3.07. There was a high level of adherence with both skin testing (between 90-100% and chest radiography (93-100%.. In three studies from low incidence settings, concordance between TST and an interferon

  15. Dietary patterns in India: a systematic review.

    Green, Rosemary; Milner, James; Joy, Edward J M; Agrawal, Sutapa; Dangour, Alan D

    2016-07-01

    Dietary patterns analysis is an emerging area of research. Identifying distinct patterns within a large dietary survey can give a more accurate representation of what people are eating. Furthermore, it allows researchers to analyse relationships between non-communicable diseases (NCD) and complete diets rather than individual food items or nutrients. However, few such studies have been conducted in developing countries including India, where the population has a high burden of diabetes and CVD. We undertook a systematic review of published and grey literature exploring dietary patterns and relationships with diet-related NCD in India. We identified eight studies, including eleven separate models of dietary patterns. Most dietary patterns were vegetarian with a predominance of fruit, vegetables and pulses, as well as cereals; dietary patterns based on high-fat, high-sugar foods and more meat were also identified. There was large variability between regions in dietary patterns, and there was some evidence of change in diets over time, although no evidence of different diets by sex or age was found. Consumers of high-fat dietary patterns were more likely to have greater BMI, and a dietary pattern high in sweets and snacks was associated with greater risk of diabetes compared with a traditional diet high in rice and pulses, but other relationships with NCD risk factors were less clear. This review shows that dietary pattern analyses can be highly valuable in assessing variability in national diets and diet-disease relationships. However, to date, most studies in India are limited by data and methodological shortcomings. PMID:27146890

  16. Updating systematic reviews: an international survey.

    Chantelle Garritty

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs should be up to date to maintain their importance in informing healthcare policy and practice. However, little guidance is available about when and how to update SRs. Moreover, the updating policies and practices of organizations that commission or produce SRs are unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective was to describe the updating practices and policies of agencies that sponsor or conduct SRs. An Internet-based survey was administered to a purposive non-random sample of 195 healthcare organizations within the international SR community. Survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The completed response rate was 58% (n = 114 from across 26 countries with 70% (75/107 of participants identified as producers of SRs. Among responders, 79% (84/107 characterized the importance of updating as high or very-high and 57% (60/106 of organizations reported to have a formal policy for updating. However, only 29% (35/106 of organizations made reference to a written policy document. Several groups (62/105; 59% reported updating practices as irregular, and over half (53/103 of organizational respondents estimated that more than 50% of their respective SRs were likely out of date. Authors of the original SR (42/106; 40% were most often deemed responsible for ensuring SRs were current. Barriers to updating included resource constraints, reviewer motivation, lack of academic credit, and limited publishing formats. Most respondents (70/100; 70% indicated that they supported centralization of updating efforts across institutions or agencies. Furthermore, 84% (83/99 of respondents indicated they favoured the development of a central registry of SRs, analogous to efforts within the clinical trials community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Most organizations that sponsor and/or carry out SRs consider updating important. Despite this recognition, updating practices are not regular, and many organizations lack

  17. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review

    Sara Mota Borges Bottino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS. The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  18. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents. PMID:25859714

  19. Short dental implants: a systematic review.

    Annibali, S; Cristalli, M P; Dell'Aquila, D; Bignozzi, I; La Monaca, G; Pilloni, A

    2012-01-01

    Growing evidence has suggested the utility of short dental implants for oral reconstructive procedures in clinical situations of limited vertical bone height. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate clinical studies of implants edentulism, and prosthetic restoration. Two randomized controlled trials and 14 observational studies were selected and analyzed for data extraction. In total, 6193 short-implants were investigated from 3848 participants. The observational period was 3.2 ± 1.7 yrs (mean ± SD). The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 99.1% (95%CI: 98.8-99.4). The biological success rate was 98.8% (95%CI: 97.8-99.8), and the biomechanical success rate was 99.9% (95%CI: 99.4-100.0). A higher CSR was reported for rough-surfaced implants. The provision of short implant-supported prostheses in patients with atrophic alveolar ridges appears to be a successful treatment option in the short term; however, more scientific evidence is needed for the long term. PMID:22034499

  20. Mucormycosis in Iran: a systematic review.

    Vaezi, Afsane; Moazeni, Maryam; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; de Hoog, Sybren; Badali, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Fungi in the order Mucorales cause acute, invasive and frequently fatal infections in susceptible patients. This study aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported mucormycosis cases during the last 25 years in Iran. After a comprehensive literature search, we identified 98 cases in Iran from 1990-2015. The mean patient age was 39.8 ± 19.2 years. Diabetes was the most common underlying condition (47.9%), and 22.4% of the patients underwent solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. The most common clinical forms of mucormycosis were rhinocerebral (48.9%), pulmonary (9.2%) and cutaneous (9.2%). Eight cases of disseminated disease were identified. Overall mortality in the identified cases was 40.8%, with the highest mortality rate in patients diagnosed with disseminated infection (75%). The mortality rate in rhinocerebral infection patients was significantly lower (45.8%). Rhinocerebral infection was the most common clinical manifestation in diabetes patients (72.9%). Patients were diagnosed using various methods including histopathology (85.7%), microscopy (12.3%) and culture (2.0%). Rhizopus species were the most prevalent (51.7%), followed by Mucor species (17.2%). Sixty-nine patients were treated with a combination of surgery and antifungal therapy (resulting survival rate, 66.7%). Owing to the high mortality rate of advanced mucormycosis, early diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve survival rates. Therefore, increased monitoring and awareness of this life-threatening disease is critical. PMID:26906121

  1. Nickel-titanium alloys: a systematic review

    Marcelo do Amaral Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A systematic review on nickel-titanium wires was performed. The strategy was focused on Entrez-PubMed-OLDMEDLINE, Scopus and BioMed Central from 1963 to 2008. METHODS: Papers in English and French describing the behavior of these wires and laboratorial methods to identify crystalline transformation were considered. A total of 29 papers were selected. RESULTS: Nickel-titanium wires show exceptional features in terms of elasticity and shape memory effects. However, clinical applications request a deeper knowledge of these properties in order to allow the professional to use them in a rational manner. In addition, the necessary information regarding each alloy often does not correspond to the information given by the manufacturer. Many alloys called "superelastic" do not present this effect; they just behave as less stiff alloys, with a larger springback if compared to the stainless steel wires. CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory tests are the only means to observe the real behavior of these materials, including temperature transition range (TTR and applied tensions. However, it is also possible to determine in which TTR these alloys change the crystalline structure.

  2. Systematic reviews: Separating fact from fiction.

    Haddaway, Neal R; Bilotta, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    The volume of scientific literature continues to expand and decision-makers are faced with increasingly unmanageable volumes of evidence to assess. Systematic reviews (SRs) are powerful tools that aim to provide comprehensive, transparent, reproducible and updateable summaries of evidence. SR methods were developed, and have been employed, in healthcare for more than two decades, and they are now widely used across a broad range of topics, including environmental management and social interventions in crime and justice, education, international development, and social welfare. Despite these successes and the increasing acceptance of SR methods as a 'gold standard' in evidence-informed policy and practice, misconceptions still remain regarding their applicability. The aim of this article is to separate fact from fiction, addressing twelve common misconceptions that can influence the decision as to whether a SR is the most appropriate method for evidence synthesis for a given topic. Through examples, we illustrate the flexibility of SR methods and demonstrate their suitability for addressing issues on environmental health and chemical risk assessment. PMID:26371438

  3. Broadening public participation in systematic reviews: a case example involving young people in two configurative reviews

    Oliver, K.; R. Rees; Brady, L. M.; Kavanagh, J; Oliver, S; Thomas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Arguments supporting the involvement of users in research have even more weight when involving the public in systematic reviews of research. We aimed to explore the potential for public involvement in systematic reviews of observational and qualitative studies.

  4. Yoga in schizophrenia : a systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Vancampfort, D.; Vansteelandt, K.; Scheewe, T.; Probst, M.; Knapen, J.; De Herdt, A.; De Hert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Vancampfort D, Vansteelandt K, Scheewe T, Probst M, Knapen J, De Herdt A, De Hert M. Yoga in schizophrenia: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Objective: The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effectiveness of yoga as a complementary treatment on general psychopa

  5. Assessing the Strengths of Mental Health Consumers: A Systematic Review

    Bird, Victoria J.; Le Boutillier, Clair; Leamy, Mary; Larsen, John; Oades, Lindsay G.; Williams, Julie; Slade, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Strengths assessments focus on the individual's talents, abilities, resources, and strengths. No systematic review of strengths assessments for use within mental health populations has been published. The aims of this study were to describe and evaluate strengths assessments for use within mental health services. A systematic review identified 12…

  6. 5 CFR 1312.10 - Systematic review guidelines.

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Systematic review guidelines. 1312.10 Section 1312.10 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES CLASSIFICATION... Declassification of National Security Information § 1312.10 Systematic review guidelines. The EOP Security...

  7. The Association of Cardiovascular Disorders and Falls : A Systematic Review

    Jansen, Sofie; Bhangu, Jaspreet; de Rooij, Sophia; Daams, Joost; Kenny, Rose Anne; van der Velde, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as risk factors for falls in older adults. The aim of this systematic review was to identify cardiovascular disorders that are associated with falls, thus providing angles for optimization of fall-preventive care. Design: Systematic review. Data Sou

  8. Attention should be given to multiplicity issues in systematic reviews

    Bender, R.; Bunce, C.; Clarke, M.;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to describe the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews and to provide some guidelines on how to deal with it in practice. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We describe common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews, and present some examples....... We provide guidance on how to deal with multiplicity when it is unavoidable. RESULTS: We identified six common reasons for multiplicity in systematic reviews: multiple outcomes, multiple groups, multiple time points, multiple effect measures, subgroup analyses, and multiple looks at accumulating data....... The existing methods to deal with multiplicity in single trials can not always be applied in systematic reviews. CONCLUSION: There is no simple and completely satisfactory solution to the problem of multiple comparisons in systematic reviews. More research is required to develop multiple comparison...

  9. Effectiveness of Pilates exercise in treating people with chronic low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Wells Cherie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews provide clinical practice recommendations that are based on evaluation of primary evidence. When systematic reviews with the same aims have different conclusions, it is difficult to ascertain which review reported the most credible and robust findings. Methods This study examined five systematic reviews that have investigated the effectiveness of Pilates exercise in people with chronic low back pain. A four-stage process was used to interpret findings of the reviews. This process included comparison of research questions, included primary studies, and the level and quality of evidence of systematic reviews. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence and the methodological quality of systematic reviews, using the National Health and Medical Research Council hierarchy of evidence, and the Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews respectively. Any disagreements were resolved by a third researcher. Results A high level of consensus was achieved between the reviewers. Conflicting findings were reported by the five systematic reviews regarding the effectiveness of Pilates in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back pain. Authors of the systematic reviews included primary studies that did not match their questions in relation to treatment or population characteristics. A total of ten primary studies were identified across five systematic reviews. Only two of the primary studies were included in all of the reviews due to different inclusion criteria relating to publication date and status, definition of Pilates, and methodological quality. The level of evidence of reviews was low due to the methodological design of the primary studies. The methodological quality of reviews varied. Those which conducted a meta-analysis obtained higher scores. Conclusion There is inconclusive evidence that Pilates is effective in reducing pain and disability in people with chronic low back

  10. Suggested Guidelines for Conducting Music Therapy Literature Reviews & an Introduction to Systematic Reviews in Music Therapy

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Bonde, Lars Ole; Rickson, Daphne;

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the kinds of literature reviews found in music therapy writings and offers ideas for authors preparing literature reviews related to their clinical practice and research. It includes a description of systematic review and lists samples of literature reviews and systematic...... reviews conducted in music therapy....

  11. Suggested Guidelines for Conducting Music Therapy Literature Reviews & an Introduction to Systematic Reviews in Music Therapy

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Bonde, Lars Ole; Rickson, Daphne; Miller, Eric; Kim, Soo Ji

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the kinds of literature reviews found in music therapy writings and offers ideas for authors preparing literature reviews related to their clinical practice and research. It includes a description of systematic review and lists samples of literature reviews and systematic reviews conducted in music therapy.

  12. The UK Freedom of Information Act (2000) in healthcare research: a systematic review

    Fowler, Alexander J; Agha, Riaz A.; Camm, Christian F.; Littlejohns, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the use and utility of the Freedom of Information Act (2000) in healthcare research since 2005 and to determine if any particular feature of studies found led to greater data acquisition. Design PRISMA compliant systematic review. Participants An extensive literature search was performed of EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, psychINFO, BNI, AMED, HMIC and Health business elite databases from January 2005 to January 2013 using terms ‘Freedom of information’, ‘Freedom of information ...

  13. Quality of Systematic Reviews of Observational Nontherapeutic Studies

    Shamliyan, Tatyana; Kane, Robert L; Jansen, Stacy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction High-quality epidemiologic research is essential in reducing chronic diseases. We analyzed the quality of systematic reviews of observational nontherapeutic studies. Methods We searched several databases for systematic reviews of observational nontherapeutic studies that examined the prevalence of or risk factors for chronic diseases and were published in core clinical journals from 1966 through June 2008. We analyzed the quality of such reviews by using prespecified criteria and...

  14. Cochrane methods - twenty years experience in developing systematic review methods

    Chandler, Jackie; Hopewell, Sally

    2013-01-01

    : This year, The Cochrane Collaboration reached its 20th anniversary. It has played a pivotal role in the scientific development of systematic reviewing and in the development of review methods to synthesize research evidence, primarily from randomized trials, to answer questions about the effects of healthcare interventions. We introduce a series of articles, which form this special issue describing the development of systematic review methods within The Cochrane Collaboration. We also discu...

  15. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses.

    Vrabel, Mark

    2015-09-01

    The number of systematic reviews in the literature has increased substantially to include "umbrella reviews" (Conn & Coon Sells, 2014) and systematic reviews of systematic reviews (Adam, Bond, & Murchie, 2015; Corry, While, Neenan, & Smith, 2015). The overall goal of a systematic review is to synthesize and appraise all relevant high-quality research in an effort to answer a specific research or clinical question. The key steps in a systematic review include "the selection of predefined objectives and eligibility criteria for studies, a reproducible methodology, a systematic search targeting all studies that meet the eligibility criteria, an evaluation of the validity of the study findings, and a synthesis and presentation of the findings of the included studies" (Cope, 2014, p. 208). These steps, particularly the reproducible methodology, demonstrate the importance of rigor and consistency to achieve reliable, valid research findings. Consistency is not only critical for the research process, but also is critical in research reporting. Several guidelines exist to promote consistency in research reporting. This article will present the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines and discuss implications and use in oncology nursing research.. PMID:26302284

  16. A descriptive analysis of child-relevant systematic reviews in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews

    Thomson Denise

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews (SRs are considered an important tool for decision-making. There has been no recent comprehensive identification or description of child-relevant SRs. A description of existing child-relevant SRs would help to identify the extent of available child-relevant evidence available in SRs and gaps in the evidence base where SRs are required. The objective of this study was to describe child-relevant SRs from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, Issue 2, 2009. Methods SRs were assessed for relevance using pre-defined criteria. Data were extracted and entered into an electronic form. Univariate analyses were performed to describe the SRs overall and by topic area. Results The search yielded 1666 SRs; 793 met the inclusion criteria. 38% of SRs were last assessed as up-to-date prior to 2007. Corresponding authors were most often from the UK (41%. Most SRs (59% examined pharmacological interventions. 53% had at least one external source of funding. SRs included a median of 7 studies (IQR 3, 15 and 679 participants (IQR 179, 2833. Of all studies, 48% included only children, and 27% only adults. 94% of studies were published in peer-reviewed journals. Primary outcomes were specified in 72% of SRs. Allocation concealment and the Jadad scale were used in 97% and 25% of SRs, respectively. Adults and children were analyzed separately in 12% of SRs and as a subgroup analysis in 14%. Publication bias was assessed in only 14% of SRs. A meta-analysis was conducted in 68% of SRs with a median of 5 trials (IQR 3, 9 each. Variations in these characteristics were observed across topic areas. Conclusions We described the methodological characteristics and rigour of child-relevant reviews in the CDSR. Many SRs are not up-to-date according to Cochrane criteria. Our study describes variation in conduct and reporting across SRs and reveals clinicians' ability to access child-specific data.

  17. Topiramate for anger control: A systematic review

    Varghese Bindu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Uncontrolled anger while being most commonly associated with personality disorders could also be part of many other conditions such as chronic low back ache and post-traumatic stress disorder. The intensity of anger as an emotional state at a particular time is known as "State Anger," whereas how often angry feelings are experienced over time is known as "Trait Anger." Anger could also manifest as expression of anger toward other persons or objects in the environment (Anger-Out, holding in or suppressing angry feelings (Anger-In and controlling angry feelings by preventing the expression of anger toward other persons or objects in the environment or controlling suppressed angry feelings by calming down or cooling off (Anger Control. Objective : To prove the effectiveness of topiramate in the control of anger as compared to placebo and to disprove that its use leads to psychiatric adverse events by systematically reviewing the available randomized controlled trials. Materials and Methods : The basic search was performed in MEDLINE (1966 through November 2008 combined with the optimal search strategy for randomized controlled trials described in the Cochrane Reviewers′ Handbook. To update this search, we regularly screened citations from PubMed till November 2008 for eligible studies or reviews that might include eligible studies. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL was searched using the terms "topiramate" and "anger or aggression." In addition, we screened bibliographies of reviews and identified articles. Randomized clinical trials wherein study participants were aggressive adults were included. Results : We could arrive at a weighted mean difference of -3.16 (-3.64 to -2.68 in State Anger. The reduction in the score was highest in borderline personality disorder (BPD patients as compared to those with low back ache. Trait Anger dropped by -2.93 (-3.49 to -2.37, especially in female BPD patients. Anger In

  18. Converting systematic reviews to Cochrane format: a cross-sectional survey of Australian authors of systematic reviews

    McDonald Steve

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the growing reputation and subject coverage of the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, many systematic reviews continue to be published solely in paper-based health care journals. This study was designed to determine why authors choose to publish their systematic reviews outside of the Cochrane Collaboration and if they might be interested in converting their reviews to Cochrane format for publication in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Methods Cross-sectional survey of Australian primary authors of systematic reviews not published on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews identified from the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness. Results We identified 88 systematic reviews from the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness with an Australian as the primary author. We surveyed 52 authors for whom valid contact information was available. The response rate was 88 per cent (46/52. Ten authors replied without completing the survey, leaving 36 valid surveys for analysis. The most frequently cited reasons for not undertaking a Cochrane review were: lack of time (78%, the need to undergo specific Cochrane training (46%, unwillingness to update reviews (36%, difficulties with the Cochrane process (26% and the review topic already registered with the Cochrane Collaboration (21%. (Percentages based on completed responses to individual questions. Nearly half the respondents would consider converting their review to Cochrane format. Dedicated time emerged as the most important factor in facilitating the potential conversion process. Other factors included navigating the Cochrane system, assistance with updating and financial support. Eighty-six per cent were willing to have their review converted to Cochrane format by another author. Conclusion Time required to complete a Cochrane review and the need for specific training are the primary reasons why some authors publish systematic reviews

  19. Systematic reviews of adverse effects: framework for a structured approach

    Herxheimer Andrew

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As every healthcare intervention carries some risk of harm, clinical decision making needs to be supported by a systematic assessment of the balance of benefit to harm. A systematic review that considers only the favourable outcomes of an intervention, without also assessing the adverse effects, can mislead by introducing a bias favouring the intervention. Much of the current guidance on systematic reviews is directed towards the evaluation of effectiveness; but this differs in important ways from the methods used in assessing the safety and tolerability of an intervention. A detailed discussion of why, how and when to include adverse effects in a systematic review, is required. Methods This discussion paper, which presupposes a basic knowledge of systematic review methodology, was developed by consensus among experienced reviewers, members of the Adverse Effects Subgroup of The Cochrane Collaboration, and supplemented by a consultation of content experts in reviews methodology, as well as those working in drug safety. Results A logical framework for making decisions in reviews that incorporate adverse effects is provided. We explore situations where a comprehensive investigation of adverse effects is warranted and suggest strategies to identify practicable and clinically useful outcomes. The advantages and disadvantages of including observational and experimental study designs are reviewed. The consequences of including separate studies for intended and unintended effects are explained. Detailed advice is given on designing electronic searches for studies with adverse effects data. Reviewers of adverse effects are given general guidance on the assessment of study bias, data collection, analysis, presentation and the interpretation of harms in a systematic review. Conclusion Readers need to be able to recognize how strategic choices made in the review process determine what harms are found, and how the findings may affect

  20. A Systematic Summary of Systematic Reviews on the Topic of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

    Anderson, Michael J.; Browning, William M.; Urband, Christopher E.; Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Bisson, Leslie J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There has been a substantial increase in the amount of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Purpose: To quantify the number of systematic reviews and meta-analyses published on the ACL in the past decade and to provide an overall summary of this literature. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: A systematic review of all ACL-related systematic reviews and meta-analyses published between January 2004 and September 2014 was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database. Narrative reviews and non-English articles were excluded. Results: A total of 1031 articles were found, of which 240 met the inclusion criteria. Included articles were summarized and divided into 17 topics: anatomy, epidemiology, prevention, associated injuries, diagnosis, operative versus nonoperative management, graft choice, surgical technique, fixation methods, computer-assisted surgery, platelet-rich plasma, rehabilitation, return to play, outcomes assessment, arthritis, complications, and miscellaneous. Conclusion: A summary of systematic reviews on the ACL can supply the surgeon with a single source for the most up-to-date synthesis of the literature. PMID:27047983

  1. Conceptual Knowledge Acquisition in Biomedicine: A Methodological Review

    Payne, Philip R.O.; Mendonça, Eneida A.; Johnson, Stephen B.; Starren, Justin B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of conceptual knowledge collections or structures within the biomedical domain is pervasive, spanning a variety of applications including controlled terminologies, semantic networks, ontologies, and database schemas. A number of theoretical constructs and practical methods or techniques support the development and evaluation of conceptual knowledge collections. This review will provide an overview of the current state of knowledge concerning conceptual knowledge acquisition, drawing f...

  2. Patient risk factors for pressure ulcer development: Systematic review

    Coleman, S.; Gorecki, C.; Nelson, E.A.; Closs, S.J.; Defloor, T.; Halfens, R.; Farrin, A.; Brown, J.; Schoonhoven, L.; Nixon, J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors independently predictive of pressure ulcer development in adult patient populations? DESIGN: A systematic review of primary research was undertaken, based upon methods recommended for effectiveness questions but adapted to identify observational risk factor studie

  3. Mindfulness Meditation for Substance Use Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rabago, David; Chawla, Neharika; Kushner, Kenneth; Koehler, Robert; Marlatt, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Relapse is common in substance use disorders (SUDs), even among treated individuals. The goal of this article was to systematically review the existing evidence on mindfulness meditation-based interventions (MM) for SUDs.

  4. Inheritance of the chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. A systematic review

    Ranjan, Ajenthen; Penninga, E; Jelsig, Am;

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review investigated the inheritance of the classical chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), primary myelofibrosis (PMF) and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Sixty-one articles were included and provided 135...

  5. The immune system in children with malnutrition - a systematic review

    Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter; Lilian Kolte; André Briend; Henrik Friis; Vibeke Brix Christensen

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnourished children have increased risk of dying, with most deaths caused by infectious diseases. One mechanism behind this may be impaired immune function. However, this immune deficiency of malnutrition has not previously been systematically reviewed.OBJECTIVES: To review the scientific literature about immune function in children with malnutrition.METHODS: A systematic literature search was done in PubMed, and additional articles identified in reference lists and by correspon...

  6. Postoperative Mobilization Regimens Following Digital Nerve Repair: A Systematic Review

    Jabir, Shehab; Iwuagwu, Fortune C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Currently there is a multiplicity of postoperative mobility-based rehabilitation protocols following isolated digital nerve repair. The regime chosen appears to be dependent on the preference of the surgeon and unit rather than being evidence based. We aim to systematically review the current evidence to provide an insight toward formulating guidelines for best practice. Methods: The study was carried out in accordance to the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews. Medline, Emb...

  7. Psychological antecedents of excess gestational weight gain: a systematic review

    Kapadia, Mufiza Zia; Gaston, Anca; Van Blyderveen, Sherry; Schmidt, Louis; Beyene, Joseph; McDonald, Helen; McDonald, Sarah D

    2015-01-01

    Background Excess gestational weight gain (GWG), which has reached epidemic proportions, is associated with adverse outcomes during pregnancy and postpartum obesity in women and children. Psychological variables represent potentially modifiable factors. Moreover, previous systematic reviews on GWG interventions have called for the need for a clearer understanding of psychological factors affecting GWG. Hence, a systematic review was conducted to summarize the relation between psychological fa...

  8. Systematic reviews of epidemiology in diabetes: finding the evidence

    Waugh Norman; Bain Lynda; Royle Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Methodological research to support searching for those doing systematic reviews of epidemiological studies is a relatively neglected area. Our aim was to determine how many databases it is necessary to search to ensure a comprehensive coverage of the literature in diabetes epidemiology, with the aim of examining the efficiency of searching in support of systematic reviews of the epidemiology of diabetes Methods Three approaches were used. First, we defined a set of English...

  9. Mental health screening tools in correctional institutions: a systematic review

    Martin, Michael S.; Colman, Ian; Simpson, Alexander IF; McKenzie, Kwame

    2013-01-01

    Background Past studies have identified poor rates of detection of mental illness among inmates. Consequently, mental health screening is a common feature to various correctional mental health strategies and best practice guidelines. However, there is little guidance to support the selection of an appropriate tool. This systematic review compared the sensitivity and specificity of mental health screening tools among adult jail or prison populations. Methods A systematic review of MEDLINE and ...

  10. Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Marie-Ève Riou; Simon Jomphe-Tremblay; Gilles Lamothe; Dawn Stacey; Agnieszka Szczotka; Éric Doucet

    2015-01-01

    Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass) over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation...

  11. Preventing food allergy: protocol for a rapid systematic review

    De Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S.; Thusu, Sundeep; Rader, Tamara; Halken, Susanne; Muraro, Antonella; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention,...

  12. Media Roles in Suicide Prevention: A Systematic Review

    Airi Värnik; Merike Sisask

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation). The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and ...

  13. Patterns of skeletal fractures in child abuse: systematic review

    Kemp, Alison M; Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R; Maguire, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types. Design Systematic review. Data sources All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, Assia, Caredata, Child Data, CINAHL, ISI Proceedings, Sciences Citation, Social Science Citation Index, SIGLE, Scopus, TRIP, and Socia...

  14. A Web-based archive of systematic review data

    Ip Stanley

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systematic reviews have become increasingly critical to informing healthcare policy; however, they remain a time-consuming and labor-intensive activity. The extraction of data from constituent studies comprises a significant portion of this effort, an activity which is often needlessly duplicated, such as when attempting to update a previously conducted review or in reviews of overlapping topics. In order to address these inefficiencies, and to improve the speed and quality of healthcare policy- and decision-making, we have initiated the development of the Systematic Review Data Repository, an open collaborative Web-based repository of systematic review data. As envisioned, this resource would serve as both a central archive and data extraction tool, shared among and freely accessible to organizations producing systematic reviews worldwide. A suite of easy-to-use software tools with a Web frontend would enable researchers to seamlessly search for and incorporate previously deposited data into their own reviews, as well as contribute their own. In developing this resource, we identified a number of technical and non-technical challenges, as well as devised a number of potential solutions, including proposals for systems and software tools to assure data quality, stratify and control user access effectively and flexibly accommodate all manner of study data, as well as means by which to govern and foster adoption of this new resource. Herein we provide an account of the rationale and development of the Systematic Review Data Repository thus far, as well as outline its future trajectory.

  15. Obesity and Healthcare Avoidance: A Systematic Review

    Robert D McGuigan; Jenny M Wilkinson

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of health care avoidance and obesity. English language journal articles published between 1990 and 2012 that addressed the review question|“is being overweight or obese an unrecognized factor in healthcare avoidance?” were located using major databases. A modified JADAD scoring system was then used to assess papers. Ten papers were identified which directly addressed the review question. A positive relationship exists between obesity and healthcare avoidance. T...

  16. Use of Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Environmental Health Epidemiology: a Systematic Review and Comparison with Guidelines

    Sheehan, Mary C; Lam, Juleen

    2015-01-01

    Systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) have potential to contribute substantially to environmental health (EH) risk assessment and policy-making, provided study questions are clear and methods sound. We undertook a systematic review of the published epidemiological literature for studies using both SR and MA examining associations between chronic low-dose chemical exposures and adverse health outcomes in general populations and compared actual methods and reporting with a checklist bas...

  17. Conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic studies: didactic guidelines

    de Vet Henrica CW

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although guidelines for critical appraisal of diagnostic research and meta-analyses have already been published, these may be difficult to understand for clinical researchers or do not provide enough detailed information. Methods Development of guidelines based on a systematic review of the evidence in reports of systematic searches of the literature for diagnostic research, of methodological criteria to evaluate diagnostic research, of methods for statistical pooling of data on diagnostic accuracy, and of methods for exploring heterogeneity. Results Guidelines for conducting diagnostic systematic reviews are presented in a stepwise fashion and are followed by comments providing further information. Examples are given using the results of two systematic reviews on the accuracy of the urine dipstick in the diagnosis of urinary tract infections, and on the accuracy of the straight-leg-raising test in the diagnosis of intervertebral disc hernia.

  18. Optimal strategies to consider when peer reviewing a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Moher, David

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews are popular. A recent estimate indicates that 11 new systematic reviews are published daily. Nevertheless, evidence indicates that the quality of reporting of systematic reviews is not optimal. One likely reason is that the authors' reports have received inadequate peer review. There are now many different types of systematic reviews and peer reviewing them can be enhanced by using a reporting guideline to supplement whatever template the journal editors have asked you, as a peer reviewer, to use. Additionally, keeping up with the current literature, whether as a content expert or being aware of advances in systematic review methods is likely be make for a more comprehensive and effective peer review. Providing a brief summary of what the systematic review has reported is an important first step in the peer review process (and not performed frequently enough). At its core, it provides the authors with some sense of what the peer reviewer believes was performed (Methods) and found (Results). Importantly, it also provides clarity regarding any potential problems in the methods, including statistical approaches for meta-analysis, results, and interpretation of the systematic review, for which the peer reviewer can seek explanations from the authors; these clarifications are best presented as questions to the authors. PMID:26521692

  19. Treatment of appendiceal mass– a qualitative systematic review

    Olsen, Jesper Arnold; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    . METHODS: The analysis was based on the principles of a qualitative systematic review. The literature was searched in PubMed for the period from 1966 to March 2014. The articles were reviewed with respect to complications, treatment failure and hospital stay. Papers on post-operative intra...

  20. A systematic review of peri-operative melatonin

    Andersen, L P H; Werner, M U; Rosenberg, J;

    2014-01-01

    We systematically reviewed randomised controlled trials of peri-operative melatonin. We included 24 studies of 1794 participants that reported eight peri-operative outcomes: anxiety; analgesia; sleep quality; oxidative stress; emergence behaviour; anaesthetic requirements; steal induction; and......%, respectively. Qualitative reviews suggested the melatonin improved sleep quality and emergence behaviour, and might be capable of reducing oxidative stress and anaesthetic requirements....

  1. Research on Teaching Practicum--A Systematic Review

    Lawson, Tony; Çakmak, Melek; Gündüz, Müge; Busher, Hugh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review research which focuses on research studies into the school practicum. In order to identify the main issues and also to provide a contemporary picture of practicum, 114 studies published on the topic are reviewed and analysed in terms of: (i) aims, (ii) main participants, (iii)…

  2. Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke : systematic review

    Rensink, Marijke; Schuurmans, Marieke; Lindeman, Eline; Hafsteinsdottir, Thora

    2009-01-01

    Task-oriented training in rehabilitation after stroke: systematic review. This paper is a report of a review conducted to provide an overview of the evidence in the literature on task-oriented training of stroke survivors and its relevance in daily nursing practice. Stroke is the second leading caus

  3. The immune system in children with malnutrition - a systematic review

    Rytter, Maren Johanne Heilskov; Kolte, Lilian; Briend, André;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malnourished children have increased risk of dying, with most deaths caused by infectious diseases. One mechanism behind this may be impaired immune function. However, this immune deficiency of malnutrition has not previously been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To review the sci...

  4. Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

  5. Biofeedback for psychiatric disorders: a systematic review

    Schoenberg, P.L.; David, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Biofeedback potentially provides non-invasive, effective psychophysiological interventions for psychiatric disorders. The encompassing purpose of this review was to establish how biofeedback interventions have been used to treat select psychiatric disorders [anxiety, autistic spectrum disorders, dep

  6. Recent advancements in fluoride: A systematic review

    Bansal, Ankita; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Ingle, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    To review advancements of fluoride in dentistry, a search of 21 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Fluoride has become an important tool in preventive dentistry. Current research is f...

  7. Applicability and generalisability of the results of systematic reviews to public health practice and policy: a systematic review

    Dechartres Agnès

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study was to evaluate systematic reviews of research into two public health priorities, tobacco consumption and HIV infection, in terms of the reporting of data related to the applicability of trial results (i.e., whether the results of a trial can be reasonably applied or generalized to a definable group of patients in a particular setting in routine practice, also called external validity or generalisability. Methods All systematic reviews of interventions aimed at reducing or stopping tobacco use and treating or preventing HIV infection published in the Cochrane database of systematic reviews and in journals indexed in MEDLINE between January 1997 and December 2007 were selected. We used a standardized data abstraction form to extract data related to applicability in terms of the context of the trial, (country, centres, settings, participants (recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, baseline characteristics of participants such as age, sex, ethnicity, coexisting diseases or co-morbidities, and socioeconomic status, treatment (duration, intensity/dose of treatment, timing and delivery format, and the outcomes assessment from selected reviews. Results A total of 98 systematic reviews were selected (57 Cochrane reviews and 41 non-Cochrane reviews; 49 evaluated interventions aimed at reducing or stopping tobacco use and 49 treating or preventing HIV infection. The setting of the individual studies was reported in 45 (46% of the systematic reviews, the number of centres in 21 (21%, and the country where the trial took place in 62 (63%. Inclusion and exclusion criteria of the included studies were reported in 16 (16% and 13 (13% of the reviews, respectively. Baseline characteristics of participants in the included studies were described in 59 (60% of the reviews. These characteristics concerned age in about half of the reviews, sex in 46 (47%, and ethnicity in 9 (9%. Applicability of results was

  8. A Systematic Map of Systematic Reviews in Pediatric Dentistry : What Do We Really Know?

    Mejàre, Ingegerd A.; Klingberg, Gunilla; Frida K Mowafi; Stecksén-Blicks, Christina; Twetman, Svante H. A.; Tranaeus, Sofia H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. Methods A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment...

  9. Obesity and Healthcare Avoidance: A Systematic Review

    Robert D McGuigan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review addresses the issue of health care avoidance and obesity. English language journal articles published between 1990 and 2012 that addressed the review question|“is being overweight or obese an unrecognized factor in healthcare avoidance?” were located using major databases. A modified JADAD scoring system was then used to assess papers. Ten papers were identified which directly addressed the review question. A positive relationship exists between obesity and healthcare avoidance. The major contributory factors were being female, have a diagnosed mental health problem and perceived or actual bias and discrimination by health professionals. The review also highlights the importance of the relationship between healthcare professionals and their patients, and the physical environment in which interactions occur as these may contribute to avoidance behaviors. Concern about obesity is rising and while there has been much discussion about strategies to reduce obesity this review highlights the need for thinking more broadly about the way in which overweight and obese individuals interact with preventative health strategies.

  10. Recent advancements in fluoride: A systematic review

    Bansal, Ankita; Ingle, Navin Anand; Kaur, Navpreet; Ingle, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    To review advancements of fluoride in dentistry, a search of 21 electronic databases and World Wide Web was conducted. Relevant journals were hand searched and further information was requested from authors. Inclusion criteria were a predefined hierarchy of evidence and objectives. Study validity was assessed with checklists. Two reviewers independently screened sources, extracted data, and assessed validity. Fluoride has become an important tool in preventive dentistry. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. Fluoride therapy in the form of varnish, gel, mouth rinse, or toothpaste has been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention for over three decades. The purpose of this review is to inform the reader about new research related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. PMID:26539383

  11. Quality assessment of systematic reviews on alveolar socket preservation.

    Moraschini, V; Barboza, E Dos S P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this overview was to evaluate and compare the quality of systematic reviews, with or without meta-analysis, that have evaluated studies on techniques or biomaterials used for the preservation of alveolar sockets post tooth extraction in humans. An electronic search was conducted without date restrictions using the Medline/PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases up to April 2015. Eligibility criteria included systematic reviews, with or without meta-analysis, focused on the preservation of post-extraction alveolar sockets in humans. Two independent authors assessed the quality of the included reviews using AMSTAR and the checklist proposed by Glenny et al. in 2003. After the selection process, 12 systematic reviews were included. None of these reviews obtained the maximum score using the quality assessment tools implemented, and the results of the analyses were highly variable. A significant statistical correlation was observed between the scores of the two checklists. A wide structural and methodological variability was observed between the systematic reviews published on the preservation of alveolar sockets post tooth extraction. None of the reviews evaluated obtained the maximum score using the two quality assessment tools implemented. PMID:27061478

  12. Fibrinogen concentrate for bleeding - a systematic review

    Lunde, J; Stensballe, J; Wikkelsø, A;

    2014-01-01

    Fibrinogen concentrate as part of treatment protocols increasingly draws attention. Fibrinogen substitution in cases of hypofibrinogenaemia has the potential to reduce bleeding, transfusion requirement and subsequently reduce morbidity and mortality. A systematic search for randomised controlled...... trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies investigating fibrinogen concentrate in bleeding patients was conducted up to November 2013. We included 30 studies of 3480 identified (7 RCTs and 23 non-randomised). Seven RCTs included a total of 268 patients (165 adults and 103 paediatric), and all were...... mortality were lacking. Weak evidence from RCTs supports the use of fibrinogen concentrate in bleeding patients, primarily in elective cardiac surgery, but a general use of fibrinogen across all settings is only supported by non-randomised studies with serious methodological shortcomings. It seems pre...

  13. Diabetic nephropathy in Africa: A systematic review

    2015-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence and incidence ofdiabetic nephropathy in Africa.METHODS: We performed a systematic narrativereview of published literature following the MOOSEGuidelines for Meta-Analysis and Systematic Reviewsof Observational Studies. We searched PubMed-MEDLINE for all articles published in English and Frenchlanguages between January 1994 and July 2014 usinga predefined strategy based on the combination ofrelevant terms and the names of each of the 54 Africancountries and African sub-regions to capture the largestnumber of studies, and hand-searched the referencelists of retrieved articles. Included studies reported onthe prevalence, incidence or determinants of chronickidney disease (CKD) in people with diabetes withinAfrican countries.RESULTS: Overall, we included 32 studies from 16countries; two being population-based studies andthe remaining being clinic-based surveys. Most of thestudies (90.6%) were conducted in urban settings.Methods for assessing and classifying CKD variedwidely. Measurement of urine protein was the mostcommon method of assessing kidney damage (62.5%of studies). The overall prevalence of CKD varied from11% to 83.7%. Incident event rates were 94.9% forproteinuria at 10 years of follow-up, 34.7% for endstagerenal disease at 5 years of follow-up and 18.4%for mortality from nephropathy at 20 years of followup.Duration of diabetes, blood pressure, advancingage, obesity and glucose control were the commondeterminants of kidney disease.CONCLUSION: The burden of CKD is importantamong people with diabetes in Africa. High quality datafrom large population-based studies with validatedmeasures of kidney function are still needed to bettercapture the magnitude and characteristics of diabeticnephropathy in Africa.

  14. Primary localised cutaneous amyloidosis - a systematic review

    Kaltoft, Britta; Schmidt, Grethe; Lauritzen, Anne Falensteen;

    2013-01-01

    Amyloidosis is defined as extracellular deposits of heterogenic, misfolded proteins, amyloid fibrils, in various tissues. The aim of our study was to review the literature and to evaluate the risk of developing systemic amyloidosis (SA) and the risk of local recurrence of primary localised...

  15. Systematic review on cashew nut allergy

    van der Valk, J. P. M.; Dubois, A. E. J.; van Wijk, R. Gerth; Wichers, H. J.; de Jong, N. W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on cashew nut allergy suggest that the prevalence of cashew nut allergy is increasing. Cashew nut consumption by allergic patients can cause severe reactions, including anaphylaxis. This review summarizes current knowledge on cashew nut allergy to facilitate timely clinical recognitio

  16. Systematic assessment and evaluation of sliding interleaved kY (SLINKY) acquisition for 3D MRA.

    Liu, K; Lee, D H; Rutt, B K

    1998-01-01

    In comparison with the conventional three-dimensional multiple overlapped thin slab acquisition (MOTSA) for magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), we have developed a novel sliding interleaved kY (SLINKY) acquisition technique, which can eliminate the slab boundary artifact (SBA) or venetian blind artifact without any a priori knowledge of blood flow. This work addresses the systematic assessment and evaluation of the SLINKY technique and verifies the advantages of SLINKY in the following several aspects: (a) scan time efficiency; (b) signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR); (c) sensitivity to flow velocity range; (d) sensitivity to flow direction; (e) signal loss in slow/reversal flow regions; and (f) reconstruction efficiency and feasibility. Both phantom and in vivo experiments verify the clinical significance of the technique. The new MRA images acquired with this imaging technique in 31 volunteer/patient examinations show highly reliable mapping of vascular morphology without the SBA and reduction of signal voids in complex/slow flow regions. PMID:9702894

  17. Attachment systems for mandibular implant overdentures: a systematic review

    Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Jeong-Yol; Shin, Sang-Wan; Bryant, S. Ross

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this systematic review was to address treatment outcome according to attachment systems for mandibular implant overdentures in terms of implant survival rate, prosthetic maintenance and complications, and patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted using PubMed and hand searching of relevant journals considering inclusion and exclusion criteria. Clinical trial studies on mandibular implant overdentures until August, 2010 were sel...

  18. Prenatal Depression and Adverse Birth Outcomes: An Updated Systematic Review

    Accortt, EE; Cheadle, ACD; Dunkel Schetter, C

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York Complications related to preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) are leading causes of infant morbidity and mortality. Prenatal depression is a hypothesized psychosocial risk factor for both birth outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine evidence published between 1977 and 2013 on prenatal depression and risks of these primary adverse birth outcomes. A systematic search of the PUBMED and PsycINFO databases was conduc...

  19. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS: PITFALLS OF METHODS

    Yu. V. Lukina; S. Yu. Martsevich; N. P. Kutishenko

    2016-01-01

    Methods that allow to systematize the accumulated information on specifically formulated questions, analyze it and make reliable findings are of great interest and popularity with the emergence of a huge number of studies and publications in various fields of medicine, a significant increase in information, failure to identify weak effects in the individual studies. The use of systematic reviews and high-quality meta-analysis is an analytical basis of evidence-based medicine, it is a very val...

  20. Quality of Pharmaceutical Advertisements in Medical Journals: A Systematic Review

    Othman, Noordin; Vitry, Agnes; Roughead, Elizabeth E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Journal advertising is one of the main sources of medicines information to doctors. Despite the availability of regulations and controls of drug promotion worldwide, information on medicines provided in journal advertising has been criticized in several studies for being of poor quality. However, no attempt has been made to systematically summarise this body of research. We designed this systematic review to assess all studies that have examined the quality of pharmaceutical advert...

  1. Occupational risk factors for shoulder pain: a systematic review

    Windt - Mens, van der, D.A.W.M.; Thomas, E; Pope, D. P.; Winter, de, D.; Macfarlane, G. J.; Bouter, L M; Silman, A J

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To systematically evaluate the available evidence on occupational risk factors of shoulder pain.
METHODS—Relevant reports were identified by a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Psychlit, Cinahl, and Current Contents. The quality of the methods of all selected publications was assessed by two independent reviewers using a standardised checklist. Details were extracted on the study population, exposures (physical load and psychosocial work environment), and results for the associ...

  2. Quality assessment of systematic reviews or meta-analyses of nursing interventions conducted by Korean reviewers

    Seo Hyun-Ju

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A systematic review is used to investigate the best available evidence of clinical safety and effectiveness of healthcare intervention. This requires methodological rigor in order to minimize bias and random error. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of systematic reviews or meta-analyses for nursing interventions conducted by Korean researchers. Methods We searched electronic databases from 1950 to July 2010, including ovidMEDLINE, ovidEMBASE, and Korean databases, including KoreaMed, Korean Medical Database, and Korean studies Information Service System etc. Two reviewers independently screened and selected all references, and assessed the quality of systematic reviews or meta-analyses using the “Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews" (AMSTAR tool. Results Twenty two systematic reviews or meta-analyses were included in this study. The median overall score (out of 11 for included reviews was 5 (range 2–11 and the mean overall score for AMSTAR was 4.7 (95% confidence interval 3.8-5.7. Nine out of 22 reviews were rated as low quality (AMSTAR score 0–4, 11 were rated as moderate quality (AMSTAR score 5–8, and two reviews were categorized as high quality (AMSTAR score 9–11. Conclusions The methodological quality of published reviews on nursing interventions conducted by Korean reviewers was assessed as low to moderate. In order to use the best available evidence in clinical decision making, reviewers should conduct systematic reviews or meta- analyses using rigorous research methods.

  3. Acupuncture improves cognitive function A systematic review

    Mason Chin Pang Leung; Ka Keung Yip; Chung Tsung Lam; Ka Shun Lam; Wai Lau; Wing Lam Yu; Amethyst King Man Leung; Kwok-fai So

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acupuncture has been used as a treatment for cognitive impairment.OBJECTIVE: This review assesses clinical evidence for or against acupuncture as a treatment for cognitive impairment. This review also discusses the proposed mechanism(s) that could link acupuncture to improved cognitive function.RESULTS: Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria: 3 human studies and 9 animal studies. Levels of evidence ranged from level 1b to level 5.CONCLUSION: Most animal studies demonstrated a positive effect of acupuncture on cognitive impairment. However, the results of human studies were inconsistent. Further high-quality human studies with greater statistical power are needed to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture and an optimal protocol.

  4. Wrist arthroplasty--a systematic review

    Boeckstyns, Michel E H

    2014-01-01

    was to review the literature on second, third and fourth generation implants. METHODS: The review was conducted according to the PRISMA-guidelines. A search was made using a protocolled strategy and well-defined criteria in PubMed, in the Cochrane Library and by screening reference lists. RESULTS: 37...... to improve function through pain reduction and preservation of mobility. The risk of severe complications - deep infection and instability problems - is small with the available implants. Implant survival of 90-100% at five years are reported in most series - if not all - using newer second generation...... and third generation implants, but declines from five to eight years. Periprosthetic osteolysis/radiolucency is frequently reported. Its causes and consequences are not clarified....

  5. Meta-Review: Systematic Assessment of Program Review

    Harlan, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Over 20 years ago, Robert J. Barak and Barbara E. Breier suggested incorporating a regular assessment of the entire program review system into the review schedule in order to ensure that the system itself is as efficient and effective as the programs under review. Barak and Breier's seminal book on the goals and processes of program review has…

  6. Science of floorball: a systematic review

    Tervo, Taru

    2014-01-01

    Taru Tervo,1 Anna Nordström2 1Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Floorball Research and Development Center, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, 2Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational leve...

  7. Science of floorball: a systematic review

    Tervo T; Nordström A

    2014-01-01

    Taru Tervo,1 Anna Nordström2 1Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Floorball Research and Development Center, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, 2Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine, Umeå School of Sport Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden Background: The purpose of this study was to comprehensively review the scientific research on floorball at the competitive and recreational levels according to fiel...

  8. Systemic mastocytosis--a systematic review

    Andersen, Christen Lykkegaard; Kristensen, Thomas Kielsgaard; Severinsen, Marianne Tang;

    2012-01-01

    The mast cell lives a hidden life, but it is implicated in several physiological reactions. Its ability to react to different stimuli impacts a variety of conditions such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, urticaria and anaphylaxis. It is not until recent decades that the evolution of the cell has bee...... described and its fascinating biology has only recently been depicted. We here give a review of systemic mastocytosis in regards to cell biology, diagnostic approaches and clinical practice....

  9. Antioxidants for Preventing Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review

    Adriana Magalhaes Ribeiro Salles; Tais Freire Galvao; Marcus Tolentino Silva; Lucilia Casulari Domingues Motta; Mauricio Gomes Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the efficacy of antioxidants for preventing preeclampsia and other maternal and fetal complications among pregnant women with low, moderate, or high risk of preeclampsia. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, mRCT, and other databases, with no language or publication restrictions. Two independent reviewers selected randomized controlled trials that evaluated the use of antioxidants versus placebo and extracted the relevant data. Relative risks (RRs) and 95% ...

  10. Psychological interventions for migraine: a systematic review

    Sullivan, Andrew; Cousins, Sian; Ridsdale, Leone Lorna

    2016-01-01

    Migraine causes major health impairment anddisability. Psychological interventions offer an addition topharmacotherapy but they are not currently recommendedby the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) oravailable in the National Health Service. We aimed tosystematically review evidence on the efficacy of psychologicalinterventions for migraine in adults. A search wasdone of MEDLINE, psychINFO, http://www.opengrey.eu,the meta-register of controlled trials and bibliographies.Twenty-...

  11. Cycling and bone health: a systematic review

    Olmedillas Hugo; González-Agüero Alejandro; Moreno Luis A; Casajus José A; Vicente-Rodríguez Germán

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass. Methods A scientific literature search on studies discussing bone mass and bone metabolism in cyclists was performed to collect all relevant published material up to April 2012. Descriptive, cross-sectional, longitudinal and interventional studies were all reviewed. Inclusion criteria...

  12. The Validity of Rasterstereography: A Systematic Review.

    Mohokum, Melvin; Schülein, Samuel; Skwara, Adrian

    2015-09-28

    To investigate and monitor the progression of scoliosis and other spinal deformities in patients following idiopathic scoliosis (IS), non-invasive and radiation-free techniques are recommended because of the need for repeated radiographs. In a clinical setting, spine parameters can be quickly, cheaply and easily assessed using rasterstereography (RS). To assess the validity of the radiation-free technique RS based on surface topography compared with radiographs. MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE were systematically searched for studies which investigate the validity of rasterstereography compared with x-ray measurements. Studies published between January 1, 1990 and July 31, 2013 in English, German and French were included. Studies dealing with magnetic resonance imaging were excluded. Twelve studies with 570 patients were included; these articles were published between 1990 and 2013. The majority of studies investigated patients with IS, but other spinal pathologies included were thoracic hyperkyphosis and Scheuermann's disease. With regard to the quality assessment criteria for the included studies, three out of twelve studies were evaluated using a twelve point scale and two used a scale with eleven points. We conclude that RS facilitates clinical practice by analysing the spinal column. It is completely radiation-free and could help to monitor scoliosis progression. PMID:26605027

  13. A Systematic Review of Audiology Terminology.

    Oh, Soo Hee; Lee, Junghak

    2016-09-01

    The present report provides an overview of terminology studies in audiology including topics and study characteristics, as well as categorizing the main issues. The goals are to improve the understanding of the current issues for terminology in audiology and to provide some basic information that will be useful to develop an international standard. Search procedures were completed over two phases. Phase 1 included a systematic electronic searches using MEDLINE (PubMed), Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and International Organization for Standardization with keywords related to terminology of audiology. The studies were initially identified according to the titles of 2921 publications following careful abstract examination. Of these, whole texts of 16 publications were retrieved. Five papers met the inclusion criteria were further investigated. In phase 2, a manual search was conducted to collect additional publications with keywords related to terminology project in audiology. A total of 16 papers were found. The essential terminology issues classified included 'appropriateness,' 'classification/framework,' 'inconsistency of terminology,' 'multilingual and international aspects,' and 'service quality/delivery including communication and accessibility.' This was indicative of the paucity of terminology research in audiology, despite recurring terminology issues. Establishment of standardized terminology in audiology may minimize current challenging terminology issues by improving appropriateness and consistency of terminology as well as communication among relevant stakeholders at national and international levels. PMID:27626085

  14. Sedentary behavior and health outcomes: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende

    Full Text Available 1 To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2 To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found.Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase; PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers.This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted.

  15. Systematic reviews of anesthesiologic interventions reported as statistically significant

    Imberger, Georgina; Gluud, Christian; Boylan, John;

    2015-01-01

    nominally statistically significant meta-analyses of anesthesiologic interventions, we used TSA to estimate power and imprecision in the context of sparse data and repeated updates. METHODS: We conducted a search to identify all systematic reviews with meta-analyses that investigated an intervention that...... updates. RESULTS: From 11,870 titles, we found 682 systematic reviews that investigated anesthesiologic interventions. In the 50 sampled meta-analyses, the median number of trials included was 8 (interquartile range [IQR], 5-14), the median number of participants was 964 (IQR, 523-1736), and the median...

  16. Multiple Pituitary Adenomas: A Systematic Review

    Budan, Renata M.; Georgescu, Carmen E.

    2016-01-01

    PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science Core Collection databases were systematically searched for studies reporting synchronous double or multiple pituitary adenomas (MPA), a rare clinical condition, with a vague pathogenesis. Multiple adenomas of the pituitary gland are referred to as morphologically and/or immunocytochemically distinct tumors that are frequently small-sized and hormonally non-functional, to account for the low detection rate. There is no general agreement on how to classify MPA, various criteria, such as tumor contiguity, immunoreactivity, and clonality analysis are being used. Among the component tumors, prolactin (PRL)-immunopositive adenomas are highly prevalent, albeit mute in the majority of cases. The most frequent clinical presentation of MPA is Cushing’s syndrome, given the fact that in more than 50% of reported cases at least one lesion stains for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). Plurihormonal hyperactivity may be diagnosed in a patient with MPA when more than one tumor is clinically active (e.g., ACTH and PRL) or in cases with at least one composite tumor (e.g., GH and PRL), to complicate the clinical scenario. Specific challenges associated with MPA include high surgical failure rates, enforcing second-look surgery in certain cases, and difficult preoperative neuroradiological imaging evaluation, with an overall sensitivity of only 25% for magnetic resonance imaging to detect distinct multiple tumors. Alternatively, minor pituitary imaging abnormalities may raise suspicion, as these are not uncommon. Postoperative immunohistochemistry is mandatory and in conjunction to electron microscopy scanning and testing for transcription factors (i.e., Pit-1, T-pit, and SF-1) accurately define and classify the distinct cytodifferentiation of MPA. PMID:26869991

  17. Antioxidants for Preventing Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review

    Adriana Magalhaes Ribeiro Salles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy of antioxidants for preventing preeclampsia and other maternal and fetal complications among pregnant women with low, moderate, or high risk of preeclampsia. Methods. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, mRCT, and other databases, with no language or publication restrictions. Two independent reviewers selected randomized controlled trials that evaluated the use of antioxidants versus placebo and extracted the relevant data. Relative risks (RRs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated. The data were compiled through the random effects model. Main Results. Fifteen studies were included (21,012 women and 21,647 fetuses. No statistically significant difference was found between women who received antioxidant treatment and women who received placebo for preeclampsia (RR =0.92; 95% CI: 0.82–1.04, severe preeclampsia (RR =1.03; 95% CI: 0.87–1.22, preterm birth (RR =1.03; 95% CI: 0.94–1.14, and small for gestational age <10th centile (RR =0.92; 95% CI: 0.80–1.05. Side effects were numerically more frequent in the antioxidants group compared to placebo, but without significant statistical difference (RR =1.24; 95% CI: 0.85–1.80. Conclusions. The available evidence reviewed does not support the use of antioxidants during pregnancy for the prevention of preeclampsia and other outcomes.

  18. Resveratrol and liver: A systematic review

    Forouzan Faghihzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies demonstrated that resveratrol has many therapeutic effects on liver disorders. Resveratrol significantly increased survival after liver transplantation, decreased fat deposition, necrosis, and apoptosis which induced by ischemia in Wistar rats. It provided liver protection against chemical, cholestatic, and alcohol injury. Resveratrol can improve glucose metabolism and lipid profile and decrease liver fibrosis and steatosis. Furthermore, it was able to alter hepatic cell fatty acid composition. According to extension of liver disease around the world and necessity of finding new threat, this review critically examines the current preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies on the preventive and therapeutic effects of resveratrol in liver disorders. Materials and Methods: A search in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms, including "liver," "hepatic," and "Resveratrol." Both in vivo and in vitro studies were included. No time limiting considered for this search. Results: A total of 76 articles were eligible for this review. In these articles, resveratrol shows antioxidative properties in different models of hepatitis resulting in reducing of hepatic fibrosis. Conclusion: Resveratrol could reduce hepatic steatosis through modulating the insulin resistance and lipid profile in animals. These high quality preclinical studies propose the potential therapeutic implication of resveratrol in liver disorders especially those with hepatic steatosis. Resveratrol can play a pivotal role in prevention and treatment of liver disorders by reducing hepatic fibrosis.

  19. The effectiveness of massage therapy for the treatment of nonspecific low back pain: a systematic review of systematic reviews

    Kumar S

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saravana Kumar,1 Kate Beaton,1 Tricia Hughes2 1International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; 2Australian Association of Massage Therapists, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia Introduction: The last decade has seen a growth in the utilization of complementary and alternative medicine therapies, and one of the most popular and sought-after complementary and alternative medicine therapies for nonspecific low back pain is massage. Massage may often be perceived as a safe therapeutic modality without any significant risks or side effects. However, despite its popularity, there continues to be ongoing debate on the effectiveness of massage in treating nonspecific low back pain. With a rapidly evolving research evidence base and access to innovative means of synthesizing evidence, it is time to reinvestigate this issue. Methods: A systematic, step-by-step approach, underpinned by best practice in reviewing the literature, was utilized as part of the methodology of this umbrella review. A systematic search was conducted in the following databases: Embase, MEDLINE, AMED, ICONDA, Academic Search Premier, Australia/New Zealand Reference Centre, CINAHL, HealthSource, SPORTDiscus, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, investigating systematic reviews and meta-analyses from January 2000 to December 2012, and restricted to English-language documents. Methodological quality of included reviews was undertaken using the Centre for Evidence Based Medicine critical appraisal tool. Results: Nine systematic reviews were found. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews varied (from poor to excellent although, overall, the primary research informing these systematic reviews was generally considered to be weak quality. The findings indicate that massage may be an

  20. Curcumin and Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    Dong-wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa, a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, has been used for the treatment of diabetes in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine. The active component of turmeric, curcumin, has caught attention as a potential treatment for diabetes and its complications primarily because it is a relatively safe and inexpensive drug that reduces glycemia and hyperlipidemia in rodent models of diabetes. Here, we review the recent literature on the applications of curcumin for glycemia and diabetes-related liver disorders, adipocyte dysfunction, neuropathy, nephropathy, vascular diseases, pancreatic disorders, and other complications, and we also discuss its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The applications of additional curcuminoid compounds for diabetes prevention and treatment are also included in this paper. Finally, we mention the approaches that are currently being sought to generate a “super curcumin” through improvement of the bioavailability to bring this promising natural product to the forefront of diabetes therapeutics.

  1. A systematic review of best practices in HIV care

    Maina, Geoffrey; Mill, Judy; Chaw-Kant, Jean; Caine, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Best practices in HIV care have the potential to improve patient outcomes and inform practice. We conducted a systematic review of best practices in HIV care that were published from 2003 to 2013. Practices that demonstrated success in achieving desired results based on their objectives were included in the review. Two themes emerged from the eight articles reviewed: (a) the importance of linking newly diagnosed people living with HIV to care and (b) the role of integrated and comprehensive service provision in improving patient outcomes. Inconsistencies in reporting and arbitrary use of the term “best practices” were hurdles in this review. PMID:27152102

  2. A systematic review of neuropsychological performance in social anxiety disorder

    O'Toole, Mia Skytte; Pedersen, Anders Degn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been an increasing interest in the neuropsychological performance of patients with anxiety disorders, yet the literature does not provide a systematic review of the results concerning adult patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD). Aims: The primary...... aim of this paper is to review the literature on neuropsychological performance in adult patients with SAD. Methods: This paper is a systematic review of empirical studies investigating neuropsychological performance as assessed by cognitive tests. Results: 30 papers were located comprising a total...... number of 698 adult patients with SAD. The review revealed indication for decreased performance regarding visual scanning and visuoconstructional ability as well as some indication for verbal memory difficulties. Conclusion: The impact of possible confounding variables on the neuropsychological...

  3. A Critical Review of Motivation in Second Language Acquisition Research

    欧阳晓娟

    2009-01-01

    As one of the major factors affecting second language learners' success to their acquisition achievement, motivation has been examined in a wide variety of research papers. It is thus instructive to conduct a critical review of both theoretical and empirical developments in SLA research from over the last few decades. This approach will provide a broad, and integrated perspective onto the current understanding of the complex topic of motivation. Such an undertaking is valuable for teachers, and researchers alike, in developing useful teaching methods, and finding future avenues of SLA motivation research respectively.The following paper provides an overview of recent theoretical and empirical findings, examines some of the problems and contradictions found/11 current SLA research, and gives an initial departure point for future directions of research in the area of motivation. The paper concludes with a discussion of some of the implications for teachers, and possible classroom strategies that axe drawn from the current body of motivation research.

  4. Rugby and Shoulder Trauma: A Systematic Review.

    Papalia, R; Tecame, A; Torre, G; Narbona, P; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2015-01-01

    Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and mechanisms of lesion, risk factors and return to sport were extracted and analyzed. The main reported data were incidence, mechanism of injury and type of lesion. Most of the studies report tackle as the main event responsible for shoulder trauma (between 50% and 85%), while the main lesions reported were Bankart lesions, Superior Labral tear from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP tears), anterior dislocation and rotator cuff tears. Open or arthroscopic repair improve clinical outcomes. Shoulder lesions are common injuries in rugby players. Surgical treatment seems to be effective in for rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability. More and better designed studies are needed for a higher Level of Evidence analysis of this topic. PMID:26535182

  5. ANAL FISSURE REVISITED : A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Manju

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Anal fissure is one of the most common anorectal problems. Anal fissure is largely associated with high anal sphincter pressures and most treatment options are based on reducing anal pressures. There are many options to treat chronic fissures in ano. Some of them are non - surgical while the others are su rgical. The efficacy claimed by each of the prevalent method is very high but the inconsistencies and contraindications are equally strong. To date, lateral sphincterotomy has been favoured by most of the proctologists, because it is the least extensive su rgical procedure and is offering a long lasting relief in sphincter spasm. Various management technique are reviewed in this article along with Advancement flap for anterior fissure and a new method combining the age - old technique of Lord's manual dilatati on followed by radio surgery is also highlighted along with their complications. The addition of radio surgery is found useful for refreshing the edges of the fissure and to tackle pathologies namely sentinel pile, small internal piles or hypertrophied ana l papillae often found associated with chronic fissures. Revisiting the trends of treatment of chronic anal fissures, the most preferred options are the manual dilatation with radio surgery and the subcutaneous lateral anal sphincterotomy. Both methods are easy to perform, have negligible complications and no special setup is needed, except the radio surgical unit, in case of the first procedure.

  6. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning.

    Mehrpour, Omid; Jafarzadeh, Mostafa; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2012-03-01

    Every year, about 300,000 people die because of pesticide poisoning worldwide. The most common pesticide agents are organophosphates and phosphides, aluminium phosphide (AlP) in particular. AlP is known as a suicide poison that can easily be bought and has no effective antidote. Its toxicity results from the release of phosphine gas as the tablet gets into contact with moisture. Phosphine gas primarily affects the heart, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys. Poisoning signs and symptoms include nausea, vomiting, restlessness, abdominal pain, palpitation, refractory shock, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, dyspnoea, cyanosis, and sensory alterations. Diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion, positive silver nitrate paper test to phosphine, and gastric aspirate and viscera biochemistry. Treatment includes early gastric lavage with potassium permanganate or a combination with coconut oil and sodium bicarbonate, administration of charcoal, and palliative care. Specific therapy includes intravenous magnesium sulphate and oral coconut oil. Moreover, acidosis can be treated with early intravenous administration of sodium bicarbonate, cardiogenic shock with fluid, vasopresor, and refractory cardiogenic shock with intra-aortic baloon pump or digoxin. Trimetazidine may also have a useful role in the treatment, because it can stop ventricular ectopic beats and bigeminy and preserve oxidative metabolism. This article reviews the epidemiological, toxicological, and clinical/pathological aspects of AlP poisoning and its management. PMID:22450207

  7. Mosaic Neurofibromatosis Type 1: A Systematic Review.

    García-Romero, Maria Teresa; Parkin, Patricia; Lara-Corrales, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Confusion is widespread regarding segmental or mosaic neurofibromatosis type 1 (MNF1). Physicians should use the same terms and be aware of its comorbidities and risks. The objective of the current study was to identify and synthesize data for cases of MNF1 published from 1977 to 2012 to better understand its significance and associations. After a literature search in PubMed, we reviewed all available relevant articles and abstracted and synthetized the relevant clinical data about manifestations, associated findings, family history and genetic testing. We identified 111 articles reporting 320 individuals. Most had pigmentary changes or neurofibromas only. Individuals with pigmentary changes alone were identified at a younger age. Seventy-six percent had localized MNF1 restricted to one segment; the remainder had generalized MNF1. Of 157 case reports, 29% had complications associated with NF1. In one large case series, 6.5% had offspring with complete NF1. The terms "segmental" and "type V" neurofibromatosis should be abandoned, and the correct term, mosaic NF1 (MNF1), should be used. All individuals with suspected MNF1 should have a complete physical examination, genetic testing of blood and skin, counseling, and health surveillance. PMID:26338194

  8. Perinatal Major Depression Biomarkers: A systematic review.

    Serati, M; Redaelli, M; Buoli, M; Altamura, A C

    2016-03-15

    Postpartum depression, now termed perinatal depression by the DSM-5, is a clinically relevant disorder reaching 15% of incidence. Although it is quite frequent and associated with high social dysfunction, only recently its underpinning biological pathways have been explored, while multiple and concomitant risk factors have been identified (e.g. psychosocial stress). Peripartum depression usually has its onset during the third trimester of pregnancy or in the postpartum, being one of the most common medical complications in new mothers. Purpose of the present review is to summarize the state of art of biological biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of perinatal depression, in view of the fact that suboptimal prenatal milieu can induce permanent damage in subsequent offspring life and have a negative impact on mother-child relationship. Furthermore, parents' biological changes due to medical/psychiatric disorders or stress exposure could influence offspring life: a concept known as 'intergenerational transmission', acting by variations into gametes and the gestational uterine environment. Given the evidence that perinatal mental disorders involve risks for the mother and offspring, the search for reliable biomarkers in high-risk mothers actually represents a medical priority to prevent perinatal depression. PMID:26802316

  9. Cupping for Treating Pain: A Systematic Review

    Jong-In Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the evidence for or against the effectiveness of cupping as a treatment option for pain. Fourteen databases were searched. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs testing cupping in patients with pain of any origin were considered. Trials using cupping with or without drawing blood were included, while trials comparing cupping with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials with cupping as concomitant treatment together with other treatments of unproven efficacy were excluded. Trials were also excluded if pain was not a central symptom of the condition. The selection of studies, data extraction and validation were performed independently by three reviewers. Seven RCTs met all the inclusion criteria. Two RCTs suggested significant pain reduction for cupping in low back pain compared with usual care (P < .01 and analgesia (P < .001. Another two RCTs also showed positive effects of cupping in cancer pain (P < .05 and trigeminal neuralgia (P < .01 compared with anticancer drugs and analgesics, respectively. Two RCTs reported favorable effects of cupping on pain in brachialgia compared with usual care (P = .03 or heat pad (P < .001. The other RCT failed to show superior effects of cupping on pain in herpes zoster compared with anti-viral medication (P = .065. Currently there are few RCTs testing the effectiveness of cupping in the management of pain. Most of the existing trials are of poor quality. Therefore, more rigorous studies are required before the effectiveness of cupping for the treatment of pain can be determined.

  10. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  11. Neuroimaging in childhood headache: a systematic review

    Alexiou, George A. [University of Ioannina, Department of Neurosurgery, Medical School, P.O. Box 103, Ioannina (Greece); Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2013-07-15

    Headache is a common complaint in children, one that gives rise to considerable parental concern and fear of the presence of a space-occupying lesion. The evaluation and diagnosis of headache is very challenging for paediatricians, and neuroimaging by means of CT or MRI is often requested as part of the investigation. CT exposes children to radiation, while MRI is costly and sometimes requires sedation or general anaesthesia, especially in children younger than 6 years. This review of the literature on the value of neuroimaging in children with headache showed that the rate of pathological findings is generally low. Imaging findings that led to a change in patient management were in almost all cases reported in children with abnormal signs on neurological examination. Neuroimaging should be limited to children with a suspicious clinical history, abnormal neurological findings or other physical signs suggestive of intracranial pathology. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to better define the clinical findings that warrant neuroimaging in children with headache. (orig.)

  12. Methods for biomimetic remineralization of human dentine: A systematic review

    Chris Ying Cao; May Lei Mei; Quan-Li Li; Edward Chin Man Lo; Chun Hung Chu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to review the laboratory methods on biomimetic remineralization of demineralized human dentine. A systematic search of the publications in the PubMed, TRIP, and Web of Science databases was performed. Titles and abstracts of initially identified publications were screened. Clinical trials, reviews, non-English articles, resin-dentine interface studies, hybrid layer studies, hybrid scaffolds studies, and irrelevant studies were excluded. The remaining papers were retrieved wi...

  13. Patient-reported outcomes (PRO's) in glaucoma: a systematic review

    Vandenbroeck, S; Geest, S. van der; Zeyen, T; Stalmans, I; Dobbels, F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to summarize literature in view of patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments for glaucoma and provide guidance on how outcomes are best assessed based on evidence about their content and validity. A systematic literature review was performed on papers describing the developmental process and/or psychometric properties of glaucoma or vision-specific PRO-instruments. Each of them was assessed on their adherence to a framework of quality criteria. Fifty-three articles...

  14. Instruments to assess integrated care:a systematic review

    Lyngsø, Anne Marie; Skavlan, Nina; Høst, Dorte; Frølich, Anne

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although several measurement instruments have been developed to measure the level of integrated health care delivery, no standardised, validated instrument exists covering all aspects of integrated care. The purpose of this review is to identify the instruments concerning how to measure the level of integration across health-care sectors and to assess and evaluate the organisational elements within the instruments identified.METHODS: An extensive, systematic literature review in...

  15. A Systematic Review of Risk Factors for Intimate Partner Violence

    Capaldi, Deborah M.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Shortt, Joann Wu; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence was conducted. Inclusion criteria included publication in a peer-reviewed journal, a representative community sample or a clinical sample with a control-group comparison, a response rate of at least 50%, use of a physical or sexual violence outcome measure, and control of confounding factors in the analyses. A total of 228 articles were included (170 articles with adult and 58 with adolescent samples). Organized by levels of a ...

  16. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Marwan El Ghoch; Simona Calugi; Silvia Lamburghini; Riccardo Dalle Grave

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa ado...

  17. Cell-Assisted Lipotransfer: A Systematic Review of Its Efficacy

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Quaade, Marlene Louise; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autologous lipotransfer is seen as an ideal filler for soft tissue reconstruction. The main limitation of this procedure is the unpredictable resorption and volume loss of the fat graft. In the recent decade, an increasing amount of research has focused on the use of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) to enrich the fat graft, a procedure termed cell-assisted lipotransfer (CAL). The aim of this review was to systematically review the current preclinical and clinical evide...

  18. Systematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus Epistemology

    Greek, Ray; Menache, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are currently favored methods of evaluating research in order to reach conclusions regarding medical practice. The need for such reviews is necessitated by the fact that no research is perfect and experts are prone to bias. By combining many studies that fulfill specific criteria, one hopes that the strengths can be multiplied and thus reliable conclusions attained. Potential flaws in this process include the assumptions that underlie the research under examination. If the ...

  19. Transfer to hospital in planned home births: a systematic review

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Øian, Pål; Lindgren, Helena E

    2014-01-01

    Background There is concern about the safety of homebirths, especially in women transferred to hospital during or after labour. The scope of transfer in planned home births has not been assessed in a systematic review. This review aimed to describe the proportions and indications for transfer from home to hospital during or after labour in planned home births. Methods The databases Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl, Svemed+, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the MeSH term “home childbirth”. I...

  20. Transfer to hospital in planned home births: a systematic review

    Blix, Ellen; Kumle, Merethe; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Øian, Pål; Lindgren, Helena E

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is concern about the safety of homebirths, especially in women transferred to hospital during or after labour. The scope of transfer in planned home births has not been assessed in a systematic review. This review aimed to describe the proportions and indications for transfer from home to hospital during or after labour in planned home births. Methods: The databases Pubmed, Embase, Cinahl, Svemed+, and the Cochrane Library were searched using the MeSH term “ho...

  1. Teaching history taking to medical students: a systematic review

    Keifenheim, Katharina E.; Teufel, Martin; Ip, Julianne; Speiser, Natalie; Leehr, Elisabeth J.; Zipfel, Stephan; Herrmann-Werner, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background This paper is an up-to-date systematic review on educational interventions addressing history taking. The authors noted that despite the plethora of specialized training programs designed to enhance students‘ interviewing skills there had not been a review of the literature to assess the quality of each published method of teaching history taking in undergraduate medical education based on the evidence of the program’s efficacy. Methods The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Schola...

  2. The jarisch-herxheimer reaction in leptospirosis: a systematic review.

    Guerrier, Gilles; D'Ortenzio, Eric

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is an endemo-epidemic zoonotic disease associated with potentially fatal renal, cardiovascular or pulmonary failure. Recommended treatment includes antibiotics, which may induce a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (JHR). Since little information on the importance of this adverse event is available, we performed this review to quantify frequency and impact of JHR in leptospirosis management. METHODOLOGYPRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This review systematically summarizes the literature...

  3. Scrutinizing Systematic Literature Review Process in Software Engineering

    Zlatko Stapic; Luis de-Marcos; Vjeran Strahonja; Antonio Garcia-Cabot; Eva Garcia Lopez

    2016-01-01

    Performing the Systematic Literature Review (SLR) in the turbulent field of Software Engineering (SE) brings different obstacles and uncertainties. The commonly used guidelines for performing the SLR in this field are adapted from health sciences and presented by Kitchenham and Charters in 2007. This paper follows the Kitchenham’s three-phases-review-process and fulfils it with the findings, observations and recommendations from other influential authors in the field. The process of SLR is ob...

  4. Strategies to prevent injury in adolescent sport: a systematic review

    Abernethy, Liz; Bleakley, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This systematic review set out to identify randomised controlled trials and controlled intervention studies that evaluated the effectiveness of preventive strategies in adolescent sport and to draw conclusions on the strength of the evidence. A literature search in seven databases (Medline, SportDiscus, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Cochrane Review and DARE) was carried out using four keywords: adolescent, sport, injury and prevention (expanded to capture any relevant literature). Assessment of 154 ...

  5. Prevalence of Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance: A Systematic Review

    Wadhera, Rishi K.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a premalignant plasma cell disorder that is associated with a lifelong risk of multiple myeloma. We conducted a systematic review of all studies investigating the prevalence and incidence of MGUS in the online database PubMed. The review was conducted from January 6, 2009, through January 15, 2010. The following MeSH search headings were used: monoclonal gammopathy, benign and prevalence; monoclonal gammopathy, benign and incidence;...

  6. Bipolar disorder and metabolic syndrome: a systematic review

    Letícia Czepielewski; Ledo Daruy Filho; Elisa Brietzke; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Summarize data on metabolic syndrome (MS) in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using the Medline, Embase and PsycInfo databases, using the keywords "metabolic syndrome", "insulin resistance" and "metabolic X syndrome" and cross-referencing them with "bipolar disorder" or "mania". The following types of publications were candidates for review: (i) clinical trials, (ii) studies involving patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder or (ii...

  7. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Wang Amy T; Mullan Rebecca J; Lane Melanie A; Hazem Ahmad; Prasad Chaithra; Gathaiya Nicola W; Fernández-Balsells M; Bagatto Amy; Coto-Yglesias Fernando; Carey Jantey; Elraiyah Tarig A; Erwin Patricia J; Gandhi Gunjan Y; Montori Victor M; Murad Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrine disorder that can be associated with significant morbidity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of outcomes of hyperprolactinemic patients, including microadenomas and macroadenomas, to provide evidence-based recommendations for practitioners. Through this review, we aimed to compare efficacy and adverse effects of medications, surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. Methods We searched electr...

  8. Computerized Cognitive Training with Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    Kueider, Alexandra M.; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were ...

  9. LGBT IDENTITY AND HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW

    McFadden, Ciarán

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines a systematic review (Pittaway et al., 2004; Tranfield et al., 2003) of the literature surrounding lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) workers, their careers and their workplace experiences. The review draws on literature from areas including psychology, sociology and gender/sexuality studies, but is rooted in research within, and written specifically from, the perspective of human resource management and development research. This study outlines the methods used ...

  10. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    O'Haire, Marguerite E.; Guérin, Noémie A.; Kirkham, Alison C.

    2015-01-01

    Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI). We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four unpublished theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to m...

  11. A systematic guide for peer reviewers for a medical journal.

    Garfield, Joseph M; Kaye, Alan David; Kolinsky, Daniel C; Urman, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    Performing a peer review of an article under consideration for publication requires not only an understanding of the subject matter, but also a systematic approach that includes screening for conflicts of interest; determining whether the manuscript is within or outside the reviewer's area of expertise; properly classifying the manuscript; and writing a detailed, organized review. Although some journals may provide guidelines for the reviewers, the guidelines usually are not detailed and do not take into consideration the variability in reviewer experience. This article is meant to serve as a guideline for peer reviewers and provide concrete information on how to write a comprehensive, unbiased review that will serve both the author and the journal well. PMID:26062311

  12. Discrimination and sleep: a systematic review.

    Slopen, Natalie; Lewis, Tené T; Williams, David R

    2016-02-01

    An increasing body of literature indicates that discrimination has a negative impact on health; poor sleep may be an underlying mechanism. The primary objective of this review was to examine existing studies on the relationship between discrimination and sleep to clarify (a) the potential role of discrimination in shaping population patterns of sleep and sleep disparities, and (b) the research needed to develop interventions at individual and institutional levels. We identified articles from English-language publications in PubMed and EBSCO databases from inception through July 2014. We employed a broad definition of discrimination to include any form of unfair treatment and all self-reported and objectively assessed sleep outcomes, including duration, difficulties, and sleep architecture. Seventeen studies were identified: four prospective, 12 cross-sectional, and one that utilized a daily-diary design. Fifteen of the 17 studies evaluated interpersonal discrimination as the exposure and the majority of studies included self-reported sleep as the outcome. Only four studies incorporated objective sleep assessments. All 17 studies identified at least one association between discrimination and a measure of poorer sleep, although studies with more detailed consideration of either discrimination or sleep architecture revealed some inconsistencies. Taken together, existing studies demonstrate consistent evidence that discrimination is associated with poorer sleep outcomes. This evidence base can be strengthened with additional prospective studies that incorporate objectively measured aspects of sleep. We outline important extensions for this field of inquiry that can inform the development of interventions to improve sleep outcomes, and consequently promote well-being and reduce health inequities across the life course. PMID:25770043

  13. Systematic review: conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema

    Oremus Mark

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several conservative (i.e., nonpharmacologic, nonsurgical treatments exist for secondary lymphedema. The optimal treatment is unknown. We examined the effectiveness of conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema, as well as harms related to these treatments. Methods We searched MEDLINE®, EMBASE®, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials®, AMED, and CINAHL from 1990 to January 19, 2010. We obtained English- and non-English-language randomized controlled trials or observational studies (with comparison groups that reported primary effectiveness data on conservative treatments for secondary lymphedema. For English-language studies, we extracted data in tabular form and summarized the tables descriptively. For non-English-language studies, we summarized the results descriptively and discussed similarities with the English-language studies. Results Thirty-six English-language and eight non-English-language studies were included in the review. Most of these studies involved upper-limb lymphedema secondary to breast cancer. Despite lymphedema's chronicity, lengths of follow-up in most studies were under 6 months. Many trial reports contained inadequate descriptions of randomization, blinding, and methods to assess harms. Most observational studies did not control for confounding. Many studies showed that active treatments reduced the size of lymphatic limbs, although extensive between-study heterogeneity in areas such as treatment comparisons and protocols, and outcome measures, prevented us from assessing whether any one treatment was superior. This heterogeneity also precluded us from statistically pooling results. Harms were rare ( Conclusions The literature contains no evidence to suggest the most effective treatment for secondary lymphedema. Harms are few and unlikely to cause major clinical problems.

  14. Electroacupuncture for Tinnitus: A Systematic Review.

    Miao He

    Full Text Available Treatment effects of electroacupuncture for patients with subjective tinnitus has yet to be clarified.To assess the effect of electroacupuncutre for alleviating the symptoms of subjective tinnitus.Extensive literature searches were carried out in three English and four Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI, Wanfang Chinese Digital Periodical and Conference Database, VIP, and ChiCTR.The date of the most recent search was 1 June 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs or quasi-RCTs were included. The titles, abstracts, and keywords of all records were reviewed by two authors independently. The data were collected and extracted by three authors. The risk of bias in the trials was assessed in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook, version 5.1.0. (http://www.handbook.cochrane.org. Eighty-nine studies were retrieved. After discarding 84 articles, five studies with 322 participants were identified. Assessment of the methodological quality of the studies identified weaknesses in all five studies. All studies were judged as having a high risk of selection and performance bias. The attrition bias was high in four studies. Incompleteness bias was low in all studies. Reporting bias was unclear in all studies. Because of the limited number of trials included and the various types of interventions and outcomes, we were unable to conduct pooled analyses.Due to the poor methodological quality of the primary studies and the small sample sizes, no convincing evidence that electroacupuncture is beneficial for treating tinnitus could be found. There is an urgent need for more high-quality trials with large sample sizes for the investigation of electroacupuncture treatment for tinnitus.

  15. Surgically facilitated experimental movement of teeth : systematic review

    Liem, A. M. L.; Hoogeveen, E. J.; Jansma, J.; Ren, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Several surgical techniques based on corticotomy and dental distraction have been developed to improve the movement of teeth and reduce the duration of orthodontic treatment. In this systematic review we have critically assessed published studies on the experimental movement of teeth to find out whe

  16. Does Being Overweight Impede Academic Attainment? A Systematic Review

    Caird, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Josephine; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Kathryn; Oliver, Sandy; Stansfield, Claire; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine evidence from studies exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and educational attainment. Design: A systematic review of secondary analyses and observational studies published in English after 1997 examining attainment as measured by grade point average or other validated measure, in children aged 6 to 16 years,…

  17. Clinical Prediction Rules for Physical Therapy Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Beneciuk, Jason M.; Bishop, Mark D; George, Steven Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Clinical prediction rules (CPRs) involving physical therapy interventions have been published recently. The quality of the studies used to develop the CPRs was not previously considered, a fact that has potential implications for clinical applications and future research. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the quality of published CPRs developed for physical therapy interventions.

  18. Can systematic reviews inform GMO risk assessment and risk management?

    Christian eKohl

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a gold standard for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper we 1 consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO and 2 critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable.

  19. A Systematic Review of the Relationship between Rumination and Suicidality

    Morrison, Rebecca; O'Connor, Rory C.

    2008-01-01

    Rumination has been persistently implicated in the etiology of hopelessness and depression, which are proximal predictors of suicidality. As a result, researchers have started to examine the role of rumination in suicidality. This systematic review provides a concise synopsis of the current progress in examining the relationship between rumination…

  20. Can Systematic Reviews Inform GMO Risk Assessment and Risk Management?

    Kohl, Christian; Frampton, Geoff; Sweet, Jeremy; Spök, Armin; Haddaway, Neal Robert; Wilhelm, Ralf; Unger, Stefan; Schiemann, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews represent powerful tools to identify, collect, synthesize, and evaluate primary research data on specific research questions in a highly standardized and reproducible manner. They enable the defensible synthesis of outcomes by increasing precision and minimizing bias whilst ensuring transparency of the methods used. This makes them especially valuable to inform evidence-based risk analysis and decision making in various topics and research disciplines. Although seen as a "gold standard" for synthesizing primary research data, systematic reviews are not without limitations as they are often cost, labor and time intensive and the utility of synthesis outcomes depends upon the availability of sufficient and robust primary research data. In this paper, we (1) consider the added value systematic reviews could provide when synthesizing primary research data on genetically modified organisms (GMO) and (2) critically assess the adequacy and feasibility of systematic review for collating and analyzing data on potential impacts of GMOs in order to better inform specific steps within GMO risk assessment and risk management. The regulatory framework of the EU is used as an example, although the issues we discuss are likely to be more widely applicable. PMID:26322307

  1. Student Online Readiness Assessment Tools: A Systematic Review Approach

    Farid, Alem

    2014-01-01

    Although there are tools to assess student's readiness in an "online learning context," little is known about the "psychometric" properties of the tools used or not. A systematic review of 5107 published and unpublished papers identified in a literature search on student online readiness assessment tools between 1990 and…

  2. A systematic review of health effects of electronic cigarettes

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Døssing, Martin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic review of the existing literature on health consequences of vaporing of electronic cigarettes (ECs). METHODS: Search in: PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Original publications describing a health-related topic, published before 14 August 2014. PRISMA...

  3. House dust mite control measures for asthma: systematic review

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. We performed a systematic review of the randomized trials that had assessed the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma, and had compared active interventions with placebo or no...

  4. Single-port laparoscopic rectal surgery - a systematic review

    Lolle, Ida; Rosenstock, Steffen; Bulut, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Single-port laparoscopic surgery (SPLS) for colonic disease has been widely described, whereas data for SPLS rectal resection are sparse. This review aimed to evaluate the feasibility, safety and complication profile of SPLS for rectal diseases. METHODS: A systematic literature search...

  5. Native American Youth and Culturally Sensitive Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Jackson, Kelly F.; Hodge, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: A systematic evaluation of the effectiveness of culturally sensitive interventions (CSIs) with Native American youth was conducted. Method: Electronic bibliographic databases, Web sites, and manual searches were used to identify 11 outcome studies that examined CSI effectiveness with Native American youth. Results: This review found…

  6. The Social Relations Model in Family Studies: A Systematic Review

    Eichelsheim, Veroni I.; Dekovic, Maja; Buist, Kirsten L.; Cook, William L.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relations Model (SRM) allows for examination of family relations on three different levels: the individual level (actor and partner effects), the dyadic level (relationship effects), and the family level (family effect). The aim of this study was to present a systematic review of SRM family studies and identify general patterns in the…

  7. Communication Intervention in Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Green, Vanessa A.; Schlosser, Ralf; O'eilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell

    2009-01-01

    We reviewed communication intervention studies involving people with Rett syndrome. Systematic searches of five electronic databases, selected journals, and reference lists identified nine studies meeting the inclusion criteria. These studies were evaluated in terms of: (a) participant characteristics, (b) target skills, (c) procedures, (d) main…

  8. Communication Assessment for Individuals with Rett Syndrome: A Systematic Review

    Sigafoos, Jeff; Kagohara, Debora; van der Meer, Larah; Green, Vanessa A.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Lang, Russell; Rispoli, Mandy; Zisimopoulos, Dimitrios

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed studies that aimed to determine whether behaviors, such as body movements, vocalizations, eye gaze, and facial expressions, served a communicative function for individuals with Rett syndrome. A systematic search identified eight studies, which were summarized in terms of (a) participants, (b) assessment targets, (c) assessment…

  9. Brief Report: Systematic Review of Rett Syndrome in Males

    Reichow, Brian; George-Puskar, Annie; Lutz, Tara; Smith, Isaac C.; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2015-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurogenetic disorder in which a period of typical development is followed by loss of previously acquired skills. Once thought to occur exclusively in females, increasing numbers of male cases of RTT have been reported. This systematic review included 36 articles describing 57 cases of RTT in males. Mutations of the MECP2…

  10. Conducting systematic reviews of diagnostic studies: didactic guidelines.

    Devillé, W.L.; Buntinx, F.; Bouter, L.M.; Montori, V.M.; Vet, H.C.W. de; Windt, D.A.W.M. van der; Bezemer, P.D.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Although guidelines for critical appraisal of diagnostic research and meta-analyses have already been published, these may be difficult to understand for clinical researchers or do not provide enough detailed information. Methods: Development of guidelines based on a systematic review of

  11. Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

  12. Alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits: a systematic literature review

    Sluik, D.; Bezemer, R.A.; Sierksma, A.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this review is to systematically and critically evaluate the existing literature into the association between alcoholic beverage preference and dietary habits in adults. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the databases of Medline (Pubmed), ISI Web of Knowledge, an

  13. Physical Activity and Social Support in Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Mendonça, Gerfeson; Cheng, Luanna Alexandra; Mélo, Edilânea Nunes; de Farias, José Cazuza, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this review was to systematically synthesize the results of original studies on the association between physical activity and social support in adolescents, published until April 2011. Searches were carried out in Adolec, ERIC, Lilacs, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, SportsDiscus and Web of Science electronic databases and the reference…

  14. Physical Fitness in People After Burn Injury : A Systematic Review

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Mouton, Leonora J.

    2011-01-01

    Disseldorp LM, Nieuwenhuis MK, Van Baar ME, Mouton U. Physical fitness in people after burn injury: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2011;92:1501-10. Objective: To gain insight into the physical fitness of people after burn injury compared with healthy subjects, and to present an overview

  15. Facial Emotion Recognition in Child Psychiatry: A Systematic Review

    Collin, Lisa; Bindra, Jasmeet; Raju, Monika; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on facial affect (emotion) recognition in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders other than autism. A systematic search, using PRISMA guidelines, was conducted to identify original articles published prior to October 2011 pertaining to face recognition tasks in case-control studies. Used in the qualitative…

  16. Bringing gender sensitivity into healthcare practice: a systematic review.

    Celik, H.; Lagro-Janssen, T.; Widdershoven, G.G.; Abma, T.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the body of literature on gender dimensions and disparities between the sexes in health, practical improvements will not be realized effectively as long as we lack an overview of the ways how to implement these ideas. This systematic review provides a content analysis of literatur

  17. Drug-induced cerebellar ataxia: a systematic review

    Gaalen, J. van; Kerstens, F.G.; Maas, R.P.P.W.M.; Harmark, L.; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cerebellar ataxia can be induced by a large number of drugs. We here conducted a systemic review of the drugs that can lead to cerebellar ataxia as an adverse drug reaction (ADR). METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search in Pubmed (1966 to January 2014) and EMB

  18. Factors associated with internet addiction among adolescents : a systematic review

    Tsang, Ming-yan; 曾銘恩

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite its exclusion in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Internet addiction disorder (IAD) has received attention especially from the psychiatric community. Associated with multiple factors, IAD among adolescents may cause physical, emotional, social, and function impairments that extend to adulthood. Objective: This systematic review explores the prevalence of IAD among adolescents and identifies associated factors. Met...

  19. Digital exclusion in higher education contexts: A systematic literature review

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Pedersen, Mette Jun Lykkegaard

    2016-01-01

    The integration and adoption of digital technologies have enabled improvements in the quality of and inclusion in higher education. However, a significant proportion of the population has either remained or become digitally excluded. This systematic literature review elucidates the factors underl...

  20. The Use of Mobile Learning in Science: A Systematic Review

    Crompton, Helen; Burke, Diane; Gregory, Kristen H.; Gräbe, Catharina

    2016-01-01

    The use of mobile learning in education is growing at an exponential rate. To best understand how mobile learning is being used, it is crucial to gain a collective understanding of the research that has taken place. This systematic review reveals the trends in mobile learning in science with a comprehensive analysis and synthesis of studies from…

  1. Fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy: a systematic review.

    Lobna Ouldamer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prolapse of the fallopian tube into the vaginal vault is a rarely reported complication that may occur after hysterectomy. Clinicians can miss the diagnosis of this disregarded complication when dealing with post-hysterectomy vaginal bleeding. OBJECTIVES: We performed a systematic review in order to describe the clinical presentation, therapeutic management and outcome of fallopian tube prolapse occurring after hysterectomy. SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE references from January 1980 to December 2010 was performed. We included articles that reported cases of fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy. Data from eligible studies were independently extracted onto standardized forms by two reviewers. RESULTS: Twenty-eight articles including 51 cases of fallopian tube prolapse after hysterectomy were included in this systematic review. Clinical presentations included abdominal pain, dyspareunia, post- coital bleeding, and/or vaginal discharge. Two cases were asymptomatic and diagnosed at routine checkup. The surgical management reported comprised partial or total salpingectomy, with vaginal repair in some cases combined with oophorectomy using different approaches (vaginal approach, combined vaginal-laparoscopic approach, laparoscopic approach, or laparotomy. Six patients were initially treated by silver nitrate application without success. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review provided a precise summary of the clinical characteristics and treatment of patients presenting with fallopian tube prolapse following hysterectomy published in the past 30 years. We anticipate that these results will help inform current investigations and treatment.

  2. Fall detection with body-worn sensors : A systematic review

    Schwickert, L.; Becker, C.; Lindemann, U.; Marechal, C.; Bourke, A.; Chiari, L.; Helbostad, J. L.; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Aminian, K.; Todd, C.; Bandinelli, S.; Klenk, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims. Falls among older people remain a major public health challenge. Body-worn sensors are needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and kinematics of falls. The aim of this systematic review is to assemble, extract and critically discuss the information avail

  3. Tools to Detect Delirium Superimposed on Dementia: A Systematic Review

    Morandi, A.; McCurley, J; Vasilevskis, E; Fick, D.; Bellelli, G; Lee, P.; Jackson, J.; Shenkin, S; Trabucchi, M; Schnelle, J; Inouye, S; Ely, W; MacLullich, A

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify valid tools to diagnose delirium superimposed on dementia. DESIGN: Systematic review of studies of delirium tools that explicitly included individuals with dementia. SETTING: Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Studies were included if delirium assessment tools were validated against standard criteria, and the presence of dementia was assessed according to standard criteria that used validated instruments. MEASUREMENTS: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Sc...

  4. Parenting Training for Intellectually Disabled Parents: A Cochrane Systematic Review

    Coren, Esther; Thomae, Manuela; Hutchfield, Jemeela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a Cochrane/Campbell systematic review of the evidence on the effect of parent training to support the parenting of parents with intellectual disabilities. Method: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing parent training interventions for parents with intellectual disability with usual care or with a control…

  5. A Review of Effect of Different Tasks on Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition

    Liu, Chen L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of incidental vocabulary acquisition in second language learning have got more and more attention both at home and abroad. By first introducing the definition and theoretical foundations of incidental vocabulary acquisition, this paper reviews empirical studies of effect of different tasks on incidental vocabulary acquisition and points…

  6. Kefir and Cancer: A Systematic Review of Literatures.

    Rafie, Nahid; Golpour Hamedani, Sahar; Ghiasvand, Reza; Miraghajani, Maryam

    2015-12-01

    Some studies have suggested chemopreventive effects of kefir, a fermented milk product, on carcinogenesis. The aim of this review study was to evaluate the scientific evidence for effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. We systematically searched for all relevant studies published before June 2015, using PubMed, Google scholar, Cochrane and Science Direct, SID, MedLib and Srlst databases. Relevant studies were reviewed based on systematic review (PRISMA) guidelines. From a total of 2208 papers obtained at the initial database search, 11 publications including 7 in vitro and 4 experimental studies were eligible. In vitro studies on breast, colon, skin and gastric cancers and leukemia cell lines and experimental studies on different sarcomas consistently showed beneficial effects of kefir on cancer prevention and treatment. The results of this systematic review suggest that kefir may be associated with cancer prevention and it also has beneficial effects in cancer treatment. This protection may be associated with kefir bioactive components including peptides, polysaccharides and sphingolipids. PMID:26621019

  7. 75 FR 33237 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS...

    2010-06-11

    ... Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) Case 2003-D050, published at 71 FR 9273, February 23, 2006, moved...; Contractor Insurance/Pension Review (DFARS Case 2009-D025) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations System... and relocate the requirements for conducting a Contractor Insurance/Pension Review from...

  8. A Review of Multimedia Glosses and Their Effects on L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in CALL Literature

    Mohsen, Mohammed Ali; Balakumar, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the literature of multimedia glosses in computer assisted language learning (CALL) and their effects on L2 vocabulary acquisition during the past seventeen years. Several studies have touched on this area to examine the potential of multimedia in a CALL environment in aiding L2 vocabulary acquisition. In this review, the…

  9. Treatment of nightmares with prazosin: a systematic review.

    Kung, Simon; Espinel, Zelde; Lapid, Maria I

    2012-09-01

    Nightmares, frequently associated with posttraumatic stress disorder and clinically relevant in today's world of violence, are difficult to treat, with few pharmacologic options. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence for the use of prazosin in the treatment of nightmares. A comprehensive search was performed using the databases EMBASE, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from their inception to March 9, 2012, using keywords prazosin and nightmares/PTSD or associated terms (see text). Two authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts and selected relevant studies. Descriptive data and outcomes of interest from eligible studies were extracted by 1 author, and checked by 2 others. The risk of bias of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was assessed independently by 2 reviewers. Articles met criteria for inclusion if prazosin was used to treat nightmares, and outcome measures included nightmares or related symptoms of sleep disorders. Our search yielded 21 studies, consisting of 4 RCTs, 4 open-label studies, 4 retrospective chart reviews, and 9 single case reports. The prazosin dose ranged from 1 to 16 mg/d. Results were mixed for the 4 RCTs: 3 reported significant improvement in the number of nightmares, and 1 found no reduction in the number of nightmares. Reduced nightmare severity with use of prazosin was consistently reported in the open-label trials, retrospective chart reviews, and single case reports. PMID:22883741

  10. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS: PITFALLS OF METHODS

    Yu. V. Lukina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Methods that allow to systematize the accumulated information on specifically formulated questions, analyze it and make reliable findings are of great interest and popularity with the emergence of a huge number of studies and publications in various fields of medicine, a significant increase in information, failure to identify weak effects in the individual studies. The use of systematic reviews and high-quality meta-analysis is an analytical basis of evidence-based medicine, it is a very valuable tool for decision-making at the level of practitioner, health care leaders and experts in the preparation of guidelines and legislation concerning the use of the most effective and safe treatments, when planning future research, in the development of rational health policy. Features of methods of systematic review and meta-analysis and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed in the article. The authors present the historical facts of occurrence of the Cochrane Collaboration, whose main task is to systematize and analyze accumulated information from a variety of medical research. The contribution of Russian researchers into this field of medical science is also assessed.

  11. Conflicts of interest and spin in reviews of psychological therapies: a systematic review

    Lieb, Klaus; von der Osten-Sacken, Jan; Stoffers-Winterling, Jutta; Reiss, Neele; Barth, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore conflicts of interest (COI) and their reporting in systematic reviews of psychological therapies, and to evaluate spin in the conclusions of the reviews. Methods MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched for systematic reviews published between 2010 and 2013 that assessed effects of psychological therapies for anxiety, depressive or personality disorders, and included at least one randomised controlled trial. Required COI disclosure by journal, disclosed COI by review authors, and the inclusion of own primary studies by review authors were extracted. Researcher allegiance, that is, that researchers concluded favourably about the interventions they have studied, as well as spin, that is, differences between results and conclusions of the reviews, were rated by 2 independent raters. Results 936 references were retrieved, 95 reviews fulfilled eligibility criteria. 59 compared psychological therapies with other forms of psychological therapies, and 36 psychological therapies with pharmacological interventions. Financial, non-financial, and personal COI were disclosed in 22, 4 and 1 review, respectively. 2 of 86 own primary studies of review authors included in 34 reviews were disclosed by review authors. In 15 of the reviews, authors showed an allegiance effect to the evaluated psychological therapy that was never disclosed. Spin in review conclusions was found in 27 of 95 reviews. Reviews with a conclusion in favour of psychological therapies (vs pharmacological interventions) were at high risk for a spin in conclusions (OR=8.31 (1.41 to 49.05)). Spin was related in trend to the inclusion of own primary studies in the systematic review (OR=2.08 (CI 0.83 to 5.18) p=0.11) and researcher allegiance (OR=2.63 (0.84 to 8.16) p=0.16). Conclusions Non-financial COI, especially the inclusion of own primary studies into reviews and researcher allegiance, are frequently seen in systematic reviews of psychological therapies and need more transparency and

  12. Quality assessment of systematic reviews or meta-analyses of nursing interventions conducted by Korean reviewers

    Seo Hyun-Ju; Kim Kyeong Uoon

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A systematic review is used to investigate the best available evidence of clinical safety and effectiveness of healthcare intervention. This requires methodological rigor in order to minimize bias and random error. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of systematic reviews or meta-analyses for nursing interventions conducted by Korean researchers. Methods We searched electronic databases from 1950 to July 2010, including ovidMEDLINE, ovidEMBASE, and Korean da...

  13. Quality assessment of systematic reviews or meta-analyses of nursing interventions conducted by Korean reviewers

    Seo, Hyun-Ju; Kim, Kyeong Uoon

    2012-01-01

    Background A systematic review is used to investigate the best available evidence of clinical safety and effectiveness of healthcare intervention. This requires methodological rigor in order to minimize bias and random error. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of systematic reviews or meta-analyses for nursing interventions conducted by Korean researchers. Methods We searched electronic databases from 1950 to July 2010, including ovidMEDLINE, ovidEMBASE, and Korean databases, ...

  14. Searching for qualitative research for inclusion in systematic reviews: a structured methodological review

    Booth, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background Qualitative systematic reviews or qualitative evidence syntheses (QES) are increasingly recognised as a way to enhance the value of systematic reviews (SRs) of clinical trials. They can explain the mechanisms by which interventions, evaluated within trials, might achieve their effect. They can investigate differences in effects between different population groups. They can identify which outcomes are most important to patients, carers, health professionals and other stakeholders. Q...

  15. Searching for qualitative research for inclusion in systematic reviews: a structured methodological review.

    Booth, A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Qualitative systematic reviews or qualitative evidence syntheses (QES) are increasingly recognised as a way to enhance the value of systematic reviews (SRs) of clinical trials. They can explain the mechanisms by which interventions, evaluated within trials, might achieve their effect. They can investigate differences in effects between different population groups. They can identify which outcomes are most important to patients, carers, health professionals and other stakeholders. ...

  16. Oxytocin and Social Cognitions in Schizophrenia: A Systematic Review.

    Bukovskaya, Oksana; Shmukler, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic multifactorial disorder. Over the last years, there has been a growing interest in cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, which is considered by many as the core abnormality of the disease. In the systematic review we focus on the social cognition and its correlation with the neuropeptide oxytocin, which is shown to be involved in the emotion recognizing processes, in the trust behavior and many other aspects of social functioning. The systematic review was performed in order to summarize the data on the liaison of oxytocin with the social cognition impairment in schizophrenia patients. Oxytocin is assumed to be a potential therapeutic agent for schizophrenia, with a special link to social cognitive functions. The oxytocinergic system is a promising neuromodulator of emotion recognition that may have the potential to normalize the social dysfunction seen in schizophrenia. Further studies are required to provide more data on the correlations between oxytocin and socialcognition as well as other schizophrenia symptoms. PMID:26689706

  17. Radiofrequency ablation for neuroendocrine liver metastases: a systematic review.

    Mohan, Helen; Nicholson, Patrick; Winter, Des C; O'Shea, Donal; O'Toole, Dermot; Geoghegan, Justin; Maguire, Donal; Hoti, Emir; Traynor, Oscar; Cantwell, Colin P

    2015-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) ablation in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) liver metastases. A systematic review was performed following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Eight studies were included (N = 301). Twenty-six percent of RF ablation procedures were percutaneous (n = 156), with the remainder conducted at surgery. Forty-eight percent of patients had a concomitant liver resection. Fifty-four percent of patients presented with symptoms, with 92% reporting symptom improvement following RF ablation (alone or in combination with surgery). The median duration of symptom improvement was 14-27 months. However, recurrence was common (63%-87%). RF ablation can provide symptomatic relief in NET liver metastases alone or in combination with surgery. PMID:25840836

  18. Parenting Programs to Prevent Corporal Punishment: A Systematic Review

    Paolla Magioni Santini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies have shown that corporal punishment against children is a common family practice, causing damage to child development. Considering that parents are the main perpetrators of this type of aggression, parenting programs are needed to raise children without violence. This study aimed at performing a systematic review of parenting programs evaluations to reduce corporal punishment. Intervention procedures, as well as design, results and limitations were identified for each study. The PRISMA protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was used for reporting the results. A literature survey was conducted in Brazilian databases, as well as English ones from 1994-2014. One Brazilian study and eight international studies were selected as relevant, and only four used randomized controlled trials (RCT. All studies reported satisfactory results in decreasing aggression by parents against their children. Further research in the area with solid methodology is recommended.

  19. EDTA chelation therapy for cardiovascular disease: a systematic review

    Wu Ping; Seely Dugald MR; Mills Edward J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous practitioners of both conventional and complementary and alternative medicine throughout North America and Europe claim that chelation therapy with EDTA is an effective means to both control and treat cardiovascular disease. These claims are controversial, and several randomized controlled trials have been completed dealing with this topic. To address this issue we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the best available evidence for the use of EDTA chelation ...

  20. Linked Data approach for selection process automation in Systematic Reviews

    Torchiano, Marco; Morisio, Maurizio; Tomassetti, Federico Cesare Argentino; Ardito, Luca; Vetro, Antonio; Rizzo, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Background: a systematic review identifies, evaluates and synthesizes the available literature on a given topic using scientific and repeatable methodologies. The significant workload required and the subjectivity bias could affect results. Aim: semi-automate the selection process to reduce the amount of manual work needed and the consequent subjectivity bias. Method: extend and enrich the selection of primary studies using the existing technologies in the field of Linked Data and text mining...

  1. Behavioral Therapies for Management of Premature Ejaculation: A Systematic Review

    Cooper, K; Martyn-St James, M.; Kaltenthaler, E.; Dickinson, K; Cantrell, A.; Wylie, K.; Frodhsam, L.; Hood, C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Premature ejaculation (PE) is defined by short ejaculatory latency and inability to delay ejaculation causing distress. Management may involve behavioral and/or pharmacological approaches. Aim To systematically review the randomized controlled trial (RCT) evidence for behavioral therapies in the management of PE. Methods Nine databases including MEDLINE were searched up to August 2014. Included RCTs compared behavioral therapy against waitlist control or another therapy, or behav...

  2. Controlling wound odor with metronidazole: a systematic review

    Diana Lima Villela de Castro; Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia Santos

    2015-01-01

    AbstractOBJECTIVEVerifying the evidence of therapeutic efficacy in the topical application of metronidazole for controlling wound odor.METHODSA systematic literature review, according to the Cochrane Collaboration recommendations.RESULTS329 articles were identified in the Cochrane, LILACS, SciELO, CINAHL and PubMed databases, with 14 of them being included in the final sample. Two of the studies were double-blind randomized clinical trial studies.CONCLUSIONThe actual effectiveness of metronid...

  3. A systematic review of smoking bans in psychiatric hospitals

    Huang, Wenhui; 黄文辉

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking prevalence is the highest in people with mental illness. As more and more countries develop governmental regulations to protect employees from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, complete smoking bans or partial smoking bans have been introduced in many psychiatric hospitals. Objectives To systematically review the literature to examine the impact of smoking bans in psychiatric hospitals, to identify the obstacles to implement tobacco-free policy and provide ...

  4. Bariatric surgery in elderly patients: a systematic review

    Giordano S; Victorzon M

    2015-01-01

    Salvatore Giordano,1 Mikael Victorzon2,3 1Department of Plastic and General Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, 3University of Turku, Turku, Finland Abstract: Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of bariatric/metabolic surgery in elderly patients. We performed a systematic review on this issue in patients aged 60 years or older. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and Google ...

  5. Bariatric surgery in elderly patients: a systematic review

    Victorzon, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Salvatore Giordano,1 Mikael Victorzon2,3 1Department of Plastic and General Surgery, Turku University Hospital, Turku, 2Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Vaasa Central Hospital, Vaasa, 3University of Turku, Turku, Finland Abstract: Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of bariatric/metabolic surgery in elderly patients. We performed a systematic review on this issue in patients aged 60 years or older. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and...

  6. LATE ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER TRANSPLANT: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Nacif, Lucas Souto; Pinheiro, Rafael Soares; PÉCORA, Rafael Antônio de Arruda; Ducatti, Liliana; ROCHA-SANTOS, Vinicius; Andraus, Wellington; D'ALBUQUERQUE, Luiz Carneiro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Late acute rejection leads to worse patient and graft survival after liver transplantation. Aim: To analyze the reported results published in recent years by leading transplant centers in evaluating late acute rejection and update the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of liver transplantation. Method: Systematic literature review through Medline-PubMed database with headings related to late acute rejection in articles published until November 2013 was done. Were a...

  7. Systematic review of effects on biodiversity from oil palm production

    Savilaakso, Sini; Garcia, Claude; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Groom, Martha; Manuel R. Guariguata.; Laumonier, Yves; Nasi, Robert; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Snaddon, Jake; Zrust, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background: during the past decade there has been a growing interest in bioenergy, driven by concerns about global climate change, growing energy demand, and depleting fossil fuel reserves. The predicted rise in biofuel demand makes it important to understand the potential consequences of expanding biofuel cultivation. A systematic review was conducted on the biodiversity impacts of three first-generation biofuel crops (oil palm, soybean, and jatropha) in the tropics. The study focused on...

  8. Botulinum toxin for treating muscular temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Eduardo Machado; Lívia Zuchetto dos Santos; Lilian Gonçalves Custódio; Paulo Afonso Cunali

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study, through a systematic literature review, aims to analyze the effectiveness of Botulinum Toxin as a treatment for masticatory myofascial pain and muscles temporomandibular disorders (TMD). METHODS: Survey in research bases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, Pubmed, Lilacs and BBO, between the years of 1966 and April 2011, with focus in randomized or quasi-randomized controlled clinical trials, blind or double-blind. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, 4 articles comp...

  9. Avoiding Weight Gain in Cardiometabolic Disease: A Systematic Review

    Maruthur, Nisa M; Kimberly Gudzune; Susan Hutfless; Fawole, Oluwakemi A.; Wilson, Renee F.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Anderson, Cheryl A. M.; Bleich, Sara N.; Jodi Segal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with cardiometabolic disease are at higher risk for obesity-related adverse effects. Even without weight loss, weight maintenance may be beneficial. We performed a systematic review to identify the effect of nonweight loss-focused lifestyle interventions in adults with cardiometabolic disease. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify comparative studies of lifestyle interventions (self-management, diet, exercise, or their combina...

  10. A systematic review on regression test selection techniques

    Engström, Emelie; Runeson, Per; Skoglund, Mats

    2010-01-01

    Regression testing is verifying that previously functioning software remains after a change. With the goal of finding a basis for further research in a joint industry-academia research project, we conducted a systematic review of empirical evaluations of regression test selection techniques. We identified 27 papers reporting 36 empirical studies, 21 experiments and 15 case studies. In total 28 techniques for regression test selection are evaluated. We present a qualitative analysis of the fin...

  11. Medical students as peer tutors: a systematic review

    Burgess, Annette; Mcgregor, Deborah; Mellis, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Background While Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) has long occurred informally in medical education, in the past ten years, there has been increasing international interest in formally organised PAL, with many benefits for both the students and institutions. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to establish why and how PAL has been implemented, focussing on the recruitment and training process for peer tutors, the benefits for peer tutors, and the competency of peer tutors. Method A...

  12. Sugar sweetened beverages and childhood dental caries : a systematic review

    Du, Yuerong; 杜月蓉

    2014-01-01

    Background Dental caries on primary and permanent teeth is a common chronic disease worldwide with negative effects on children`s quality of life, both in the present and future. Sugar intake is a risk factor for caries. However, the association between sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and dental caries is unclear. Methods A systematic review of relevant literature was performed in PubMed, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect to locate every journal article in English assessing the as...

  13. Psychoactive substance use by truck drivers: a systematic review

    Girotto, Edmarlon; Mesas, Arthur Eumann; de Andrade, Selma Maffei; Birolim, Marcela Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to summarise the scientific evidence on the prevalence of psychoactive substance use and on the factors associated with their intake among truck drivers. A systematic review was performed in the databases PubMed, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, and Cochrane and 36 cross-sectional studies were identified with quantitative results about the use of psychoactive substances by truck drivers. Out of these, 28 were carried...

  14. Physical Environmental Correlates of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Kaplan, Jesse; Wolch, Jennifer; Jerrett, Michael; Reynolds, Kim D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing rates of childhood obesity in the U.S. and other Western countries are cause for serious public health concern. Neighborhood and community environments are thought to play a contributing role in the development of obesity among youth, but it is not well understood which types of physical environmental characteristics have the most potential to influence obesity outcomes. This paper reports the results of a systematic review of quantitative research examining built and biophysical e...

  15. A systematic review of publications studies on medical tourism

    Masoud, Ferdosi; Alireza, Jabbari; Mahmoud, Keyvanara; Zahra, Agharahimi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Medical tourism for any study area is complex. Materials and Methods: Using full articles from other databases, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), Science Direct, Emerald, Oxford, Magiran, and Scientific Information Database (SID), to examine systematically published articles about medical tourism in the interval 2000-2011 paid. Articles were obtained using descriptive statistics and content analysis categories were analyzed. Results: Among the 28 articles reviewed, 11 ...

  16. Quality Assessment of TPB-Based Questionnaires: A Systematic Review

    Obiageli Crystal Oluka; Shaofa Nie; Yi Sun

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review is aimed at assessing the quality of questionnaires and their development process based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) change model. METHODS: A systematic literature search for studies with the primary aim of TPB-based questionnaire development was conducted in relevant databases between 2002 and 2012 using selected search terms. Ten of 1,034 screened abstracts met the inclusion criteria and were assessed for methodological quality using two different appraisal...

  17. Measuring the Outcome of Biomedical Research: A Systematic Literature Review

    Thonon, Frédérique; Boulkedid, Rym; Delory, Tristan; Rousseau, Sophie; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim; O’Neill, Claire; Alberti, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Background There is an increasing need to evaluate the production and impact of medical research produced by institutions. Many indicators exist, yet we do not have enough information about their relevance. The objective of this systematic review was (1) to identify all the indicators that could be used to measure the output and outcome of medical research carried out in institutions and (2) enlist their methodology, use, positive and negative points. Methodology We have searched 3 databases ...

  18. Induction of lucid dreams: A systematic review of evidence

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Schredl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware of dreaming and often able to influence the ongoing dream content. Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and a variety of techniques is suggested for lucid dreaming induction. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of induction techniques. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in biomedical databases and specific resources. Thirty-five studies were included in the analysis (11 sleep laboratory and 24 field studies), o...

  19. Risk factors for methamphetamine use in youth: a systematic review

    Russell, Kelly; Dryden, Donna M.; Liang, Yuanyuan; Friesen, Carol; O'Gorman, Kathleen; Durec, Tamara; Wild, T. Cameron; Klassen, Terry P

    2008-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) is a potent stimulant that is readily available. Its effects are similar to cocaine, but the drug has a profile associated with increased acute and chronic toxicities. The objective of this systematic review was to identify and synthesize literature on risk factors that are associated with MA use among youth. More than 40 electronic databases, websites, and key journals/meeting abstracts were searched. We included studies that compared children and adolescents ...

  20. Bee venom acupuncture for rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review protocol

    Lee, Ju Ah; Son, Mi Ju; Choi, Jiae; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Jun, Ji Hee; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction This systematic review aims to analyse the trial data on the effects of bee venom acupuncture (BVA) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods and analysis The following 14 databases will be searched from their inception to March 2014: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), AMED, CINAHL, six Korean medical databases (OASIS, Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, Korean Studies Information Service System, KoreaMed, Korean Medical Database and DBPIA) a...

  1. Children reading to dogs: a systematic review of the literature

    Sophie Susannah Hall; Gee, Nancy R.; Daniel Simon Mills

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in the value of human-animal interactions (HAI) to human mental and physical health the quality of the evidence on which postulated benefits from animals to human psychological health are based is often unclear. To date there exist no systematic reviews on the effects of HAI in educational settings specifically focussing on the perceived benefits to children of reading to dogs. With rising popularity and implementation of these programmes in schools, it...

  2. Unilateral versus Bilateral Instrumentation in Spinal Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Molinari, Robert W.; Saleh, Ahmed; Molinari, Robert; Hermsmeyer, Jeff; Dettori, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Systematic review. Clinical Questions (1) What is the comparative efficacy of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? (2) What is the safety of unilateral instrumentation compared with bilateral instrumentation in spine surgery? Methods Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched up to September 30, 2014, to identify studies reporting the comparative efficacy and safety of unilateral versus bilateral instrume...

  3. Fungal periprosthetic joint infection of the hip: a systematic review

    Benjamin Schoof; Oliver Jakobs; Stefan Schmidl; Till Orla Klatte; Lars Frommelt; Thorsten Gehrke; Matthias Gebauer

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of total joint arthroplasty with an incidence of approximately 1%. Due to the high risk of persisting infection, successful treatment of fungal PJI is challenging. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the current management of fungal PJI of the hip and, by systematically reviewing the cases published so far, to further improve the medical treatment of this serious complication of total hip arthroplasty. Thus, we condu...

  4. Empirical research on international environmental migration: a systematic review

    Obokata, Reiko; Veronis, Luisa; McLeman, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a systematic review of scholarly publications that report empirical findings from studies of environmentally-related international migration. There exists a small, but growing accumulation of empirical studies that consider environmentally-linked migration that spans international borders. These studies provide useful evidence for scholars and policymakers in understanding how environmental factors interact with political, economic and social factors to inf...

  5. Systematic review of pharmacological treatments in fragile X syndrome

    Tejada Maria-Isabel; Ballesteros Javier; Rueda Jose-Ramon

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is considered the most common cause of inherited mental retardation. Affected people have mental impairment that can include Attention Deficit and/or Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), autism disorder, and speech and behavioural disorders. Several pharmacological interventions have been proposed to treat those impairments. Methods Systematic review of the literature and summary of the evidence from clinical controlled trials that compared at least one ...

  6. The effects of integrated care on professionals: a systematic review

    Janse, B.; Fabbricotti, I.N.; Huijsman, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim Traditional care is increasingly being replaced by integrated care models, which often implies changes for health professionals involved. However, although literature on integrated care is abundant, the primary focus is rarely on professionals. Consequently, it is not clear if and how they are affected by integrated care interventions. The aim of this study, therefore, is to provide a systematic review of the literature on the effect of integrated care on professionals. Met...

  7. Safety of fluconazole in paediatrics: a systematic review

    Egunsola, Oluwaseun; Adefurin, Abiodun; Fakis, Apostolos; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne; Choonara, Imti; Sammons, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of fluconazole in neonates and other paediatric age groups by identifying adverse events (AEs) and drug interactions associated with treatment. Methods: A search of EMBASE (1950–January 2012), MEDLINE (1946–January 2012), the Cochrane database for systematic reviews and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (1982–2012) for any clinical study about fluconazole use that involved at least one paediatric patient (≤17 years) was p...

  8. Parenting Programs to Prevent Corporal Punishment: A Systematic Review

    Paolla Magioni Santini; Lucia CA Williams

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Studies have shown that corporal punishment against children is a common family practice, causing damage to child development. Considering that parents are the main perpetrators of this type of aggression, parenting programs are needed to raise children without violence. This study aimed at performing a systematic review of parenting programs evaluations to reduce corporal punishment. Intervention procedures, as well as design, results and limitations were identified for each study. ...

  9. Cardiac calcified amorphous tumor: A systematic review of the literature

    Quentin de Hemptinne; Didier de Cannière; Jean-Luc Vandenbossche; Philippe Unger

    2015-01-01

    Background: Calcified amorphous tumor (CAT) of the heart is a rare non-neoplastic intracavitary cardiac mass. Several case reports have been published but large series are lacking. Objective: To determine clinical features, current management and outcomes of this rare disease. Design: A systematic review of all articles reporting cases of CAT in order to perform a pooled analysis of its clinical features, management and outcomes. Data sources: An electronic search of all English arti...

  10. Implementing electronic health records in hospitals: a systematic literature review

    Boonstra, A.; Versluis, Arie; Vos, J.F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The literature on implementing Electronic Health Records (EHR) in hospitals is very diverse. The objective of this study is to create an overview of the existing literature on EHR implementation in hospitals and to identify generally applicable findings and lessons for implementers. Methods: A systematic literature review of empirical research on EHR implementation was conducted. Databases used included Web of Knowledge, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library. Relevant references in the sele...

  11. Systematic review of studies about countertransference in adult psychotherapy

    Diogo de Bitencourt Machado; Fábio Monteiro da Cunha Coelho; Augusto Dutra Giacomelli; Mariana Almeida Lopes Donassolo; Morgana Sonza Abitante; Tatiane Dall'Agnol; Cláudio Laks Eizirik

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Countertransference, the emotional reaction of a psychotherapist toward a patient, is an important technical element of psychotherapy. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify and describe the main findings of studies that evaluated countertransference in adult psychotherapy.METHODS: A search was conducted of the databases Embase, PubMed, PsycINFO and Web of Knowledge to retrieve data published in any language at any time.RESULTS:Of the 1,081 studies found in the da...

  12. Spiritually and Religiously Integrated Group Psychotherapy: A Systematic Literature Review

    Niels Buus; Niels Christian Hvidt; Dorte Toudal Viftrup

    2013-01-01

    We systematically reviewed the research literature on spiritually and religiously integrated group psychotherapy to answer the following three questions: first, how are spirituality and religiosity defined; second, how are spiritual and religious factors characterized and integrated into group psychotherapy; and, third, what is the outcome of the group psychotherapies? We searched in two databases: PsycINFO and PubMed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria and checklists from standardized assessme...

  13. The prevalence of thoracolumbar kyphosis in achondroplasia: a systematic review

    Engberts, Alexander C.; Jacobs, Wilco C. H.; Castelijns, Sanne J. A. M.; Castelein, Rene M; Vleggeert-Lankamp, Carmen L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Thoracolumbar kyphosis (TLK) is described as a common presentation in children with achondroplasia. However, the prevalence and development of TLK are ill-defined, as well as its clinical implications. The goal of this study was to assess the existing evidence on the prevalence and development of TLK from the literature. Methods A systematic literature review was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, and Thomson Reuters (ISI) Web of Knowledge. Articles were selected and evaluated with the Newc...

  14. Systematic review of chronic ankle instability in children

    Mandarakas, Melissa; Pourkazemi, Fereshteh; Sman, Amy; Burns, Joshua; Hiller, Claire E

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is a disabling condition often encountered after ankle injury. Three main components of CAI exist; perceived instability; mechanical instability (increased ankle ligament laxity); and recurrent sprain. Literature evaluating CAI has been heavily focused on adults, with little attention to CAI in children. Hence, the objective of this study was to systematically review the prevalence of CAI in children. Methods Studies were retrieved from major databas...

  15. Insufficient Milk Supply and Breast Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review

    Jacqueline M Cohen; Hutcheon, Jennifer A; Sofi G Julien; Michel L Tremblay; Fuhrer, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background An association between insufficient milk supply, the inability of a mother's breast milk to provide sufficiently for her infant, and breast cancer has been suggested by observations in animal models. To determine if an association has been reported in epidemiological studies of human breast cancer, a systematic review of the literature has been conducted. We also sought to identify the methodological limitations of existing studies to guide the design of any future prospective stud...

  16. Obesity and its health impact in Africa: a systematic review

    Adeboye, Bridget; Bermano, Giovanna; Rolland, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Obesity and its association with co-morbidities in Africa are on the rise. This systematic review examines evidence of obesity and its association with co-morbidities within the African continent. Comparative studies conducted in Africa on adults 17 years and older with mean body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 were included. Five electronic databases were searched. Surveys, case–control and cohort studies from January 2000 to July 2010 were evaluated. Of 720 potentially relevant article...

  17. Social networks of patients with psychosis: a systematic review

    Palumbo, Claudia; Volpe, Umberto; Matanov, Aleksandra; Priebe, Stefan; Giacco, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Background Social networks are important for mental health outcomes as they can mobilise resources and help individuals to cope with social stressors. Individuals with psychosis may have specific difficulties in establishing and maintaining social relationships which impacts on their well-being and quality of life. There has been a growing interest in developing social network interventions for patients with psychotic disorders. A systematic literature review was conducted to investigate the ...

  18. Leptomeningeal metastasis in breast cancer – a systematic review

    Scott, Brian J.; Oberheim-Bush, Nancy A.; Kesari, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited data on the impact of specific patient characteristics, tumor subtypes or treatment interventions on survival in breast cancer LM. Methods A systematic review was conducted to assess the impact of hormone receptor and HER-2 status on survival in breast cancer LM. A search for clinical studies published between 1/1/2007 and 7/1/2012 and all randomized-controlled trials was performed. Survival data from all studies are reported by study design (prospective trials, re...

  19. Social networking sites and older users - a systematic review

    Nef, Tobias; Ganea, Raluca L.; René M. Müri; Mosimann, Urs P

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Social networking sites can be beneficial for senior citizens to promote social participation and to enhance intergenerational communication. Particularly for older adults with impaired mobility, social networking sites can help them to connect with family members and other active social networking users. The aim of this systematic review is to give an overview of existing scientific literature on social networking in older users. METHODS Computerized databases were sea...

  20. Coping during pregnancy: a systematic review and recommendations

    Guardino, CM; Dunkel Schetter, C

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents that prenatal maternal stress predicts a variety of adverse physical and psychological health outcomes for the mother and baby. However, the importance of the ways that women cope with stress during pregnancy is less clear. We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature on coping behaviours and coping styles in pregnancy using PsycInfo and PubMed to identify 45 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies involving 16,060 participants published be...

  1. Prehospital outcomes for ambulance service care: systematic review

    Phung, Viet-Hai; Booth, Andrew; Joanne, Coster; Turner, Janette; Wilson, Richard; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ambulance service performance measurement has previously focused on response times and survival. We conducted a systematic review of the international literature on quality measures and outcomes relating to pre-hospital ambulance service care, aiming to identify a broad range of outcome measures to provide a more meaningful assessment of ambulance service care. Methods: We searched a number of electronic databases including CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, and Web...

  2. Influence of orthodontic treatment on temporomandibular disorders: a systematic review

    Fernández, Felipe J.; Cañigral Ortiz, María Aránzazu; López Caballo, José L.; Brizuela Velasco, Aritza; Moreno Hay, Isabel; del Río Highsmith, Jaime; Vega Álvarez, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this literature systematic review was to evaluate the possible association between malocclusions, orthodontic treatment and development of temporomandibular disorders. Material and Methods: A search was carried out on PubMed-Medline database from January 2000 to August 2013 using the keywords “orthodontics and temporomandibular disorders”, “orthodontics and facial pain” and “malocclusion and temporomandibular disorders”. Human studies included in the study were those ass...

  3. Psychological Profile of Sasang Typology: A Systematic Review

    Han Chae; Soo Hyun Park; Soo Jin Lee; Myoung-geun Kim; Danny Wedding; Young-Kyu Kwon

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were id...

  4. Prevalence of sleep bruxism in children: A systematic review

    Eduardo Machado; Cibele Dal-Fabbro; Paulo Afonso Cunali; Osvaldo Bazzan Kaizer

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of sleep bruxism (SB) in children is subject to discussions in the literature. OBJECTIVE: This study is a systematic literature review aiming to critically assess the prevalence of SB in children. METHODS: Survey using the following research databases: MEDLINE, Cochrane, EMBASE, PubMed, Lilacs and BBO, from January 2000 to February 2013, focusing on studies specifically assessing the prevalence of SB in children. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, four st...

  5. Dynamic exercise therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review.

    Ende, C.H.M. van den; Vliet Vlieland, T. P. M.; Munneke, M.; Hazes, J.M.W.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of dynamic exercixe therapy in improving joint mobility, muscle strength, aerobic capacity and daily functioning in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, possible unwanted effects such as an increase in pain, disease activity and radiological progression were studied. A computer-aided search of the MEDLINE , Embase and SCISEARCH databases was performed to identifiy controlled trials on the effect of exercise ...

  6. Interventions for enhancing adherence with physiotherapy: a systematic review

    McLean, S.; Burton, M.; L. Bradley(a); Littlewood, C

    2010-01-01

    Poor adherence to treatment is commonplace and may adversely affect outcomes, efficiency and healthcare cost. The aim of this systematic review was to identify strategies to improve adherence with musculoskeletal outpatient treatment. Five suitable studies were identified which provided moderate evidence that a motivational cognitive-behavioural programme can improve attendance at exercise-based clinic sessions. There was conflicting evidence that adherence interventions increase short-ter...

  7. The person-oriented approach to burnout : A systematic review

    Mäkikangas, Anne; KINNUNEN, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    The variable-oriented approach has dominated empirical burnout research, but during the last 10 years a person-oriented approach to burnout has also become common. The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify, categorize and evaluate the empirical research to date that has adopted a personoriented approach to burnout. The results of these studies were then compared with those generated by variable-oriented burnout research. An electronic search of seven databases w...

  8. Healthcare Staff Wellbeing, Burnout, and Patient Safety: A Systematic Review

    Hall, L.; Johnson, J; Watts, I; Tsipa, A; O'Connor, D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is an association between healthcare professionals’ wellbeing and burnout, with patient safety. Design Systematic research review. Data Sources PsychInfo (1806 to July 2015), Medline (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1947 to July 2015) and Scopus (1823 to July 2015) were searched, along with reference lists of eligible articles. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies Quantitative, empirical studies that included i) either a measure of wellbeing or burnout, ...

  9. Treatment of acute ankle ligament injuries: a systematic review

    Petersen, Wolf; Rembitzki, Ingo Volker; Koppenburg, Andreas Gösele; Ellermann, Andre; Liebau, Christian; Brüggemann, Gerd Peter; Best, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Background Lateral ankle sprains are common musculoskeletal injuries. Objectives The objective of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of the last 10 years regarding evidence for the treatment and prevention of lateral ankle sprains. Data source Pubmed central, Google scholar. Study eligibility criteria Meta-analysis, prospective randomized trials, English language articles. Interventions Surgical and non-surgical treatment, immobilization versus functional treatment, diff...

  10. Mood and anxiety disorders in widowhood: A systematic review

    Onrust, S.A.; Cuijpers, P.

    2006-01-01

    The association between widowhood and mental health problems, such as depressive symptomatology and anxiety, has been examined extensively. Few studies, however, have explored the prevalence and incidence of mood and anxiety disorders based on diagnostic criteria after the loss of the partner. We conducted a systematic review, and searched major bibliographical databases for studies examining mood and anxiety disorders in widowhood. We included all studies examining the prevalence or incidenc...

  11. Food Risk/Benefit Communication: A Systematic Review

    Frewer, L. J.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Brennan, Mary; BANATI, D; Lion, R; Meertens, R; Rowe, G.; Siegrist, M; W. Verbeke; Vereijken, C

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review relevant to the following research questions was conducted 1) the extent to which different theoretical frameworks have been applied to food risk/benefit communication and 2) the impact such food risk/benefit communication interventions have had on related risk/benefit attitudes and behaviours. Fifty four papers were identified. The analysis revealed that (primarily European or US) research interest has been relatively recent. Certain food issues were of greater interest t...

  12. Breastfeeding and depression: a systematic review of the literature

    Dias, Cláudia Castro; Figueiredo, Bárbara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research has separately indicated associations between pregnancy depression and breastfeeding, breastfeeding and postpartum depression, and pregnancy and postpartum depression. This paper aimed to provide a systematic literature review on breastfeeding and depression, considering both pregnancy and postpartum depression. Methods: An electronic search in three databases was performed using the keywords: “breast feeding”, “bottle feeding”, “depression”, “pregnancy”, and “postpartum”...

  13. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Edward M Phillips

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools.Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for art...

  14. The evolution of health literacy assessment tools: a systematic review

    Altin, Sibel Vildan; Finke, Isabelle; Kautz-Freimuth, Sibylle; Stock, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Background Health literacy (HL) is seen as an increasingly relevant issue for global public health and requires a reliable and comprehensive operationalization. By now, there is limited evidence on how the development of tools measuring HL proceeded in recent years and if scholars considered existing methodological guidance when developing an instrument. Methods We performed a systematic review of generic measurement tools developed to assess HL by searching PubMed, ERIC, CINAHL and Web of Kn...

  15. Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray; Janaína Barbosa Pacheco; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira; Rochele Paz Fonseca; José Carlos de Carvalho Leite; Christian Haag Kristensen

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011) databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers exposed to abuse during childhood performed poorly on tasks meant to assess verbal episodic memory, working memory, atte...

  16. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health.Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1. In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles.The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development.This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better

  17. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Maha Bouzid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  18. Tachykinin receptors antagonism for asthma: a systematic review

    Couto Nuno

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tachykinins substance P, neurokinin A and neurokinin B seem to account for asthma pathophysiology by mediating neurogenic inflammation and several aspects of lung mechanics. These neuropeptides act mainly by their receptors NK1, NK2 and NK3, respectively which may be targets for new asthma therapy. Methods This review systematically examines randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of tachykinins receptors antagonism on asthma. Symptoms, airway inflammation, lung function and airway inflammation were considered as outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialized Register of Asthma Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE. The search is as current as June 2010. Quality rating of included studies followed the Cochrane Collaboration and GRADE Profiler approaches. However, data were not pooled together due to different measures among the studies. Results Our systematic review showed the potential of NK receptor antagonist to decrease airway responsiveness and to improve lung function. However, effects on airway inflammation and asthma symptoms were poorly or not described. Conclusion The limited available evidence suggests that tachykinin receptors antagonists may decrease airway responsiveness and improve lung function in patients with asthma. Further large randomized trials are still required.

  19. Internalized Homonegativity: A Systematic Mapping Review of Empirical Research.

    Berg, Rigmor C; Munthe-Kaas, Heather M; Ross, Michael W

    2016-04-01

    Internalized homonegativity (IH) is an important variable affecting the wellbeing of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons. We included 201 studies in a systematic mapping review of IH. Most studies were conducted in North America and examined IH as a predictor of poor health. The primary focus of 14 studies was IH scale measurement, and, in total, these studies detailed nine distinct scales. Eighteen studies compared levels of IH in LGB populations, four described prevention programs, and one investigated IH using qualitative methods. Our review indicates that further research is needed, particularly qualitative research and ways to ameliorate IH. PMID:26436322

  20. Endothelial Function in Migraine With Aura – A Systematic Review

    Butt, Jawad H; Franzmann, Ulriche; Kruuse, Christina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increased risk of ischemic stroke is repeatedly reported in young subjects with migraine with aura (MA). Such may be caused by changes in endothelial function. The present review evaluates current evidence on endothelial function in MA patients. METHODS: A systematic search of...... electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane library) was performed, and a search in associated reference lists of identified studies was done. RESULTS: In total, 27 studies met inclusion criteria for this review. Six studies assessed endothelial function by flow-mediated dilation; four reported no...

  1. A Systematic Review of Literature Using Business Systems Theory

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Morgan, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    the BST and its literature. Thus, the systematic review, on the one hand, presents a perspective on the key themes of BST literature and how they inter-relate and have developed, whilst, on the other hand, it brings these themes and contributions into the light for IB studies and suggests how IB and......, international business (IB) studies do not tend to borrow much from this sub-field. This paper reviews BST literature from 1992 to 2015 and seeks to identify its contributions and gaps, in ways that can be helpful for future research in IB. Trend analysis of BST literature and mapping this sub-field suggests...

  2. A Systematic Review of End-users Within Sustainable Innovation

    Roed Nielsen, Kristian; Reisch, Lucia A.; Bogers, Marcel

    also increasingly being translated into real-world product and service innovation. In utilizing a systematic literature review method this paper explores the current literature on end-user innovation within the realm of sustainable products and services. In order understand both the types of innovation...... pursued by end-users and how process itself comes about, thereby arguably contributing to the sustainable innovation literature by exploring how end-users independently innovate towards sustainable goals. The literature review is part of larger EU FP7 project – EU-InnovatE – tasked with exploring the role...

  3. Systematic Review to Inform Dual Tobacco Use Prevention.

    Evans, William Douglas; Horn, Kimberly A; Gray, Tiffany

    2015-10-01

    With more tobacco products now available and heavily marketed, dual tobacco use is increasing among youth. We systematically reviewed literature on dual tobacco use interventions, with an emphasis on mass health communication strategies. The review identified 46 articles meeting initial criteria and ultimately included 8 articles. Included studies reported a mix of health communication and social marketing techniques. Although there is a body of research on dual tobacco use, there is limited literature describing interventions aimed at controlling it. Design and evaluation of such interventions showing reductions in dual use of cigarettes, smokeless, and alternative products would advance the field. PMID:26318945

  4. Psychological Profile of Sasang Typology: A Systematic Review

    Han Chae

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of studies related to the psychological characteristics of Sasang types was conducted with the goal of delineating generalizable psychological profiles based on Sasang typology, a traditional Korean medical typology with medical herbs and acupuncture that is characterized as personalized medicine. Journal articles pertaining to Sasang typology were collected using five electronic database systems in Korea and in the USA. As a result, 64 potentially relevant studies were identified and 21 peer-reviewed research articles that employed psychometric inventories were included. Beginning with the use of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory in 1992, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, NEO-Personality Inventory, Temperament and Character Inventory and other personality assessment tools were employed in the identified studies. Because data synthesis could not be carried out due to the heterogeneity of the studies, the present review article sought to delineate the mutual relevance of the studies based on research results pertaining to the correlation between the aforementioned psychological assessment instruments. Results of the review indicate that two super-factors, Extraversion and Neuroticism, serve as the foundation in regards to delineating personality constructs, such that the So-Yang type scored high on the Extraversion dimension and low on the Neuroticism dimension, while the So-Eum type scored low on the Extraversion dimension and high on the Neuroticism dimension. The present systematic review indicates that Sasang typology shares similarities with the Western psychological tradition.

  5. Systematic review of 3D mammography for breast cancer screening.

    Hodgson, Robert; Heywang-Köbrunner, Sylvia H; Harvey, Susan C; Edwards, Mary; Shaikh, Javed; Arber, Mick; Glanville, Julie

    2016-06-01

    This review investigated the relative performance of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) (alone or with full field digital mammography (FFDM) or synthetic digital mammography) compared with FFDM alone for detecting breast cancer lesions in asymptomatic women. A systematic review was carried out according to systematic reviewing principles provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Diagnostic Test Accuracy. A protocol was developed a priori. The review was registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42014013949). Searches were undertaken in October 2014. Following selection, five studies were eligible. Higher cancer detection rates were observed when comparing DBT + FFDM with FFDM in two European studies: the summary difference per 1000 screens was 2.43 (95% CI: 1.8 to 3.1). Both European studies found lower false positive rates for individual readers. One found a lower recall rate based on conditional recall. The second study was not designed to compare post-arbitration recall rates between FFDM and DBT + FFDM. One European study presented data on interval cancer rates; sensitivity and specificity for DBT + FFDM were both higher compared to FFDM. One large multicentre US study showed a higher cancer detection rate for DBT + FFDM, while two smaller US studies did not find statistically significant differences. Reductions in recall and false positive rates were observed in the US studies in favour of DBT + FFDM. In comparison to FFDM, DBT, as an adjunct to FFDM, has a higher cancer detection rate, increasing the effectiveness of breast cancer screening. Additional benefits of DBT may also include reduced recalls and, consequently, reduced costs and distress caused to women who would have been recalled. PMID:27212700

  6. Developing a Comprehensive Search Strategy for Evidence Based Systematic Reviews

    Sekhar Thadiparthi

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective ‐ Within the health care field it becomes ever more critical to conduct systematic reviews of the research literature to guide programmatic activities, policy‐making decisions, and future research. Conducting systematic reviews requires a comprehensive search of behavioural, social, and policy research to identify relevant literature. As a result, the validity of the systematic review findings and recommendations is partly a function of the quality of the systematic search of the literature. Therefore, a carefully thought out and organized plan for developing and testing a comprehensive search strategy should be followed. This paper uses the HIV/AIDS prevention literature to provide a framework for developing, testing, and conducting a comprehensive search strategy looking beyond RCTs.Methods ‐ Comprehensive search strategies, including automated and manual search techniques, were developed, tested, and implemented to locate published and unpublished citations in order to build a database of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases (STD literature. The search incorporated various automated and manual search methods to decrease the chance of missing pertinent information. The automated search was implemented in MEDLINE, EMBASE,PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts and AIDSLINE. These searches utilized both index terms as well as keywords including truncation, proximity, and phrases. The manual search method includes physically examining journals (hand searching, reference list checks, and researching key authors.Results ‐ Using automated and manual search components, the search strategy retrieved 17,493 articles about prevention of HIV/AIDS and STDs for the years 1988‐2005. The automated search found 91%, and the manual search contributed 9% of the articles reporting on HIV/AIDS or STD interventions with behavioural/biologic outcomes. Among the citations located with automated searches, 48% were found in only one database (20

  7. Use of Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Environmental Health Epidemiology: a Systematic Review and Comparison with Guidelines.

    Sheehan, Mary C; Lam, Juleen

    2015-09-01

    Systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) have potential to contribute substantially to environmental health (EH) risk assessment and policy-making, provided study questions are clear and methods sound. We undertook a systematic review of the published epidemiological literature for studies using both SR and MA examining associations between chronic low-dose chemical exposures and adverse health outcomes in general populations and compared actual methods and reporting with a checklist based on available published guidelines. We identified 48 EH SRMAs meeting these criteria. Associations were mainly positive and statistically significant, often involving large populations. A majority of studies followed most general SRMA guidance, although we identified weaknesses in problem formulation, study search, selection and data extraction, and integrating policy implications. Fewer studies followed EH-specific SRMA recommendations, particularly regarding exposure heterogeneity and other risks of bias. Development and adoption of EH-specific SRMA guidelines would contribute to strengthening these tools for public health decision-making. PMID:26231504

  8. Preventing childhood scalds within the home: Overview of systematic reviews and a systematic review of primary studies

    Zou, Kun; Wynn, Persephone M.; Miller, Philip; Hindmarch, Paul; Majsak-Newman, Gosia; Young, Ben; Hayes, Mike; Kendrick, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To synthesise and evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of interventions to prevent scalds in children. Methods: An overview of systematic reviews (SR) and a SR of primary studies were performed evaluating interventions to prevent scalds in children. A comprehensive literature search was conducted covering various resources up to October 2012. Experimental and controlled observational studies reporting scald injuries, safety practices and safety equipment use were included....

  9. A systematic map of systematic reviews in pediatric dentistry--what do we really know?

    Mejàre, Ingegerd A; Klingberg, Gunilla; Mowafi, Frida K;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify, appraise and summarize existing knowledge and knowledge gaps in practice-relevant questions in pediatric dentistry. METHODS: A systematic mapping of systematic reviews was undertaken for domains considered important in daily clinical practice. The literature search covered...... questions in the following domains: behavior management problems/dental anxiety; caries risk assessment and caries detection including radiographic technologies; prevention and non-operative treatment of caries in primary and young permanent teeth; operative treatment of caries in primary and young...... prevention. The quality of evidence was high for a caries-preventive effect of daily use of fluoride toothpaste and moderate for fissure sealing with resin-based materials. For the rest the quality of evidence for the effects of interventions was low or very low. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need for...

  10. Health Worker mHealth Utilization: A Systematic Review.

    White, Alice; Thomas, Deborah S K; Ezeanochie, Nnamdi; Bull, Sheana

    2016-05-01

    This systematic review describes mHealth interventions directed at healthcare workers in low-resource settings from the PubMed database from March 2009 to May 2015. Thirty-one articles were selected for final review. Four categories emerged from the reviewed articles: data collection during patient visits, communication between health workers and patients, communication between health workers, and public health surveillance. Most studies used a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to assess acceptability of use, barriers to use, changes in healthcare delivery, and improved health outcomes. Few papers included theory explicitly to guide development and evaluation of their mHealth programs. Overall, evidence indicated that mobile technology tools, such as smartphones and tablets, substantially benefit healthcare workers, their patients, and healthcare delivery. Limitations to mHealth tools included insufficient program use and sustainability, unreliable Internet and electricity, and security issues. Despite these limitations, this systematic review demonstrates the utility of using mHealth in low-resource settings and the potential for widespread health system improvements using technology. PMID:26955009

  11. Mental health of sexual minorities. A systematic review.

    Plöderl, Martin; Tremblay, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Many studies, reviews, and meta-analyses have reported elevated mental health problems for sexual minority (SM) individuals. This systematic review provides an update by including numerous recent studies, and explores whether SM individuals are at increased risk across selected mental health problems as per dimensions of sexual orientation (SO), genders, life-stages, geographic regions, and in higher quality studies. A systematic search in PubMed produced 199 studies appropriate for review. A clear majority of studies reported elevated risks for depression, anxiety, suicide attempts or suicides, and substance-related problems for SM men and women, as adolescents or adults from many geographic regions, and with varied SO dimensions (behaviour, attraction, identity), especially in more recent and higher quality studies. One notable exception is alcohol-related problems, where many studies reported zero or reversed effects, especially for SM men. All SM subgroups were at increased risk, but bisexual individuals were at highest risk in the majority of studies. Other subgroup and gender differences are more complex and are discussed. The review supports the long-standing mental health risk proposition for SM individuals, overall and as subgroups. PMID:26552495

  12. The Healthy Immigrant Paradox and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review.

    Millett, Lina S

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies suggest that foreign-born individuals have a health advantage, referred to as the Healthy Immigrant Paradox, when compared to native-born persons of the same socio-economic status. This systematic review examined whether the immigrant advantage found in health literature is mirrored by child maltreatment in general and its forms in particular. The author searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, CINAHL PLUS, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and SocINdex for published literature through December 2015. The review followed an evidence-based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The author identified 822 unique articles, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed data showed strong support for the healthy immigrant paradox for a general form of maltreatment and physical abuse. The evidence for emotional and sexual abuse was also suggestive of immigrant advantage though relatively small sample size and lack of multivariate controls make these findings tentative. The evidence for neglect was mixed: immigrants were less likely to be reported to Child Protective Services; however, they had higher rates of physical neglect and lack of supervision in the community data. The study results warrant confirmation with newer data possessing strong external validity for immigrant samples. PMID:26914837

  13. Single incision laparoscopic liver resection (SILL – a systematic review

    Benzing, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, minimally invasive liver resections for both benign and malignant tumors are routinely performed. Recently, some authors have described single incision laparoscopic liver resection (SILL procedures. Since SILL is a relatively young branch of laparoscopy, we performed a systematic review of the current literature to collect data on feasibility, perioperative results and oncological outcome.Methods: A literature research was performed on Medline for all studies that met the eligibility criteria. Titles and abstracts were screened by two authors independently. A study was included for review if consensus was obtained by discussion between the authors on the basis of predefined inclusion criteria. A thorough quality assessment of all included studies was performed. Data were analyzed and tabulated according to predefined outcome measures. Synthesis of the results was achieved by narrative review. Results: A total of 15 eligible studies were identified among which there was one prospective cohort study and one randomized controlled trial comparing SILL to multi incision laparoscopic liver resection (MILL. The rest were retrospective case series with a maximum of 24 patients. All studies demonstrated convincing results with regards to feasibility, morbidity and mortality. The rate of wound complications and incisional hernia was low. The cosmetic results were good.Conclusions: This is the first systematic review on SILL including prospective trials. The results of the existing studies reporting on SILL are favorable. However, a large body of scientific evidence on the field of SILL is missing, further randomized controlled studies are urgently needed.

  14. Systematic Review of Inspiratory Muscle Training After Cerebrovascular Accident.

    Martín-Valero, Rocío; De La Casa Almeida, Maria; Casuso-Holgado, Maria Jesus; Heredia-Madrazo, Alfonso

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review examines levels of evidence and recommendation grades of various therapeutic interventions of inspiratory muscle training in people who have had a stroke. Benefits from different levels of force and resistance in respiratory muscles are shown in this population. This review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) directives and was completed in November 2014. The search limits were studies published in English between 2004 and 2014. Relevant studies were searched for in MEDLINE, PEDro, OAIster, Scopus, PsycINFO, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, DOAJ, Cochrane, Embase, Academic Search Complete, Fuente Académica, and MedicLatina. Initially, 20 articles were identified. After analyzing all primary documents, 14 studies were excluded. Only 6 studies were relevant to this review. Three different types of interventions were found (maximum inspiratory training, controlled training, and nonintervention) in 3 different groups. One specific study compared 3 inspiratory muscle training groups with a group of breathing exercises (diaphragmatic exercises with pursed lips) and a control group. Future long-term studies with larger sample sizes are needed. It is necessary to apply respiratory muscle training as a service of the national health system and to consider its inclusion in the conventional neurological program. PMID:26493591

  15. Instruments measuring blunted affect in schizophrenia: a systematic review.

    Sanja Kilian

    Full Text Available Blunted affect, also referred to as emotional blunting, is a prominent symptom of schizophrenia. Patients with blunted affect have difficulty in expressing their emotions. The work of Abrams and Taylor and their development of the Rating Scale for Emotional Blunting in the late 1970's was an early indicator that blunted affect could indeed be assessed reliably. Since then, several new instruments assessing negative symptoms with subscales measuring blunted affect have been developed. In light of this, we aim to provide researchers and clinicians with a systematic review of the different instruments used to assess blunted affect by providing a comparison of the type, characteristics, administration and psychometric properties of these instruments. Studies reporting on the psychometric properties of instruments assessing blunted affect in patients with schizophrenia were included. Reviews and case studies were excluded. We reviewed 30 full-text articles and included 15 articles and 10 instruments in this systematic review. On average the instruments take 15-30 minutes to administer. We found that blunted affect items common across all instruments assess: gestures, facial expressions and vocal expressions. The CAINS Self-report Expression Subscale, had a low internal consistency score. This suggests that this sub-scale does not reliably assess patients' self-reported blunted affect symptoms and is likely due to the nature of blunted affect. Instruments correlated minimally with instruments measuring positive symptoms and more importantly with depression suggesting that the instruments distinguish between seemingly similar symptoms.

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder following disasters: a systematic review

    Neria, Y.; Nandi, A.; Galea, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Disasters are traumatic events that may result in a wide range of mental and physical health consequences. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is probably the most commonly studied post-disaster psychiatric disorder. This review aimed to systematically assess the evidence about PTSD following exposure to disasters. Method A systematic search was performed. Eligible studies for this review included reports based on the DSM criteria of PTSD symptoms. The time-frame for inclusion of reports in this review is from 1980 (when PTSD was first introduced in DSM-III) and February 2007 when the literature search for this examination was terminated. Results We identified 284 reports of PTSD following disasters published in peer-reviewed journals since 1980. We categorized them according to the following classification: (1) human-made disasters (n=90), (2) technological disasters (n=65), and (3) natural disasters (n=116). Since some studies reported on findings from mixed samples (e.g. survivors of flooding and chemical contamination) we grouped these studies together (n=13). Conclusions The body of research conducted after disasters in the past three decades suggests that the burden of PTSD among persons exposed to disasters is substantial. Post-disaster PTSD is associated with a range of correlates including sociodemographic and background factors, event exposure characteristics, social support factors and personality traits. Relatively few studies have employed longitudinal assessments enabling documentation of the course of PTSD. Methodological limitations and future directions for research in this field are discussed. PMID:17803838

  17. The Use and Reporting of the Cross-Over Study Design in Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews: A Systematic Assessment

    Hambleton, Ian; Dwan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of treatment interventions in stable or chronic conditions often require the synthesis of clinical trials with a cross-over design. Previous work has indicated that methodology for analysing cross-over data is inadequate in trial reports and in systematic reviews assessing trials with this design. Objective We assessed systematic review methodology for synthesising cross-over trials among Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group reviews published to July 2015, and assessed the quality of reporting among the cross-over trials included in these reviews. Methodology We performed data extraction of methodology and reporting in reviews, trials identified and trials included within reviews. Principal Findings We reviewed a total of 142 Cochrane systematic reviews including 53 reviews which synthesised evidence from 218 cross-over trials. Thirty-three (63%) Cochrane reviews described a clear and appropriate method for the inclusion of cross-over data, and of these 19 (56%) used the same method to analyse results. 145 cross-over trials were described narratively or treated as parallel trials in reviews but in 30 (21%) of these trials data existed in the trial reports to account for the cross-over design. At the trial level, the analysis and presentation of results were often inappropriate or unclear, with only 69 (32%) trials presenting results that could be included in meta-analysis. Conclusions Despite development of accessible, technical guidance and training for Cochrane systematic reviewers, statistical analysis and reporting of cross-over data is inadequate at both the systematic review and the trial level. Plain language and practical guidance for the inclusion of cross-over data in meta-analysis would benefit systematic reviewers, who come from a wide range of health specialties. Minimum reporting standards for cross-over trials are needed. PMID:27409076

  18. The Use and Reporting of the Cross-Over Study Design in Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews: A Systematic Assessment.

    Sarah Jane Nolan

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews of treatment interventions in stable or chronic conditions often require the synthesis of clinical trials with a cross-over design. Previous work has indicated that methodology for analysing cross-over data is inadequate in trial reports and in systematic reviews assessing trials with this design.We assessed systematic review methodology for synthesising cross-over trials among Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group reviews published to July 2015, and assessed the quality of reporting among the cross-over trials included in these reviews.We performed data extraction of methodology and reporting in reviews, trials identified and trials included within reviews.We reviewed a total of 142 Cochrane systematic reviews including 53 reviews which synthesised evidence from 218 cross-over trials. Thirty-three (63% Cochrane reviews described a clear and appropriate method for the inclusion of cross-over data, and of these 19 (56% used the same method to analyse results. 145 cross-over trials were described narratively or treated as parallel trials in reviews but in 30 (21% of these trials data existed in the trial reports to account for the cross-over design. At the trial level, the analysis and presentation of results were often inappropriate or unclear, with only 69 (32% trials presenting results that could be included in meta-analysis.Despite development of accessible, technical guidance and training for Cochrane systematic reviewers, statistical analysis and reporting of cross-over data is inadequate at both the systematic review and the trial level. Plain language and practical guidance for the inclusion of cross-over data in meta-analysis would benefit systematic reviewers, who come from a wide range of health specialties. Minimum reporting standards for cross-over trials are needed.

  19. 78 FR 12764 - Draft Office of Health Assessment and Translation Approach for Systematic Review and Evidence...

    2013-02-25

    ... for Systematic Review and Evidence Integration for Literature-Based Health Assessments--February 2013... comments on the Draft Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) Approach for Systematic Review and... out literature-based health assessments that incorporates systematic review methodology....

  20. Susceptibility to fraud in systematic reviews: lessons from the Reuben case

    Marret, Emmanuel; Elia, Nadia; Dahl, Jørgen B;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dr. Scott Reuben allegedly fabricated data. The authors of the current article examined the impact of Reuben reports on conclusions of systematic reviews. METHODS: The authors searched in ISI Web of Knowledge systematic reviews citing Reuben reports. Systematic reviews were grouped in...

  1. Mapping the crime reduction evidence base: a descriptive analysis of the WP1 Systematic Review Database.

    Bowers, K. J.; Tompson, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    This document gives some summary statistics for the sample of systematic reviews that met the WP1 inclusion criteria. These criteria are documented in the systematic review protocol for this work package. In summary, the final list of studies constituted 337 separate systematic reviews.

  2. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy and Suicide: A Systematic Review

    Hal S. Wortzel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a global health concern, and the recent literature reports that a single mild TBI can result in chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE. It has been suggested that CTE may lead to death by suicide, raising important prevention, treatment, and policy implications. Thus, we conducted a systematic review of the medical literature to answer the key question: What is the existing evidence in support of a relationship between CTE and suicide? Systematic searches of CTE and suicide yielded 85 unique abstracts. Seven articles were identified for full text review. Only two case series met inclusion criteria and included autopsies from 17 unique cases, 5 of whom died by suicide. Neither studies used blinding, control cases, or systematic data collection regarding TBI exposure and/or medical/neuropsychiatric history. The identified CTE literature revealed divergent opinions regarding neuropathological elements of CTE and heterogeneity regarding clinical manifestations. Overall quality of evidence regarding a relationship between CTE and suicide was rated as very low using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE criteria. Further studies of higher quality and methodological rigor are needed to determine the existence and nature of any relationship between CTE and suicide.

  3. Treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) - a systematic review.

    Räßler, F; Lukács, J; Elsner, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) is a rare inflammatory skin disease defined by erythematous, tender, sometimes urticarial plaques, possibly with vesicles and bullae, and granulomatous eosinophilic infiltrates in the dermis. Usually the disease has a benign course with spontaneous remission within a few weeks. Nevertheless, recurrences are quite frequent and may occur for several years. The objective of this study was to review the so far reported treatment options for Wells syndrome in a systematic manner. This systematic review is based on a search on Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register for English and German articles from 1970 to 2015. Advices on the treatment of Wells syndrome are limited predominately to case reports or to small case series. There are no randomized controlled trials, and control groups are missing. A variety of treatment options for Wells syndrome were reported including topical and systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, cyclosporine, dapsone, azathioprine, griseofulvin, doxycycline, minocycline, antimalarial medications, oral tacrolimus/topical tacrolimus, sulfasalazine, interferon alpha and gamma, TNF alpha inhibitors, colchicine and PUVA therapy. As well-designed, randomized controlled trials are missing, no guidelines for the treatment of this disease can be given. Due to the small number of patients and the frequent misdiagnosis of this clinical entity, the aim of this systematic overview is to call attention to this rare condition and to help clinicians to diagnose and treat Wells syndrome effectively. Due to the good prognosis and tendency to resolve, systemic treatment should be limited to cases resistant to local therapy or with widespread lesions. PMID:27357601

  4. Correlates of Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    Sterdt, Elena; Liersch, Sebastian; Walter, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with the physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents (aged 3-18). The intention was to demonstrate the complexity of correlates of PA and to determine possible influencing factors. Design: A systematic review of reviews. Methods: Systematic…

  5. Flooding and mental health: a systematic mapping review.

    Ana Fernandez

    Full Text Available Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking.To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments.We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions.The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i the main mental health disorders-post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up.Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review.Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions.We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical responses.

  6. Systematic Review and Classification on Video Surveillance Systems

    Fereshteh Falah Chamasemani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various conferences and journals have published articles related to Video Surveillance Systems, indicating researchers’ attention. The goal of this review is to examine the latest works were published in journals, propose a new classification framework of video surveillance systems and investigate each aspect of this classification framework. This paper provides a comprehensive and systematic literature review of video surveillance systems from 2010-2011, extracted from six online digital libraries using article’s title and keyword. The proposed classification framework is expanded on the basis of architecture of video surveillance systems, which is composed of six layers: Concept and Foundation Layer, Network Infrastructure Layer, Processing Layer, Communication Layer, Application Layer, and User Interaction Layer. This review shows, although many publication and research focus on real-time aspect of the challenge, only few researches have investigated the deployment of extracted and retrieved information for forensic video surveillance.

  7. Clinical review: Statins and trauma--a systematic review.

    Jansen, Jan O; Lord, Janet M; Thickett, David R; Midwinter, Mark J; McAuley, Daniel F; Gao, Fang

    2013-01-01

    Statins, in addition to their lipid-lowering properties, have anti-inflammatory actions. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of pre-injury statin use, and statin treatment following injury. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL databases were searched to January 2012 for randomised and observational studies of statins in trauma patients in general, and in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury, burns, and fractures. Of 985 identified citations, 7 (4 observational studies and 3 randomised controlled trials (RCTs)) met the inclusion criteria. Two studies (both observational) were concerned with trauma patients in general, two with patients who had suffered traumatic brain injury (one observational, one RCT), two with burns patients (one observational, one RCT), and one with fracture healing (RCT). Two of the RCTs relied on surrogate outcome measures. The observational studies were deemed to be at high risk of confounding, and the RCTs at high risk of bias. Three of the observational studies suggested improvements in a number of clinical outcomes in patients taking statins prior to injury (mortality, infection, and septic shock in burns patients; mortality in trauma patients in general; mortality in brain injured patients) whereas one, also of trauma patients in general, showed no difference in mortality or infection, and an increased risk of multi-organ failure. Two of three RCTs on statin treatment in burns patients and brain injured patients showed improvements in E-selectin levels and cognitive function. The third, of patients with radial fractures, showed no acceleration in fracture union. In conclusion, there is some evidence that pre-injury statin use and post-injury statin treatment may have a beneficial effect in patients who have suffered general trauma, traumatic brain injury, and burns. However, these studies are at high risk of confounding and bias, and should be regarded as 'hypothesisgenerating'. A well-designed RCT is required to

  8. Landslide Susceptibility Statistical Methods: A Critical and Systematic Literature Review

    Mihir, Monika; Malamud, Bruce; Rossi, Mauro; Reichenbach, Paola; Ardizzone, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment, the subject of this systematic review, is aimed at understanding the spatial probability of slope failures under a set of geomorphological and environmental conditions. It is estimated that about 375 landslides that occur globally each year are fatal, with around 4600 people killed per year. Past studies have brought out the increasing cost of landslide damages which primarily can be attributed to human occupation and increased human activities in the vulnerable environments. Many scientists, to evaluate and reduce landslide risk, have made an effort to efficiently map landslide susceptibility using different statistical methods. In this paper, we do a critical and systematic landslide susceptibility literature review, in terms of the different statistical methods used. For each of a broad set of studies reviewed we note: (i) study geography region and areal extent, (ii) landslide types, (iii) inventory type and temporal period covered, (iv) mapping technique (v) thematic variables used (vi) statistical models, (vii) assessment of model skill, (viii) uncertainty assessment methods, (ix) validation methods. We then pulled out broad trends within our review of landslide susceptibility, particularly regarding the statistical methods. We found that the most common statistical methods used in the study of landslide susceptibility include logistic regression, artificial neural network, discriminant analysis and weight of evidence. Although most of the studies we reviewed assessed the model skill, very few assessed model uncertainty. In terms of geographic extent, the largest number of landslide susceptibility zonations were in Turkey, Korea, Spain, Italy and Malaysia. However, there are also many landslides and fatalities in other localities, particularly India, China, Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia, Guatemala, and Pakistan, where there are much fewer landslide susceptibility studies available in the peer-review literature. This

  9. Determinants of Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions: A Comprehensive Review and Future Direction

    Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and summarize earlier studies analyzing the determinants of cross-border mergers and acquisitions (M&As). We primarily describe the motives of cross-border acquisitions and present the market performance for corporate control transactions over the period 1994-2013. Then, we illustrate the factors affecting cross-border investments and acquisitions in various taxonomies, namely deal-specific factors, firm- and industry-specific attributes, organizational ...

  10. Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Walzer S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Walzer,1,2 Daniel Droeschel,1,3 Mark Nuijten,4 Hélène Chevrou-Séverac5 1MArS Market Access and Pricing Strategy GmbH, Weil am Rhein, Germany; 2State University Baden-Wuerttemberg, Loerrach, Germany; 3Riedlingen University, SRH FernHochschule, Riedlingen, Germany; 4Ars Accessus Medica BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 5Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland Background: Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. Methods: A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Results: Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly

  11. Quality of pharmaceutical advertisements in medical journals: a systematic review.

    Noordin Othman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Journal advertising is one of the main sources of medicines information to doctors. Despite the availability of regulations and controls of drug promotion worldwide, information on medicines provided in journal advertising has been criticized in several studies for being of poor quality. However, no attempt has been made to systematically summarise this body of research. We designed this systematic review to assess all studies that have examined the quality of pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical and pharmacy journals. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Studies were identified via searching electronic databases, web library, search engine and reviewing citations (1950 - February 2006. Only articles published in English and examined the quality of information included in pharmaceutical advertisements for prescription products in medical or pharmacy journals were included. For each eligible article, a researcher independently extracted the data on the study methodology and outcomes. The data were then reviewed by a second researcher. Any disagreements were resolved by consensus. The data were analysed descriptively. The final analysis included 24 articles. The studies reviewed advertisements from 26 countries. The number of journals surveyed in each study ranged from four to 24 journals. Several outcome measures were examined including references and claims provided in advertisements, availability of product information, adherence to codes or guidelines and presentation of risk results. The majority of studies employed a convenience-sampling method. Brand name, generic name and indications were usually provided. Journal articles were commonly cited to support pharmaceutical claims. Less than 67% of the claims were supported by a systematic review, a meta-analysis or a randomised control trial. Studies that assessed misleading claims had at least one advertisement with a misleading claim. Two studies found that less

  12. Reviewing Literature in Bioethics Research: Increasing Rigour in Non-Systematic Reviews.

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-09-01

    The recent interest in systematic review methods in bioethics has highlighted the need for greater transparency in all literature review processes undertaken in bioethics projects. In this article, I articulate features of a good bioethics literature review that does not aim to be systematic, but rather to capture and analyse the key ideas relevant to a research question. I call this a critical interpretive literature review. I begin by sketching and comparing three different types of literature review conducted in bioethics scholarship. Then, drawing on Dixon-Wood's concept of critical interpretive synthesis, I put forward six features of a good critical interpretive literature review in bioethics: answering a research question, capturing the key ideas relevant to the research question, analysing the literature as a whole, generating theory, not excluding papers based on rigid quality assessment criteria, and reporting the search strategy. PMID:25655982

  13. Systematic review of health branding: growth of a promising practice.

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Vallone, Donna; Post, Samantha; Nielsen, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Brands are marketing tools that create mental representations in the minds of consumers about products, services, and organizations. Brands create schema that help consumers decide whether to initiate or continue use of a product or service. Health branding determines behavioral choice by building consumer relationships and identification with health behaviors and their benefits. Health branding can be measured by the associations individuals form with health behaviors. In 2008, Evans and colleagues systematically reviewed the literature on health brands, reported on branded health messages and campaigns worldwide, and examined specific branding strategies in multiple subject areas. This paper extends that review. We replicated the comprehensive online literature search strategy from 2008. We screened a total of 311 articles and included 130 for full-text review. This included both articles from the 2008 review and new articles. After excluding those new articles that did not meet full-text inclusion criteria, we reviewed 69 in total. Of these, 32 were new articles since the 2008 review. Branded health campaigns cover most major domains of public health and appear worldwide. Since 2008, we observed improvement in evaluation, application of theory, and description of campaign strategies in published work. We recommend enhanced education of public health practitioners and researchers on the use and evaluation of branding. PMID:25729450

  14. Systematic Literature Review of Agile Scalability for Large Scale Projects

    Hina saeeda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In new methods, “agile” has come out as the top approach in software industry for the development of the soft wares. With different shapes agile is applied for handling the issues such as low cost, tight time to market schedule continuously changing requirements, Communication & Coordination, team size and distributed environment. Agile has proved to be successful in the small and medium size project, however, it have several limitations when applied on large size projects. The purpose of this study is to know agile techniques in detail, finding and highlighting its restrictions for large size projects with the help of systematic literature review. The systematic literature review is going to find answers for the Research questions: 1 How to make agile approaches scalable and adoptable for large projects?2 What are the existing methods, approaches, frameworks and practices support agile process in large scale projects? 3 What are limitations of existing agile approaches, methods, frameworks and practices with reference to large scale projects? This study will identify the current research problems of the agile scalability for large size projects by giving a detail literature review of the identified problems, existed work for providing solution to these problems and will find out limitations of the existing work for covering the identified problems in the agile scalability. All the results gathered will be summarized statistically based on these finding remedial work will be planned in future for handling the identified limitations of agile approaches for large scale projects.

  15. Rural, Pregnant, and Opioid Dependent: A Systematic Review

    Jumah, Naana Afua

    2016-01-01

    The nature, impact, and treatment of substance use during pregnancy are well described for women living in urban settings. Less is known about pregnant substance-using women living in rural communities. The objective of this review is to describe the existing evidence for the management of substance use in pregnant women living in rural areas. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Twenty-two articles that met the inclusion criteria were identified. Descriptive studies document high rates of smoking, marijuana, and polysubstance use among rural, substance-using pregnant women compared to their urban counterparts. Management of substance use disorders is limited by access to and acceptability of treatment modalities. Several innovative, integrated addiction and prenatal care programs have been developed, which may serve as models for management of substance use during pregnancy in rural settings. PMID:27375357

  16. Methods for biomimetic remineralization of human dentine: a systematic review.

    Cao, Chris Ying; Mei, May Lei; Li, Quan-Li; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to review the laboratory methods on biomimetic remineralization of demineralized human dentine. A systematic search of the publications in the PubMed, TRIP, and Web of Science databases was performed. Titles and abstracts of initially identified publications were screened. Clinical trials, reviews, non-English articles, resin-dentine interface studies, hybrid layer studies, hybrid scaffolds studies, and irrelevant studies were excluded. The remaining papers were retrieved with full texts. Manual screening was conducted on the bibliographies of remaining papers to identify relevant articles. A total of 716 studies were found, and 690 were excluded after initial screening. Two articles were identified from the bibliographies of the remaining papers. After retrieving the full text, 23 were included in this systematic review. Sixteen studies used analogues to mimic the functions of non-collagenous proteins in biomineralization of dentine, and four studies used bioactive materials to induce apatite formation on demineralized dentine surface. One study used zinc as a bioactive element, one study used polydopamine, and another study constructed an agarose hydrogel system for biomimetic mineralization of dentine. Many studies reported success in biomimetic mineralization of dentine, including the use of non-collagenous protein analogues, bioactive materials, or elements and agarose hydrogel system. PMID:25739078

  17. A Systematic Literature Review on Ambush Marketing in Sport

    Piątkowska Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to outline and evaluate the existing scientific achievements regarding the phenomenon of ambush marketing in sport, mark the dominating problematic areas, and create a literature database for the purposes of further research. The systematic literature review was conducted in the following stages: planning and conducting the review, analysis, and description of the results. The preliminary analysis included a combined number of 21,176 studies published between 1984-2013 in journals, books, and other sources included in analyzed databases, chosen using a meta-keyword: ambush. Analysis of the subject literature on the phenomenon of ambush marketing in sport allows for the classification of the works into three dominating research areas: identification of ambush marketing phenomenon, identification of the influence of ambush marketing practices on consumers, and identification of counter-ambush strategies. This review indicates the need for secondary research in social sciences in a more systematic way and more rigorously than it was done until now.

  18. Anorexia nervosa and body fat distribution: a systematic review.

    El Ghoch, Marwan; Calugi, Simona; Lamburghini, Silvia; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry-Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738). PMID:25251296

  19. Parenting interventions: a systematic review of the economic evidence.

    Charles, J M; Bywater, T; Edwards, R T

    2011-07-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) places huge costs on the individual, family and society. Parenting programmes can reduce CD symptomatology, but economic evaluations of their cost-effectiveness are rarely undertaken. The objective of this paper was to conduct the first specific systematic review of the published economic evidence of parenting programmes as a means to support families with children with or at risk of developing CD. A systematic search of 12 electronic databases was conducted. We identified 93 papers, of which six fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The search found one review article, mainly focusing upon clinical evidence with secondary focus on cost-effectiveness, one cost-effectiveness study, two partial economic evaluations and two cost studies. The costs of group parenting programme delivery ranged from £629.00 to £3839.00. Cost-effectiveness was influenced by intervention type and delivery method, i.e. individual versus group programme. The review highlights a need for a more standardized approach towards the comparison of the cost-effectiveness of parent programmes. In future studies it may be helpful to adopt a 'complex intervention approach', exploring in detail the attribution of cause and effect, the role of socio-economic setting and ripple effects, e.g. benefits to other family members. PMID:21375566

  20. Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to conduct a systematic review of body fat distribution before and after partial and complete weight restoration in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Literature searches, study selection, method development and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analyzed. The review had five main findings. First, during anorexia nervosa adolescent females lose more central body fat, while adult females more peripheral fat. Second, partial weight restoration leads to greater fat mass deposition in the trunk region than other body regions in adolescent females. Third, after short-term weight restoration, whether partial or complete, adults show a central adiposity phenotype with respect to healthy age-matched controls. Fourth, central fat distribution is associated with increased insulin resistance, but does not adversely affect eating disorder psychopathology or cause psychological distress in female adults. Fifth, the abnormal central fat distribution seems to normalize after long-term maintenance of complete weight restoration, indicating that preferential central distribution of body fat is a transitory phenomenon. However, a discrepancy in the findings has been noted, especially between adolescents and adults; besides age and gender, these appear to be related to differences in the methodology and time of body composition assessments. The PROSPERO Registry—Anorexia Nervosa and Body Fat Distribution: A Systematic Review (CRD42014008738.

  1. Systemic Redox Imbalance in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review.

    Poulianiti, Konstantina P; Kaltsatou, Antonia; Mitrou, Georgia I; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Maridaki, Maria; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Sakkas, Giorgos K; Karatzaferi, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience imbalance between oxygen reactive species (ROS) production and antioxidant defenses leading to cell and tissue damage. However, it remains unclear at which stage of renal insufficiency the redox imbalance becomes more profound. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an update on recent advances in our understanding of how the redox status changes in the progression of renal disease from predialysis stages 1 to 4 to end stage 5 and whether the various treatments and dialysis modalities influence the redox balance. A systematic review was conducted searching PubMed and Scopus by using the Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines. In total, thirty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Even from an early stage, imbalance in redox status is evident and as the kidney function worsens it becomes more profound. Hemodialysis therapy per se seems to negatively influence the redox status by the elevation of lipid peroxidation markers, protein carbonylation, and impairing erythrocyte antioxidant defense. However, other dialysis modalities do not so far appear to confer advantages. Supplementation with antioxidants might assist and should be considered as an early intervention to halt premature atherogenesis development at an early stage of CKD. PMID:27563376

  2. Systematic reviews: a cross-sectional study of location and citation counts

    Morgan Douglas

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic reviews summarize all pertinent evidence on a defined health question. They help clinical scientists to direct their research and clinicians to keep updated. Our objective was to determine the extent to which systematic reviews are clustered in a large collection of clinical journals and whether review type (narrative or systematic affects citation counts. Methods We used hand searches of 170 clinical journals in the fields of general internal medicine, primary medical care, nursing, and mental health to identify review articles (year 2000. We defined 'review' as any full text article that was bannered as a review, overview, or meta-analysis in the title or in a section heading, or that indicated in the text that the intention of the authors was to review or summarize the literature on a particular topic. We obtained citation counts for review articles in the five journals that published the most systematic reviews. Results 11% of the journals concentrated 80% of all systematic reviews. Impact factors were weakly correlated with the publication of systematic reviews (R2 = 0.075, P = 0.0035. There were more citations for systematic reviews (median 26.5, IQR 12 – 56.5 than for narrative reviews (8, 20, P Conclusions A few clinical journals published most systematic reviews. Authors cited systematic reviews more often than narrative reviews, an indirect endorsement of the 'hierarchy of evidence'.

  3. Nutritional screening in hospitalized pediatric patients: a systematic review,

    Adriana Fonseca Teixeira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This systematic review aimed to verify the available scientific evidence on the clinical performance and diagnostic accuracy of nutritional screening tools in hospitalized pediatric patients. Data source: A search was performed in the Medline (National Library of Medicine United States, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, PubMed (US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, in the SCIELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online, through CAPES portal (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior, bases Scopus e Web of Science. The descriptors used in accordance with the Descriptors in Health Sciences (DeCS/Medical Subject Headings (MeSH list were “malnutrition”, “screening”, and “pediatrics”, as well as the equivalent words in Portuguese. Summary of the findings: The authors identified 270 articles published between 2004 and 2014. After applying the selection criteria, 35 were analyzed in full and eight articles were included in the systematic review. We evaluated the methodological quality of the studies using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS. Five nutritional screening tools in pediatrics were identified. Among these, the Screening Tool for the Assessment of Malnutrition in Pediatrics (STAMP showed high sensitivity, almost perfect inter-rater agreement and between the screening and the reference standard; the Screening Tool Risk on Nutritional Status and Growth (STRONGkids showed high sensitivity, lower percentage of specificity, substantial intra-rater agreement, and ease of use in clinical practice. Conclusions: The studies included in this systematic review showed good performance of the nutritional screening tools in pediatrics, especially STRONGkids and STAMP. The authors emphasize the need to perform for more studies in this area. Only one tool was translated and adapted to the Brazilian pediatric population, and it is

  4. Genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration: a systematic review.

    Pasi J Eskola

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low back pain is associated with lumbar disc degeneration, which is mainly due to genetic predisposition. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review to evaluate genetic association studies in lumbar disc degeneration as defined on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in humans. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, SCOPUS, ISI Web of Science, The Genetic Association Database and The Human Genome Epidemiology Network for information published between 1990-2011 addressing genes and lumbar disc degeneration. Two investigators independently identified studies to determine inclusion, after which they performed data extraction and analysis. The level of cumulative genetic association evidence was analyzed according to The HuGENet Working Group guidelines. RESULTS: Fifty-two studies were included for review. Forty-eight studies reported at least one positive association between a genetic marker and lumbar disc degeneration. The phenotype definition of lumbar disc degeneration was highly variable between the studies and replications were inconsistent. Most of the associations presented with a weak level of evidence. The level of evidence was moderate for ASPN (D-repeat, COL11A1 (rs1676486, GDF5 (rs143383, SKT (rs16924573, THBS2 (rs9406328 and MMP9 (rs17576. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this first extensive systematic review on the topic, the credibility of reported genetic associations is mostly weak. Clear definition of lumbar disc degeneration phenotypes and large population-based cohorts are needed. An international consortium is needed to standardize genetic association studies in relation to disc degeneration.

  5. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review

    Carla Pires

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords “Readability and Package Leaflet” and “Readability and Package Insert” in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients, three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese; and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered

  6. Readability of medicinal package leaflets: a systematic review.

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review studies on the readability of package leaflets of medicinal products for human use. METHODS We conducted a systematic literature review between 2008 and 2013 using the keywords "Readability and Package Leaflet" and "Readability and Package Insert" in the academic search engine Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online, comprising different bibliographic resources/databases. The preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses criteria were applied to prepare the draft of the report. Quantitative and qualitative original studies were included. Opinion or review studies not written in English, Portuguese, Italian, French, or Spanish were excluded. RESULTS We identified 202 studies, of which 180 were excluded and 22 were enrolled [two enrolling healthcare professionals, 10 enrolling other type of participants (including patients), three focused on adverse reactions, and 7 descriptive studies]. The package leaflets presented various readability problems, such as complex and difficult to understand texts, small font size, or few illustrations. The main methods to assess the readability of the package leaflet were usability tests or legibility formulae. Limitations with these methods included reduced number of participants; lack of readability formulas specifically validated for specific languages (e.g., Portuguese); and absence of an assessment on patients literacy, health knowledge, cognitive skills, levels of satisfaction, and opinions. CONCLUSIONS Overall, the package leaflets presented various readability problems. In this review, some methodological limitations were identified, including the participation of a limited number of patients and healthcare professionals, the absence of prior assessments of participant literacy, humor or sense of satisfaction, or the predominance of studies not based on role-plays about the use of medicines. These limitations should be avoided in future studies and be considered when interpreting the results

  7. Methods of induction of labour: a systematic review

    King Valerie J

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of labour induction are increasing. We conducted this systematic review to assess the evidence supporting use of each method of labour induction. Methods We listed methods of labour induction then reviewed the evidence supporting each. We searched MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library between 1980 and November 2010 using multiple terms and combinations, including labor, induced/or induction of labor, prostaglandin or prostaglandins, misoprostol, Cytotec, 16,16,-dimethylprostaglandin E2 or E2, dinoprostone; Prepidil, Cervidil, Dinoprost, Carboprost or hemabate; prostin, oxytocin, misoprostol, membrane sweeping or membrane stripping, amniotomy, balloon catheter or Foley catheter, hygroscopic dilators, laminaria, dilapan, saline injection, nipple stimulation, intercourse, acupuncture, castor oil, herbs. We performed a best evidence review of the literature supporting each method. We identified 2048 abstracts and reviewed 283 full text articles. We preferentially included high quality systematic reviews or large randomised trials. Where no such studies existed, we included the best evidence available from smaller randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Results We included 46 full text articles. We assigned a quality rating to each included article and a strength of evidence rating to each body of literature. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and vaginal misoprostol were more effective than oxytocin in bringing about vaginal delivery within 24 hours but were associated with more uterine hyperstimulation. Mechanical methods reduced uterine hyperstimulation compared with PGE2 and misoprostol, but increased maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity compared with other methods. Membrane sweeping reduced post-term gestations. Most included studies were too small to evaluate risk for rare adverse outcomes. Conclusions Research is needed to determine benefits and harms of many induction methods.

  8. A systematic review of bioenergy life cycle assessments

    Highlights: • We conducted a systematic literature review of bioenergy LCAs. • We provide a detailed overview of GWP, AP, and EP for biomass electricity and heat. • We discuss methodological choices that can lead to variations in results. • Relevant choices are functional unit, allocation method, system boundary, and carbon modelling. - Abstract: On a global scale, bioenergy is highly relevant to renewable energy options. Unlike fossil fuels, bioenergy can be carbon neutral and plays an important role in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass electricity and heat contribute 90% of total final biomass energy consumption, and many reviews of biofuel Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) have been published. However, only a small number of these reviews are concerned with electricity and heat generation from biomass, and these reviews focus on only a few impact categories. No review of biomass electricity and heat LCAs included a detailed quantitative assessment. The failure to consider heat generation, the insufficient consideration of impact categories, and the missing quantitative overview in bioenergy LCA reviews constitute research gaps. The primary goal of the present review was to give an overview of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. A systematic review was chosen as the research method to achieve a comprehensive and minimally biased overview of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. We conducted a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact of biomass electricity and heat. There is a significant variability in results of biomass electricity and heat LCAs. Assumptions regarding the bioenergy system and methodological choices are likely reasons for extreme values. The secondary goal of this review is to discuss influencing methodological choices. No general consensus has been reached regarding the optimal functional unit, the ideal allocation of environmental impact between co-products, the definition of the system boundary

  9. Medication safety in home care nursing : a systematic litterature review

    Nwoko, Oluchi Jessy

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor’s thesis is part of the Research and Development (R&D) project “Empowering path” at Laurea University of Applied Sciences, in collaboration with Tapiola pharmacy and Espoo home care. The aim of this project is to explore strategies by which medication safety can be promoted by nurses in home care nursing. The purpose: this systematic review is to discuss how resent literature describes medication safety in home care nursing. It also described methods used to promote safety i...

  10. Sundown syndrome: a systematic review of the literature.

    Yevchak, Andrea M; Steis, Melinda R; Evans, Lois K

    2012-10-01

    The label sundown syndrome continues to be frequently used in long-term and acute care settings without consistent meaning. This study adds to the understanding of this label by synthesizing findings from research published since 1987 linked to sundown syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review is to describe, synthesize, and critique the theoretical definitions, operational definitions and measurement methods, prevalence, antecedent and precipitating factors and consequences, and effectiveness of interventions for sundown syndrome found in the published literature. Implications for research and practice are presented. PMID:22998659

  11. Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011 databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers exposed to abuse during childhood performed poorly on tasks meant to assess verbal episodic memory, working memory, attention, and executive functions. We conclude that child maltreatment is a risk factor for short and long-term development due to potential adverse effects on cognitive functioning.

  12. Privacy of Patients Admitted to the ICU : Systematic Literature Review

    Nabunya, Christine; Chesop, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this systematic literature review is to evaluate how nurses can uphold/ safeguard the privacy of patients admitted in the ICU. The objectives of this study are; to help nurses understand the need and effectiveness of patients’ privacy in the ICU as well as to understand the concept of privacy and its benefits to patients admitted in the ICUs. This study research is part of the EVICURES people’s project in anticipation of the building of a new ICU for the Seinäjoki Central Hosp...

  13. Association between smoking and uveal melanoma: a systematic review

    Gianpaolo Smaldone

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is systematically review the scientific literature on the relationship between tobacco smoking exposure and UM. Methods: The search was performed on Medline and Scopus databases. For each database, we used the following query: “smok* AND (eye OR uveal melanoma”. Results: 3 observational studies were considered suitable, two case-control studies and one cohort study. There is no significant evidence in the scientific literature about the association between smoking and UM. Conclusions: More complete and multi-center studies are desirable, giving the importance of smoking as a risk factor in the development of cancers.

  14. Bach flower remedies: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials.

    Ernst, Edzard

    2010-01-01

    Bach flower remedies continue to be popular and its proponents make a range of medicinal claims for them. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence for these claims. Five electronic databases were searched without restrictions on time or language. All randomised clinical trials of flower remedies were included. Seven such studies were located. All but one were placebo-controlled. All placebo-controlled trials failed to demonstrate efficacy. It is concluded that the most reliable clinical trials do not show any differences between flower remedies and placebos. PMID:20734279

  15. Hearing impairment in Stickler syndrome: a systematic review

    Acke Frederic R E; Dhooge Ingeborg J M; Malfait Fransiska; De Leenheer Els M R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Stickler syndrome is a connective tissue disorder characterized by ocular, skeletal, orofacial and auditory defects. It is caused by mutations in different collagen genes, namely COL2A1, COL11A1 and COL11A2 (autosomal dominant inheritance), and COL9A1 and COL9A2 (autosomal recessive inheritance). The auditory phenotype in Stickler syndrome is inconsistently reported. Therefore we performed a systematic review of the literature to give an up-to-date overview of hearing loss...

  16. Literature systematic review on the ophthalmological side effects of interferons

    Yara Dadalti Fragoso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Interferons alpha and beta have been used worldwide for a few decades, altering the natural history of several severe diseases including hepatitis C, cancer and immune-mediated conditions such as multiple sclerosis. The adverse events profile of interferons is well established, but only isolated reports of ophthalmological complications of interferon therapy have been published. The objective of this study was to carry out a literature systematic review on the subject, bringing to light the need for careful ophthalmological monitoring of patients undergoing interferon treatment. Nearly 500 cases of ophthalmological complications related to interferon have been reported. The most frequent findings were soft exudates, hemorrhages and retina ischemia.

  17. Induction of lucid dreams: a systematic review of evidence.

    Stumbrys, Tadas; Erlacher, Daniel; Schädlich, Melanie; Schredl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    In lucid dreams the dreamer is aware of dreaming and often able to influence the ongoing dream content. Lucid dreaming is a learnable skill and a variety of techniques is suggested for lucid dreaming induction. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for the effectiveness of induction techniques. A comprehensive literature search was carried out in biomedical databases and specific resources. Thirty-five studies were included in the analysis (11 sleep laboratory and 24 field studies), of which 26 employed cognitive techniques, 11 external stimulation and one drug application. The methodological quality of the included studies was relatively low. None of the induction techniques were verified to induce lucid dreams reliably and consistently, although some of them look promising. On the basis of the reviewed studies, a taxonomy of lucid dream induction methods is presented. Several methodological issues are discussed and further directions for future studies are proposed. PMID:22841958

  18. Family perception of anorexia and bulimia: a systematic review.

    Espíndola, Cybele Ribeiro; Blay, Sérgio Luís

    2009-08-01

    A systematic literature review published between 1990 and 2006 using a qualitative approach was conducted to explore family members' perception of anorexia and bulimia nervosa patients. Articles were critically reviewed and a meta-synthesis analysis was carried out based on a meta-ethnographic method to analyze and summarize data. Of a total of 3,415 studies, nine met the study inclusion and exclusion criteria. Reciprocal translation was used for data interpretation allowing to identifying two concepts: disease awareness and disease impacts. Feelings of impotence were often described in family reorganization. The study results point to distortions in the concept of disease associated with family involvement, resulting in changes in communication, attitudes, and behaviors in a context of impotence. PMID:19503976

  19. Systematic Review of Physical Activity Outcomes of Rural Lifestyle Interventions.

    Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to analyze current lifestyle intervention literature conducted in U.S. rural areas to identify the most effective and impactful interventions on physical activity outcomes. Quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Exploratory calculations of effect size and 95% confidence intervals were performed to demonstrate trends in clinical importance. Eight trials which included 1,399 adult participants met the inclusion criteria for review. Two trials reported a significant difference in the increase of physical activity between groups with medium to large effect sizes. Interventions which are very personalized or tailored and/or include many intervention contacts appear to be most effective. However, the small number of studies, mixed findings, and the risk of bias limit our ability to draw conclusion. PMID:26728043

  20. Fast-fashion: systematic literature review and research agenda

    Lívia Juliana Silva Solino

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fast-fashion (FF is considered an approach and phenomenon of global influence that suit the requirements of a constantly changing and demanding market, since it is a business model resulting of a mixture of fast manufacturing, flexibility, low cost and agile retail approaches. Within this context, this research by a systematic literature review seeks to answer how the FF has been addressed in scientific studies published until the year 2013. Through the review, a total of 82 texts was analysed, among them articles, dissertations and theses. The research method employed is characterized as descriptive, regarding the objectives, and as qualitative and quantitative, on the approach. After conducting the classification of the material, it was possible to understand the state-of-the-art, and thus set a holistic concept and the appropriate term for the FF. As well as propose a research agenda with new approaches for future studies within the relevant topic.

  1. Animal-Assisted Intervention for trauma: a systematic literature review

    Marguerite Elizabeth O'haire

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Animals have a long history of inclusion in psychiatric treatment. There has been a recent growth in the empirical study of this practice, known as Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on AAI for trauma, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Ten studies qualified for inclusion, including six peer-reviewed journal articles and four theses. Participants were predominantly survivors of child abuse, in addition to military veterans. The presentation of AAI was highly variable across the studies. The most common animal species were dogs and horses. The most prevalent outcomes were reduced depression, PTSD symptoms, and anxiety. There was a low level of methodological rigor in most studies, indicating the preliminary nature of this area of investigation. We conclude that AAI may provide promise as a complementary treatment option for trauma, but that further research is essential to establish feasibility, efficacy, and manualizable protocols.

  2. Telemonitoring in chronic heart failure: a systematic review.

    Giamouzis, Gregory; Mastrogiannis, Dimos; Koutrakis, Konstantinos; Karayannis, George; Parisis, Charalambos; Rountas, Chris; Adreanides, Elias; Dafoulas, George E; Stafylas, Panagiotis C; Skoularigis, John; Giacomelli, Sara; Olivari, Zoran; Triposkiadis, Filippos

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a growing epidemic with the annual number of hospitalizations constantly increasing over the last decades for HF as a primary or secondary diagnosis. Despite the emergence of novel therapeutic approached that can prolong life and shorten hospital stay, HF patients will be needing rehospitalization and will often have a poor prognosis. Telemonitoring is a novel diagnostic modality that has been suggested to be beneficial for HF patients. Telemonitoring is viewed as a means of recording physiological data, such as body weight, heart rate, arterial blood pressure, and electrocardiogram recordings, by portable devices and transmitting these data remotely (via a telephone line, a mobile phone or a computer) to a server where they can be stored, reviewed and analyzed by the research team. In this systematic review of all randomized clinical trials evaluating telemonitoring in chronic HF, we aim to assess whether telemonitoring provides any substantial benefit in this patient population. PMID:22720184

  3. Eating Disorders, Physical Fitness and Sport Performance: A Systematic Review

    Marwan El Ghoch

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Eating disorders are health problems that are particularly prevalent in adolescents and young adults. They are associated with considerable physical health and psychosocial morbidity, and increased risk of mortality. We set out to conduct a systematic review to determine their effect on physical fitness in the general population and on sport performance in athletes. Methods/Design: A systematic review of the relevant peer-reviewed literature was performed. For inclusion, articles retrieved from PubMed had to be published in English between 1977 and 2013. Wherever possible, methods and reporting adhere to the guidelines outlined in the PRISMA statement. Some additional studies were retrieved from among those cited in the reference lists of included studies and from non-electronic databases. Literature searches, study selection, method and quality appraisal were performed independently by two authors, and data was synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Of the 1183 articles retrieved, twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were consequently analysed. The available data indicate that eating disorders have a negative effect on physical fitness and sport performance by causing low energy availability, excessive loss of fat and lean mass, dehydration, and electrolyte disturbance. Discussion: Although the paucity of the available data mean that findings to date should be interpreted with caution, the information collated in this review has several practical implications. First, eating disorders have a negative effect on both physical fitness and sport performance. Second athletics coaches should be targeted for education about the risk factors of eating disorders, as deterioration in sport performance in athletes, particularly if they are underweight or show other signs of an eating disorder, may indicate the need for medical intervention. However, future studies are needed, especially to assess the direct effect of

  4. Nipple sparing versus skin sparing mastectomy: a systematic review protocol

    Agha, Riaz A; Wellstead, Georgina; Sagoo, Harkiran; Al Omran, Yasser; Barai, Ishani; Rajmohan, Shivanchan; Fowler, Alexander J; Orgill, Dennis P; Rusby, Jennifer E

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer has a lifetime incidence of one in eight women. Over the past three decades there has been a move towards breast conservation and a focus on aesthetic outcomes while maintaining oncological safety. For some patients, mastectomy is the preferred option. There is growing interest in the potential use of nipple sparing mastectomy (NSM). However, oncological safety remains unproven, and the benefits and indications have not been clearly identified. The objective of this systematic review will be to determine the safety and efficacy of NSM as compared with skin sparing mastectomy (SSM). Methods and analysis All original comparative studies including; randomised controlled trials, cohort studies and case–control studies involving women undergoing either NSM or SSM for breast cancer will be included. Outcomes are primary—relating to oncological outcomes and secondary—relating to clinical, aesthetic, patient reported and quality of life outcomes. A comprehensive electronic literature search, designed by a search specialist, will be undertaken. Grey literature searches will also be conducted. Eligibility assessment will occur in two stages; title and abstract screening and then full text assessment. Each step will be conducted by two trained teams acting independently. Data will then be extracted and stored in a database with standardised extraction fields to facilitate easy and consistent data entry. Data analysis will be undertaken to explore the relationship between NSM or SSM and preselected outcomes, heterogeneity will be assessed using the Cochrane tests. Ethics and dissemination This systematic review requires no ethical approval. It will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. It will also be presented at national and international conferences. Updates of the review will be conducted to inform and guide healthcare practice and policy. PMID:27207622

  5. Gynecomastia in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Anders Fagerlund

    Full Text Available Gynecomastia and/or mastodynia is a common medical problem in patients receiving antiandrogen (bicalutamide or flutamide treatment for prostate cancer; up to 70% of these patients result to be affected; furthermore, this can jeopardise patients' quality of life.To systematically review the quality of evidence of the current literature regarding treatment options for bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia, including efficacy, safety and patients' quality of life.The PubMed, Medline, Scopus, The Cochrane Library and SveMed+ databases were systematically searched between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2014. All searches were undertaken between January and February 2015. The search phrase used was:"gynecomastia AND treatment AND prostate cancer". Two reviewers assessed 762 titles and abstracts identified. The search and review process was done in accordance with the PRISMA statement. The PICOS (patients, intervention, comparator, outcomes and study design process was used to specify inclusion criteria. Quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE.Primary outcomes were: treatment effects, number of complications and side effects. Secondary outcome was: Quality of Life.Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria and are analysed in this review. Five studies reported pharmacological intervention with tamoxifen and/or anastrozole, either as prophylactic or therapeutic treatment. Four studies reported radiotherapy as prophylactic and/or therapeutic treatment. Two studies compared pharmacological treatment to radiotherapy. Most of the studies were randomized with varying risk of bias. According to GRADE, quality of evidence was moderate to high.Bicalutamide-induced gynecomastia and/or mastodynia can effectively be managed by oral tamoxifen (10-20 mg daily or radiotherapy without relevant side effects. Prophylaxis or therapeutic treatment with tamoxifen results to be more effective than radiotherapy.

  6. Healthcare Staff Wellbeing, Burnout, and Patient Safety: A Systematic Review

    Hall, Louise H.; Johnson, Judith; Watt, Ian; Tsipa, Anastasia; O’Connor, Daryl B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether there is an association between healthcare professionals’ wellbeing and burnout, with patient safety. Design Systematic research review. Data Sources PsychInfo (1806 to July 2015), Medline (1946 to July 2015), Embase (1947 to July 2015) and Scopus (1823 to July 2015) were searched, along with reference lists of eligible articles. Eligibility Criteria for Selecting Studies Quantitative, empirical studies that included i) either a measure of wellbeing or burnout, and ii) patient safety, in healthcare staff populations. Results Forty-six studies were identified. Sixteen out of the 27 studies that measured wellbeing found a significant correlation between poor wellbeing and worse patient safety, with six additional studies finding an association with some but not all scales used, and one study finding a significant association but in the opposite direction to the majority of studies. Twenty-one out of the 30 studies that measured burnout found a significant association between burnout and patient safety, whilst a further four studies found an association between one or more (but not all) subscales of the burnout measures employed, and patient safety. Conclusions Poor wellbeing and moderate to high levels of burnout are associated, in the majority of studies reviewed, with poor patient safety outcomes such as medical errors, however the lack of prospective studies reduces the ability to determine causality. Further prospective studies, research in primary care, conducted within the UK, and a clearer definition of healthcare staff wellbeing are needed. Implications This review illustrates the need for healthcare organisations to consider improving employees’ mental health as well as creating safer work environments when planning interventions to improve patient safety. Systematic Review Registration PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015023340. PMID:27391946

  7. Mechanisms Involved in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection: A Systematic Review

    Juliana Pereira Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute myocardial infarction is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Furthermore, research has shown that exercise, in addition to reducing cardiovascular risk factors, can also protect the heart against injury due to ischemia and reperfusion through a direct effect on the myocardium. However, the specific mechanism involved in exerciseinduced cardiac preconditioning is still under debate. Objective: To perform a systematic review of the studies that have addressed the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise promotes direct cardioprotection against ischemia and reperfusion injury. Methods: A search was conducted using MEDLINE, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe de Informação em Ciências da Saúde, and Scientific Electronic Library Online databases. Data were extracted in a standardized manner by two independent researchers, who were responsible for assessing the methodological quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 78 studies; after evaluating the abstracts, 30 studies were excluded. The manuscripts of the remaining 48 studies were completely read and, of these, 20 were excluded. Finally, 28 studies were included in this systematic review. Conclusion: On the basis of the selected studies, the following are potentially involved in the cardioprotective response to exercise: increased heat shock protein production, nitric oxide pathway involvement, increased cardiac antioxidant capacity, improvement in ATP-dependent potassium channel function, and opioid system activation. Despite all the previous investigations, further research is still necessary to obtain more consistent conclusions.

  8. Conducting systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine: common pitfalls.

    Wider, Barbara; Boddy, Kate

    2009-12-01

    Systematic reviews (SRs) are considered the best tools for summarizing the evidence for or against the effectiveness of health care interventions. The principles and methods of SRs apply equally to both, mainstream and complementary/alternative medicine (CAM). Certain challenges are, however, more commonly encountered in CAM or even specific to it; this article is aimed at raising awareness of these among systematic reviewers. When searching for literature, specific issues relating to specialist databases, indexing, access, foreign language studies, and certain forms of publication bias need to be considered. Researchers also need to be aware of the difficulties of comparing CAM studies and address the variability between studies. CAM modalities are highly diversified and great variations exist in the standardization of herbal products and other dietary supplements. Individualization of treatment as well as different classifications of disease and different diagnostic methods need to be addressed. Expectation bias is high in CAM, and finding appropriate controls and blinding are often challenging. It is important that these issues are taken into account early on in the planning stages of an SR so that proper consideration can be given to the search strategies, inclusion/exclusion criteria and methods of analysis with the overall aim of reducing bias. PMID:19942632

  9. Media Roles in Suicide Prevention: A Systematic Review

    Airi Värnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation. The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and suicidality are associated. However, there is a risk of reporting bias. More research is available about how irresponsible media reports can provoke suicidal behaviours (the ‘Werther effect’ and less about protective effect media can have (the ‘Papageno effect’. Strong modelling effect of media coverage on suicide is based on age and gender. Media reports are not representative of official suicide data and tend to exaggerate sensational suicides, for example dramatic and highly lethal suicide methods, which are rare in real life. Future studies have to encounter the challenges the global medium Internet will offer in terms of research methods, as it is difficult to define the circulation of news in the Internet either spatially or in time. However, online media can provide valuable innovative qualitative research material.

  10. Predictors of Energy Compensation during Exercise Interventions: A Systematic Review

    Marie-Ève Riou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Weight loss from exercise-induced energy deficits is usually less than expected. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate predictors of energy compensation, which is defined as body energy changes (fat mass and fat-free mass over the total amount of exercise energy expenditure. A search was conducted in multiple databases without date limits. Of 4745 studies found, 61 were included in this systematic review with a total of 928 subjects. The overall mean energy compensation was 18% ± 93%. The analyses indicated that 48% of the variance of energy compensation is explained by the interaction between initial fat mass, age and duration of exercise interventions. Sex, frequency, intensity and dose of exercise energy expenditure were not significant predictors of energy compensation. The fitted model suggested that for a shorter study duration, lower energy compensation was observed in younger individuals with higher initial fat mass (FM. In contrast, higher energy compensation was noted for younger individuals with lower initial FM. From 25 weeks onward, energy compensation was no longer different for these predictors. For studies of longer duration (about 80 weeks, the energy compensation approached 84%. Lower energy compensation occurs with short-term exercise, and a much higher level of energy compensation accompanies long-term exercise interventions.

  11. Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review1

    Schveitzer, Mariana Cabral; Zoboli, Elma Lourdes Campos Pavone; Vieira, Margarida Maria da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage. PMID:27143536

  12. Therapeutic vaccines for tuberculosis--a systematic review.

    Gröschel, Matthias I; Prabowo, Satria A; Cardona, Père-Joan; Stanford, John L; van der Werf, Tjip S

    2014-05-30

    For eradication of tuberculosis (TB) by 2050, the declared aim of the Stop TB Partnership, novel treatment strategies are indispensable. The emerging epidemic of multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB has fuelled the debate about TB vaccines, as increasing numbers of patients can no longer be cured by pharmacotherapy. Of several proposed modalities, TB vaccines administered in therapeutic manner represents a promising alternative, despite the controversial history due to the occurrence of exacerbated immune response. A modified concept of immunotherapy is required in order to justify further exploration. In this paper we systematically reviewed the most advanced therapeutic vaccines for TB. We address the rationale of immunotherapeutic vaccination combined with optimized pharmacotherapy in active TB. We summarize preclinical and patient data regarding the five most advanced therapeutic vaccines currently in the pipeline. Of the five products that have been tested in animal models and in humans during active or latent TB, the quality of the published clinical reports of two of these products justify further studies in patients with active TB. This systematic review fuels further clinical evaluation eventually including head-to-head comparative studies. PMID:24726245

  13. Self-mutilation induced by psychotropic substances: a systematic review.

    Gahr, Maximilian; Plener, Paul Lukas; Kölle, Markus Alexander; Freudenmann, Roland Wolfgang; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2012-12-30

    Self-mutilation (SM) not only occurs among patients with schizophrenia, personality disorders or transsexuality but also as a phenomenon induced by psychotropic substances (PS). We intended to find characteristics of patients at risk to perform SM induced by PS (SMIPS), frequent PS within this phenomenon and typical presentations of SMIPS. A systematic review of the literature (including Medline, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Scopus) was conducted. On October 2011 we identified 26 cases (23 publications) of SM related to PS. Majority of patients (85%) was male, mean age was 30 years (median 41 years). Seventy-three percent of patients developed SM subsequent to the use of one PS, 27% presented SM after the use of more than one PS. Alcohol (25%), hallucinogens (25%) and amphetamines (22%) were found most frequently among the reported substances. Major impairment was present in 80%. Our findings suggest male sex, young age, a previous history of abuse of PS and the current use of alcohol, hallucinogens or amphetamines to favour SMIPS. PMID:22841344

  14. Adjunctive metformin for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: A systematic review.

    Bo, Qi-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Min; Li, Xian-Bin; Ma, Xin; Wang, Chuan-Yue; de Leon, Jose

    2016-03-30

    This systematic review examines adjunctive metformin therapy for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. A computerized search of databases in Chinese and the international databases in English provided three trials with a total of 325 patients including one randomized clinical trial (RCT) and two observational studies (single-group, before-after design). A meta-analysis could not be conducted. The quality of evidence ranged from "very low" to "moderate". Metformin patients had a significant decrease in serum prolactin level with a mean of 54.6μg/l in the three trials. In the RCT, menstruation restarted in 67% of those with menstrual disturbances versus 5% in placebo. In one observational study, 91% of patients no longer had signs or symptoms of galactorrhea. In the RCT, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) occurred at similar incidence rates among metformin and placebo patients, except that no significant increases in nausea, insomnia and agitation occurred which were not associated with discontinuations. Our systematic review indicated that adjunctive metformin significantly lowered prolactin level and relieved prolactin-related symptoms in patients with antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Future higher quality RCTs need to verify the currently available limited evidence based on three trials which suggest that adjunctive metformin may be used effectively and safely for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. PMID:26822064

  15. Role of colonic microbiota in colorectal carcinogenesis: a systematic review

    Marta Borges-Canha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: The human colonic mucosa is populated by a wide range of microorganisms, usually in a symbiotic relation with the host. Sometimes this balance is lost and a state of dysbiosis arises, exposing the colon to different metabolic and inflammatory stimuli (according to the microbiota's changing profile. Recent findings lead to hypothesize that this unbalance may create a subclinical pro-inflammatory state that increases DNA mutations and, therefore, colorectal carcinogenesis. In this article we aim to systematically review the scientific evidence regarding colonic microbiota and its role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Methods: Systematic review of PubMed searching results for original articles studying microbiota and colorectal cancer until November 2014. Results: Thirty-one original articles studied the role of colon microbiota in colorectal carcinoma including both human and animal studies. Different and heterogeneous methods were used and different bacteria were considered. Nevertheless, some bacteria are consistently augmented (such as Fusobacteria, Alistipes, Porphyromonadaceae, Coriobacteridae, Staphylococcaceae, Akkermansia spp. and Methanobacteriales, while other are constantly diminished in colorectal cancer (such as Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Ruminococcus, Faecalibacterium spp., Roseburia, and Treponema. Moreover, bacteria metabolites amino acids are increased and butyrate is decreased throughout colonic carcinogenesis. Conclusion: Conclusive evidence shows that colorectal carcinogenesis is associated with microbial dysbiosis. This information may be used to create new prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for colorectal cancer.

  16. Media roles in suicide prevention: a systematic review.

    Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current systematic review was to monitor and provide an overview of the research performed about the roles of media in suicide prevention in order to find out possible effects media reporting on suicidal behaviours might have on actual suicidality (completed suicides, attempted suicides, suicidal ideation). The systematic review was performed following the principles of the PRISMA statement and includes 56 articles. Most of the studies support the idea that media reporting and suicidality are associated. However, there is a risk of reporting bias. More research is available about how irresponsible media reports can provoke suicidal behaviours (the 'Werther effect') and less about protective effect media can have (the 'Papageno effect'). Strong modelling effect of media coverage on suicide is based on age and gender. Media reports are not representative of official suicide data and tend to exaggerate sensational suicides, for example dramatic and highly lethal suicide methods, which are rare in real life. Future studies have to encounter the challenges the global medium Internet will offer in terms of research methods, as it is difficult to define the circulation of news in the Internet either spatially or in time. However, online media can provide valuable innovative qualitative research material. PMID:22470283

  17. Respiratory Changes in Response to Cognitive Load: A Systematic Review.

    Grassmann, Mariel; Vlemincx, Elke; von Leupoldt, Andreas; Mittelstädt, Justin M; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2016-01-01

    When people focus attention or carry out a demanding task, their breathing changes. But which parameters of respiration vary exactly and can respiration reliably be used as an index of cognitive load? These questions are addressed in the present systematic review of empirical studies investigating respiratory behavior in response to cognitive load. Most reviewed studies were restricted to time and volume parameters while less established, yet meaningful parameters such as respiratory variability have rarely been investigated. The available results show that respiratory behavior generally reflects cognitive processing and that distinct parameters differ in sensitivity: While mentally demanding episodes are clearly marked by faster breathing and higher minute ventilation, respiratory amplitude appears to remain rather stable. The present findings further indicate that total variability in respiratory rate is not systematically affected by cognitive load whereas the correlated fraction decreases. In addition, we found that cognitive load may lead to overbreathing as indicated by decreased end-tidal CO2 but is also accompanied by elevated oxygen consumption and CO2 release. However, additional research is needed to validate the findings on respiratory variability and gas exchange measures. We conclude by outlining recommendations for future research to increase the current understanding of respiration under cognitive load. PMID:27403347

  18. Tutorial for writing systematic reviews for the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy (BJPT

    Marisa C. Mancini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Systematic reviews aim to summarize all evidence using very rigorous methods in order to address a specific research question with less bias as possible. Systematic reviews are widely used in the field of physical therapy, however not all reviews have good quality. This tutorial aims to guide authors of the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy on how systematic reviews should be conducted and reported in order to be accepted for publication. It is expected that this tutorial will help authors of systematic reviews as well as journal editors and reviewers on how to conduct, report, critically appraise and interpret this type of study design.

  19. Review--Continuum Companion to Second Language Acquisition

    Liu Chang

    2014-01-01

    Introductory books on second language acquisition abound in recent years, aiming to introduce the landscape of SLA research to interested or novice readers by providing key concepts, current research agendas and research methods in an accessible way.However, merits our attention in that it is distinguished by several shining characteristics of its own, such as the framework of the book etc.

  20. Collaborative Principal Preparation Programs: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of Qualitative Research

    Parylo, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to (1) conduct the systematic search of the literature to identify the studies on partnerships in school leader preparation; and to (2) systematically review the findings of these studies and synthesize them into major themes reflecting the state of the art in collaborative leadership preparation in the…

  1. A Systematic Review on the Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity, in Iranian Children and Adolescents

    Shirin Djalalinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Context Obesity has now become a common health problem worldwide. To gain insight into the epidemiology of the problem in Iran, we systematically reviewed all available studies on the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the Iranian pediatric population. Evidence Acquisition We systematically searched PubMed, ISI, SCOPUS, as well as Iranmedex, Irandoc, and Scientific Information Database (SID databases.All studies on mean and standard deviation or percentile categories of BMI, WC, WHR, or WHtR or prevalence of obesity/overweight in Iranian child and adolescence, were performed from January 1990 to the end of December 2013. Refining processes were conducted by two independent reviewers. Quality assessment and data extraction followed based on validated form. As, these data were heterogeneous, meta-analysis was not performed. Results From 3253 records, through three refining steps, 129 articles were found related to our study. In Iran, national studies are limited and nearly there is no comprehensive study for sub-national trends. Different age and sex groups had large variations in the prevalence of obesity and overweight (from 1% up to 16.1% and from 4.4% up to 42.3% respectively for obesity and overweight. Conclusions Related data are very scattered or limited to some specific subgroups in some living areas. For comparing, aggregating, and imputing the information we need more modern practical statistical methods.

  2. Global economic burden of schizophrenia: a systematic review

    Chong HY

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Huey Yi Chong,1 Siew Li Teoh,1 David Bin-Chia Wu,1 Surachai Kotirum,1 Chiun-Fang Chiou,2 Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk1,3–5 1School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies Asia Pacific, Singapore; 3Center of Pharmaceutical Outcomes Research (CPOR, Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok, Thailand; 4School of Pharmacy, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA; 5School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia Background: Schizophrenia is one of the top 25 leading causes of disability worldwide in 2013. Despite its low prevalence, its health, social, and economic burden has been tremendous, not only for patients but also for families, caregivers, and the wider society. The magnitude of disease burden investigated in an economic burden study is an important source to policymakers in decision making. This study aims to systematically identify studies focusing on the economic burden of schizophrenia, describe the methods and data sources used, and summarize the findings of economic burden of schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic review was performed for economic burden studies in schizophrenia using four electronic databases (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and EconLit from inception to August 31, 2014. Results: A total of 56 articles were included in this review. More than 80% of the studies were conducted in high-income countries. Most studies had undertaken a retrospective- and prevalence-based study design. The bottom-up approach was commonly employed to determine cost, while human capital method was used for indirect cost estimation. Database and literature were the most commonly used data sources in cost estimation in high-income countries, while chart review and interview were the main data sources in low and middle-income countries. Annual costs for the schizophrenia population in the country ranged from US$94

  3. Post-traumatic glenohumeral cartilage lesions: a systematic review

    Stussi Edgar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Any cartilage damage to the glenohumeral joint should be avoided, as these damages may result in osteoarthritis of the shoulder. To understand the pathomechanism leading to shoulder cartilage damage, we conducted a systematic review on the subject of articular cartilage lesions caused by traumas where non impression fracture of the subchondral bone is present. Methods PubMed (MEDLINE, ScienceDirect (EMBASE, BIOBASE, BIOSIS Previews and the COCHRANE database of systematic reviews were systematically scanned using a defined search strategy to identify relevant articles in this field of research. First selection was done based on abstracts according to specific criteria, where the methodological quality in selected full text articles was assessed by two reviewers. Agreement between raters was investigated using percentage agreement and Cohen's Kappa statistic. The traumatic events were divided into two categories: 1 acute trauma which refers to any single impact situation which directly damages the articular cartilage, and 2 chronic trauma which means cartilage lesions due to overuse or disuse of the shoulder joint. Results The agreement on data quality between the two reviewers was 93% with a Kappa value of 0.79 indicating an agreement considered to be 'substantial'. It was found that acute trauma on the shoulder causes humeral articular cartilage to disrupt from the underlying bone. The pathomechanism is said to be due to compression or shearing, which can be caused by a sudden subluxation or dislocation. However, such impact lesions are rarely reported. In the case of chronic trauma glenohumeral cartilage degeneration is a result of overuse and is associated to other shoulder joint pathologies. In these latter cases it is the rotator cuff which is injured first. This can result in instability and consequent impingement which may progress to glenohumeral cartilage damage. Conclusion The great majority of glenohumeral cartilage

  4. Epidemiology of constipation in Europe and Oceania: a systematic review

    Mourtzoukou Eleni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We aimed to review the literature regarding the epidemiology of constipation in Europe and Oceania and the associated prevalence/risk factors. Methods Two reviewers performed PubMed searches and a hand search of references. A study was considered eligible for inclusion if it reported data about the prevalence of constipation in any population, free of other gastrointestinal disorders, in Europe and Oceania. Studies were evaluated for quality. Data regarding the setting, type of study, definition of constipation, study population, prevalence of constipation, factors associated with increased odds for constipation, and the female to male ratio, were collected. Results The 21 reviewed studies depict prevalence rates in 34 different population groups ranging widely from a low 0.7% to a high 81%. In the general population of Europe the mean value of the reported constipation rates is 17,1 % and the median value 16.6%. Among the studies conducted in Oceania, the mean value of constipation prevalence was 15.3%. Female gender, age and socioeconomic and educational class seem to have major effect on constipation prevalence. A number of various other risk factors are, less clearly, associated with constipation. Conclusion This systematic review depicts the high prevalence and related risk factors of a disorder that decreases the health-related quality of life and has major economic consequences.

  5. Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence

    Elisabete Rodrigues Nascimento

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction”, “cardiovascular diseases”, “coronary artery disease", “myocardial infarct" and “prevalence” was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity.

  6. Cost effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening: A systematic review

    Najafi, Behzad; Farzadfar, Farshad; Ghaderi, Hossein; Hadian, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although studies reported diabetes mellitus screening cost effective, the mass screening for type2 diabetes remains controversial. In this study we reviewed the recently evidence about the cost effectiveness of mass screening systematically. Methods: We reviewed the MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science (WOS), and Cochrane library databases by MeSH terms to identify relevant studies from 2000 to 2013. We had 4 inclusion and 6 exclusion criteria and used the Drummond’s checklist for appraising the quality of studies. Results: The initial search yielded 358 potentially related studies from selected databases. 6 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria and included in final review. 3 and 2 of them were conducted in Europe and America and only one of them in Asia. Quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was the main outcome to appraise the effectiveness in the studies. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was computed in range from $516.33 to $126,238 per QALY in the studies. Conclusion: A review of previous diabetes screening cost effectiveness analysis showed that the studies varied in some aspects but reached similar conclusions. They concluded that the screening may be cost effective, however further studies is required to support the diabetes mass screening. PMID:27390696

  7. Isolated hypoganglionosis: systematic review of a rare intestinal innervation defect.

    Dingemann, Jens

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: Isolated hypoganglionosis (IH) is rare and resembles Hirschsprung\\'s disease. The diagnosis by suction biopsy is difficult. A full-thickness biopsy is essential. Histological features of IH include sparse, small myenteric ganglia, low acetylcholinesterase activity in the lamina propria, and hypertrophy of muscularis mucosae and circular muscle. This review investigates the epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and outcome of patients with IH. METHODS: A systematic review, using the keywords "isolated hypoganglionosis" and "intestinal hypoganglionosis" was performed. Publications were reviewed for epidemiology, histological methods, operative procedures, follow-up, and patient\\'s outcome. RESULTS: Eleven publications from 1978 to 2009 reported 92 patients with IH (69 males and 23 females, age 4.85 years), presenting with constipation or enterocolitis. Diagnosis of IH was made by full-thickness biopsy and AChE staining in 91% of patients with additional staining in 82%; 54 patients had bowel resection and pull-through procedures; 11 patients had ileostomy or colostomy, and 2 had sphincter myectomy. Complications reported were enterocolitis, constipation, and residual disease. Seven patients (8%) died due to enterocolitis or short-bowel complications. CONCLUSION: This review confirms that diagnosis of IH is only possible by histochemical examination of a full-thickness biopsy. Despite advanced age at diagnosis of IH, epidemiological and clinical data are similar to aganglionosis.

  8. The effectiveness of acupressure on relieving pain: a systematic review.

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2014-06-01

    Acupressure is a complementary treatment that uses fingers and hands to stimulate acupoints and maintains the balance of energy. The objective of this study was to review the application of acupressure in managing different pains and the effectiveness of acupressure on relieving pain in various settings. A systematic review of English articles using the databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) was performed using the search terms of "acupressure" and "pain." Studies during which acupressure was applied as an intervention and assessed for its effectiveness on relieving pain were selected. The studies selected were those published from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2011 that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The participants included patients with dysmenorrhea, labor pain, low back pain, chronic headache, and other traumatic pains. The Oxford 2011 Levels of Evidence was used to appraise the literature. Fifteen studies were extracted for reducing dysmenorrhea (menstrual distress), labor pain, low back pain, chronic headache, and other traumatic pain. These papers were further reviewed for their study design, adequacy of randomization and concealment of allocation, blinding of participants, interventions, and outcome measurements. Acupressure has been shown to be effective for relieving a variety of pains in different populations. The review begins to establish a credible evidence base for the use of acupressure in pain relief. The implication for health care providers would be incorporating acupressure into their practice as an alternative therapy to facilitate patients who suffer from pain. PMID:23415783

  9. A systematic review of psychosocial suicide prevention interventions for youth.

    Calear, Alison L; Christensen, Helen; Freeman, Alexander; Fenton, Katherine; Busby Grant, Janie; van Spijker, Bregje; Donker, Tara

    2016-05-01

    Youth suicide is a significant public health problem. A systematic review was conducted to examine the effectiveness of school, community and healthcare-based interventions in reducing and preventing suicidal ideation, suicide attempts and deliberate self-harm in young people aged 12-25 years. PsycInfo, PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched to the end of December 2014 to identify randomised controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for youth suicide. In total, 13,747 abstracts were identified and screened for inclusion in a larger database. Of these, 29 papers describing 28 trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the current review. The results of the review indicated that just over half of the programs identified had a significant effect on suicidal ideation (Cohen's d = 0.16-3.01), suicide attempts (phi = 0.04-0.38) or deliberate self-harm (phi = 0.29-0.33; d = 0.42). The current review provides preliminary support for the implementation of universal and targeted interventions in all settings, using a diverse range of psychosocial approaches. Further quality research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for suicide prevention programs in this population. In particular, the development of universal school-based interventions is promising given the potential reach of such an approach. PMID:26472117

  10. Seismic protection technology for nuclear power plants. A systematic review

    Seismic protection systems (SPS) have been developed and used successfully in conventional structures, but their applications in nuclear power plants (NPPs) are scarce. However, valuable research has been conducted worldwide to include SPS in nuclear engineering design. This study aims to provide a state-of-the-art review of SPS in nuclear engineering and to answer four significant research questions: (1) why are SPS not adopted in the nuclear industry and what issues have prevented their deployment? (2) what types of SPS are being considered in nuclear engineering research? (3) what are the strategies for location of SPS within NPPs? and (4) how may SPS provide improved structural performance and safety of NPPs under seismic actions? This review is conducted following the procedures of systematic reviews, where possible. The issues concerning the use of SPS in NPPs are identified: cost, safety, licensing and scarcity of applications. NPPs demand full structural integrity and reactor's safe shutdown during earthquake actions. Therefore, horizontal isolation may be insufficient in active seismic zones and isolation in the vertical direction may be required. Based on the results in this review, it is likely that next generation reactors in seismic zones will include state-of-the-art SPS to achieve full standardised design. (author)

  11. Systematic review of health-related quality of life models

    Bakas Tamilyn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A systematic literature review was conducted to (a identify the most frequently used health-related quality of life (HRQOL models and (b critique those models. Methods Online search engines were queried using pre-determined inclusion and exclusion criteria. We reviewed titles, abstracts, and then full-text articles for their relevance to this review. Then the most commonly used models were identified, reviewed in tables, and critiqued using published criteria. Results Of 1,602 titles identified, 100 articles from 21 countries met the inclusion criteria. The most frequently used HRQOL models were: Wilson and Cleary (16%, Ferrans and colleagues (4%, or World Health Organization (WHO (5%. Ferrans and colleagues’ model was a revision of Wilson and Cleary’s model and appeared to have the greatest potential to guide future HRQOL research and practice. Conclusions Recommendations are for researchers to use one of the three common HRQOL models unless there are compelling and clearly delineated reasons for creating new models. Disease-specific models can be derived from one of the three commonly used HRQOL models. We recommend Ferrans and colleagues’ model because they added individual and environmental characteristics to the popular Wilson and Cleary model to better explain HRQOL. Using a common HRQOL model across studies will promote a coherent body of evidence that will more quickly advance the science in the area of HRQOL.

  12. Systematic review on adverse birth outcomes of climate change

    Parinaz Poursafa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change and global warming have significant effects on human health. This systematic review presents the effects of the climate changes on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: The search process was conducted in electronic databases including ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using key words of "environmental temperature" "pregnancy" "low birth weight (LBW" "pregnancy outcome," "climate change," "preterm birth (PTB," and a combination of them. We did not consider any time limitation; English-language papers were included. The related papers were selected in three phases. After quality assessment, two reviewers extracted the data while the third reviewer checked their extracted data. Finally, 15 related articles were selected and included in the current study. Results: Approximately all studies have reported a significant relationship between exposure variable and intended outcomes including eclampsia, preeclampsia, cataract, LBW, PTB, hypertension, sex ratio and length of pregnancy. According to conducted studies, decrease in birth weight is more possible in cold months. Increase in temperature was followed by increase in PTB rate. According to most of the studies, eclampsia and preeclampsia were more prevalent in cold and humid seasons. Two spectrums of heat extent, different seasons of the year, sunlight intensity and season of fertilization were associated with higher rates of PTB, hypertension, eclampsia, preeclampsia, and cataract. Conclusion: Climate change has unfavorable effects on eclampsia, preeclampsia, PTB, and cataract. The findings of this review confirm the crucial importance of the adverse health effects of climate change especially in the perinatal period.

  13. Psychosocial interventions for adults with visible differences: a systematic review

    Alyson Norman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Some individuals with visible differences have been found to experience psychosocial adjustment problems that can lead to social anxiety and isolation. Various models of psychosocial intervention have been used to reduce social anxiety and appearance related distress in this population. The objective of this review was to update a previous systematic review assessing the efficacy of psychosocial intervention programs for adults with visible differences. The original review (Bessell & Moss, 2007 identified 12 papers for inclusion. Methods. A search protocol identified studies from 13 electronic journal databases. Methods: Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. Results. This update identified an additional four papers that met the inclusion criteria. Two papers provided very limited evidence for the efficacy of a combined cognitive-behavioural and social skills training approach. None of the papers provided sufficient evidence for the optimal duration, intensity or setting of psychosocial interventions for this population. Discussion. The review concluded that a greater number of Randomised Controlled Trials and experimental studies were required to increase the methodological validity of intervention studies.

  14. Research Questions and Priorities for Tuberculosis: A Survey of Published Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses

    Nicolau, Ioana; Ling, Daphne; Tian, Lulu; Lienhardt, Christian; Pai, Madhukar

    2012-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews are increasingly informing policies in tuberculosis (TB) care and control. They may also be a source of questions for future research. As part of the process of developing the International Roadmap for TB Research, we did a systematic review of published systematic reviews on TB, to identify research priorities that are most frequently suggested in reviews. Methodology/Principal Findings We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for sy...

  15. Tutorial for writing systematic reviews for the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy (BJPT)

    Marisa C. Mancini; Jefferson R. Cardoso; Rosana F. Sampaio; Costa, Lucíola C. M.; Cristina M. N. Cabral; Leonardo O. P. Costa

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews aim to summarize all evidence using very rigorous methods in order to address a specific research question with less bias as possible. Systematic reviews are widely used in the field of physical therapy, however not all reviews have good quality. This tutorial aims to guide authors of the Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy on how systematic reviews should be conducted and reported in order to be accepted for publication. It is expected that this tutorial will help author...

  16. Drivers for inappropriate fever management in children: a systematic review.

    Kelly, M; McCarthy, S; O'Sullivan, R; Shiely, F; Larkin, P; Brenner, M; Sahm, L J

    2016-08-01

    Background Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms and accounts for numerous consultations with healthcare practitioners. It causes much anxiety amongst parents as many struggle with managing a feverish child and find it difficult to assess fever severity. Over- and under-dosing of antipyretics has been reported. Aim of the review The aim of this review was to synthesise qualitative and quantitative evidence on the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents regarding fever and febrile illness in children. Method A systematic search was conducted in ten bibliographic databases from database inception to June 2014. Citation lists of studies and consultation with experts were used as secondary sources to identify further relevant studies. Titles and abstracts were screened for inclusion according to pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Quantitative studies using a questionnaire were analysed using narrative synthesis. Qualitative studies with a semi-structured interview or focus group methodology were analysed thematically. Results Of the 1565 studies which were screened for inclusion in the review, the final review comprised of 14 studies (three qualitative and 11 quantitative). Three categories emerged from the narrative synthesis of quantitative studies: (i) parental practices; (ii) knowledge; (iii) expectations and information seeking. A further three analytical themes emerged from the qualitative studies: (i) control; (ii) impact on family; (iii) experiences. Conclusion Our review identifies the multifaceted nature of the factors which impact on how parents manage fever and febrile illness in children. A coherent approach to the management of fever and febrile illness needs to be implemented so a consistent message is communicated to parents. Healthcare professionals including pharmacists regularly advise parents on fever management. Information given to parents needs to be timely, consistent and accurate so that inappropriate fever

  17. A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change.

    Purnell, Jason Q; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-07-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand on previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based on the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with 11 finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of the studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors, even as policy makers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity. PMID:24836967

  18. Sexual activity before sports competition: a systematic review

    Laura eStefani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual activity before competition has been considered as a possible cause for reduced performance since ancient Greece and Rome. Recently, the hypothesis that optimal sport performance could be influenced by a variety of factors including sexual activity before competition has been investigated. However, few scientific data are available, with the exception of anecdotal reports of individual experiences. The present systematic review focused on the current scientific evidence on the effects of sexual activity on sport performance regardless of sport type. Data were obtained following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines, using PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Science, the Cochrane Collaboration Database, Cochrane Library, Evidence Database (PEDro, Evidence Based Medicine (EBM Search review, National Guidelines, ProQuest, and Scopus, all searched from inception Further, to broaden the search, no time filter nor language restriction have been applied. Also, the gray literature was mined using Google Scholar. Only relevant scientific articles reporting outcomes of athletic performance after sexual activity were considered. The impact of sexual activity before a sport competition is still unclear, but most studies generally seem to exclude a direct impact of sexual activity on athletic aerobic and strength performance. The most important aspect seems to be the interval from the time of the sports competition that affects negatively the performance if it is shorter than two hours. There are possible negative effects from some possible concurrent wrong behaviors such as smoking or alcohol abuse. There are no investigations about the effect of masturbation in this context. There is a need to clarify the effects of sexual activity on competition performance. The present evidence suggests that sexual activity the day before competition does not exert any negative impact on performance, even though high

  19. Neurobiological correlates in forensic assessment: a systematic review.

    Toon van der Gronde

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With the increased knowledge of biological risk factors, interest in including this information in forensic assessments is growing. Currently, forensic assessments are predominantly focused on psychosocial factors. A better understanding of the neurobiology of violent criminal behaviour and biological risk factors could improve forensic assessments. OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the current evidence about biological risk factors that predispose people to antisocial and violent behaviour, and determine its usefulness in forensic assessment. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted using articles from PsycINFO, Embase and Pubmed published between 2000 and 2013. RESULTS: This review shows that much research on the relationship between genetic predisposition and neurobiological alterations with aggression is performed on psychiatric patients or normal populations. However, the number of studies comparing offenders is limited. There is still a great need to understand how genetic and neurobiological alterations and/or deficits are related to violent behaviour, specifically criminality. Most studies focus on only one of the genetic or neurobiological fields related to antisocial and/or violent behaviour. To reliably correlate the findings of these fields, a standardization of methodology is urgently needed. CONCLUSION: Findings from the current review suggest that violent aggression, like all forms of human behaviour, both develops under specific genetic and environmental conditions, and requires interplay between these conditions. Violence should be considered as the end product of a chain of life events, during which risks accumulate and potentially reinforce each other, displaying or triggering a specific situation. This systematic review did not find evidence of predispositions or neurobiological alterations that solely explain antisocial or violent behaviour. With better designed studies, more correlation between

  20. Effectiveness of screening preschool children for amblyopia: a systematic review

    Lange Stefan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amblyopia and amblyogenic factors like strabismus and refractive errors are the most common vision disorders in children. Although different studies suggest that preschool vision screening is associated with a reduced prevalence rate of amblyopia, the value of these programmes is the subject of a continuing scientific and health policy discussion. Therefore, this systematic review focuses on the question of whether screening for amblyopia in children up to the age of six years leads to better vision outcomes. Methods Ten bibliographic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials and cohort studies with no limitations to a specific year of publication and language. The searches were supplemented by handsearching the bibliographies of included studies and reviews to identify articles not captured through our main search strategy. Results Five studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, three studies suggested that screening is associated with an absolute reduction in the prevalence of amblyopia between 0.9% and 1.6% (relative reduction: between 45% and 62%. However, the studies showed weaknesses, limiting the validity and reliability of their findings. The main limitation was that studies with significant results considered only a proportion of the originally recruited children in their analysis. On the other hand, retrospective sample size calculation indicated that the power based on the cohort size was not sufficient to detect small changes between the groups. Outcome parameters such as quality of life or adverse effects of screening have not been adequately investigated in the literature currently available. Conclusion Population based preschool vision screening programmes cannot be sufficiently assessed by the literature currently available. However, it is most likely that the present systematic review contains the most detailed description of the main limitations in current

  1. Adverse events related to emergency department care: a systematic review.

    Antonia S Stang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature regarding the prevalence, preventability, severity and types of adverse events (AE in the Emergency Department (ED. METHODS: We systematically searched major bibliographic databases, relevant journals and conference proceedings, and completed reference reviews of primary articles. Observational studies (cohort and case-control, quasi-experimental (e.g. before/after studies and randomized controlled trials, were considered for inclusion if they examined a broad demographic group reflecting a significant proportion of ED patients and described the proportion of AE. Studies conducted outside of the ED setting, those examining only a subpopulation of patients (e.g. a specific entrance complaint or receiving a specific intervention, or examining only adverse drug events, were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed study eligibility, completed data extraction, and assessed study quality with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. RESULTS: Our search identified 11,624 citations. Ten articles, representing eight observational studies, were included. Methodological quality was low to moderate with weaknesses in study group comparability, follow-up, and outcome ascertainment and reporting. There was substantial variation in the proportion of patients with AE related to ED care, ranging from 0.16% (n = 9308 to 6.0% (n = 399. Similarly, the reported preventability of AE ranged from 36% (n = 250 to 71% (n = 24. The most common types of events were related to management (3 studies, diagnosis (2 studies and medication (2 studies. CONCLUSIONS: The variability in findings and lack of high quality studies on AE in the high risk ED setting highlights the need for research in this area. Further studies with rigorous, standardized outcome assessment and reporting are required.

  2. A Systematic Review of the Measurement of Sustainable Diets.

    Jones, Andrew D; Hoey, Lesli; Blesh, Jennifer; Miller, Laura; Green, Ashley; Shapiro, Lilly Fink

    2016-07-01

    Sustainability has become an integral consideration of the dietary guidelines of many countries in recent decades. However, a lack of clear metrics and a shared approach to measuring the multiple components of sustainable diets has hindered progress toward generating the evidence needed to ensure the credibility of new guidelines. We performed a systematic literature review of empirical research studies on sustainable diets to identify the components of sustainability that were measured and the methods applied to do so. Two independent reviewers systematically searched 30 databases and other sources with the use of a uniform set of search terms and a priori exclusion criteria. In total, 113 empirical studies were included in the final review. Nearly all of the studies were focused on high-income countries. Although there was substantial heterogeneity in the components of sustainability measured, the estimated greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) of various dietary patterns were by far most commonly measured (n = 71 studies). Estimating the GHGEs of foods through various stages of production, use, and recycling with the use of the Life Cycle Assessment approach was the most common method applied to measure the environmental impacts of diets (n = 49 studies). Many components of sustainable diets identified in existing conceptual frameworks are disproportionately underrepresented in the empirical literature, as are studies that examine consumer demand for sustainable dietary alternatives. The emphasis in the literature on high-income countries also overlooks the production and dietary alternatives most relevant to low- and middle-income countries. We propose 3 methodological and measurement approaches that would both improve the global relevance of our understanding of sustainable diets and attend more completely to the existing multidimensional, multiscale conceptual framing of sustainable diets. PMID:27422501

  3. Enhanced recovery after vascular surgery: protocol for a systematic review

    Gotlib Conn Lesley

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS programme is a multimodal evidence-based approach to surgical care which begins in the preoperative setting and extends through to patient discharge in the postoperative period. The primary components of ERAS include the introduction of preoperative patient education; reduction in perioperative use of nasogastric tubes and drains; the use of multimodal analgesia; goal-directed fluid management; early removal of Foley catheter; early mobilization, and early oral nutrition. The ERAS approach has gradually evolved to become the standard of care in colorectal surgery and is presently being used in other specialty areas such as vascular surgery. Currently there is little evidence available for the implementation of ERAS in this field. We plan to conduct a systematic review of this literature with a view to incorporating ERAS principles into the management of major elective vascular surgery procedures. Methods We will search EMBASE (OVID, 1947 to June 2012, Medline (OVID, 1948 to June 2012, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Wiley, Issue 1, 2012. Searches will be performed with no year or language restrictions. For inclusion, studies must look at adult patients over 18 years. Major elective vascular surgery includes carotid, bypass, aneurysm and amputation procedures. Studies must have evaluated usual care against an ERAS intervention in the preoperative, perioperative or postoperative period of care. Primary outcome measures are length of stay, decreased complication rate, and patient satisfaction or expectations. Only randomized controlled trials will be included. Discussion Most ERAS approaches have been considered in the context of colorectal surgery. Given the increasing use of multiple yet different aspects of this pathway in vascular surgery, it is timely to systematically review the evidence for their independent or combined outcomes, with a view to implementing

  4. Women's Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review.

    Anisa R Assifi

    Full Text Available Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women's access to safe, legal abortion services.To provide a synthesis of evidence of women's awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women's knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country's abortion law.A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980-2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women's awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis.Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women's correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3%-68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8%-98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8%-64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7%-94% and 0%-89.5% respectively.This systematic review synthesizes literature on women's awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary.

  5. Diagnosis and Treatment of Alcoholic Hepatitis: A Systematic Review.

    Singal, Ashwani K; Kodali, Sudha; Vucovich, Lee A; Darley-Usmar, Victor; Schiano, Thomas D

    2016-07-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) occurs in about one-third of individuals reporting long-term heavy alcohol use. It is associated with high short-term mortality, economic burden, and hospital resources utilization. We performed this systematic review to (i) describe clinical characteristics and genomics associated with the risk of AH; (ii) discuss role and limitations of liver biopsy and prognostic scoring systems; (iii) summarize evidence regarding the currently available therapies including liver transplantation; and (iv) outline emerging therapies with areas of unmet need. Literature search was performed for studies published in English language (January 1971 through March 2016). The following search engines were used: PubMed, Elsevier Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library. For the treatment section, only randomized controlled studies were included for this review. A total of 138 studies (59 randomized, 22 systematic reviews or meta-analyses, 7 surveys or guidelines, 7 population-based, and 43 prospective cohorts) were cited. There are over 325,000 annual admissions with AH contributing to about 0.8% of all hospitalizations in the United States. Liver biopsy may be required in about 25 to 30% cases for uncertain clinical diagnosis. Corticosteroids with or without N-acetylcysteine remains the only available therapy for severe episodes. Data are emerging on the role of liver transplantation as salvage therapy for select patients. Abstinence remains the most important factor impacting long-term prognosis. Results from the ongoing clinical trials within the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-funded consortia are awaited for more effective and safer therapies. AH is a potentially lethal condition with a significant short-term mortality. A high index of suspicion is required. There remains an unmet need for noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis, and predicting prognosis and response to therapy. PMID:27254289

  6. A systematic review of methods for studying consumer health YouTube videos, with implications for systematic reviews

    Margaret Sampson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. YouTube is an increasingly important medium for consumer health information – with content provided by healthcare professionals, government and non-government organizations, industry, and consumers themselves. It is a rapidly developing area of study for healthcare researchers. We examine the methods used in reviews of YouTube consumer health videos to identify trends and best practices. Methods and Materials. Published reviews of consumer-oriented health-related YouTube videos were identified through PubMed. Data extracted from these studies included type of journal, topic, characteristics of the search, methods of review including number of reviewers and method to achieve consensus between reviewers, inclusion and exclusion criteria, characteristics of the videos reported, ethical oversight, and follow-up. Results. Thirty-three studies were identified. Most were recent and published in specialty journals. Typically, these included more than 100 videos, and were examined by multiple reviewers. Most studies described characteristics of the videos, number of views, and sometime characteristics of the viewers. Accuracy of portrayal of the health issue under consideration was a common focus. Conclusion. Optimal transparency and reproducibility of studies of YouTube health-related videos can be achieved by following guidance designed for systematic review reporting, with attention to several elements specific to the video medium. Particularly when seeking to replicate consumer viewing behavior, investigators should consider the method used to select search terms, and use a snowballing rather than a sequential screening approach. Discontinuation protocols for online screening of relevance ranked search results is an area identified for further development.

  7. Self-Directed Interventions to Promote Weight Loss: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    Tang, Jason; Abraham, Charles; Greaves, Colin; Yates, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background A wide range of self-directed weight-loss interventions are available, providing users with a variety of tools delivered through various formats to regulate weight-related behavior patterns. However, it is unclear how effective self-directed interventions are and how they promote weight loss and weight maintenance. Objective A systematic review of reviews was conducted to examine the effectiveness of such interventions and to identify intervention content associated with effectiven...

  8. Using Systematic Reviews to Inform Policy Initiatives: Lessons from the HHS Teen Pregnancy Prevention Evidence Review.

    Brian Goesling

    2012-01-01

    In fall 2009, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) launched a systematic review of the research literature on programs to prevent teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and associated sexual risk behaviors. Findings have been used to inform two new federal policy initiatives aimed at supporting evidence-based approaches to teen pregnancy prevention. This research brief highlights six key lessons from the review, intended to help the growing number of organizations ...

  9. Psychological Interventions for Poor Oral Health: A Systematic Review.

    Werner, H; Hakeberg, M; Dahlström, L; Eriksson, M; Sjögren, P; Strandell, A; Svanberg, T; Svensson, L; Wide Boman, U

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to study the effectiveness of psychological interventions in adults and adolescents with poor oral health. The review follows the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. The PICO format (population, intervention, comparison, and outcome) was used to define eligible studies. The populations were adults or adolescents (≥13 y of age and independent of others) with poor oral health (defined as dental caries, periodontal disease, and/or peri-implantitis). The interventions were psychological and/or behavioral models and theories, in comparison with traditional oral health education/information. The primary outcomes were dental caries, periodontitis, gingivitis, and peri-implantitis. Secondary outcomes were dental plaque, oral health-related behavior, health-related quality of life, health beliefs and attitudes, self-perceived oral health, and complications/risks. The systematic literature search identified 846 articles in December 2013 and 378 articles in July 2015. In total, 11 articles on 9 randomized controlled trials were found to meet the inclusion criteria. These reported on adults with periodontal disease, and several used motivational interviewing (MI) as their mode of intervention. The CONSORT guidelines and the GRADE approach were used for study appraisal and rating of evidence. The meta-analysis showed no statistically significant differences in gingivitis or plaque presence. In addition, a meta-analysis on MI compared with education/information found no statistically significant differences in gingivitis presence. Only 1 meta-analysis-on psychological interventions versus education/information regarding the plaque index-showed a small but statistically significant difference. There were also statistically significant differences reported in favor of psychological interventions in oral health behavior and self-efficacy in toothbrushing. However, the clinical relevance of these differences is

  10. Discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services: a systematic review.

    Vass, Caroline; Gray, Ewan; Payne, Katherine

    2016-06-01

    Background Two previous systematic reviews have summarised the application of discrete choice experiments to value preferences for pharmacy services. These reviews identified a total of twelve studies and described how discrete choice experiments have been used to value pharmacy services but did not describe or discuss the application of methods used in the design or analysis. Aims (1) To update the most recent systematic review and critically appraise current discrete choice experiments of pharmacy services in line with published reporting criteria and; (2) To provide an overview of key methodological developments in the design and analysis of discrete choice experiments. Methods The review used a comprehensive strategy to identify eligible studies (published between 1990 and 2015) by searching electronic databases for key terms related to discrete choice and best-worst scaling (BWS) experiments. All healthcare choice experiments were then hand-searched for key terms relating to pharmacy. Data were extracted using a published checklist. Results A total of 17 discrete choice experiments eliciting preferences for pharmacy services were identified for inclusion in the review. No BWS studies were identified. The studies elicited preferences from a variety of populations (pharmacists, patients, students) for a range of pharmacy services. Most studies were from a United Kingdom setting, although examples from Europe, Australia and North America were also identified. Discrete choice experiments for pharmacy services tended to include more attributes than non-pharmacy choice experiments. Few studies reported the use of qualitative research methods in the design and interpretation of the experiments (n = 9) or use of new methods of analysis to identify and quantify preference and scale heterogeneity (n = 4). No studies reported the use of Bayesian methods in their experimental design. Conclusion Incorporating more sophisticated methods in the design of pharmacy

  11. Immunomodulatory dietary polysaccharides: a systematic review of the literature

    Nelson Erika D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large body of literature suggests that certain polysaccharides affect immune system function. Much of this literature, however, consists of in vitro studies or studies in which polysaccharides were injected. Their immunologic effects following oral administration is less clear. The purpose of this systematic review was to consolidate and evaluate the available data regarding the specific immunologic effects of dietary polysaccharides. Methods Studies were identified by conducting PubMed and Google Scholar electronic searches and through reviews of polysaccharide article bibliographies. Only articles published in English were included in this review. Two researchers reviewed data on study design, control, sample size, results, and nature of outcome measures. Subsequent searches were conducted to gather information about polysaccharide safety, structure and composition, and disposition. Results We found 62 publications reporting statistically significant effects of orally ingested glucans, pectins, heteroglycans, glucomannans, fucoidans, galactomannans, arabinogalactans and mixed polysaccharide products in rodents. Fifteen controlled human studies reported that oral glucans, arabinogalactans, heteroglycans, and fucoidans exerted significant effects. Although some studies investigated anti-inflammatory effects, most studies investigated the ability of oral polysaccharides to stimulate the immune system. These studies, as well as safety and toxicity studies, suggest that these polysaccharide products appear to be largely well-tolerated. Conclusions Taken as a whole, the oral polysaccharide literature is highly heterogenous and is not sufficient to support broad product structure/function generalizations. Numerous dietary polysaccharides, particularly glucans, appear to elicit diverse immunomodulatory effects in numerous animal tissues, including the blood, GI tract and spleen. Glucan extracts from the Trametes versicolor

  12. Discrimination and drinking: A systematic review of the evidence.

    Gilbert, Paul A; Zemore, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    Although it is widely accepted that discrimination is associated with heavy and hazardous drinking, particularly within stress and coping frameworks, there has been no comprehensive review of the evidence. In response, we conducted a systematic review of the English language peer-reviewed literature to summarize studies of discrimination and alcohol-related outcomes, broadly defined. Searching six online data bases, we identified 938 non-duplicative titles published between 1980 and 2015, of which 97 met all inclusion criteria for our review and reported quantitative tests of associations between discrimination and alcohol use. We extracted key study characteristics and assessed quality based on reported methodological details. Papers generally supported a positive association; however, the quantity and quality of evidence varied considerably. The largest number of studies was of racial/ethnic discrimination among African Americans in the United States, followed by sexual orientation and gender discrimination. Studies of racial/ethnic discrimination were notable for their frequent use of complex modeling (i.e., mediation, moderation) but focused nearly exclusively on interpersonal discrimination. In contrast, studies of sexual orientation discrimination (i.e., heterosexism, homophobia) examined both internalized and interpersonal aspects; however, the literature largely relied on global tests of association using cross-sectional data. Some populations (e.g., Native Americans, Asian and Pacific Islanders) and types of discrimination (e.g., systemic/structural racism; ageism) received scant attention. This review extends our knowledge of a key social determinant of health through alcohol use. We identified gaps in the evidence base and suggest directions for future research related to discrimination and alcohol misuse. PMID:27315370

  13. Educational interventions to improve recognition of delirium: a systematic review.

    Yanamadala, Mamata; Wieland, Darryl; Heflin, Mitchell T

    2013-11-01

    Delirium is a common and serious condition that is underrecognized in older adults in a variety of healthcare settings. It is poorly recognized because of deficiencies in provider knowledge and its atypical presentation. Early recognition of delirium is warranted to better manage the disease and prevent the adverse outcomes associated with it. The purpose of this article is to review the literature concerning educational interventions focusing on recognition of delirium. The Medline and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) databases were searched for studies with specific educational focus in the recognition of delirium, and 26 studies with various designs were identified. The types of interventions used were classified according to the Predisposing, Reinforcing and Enabling Constructs in Educational Diagnosis and Evaluation (PRECEDE) model, and outcomes were sorted according to Kirkpatrick's hierarchy. Educational strategies combining predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors achieved better results than strategies that included one or two of these components. Studies using predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing strategies together were more often effective in producing changes in staff behavior and participant outcomes. Based on this review, improvements in knowledge and skill alone seem insufficient to favorably influence recognition of delirium. Educational interventions to recognize delirium are most effective when formal teaching is interactive and is combined with strategies including engaging leadership and using clinical pathways and assessment tools. The goal of the current study was to systematically review the published literature to determine the effect of educational interventions on recognition of delirium. PMID:24219200

  14. Transitional care programs: who is left behind? A systematic review

    Emily Piraino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Older adults are at risk of rehospitalization if their care transitions from hospital-to-home are not properly managed. The objective of this review was to determine if older patient populations recruited for randomized controlled trials of transitional care interventions represented those at greatest risk of rehospitalization following discharge.  Relevant risk factors examined were cognitive impairment, depression, polypharmacy, comorbidity, length of stay, advanced non-malignant diseases, and available social support. DESIGN: Systematic Review. SETTING: Hospital to home. PARTICIPANTS: Older hospitalized adults. MEASUREMENTS: For inclusion, articles were required to focus on hospital-to-home transitions with a self-care component, have components occurring both before and after discharge, and a randomized controlled trial design. Articles were excluded if participants had a mean age under 55 years, or if interventions focused on developmental disabilities, youth, addictions, or case management, or were solely primary-care based. RESULTS:  Following title, abstract, and full review by two authors, 17 articles met inclusion criteria.  Risk factors for rehospitalization were often listed either as exclusion criteria or were not reported at baseline by the studies. One study included patients with all identified risk factors for rehospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that published studies of transitional care interventions do not often include older adults at highest risk of rehospitalization, raising concerns about the generalizability of their results. Studies are needed that evaluate interventions that explicitly address the needs and characteristics of these patients.

  15. Psychopathology among homicidally bereaved individuals: a systematic review.

    van Denderen, Mariëtte; de Keijser, Jos; Kleen, Marco; Boelen, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    In the literature on bereavement, claims are made that homicidal loss is associated with posttraumatic stress reactions, depression, and other severe mental health problems. It is surprising that only a few studies have investigated the nature and prevalence of emotional symptoms following homicidal bereavement and a reference to systematic, empirical research is seldom provided. This article reviews the available literature to investigate whether these claims have empirical evidence. Three databases were searched to identify relevant studies. This approach was supplemented with a bibliography search. Eligible studies included English-language peer-reviewed articles that assessed psychopathology in the homicidally bereaved, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Of the 360 potentially relevant articles, 8 studies (13 references) met predefined inclusion criteria. Homicide-related psychopathology among the bereaved assessed in these studies includes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, complicated grief, and substance abuse. Prevalence of lifetime homicide-related PTSD varied from 19.1% to 71% across studies. Current PTSD varied between 5.2% and 6%. The reviewed literature was inconclusive regarding the course of symptoms over time and the severity of psychopathology among the homicidally bereaved, compared to individuals bereaved by other causes of death. A comparison of the nature and prevalence of psychopathology between studies was complicated by unequal sample sizes and type, recruitment strategy, study design, and time since loss. Limitations of the included studies are discussed, as well as implications for clinical practice, policy, and future research. PMID:24346707

  16. Text mining applications in psychiatry: a systematic literature review.

    Abbe, Adeline; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Falissard, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    The expansion of biomedical literature is creating the need for efficient tools to keep pace with increasing volumes of information. Text mining (TM) approaches are becoming essential to facilitate the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text. We reviewed the applications of TM in psychiatry, and explored its advantages and limitations. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. In this review, 1103 papers were screened, and 38 were included as applications of TM in psychiatric research. Using TM and content analysis, we identified four major areas of application: (1) Psychopathology (i.e. observational studies focusing on mental illnesses) (2) the Patient perspective (i.e. patients' thoughts and opinions), (3) Medical records (i.e. safety issues, quality of care and description of treatments), and (4) Medical literature (i.e. identification of new scientific information in the literature). The information sources were qualitative studies, Internet postings, medical records and biomedical literature. Our work demonstrates that TM can contribute to complex research tasks in psychiatry. We discuss the benefits, limits, and further applications of this tool in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26184780

  17. Usability evaluation techniques in mobile commerce applications: A systematic review

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Obviously, there are a number of literatures concerning the usability of mobile commerce (m-commerce) applications and related areas, but they do not adequately provide knowledge about usability techniques used in most of the empirical usability evaluation for m-commerce application. Therefore, this paper is aimed at producing the usability techniques frequently used in the aspect of usability evaluation for m-commerce applications. To achieve the stated objective, systematic literature review was employed. Sixty seven papers were downloaded in usability evaluation for m-commerce and related areas; twenty one most relevant studies were selected for review in order to extract the appropriate information. The results from the review shows that heuristic evaluation, formal test and think aloud methods are the most commonly used methods in m-commerce application in comparison to cognitive walkthrough and the informal test methods. Moreover, most of the studies applied control experiment (33.3% of the total studies); other studies that applied case study for usability evaluation are 14.28%. The results from this paper provide additional knowledge to the usability practitioners and research community for the current state and use of usability techniques in m-commerce application.

  18. Systematic Review of Multidisciplinary Chronic Pain Treatment Facilities.

    Fashler, Samantha R; Cooper, Lynn K; Oosenbrug, Eric D; Burns, Lindsay C; Razavi, Shima; Goldberg, Lauren; Katz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    This study reviewed the published literature evaluating multidisciplinary chronic pain treatment facilities to provide an overview of their availability, caseload, wait times, and facility characteristics. A systematic literature review was conducted using PRISMA guidelines following a search of MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases. Inclusion criteria stipulated that studies be original research, survey more than one pain treatment facility directly, and describe a range of available treatments. Fourteen articles satisfied inclusion criteria. Results showed little consistency in the research design used to describe pain treatment facilities. Availability of pain treatment facilities was scarce and the reported caseloads and wait times were generally high. A wide range of medical, physical, and psychological pain treatments were available. Most studies reported findings on the percentage of practitioners in different health care professions employed. Future studies should consider using more comprehensive search strategies to survey facilities, improving clarity on what is considered to be a pain treatment facility, and reporting on a consistent set of variables to provide a clear summary of the status of pain treatment facilities. This review highlights important information for policymakers on the scope, demand, and accessibility of pain treatment facilities. PMID:27445618

  19. Physiological Adaptations to Training in Competitive Swimming: A Systematic Review

    Costa, Mário J.; Balasekaran, Govindasamy; Vilas-Boas, J. Paulo; Barbosa, Tiago M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize longitudinal studies on swimming physiology and get implications for daily practice. A computerized search of databases according to the PRISMA statement was employed. Studies were screened for eligibility on inclusion criteria: (i) present two testing points; (ii) on swimming physiology; (iii) using adult elite swimmers; (iv) no case-studies or with small sample sizes. Two independent reviewers used a checklist to assess the methodological quality of the studies. Thirty-four studies selected for analysis were gathered into five main categories: blood composition (n=7), endocrine secretion (n=11), muscle biochemistry (n=7), cardiovascular response (n=8) and the energetic profile (n=14). The mean quality index was 10.58 ± 2.19 points demonstrating an almost perfect agreement between reviewers (K = 0.93). It can be concluded that the mixed findings in the literature are due to the diversity of the experimental designs. Micro variables obtained at the cellular or molecular level are sensitive measures and demonstrate overtraining signs and health symptoms. The improvement of macro variables (i.e. main physiological systems) is limited and may depend on the athletes’ training background and experience. PMID:26839618

  20. Transitional care programs: who is left behind? A systematic review

    Emily Piraino

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Older adults are at risk of rehospitalization if their care transitions from hospital-to-home are not properly managed. The objective of this review was to determine if older patient populations recruited for randomized controlled trials of transitional care interventions represented those at greatest risk of rehospitalization following discharge.  Relevant risk factors examined were cognitive impairment, depression, polypharmacy, comorbidity, length of stay, advanced non-malignant diseases, and available social support.DESIGN: Systematic Review.SETTING: Hospital to home.PARTICIPANTS: Older hospitalized adults.MEASUREMENTS: For inclusion, articles were required to focus on hospital-to-home transitions with a self-care component, have components occurring both before and after discharge, and a randomized controlled trial design. Articles were excluded if participants had a mean age under 55 years, or if interventions focused on developmental disabilities, youth, addictions, or case management, or were solely primary-care based.RESULTS:  Following title, abstract, and full review by two authors, 17 articles met inclusion criteria.  Risk factors for rehospitalization were often listed either as exclusion criteria or were not reported at baseline by the studies. One study included patients with all identified risk factors for rehospitalization.CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that published studies of transitional care interventions do not often include older adults at highest risk of rehospitalization, raising concerns about the generalizability of their results. Studies are needed that evaluate interventions that explicitly address the needs and characteristics of these patients.

  1. Systematic review of ground reaction force measurements in cats.

    Schnabl, E; Bockstahler, B

    2015-10-01

    Although orthopaedic abnormalities in cats are frequently observed radiographically, they remain clinically underdiagnosed, and kinetic motion analysis, a fundamental aspect of orthopaedic research in dogs and horses, is not commonly performed. More information obtained with non-invasive measurement techniques to assess normal and abnormal gait in cats would provide a greater insight into their locomotion and biomechanics and improve the objective measurement of disease alterations and treatment modalities. In this systematic review, 12 previously performed studies that investigated ground reaction force measurements in cats during locomotion were evaluated. The aims of these studies, the measurement methods and equipment used, and the outcomes of parameters used to assess both sound and diseased cats are summarised and discussed. All reviewed studies used pressure sensitive walkways to gain data and all provided an acclimatisation period as a prerequisite for measurements. In sound cats during walking, the forelimb peak vertical force was greater than in the hindlimb and the peak vertical force in the hindlimb was greater in cats than in dogs. This review confirms that ground reaction forces can be used to evaluate lameness and treatment effects in the cat. PMID:26118478

  2. Spindle Oscillations in Sleep Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Oren M. Weiner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of sleep microarchitecture and neural oscillations is an increasingly popular technique for quantifying EEG sleep activity. Many studies have examined sleep spindle oscillations in sleep-disordered adults; however reviews of this literature are scarce. As such, our overarching aim was to critically review experimental studies examining sleep spindle activity between adults with and without different sleep disorders. Articles were obtained using a systematic methodology with a priori criteria. Thirty-seven studies meeting final inclusion criteria were reviewed, with studies grouped across three categories: insomnia, hypersomnias, and sleep-related movement disorders (including parasomnias. Studies of patients with insomnia and sleep-disordered breathing were more abundant relative to other diagnoses. All studies were cross-sectional. Studies were largely inconsistent regarding spindle activity differences between clinical and nonclinical groups, with some reporting greater or less activity, while many others reported no group differences. Stark inconsistencies in sample characteristics (e.g., age range and diagnostic criteria and methods of analysis (e.g., spindle bandwidth selection, visual detection versus digital filtering, absolute versus relative spectral power, and NREM2 versus NREM3 suggest a need for greater use of event-based detection methods and increased research standardization. Hypotheses regarding the clinical and empirical implications of these findings, and suggestions for potential future studies, are also discussed.

  3. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review

    Shivanand Kattimani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed.

  4. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    Alexandra M Kueider

    Full Text Available A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative.

  5. Computerized cognitive training with older adults: a systematic review.

    Kueider, Alexandra M; Parisi, Jeanine M; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W

    2012-01-01

    A systematic review to examine the efficacy of computer-based cognitive interventions for cognitively healthy older adults was conducted. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: average sample age of at least 55 years at time of training; participants did not have Alzheimer's disease or mild cognitive impairment; and the study measured cognitive outcomes as a result of training. Theoretical articles, review articles, and book chapters that did not include original data were excluded. We identified 151 studies published between 1984 and 2011, of which 38 met inclusion criteria and were further classified into three groups by the type of computerized program used: classic cognitive training tasks, neuropsychological software, and video games. Reported pre-post training effect sizes for intervention groups ranged from 0.06 to 6.32 for classic cognitive training interventions, 0.19 to 7.14 for neuropsychological software interventions, and 0.09 to 1.70 for video game interventions. Most studies reported older adults did not need to be technologically savvy in order to successfully complete or benefit from training. Overall, findings are comparable or better than those from reviews of more traditional, paper-and-pencil cognitive training approaches suggesting that computerized training is an effective, less labor intensive alternative. PMID:22792378

  6. Systematic review of core muscle activity during physical fitness exercises.

    Martuscello, Jason M; Nuzzo, James L; Ashley, Candi D; Campbell, Bill I; Orriola, John J; Mayer, John M

    2013-06-01

    A consensus has not been reached among strength and conditioning specialists regarding what physical fitness exercises are most effective to stimulate activity of the core muscles. Thus, the purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature on the electromyographic (EMG) activity of 3 core muscles (lumbar multifidus, transverse abdominis, quadratus lumborum) during physical fitness exercises in healthy adults. CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, PubMed, SPORTdiscus, and Web of Science databases were searched for relevant articles using a search strategy designed by the investigators. Seventeen studies enrolling 252 participants met the review's inclusion/exclusion criteria. Physical fitness exercises were partitioned into 5 major types: traditional core, core stability, ball/device, free weight, and noncore free weight. Strength of evidence was assessed and summarized for comparisons among exercise types. The major findings of this review with moderate levels of evidence indicate that lumbar multifidus EMG activity is greater during free weight exercises compared with ball/device exercises and is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. Transverse abdominis EMG activity is similar during core stability and ball/device exercises. No studies were uncovered for quadratus lumborum EMG activity during physical fitness exercises. The available evidence suggests that strength and conditioning specialists should focus on implementing multijoint free weight exercises, rather than core-specific exercises, to adequately train the core muscles in their athletes and clients. PMID:23542879

  7. Clinical management of alcohol withdrawal: A systematic review.

    Kattimani, Shivanand; Bharadwaj, Balaji

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is commonly encountered in general hospital settings. It forms a major part of referrals received by a consultation-liaison psychiatrist. This article aims to review the evidence base for appropriate clinical management of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome. We searched Pubmed for articles published in English on pharmacological management of alcohol withdrawal in humans with no limit on the date of publication. Articles not relevant to clinical management were excluded based on the titles and abstract available. Full-text articles were obtained from this list and the cross-references. There were four meta-analyses, 9 systematic reviews, 26 review articles and other type of publications like textbooks. Alcohol withdrawal syndrome is a clinical diagnosis. It may vary in severity. Complicated alcohol withdrawal presents with hallucinations, seizures or delirium tremens. Benzodiazepines have the best evidence base in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal, followed by anticonvulsants. Clinical institutes withdrawal assessment-alcohol revised is useful with pitfalls in patients with medical comorbidities. Evidence favors an approach of symptom-monitored loading for severe withdrawals where an initial dose is guided by risk factors for complicated withdrawals and further dosing may be guided by withdrawal severity. Supportive care and use of vitamins is also discussed. PMID:25013309

  8. Emotional intelligence in sport and exercise: A systematic review.

    Laborde, S; Dosseville, F; Allen, M S

    2016-08-01

    This review targets emotional intelligence (EI) in sport and physical activity. We systematically review the available literature and offer a sound theoretical integration of differing EI perspectives (the tripartite model of EI) before considering applied practice in the form of EI training. Our review identified 36 studies assessing EI in an athletic or physical activity context. EI has most often been conceptualized as a trait. In the context of sport performance, we found that EI relates to emotions, physiological stress responses, successful psychological skill usage, and more successful athletic performance. In the context of physical activity, we found that trait EI relates to physical activity levels and positive attitudes toward physical activity. There was a shortage of research into the EI of coaches, officials, and spectators, non-adult samples, and longitudinal and experimental methods. The tripartite model proposes that EI operates on three levels - knowledge, ability, and trait - and predicts an interplay between the different levels of EI. We present this framework as a promising alternative to trait and ability EI conceptualizations that can guide applied research and professional practice. Further research into EI training, measurement validation and cultural diversity is recommended. PMID:26104015

  9. Where are the systematic reviews in transfusion medicine? A study of the transfusion evidence base.

    Dorée, Carolyn; Stanworth, Simon; Brunskill, Susan J; Hopewell, Sally; Hyde, Chris J; Murphy, Mike F

    2010-10-01

    Transfusion medicine has become a large and complex specialty. Although there are now systematic reviews covering many aspects of transfusion, these span a large number of clinical areas and are published across more than a hundred different medical journals, making it difficult for transfusion medicine practitioners and researchers to keep abreast of the current high-level evidence. In response to this problem, NHS Blood and Transplant's Systematic Review Initiative (SRI) has produced a comprehensive overview of systematic reviews in transfusion medicine. A systematic search (to December 2009) and screening procedure were followed by the appraisal of systematic reviews according to predefined inclusion criteria. The 340 eligible systematic reviews were mapped to 10 transfusion intervention groups and 14 topic groups within clinical medicine. Trends in the systematic review literature were examined and gaps in the literature described. The spread of systematic reviews across clinical areas was found to be very uneven, with some areas underreviewed and others with multiple systematic reviews on the same topic, making the identification of the best evidence for current transfusion practice a continuing challenge. References and links to all systematic reviews included in this overview can be freely accessed via the SRI's new online database, the Transfusion Evidence Library (www.transfusionguidelines.org). PMID:20851331

  10. Adverse effects of iodine thyroid blocking: a systematic review.

    Spallek, L; Krille, L; Reiners, C; Schneider, R; Yamashita, S; Zeeb, H

    2012-07-01

    (131)I, when released in a radiological or nuclear accident as happened recently in Fukushima, Japan, may cause thyroid cancer as a long-term consequence. Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is known to reduce the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Potential adverse effects of ITB have not been systematically investigated so far. This article summarises the results of a review on adverse effects of ITB based on a systematic literature search in scientific medical databases. A meta-analysis was not performed as identified studies displayed major heterogeneity. The search resulted in 14 articles relevant to the topic, reporting mostly on surveys, ecological and intervention studies. Only one study from Poland focused on effects (both desired and adverse) of an ITB intervention following the Chernobyl accident. All other studies reported on iodine administration in a different context. Overall, the studies did not reveal severe adverse reactions to potassium iodide in the general public. Since ITB is a protective measure only applied in very specific circumstances, scientifically sound studies of adverse effects are scarce and consequently the evidence base is weak. The assessment of adverse effects of ITB relies on indirect evidence from related areas. This study may contribute to ongoing developments in pharmacoepidemiology aiming to better quantify adverse effects of medications and health care interventions including ITB. PMID:22021061

  11. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos: A Systematic Pharmacology Review

    Yujie Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM, has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos.

  12. Remote Physical Activity Monitoring in Neurological Disease: A Systematic Review

    Block, Valerie A. J.; Pitsch, Erica; Tahir, Peggy; Cree, Bruce A. C.; Allen, Diane D.; Gelfand, Jeffrey M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To perform a systematic review of studies using remote physical activity monitoring in neurological diseases, highlighting advances and determining gaps. Methods Studies were systematically identified in PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL and SCOPUS from January 2004 to December 2014 that monitored physical activity for ≥24 hours in adults with neurological diseases. Studies that measured only involuntary motor activity (tremor, seizures), energy expenditure or sleep were excluded. Feasibility, findings, and protocols were examined. Results 137 studies met inclusion criteria in multiple sclerosis (MS) (61 studies); stroke (41); Parkinson's Disease (PD) (20); dementia (11); traumatic brain injury (2) and ataxia (1). Physical activity levels measured by remote monitoring are consistently low in people with MS, stroke and dementia, and patterns of physical activity are altered in PD. In MS, decreased ambulatory activity assessed via remote monitoring is associated with greater disability and lower quality of life. In stroke, remote measures of upper limb function and ambulation are associated with functional recovery following rehabilitation and goal-directed interventions. In PD, remote monitoring may help to predict falls. In dementia, remote physical activity measures correlate with disease severity and can detect wandering. Conclusions These studies show that remote physical activity monitoring is feasible in neurological diseases, including in people with moderate to severe neurological disability. Remote monitoring can be a psychometrically sound and responsive way to assess physical activity in neurological disease. Further research is needed to ensure these tools provide meaningful information in the context of specific neurological disorders and patterns of neurological disability. PMID:27124611

  13. Stem cells therapy in cerebral palsy: A systematic review.

    Kułak-Bejda, Agnieszka; Kułak, Piotr; Bejda, Grzegorz; Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta; Kułak, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically present the best available stem cell therapies for children with cerebral palsy (CP). The databases Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register for RCTs were searched for studies published from 1967 to August 2015. Systematic reviews, randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled trials, uncontrolled trials, cohort studies, open-label studies, and a meta-analysis were analysed. Of 360 articles, seven fulfilled the inclusion criteria: one RCT and six were open-label trials. In these studies, one application of stem cells for children with CP was typical, and the total number of cells administered to patients ranged from 10(6) to 10(8)/kg. Different routes of cell delivery were used, though in most studies motor development was applied as an indicator of primary outcomes. In three articles, neuroimaging studies were also implemented to confirm the efficacy of the therapies. Observation periods varied from 3months to 5years, and patients' tolerance of the therapy was generally good. Stem cell therapy may improve some symptoms in patients with CP, though larger studies are needed to examine the impact of stem cell therapy upon CP. PMID:27004672

  14. Synthesizing Quantitative Evidence for Evidence-based Nursing: Systematic Review.

    Oh, Eui Geum

    2016-06-01

    As evidence-based practice has become an important issue in healthcare settings, the educational needs for knowledge and skills for the generation and utilization of healthcare evidence are increasing. Systematic review (SR), a way of evidence generation, is a synthesis of primary scientific evidence, which summarizes the best evidence on a specific clinical question using a transparent, a priori protocol driven approach. SR methodology requires a critical appraisal of primary studies, data extraction in a reliable and repeatable way, and examination for validity of the results. SRs are considered hierarchically as the highest form of evidence as they are a systematic search, identification, and summarization of the available evidence to answer a focused clinical question with particular attention to the methodological quality of studies or the credibility of opinion and text. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an overview of the fundamental knowledge, principals and processes in SR. The focus of this paper is on SR especially for the synthesis of quantitative data from primary research studies that examines the effectiveness of healthcare interventions. To activate evidence-based nursing care in various healthcare settings, the best and available scientific evidence are essential components. This paper will include some examples to promote understandings. PMID:27349664

  15. Prevalence of scabies and impetigo worldwide: a systematic review.

    Romani, Lucia; Steer, Andrew C; Whitfeld, Margot J; Kaldor, John M

    2015-08-01

    Scabies is a skin disease that, through secondary bacterial skin infection (impetigo), can lead to serious complications such as septicaemia, renal disease, and rheumatic heart disease. Yet the worldwide prevalence of scabies is uncertain. We undertook a systematic review, searching several databases and the grey literature, for population-based studies that reported on the prevalence of scabies and impetigo in a community setting. All included studies were assessed for quality. 2409 articles were identified and 48 studies were included. Data were available for all regions except North America. The prevalence of scabies ranged from 0·2% to 71·4%. All regions except for Europe and the Middle East included populations with a prevalence greater than 10%. Overall, scabies prevalence was highest in the Pacific and Latin American regions, and was substantially higher in children than in adolescents and adults. Impetigo was common, particularly in children, with the highest prevalence in Australian Aboriginal communities (49·0%). Comprehensive scabies control strategies are urgently needed, such as a community-based mass drug administration approach, along with a more systematic approach to the monitoring of disease burden. PMID:26088526

  16. Participatory methods in pediatric participatory research: a systematic review.

    Haijes, Hanneke A; van Thiel, Ghislaine J M W

    2016-05-01

    Meaningful child participation in medical research is seen as important. In order to facilitate further development of participatory research, we performed a systematic literature study to describe and assess the available knowledge on participatory methods in pediatric research. A search was executed in five databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Cochrane. After careful screening of relevant papers, finally 24 documents were included in our analysis. Literature on participatory methods in pediatric research appears generally to be descriptive, whereby high-quality evidence is lacking. Overall, five groups of participatory methods for children could be distinguished: observational, verbal, written, visual, and active methods. The choice for one of these methods should be based on the child's age, on social and demographic characteristics, and on the research objectives. To date, these methods are still solely used for obtaining data, yet they are suitable for conducting meaningful participation. This may result in a successful partnership between children and researchers. Researchers conducting participatory research with children can use this systematic review in order to weigh the current knowledge about the participatory methods presented. PMID:26720607

  17. Adverse effects of iodine thyroid blocking: A systematic review

    131I, when released in a radiological or nuclear accident as happened recently in Fukushima (Japan)), may cause thyroid cancer as a long-term consequence. Iodine thyroid blocking (ITB) is known to reduce the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Potential adverse effects of ITB have not been systematically investigated so far. This article summarises the results of a review on adverse effects of ITB based on a systematic literature search in scientific medical databases. A meta-analysis was not performed as identified studies displayed major heterogeneity. The search resulted in 14 articles relevant to the topic, reporting mostly on surveys, ecological and intervention studies. Only one study from Poland focused on effects (both desired and adverse) of an ITB intervention following the Chernobyl accident. All other studies reported on iodine administration in a different context. Overall, the studies did not reveal severe adverse reactions to potassium iodide in the general public. Since ITB is a protective measure only applied in very specific circumstances, scientifically sound studies of adverse effects are scarce and consequently the evidence base is weak. The assessment of adverse effects of ITB relies on indirect evidence from related areas. This study may contribute to ongoing developments in pharmaco-epidemiology aiming to better quantify adverse effects of medications and health care interventions including ITB. All rights reserved. (authors)

  18. Gastric Electrical Stimulation with the Enterra System: A Systematic Review

    Nikhil Lal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES is a surgically implanted treatment option for refractory gastroparesis. Aim. To systematically appraise the current evidence for the use of gastric electrical stimulation and suggest a method of standardisation of assessment and follow-up in these patients. Methods. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, DISCOVER, and Cochrane Library was conducted using the keywords including gastric electrical stimulation, gastroparesis, nausea, and vomiting and neuromodulation, stomach, central nervous system, gastric pacing, electrical stimulation, and gastrointestinal. Results. 1139 potentially relevant articles were identified, of which 21 met the inclusion criteria and were included. The quality of studies was variable. There was a variation in outcome measures and follow-up methodology. Included studies suggested significant reductions in symptom severity reporting over the study period, but improvements in gastric emptying time were variable and rarely correlated with symptom improvement. Conclusion. The evidence in support of gastric electrical stimulation is limited and heterogeneous in quality. While current evidence has shown a degree of efficacy in these patients, high-quality, large clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this therapy and to identify the patients for whom this therapy is inappropriate. A consensus view on essential preoperative assessment and postoperative measurement is needed.

  19. Describing nutrition in spinal muscular atrophy: A systematic review.

    Moore, Georgia E; Lindenmayer, Amara W; McConchie, Grace A; Ryan, Monique M; Davidson, Zoe E

    2016-07-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease of variable severity. Progressive muscle wasting and impairment in functional ability in SMA have a profound influence on nutritional outcomes. This systematic review summarises the existing evidence on nutrition in SMA. The search strategy was conducted across five databases in August 2014, and updated in March 2016, using key terms relating to growth, nutrition requirements, dietary intake and nutrition management. Studies were selected for inclusion using a two pass method, and data systematically extracted using standardised forms. Thirty-nine studies met eligibility criteria. Body composition is abnormal in patients with SMA, and feeding and swallowing issues are prevalent among sufferers of SMA types I and II. Nutritional management practices vary internationally. There is a paucity of literature regarding nutrition requirements in SMA, although it appears that energy expenditure may be reduced. Children with SMA require individualised nutritional management in order to address their growth and nutrition requirements. There is an urgent need for larger, coordinated, prospective intervention studies of nutrition in SMA. PMID:27241822

  20. Antimicrobial dental implant functionalization strategies -A systematic review.

    Grischke, Jasmin; Eberhard, Jörg; Stiesch, Meike

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm formation on dental implant surfaces is a serious threat. Up to 50% of all implants show signs of irreversible tissue destruction. The aim of the present systematic review was to summarize the state of the art of strategies to functionalize antimicrobial dental implant surfaces. We searched the following electronic database: SCOPUS, MEDLINE and GOOGLE SCHOLAR and identified relevant controlled trials that evaluated the efficiency of new biomaterial strategies to modify dental implant surfaces, in such a way that biofilm formation was inhibited. The search yielded 2,990 potentially relevant publications. A total of 142 publications met the inclusion criteria. Analysis found that it may be concluded that silver-implanted surfaces, drug-loaded surfaces, surfaces with antimicrobial peptides, bioactive and biopassive polymer coatings as well as nanoscale or UV-activatable surfaces enhance antimicrobial activity compared to commercial pure titanium. PMID:27477219

  1. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF MANAGEMENT OF ORAL LICHEN PLANUS

    Ajaya Kuma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral Lichen Planus (OLP is a relatively common chronic inflammatory disorder with a low risk of associated malignancy. A genetic predisposition linked to Th1 cytokine polymorphisms may predispose to the T-cell-mediated immunological response to an induced antigenic change that is supposed to cause OLP lesions. Topical immunomodulators such as corticosteroids and calcineurin inhibitors may control OLP lesions, but their long-term effects need to be better explored and understood. A systematic review of published data on oral lichen planus is presented with special reference to its treatment modalities. Typically, different medical and surgical modalities and newer therapeutic options are considered that contribute to symptomatic relief and palliative functional improvement to the patients. Eventually, the magnitude of the illness as a pre-malignant disease in a considerable size of patients signifies the need for promising treatment options.

  2. PET imaging in ectopic Cushing syndrome: a systematic review.

    Santhanam, Prasanna; Taieb, David; Giovanella, Luca; Treglia, Giorgio

    2015-11-01

    Cushing syndrome due to endogenous hypercortisolism may cause significant morbidity and mortality. The source of excess cortisol may be adrenal, pituitary, or ectopic. Ectopic Cushing syndrome is sometimes difficult to localize on conventional imaging like CT and MRI. After performing a multilevel thoracoabdominal imaging with CT, the evidence regarding the use of radiotracers for PET imaging is unclear due to significant molecular and etiological heterogeneity of potential causes of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. In our systematic review of literature, it appears that GalLium-based (Ga68) somatostatin receptor analogs have better sensitivity in diagnosis of bronchial carcinoids causing Cushing syndrome and FDG PET appears superior for small-cell lung cancers and other aggressive tumors. Further large-scale studies are needed to identify the best PET tracer for this condition. PMID:26206753

  3. Systematic review of the surgical treatment for symptomatic os acromiale

    Joshua D Harris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal surgical treatment for symptomatic os acromiale that has failed nonoperative management is unclear in the literature. We conducted a systematic review of multiple medical databases for level I-IV evidence. Both radiographic and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Nine studies met the inclusion criteria (118 subjects, 125 shoulders. One hundred and fifteen subjects were treated surgically (122 shoulders. The mean age of the subjects was 49±11 years. The mean preoperative duration of symptoms was 12±8.6 months. Mesoacromiale was the most common type treated (94%. Internal fixation was the most common surgical technique used (60%, followed by excision (27% and acromioplasty (13%. Rotator cuff repair was the most common concurrent surgical technique (performed in 59% of the surgically treated shoulders, followed by distal clavicle excision (25%. All surgical techniques resulted in improvement in clinical outcomes. Surgical management of symptomatic os acromiale that has failed nonoperative measures may predictably lead to improved outcomes.

  4. Serotonergic gene variation in substance use pharmacotherapy: a systematic review.

    Bauer, Isabelle E; Graham, David P; Soares, Jair C; Nielsen, David A

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious disease with damaging effects on the brain and physical health. Despite the increase in the number of affected individuals, there are few effective pharmacological treatment options for substance use disorders. The study of the influence of an individual's genetic features on the treatment response may help to identify more efficacious treatment options. This systematic review focuses on the serotonergic system because of its relevant role in mood and impulse control disorders, and its contribution to the development and maintenance of drug use disorders. In particular, we examine the role of serotonergic genes in the response to pharmacotherapy for alcohol, cocaine and nicotine addiction. Current evidence suggests that genetic variability of the serotonergic biosynthesis enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2) and the serotonin transporter (SLC6A4) genes mediates the efficacy of several addiction treatments, such as ondansetron and disulfiram, and the antidepressants bupropion, nortriptyline and sertraline. PMID:26265436

  5. A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF UNCERTAINTIES IN SOFTWARE PROJECT MANAGEMENT

    Marcelo Marinho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is no secret that many projects fail, regardless of the business sector, software projects are notoriously disaster victims, not necessarily because of technological failure, but more often due to their uncertainties. The threats identified by uncertainty in day-to-day of a project are real and immediate and the stakes in a project are often high. This paper presents a systematic review about software project management uncertainties. It helps to identify the difficulties and the actions that can minimize the uncertainties effects in the projects and how managers and teams can prepare themselves for the challenges of their projects scenario, with the aim of contributing to the improvement of project management in organizations as well as contributing to project success

  6. Ramadan fasting and infectious diseases: a systematic review.

    Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Briki, Walid; Khabbache, Hicham; Rammouz, Ismail; Mnadla, Sofiane; Demaj, Taned; Zouhir, Mohamed

    2015-11-01

    Ramadan represents the fourth of the five pillars of the Islamic creed. Although patients are exempted from observing this duty, they may be eager to share this moment of the year with their peers. However, there are no guidelines that can help physicians to address the concerns of patients with infectious diseases fasting during Ramadan. For this purpose, we performed a systematic review. of 51 articles. Our main findings are that: 1) patients suffering from diabetes at risk of developing infectious complications should not fast; 2) Ramadan fasting has little impact on diarrheal patients; 3) HIV represents a challenge, and ad hoc drug combinations should be recommended to patients, and the patients should be advised not to take fatty meals that could interfere with the treatment; 4) Ramadan has no effect on the effectiveness of anti-helminthic therapy; and 5) patients with active ulcers should not fast, as they have a higher probability of developing complications. PMID:26623627

  7. Social influence in childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review.

    Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27138986

  8. Strategies to recruit minority persons: a systematic review.

    Ibrahim, Sarah; Sidani, Souraya

    2014-10-01

    To identify and describe strategies used to recruit persons of ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds and to examine their reported effectiveness. Studies (n = 26) reporting on recruitment of persons of different cultural and ethnic backgrounds, published in English between 1995 and 2012, were included in this systematic review. Data on the type of recruitment strategies and overall reported effectiveness of the strategy in recruiting participants were extracted. The vote counting method was used to synthesize the findings on effectiveness. Both proactive (face-to-face) and reactive recruitment strategies (collaboration with key leaders, snowball and word of mouth, printed material, and broadcast media) and providing compensation, being flexible, building rapport and trust, and employing ethnically and culturally diverse research staff were effective in recruiting participants. A list of strategies that are effective in recruiting persons of diverse ethnic and cultural backgrounds were generated. Researchers can select the evidence-based strategies that are most applicable in the context of their study. PMID:23338906

  9. The induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents: A systematic review

    David eLuke

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the general consensus that synaesthesia emerges at an early developmental stage and is only rarely acquired during adulthood, the transient induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents has been frequently reported in research on different psychoactive substances. Nevertheless, these effects remain poorly understood and have not been systematically incorporated. Here we review the known published studies in which chemical agents were observed to elicit synaesthesia. Across studies there is consistent evidence that serotonin agonists elicit transient experiences of synaesthesia. Despite convergent results across studies, studies investigating the induction of synaesthesia with chemical agents have numerous methodological limitations and little experimental research has been conducted. Cumulatively, these studies implicate the serotonergic system in synaesthesia and have implications for the neurochemical mechanisms underlying this phenomenon but methodological limitations in this research area preclude making firm conclusions regarding whether chemical agents can induce genuine synaesthesia.

  10. Systematic Review of Mindfulness Practice for Reducing Job Burnout

    Sammons, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. A systematic search and critical appraisal of interdisciplinary literature was conducted to evaluate the evidence for practicing mindfulness to treat job burnout and to explore implications for occupational therapy practitioners. METHOD. Eight articles met inclusion criteria. Each study was assessed for quality using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale. We used the U.S. Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines to determine strength of evidence. RESULTS. Of the studies reviewed, participants included health care professionals and teachers; no studies included occupational therapy practitioners. Six of the 8 studies demonstrated statistically significant decreases in job burnout after mindfulness training. Seven of the studies were of fair to good quality. CONCLUSION. There is strong evidence for the use of mindfulness practice to reduce job burnout among health care professionals and teachers. Research is needed to fill the gap on whether mindfulness is effective for treating burnout in occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:26943107

  11. Diagnostic reference levels in digital mammography: a systematic review

    This study aims to review the literature on existing diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in digital mammography and methodologies for establishing them. To this end, a systematic search through Medline, Cinahl, Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar was conducted using search terms extracted from three terms: DRLs, digital mammography and breast screen. The search resulted in 1539 articles of which 22 were included after a screening process. Relevant data from the included studies were summarised and analysed. Differences were found in the methods utilised to establish DRLs including test subjects types, protocols followed, conversion factors employed, breast compressed thicknesses and percentile values adopted. These differences complicate comparison of DRLs among countries; hence, an internationally accepted protocol would be valuable so that international comparisons can be made. (authors)

  12. Biomarkers in psoriatic arthritis: a systematic literature review.

    Generali, Elena; Scirè, Carlo A; Favalli, Ennio G; Selmi, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is characterized by chronic inflammation of peripheral joints and axial skeleton, associated with a strong genetic background. Clinics include enthesitis or dactylitis and extra-articular involvement as uveitis or inflammatory bowel disease, while treatment options range from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to biologics, targeting TNF α or Th17. No serum autoantibody is associated with PsA, while other biomarkers have been proposed for early diagnosis or to predict treatment response. To better discuss this area of growing interest we performed a systematic review of the literature on biomarkers in PsA. Our research retrieved 408 papers, and 38 were included in the analysis. Based on the available literature, we draw some recommendations for the use of biomarkers in the management of patients with PsA. PMID:26821681

  13. [Dentists and National Socialism. Systematic Literature Review and Research Questions].

    Schwanke, Enno; Krischel, Matthis; Gross, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the rich literature on Nazi medicine in general, the connection between dentists and National Socialism is less well documented. Neither the elites of the field from this era nor those excluded from the profession are catalogued in a systematic manner. The aims of this contribution are to assemble and review the relevant literature and show how German dentistry organizations have handled this chapter of their professional history. Trends in the literature since the 1980s are examined and it is pointed out, which areas have received some attention and which have not yet been addressed. Thus, this contribution will serve as both the basis and the starting point for new research into the field. PMID:27141725

  14. Ayurvedic management of Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB: A systematic review

    Janmejaya Samal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis is a global public health crisis. 25% of world's TB cases are found in India. Ayurveda, an ancient medical science may offer some solution to this problem hence a systematic review was carried out to assess the role of Ayurveda for the management of Tuberculosis. Methodology: A systematic review was carried out using published literature obtained through and ldquo;PUBMED and rdquo; till April 2015. The key words used for literature search include and ldquo;Ayurveda, role and Tuberculosis and rdquo;. Results and Discussion: It was observed that a couple of single and compound drugs have been used for the management of tuberculosis. However none of the studies could reflect the true anti-tubercular activities of any drug, both single and compound. Two of the studies revealed in vitro anti-tubercular properties of some herbs which can potentially be brought in to the realm of clinical trial to test their efficacy in human subject. Most of these Ayurvedic therapeutic preparations studied at different clinical settings primarily reflected their adjunct properties for the management of Tuberculosis. These studies revealed that Ayurvedic therapeutics were able to reduce associated symptoms and the adverse drug effects of ATDs (Antitubercular Drugs. Furthermore some of the preparations showed potential hepato-protective properties that can be simultaneously administered with ATDs. Conclusion: Distressingly research on the role of Ayurveda in the management of Tuberculosis is very scanty and mostly limited to adjunct or supportive therapy. Being a global public health crisis, it is highly recommended to carry out clinical trials on Tuberculosis patients by using Ayurvedic drugs and therapeutic regimens. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 86-91

  15. Physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk: a systematic review

    Bao, Ying; Michaud, Dominique S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer in several studies, but the overall epidemiologic evidence is not consistent. We therefore performed a systematic review to evaluate the association between physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE through April 2008 and examined the reference lists of the retrieved articles. We excluded studies that relied on job titles as surrogate measures for physical activity. We used a random-effects model to pool study-specific risk estimates comparing the highest versus the lowest category of physical activity. Results Total physical activity (occupational and leisure-time) was not significantly associated with risk of pancreatic cancer (4 prospective studies; summary relative risk (RR) = 0.76, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53-1.09). A decreased risk of pancreatic cancer was observed for occupational physical activity (3 prospective studies; RR = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.58-0.96) but not for leisure-time physical activity (14 prospective studies; RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.83-1.05). No association was found with light physical activity (2 prospective studies; RR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.77-1.34), moderate physical activity (6 prospective studies; RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.58-1.18) or vigorous physical activity (7 prospective studies; RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.80-1.12). Conclusions This systematic review does not provide strong evidence for an association between physical activity and risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:18843009

  16. Proton therapy - A systematic review of clinical effectiveness

    Background and purpose: Proton therapy is an emerging treatment modality for cancer that may have distinct advantages over conventional radiotherapy. This relates to its ability to confine the high-dose treatment area to the tumour volume and thus minimizing radiation dose to surrounding normal tissue. Several proton facilities are currently operating or under planning world-wide - in the United States, Asia and Europe. Until now no systematic review assessing the clinical effectiveness of this treatment modality has been published. Materials and methods: A systematic review of published studies that investigated clinical efficacy of proton therapy of cancer. Results: We included 54 publications: 4 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reported in 5 publications, 5 comparative studies and 44 case series. Two RCTs addressed proton irradiation as a boost following conventional radiation therapy for prostate cancer, where one demonstrated improved biochemical local control for the highest dose group without increased serious complication rates. Proton therapy has been used to treat a large number of patients with ocular tumours, but except for one low quality RCT, no proper comparison with other treatment alternatives has been undertaken. Proton therapy offers the option to deliver higher radiation doses and/or better confinement of the treatment of intracranial tumours in children and adults, but reported studies are heterogeneous in design and do not allow for strict conclusions. Conclusion: The evidence on clinical efficacy of proton therapy relies to a large extent on non-controlled studies, and thus is associated with low level of evidence according to standard heath technology assessment and evidence based medicine criteria

  17. Measurement of physician-patient communication--a systematic review.

    Jördis M Zill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Effective communication with health care providers has been found as relevant for physical and psychological health outcomes as well as the patients' adherence. However, the validity of the findings depends on the quality of the applied measures. This study aimed to provide an overview of measures of physician-patient communication and to evaluate the methodological quality of psychometric studies and the quality of psychometric properties of the identified measures. METHODS: A systematic review was performed to identify psychometrically tested instruments which measure physician-patient communication. The search strategy included three databases (EMBASE, PsycINFO, PubMed, reference and citation tracking and personal knowledge. Studies that report the psychometric properties of physician-patient communication measures were included. Two independent raters assessed the methodological quality of the selected studies with the COSMIN (COnsensus based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INtruments checklist. The quality of psychometric properties was evaluated with the quality criteria of Terwee and colleagues. RESULTS: Data of 25 studies on 20 measures of physician-patient communication were extracted, mainly from primary care samples in Europe and the USA. Included studies reported a median of 3 out of the nine COSMIN criteria. Scores for internal consistency and content validity were mainly fair or poor. Reliability and structural validity were rated mainly of fair quality. Hypothesis testing scored mostly poor. The quality of psychometric properties of measures evaluated with Terwee et al.'s criteria was rated mainly intermediate or positive. DISCUSSION: This systematic review identified a number of measures of physician-patient communication. However, further psychometric evaluation of the measures is strongly recommended. The application of quality criteria like the COSMIN checklist could improve the

  18. History, Epidemiology, and Clinical Manifestations of Zika: A Systematic Review

    Barreto, Florisneide; da Glória Teixeira, Maria; da Conceição N. Costa, Maria; Rodrigues, Laura C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To describe salient epidemiological characteristics of Zika virus outbreaks across the world and to examine the clinical presentations, complications, and atypical manifestations related to their occurrence in recent history. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of the literature by searching through MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health Library, as well as the epidemiological bulletins and alerts from the World Health Organization, the Pan American Health Organization, and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control over the period 1954 to 2016. Results. The search yielded 547 records. We retained 333 for further analysis, to which we added 11 epidemiological bulletins from various sources. Of these, we systematically reviewed 52 articles and reports, revealing some epidemiological features and patterns of spread of the Zika virus worldwide, as well as pathological outcomes suspected to be linked to Zika outbreaks. Neurologic disorders among zika patients were similar in Brazil and French Polynesia but a causal link is not established. Incidence of zika infection in pregnant women is not known. In Brazil, during the zika outbreak the incidence of microcephaly increased more than 20 times. Among 35 infants with microcephaly, born from women suspected to have Zika infection during pregnancy in northeast Brazil, 74% of the mothers reported rash during the first and second trimester. Conclusions. On February 1, 2016, The World Health Organization declared the ongoing Zika crisis an emergency and that, although not yet scientifically proven, the link between the virus and growing numbers of microcephaly cases was “strongly suspected.” However, the causal relationship between zika and microcephaly is not universally accepted. Public Health Implications. The current situation with regard to Zika is not encouraging, because there is no vaccine, no treatment, and no good serological test, and vector control remains a challenge. PMID:26959260

  19. Intermuscular force transmission along myofascial chains: a systematic review.

    Krause, Frieder; Wilke, Jan; Vogt, Lutz; Banzer, Winfried

    2016-06-01

    The present review aims to provide a systematic overview on tensile transmission along myofascial chains based on anatomical dissection studies and in vivo experiments. Evidence for the existence of myofascial chains is growing, and the capability of force transmission via myofascial chains has been hypothesized. However, there is still a lack of evidence concerning the functional significance and capability for force transfer. A systematic literature research was conducted using MEDLINE (Pubmed), ScienceDirect and Google Scholar. Studied myofascial chains encompassed the superficial backline (SBL), the back functional line (BFL) and the front functional line (FFL). Peer-reviewed human dissection studies as well as in vivo experiments reporting intermuscular tension transfer between the constituents of a myofascial chain were included. To assess methodic quality, two independent investigators rated studies by means of validated assessment tools (QUACS and PEDro Scale). The literature research identified 1022 articles. Nine studies (moderate to excellent methodological quality) were included. Concerning the SBL and the BFL, there is moderate evidence for force transfer at all three transitions (based on six studies), and one of two transitions (three studies). One study yields moderate evidence for a slight, but not significant force transfer at one transition in the FFL. The findings of the present study indicate that tension can be transferred between some of the examined adjacent structures. Force transfer might have an impact in overuse conditions as well as on sports performance. However, different methods of force application and measurement hinder the comparability of results. Considering anatomical variations in the degree of continuity and histological differences of the linking structures is crucial for interpretation. Future studies should focus on the in vivo function of myofascial continuity during isolated active or passive tissue tensioning. PMID

  20. A Systematic Review of the Mortality from Untreated Leptospirosis

    Taylor, Andrew J.; Paris, Daniel H.; Newton, Paul N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis occurs worldwide, but the global incidence of human disease and its mortality are not well understood. Many patients are undiagnosed and untreated due to its non-specific symptoms and a lack of access to diagnostics. This study systematically reviews the literature to clarify the mortality from untreated leptospirosis. Results will help quantify the global burden of disease and guide health policies. Methodology/Principal Findings A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify untreated patient series. Included patients were symptomatic, but asymptomatic patients and those who had received antibiotics, dialysis or who were treated on Intensive Care Units were excluded. Included patients had a confirmed laboratory diagnosis by culture, PCR, or serological tests. Data was extracted and individual patient series were assessed for bias. Thirty-five studies, comprising 41 patient series and 3,390 patients, were included in the study. A high degree of bias within studies was shown due to limitations in study design, diagnostic tests and missing data. Median series mortality was 2.2% (Range 0.0 – 39.7%), but mortality was high in jaundiced patients (19.1%) (Range 0.0 – 39.7%), those with renal failure 12.1% (Range 0-25.0%) and in patients aged over 60 (60%) (Range 33.3-60%), but low in anicteric patients (0%) (Range 0-1.7%). Conclusions This systematic review contributes to our understanding of the mortality of untreated leptospirosis and provides data for the estimation of DALYs attributable to this disease. We show that mortality is significantly higher in older patients with icteric disease or renal failure but is lower in younger, anicteric patients. Increased surveillance and accurate point-of-care diagnostics are required to better understand the incidence and improve diagnosis of disease. Empirical treatment strategies should prioritize early treatment to improve outcomes from leptospirosis. PMID:26110270